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vol 9 no 3 | april 2018 | 18 €

Service Design at Scale

8 HOW TO SCALE SERVICE DESIGN Kerry Bodine 50 HOW TO CREATE 70,000 SERVICE

DESIGNERS Geoffrey Lew 73 PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS Ivo Dewit

the journal of service design


Touchpoint Volume 9 No. 3 April 2018 The Journal of Service Design ISSN 1868-6052

Pictures Unless otherwise stated, the copyrights of all images used for illustration lie with the author(s) of the respective article

Published by Service Design Network

Printing Hundt Druck

Publisher Birgit Mager

Fonts Mercury G2 Apercu

Editor-in-Chief Jesse Grimes Guest Editors Andrea Fineman Juha Kronqvist Project Management Cristine Lanzoni Art Direction Jeannette Weber Cover Illustration Jeannette Weber

Service Design Network gGmbH MĂźlheimer Freiheit 56 D-51063 KĂśln Germany www.service-design-network.org Contact & Advertising Sales Cristine Lanzoni journal@service-design-network.org For ordering Touchpoint, please visit www.service-design-network.org


f ro m t h e e d i t o r s

Service Design at Scale

In November 2017, the SDN community came together in Madrid, for our milestone tenth annual Global Conference. Amongst several themes which underpinned workshops and presentations across the three days, one stood out: Service design at scale. Service designers today find themselves grappling with questions of scale that would have been seldom heard in the earliest days of the discipline: “How can I bring all these stakeholders on board and create a coalition?” “How can I train teams of people across an organisation to carry out this work independently, going forward?” “How can the organisation itself modify and adapt itself in the ways that are necessary to deliver these service improvements?” “Service Design at Scale” is a challenge that has arisen out of success, but has no simple answers. The increasingly large mandate, and set of responsibilities, enjoyed by service designers comes with new challenges. In this issue of Touchpoint, we turn our focus to making our work grow beyond us; spreading the power and value of service design across entire organisations. And beyond this issue’s articles on that theme, there are also some fascinating reads on intriguing new areas of interest for service design. Pascal Soboll builds upon a presentation he gave in Madrid, introducing systems thinking and showing how it can be applied in service design contexts, to help solve seemingly intractable problems (Page 10). Ivo Dewitt dives into Product-Service Systems, and a new toolkit to help design them (Page 73). And I had a chance to sit down with Simone Cicero, to learn more about the Platform Design Toolkit, in this issue’s Profile (Page 78). If you’re faced with the (perhaps luxurious) problem of scaling your work as a service designer, and are looking for inspiration, I hope you find new and valuable insights between the covers of this issue.

Jesse Grimes, Editor-in-Chief for Touchpoint, has nine years experience as a service designer and consultant. He has worked in London, Copenhagen, Düsseldorf and Sydney and is now based in Amsterdam with Dutch agency Informaat. Jesse is also Vice President of the Service Design Network. Andrea Fineman is a service designer at Adaptive Path at Capital One. Juha Kronqvist is Lead Service Designer at Hellon, a Helsinki and London based service design agency. During his ten years practice he has specialised in healthcare and public sector clients and educated hundreds of service design enthusiasts. Birgit Mager, publisher of Touchpoint, is professor for service design at Köln International School of Design (KISD) in Cologne, Germany. She is founder and director of sedes research at KISD and is co-founder and President of the Service Design Network.

Join the ​Touchpoint discussion on Slack!

Jesse Grimes for the editorial board

​Have a q​uestion for ​an author? ​ Want to shar​e your​own perspective with the community? Head over to the #touchpoint channel within the SDN's Community Slack, and take part! sdn-community.slack.com Not yet a member? Join at bit.ly/SDNSlackNEW

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36

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40 16 32 Breaking New Frontiers

2 IMPRINT 3

Patrik Havander, Stefan Moritz, Anna Hellmer, Daniel Sjoblom

FROM THE EDITORS

6 NEWS 8

KERRY’S TAKE

8

How to Scale Service Design Kerry Bodine

20 Service Design and the

36 Scaling Service Design in the

24 Compelling Services Need

40 It Takes a Village

Future of Work Nick de Leon

Compelling Content Informaat

10 CROSS-DISCIPLINE 10 Moving Beyond Lucky

Pascal Soboll 16 Lab.our Ward

Nicolas von Flittner 4

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26 FEATURE:

SERVICE DESIGN AT SCALE

28 Mind the Gap

Dennis Hambeukers

UK Government Kara Kane, Martin Jordan

Mary Wharmby, Anxo López 44 A (Failed) Change Story?

Roman Schoeneboom 50 How to Create 70,000

Service Designers Geoffrey Lew


c ontents

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82 73

54 The Intersection of Brand,

82 INSIDE SDN

Service Design and Change Emily Cullen, Jonty Fairless, Katie Meehan

82 Celebrating the Service

Design Award 2017 Winners!

58 Beyond the Neverend

84 SDN Chapter Awards –

Joe Macleod 70 Business Origami 62 TOOLS AND METHODS 64 Applying Design Sprints as

a Tool to Initiate a Cultural Transformation Journey Mikko Kutvonen

66 The Art of Stakeholdering:

A Practical Guide Patrick Bach, Markus Grupp, Chelsea Omel

Dr Rachel Jones, Yukinobu Maruyama 73 EDUCATION AND RESEARCH 73 Product-Service Systems

Ivo Dewit 78 PROFILES 78 Simone Cicero

A Powerful Community

86 What is ‘Nordic Service

Design’?

88 SDGC17 Took the Next Step

Forward: Service Design at Scale

90 Rethink Democracy:

Fjord’s One-Day Workshop to Interrogate our Voting Systems Touchpoint 9-3

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non-profit/public sector and student work. In 2017 over 100 entries were submitted from more than 25 countries around the world. These outstanding cases have been published in the premier edition of the Service Design Award 2017 Annual which you can order from the ‘Books and Reports’ section of SDN website. Don’t miss the chance to dive into the great projects!

SAVE THE DATE: SDGC18 IS DESIGNING TO DELIVER IN DUBLIN

Many great minds have said that ideas are easy, it’s implementation that’s the real challenge. For service design, it is no different. Journeys, visions and blueprints help us understand the end-to-end customer experience, identify opportunities and provide the north star to guide teams and organisations. But how do we ensure the design of the service is what gets delivered and makes real impact in the world? Whether you are in the private or public sector, moving quickly from insight to execution is imperative to achieving meaningful and measurable results. Join us this year to explore Designing to Deliver – how we move from service design methods and tools to delivery, management, measurement and other emerging topics at the Service Design Global Conference October 6

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11-12, 2018 in Dublin, Ireland, with pre-conference events starting October 10. The annual conference is the community’s highlight of the year, and sells out fast. Stay tuned for more information and details to follow. We will keep you updated on our SDGC webpage, social media or within our newsletter Insider. www.service-design-network.org/ sdgc/2018

SERVICE DESIGN AWARD 2018: CALL FOR ENTRIES OPEN UNTIL JUNE 4!

Are you making an impact through service design? Then don’t be shy, make sure this is the year you gain the recognition you deserve. The internationally recognised Service Design Award jury commend exemplary projects in the categories of professional, commercial and

The 2018 Award finalist and winning projects will be showcased during the Award Ceremony at the Service Design Global Conference in Dublin, and exhibited all year on the SDN website. This ensures these benchmark projects are disseminated within business, academia and the service design community, shaping best practice across the industry. The 2017 Award Ceremony in Madrid was a huge success, with three professional winners and two student winners from Australia, the Netherlands, Canada, Malta and the UK. SDN looks forward to seeing even more diverse entries in 2018. Enter your work now at: www.service-design-network.org/ award-about


ne ws

INTRODUCING THE VERY FIRST EDITION OF THE SERVICE DESIGN AWARD ANNUAL

After three successful years of the Service Design Award, we’re now proud to announce the very first edition of the Service Design Award Annual. This beautifully designed book is a celebration of the very best in service design and delivery, with stories from finalists and winners from the first three years of the Award as full, illustrated case studies, demonstrating ‘what good looks like’.

#servicedesignawardannual #servicedesignaward

See how the best in our field are pushing the boundaries of service design. Hear from the judges on how they approached the challenge of decision-making. Be inspired by outstanding projects from both the commercial and public sectors, delivering impact in a wide range of categories and across the world. Order your copy now on our website: www.service-design-network.org/ books-and-reports

SHAKE UP THE WORLD! #SERVICEDESIGNDAY

Get ready to share your love for service design on June 1, Service Design Day! Show the world the transforming power of service design, celebrate its achievements, raise awareness, and most importantly, bring people together across nations and backgrounds. Our voices reached over two million people last year, letting them know about the passionate and open community on their doorstep. This year, we will focus on the theme ‘Borderless’ with events, online activities and knowledge sharing all around the world! Get in touch with your local Chapter and stay tuned on our website to find out how you can get involved. No matter what your involvement, don’t forget to use the hashtag #ServiceDesignDay. Together, we will share learnings and further strengthen our growing discipline. Join the buzz and make June 1 all about service design!

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Compelling Services Need Compelling Content How Informaat applies omnichannel content strategy Relevant content is a critical element across all channels of a service. That is why a good content strategy is of crucial importance. At Informaat, service design and content strategy go hand-in-hand. Informaat is a design consultancy that supports organisations in the development and implementation of their digital strategies. To extend its UX- and content design capabilities, it started its service design practice in 2008. Informaat works with the biggest brands (private and public sectors) in the Netherlands and abroad. More information can be found at informaat.com.

In our daily practice, we see big brands struggling with getting their content right. Unfortunately, broken content experiences are still commonplace. For instance, product promotions in one channel that seem to have vanished in other channels, or a website that provides you with perfectly-tailored content, yet the related call centre agent treats you like an unknown prospect. Bad content experiences are proven to damage the overall customer experience. The larger the organisation and the more touchpoints involved, the more challenging it becomes to get the content right in each context, on each touchpoint and for each customer. Getting content to reinforce your experience strategy requires some effort and smart tactics. But where does one begin? Outside-in with content journeys It all starts with finding out what content is relevant to your customers and at what point in the journey. A good way to do so is to carry out user research, create personas and map the customer’s experience

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of your service. So far, all well-known service design techniques. But in addition to these, we put extra focus on content and map the customer’s content experience as well. By doing so, we uncover insights into the customer needs and questions, content purposes, content types and formats, and more general content considerations that make up a ‘content journey’. Holistic: all channels, front stage and backstage Compelling content is not just a matter of great substance (e.g., copy, video, graphics). Structure – for instance in terms of metadata – is important as well because it makes our client’s content findable, personal and relevant. And besides these directly visible content aspects, one also needs to consider less visible aspects, such as the people, processes and tooling involved. Top class content (we like to call it ‘Triple A content’) scores well on all four content strategy pillars: substance, structure, workflow and governance. At Informaat, we take a holistic perspective when


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working with content, taking into account all these aspects for all touchpoints and channels — a prerequisite for a seamless experience. Agile and adaptive An omnichannel content strategy may sound like a great plan … that runs the risk of landing in the bottom drawer of your boss’s desk. In our experience, the best way to implement a content strategy is with the tactic of ‘connecting the dots’. We work step-by-step. With a strong vision and backlog, and based on an awareness of what’s going on in your organisation, our team determines what elements of the strategy can best be implemented where and when. It both orchestrates initiatives and bridges silos, thereby supporting growth in content maturity from ‘A’ to ‘AA’ to ‘AAA’. This is how we make omnichannel content strategy actionable.

“Informaat helped ABN AMRO to get a clear view of our content situation and define a solid content strategy and roadmap. They are currently doing an excellent job helping us to implement the strategy step-by-step within the bank.” Stephan de Ruiter, Head of Omnichannel content strategy and delivery, ABN AMRO (The Netherlands).

A content journey enriches a customer journey map with a content perspective. It links service design and content strategy.

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f e at u re

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Title

Service Design at Scale


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s e r v i c e d e s i g n at s c a l e

Mind the Gap Reflections on the SDN Global Conference in Madrid

When I look back at the Service Design Global Conference in Madrid, the theme that sticks with me is the gap between design and business. If we want to scale service design, connecting design thinking and doing to the reality of business is crucial. Touchpoint 9-3 29


The service design skills we developed and the designs we produce are useless if they end up in a drawer. If the service we designed is not implemented and delivered by the organisation, our designs are useless. Service design can spark interest and enthusiasm, but the delivery is where the real value lies. Most organisations today have a dominant logic that is based on scientific and economic models. They feel the need to innovate, and they even recognise the value of design in accomplishing that. But they struggle to incorporate the design approach. On the other hand, designers are having difficulty getting past the initial enthusiasm for their designs and really driving change. This applies for both external agencies and in-house design teams. Modern businesses require planning and control, clear governance, returns on investment, business cases and good scores on their key performance indicators. These things are often difficult to reconcile with the intuitive, explorative, messy way of working of design. When design acts on the fringes of business, this is not such an issue. But with service design, we are touching core aspects of business – the way people work and organise themselves. Designers should play a role in bridging this gap. If we aim for maximum impact and value of design for business, we must own this gap. We have to step outside the design bubble and acquire new knowledge and skills. Service designers are in a great starting position: We are able to connect silos, trigger new mind-sets and create solutions that add value for users. But to really drive change, we have to embed ourselves deeper into the core of business thinking. The question is, how? It seems logical to dive deep into the needs and context of business, just like we do with the users. If we see design as a service, not only to the users but also to the business, how would we design that service? What is the job to be done for which you should hire a service designer? Can design contribute to governance goals such as risk reduction, value creation, performance and the business case? Can design help make work more engaging, more human? 

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When we think about the value of design for business, the ‘why’ is clear to most. Design has qualities business is missing, and that is becoming more and more apparent. The ‘what’ is also evident. We have to do user research, draw journey maps, prototype and create blueprints. But the ‘how’ is the question that matters most now. How can we make sure that the things that service designers do contribute to the reason we are hired?

Dennis Hambeukers is a service designer at Zuiderlicht. He has been working for more then 15 years as a designer in diverse creative industries.


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It Takes a Village Service designing organisational change at BBVA

What does it mean to ‘design at scale’ in a 132,000-employee organisation? Two years ago, BBVA, one of the world’s oldest and largest banks, launched a grand experiment to find the answer. During that time, because of the sponsorship of top management including the Chairman and CEO, the design team grew from a Mary Wharmby is a design leader, strategist and educator with almost 20 years experience leading teams in the creation of engaging and impactful products and services. As Head of Design Transformation at BBVA she leads a team dedicated to driving innovation by strategically infusing design across the entire organisation.

Anxo López, Ph.D. is a service and strategic designer with ten years’ experience working on both sides of the profession: as consultant and now at an in-house team leading design strategy for BBVA’s Design Transformation team. Throughout his career he has dedicated special attention to the promotion of design as strategic activity for companies and institutions.

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handful to over two hundred, design evolved from downstream production to core strategic capability and design methodologies went beyond the Design Department to permeate the entire organisation, reshaping skillsets, processes and culture. Together, these changes have resulted in a more innovative and competitive organisation. — BBVA’s big learning? Meaningful change means orienting everyone around the customer. Design Transformation: A Trojan horse Organisational change is defined as “a process of profound and radical change that orients an organisation in a new direction and takes it to an entirely different level of effectiveness.”1 But change is hard. According to McKinsey, one third of change programmes fail.2

1 http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/ transformation.html 2 https://www.mckinsey.com/businessfunctions/organization/how-we-help-clients/ transformational-change

John Kotter, a professor at Harvard Business School, has worked with dozens of companies to develop an eight-step model of change: create urgency, form a powerful coalition, create a vision for change, communicate the vision, remove obstacles, create short-term wins, build on the change and finally, anchor the change in culture.3 Similarly, McKinsey has a five-step strategy: set strategic objectives, assess current capabilities, create a portfolio of initiatives, create an

3 https://www.kotterinc.com/8-steps-process-forleading-change


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implementation model and sustain momentum through continuous improvement.4 Though clearly containing crucial ingredients for success, as designers, we found traditional change management models too abstract, top-down, linear and missing a key opportunity: leveraging the proven power of human-centred thinking. Instead, as a design team at BBVA we looked to another designer for inspiration. Jared Spool has outlined a fivestep model of design maturity in organisations: design as production, sporadic projects, significant investment, embedding of designers, and finally, design is infused throughout the organisation. He refers to this last step as the UX/Design tipping point.5 We embraced the idea of infusing design into the organisation and set out to find our Design tipping point. We used Design Thinking as a Trojan horse to show our non-designer colleagues the importance of putting the client at the centre and using creative tools to provide new possibilities to understand, conceptualise, prototype and evaluate products and services.6

Getting started: From human needs to organisational needs BBVA’s Design Transformation began in early 2016. Like many change management programmes in today’s competitive marketplace, the primary goal was to help BBVA be more innovative. Based on early research and analysis, the business chose three areas of focus: customer-centricity, collaboration and creativity. Although BBVA was simultaneously building a world-class design team to create cutting-edge financial products and services, it was clear that key decisions about the customer experience were happening well beyond the Design Department. All employees were making decisions impacting the customer experience. The goal was to make each employee’s link to the customer more visible, tangible and actionable. Using Design Thinking, we have been able to provide a common language and set of tools to enable collaboration and enhance creativity. It was also about finding a way to make Design Thinking accessible to colleagues for whom the process would have been well outside their ordinary working life.

4 http://ihrc.ch/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/McKinsey_Lane_Five_ Frames_20110128.pdf 5 https://articles.uie.com/design_infused and https://vimeo.com/ 209323782 6 https://www.forrester.com/report/Global+Mobile+Banking+ Benchmark+2017/-/E-RES137691

The Design Organisational Ecosystem

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Ambassadors practicing during the Design Thinking training.

Design Thinking Learning Pyramid

Creating impact: From training to behaviour change With these goals in mind, the initial strategy centred on building new skills and capabilities. We considered a number of tactics: shallow training for everyone would not yield enough early impact and deep training to just a few teams would ignore most of the organisation. Instead, we opted to deliver deep training and coaching to individuals across many teams, hoping to create a viral model of transformation and a more peer-to-peer approach. In mid-2016, we piloted an intensive four-day Design Thinking workshop centred on an actual innovation challenge facing BBVA – the credit card experience. We found it crucial to ground training in real, practical challenges. Theory and jargon were out. But to create impact, we needed to go beyond training and initiate behaviour change in each participant’s dayto-day environment. The pilot workshop was followed by six-weeks of coaching, during which the Transformation Team acted as help desk, mentor and occasional therapist. In the end, one participant stood out. Known affectionately as ‘Design Ambassador Zero’, she 42 Touchpoint 9-3

represented a new life-form at BBVA: a Design Thinking hybrid. We envisioned an organisation of Design Thinking hybrids, each acting as change agent for their team. The Design Ambassador Program was born with the first-year goal of creating 1,000 Ambassadors. We asked each Ambassador to exhibit six key behaviours: — Interact with customers — Connect with other areas — Experiment with new ideas — Prototype and test concepts — Iterate solutions — Pass on what you’ve learned! Scaling: From individuals to pyramid Though the Design Ambassador workshops were creating an elite group of viral change agents, to truly scale, we needed to provide multiple paths and levels of engagement. In early 2017, we began defining a pyramid-shaped framework to do just that. At the bottom we placed small, bite-sized teaser content like innovation and design events, a virtual support community, posters to communicate new ways


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of working, and a single-page guide for formulating and submitting human-centred challenges and solutions. At the second level of the pyramid we created a virtual course in Design Thinking open to all BBVA employees. This project-based course was designed to empower everyone with basic tools for innovation. The third level of the pyramid, the Design Ambassador workshops and coaching, were already in place. To further incentivise and grow the Ambassadors, we began developing a series of Master Classes. Finally, we created a parallel track for leaders with customised workshops focused on proving the value of Design Thinking and empowering each leader to act as an innovation enabler for their team. Redesigning the organisation: From challenges to innovation As part of our research effort, we spoke with dozens of Ambassadors and discovered that as they endeavoured to work differently, they were often bumping into institutional challenges: misunderstandings across teams, legacy processes and structures, cultural biases, etc. To create lasting change, the business needed to go beyond just its employees, but instead to reshape process and structure. Like most mature organisations, over time, bureaucracy had built up and BBVA had become less friendly to innovation. But there was a silver lining: The Design Ambassadors were able to identify barriers to innovation that were often invisible to those operating with a business-as-usual mind-set. The Ambassadors became the canaries in the coal mine. As the most common challenges came into focus, the next step was to remove or reimagine them. With a set of recipes, Ambassadors were empowered to individually tackle institutional challenges, effectively redesigning the organisation from the inside out. Measuring impact: From numbers to stories The importance and challenge of measurement and reporting cannot be overstated. Instead of building innovative products and services for customers, Design Transformation focuses on building the capacity for innovation, so measuring direct financial impact is not a metric we consider. An early challenge was obtaining baseline metrics. When the programme launched two years ago, the

reporting tools needed were not yet in place. By the time they were, the baseline had shifted. A second challenge was finding the right metrics to track. We experimented with a number of mostly quantitative metrics with mixed results. In retrospect, it is clear that a successful approach must combine deep qualitative stories with broader quantitative extrapolation. We are still learning, and our Program is evolving. Design Transformation: A new value proposition for design Design, regardless of who practices it, is and has always been present in any business, either by action or by omission. Historically it has been the former. But now, rapid changes in technology have pushed design irreversibly into the core and spotlight of large organisations. Many digitally-focused businesses like BBVA are not only buying/building strong internal design teams, they are spreading design capacity throughout their organisations, training non-designers in design mind-sets and methods, essentially democratising design and experimenting with new paradigms of organisational change. From the designer’s point of view, we have opened part of our toolbox to our colleagues in the organisation. This has had a very positive impact on the organisation and on the designers. It has facilitated design work in projects, due to increased awareness of design processes, and is generating a common framework, strengthening an equal and collaborative relationship between business, technology and design teams. We found that design-led transformation efforts are not a substitute for traditional change management paradigms, but rather a powerful complement and extender. At BBVA, applying a service design filter to organisational change has reduced abstraction, providing a clear set of actionable behaviour changes. It has helped BBVA reorient the entire company around the customer. Design has also enabled an organic, bottom-up process that evolved by learning at each step. This approach fosters the cultural mind-set that service companies are about people who have to work together to offer innovative solutions that fit the real needs of other people: BBVA’s customers, clients and colleagues.

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Title

Photo by Markus Spiske on Unsplash

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Tools and Methods


Business Origami A tool for designing complex service systems

Business Origami is a particularly useful tool for designing new services and for exploring new opportunities to extend existing services in complex systems that involve multiple organisations and multiple stakeholders. In this article, we present Business Origami as being specifically created to facilitate service design Dr Rachel Jones is Programme Director at Upside Energy and is responsible for managing the R&D activities at this Cleantech venture. Rachel is an international leading practitioner in strategic design with over 20 years’ experience in innovating new digital services.

Yukinobu Maruyama is Chief Designer at Hitachi in Japan. Having trained as a product designer, he helped launch the Human Interaction Laboratory, open innovation activities and service design at Hitachi. He is currently managing design projects in urban systems, healthcare and robotics/AI.

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in complex service systems. We generally consider a service to exist within the organisational setting that makes the service system possible. The service within the organisation becomes the focus of design and we use tools such as blueprints1 or service system maps2 that allow us to analyse the current and future relationships between resources, processes and actors. Other visualisation tools such as actor network maps3 or service ecology maps “help a team move away from thinking just about people and organisations, and pay more attention to the things that are part of our mutual interactions”4 . Few studies have looked into the implications of designing within and for ecosystems or complex service systems. An exception is Multilevel Service Design (MSD) that designs service systems at three interconnected levels: the service concept for value constellations, the service system comprising its architecture and navigation, and the service experience

blueprint.3,5 However, MSD involves the design of one service at a time, and in many cases, service design must position itself in complex systems, establishing an integrated multiservice system. Hitachi’s centre for social innovation aims to tackle society’s challenges, such as creating more sustainable cities and

1 Shostack GL (1984). Designing services that deliver. Harvard Bus. Rev. 62(January–February):133–139. 2 Jegou F, Manzini E, eds. (2008). Collaborative Services: Social Innovation and Design for Sustainability (Edizioni Polidessign, Milan). 3 Morelli N, Tollestrup C (2007). New representation techniques for designing in a systemic perspective. Design Inquiries: Nordic Design Res. (NORDES 2007), Stockholm, http://www.nordes.org/opj/ index.php/nl3/article/view/148. 4 Kimbell L, Julier J (2012). The Social Design Methods Menu (Fieldstudio, London). http:// www.lucykimbell.com/stuff/Fieldstudio_ SocialDesignMethodsMenu.pdf. 5 Patricio L, Fisk RP, e Cunha JF, Constantine L (2011). Multilevel service design: From customer value constellation to service experience blueprinting. J. Service Res. 14:180–200.


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supporting a growing elderly population. Many of these challenges involve developing services involving multiple stakeholders across several parts of multiple organisations. In 2006, Yukinobu Maruyama invented a tool called Business Origami that organisations such as Citizen Experience, SAP, Google and IBM have since adopted. The Business Origami method involves gathering stakeholders for a participatory, semi-structured workshop about new service models to accelerate shared understanding and decision-making amongst stakeholders. It involves participants arranging simple card components to build up complicated service opportunities, whilst creating empathy and consensus amongst stakeholders often situated in socially complex relationships. Business Origami can be carried out from a generic (objective) perspective, or from a stakeholdercentred perspective. The aim of a workshop is to create a win-win opportunity amongst stakeholders. Business Origami explores various attributes, including: — Stakeholders (service providers, businesses, individuals, service users) — Physical locations — Relationships between stakeholders — Services provided — Resources and activities needed to deliver services — Transactions such as financial and information exchanges — Personal experiences of service users or customers

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Each workshop is custom-made and designed in such a way as to create the best potential outcome. Prior to the workshop, by way of preparation, we carry out user research, create a selection of personas and brainstorm ideas, sketching the concepts that have arisen. At the start of the workshop we give a presentation about the Business Origami method and divide the workshop into groups of five or six participants, who work around a table. Each table has a set of Business Origami cards, white paper and coloured pens. The cards include representations of physical things such as people, devices, transportation and buildings. To begin with, we ask participants to identify as many things as possible. These are then grouped into associated elements. The figure below shows the gradual build up of Uber services from the grouping of things in (1). The layout of the cards can be easily changed, allowing for rapid exploration and experimentation from different viewpoints. We then ask participants to draw relationships between the elements to describe the services. We ask them to use different colours to represent different relationships, such as green for services and orange for financial transactions. Participants use cards to represent specific attributes such as resource, activity, product, information, payment, user experience and business value (2).

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Outcome of Business Origami workshop

We then ask participants to review the service flows. This entails adding numbers to describe the service flow from the user’s point of view, then adding other attributes, and finally and we ask them to discuss potential issues, risks, challenges and new service opportunities (3). Finally, we ask each group to choose a someone to present the outcome to everyone else. Outcome of Business Origami workshop At Hitachi, we use Business Origami extensively to focus on complex problems and create service opportunities amongst multiple stakeholders. We have used it successfully in different sectors with multiple stakeholders from different organisations, to explore the reconfiguration and development of new services, and to explore the service flows and potential business models.

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Simone Cicero Meet the service designer

Along with other partners, Simone Cicero launched the Platform Design Toolkit. Bringing together service design, business model innovation, lean startup and customer development, the Toolkit helps designers and businesspeople alike to identify and harness the power of platforms. In this profile, he chats with Touchpoint Simone Cicero is creator of Platform Design Toolkit, and managing partner at Boundaryless, a company that helps organizations create platform strategies to mobilize ecosystems for growth, impact and evolution.

Editor-in-Chief Jesse Grimes. Jesse Grimes: For those readers that aren’t familiar with the concept of platform design and the “Platform Design Toolkit”, can you give a short introduction to the work you've been doing and what it’s about?

Simone Cicero: I created the Platform Design Canvas in 2013, as a derivative of the Business Model Canvas. The canvas evolved into a toolkit since then, in a conversation with the design, innovation and business strategy communities. Feedback has been collected in several masterclasses, exchanges and workshops. Technically speaking the toolkit is a methodology, based on a set of canvases that provide an aid to teams and individuals that want to design for an ecosystem. The set of canvasses comes with a user guide (we’re aiming to release a more comprehensive manual), a regular publication on Medium, and a newsletter aimed at sharing our way to apply this 78 Touchpoint 9-3

thinking. In terms of inspirations, I would say that Platform Design is a child of service design, business model innovation, lean startup and customer development. The main objective of the platform design toolkit – which has become clearer after few years of using it and researching it – is probably that it helps us move from the ‘industrial perspective’ of customercentred design into the ‘post industrial perspective’. We believe this post industrial perspective must be ecosystem-centred or – much better – relationship-centred. We always say that is about moving from organising production, to organising interaction. It’s a way for companies to think without boundaries, beyond the traditional limitations of employees and resources. Everyone can now work for you (with you) if you craft the right set of incentives. We believe that individuals and individual entities (small organizations, teams) play an ever greater role in


p ro f i l e s

Stefano Borghi

the networked economy. Therefore, a key part of a platform strategy is enabling them to exchange value, in marketplace-like structures, through transactions and interactions. Another key aspect, we believe, is supporting these independent entities within the ecosystem in honing new capabilities, finding new opportunities and improving their performances. Therefore we speak of dual engines in platform strategies: a ‘transactions engine’ and a ‘learning engine’. We also believe that – to really tap the power of networks – we need to design relationship centric systems. We believe that customer centricity has been inspiring systems that kept us in isolation, and that this needs to end, for many reasons. Firstly, in isolation we can’t learn completely. We see platform organisations as powerful engines of learning. It’s true that one component of learning is competitive (developing a better reputation than others, through better performance) other layers of learning can only happen in a relationship, and in the context of a system. Furthermore, we think that all the systems we create today (systems, not products) will need to provide participants the possibility to evolve. Evolution is a “liminal” process, in which one goes through several stages. To really evolve through stages, one needs to confront and learn from masters and peers: this is what we call ‘collaborative learning’.

Agency can’t be obtained in isolation. We’re entering an age of awareness: we need to figure out that we’re all interconnected. We think that deliberately designing for ecosystems — or interconnectedness — will generate this better result and improve awareness. That’s what platforms are all about. Like probably most design- or tech-oriented events, there hasn’t been a service design conference in which Uber and Airbnb haven’t been named. I’m sure these two classic examples of platform business models come up again and again your work. What are some less-known, platform-based services that you think we should learn more about?

Airbnb and Uber can definitely be seen through the platform lens; they are outstanding examples. They are also very different and similar at the same time. If you look at the differences, you’ll see that Airbnb is much more relationship-centric than Uber. More importantly, they’re just two manifestations of larger trends: potential that grows at the edges of systems. When it only takes a computer or a smartphone to give you the potential to access complex coordination systems and to relate with others, everything changes. Take the case of OpenDesk (www.opendesk.cc), a very different example. You can play a role in the furniture manufacturing industry if you have a CNC laser cutter, giving you what you need to craft the brand’s amazing furniture. Whether it’s hospitality, mobility or furniture manufacturing, it doesn’t really change. Tim O’Reilly once said that this is “the franchise of one”. In any case, we’re probably not going to see many other poster children of this kind of platform economy. Trends tell us that large parts of the digitally-powered economy are now consolidating - large infrastructural ecosystems are eating up as much as possible. I personally believe that – on top of them – we’re going to see more and smaller ‘platform organisations’ - entities that organise their niches, based on strong relationships and high value services.

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As an example, we’re now building the organisation behind the Platform Design Toolkit as a platform. We’re creating ways for our adopters to connect and create meaningful innovations through value exchanges. Every company should try to design itself as a platform. Individuals could also think of themselves as platforms: facilitating relationships between others in our personal ecosystem (connecting), and supporting other’s learning, through our own activities. That’s more or less what I’ve found myself doing in the past years. The more value you help create, the more will return to you, whether you’re a person, a small organisation or a large conglomerate transforming an entire industry. It’s a way of looking at things; platform are not technologies, websites or apps, but strategies and narratives that mobilise. Service designers still mostly rely on tools such as customer journeys and service blueprints, which are really only suitable for visualising traditional service interactions, with a single service provider (e.g. a company), and a single service consumer (e.g. a customer). But Doblin’s Larry Keeley, among others, are telling service designers that the business success stories of tomorrow will all be platforms. Do we service designers need to re-train and re-equip ourselves to design those services? And if so, how?

I think there’s obviously a continuity between Design Thinking and Platform Design. It’s true that — for example — customer journeys might feel a bit outdated and linear sometimes. That’s why we created our ‘Platform Experience Canvas’. We needed something a bit more in line with network thinking. Customer journeys on the other hand are still excellent tools that can easily be adapted to be used to design the journey of a producer of value, whether it’s an investor, employee, developer or any other kind of user. This is to say that we’re in a continuum with the tradition of design. We are essentially consolidating the existing knowledge about and around ecosystems and platforms, creating a community of practice. I hope the Service Design Network can be a stakeholder in this process and ecosystem. 80 Touchpoint 9-3

I think service designers may enjoy exploring our work a little bit and then pick everything they consider beneficial to their work and hack it together. I’d invite them to read “Navigating: Platform Design Toolkit” and “All You Need to Know about Platform Design, in a handy recap”, available on the Platform Design Toolkit website (platformdesigntoolkit.com).


It’s here — the very first edition of the service design award annual

Softback 168 pages 190 x 255 mm 4-colour litho Designed by the SDN with love

About the Service Design Award

J. Margus Klaar

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When we started the award, there was a fair amount of scepticism that it would take off. There have been other service design awards around the world over the years, and many of them have floundered. Sometimes, the idea can be right but the timing wrong. Or the organisation wrong. But for the Service Design Award, both the timing and organisation were finally right.

be presented. This is where the judging gets tricky: How do you balance the fact that quantitative data is unavailable with the need for proof of impact? The experience of the jury obviously plays a role here, as well as the jury meetings where these projects are discussed back and forth in sometimes too much detail. This is also where the client endorsements are important, because we can contact the organisation directly, to verify the claims. Sometimes, even the time between the entry date and the jury meetings provides enough time to give more ‘meat on the bone’ than could initially be submitted.

The founding thought behind the Award was to create a template for defining what is good service design. After three years, it is still a being refined, but most of the principles that we put in place for the first year’s jury work, are actually still current and relevant. And by providing the framework for submitting entries, the poster for the exhibition, and the visualisation requirement, we are slowly building up a case file of excellence in service design, that can serve as reference and proof of concept, for organisations still sceptical about putting design at the core of business strategy.

The award evolves. In New York 2015, there were awards for four winners across commercial and nonprofit / public sector categories. In 2016 in Amsterdam we again awarded four winners and introduced the student category. In 2017 in Madrid, we saw one winner in commercial and two each in the non-profit / public sector and student categories.

The criteria for entries are lengthy, but the most important one is easily summed up: Provide proof of how service design impacted the results. This is what is always in the back of the judges’ minds when they are reviewing entries. Can you draw a line between the service design work done, the insights gathered and the results delivered, that isn’t just a list of activities, but a clear and demonstrable cause-and-effect? Jury work overall, is time consuming. Reading through 5—10 pages of text with full concentration is taxing. Doing it for dozens of entries means that different jury members will quite naturally focus on different aspects of the project. Lots of jury meetings are needed to discuss the projects one-by-one, so that the decisions made about the shortlist

When the criteria for the entries were drawn up for the first time, there was obviously an enthusiasm for both qualitative and quantitative data. But quantitative data takes time to accumulate, and in many projects that were submitted, only qualitative and anecdotal evidence can

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winner

Design In Schools Australia – A Design and Education Collaboration In 2015, Design Managers Australia (DMA) was approached by Macquarie Primary School in Canberra, Australia, to tackle a ‘dangerous’ school car park. An immediate partnership was formed between two disciplines (education and service design), and between two Company organisations (the school and DMA). The resulting Design Managers Australia (DMA) programme, ‘Design In Schools’, established 18 elevenClient Macquarie Primary year olds as a formal service design team. The process School Country was built around the creation of six structured design Australia modules with a launch of the rebuilt car park in October 2016. The project had real design outcomes (an improved car park experience), methodology outcomes (the development of a reusable methodology) and a lasting impact on both teachers in the school and designers from DMA, who have evolved their own practice.

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A team consisting of Master of European Design students and new graduate designers from The Glasgow School of Art (GSA) partnered with the new Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) design team for four months. The student team developed the company’s emerging user-centred Student Team design process and integrated a future forecasting Eloise Smith-Foster, Aleksandra Kozawska, methodology. They also conducted in-depth user research Rosie Trudgen, Lizzie Abernethy, Will Brown, into Generation Y, designed service concepts, futureJosefine Leonhardt, Robyn Johnston, Amber oriented ‘tribes’ and a ‘future world context’ — outcomes Jones, Ottavia Pasta, Ole Thomas Tørresen, that continue to impact the design approach of RBS. Josh Woolliscroft and Struan Wood The success of the project resulted in an innovative, University The Glasgow industry-academic educational model, which the GSA School of Art Client included as part of the syllabus for a number of courses The Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) within the Design Department. Country UK

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Introduction and Objectives The objective was to develop the company’s emerging user-centred design process, integrate a future forecasting methodology, and provide strategic design directions with future service proposals for 2025. The success of the project resulted in a new industryacademic, collaborative educational model, which GSA has implemented into other Undergraduate Product Design degree courses. The Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) is a UK centred bank with an international customer base of over 30 million people. Following the 2008 bailout, RBS recognised the challenge of rebuilding public trust, and subsequently established a stronger focus on customer centred design to improve customer satisfaction. RBS briefed the Master of European (MEDes) student and new graduate team at GSA to explore the behaviour and attitudes of future customers aged 16-25 towards banking over the next 10 years and beyond. The collaboration enhanced the RBS team’s understanding of millenials’ attitudes to finance, as well as enriched their understanding of user-centred design and brand strategy. Process

A conceptual world context for 2025 was visualised based on the trend research. Future users’ journey narratives were developed by combining the tribes and the future world. Narratives were visualised then used to communicate and test strategic directions for RBS. Output The future world context of 2025 is used regularly in RBS projects, allowing the design team to take a broader view of external factors when considering design directions and solutions. Based on these outputs, the students developed service concepts and proposed new values for RBS in 2025, which were tested with 40 Generation Y users through simulations, co-creation workshops, provotypes (provocative prototype) and provocative scenarios. A portfolio of qualitative research and design recommendations was developed based on this user testing. The tested outcomes have since been used to provide in-depth user research at RBS – encouraging the RBS teams to stretch their thinking, explore beyond the usual bank project timelines and open up new perspectives on customer needs. Impact Benefits for RBS and their customers The GSA team developed a bespoke terminology to support communication of future-focused outputs, which in turn helped shape the emerging RBS design approach. The project has given the RBS design team success stories to advocate design across the organisation. It was used as an example of good design practice in the Service Design Foundation course that the RBS design team developed and delivered to over 250 colleagues. This introduced the project to employees on all levels; designers, product managers, operational teams, project management teams and technology partners. “The project is contributing to a cumulative positive effect on customers through the development of solutions that are much more in tune with their needs and concerns than has been the case in the past.” — Brian Cooper, RBS UX Design Manager, May 2017

Price for members: 35 € plus shipping

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commercial-student collaboration

Order your copy online now at www.service-design-network.org/ books-and-reports/

The GSA team researched current and emerging disruptions in the field of banking and Generation Y. These were documented as visual communication and working tools called STEP cards (Social, Technological, Economic and Political trends). These STEP cards created an evidence-based approach to future forecasting by introducing a red thread for each step of the project from research to final outputs. This will enable RBS to pivot and work pre-emptively, as the trends are adopted and evolve over the next decade. Tools and methods designed for millennial customers in 2025 were co-created with the RBS design team through a series of collaborative workshops at GSA studios and RBS Headquarters in Edinburgh. To build on the desk research, the students undertook 43 interviews with members of Generation Y. A persona creation method called ‘tribes and chiefs’ was developed, enabling the clustering of similar behaviours into ‘tribes’, for each of which there was a ‘chief’ persona - the archetypal and lead user for that group. These 12 chiefs represented the wide range of RBS’s future customers and represented their outlook

towards four domain areas: New values, safety & security, data and saving & spending.

finalist

Future Bank 2025 – According to Generation Y

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We’re super proud to announce the very first edition of the Service Design Award Annual. This beautifully designed book is a celebration of the very best in service design and delivery, with stories from finalists and winners from the first three years of the award as full, illustrated case studies, demonstrating ‘what good looks like’. See how the best in our field are pushing the boundaries of service design. Hear from the judges on how they approached the challenge of decision-making. Be inspired by outstanding projects from both the commercial and public sectors, delivering impact in a wide range of categories and across the world. Touchpoint 9-3 81


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Service De at Scale

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Touchpoint Vol. 9 No.3 Service Design at Scale  
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