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STUDIO 20

STUDIO 20 MELBOURNE SCHOOL OF DESIGN UNIVERSITY OF MElBOURNE, PARKVILLE STUDENT ID - 516673

MID SEM PORTFOLIO

HOW VIRTUAL BECOMES REAL 04 | 2015

EDITED AND AUTHORED BY TOMMY HENG SUPERVISED BY DR. ALBERTO PUGNALE AND LOUIS GADD 1


STUDIO 20

EDITED AND AUTHORED BY TOMMY HENG SUPERVISED BY DR. ALBERTO PUGNALE AND LOUIS GADD

HOW VIRTUAL BECOMES REAL

04 | 2015

STUDIO 20 MELBOURNE SCHOOL OF DESIGN UNIVERSITY OF MElBOURNE, PARKVILLE STUDENT ID - 516673

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CONTENTS TOPIC

FOREWARD

PAGE

INTRODUCTION

4

WEEK 1 - FORM FINDING GRIDSHELL: Form Resistant Structures

6 8 10

Design Matrix and Outcome

WEEK 2 - EXPERIMENTAL VS. NUMERICAL

12

14

Differences Between Form and Formation

Pneumatic Construction Systems: Experimental Form Finding Technique

15

Inflatable Form Finding Gridshell: An Inflatable Pneumatic Apparatus

16

Inflatable Pneumatic Apparatus: Experiment 1

Inflatable Pneumatic Apparatus: Experiment 2

Generic Parametric Model: Displacement

Performance Based Design: Optimisation Process

18 20 23

WEEK 3 - ANTECEDENT REVERSE ENGINEERING

CASE STUDY: Dutch National Maritime Museum

REVERSE ENGINEERING EXERCISE

25 26 30

WEEK 4 - YAC WELLNESS AND FOOD CLUB

34

Design Matrix

36 38

WEEK 5 - DESIGN DEVELOPMENT & PROPOSAL WEEK 6-12 - DESIGN DEVELOPMENT Mid Sem Reflection - Plan Revision Program Planning

42 44 48 50

Concept Development

WEEK 6-12 - FABRICATION PROTOTYPE

58

60

Gridshell Fabrication Test

WEEK 13-14 - FINAL DESIGN PROPOSAL

Presentation Panels

Final Model Photos

62 64 71

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FOREWARD

As designers, we can no longer ignore the use of computational and digital aided design. Though many may still detest the use of these tools, altercating about how our dependency of such technologies has led to a serious decline in our social, ethical and cultural values, we cannot refute the advantages and benefits they have brought to us in the twenty first century. Computational design has opened a world of possibilites previously inaccessbile with the pen and paper. The common misconception that designers are only limited by their creativity and ingenuity is no longer valid. We must embrace and revel in the new age of design. Renouncing what is to become is quite simply, futile. In this context, MSD Studio 20 seeks to explore the limitatons of computational and digital architecture by testing the nature of virtual and free-form architectural compositions in applications of form resistant structures such as shells and gridshells. With the impact of the “digital” is growing exponentially in architecture, as demonstrated by Greg Lynn’s “BLOBs” and by the NOX “free-forms”. The adjective “free” here indicates the freedom to create architectural form, irrespective of any compositional, structural or construction principle, and has been taken to an extreme in the purely virtual “trans-architecture” of Marcos Novak. (Pugnale & Gadd, 2015) This year’s 5th edition of “How virtual becomes real” will continue the research into the applications of form-resistant structures, through working methods that seek to synthesise the virtual and the real by means of both physical form-finding and numerical/ digital technologies. (Pugnale & Gadd, 2015)

1. Pugnale and Gadd. 2015. 2015 S1 Masters Studio 20. [ONLINE] Available at: http://edsc.unimelb.edu.au/2015-s1-masters-studio-20. [Accessed 09 March 15]. 4


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INTRODUCTION

POOL OF KNOWLEDGE (EXPERIENCE)

FORMULATION OF FORMAL EXPRESSION

APPLICATION OF DESIGN SYSTEM

RESULT/FORM

DETERMINING PARAMETERS (PRE-SELECTION)

LARGE SET OF SOLUTIONS

RESULT/FORM

Figure 1. Conventional design approach

FORMULATION OF DESIGN SYSTEM

Figure 2. Form-finding process based approach

The term form-finding is often tossed around loosely and has generally been used to describe the process of searching for structural forms with regards to geometry, design, sructural behaviour and usage. However, over the recent decades, “form finding” has been made more specific and given new meaning. In the context of structures, form finding refers to the process whereby mechanical methods are employed to achieve results which define forms and geometries subjected to the action of forces in equilibirium. (Mungan and Abel, 2009). With this being said, form finding can be viewed as an approach which deviates from traditional building form design methods which have a definitive and static target and instead results in a process which may not possess a clear and desired result, but retains a logical and pragmatic system that produces to an infinite array of possible solutions that might otherwise be undetected. (Leng, 2011)

Figure 3. illustrates three possible variations that have come out of an infinite number of solutions. Although each of the solutions appear to take a different approach and form, they each fulfill the primary criteria of providing similiar if not better stiffening qualities than the of the original sheet of paper. What is particularly interesting here is that even a seemingly random and arbitrary pattern of folds and crinkles appears to be a possible design solution. This can be understood as the weighted combination of all stiffening patterns.

1. TianXiang Leng. 2011. From making form to finding form: A new method of building form design. [ONLINE] Available at: http://ieeexplore.ieee. org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6003312&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D6003312. [Accessed 10 March 15]. 2. Ethan Zuckerman. 2009. “Neri Oxman – form-finding, not form-making”. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ethanzuckerman.com/ 6 blog/2009/10/07/neri-oxman-form-finding-not-form-making/. [Accessed 10 March 15].


Much like Jackson Pollock’s paintings then, the emphasis here is on the process and not the final product. This means moving away from the idea that the artist is the sole creator, designing and articulating immaculately from an idea or vision in their mind, to an approach that is based on form finding as opposed to form making. We are no so much interested in looking for a form but rather finding some some as a result of defining a system by applying a set of filters and parameters. (Zuckerman, 2009) With this, we can see from figure 1. that a process based design approach radically changes the sequence and the ways in which we design. As opposed to conforming to a linear design process, a form finding system allows the designer to quickly decipher and cycle through a large set of solutions by merely adapting and reforming numerical parameters within the design system. Hence, the outcome is left to the insight and imagination of the designer in the ways they might define a procedure of preselection, regularization or filtering. This inevitably leaves us with a level of vagueness and uncertainty, that may result in a form of expression that may be appreciated primarily for its beauty or emotive power.

Figure 2. Illustrations of various form-fidning results

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WEEK 1 | FORM FINDING

GRIDSHELL 

FORM RESISTANT STRUCTURES The Shukhov Rotunda built for the the All-Russian Exhibiton in 1896 is often regarded as being the world’s first hyperboloid tensile gridshell structure, however, the inquiry into column-free wide spanning structures can be traced back to the first century with the example of the Pantheon in Rome. As a result of new rapidly emerging technologies in construction and materials, this endeavour has continued to thrive, resulting in the development of newer and highly sophisticated gridshells. (Otto, 1974)

The main characteristics which make gridshells desirable include - wide spans, light-weight, affordability and sustainability, making them perfect for the articulation of architectural programmes and designs (Naicu, 2012). However, despite having numerous advantages and benefits, the limitations of gridshell structures lie in the materials and construction systems/technologies that are employed. Some of these limitations are illustrated in the following pages which document the results and findings of various form finding experiments.

By definition, a gridshell is a form resistant structure composed of a grid or lattice which derives its strength from its double curvature. Unlike other similar structures, such as geodesic domes, gridshells are highly effective and efficient structures that may take on different organic forms and curvature in each of the two orthogonal directions.

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WEEK 1 | FORM FINDING

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WEEK 1 | FORM FINDING TEST 1

TEST 2

TEST 3

GRID SPACING 25MM SCALE 1:20 STRIP WIDTH 2.5MM MAXIMUM HEIGHT 110MM MATERIAL PLYWOOD CONNECTIION SCREW/NUT

GRID SPACING 25MM SCALE 1:20 STRIP WIDTH 2.5MM MAXIMUM HEIGHT 105MM MATERIAL PLYWOOD CONNECTIION SCREW/NUT

TEST 4

TEST PARAMETERS GRID SPACING 25MM SCALE 1:20 STRIP WIDTH 2.5MM MAXIMUM HEIGHT 120MM MATERIAL PLYWOOD CONNECTIION SCREW/NUT

GRID SPACING 25MM SCALE 1:20 STRIP WIDTH 2.5MM MAXIMUM HEIGHT 100MM MATERIAL PLYWOOD CONNECTIION SCREW/NUT

TEST COMMENTS With the first iteration, bendy strips of ply were used around the perimeter of the grid as we had anticipated larger levels of compression. By doing so, it was thought that we would be able to achieve a higher degree of curvature. The maximum height achieved was about 11cm.

Realising that the shell lacked a proper support on the base, each of the corners were trimmed as to provide for a straight edge which can be pinned to the base plate. This did not necesarily improve the height of the curvature but instead, allowed the shell to sit securely on four edges.

The third modification resulted in the removal of more material between each of the corners. We anticipated that the loads would transfer accross fewer members and result in an increase in the hieght of the structure. However, the shell seem to be deflated across both axes.

In the fourth iteration, deeper cuts were made along one axis to see if the gridshell would experience any further changes in its height. The measurements confirmed that removing more material did not improve the height or volume and instead led to further deflation overall. We then realised that the compressive forces with having more members is lost and does not transfer across to the remaining members.

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WEEK 1 | FORM FINDING TEST 1

GRID SPACING 50MM SCALE 1:20 STRIP WIDTH 2.5MM MAXIMUM HEIGHT 125MM MATERIAL PLYWOOD CONNECTIION SCREW/NUT

We decided to apply all of the bendy plywood strips along one axis as to maximise the curvature in one direction. This allowed us to produce half-pipe gridshells with large spans and high volumes. However, because the stiffness in one axis was greater than the other, there were limitations to the forms that we were able to produce. The overall structure lacked strength from the double curvature that is normally found in gridshells. From this test, we were able to better grasp the characteristic of a gridshell being a uniform structure. Varying the stiffness in one axis does not necessarily improve the performance of the overall structure.

TEST 2

GRID SPACING 50/25MM SCALE 1:20 STRIP WIDTH 2.5MM MAXIMUM HEIGHT 125MM MATERIAL PLYWOOD CONNECTIION SCREW/NUT BOUNDARY CONDITION WALL

We decided to apply all of the bendy plywood strips along one axis as to maximise the curvature in one direction. This allowed us to produce half-pipe gridshells with large spans and high volumes. However, because the stiffness in one axis was greater than the other, there were limitations to the forms that we were able to produce. The overall structure lacked strength from the double curvature that is normally found in gridshells. From this test, we were able to better grasp the characteristic of a gridshell being a uniform structure. Varying the stiffness in one axis does not necessarily improve the performance of the overall structure.

TEST 3

TEST 4

GRID SPACING 50MM SCALE 1:20 STRIP WIDTH 2.5MM MAXIMUM HEIGHT 110MM MATERIAL PLYWOOD CONNECTIION SCREW/NUT

GRID SPACING 25MM SCALE 1:20 STRIP WIDTH 1.6MM MAXIMUM HEIGHT 135MM MATERIAL BOX BOARD CONNECTIION SCREW/NUT

This particular experiment is an extension to prototype 2 in which the same system of bendy plywood strips are used in one axis and the stiffer conventional plywood strip on the other. Modifications to the shape of the lattice/grid were then made by trimming the edges of two corners to form a trapezoidal shape. We chose this particular geometry hoping that the narrower section would improve the curvature and volume height of the structure. However, what resulted was a sizeable cantilevered structure protruding from the wide end of the grid. We believe this to be an inaccurate representation of a full scaled gridshell structure as such a large cantilever would require tie-back cables or a deep anchor structural system.

From the first three experiments, we learned that choice of material we were using were limiting out formal explorations. Thus, in this fourth test, we made a conscious decision to use of strips of boxboard. This gave us far better curvature and flexibility in the forms that we were able to produce. As you can see from the plan, we treated each corner slightly differently to test the types of arches and openings we can achieve with a much more forgiving material. Although this does not appropriately reciprocate the structural properties of timber gridshells, we believe similar forms can be achieved using prefabricated steel members and components. This would enable us to produce better articulation in terms of geometry.

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WEEK 2 | EXPERIMENTAL VS. NUMERICAL

EXPERIMENTAL vs. NUMERICAL

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PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS AND COMPUTER AIDED ALGORITHMIC DESIGN 13


WEEK 2 | EXPERIMENTAL VS. NUMERICAL

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN

FORM FORMATION and

Before acquiring sufficient computing power to perform complex calculations, Frei Otto devised numerous experimental models and methods to observe and describe self forming organic shapes and geometries which occur in nature. Although these methods did not allow him to generate these forms with a great deal of mathematical precision, these simple physical experiments enabled Otto to rapidly reveal the infinite diversity of possible forms and constructions without a real deal of effort. It was through these series of experiments that Otto was able to discover a plethora of previously unknown structural forms derived from hanging chains and inflated membranes. Over the years, with the emergence of new technologies and major advancement in computing, most of the results of these physical experiments can be simulated and recreated on the computer and made more precise if necessary. This has led to the development of numerical models which utilise a combination of new computer algorithms based on fractal mathematics to analyse and simulate selfformation processes. Bodo Rasch’s architectural practice is one such office that developed one of the first numerical form-finding models based on Frei Otto’s experiments.

With the transition from experimetal to numerical based models, the focus on “form” has now shifted to one of “formation”. This implies that much more of the emphasis is placed on controlling the parameters within the design process itself as opposed to the final formal outcome. An example of a system of design that adopts this new idea is perfomative or performance based design. As Oxman explains, Performative Design is the ability to directly manipulate and interact with geometric properties of a digital model to optimize its performance. This requires the creation of various simulation environments that use different aspects of building performance indicators as guiding factors to achieve an informed design outcome. Thus, despite being limited by the level of computing power we have today to achieve a system that is truly morphogenetic, the directive of performative design has undoutedly given a lot more meaning and value to architectural design. The only question remains as to what the role of the designer is to become in the future if when the design process does truly becomes morphogenetic. Will designers become redundant? If not, when, where and why should we intervene in the process?

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WEEK 2 | EXPERIMENTAL VS. NUMERICAL

PNEUMATIC CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS

AN EXPERIMENTAL FORM FINDING TECHNIQUE

To gain better knowledge and understanding of experimental form finding techniques, we devised a relatively simple experimental apparatus known as a pneumatic construction system that Otto used as part of his research program at IL. The apparatus consists of a latex membrane sandwiched between two MDF boards with the use of a timber frame. A bicycle tyre valve is then attached to the underside and inflated through which the latex then expands and results in a form that is defined by the chosen boundary conditions. A range of casting materials were then experimented with to see which one was most suitable. The process and outcomes of the various experiments are documented and explained over the next few pages.

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WEEK 2 | EXPERIMENTAL VS. NUMERICAL

INFLATABLE FORM FINDING/GRIDSHELL AN INFLATABLE PNEUMATIC APPARATUS

1. SCHRADER VALVE Install the valve from a bicycle tube to the base plate. Then use duct tape to seal the opening and ensure that the hole is air tight.

2. DUCT TAPE Continue taping the plate/board with duct tape. Make sure to overlap each strip so that the entire board is air tight. You may want to tape the board in both directions.

3. AIR TIGHT CHECK Check the board for leaks or sections which may have not yet been taped. Pay extra attention to the openings i.e. valve and bolt openings.

4. PREPARING THE

Measure the latex and roughly the same size board. Keep the edge within the boundary o

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WEEK 2 | EXPERIMENTAL VS. NUMERICAL

LATEX MEMBRANE

d cut a sheet that is e as the base plate/ es of the latex sheet of the board.

5. TAPING THE LATEX MEMBRANE Tape the membrane to the board. Keep the edges within the boundary of the plate so that it can be sealed air tight. You may use several layers of tape to secure the membrane.

6. GEOMETRY TEMPLATE Place the cut geometry over the membrane and then use clamps to sandwich the panels together. Use 2 to 3 clamps on each edge to ensure that the panes are secured.

7. INFLATION Use F-clamps if deemed necessary to secure the geometry on the boards. Inflate the membrane incrementally till it reaches the desired height. Check once again for leaks before proceeding with casting.

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WEEK 2 | EXPERIMENTAL VS. NUMERICAL

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WEEK 2 | EXPERIMENTAL VS. NUMERICAL

INFLATABLE PNEUMATIC APPARATUS TEST/EXPERIMENT 1 CASTING MATERIAL: DRYING TIME: NOTES:

PLASTER OF PARIS 20-30 MINUTES

The test demonstrated that palster of paris was unsuitable as a casting material. Due to the inability to achieve a level of consistency in pouring the plaster over the membrane, the shell ended up collapsing very rapidly after the membrane was deflated. The struture simply did not have enough to hold up the main shell/ dome. It was interesting to note which parts of the shell started to deteriorate first before the overall structure failed completely. As anticipated, the anticlastic regions with a high degree of curvature collapsed first, followed by the rest of the main shell. There were also issues experienced with the pneumatic apparatus as leaks caused the membrane to deflate over time. Hence, the plaster did not have enough time to cure and achieve/reach its maximim strength. Inflating the membrane intermeittently was also not the ideal solution as the movement from the inflation resulted in cracks in the shell. Other issues include the process of removing the cast from the plates.

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WEEK 2 | EXPERIMENTAL VS. NUMERICAL

INFLATABLE PNEUMATIC APPARATUS TEST/EXPERIMENT 2 CASTING MATERIAL: DRYING TIME: NOTES:

MODROC PLASTER BANDAGES 20-30 MINUTES

The first of the two models using modroc bandages revealed that a systematic arrangement of bandages was required to achieve the best cast. As the first image suggests, randomly laid strips of modroc bandages did not lead to a sucessful outcome. Using large strips over the length of the geometry meant that the loads of the shell structure was uniform, cuasing large stresses at the base. Coupled with a faulty pneumatic mechanism, the cast could not achieve its optimal height and resulted in a rather deflated structure that could barely handle its own weight. The second attempt proved to be much more of a success and overcame many of the issues experienced in the first experiment. F-clamps were used to clamp down on the valleys so that the geometry of the membrane can be better defined once it has been inflated. Problems with the pneumatic mechanism was negotiated by intermittently pumping air every 20 to 30 seconds into the membrane. More important;y, we devised a systematic and strategic way of laying the bandages to better replicate the loading conditions of a typical gridshell. This resulted in a much more successful cast.

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WEEK 2 | EXPERIMENTAL VS. NUMERICAL

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WEEK 2 | EXPERIMENTAL VS. NUMERICAL Matrix 1. Incrementally increasing the strength of one point attractor

Matrix 2. Two positive point attractors

Matrix 3. One positive and one negative point attractor

1.1

2.1

3.1

1.2

2.2

3.2

1.3

2.3

3.3

1.4

2.4

3.4

1.5

2.5

3.5

1.6

2.6

3.6

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WEEK 2 | EXPERIMENTAL VS. NUMERICAL

The grid described from a base point which is then translated to a certain distance in both the X and Y axis. A line is then defined between these two points to form the basis of the two laths.

GRID DEFINITION

LINE OFFSET (MOVE)

Once the grid has been defined, the intersect curve node is used to find all of the points of intersection on the grid.

EXTRACT CONTROL POINTS

POINT ATTRACTOR

The new translated points are then turned into a lattice and lofted by interpolating a curve through the points. This process has to be repeated twice for the X and Y axes.

The grid is developed by a series of offsets/ translations from the base line defined which had been defined earlier on. Each offset is based on the previous set as to allow for a greater degree of control. This way, each line in the grid can be manipulated to produce a denser or looser structural grid.

Arbtrary points are referened and utilised as point attractors to push and pull the control points of the grid. An MD slider provides control of the points’ translation in the X and Y axis whilst two other number sliders determine the strength of the attractor values and the distance they are from the grid.

INTERPOLATE CURVE

GENERIC PARAMETRIC MODEL DISPLACEMENT

This algorithm describes a very general way in which parametrics may be used to generate various geometries that would otherwise be impossible to do so using conventional methods. As illustrated in the outcome of the design matrix on the previous page, a large range of solutions can be produced very rapidly by merely adjusting or manipulating parameters of the algorithmic definition.

The forms and outcomes of such a model can be said to be “form found” in the sense that the outcome cannot be predicted. However, in the context of this studio, what results from this loosely defined algorithm isn’t truly form found. This is explained on page 3. t

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WEEK 2 | EXPERIMENTAL VS. NUMERICAL

1.1

1.2

1.3

2.1

2.2

2.3

3.1

3.2

3.3

4.1

4.2

4.4

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WEEK 2 | EXPERIMENTAL VS. NUMERICAL

GRID DEFINITION

DECOMPOSE (SEGMENT)

PHYSICS CONVERTER

SPRINGS

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS KANGAROO ANIMATOR

FEM ANALYSIS (KARAMBA)

PERFORMANCE BASED DESIGN OPTIMISATION PROCESS

Unlike your typical parametric algorithm, a performance based design parametric system produces forms and geometries which replicate mechanical and physical properties. In this specific model, two plug-ins have been utilised to achieve that result. The first of which is a physics conversion algorithm which translates obects into elements which possess mechanical properties bounded by Hooke’s Law (Kangaroo - Springs).

The second is an optimisation algorithm which which is based on the Finite Elements Method (FEM) and processes geometries to produce an accurate analaysis of spatial trusses, frames and shells in order for designers to further develop and optimise static geometries.

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WEEK 3 | ANTECEDENT REVERSE ENGINEERING

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CASE STUDY

DUTCH NATIONAL MARITIME MUSEUM

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WEEK 3 | ANTECEDENT REVERSE ENGINEERING

CASE STUDY DUTCH NATIONAL MARITIME MUSEUM

Designed and built by 2011, the Dutch National Maritime Museum by Ney & Partners is a fine example of a design outcome that combined technical and functional requirements with architectural and heritage considerations. When the time finally came to renovate the museum, Ney proposed using a dome shaped roof composed from steel sheets that would enclose the existing courtyard. This proposal proved to be successful in the sense that it meant that no new additional structure would be required to support the new roof. The roof’s structural geometry is rather complex in that it based on a repetition of a series of rosettes with 16 loxodromes. This geometry is coincidentally found in the historical sea charts which was used to mark out course for ships. and reflected the power of the Dutch fleet and makes this former admiralty building once again the symbolic centre of the Dutch mastery of the world’s seas. The nodes/intersections at which the steel members connect are points where lights are inserted. At night, these lights appear to be stars in the night sky.

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WEEK 3 | ANTECEDENT REVERSE ENGINEERING

Location: Amsterdam (NL) Client: Riksdienst voor Gebouwen Programme: Glass Roof Architect: Ney & Partners (Roof) Structure: Ney & Partners Project Date: 2004 Execution: 2010 Contractor: Bam Subcontractor roof: Anmeco

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WEEK 3 | ANTECEDENT REVERSE ENGINEERING

1. Ellipse is established to fit the four corners of the building (foci method)

5. By repeating the process, the lines start to produce a pattern/ geometry.

2. The ellipse is divided into 4 segments with 8 further subdivisions

6. Half segments of the ellipse have been interconnected.

3. Each point is connected to the other segments on the curve (point)

7. All the segments have been connected to one another.

4. Then connecting each segment to the other segments is continued.

8. The established geometry has been trimmed to fit the required roof structure.

a. Final roof geometry through form-finding process.

b. Geometry is dispatched for both he top and bottom roof structure.

c. Dispatched geometry is inflated with Karamba FEM model

a. Final roof geometry via parametric algorithm

b. First dispatched geometry

c. Second dispatched geometry

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WEEK 3 | ANTECEDENT REVERSE ENGINEERING

ATECEDENT REVERSE ENGINEERING BASED ON “DUTCH MARITIME MUSEUM”

The form finding process of the geometry/pattern was primarily adopted from the Dutch Martime Museum’s courtyard roof. Given that the hypothetical site we are do adapt this technique to is 15m by 10m, the boundary conditions reflect an elliptical geometry as opposed to a circle. The first portion of the parametric algorithm establishes the ellipse that is bound by the four corners of the site. Next, the ellipse is divided into 4 segments with a further 8 subdivisions between them. Finally, we utilise a definition that interconnects each of the points to one another to create the geometry. To make things slightly unconventional, we decided to experiment with a double layer structural system. We were able to achieve by dispatching the pattern/geometry into two lists. Each of these lists then used to define a roof structure. The main challenge here was to modify the algorithm so that the bottom roof still maintains a form-found shape as opposed to a catenary. The result proved to be fairly successful apart from unresolved details and joint systems.

a. Axial stress FEM model analysis

b. Loading conditions for lower roof structure

c. XYZ Reactional diagram

Cross Sectional - Render

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WEEK 3 | ANTECEDENT REVERSE ENGINEERING

ATECEDENT REVERSE ENGINEERING BASED ON “DUTCH MARITIME MUSEUM”

Having experimented and developed an algorithm ourselves , we found it relatively easy to produce various types of patterns and geometries rather quickly. Being able to produce different geometries in rapid succession illustrated the benefits and strength of using computational and form found design processes. There were however, setbacks when it came to developing the structural systems and connections effectively. We experienced a lot of difficulty in ensuring that the structure met the supports at specific nodes and points. This would require further post processing of the form found geometries.

Render - Dispatched Double Roof Structure

Render - Internal Perspective looking up at the roof

Render - Internal Perspective looking up at the roof

Sketch - Construction details and Joints for Roof Structure

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WEEK 3 | ANTECEDENT REVERSE ENGINEERING

Roof Plan - Overlapping geometries

Long Section - Double Gridshell Roof Structure

Short Section - Double Gridshell Roof Structure

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WEEK 4 | YAC WELLNESS CENTRE

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WEEK 4 | YAC WELLNESS CENTRE

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WEEK 4 | YAC WELLNESS CENTRE

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WEEK 5 | YAC WELLNESS CENTRE - DESIGN PROPOSAL

[FOOD and WELLNESS CLUB] - “The part can never be well unless the whole is well.” Plato -

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WEEK 5 | YAC WELLNESS CENTRE - DESIGN PROPOSAL

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[FOOD and WELLNESS CLUB] - “The part can never be well unless the whole is well.” Plato -

SENSUALISED CULTURAL MODERNITY The objective here was not to create something that would be in complete contrast to Bologna’s rich architectural heritage but instead reinvent or reimagine ways of collating what already exists. The Wellness and Food Club has been designed to provide visitors with a multi-sensory experience by immersing them into a series of unique spaces .Through the journey into to the various programs and facilities, one draws similarity to being in a spiritual sanctuary. This is achieved through the juxtaposition of materials (glass and masonry) . The use of a sophisticated glazed roof structure over the larger pools and spas allows visitors to experience the elements over the various seasons whilst being sheltered from them year round. From a conceptual and symbolic perspective, the architecture expresses what it is like to merge the old and the new as well as provide a shelter or a place in which visitors may seek refuge away from what is a very stressfuland industrious society.

C, A.

The Wellness and Food Club is equipped with a number of facilities such as bathing chambers, saunas, meditation rooms, turkish baths and a number of heated spas/pools. The club also hosts a world renown Michelin Star restaurant that serves some of the finest food and delicacies Bologna has to offer. Enclosed and cordoned off from the hustle and bustle of the city, visitors will more than likely find themself at peace, at ease and fully recharged once they have spent a day here at the centre.

B. F.

G.

E. C,

RECEPTION

C,

SITE LEGEND A. OPEN GRASSLAND/FIELD - favourable views B. SITE C. INDUSTRIAL WAREHOUSES & FACTORIES D. TOWARDS BOLOGNA CITY CENTRE E. ACCESS ROAD F. HIGHWAY G. FUTURE CARPARK

LOCKER

GYM DAY SPA

COFFEE SHOP

STORAGE ROOM

MEDITATION ACQUA ZONE

D. SHOPS

1. The Old

OFFICES

1. The New

SUITE DAY SPA

1. The Old and New

CONCEPT -

The idea was to merge two opposing architectural schools of thought to see what would result. Using vaults and arches to define the interior architecture/space and new form-found geometries such as gridshells to enclose the various volumes, what resulted is a symbiotic relationship between the old and the new which I believe is quite poetic and beautiful. The contrast is expressed in a number of ways such as through the nature in which glass and steel are lightweight structures as opposed to concrete and masonry walls.

40 ACQUA SPA PERSPECTIVE

MSD STUDIO 20 TOMMY HENG - 516673 TUTOR - ALBERTO PUGNALE & LOUIS GADD

PROGRAM PLANNING SEQUENCE


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DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

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WEEK 6-12

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WEEK 6-12| DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

Basement Plan

Ground Floor Plan

Roof Plan

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WEEK 6-12| DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

Section -through Acqua Zone

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT - PROGRAM Based on the mid sem review, the plans and design of the project seemed to be on track. The Acqua and Day Spa programs have been resolved with only minor adjustments with regard to the size of the spaces. The main issue resides in the public programs/spaces located towards the front of the site where there seems to be inadequate space for the lobby/reception as well as having very narrow and tight spaces for circulation. The gridshell proposition may have been archtiecturally and visually spectacular, however it appeared to be unecessary. Structurally, the design and positioning of the penetration in the Acqua Zone pool not only disrupts what is a large open space but also poses a number of concerns in terms of its structure and geometry. Furthermore, the subdivision and grid will have to be rectified to be made optimal.

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WEEK 6-12| DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

Basement Floor Plan

Ground Floor Plan

Upper Ground Floor Plan

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WEEK 6-12| DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

Mid Sem Design

Developed Design

Sectional Perspective - Day Spa

Sectional Perspective - Acqua Zone

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT - PROGRAM Over weeks 7 and 8, a lot of work and emphasis was placed on developing a plan and program that would really express the concept I proposed - old and new. Significant changes have been made to the public programs which include: - a larger reception and lobby area - relocation of the gym - relocation of restaurant - additional cafe - relocation of office spaces, - public toilets - lifts - relocation of retail stores

From the elevations and sections above, the geometries of the gridshells have changed. The overall geometry has been simplified to mitigate all of the structural issues. The new design also allowed for better and more efficient sub divisions of the grid. The penetration into the pool is also removed resulting in a much larger spanning gridshell over the indoor and outdoor Acqua Zone pools.

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WEEK 6-12| DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

1. EXISTING WAREHOUSE BUILDING

2. REMOVAL OF EXISTING BUILDING

3. PLACEMENT OF ACQUA AND DAY SPA ZONES BY CONSIDERING PUBLIC AND PRIVATE CONTEXTUAL RELATIONSHIPS WITH SITE

4. PLACEMENT OF OTHER PROGRAMS BY CONSIDERING SITE ACCESSIBILITY AND FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS

5. INSERTION OF MAIN AXIS OF CIRCULATION RUNNING BETWEEN NORTH/SOUTH AND EAST/ WEST OF SITE

6. RESOLVED PLACEMENT OF PROGRAMS

7. DEVELOPED AND RESOLVED ARCHITECTURAL OUTCOME/PROPOSITION

PROGRAM PLANNING SEQUENCE

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WEEK 6-12| DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

- AGRICULTURAL LAND - STREETS/ROADS - SITE AGRICULTURAL ZONE - THE SITE FACES OPEN FIELDS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND (NORTH-WEST) - POTENTIAL FOR PUBLIC PROGRAMS

- INDUSTRIAL ZONE - STREETS/ROADS - SITE INDUSTRIAL ZONE - THE SITE IS SITUATED IN AN INDUSTRIAL PARK 10KM NORTHEAST OF BOLGNA TOWN CENTRE - POTENTIAL FOR PRIVATE PROGRAMS

- RESTAURANTS, CAFES, BISTROS - STREETS/ROADS - SITE SITE CONTEXT -MOSTLY INDUSTRIAL WAREHOUSES AND FACTORIES - SEVERAL RESTAURANTS, CAFES AND BARS

- SMALL STREETS - MAIN ROADS - SITE ACCESSIBILITY SMALLER ACCES ROADS -DICTATES ACCESS TO SITE FROM VIA LAZARRI (SIDE STREET)

PROGRAM PLANNING The plans of the building follow a rational program defined and determined by the relationships established between the functions of each program and the site context. The two main programs (Acqua and Day Spa) have been situated at the rear of the site as they require more privacy whilst maintaining an open floor plan with high levels of transparency. The public programs have naturally been placed in close proximity to the site’s ingress and egress.

The circulation is defined by two major axis (east-west and north-south). The east-west axis follows the access to the site via the street Via Lazzari and the north-south axis consists of the central corridor that feeds into the other programs.

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WEEK 6-12| DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

Concept Diagram - Conbination between traditonal and grounded architecture

RECEPTION

LOCKER

GYM DAY SPA

COFFEE SHOP

STORAGE ROOM

MEDITATION ACQUA ZONE

SHOPS

OFFICES

SUITE DAY SPA

Program Diagram - Public to Private

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WEEK 6-12| DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT The overarching scheme/concept of the building is to explore the relationships between traditional and contemporary architectural systems. The aim was not to create something that seamlessly merges two opposing languages but rather to find a meaningful relationshnship that would allow them to coexist and yet be distinct from one another. This led to the idea of symbiosis. The diagram on the left illustrates how the architecture and design merges traditional heavy masonry architecture with light weight gridshell roofs.

PRAGMATIC DESIGN The diagram on the left illustrates the categorisation of programs into public and private spaces. It also indicates a procession into the buildings through a series of thresholds. These thresholds are marked by walls, changes in levels and visibility through the plan.

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WEEK 6-12| DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

Axonometric - Ground Floor

Axonometric - Basement

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WEEK 6-12| DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

GEOMETRICAL GLAZED ROOF - PROVIDES LIGHT INTO MEDITATION SPACES VIA CENTRAL LIGHT WELL

CIRCULATION THROUGH MEDITATION PROGRAMS AND SPACES - CONSISTS OF 4 SPLIT FLOORS

UPPER MEDITATION ROOMS 3 AND 4 WITH THE MOST NATURAL LIGHTING AND HIGH CEILINGS

LOWER MEDITATION ROMS 1 AND 2 - ENCLOSED SPACES - RECEIVES NATURAL LIGHTS VIA LIGHT WELL

MEDITATION PROGRAMS SPLIT INTO 4 QUADRANTS WITH A CENTRAL ATRIUM COURTYARD - PROCESSION INTO DIFFERENT SPACES

Axonometric - Meditation Space

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WEEK 6-12| DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

Geometric Principles - Golden Ratio

ARCHES FOR LARGE INTERNAL ACQUA ZONE POOL

ARCHES ARE USED TO ENCLOSE COLLONADES AND CORRIDORS WITHIN THE ACQUA ZONES AS TO MAINTAIN CULTURAL REFERENCES TO BOLOGNA

INTERIOR ARCHITECTURE - ARCHES 1. PERFECT SQUARE 2. DEFINE CIRCLE RADIUS FROM MID POINT ON ONE SIDE TO CORNER 3. PRODUCE ARC OF CIRCLE 4. ADDITIONAL RECTANGLE IS PRODUCED 5. MID POINT IS DRAWN FROM THE LONG EDGE OF THE RECTANGLE TO ARC 6. SECOND ARC IS PRODUCED 7. ARCHES ARE PRODUCED BASED ON GEOETRICAL PRINCIPLES - GOLDEN RATIO

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WEEK 6-12| DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

SHOWERS AND OTHER RELAXATION SPACES DEDICATED TO THE CASCADING POOLS WHICH USERS CAN ACCESS ACROSS 2 FLOORS PRIVATE SHOWERS AND BATHS USERS CANN ACCESS ACROSS 2 FLOORS VIA THE SOLARIUM - CONTAINS A SAUNA ON THE UPPER FLOOR WHICH OVERLOOKS THE SOLARIUM

CORDONED OFF PRIVATE RELAXTAION ROOMS WHICH USERS CAN RETREAT TO FROM THE CASCADING POOLS LOEWR LEVEL PRIVATE BATHING ROOMS AND TUBS FOR USERS TO ACCESS VIA SOLARIUM

LIGHT WELLS FROM THE UPPER FLOOR ALLOWS LOWER LEVELS TO RECEIVE NATURAL LIGHT WHILST MAINTAINING PRIVACY

LIGHT WELLS FROM THE UPPER FLOOR FLOOD PRIVATE CHAMBERS BELOW WITH LIGHT WHILST ALLOWING USERS TO MAINTAIN PRIVACY

Axonometric - Intermediate Shower Spaces - Day Spa

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WEEK 6-12| DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

1300MM

ROOF GEOMETRY - ACQUA ZONE

41X29 SUBDIVISION

1200MM

1000MM

ROOF GEOMETRY - DAY SPA

22X17 SUBDIVISIONS (EACH SECTION)

PRIMARY STRUCTURE/LATHS SPAN EAST TO WEST OF THE BUILDING

LARGE 45M SPANNING GRIDSHELL ROOF STRUCTURE OVER ACQUA ZONE PROGRAMS

SECONDARY STRUCTURE/LATHS DEFINE THE DIAGRID

PRIMARY STRUCTURE/LATHS SPAN NORTH TO SOUTH OF THE BUILDING

Axonometric - Roof Structure

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WEEK 6-12| DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

MASONRY IN FILL FACADE

STRAIGHT RECTANGULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS

6. GLAZING PANELS ARE INSTALLED ALONG WITH INFILL MASONRY FACADE.

5. SECONDARY LATHS ARE INSTALLED AND WELDED TO MAIN LATHS IN STRAIGHT SECTION SEGMENTS

SINGLE CONTINUOUS 12M SPAN RECTANGULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS

4. PRIMARY LATHS/BEAMS ARE INSTALLED AND WELDED ONTO THE EDGE BEAMS FIRST

3. SUPPORT STRUCTURE AND EDGE BEAMS ARE PREFABRICATED AND INSTALLED ON SITE STEEL SUPPORTING EDGE BEAM STRUCTURE

2.CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDING

1. SITE EXCAVATION AND EARTHWORKS FOR BASEMENT LEVELS

Construction Sequence Diagram

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FABRICATION

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T E S T I N G WEEK 6-12

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WEEK 6-12| FABRICATION PROTOTYPE

Boxboard 1:40 - Prototype

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WEEK 6-12| FABRICATION PROTOTYPE

Fabrication 3D model - Lath Strips

FABRICATION PROTOTYPE I first tested the idea of using timber strips for the gridshell by using 1mm Boxboard. The material performed satisfactorily as it was flexible enough to express complex geometry, but failed in terms of producing curvature. Coupled with the folding gridshell, the laths began to warp and break. These were typically found in the anticlastic regions. I had tested this model a second time using polyurethane strips and improved the GH definition to account for material thickness and offset. This proved to have worked a lot better. However, issues were still encountered with the shape.

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F I N A L D E S I G N

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P R O P O S A L

WEEK 13-14

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SENSUALISED CULTURAL MODERNITY The objective here was not to create something that would be in complete contrast to Bologna’s rich architectural heritage but instead reinvent or reimagine ways of collating what already exists. The Wellness and Food Club has been designed to provide visitors with a multi-sensory experience by immersing them into a series of unique spaces .Through the journey into to the various programs and facilities, one draws similarity to being in a spiritual sanctuary. This is achieved through the juxtaposition of materials (glass and masonry) . The use of a sophisticated glazed roof structure over the larger pools and spas allows visitors to experience the elements over the various seasons whilst being sheltered from them year round. From a conceptual and symbolic perspective, the architecture expresses what it is like to merge the old and the new as well as provide a shelter or a place in which visitors may seek refuge away from what is a very stressfuland industrious society. The Wellness and Food Club is equipped with a number of facilities such as bathing chambers, saunas, meditation rooms, turkish baths and a number of heated spas/pools. The club also hosts a world renown Michelin Star restaurant that serves some of the finest food and delicacies Bologna has to offer. Enclosed and cordoned off from the hustle and bustle of the city, visitors will more than likely find themself at peace, at ease and fully recharged once they have spent a day here at the centre.

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CONCEPT

The idea was to merge two opposing architectural schools of thought to see what would result. Using vaults and arches to define the interior architecture/space and new formfound geometries such as gridshells to enclose the various volumes, what resulted is a symbiotic relationship between the old and the new which I believe is quite poetic and beautiful. The contrast is expressed in a number of ways such as through the nature in which glass and steel are lightweight structures as opposed to concrete and masonry walls.

PROCESS -

The way in which I arrived at my final design was very pragmatic. I first determined between the most public and private programs that were requried and located them in the most suitable/appropriate locations on site in response to my site analysis. As the Wellness and Food Club is a very unique building typology with specific functional requirements, the functions and programs are clustered and grouped according to their accessibility.

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WEEK 13-14| FINAL DESIGN PROPOSAL

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MSD Studio 20 - How Virtual Becomes Real  

As designers, we can no longer ignore the use of computational and digital aided design. Though many may still detest the use of these tools...

MSD Studio 20 - How Virtual Becomes Real  

As designers, we can no longer ignore the use of computational and digital aided design. Though many may still detest the use of these tools...

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