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ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO: AIR 2013

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CONTENTS Introduction - About Me

4-5

A1.0- 1.2 Architecture as a Discourse

6-11

A2.0 - 2.2 Computational Architecture

12-17

A3.0-3.2 Parametric Modelling

18-25

A4.0-4.2 Algorithmic Exploration

28-33

A5.0/6.0 34-35 Learning Outcome and Objectives A7.0 References

B1.0-1.5 Design Approach B2.0-2.1 Case Study 1.0 B3.0-3.6 Prototypes B4.0 Reverse Engineering Case Study 2.0

36-37

40-51 54-61

64-79

80-91

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B5.0 Technique Proposal 92-93 B6.0-6.1 Algorithmic Exploration

96-99

B7.0 Learning Outcome and Objectives

100-101

B8.0 References

102-103

C1.0-1.2 Design Concept

106-111

C2.0-2.5 Tectonic Elements

112-127

C3.0-3.25 Fabrication and Construction C4.0 Final Model C5.0 Learning Outcome and Objectives

128-133

136-147 148-149

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INTRODUCTION A PERSONAL DISCOURSE TOMMY HENG My name is Tommy Heng and I am currently a third year architecture student studying at the University of Melborune. Architecture is a passion of mine. Having been exposed to the arts at a very young age, I was fortunate enough to have discovered my deep desire to become an architect. During my years in high school, I undertook a 4 year fine arts apprenticeship which equipped me with the skills to pursue my degree in architecture. Collectively, my interest in technology, the arts and craft has led me to pursue a design based profession. However, it is also party due to my desire to search for a career which incorporates ideas and information across multiple disciplines that inspired me to do architecture. Although I have yet to discover my own architectural design philosophy, I am greatly interested in designs and architecture which are critical and unique in the sense that they respond to the context through technology, sustainability, culture and form/morphology. It is fundamental for architecture to be functional, however, it is also of greater importance for it to possess its own unique character and identity - soul. It is often the small things and the attention to details that distinguishes a great and amazing piece of architecture from those that are simply forgettable. Apart from architecture, I also share a great passion for the arts where I occasionally do sketches, paintings, graphics and photography in my spare time. In this new age of digital media and technology, I still strongly feel that it is important to maintain and enjoy the traditions and conventions of hand drawing and rendering. There is no other way of describing my interest in learning new computational design softwares and technologies. Design software that I have knowledge of include - Rhinoceros, AutoCAD, Revit, SketchUp, Atlantis, Vray, InDesign, PhotoShop, Illustrator and recently some basic Grasshopper. Although I have had the opportunity to learn and use quite a few CAD and other digital design tools, I would say that I have only had the chance to use them in a very constrained manner.

Virtual Environments back in 2011 was probably the most rewarding studio subject I went through as it introduced me a lot of new concepts with regard to the applications of digital design and fabrication tools. Since then, I have attempted to apply some of these techniques to my other studio subjects. Learning Grasshopper has definitely influenced my perspective on digital design theories through its ability of translating conventional design processes much more efficiently.

1. Photography experiment taken on Berkeley Street in 2011.

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A 1.0

ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE An Introspection of Architecture

[1]. Walking City by Ron Herron 1964, http://www.pro.ba/utopia/ron-herron/

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Often, when you ask someone outside of the of the architectural profession about what architecture means to them, you get the response: “Oh, architecture... architecture is about designing great buildings, interesting structures and beautiful icons...” Though the word “discourse” often slips our mind whenever we engage in a philosophical debate on what architecture is, it is difficult to view or see it as solely being a physical structure. Architecture is a profession which utilises and incorporates ideas and information across multiple diciplines. Anything and everything is applicable. Nothing is irrelevant when it comes to tangible architecture such as a built environment or the intangible ideas and concepts architecture consists of. Referring to [1] Dutton in Reconstructing Architecture: Critical Discourses and Social Practices (1996), architecture is a social construct and a product of our political, social, cultural and economic values mediated by our built environment. Just as a painting, sculpture or contemporary art installation may communicate and express themes and ideas of their respective contexts, architecture as a discourse does so similarly in the grandest of scales. A good piece of architecture shouldn’t just be commended fo its physical attributes and attention to visual details. Instead, it should be valued and appreciated for the ideas and positive impacts it contributes to society and the community. Take for instance the absolutely stunning and beautiful new apartment block around the corner and the seemingly absurd paper architecture of [2] “Walking Cities” by Archigram (left) that had never been realised.

Comparitively, the work of Archigram’s would be considered to possess more value in its contribution to the discourse of architecture. Concepts such as the [2] “PlugIn City” and “Walking City” stimulate ideas, recondition the way we think about architecture and ultimately contributes to the discourse through means of innovation as opposed to the mere production of a built fabric. Unlike what has been going on for the past 4 to 5 millenia in architectural history, society in the 21st century finds itself in an age of digital technology and communication where architects have to deal with an unprecedented network of data and information. Just as our problems have become a lot more complex and sophisticated, the methods of analysing and resolving them must also be of equal callibre. As a result, thinking about architecture as a discourse becomes increasingly important. Architecture should always be examined for more than its face value by engaging with the philosophical, cultural and social realms it embodies. Often, it’s the ideas that result from the intermediary processes of design and the dialogue we undertake when interrogating a design issue that allows to contribute to the discourse in innovative ways. [3] (Williams, 2005) It is only through our consideration of architecture as a discourse that we may truly engage, interact and appreciate architecture in a more wholistic manner.

Despite being a great addition to the local neighbourhood through its means of gentrification as well as fostering the devleopment of better infrastructure and services, what impacts does it have on the greater community and how does it encourage the generation of better architecture?

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A 1.1

DESIGN PRECEDENT: FUTURE CITIES LAB CIRRIFORM

[2] CIRRIFORM by Future Cities Lab interactive facade installation proposal, http://www.future-cities-lab.net/cirriform/

[3] CIRRIFORM by Future Cities Lab conceptual and technical diagram, http://www.future-cities-lab.net/cirriform/

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[4]

The project [4] Cirriform is a site specific architectural installation which explores the applications of performance architecture in a very real and practical manner. It represents a new level of interaction between the user and architecture where the emphasus is placed on to the experience. Despite being relatively simple in concept, the project serves as an excellent example of new digital and computational designs are contributing to the discourse around architecture. As performance and interactive architecture is still in its infancy, much of the experimentation, proposals and concepts are generating public discussion about the applications of digital technology and computation in architecture and design. This has led to the emergence of new strains of architectural explorations in producing buildings and structures which are dynamic, interactive, kinetic and responsive. This presents almost inifinite possibilities and applications in which architecture can be used in the future.

The flexibilty and adaptability of architecture such as CIRRIFORM seems fitting and appropriate in a volatile and dynamic social, economical, environmental and politcal climate as the one we find ourselves in today. An early generation of responsive and kinetic architecture has already been realised with the example of the Milwaukee Art Museum in Wisconsin.

[5[ Milwaukee Art Museum interior of the roof system closed as a sun shading device, Wisconsin, 2001.

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[6] Museo Soumaya, Mexico Ciity, 2011, http://www. sliver-photo.com/blog/2011/11/Museo-Soumaya

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A 1.2

DESIGN PRECEDENT: FREE ARCHITECTS MUSEO SOUMAYA The [5] Museo Soumaya is an interesting piece of architecture which contributes to the discussion of architecture as a discourse through its aplplications of parametric design and digital fabricative technology and the way in which it deals with cultural and social factors. With the designed intent of being an iconic structure, the museum fulfilled two objectives as set by the client - (1) to host one of the world’s largest private art collection and (2) remodel an old industrial area of Mexico City. In itself, the brief explicitly draws interest into the way architecture as a built environment impacts the social and cultural context of a city/region of a large populace. It is interesting to note how a building such as this can quickly reshape the reputation and atmosphere of what used to be a suburban/industrial backwater. Drawing many similarities to the renowned Selfridges Building in Birmingham, the museum finds itself classified as part of a new style of contemporary architecture known as ‘blobitecture’. First coined by [6] Greg Lynn in 1996, blob architecture refers to an emerging formal and geometric field of paramertric design which describes buildings which have an organic, amoeba shaped forms and hypocontinuous surface topologies. Composed of a double curvlinear surface/shell, the museum demonstrates how parametricism is able to translate subjective and experiential criteria into a physical mode of expression. It illustrates, with the aid of computational design, how architectural design can contribute and comment on discourse. However, further discussion on the viability of parametricism being considered as a style can be found in A3 - Parametric Modelling.

[7] Future Systems architects, Selfridges Building, Birmingham, 2003 , http://cciti.hostei.com/biography.html

[8] FREE architects, Museo Soumaya, Mexico City, 2011 structural diagram showing the inner columns, structural systems and core that takes the gravitational load.

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A 2.0

COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE FOR THE BETTER OR WORSE

[9] Virtual Environments 2011, sem 1, Visual Acoustics digital model Before the invention of the modern computer, designers had little opportunity to stray away from logical and sequential process of design which required the Analysis of a given problem, the Synthesis of possible solutions and finally the Evaluation of the chosen solution against objectives and performance criteria. [7] (Yehuda, 2004)The factors of time and cost have been and still remains to be two of the biggest concerns for architects. They often determine the outcome of any design solution or project in the real world. As a result, much of the emphasis has always been placed on the decisions and outcomes produced during the initial stages of the design process. However, with the new capabilities of computational design and digital technology, designers have now been able to shift and restructure the design process as to provide a more flexible model/system in dealing with the ever increasing complex nature of problems related to design. The hassle and costly task of having to redraw a line or perhaps remodel a portion of a building by hand is a thing of the past. All of the inconveniences of manual and analogous methods of design can now be resolved with a few mouse clicks and buttons on the keyboard. [8] (Kolaveric, 2003)

With all this computing power and computational technologies, how and why is it that archtiects and designers are still needed in architecture?

Why hasn’t the pen and paper become obsolete? As Yehuda explains in [7] “Architecture’s New Media”, problems are defined as what they are because they don’t contain sufficient information that can be resolved rationally and they confront the designer with uncertainties that must be resolved. Although, computers serve as superb analytical systems capable of functioning indefinitely and following instructions precisely and faultlessly, they lack the creativity, innovation and intuition humans posess which ultimately provides architecture with a sense of character. Delving into a bit of Humean philosophy, I tend to agree that creativity can only exist as a product of rational and empirical knowledge. Try visualising/picturing a totally species of animal and you will often find that what results is simply a piecing together of features of animal parts that you already have knowledge of. Whilst computation provides us with the logic and analytical means of processing and producing architecture, it is the invaluable and practical knowledge gained from human experience that breathes life to a work of architecture. Together they form what is often known as a symbiotic system of design. 12


The introduction of computational architecture has had a significant impact in the way architects are thought of in terms of their role and profession in the global and public realms. One of the many areas surrounds the concept of new conceivable forms and geometries. Although the mind is capable of imagining and conceiving more complex geometries other than that of euclidean or platonic, traditional means of representing them in space has always been problematic. With the aid of digital and computational design tools, topologies such as blobs, metaballs or klein bottles3can now be expressed, defined and described accurately with relative ease. [9] (Lynn, 1998) [10] (Geiss, 2000), [11] This is primarily made possible due to the level and degree of control we are able to have over complex geometries through the careful manipulation of control points and mathematical parameters which define them. The result of this is the ability for architects to design more efficiently by rapidly exploring and exhausting all potential design solutions so that the best candidate may be chosen for further development.

Referring to [12] Woodbury and Burrow’s Whither Design Space 2006, more focus should be placed on the research and development in computational design, particularly within the area of design space exploration in the effort of producing a more efficient means of ciphering through the innumerable variations of design solutions. As a result of the greater level of efficiency, computational architecture has also been seen to have an impact on the role architects have as a profession. The use of 3D modelling software and other CAD programs has not only provided architects with the capacity of describing and producing much more complex geometries, it has also redefined the way forms are generated. Where previously form-making was used to generate design solutions that best fit a set of parameters and constraints, architects can now engage in “form-finding� techniques. With the inexhaustible applications of computational architecture, communication then becomes paramount throughout architectural design theory and practice. It is with this case in point that architecture as a discourse becomes more relevant and appropriate than ever in the context of the 21st century where computation and digital technology has become inherently imbued into society and culture.

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A 2.1

DESIGN PRECEDENT: ART+COM KINETIC RAIN “Kinetic Rain” is an installation consists 1216 droplets made from copper coated aluminium spanning across a field of over 75 square meters. [13] The design illusrates a relatively new concept in architecture known as kinetic architecture only made possible with the aid of computational design through the emergence of scripting and programming. In this case, the waves, patterns and gestures the colelction of raindrops produces is controlled and determined by a scripted program that most probably consists of some sort of parametric definition in the way they units respond and interact with one another in an orderly manner. An interesting concept which computation has recently attempted to mimic is ’emergence’; a complex system of organicism and biomimicry. [14] It is a fine example of the applications of computational architecture in producing a piece of sculpture /architecture that is not only functionally and aesthetically appealing but also one that is performance oriented in its design in the sense that it is able to respond intelligently to its context and environmental conditions. Although it serves merely as a visual spectacle in the airport terminal, the computational systems employed can be adopted and made applicable to building environmental management systems such as sun shading devices. Another fascinating case study relevant to the realm of performance oriented architecture is the concept of “Metamorphosis”[15]. Designed by Philips, the project explores human living conditions and how we have become separated from the natural world in through the spaces we interact with on a daily basis. Using computational design, it is now possible to redefine flexible space in producing architecture that goes beyond movement to deal with the notions of growth, expansion and contraction. Metamorphosis Shimmer presents a direction within computational design and architecture towards creating intelligent architecture that can respond and quanitfy performance based criteria that transforms and adapts to the dynamic nature of environmental conditions we experience every day.

[11] - Art + Com, Kinetic Rain, 2012, Changi Airport, Singapore, performance/kinetic architecture.

[12] - Philips, Metamorphosis, Shimmer Wall, 2010, interactive and responsive wall sun shading device/wall.

[13]- Philips, Metamorphosis, Wave Daybed concept, 2010.

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16 [14]


A 2.2

DESIGN PRECEDENT: HERZOG & de MEURON SIGNAL BOX Signal Box 1994 in Basel is a building designed to contain electronic equipment and apparatus to regulate signals for trains arriving and departing the station [16].It is an excellent precedent demonstrating the use of computational architecture in a realised project. The implementation of computational design is evidently noticeable through the geometry of the building. Contained between a bridge and the street, the building’s ground floor plan has a trapezoidal configuration defined by the railroad tracks. The overall form is completed in gradation where the trapezoid terminates into a rectangle at the top as to improve visibility for its higher floors. The strips of copper cladding which make up the exterior are spcifically twisted and distorted in certain areas as to admit daylight as well as give the building its aesthetic appeal. As a whole, the Signal Box is a piece of performance oriented architecture which utilises computational design in coming up with a design solution by processing the constraints and parameters set by the architect in producing a form and sun shading system most appropriate in its given environment. Without the aid of CAD, the accuracy and precise manipulation of distortion in the louvre system as well as the manufacture/fabrication of these components would not have been possible. Unlike many conventional buildings, the Signal Box is unique in that it critically responds to its context by presenting a relationship with the adjacent railway tracks. Explained by Kai Strehlke in the AD [17], the Digital Technology Group at Herzog de Meuron use computational design explicitly as a tool or design aid to generate their established designed intent as opposed to using computation to inform their design. Just as each building design is specific to its site and context, so is the strategy and use of each computational tool. Viewed in this manner, Herzog de Meuron is a practice that embraces and addresses architecture as a discourse in their use of computational design. They do not superfluously copy, recycle and abuse a well defined algorithm, script or parametric model across their designs. With the example of the Signal Box, a specific script was produced by the design team to develop the louvres on the facade which responded to a set of performance driven criterias which considered light, views, insulation and so on.

[15] Herzog de Meuron, Signal Box, Basel, 1994, front facade.

[16] Herzog de Meuron, Signal Box, Basel, 1994, copper facade loucre system.

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18 [17]


A 3.0

PARAMETRIC MODELLING REPRESENTING CHANGE

[18] - Etienne-Louis Boullee, Bibliotheque du Roi, 1785

There has been great deal of debate and controversy recently surrounding the ideas of parametric design within the architectural discourse. However, upon closer inspection, engagement and critical discussion, the problem with the concept of parametric design or parametricism appears to be one of definition. This is hardly a surprise considering that we are still at the stage of infancy when it comes to our understanding of what parametricism truly embodies in terms of its ideas and concepts. As architects and designers, it is reasonable to say that our knowledge of parametrics is indeed shallow and until we become masters of discourse surrounding parametric design, we can only speculate its value and potential. Nevertheless, let us shed some light on what parametric architecture could possibly mean for us in this point in time. According to Daniel Davis’ definition [18], parametric design is simply a design process or a way of form finding that produces geometric models (design solutions) whose geometry is a function or result of finite set of parameters/ constraints defined by the author or user. With this being said, it can be argued that the fundamental ideas of parametrics aren’t something new at all. In fact, they are so commonplace that we have been employing the system throughout history for centuries and if not millennia.

[19]- Vladimir Tatlin, Tatlin’s Tower - The Monument to the Third International, 1917

In any design solution, whether it may be a piece of furniture or an entire house, the invisible forces of perceived constraints and parameters are always active in the form of common knowledge and conventions. However, what has made parametric design a sensation of late is its symbiotic relationship with computational and digital technologies within the past few decades. [19] (Woodybury, 2010) With the aid of computational design, parametric architecture has enabled designers to exponentially increase the number of possible design solutions through the efficient and precise nature of managing and manipulating more complex parameters and constraints. This has provided designers with the liberty of being more open or flexible within the conventions of the design process. Complex morphologies and topologies such as the blob and metaball have been envisioned a long time ago, but it is only with the introduction of computational architecture that the radical designs of Boullee’s Bibliotheque or Tatlin’s tower can be realised, although these projects were speculative for their time. Referring to Woodbury, computation has undoubtedly expanded what we refer to as the design space. 19


A 3.0

PARAMETRIC MODELLING REPRESENTING CHANGE

[20]- Schumacher, Parametricism 2008, http://www.t12online.com/node/1617

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With such a vast space for exploration containing a seemingly infinite number of solutions, it is important that we also shift our focus to the field of parametrics in devising better means and methods of search within the design space. Thus, from here on, it would be more appropriate to consider reworking the title/topic of parametric design to incorporate the ideas of computational design or computational architecture. Perhaps we should really be calling it computational parametric architecture. Having established that parametric architecture is a method of approach, a system or design process and a new way of thinking about architecture, is it also fair to suggest that it embodies or expresses a new ‘style’? Referring to Schumacher’s article for the AJ [20], should parametricism be allowed to completely replace modernist and post-modernist ideals? If you agree with Davis and Mayer then the answer is an obvious and definite no. Parametricism can’t and shouldn’t be thought of as a style. Styles are a form of lens that we put on that enables us to pass udgement or comment on something which in the case is architecture. It provides us with a means of comparison and a way to identifying with the subject. As Adam Mayer explains, classifying architecture by type of style is poor and pathetic. It really is the antithesis of architectural culture, morals and ethics especially when it only takes into account the formal and aesthetic qualities of a building. This further enforces our need to regard architecture as a discourse as it embodies so much more than the symbolism found in its physical and outward expression.

It has been proven throughout the course of history with the likes and success of movements such as the Arts and Crafts, Art Nouveau and Modernists that the idea serves as a much more powerful driver for change as opposed to mere aesthetics and the desire to produce visual spectacles. For the idea of parametrics or parametricism to evolve into a ‘true’ style, a lot more groundwork has to be established. There needs to be an element of practicability besides the designing the one-percenters of multi-million dollar theatres and convention centres. It needs to be fully exploited and understood and made into an economically, socially and culturally viable option. Although parametric designs (modelling) has its distinct advantages when it comes to its flexibility, efficiency, speed and accuracy. Hence, the notion of parametricism, when though of as a process rather than a style, is not inherently a bad thing. In fact, it is beneficial in serving as a tool for amplifying and enhancing design capabilities. However, it has yet to be really be able to quantify experiential, emotional and intuitive factors which for instance minimalism and modernism has been able to achieve. Furthermore, it is irrefutably a difficult language to learn and communicate with others.

Often it is the case where it is only the author of an algorithmic definition that possesses the knowledge and capability of manipulating parameters and properties. Until the language of scripting and knowledge of algorithmic definitions is properly understood and known to a larger community of people, parametric architecture will continue to be viewed as Taking the modernists as a case in point, when Le Corbusier an exclusive or elite branch of architecture which will remain established the “Five points of architecture” [21], he didn’t inaccessible to the masses. use them as a means to define a particular style. Instead, the pioneers of modernism such as Corb, Loos, Gropius and Mies, In a world filled with multiplicities and pluralisms such as the saw their contributions as more of an attempt or movement one we live in today, it is becoming increasingly difficult for to realise an idea that sought to cure the poor post-war living architects to come up with a definitive style of architecture. Within a global community and such a vast discourse it may conditions in Europe. perhaps be that the new style is to not have one at all and As a result, it is an injustice to talk about architecture as a style instead embrace the pluralistic and individualistic that is. There without fully understanding the broader discourse in which may be no universal solution or style. Perhaps we should cultural, political, economical and social factors are responded return to ideas of critical regionalism where universality is to be a summation of locality – think local act global. to. 21


[21]

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A 3.1

DESIGN PRECEDENT: HARRISON AND WHITE FOYN-JOHANSON HOUSE The architects Harrison and White were recently awarded by the Australian Institute of Architects Victoria for the design of this house in Northcote in 2011 [22]. Situated in a typical Victorian suburb, the Foyn-Johanson House provided the architects with a challenge to maintain and integrate some sort of relationship between the living space and natural amenities of the site as well as to take into consideration the key issue of utilising sunlight to improve both the new and existing construction of the home. With limited space, the project also makes an evident attempt to address the idea of preserving light into the small garden space where the users/owners have the opportunity to enjoy a well-lit garden throughout the day.

[22]- Harrison and White, 2011, Foyn-Johanson House, Northcote, rear sun path deduction facade.

In the context of and discussion of parametric design, the house illustrates the benefits and advantages parametric modelling in the way it is able to resolve complex design issues. In the process of generating an appropriate form for the house, the constraints and parameters were defined by the criteria found within the design brief set by the owners – a larger living space and the desire to maintain good solar access to the garden. Having established the parameters, the design process utilised the application of a parametric subtractive solar technique (Subtracto-Sun)1 that was able to generate a form defined by sun path analysis to provide maximum light penetration. The result is a design solution that is able to address and synthesise a number of site specific and performance based issues that could not have been achieved through conventional means of design. As opposed to the flamboyance and exuberance of ZHA parametric designs, the Foyn-Johanson House by Harrison and White serves as a fine example of how it can be applied to a common and broader context of institutions. Intelligent and parametric design does not necessarily have to result in blobs or hyposurfaces all the time. It also need not respond to abstract and arbitrary fields and attractors to produce good and visually interesting structures.

[23]-Harrison and White, 2011, Foyn-Johanson House, Northcote, stairwell and lighting treatment.

- White, Marcus, 2011, MUSSE, Foyn-Johanson House Northcote, http://musse.unimelb.edu.au/august-11-67/ marcus-white 1.

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A 3.2

DESIGN PRECEDENT: ZAHA HADID LONDON AQUATICS CENTRE

[24] ZHA, London Aquatics Centre, London, 2012,

The London Aquatics Centre completed in 2011 is a good representation of the parametric modeling and its ability to generate complex forms and geometries. Serving as the main venue for the swimming events of the recent Olympics in 2012, the facility houses two 50m swimming pools and a 25m diving pool. As described in the ZHA website, the overall concept of the building was inspired by the “fluid geometry of water in motion”. The single and continuous undulating roof surface encloses the pools in a unifying gesture that responds to the surrounding environment and the landscape of the river of Olympic Park. Undoubtedly, without the aid of computational design, the construction of a structure of this magnitude and scale consisting of such a complex surface topology would not have been possible. The sheer amount of components would have caused an organizational nightmare, not to mention the degree of precision that is required to fabricate the steel frames and precast panels for the roof. However, this only further accentuates parametricism as an excellent tool or design process for producing architecture.

Beyond the scope of an iconic landmark and a visually breath-taking piece of architecture, the works and designs of ZHA (Zaha Hadid Architects) has come under fire and has been heavily criticized by the media and the likes of individuals such as Mayer and Davis [23] (Mayer, 2010) [24] (Davis, 2010). Is it suffice or appropriate to claim that a building is parametrically design simply because it was conceived/generated with a parametric software? Apart from its fluid symbolism and its physical constraints with regard to site parameters, there isn’t any evidence to suggest that it inherently responds to the context as the Foyn-Johanson House has. It may very well have fulfilled or surpassed performance-based criteria in terms of its structural integrity, which may have also been parametrically determined, however, it lacks a site-specific contextual response and consideration of discourse especially when you place all of ZHA’s work side by side.

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[25] ZHA, London Aquatics Centre, London, 2012, parametric roof structure.

The repercussions of a world renowned and iconic practice such as Zaha’s is particularly evident in the attention to detail. With the London Aquatics Centre critics have accused the curvaceous roof as a design blunder that has obstructed views from many of the top rows from viewing certain events. Another example can be found in the design for the Guangzhou Opera House. Despite being awarded by the Top Architectural Record, the building shows many flaws in terms of finishes and panels which don’t quite fit together in certain areas. This illustrates how blind ambition and designing for design sake can lead to the ignorance of the small things that matter.

1. 2.

[25] ZHA, London Aquatics Centre, London, 2012, parametric roof structure diagram/model

- Mayer, Adam, 2010, “Style and the Pretense of ‘Parametric’ Architecture”, Adam Nathaniel Mayer_ Style and the Pretense of ‘Parametric’ Architecture.pdf - Davis, Daniel, 2010, Digital Morphosis, “Patrik Schumacher - Parametricism”, http://www.nzarchitecture.com/blog/index.php/2010/09/25/patrik-schumacher-parametricism/

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Algorithmic Explorations

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A 4.0

ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATION 1 DEFINING A VASE

This section of the algorithm is responsible for overlaying the geometrical surface patterns onto the lofted surface. A cull sequence is used to provided an alternating grid arrangement for the 2 different geometries.

The repeated group of defintions which is responsible for offseting and duplicating each layer of contour. Sliders are used to control the degree of rotation and offset distance.

The source node which defines the base geometry from Rhino.

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The definition created here is a good example how computation and parametric modelling can produce complex forms and geometries very quickly, efficiently and precisely. Just from the one algorithm, I was able to produce many variations of the same basic model/vase. As opposed to the conventions of having to engage in form making, the parametric model allowed me to explore the design space through formfinding or form generating processes. Extending my research from the tutorials made available on lofting and basic curve generation, I was able to develop an extension to the basic algorithm which enables patterns and geometries to be overlayed onto the surface. By then applying it to the model, I got a better insight as to how particular practices such as Gehry or ZHA might have gone about modelling their organic forms and buildings.

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A 4.1

ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATION 2 VORONOI & POPULATE 3D This particular algorithm was successful in the sense that it demonstrates how simple and basic forms can be constructed from one single point in Rhino. It introduced me to the concepts of Grasshopper’s logic and data structure. Grasshopper is a highly mathematical modelling system that synthesises and weaves basic mathematical expressions to produce complex definitions and nodes such as the Voronoi. The exercise also demonstrated the mutiplicities and many different ways of producing the same outcome. A square can be defined through a single node or a network of nodes which describe points, offsets and moves.

1. Describing a simple rectangle by manipulating the X and Y inputs about a specified plane.

2. Moving the base geometry in the Z direction x units as controlled by the number slider. The corners of the geometry is then extrapolated as points and joined to form a cube.

3. The surface is then extrude form and solid cube.

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ed from the base geomtry 4. to The geometry is then popularted with a random set of points and voronoid to produce a set of arbitrary points and surfaces.

5. The wireframe is extracted to illustrate the algorithms end result of converting/reinterprating the form produced into simple curves and points.

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A 4.2

ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATION 3 GRIDSHELL

To produce a gridshell or another similar type of form, the Grasshopper definition can become complex and chaotic. Although parametric modelling has its beneifts and advantages, it also has its shortcomings an issues. This particular algorithm is a good example of how the scripting and algorithmic language can make parametric modelling inaccessible to many. As much as it makes things easier to describe forms like this, it is also just as difficult to learn how to do it. Having an extensive definition may allow you to have a greater degree of control over the form, an error in the data structure can have serious repurcussions. It is very difficult to trace the error back to its source and then make appropriate adjustments. Nevertheless, the algorithm was successful in producing a highly sophisticated hexagonal gridshell.

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This Grasshopper definition simple overlays a hexagonal grid pattern onto the lofted surface. I had plenty of issues trying to lay a hexagonal or triangulated grid onto the surface, hence I borrowed someone elses and attached it to the definition i had created earlier. The biggest issue I had was trying to figure out how I could define a plane to allow the grid nodes to function. However, it seems that you would need to customise and generate your own algorithm to do this.

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A 5.0 + 6.0

LEARNING OUTCOMES AND OBJECTIVES RECAP CONCLUSION

LEARNING OUTCOMES

In tackling the Case for Innovation with regard to the Wyndham City Gateway design competition, it is firstly paramount that the design solution should consider the broader discourse it embodies. Rather than producing something that is solely visual and aesthetically interesting, the response should be one that is site specific and contextually oriented. With the example of Herzog de Meuron’s practice, the computational component along with any use of digital tools and technology should only aid the design process.

Architecture Design Studio Air, thus far, has served as an invaluable extension to the experience I had from Virtual Environments. Learning Grasshopper has been challenging but rewarding as it has provided me with a powerful tool to design with which I will most definitely utilise in future design projects. Prior to the studio, parametric modelling and computational architecture to me was something only to enhance the capabilities of what could be produced, however, it is now clear that the discourse around design bares a lot more responsibility as to how architecture is to be perceived and viewed by others outside of the profession.

The established design intent should be key in informing the tools, definitions and algorithms, not vice versa. Likewise, the use of parametric modelling tools, in this case Grasshopper, should serve only as an extension to the design intent. With this in mind, I would like to propose a design that contributes to the architectural discourse surrounding the concept of mobility and kineticism in the context of a project that is explicitly linked to the highway. The design solution should be performance based where its success should be made quantifiable in terms of experience.

It is something our generation of designers cannot escape from and thus must be engaged with critically. In the last 4 weeks of exposure and discussion, it is evident that parametricism and computational design will be the topic of debate in the years to come.

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A 7.0

PART A - REFERENCES TEXT - Herron, Ron, 1964, Archigram, Walking Cities, http://thetricycles101.blogspot.com.au/2012/08/extra-research-walking-city. html - CIRRIFORM by Future Cities Lab, 2011, interactive facade installation proposal, http://www.future-cities-lab.net/cirriform/ - CIRRIFORM by Future Cities Lab, 2011 conceptual and technical diagram, http://www.future-cities-lab.net/cirriform/ - Calatrava, Santiago, Milwaukee Art Museum responsive and retractable roof system, Wisconsin, 200, http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/File:Milwaukee_Art_Museum_1_(Mulad).jpg - Milwaukee Art Museum interior of the roof system closed as a sun shading device, Wisconsin, 2001, http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/File:MilwaukeeArtMuseum_Interior.jpg - Future Systems architects, Selfridges Building, Birmingham, 2003 - an example of blob architecture through its curvlinear exterior facade/cladding system, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Birmingham_Selfridges_building.jpg - FREE architects, Mueseo Soumaya, Mexico City, 2011 - during construction with its structural systems visible, http://unimelbedu-au-prod2.campuspack.net/Groups/Architecture_Design_Studio_Air_1/Course_Wiki/Group_08-09_Gwyll_and_Angela_0/Computation_Works_-_The_Building.pdf - FREE architects, Museo Soumaya, Mexico City, 2011 - structural diagram showing the inner columns, structural systems and core that takes the gravitational load, http://unimelb-edu-au-prod2.campuspack.net/Groups/Architecture_Design_Studio_Air_1/Course_Wiki/Group_08-09_Gwyll_and_Angela_0/Computation_Works_-_The_Building.pdf - Art + Com, Kinetic Rain, 2012, Changi Airport, Singapore, performance/kinetic architecture, http://www.dezeen. com/2012/07/19/kinetic-rain-artcom/ - Philips, Metamorphosis, Shimmer Wall, 2010, interactive and responsive wall sun shading device/wall, http://www.design. philips.com/sites/philipsdesign/about/design/designportfolio/design_futures/design_probes/projects/metamorphosis.page - Philips, Metamorphosis, Wave Daybed concept, 2010, http://www.design.philips.com/sites/philipsdesign/about/design/ designportfolio/design_futures/design_probes/projects/metamorphosis.page - Herzog de Meuron, Signal Box, Basel, 1994, front facade, http://www.archdaily.com/256766/flashback-signal-box-herzogde-meuron/ - Herzog de Meuron, Signal Box, Basel, 1994, copper facade loucre system, http://www.archdaily.com/256766/flashbacksignal-box-herzog-de-meuron/ - Etienne-Louis Boullee, Bibliotheque du Roi, 1785, http://www.flickr.com/photos/89776258@N00/favorites/page6/?view=lg - Vladimir Tatlin, Tatlin’s Tower - The Monument to the Third International, 1917, http://www.tumblr.com/tagged/vladimir%20 tatlin?before=19 - Harrison and White, 2011, Foyn-Johanson House, Northcote, rear sun path deduction facade, http://www.archdaily. com/77852/foyn-johanson-house-harrison-and-white/ - Harrison and White, 2011, Foyn-Johanson House, Northcote, stairwell and lighting treatment, http://www.archdaily. com/77852/foyn-johanson-house-harrison-and-white/ - Harrison and White, 2011, Foyn-Johanson House, Northcote, axonometric diagram of rear facade, http://www.archdaily. com/77852/foyn-johanson-house-harrison-and-white/

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A 7.0

PART A - REFERENCES IMAGES - Lynn, Greg (1998) “Why Tectonics is Square and Topology is Groovy”, in Fold, Bodies and Blobs: Collected Essays ed. by Greg Lynn (Bruxelles: La Lettre volée), pp. 169-182. - Geiss, Ryan, (200), “Metaballs (also known as blobs)”, http://www.geisswerks.com/ryan/BLOBS/blobs.html - Klein bottle. (2013, March 18). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 04:02, April 4, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia. org/w/index.php?title=Klein_bottle&oldid=545239236 - Emergence. (2013, March 18). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 04:38, April 4, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia. org/w/index.php?title=Emergence&oldid=545094605 - Philips, (20 May 2010), Philips Design - Metamorphosis, http://www.design.philips.com/sites/philipsdesign/about/design/ designportfolio/design_futures/design_probes/projects/metamorphosis.page - Furuto , Alison. “Flashback: Signal Box / Herzog & de Meuron” 24 Jul 2012. ArchDaily. Accessed 04 Apr 2013. <http:// www.archdaily.com/256766> - Peter Brady, Architecture Design Journal vol 83, “Computation Works - The Building of Algorithmic Thought”, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. - Schumacher, Patrick, 2010, Architectural Journal, “Parametricism - let the style wars begin”, last modified 6 May 2010, http:// www.architectsjournal.co.uk/the-critics/patrik-schumacher-on-parametricism-let-the-style-wars-begin/5217211.article - Le Corbusier. (2013, March 31). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 05:46, April 4, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia. org/w/index.php?title=Le_Corbusier&oldid=548062894. - White, Marcus, 2011, MUSSE, Foyn-Johanson House Northcote, http://musse.unimelb.edu.au/august-11-67/marcus-white - Mayer, Adam, 2010, “Style and the Pretense of ‘Parametric’ Architecture”, Adam Nathaniel Mayer_ Style and the Pretense of ‘Parametric’ Architecture.pdf - Davis, Daniel, 2010, Digital Morphosis, “Patrik Schumacher - Parametricism”, http://www.nzarchitecture.com/blog/index. php/2010/09/25/patrik-schumacher-parametricism/

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PART B EXPRESSION OF INTEREST:

DESIGN APPROACH

38


S

E

C

T

I

O

N

I

N

G

39


EYE CATCHING

NEW IDEAS

CONVERSATION

DISCOURSE

PUT IT ON THE MAP

ICONIC ASPIRATIONAL NO TUNNEL

ABSTRACT

The Design Brief

40


B 1.0

WYNDHAM CITY GATEWAY INTERROGATING THE DESIGN BRIEF

DESIGN BRIEF The design brief specifies that the architecture or design proposed should be one that is iconic, visually dynamic and be an object in which viewers can assimilate with the City of Wyndham. It is relatively simple to produce a design that will serve as a visual spectacle, hence, as a team we have decided to pursue an idea for a piece of architecture that contributes to the discourse in some way shape or form. We want to design something that generates discussion.

B

A

WYNDHAM

The looping system

B

A

WYNDHAM

Having produced several conceptual sketches, â&#x20AC;&#x153;SECTIONINGâ&#x20AC;? as a design approach naturally emergerd as it became apparent that it would serve very well as aboth a theoretical and practical design tool for the design. Much of this will be elaborated later on.

Disrupting the system

A

WYNDHAM

Just by taking the site and context as it is, we can see that the existing program consists of a looping system in which there are inputs and outputs between two points A and B. Our immediate response to this was to disrupt the system through means of inserting or wedging a landscape of sort which would signify the insertion of Wyndham into the loop. By doing so, we would essentially be placing Wyndham on the map.

B

Reprogramming the system

41


THE WHOLE

BREATHES

JOINS/SEPARATES

DISTINCT

COMPONENTS ORGANISATION

DIVIDES

FUNCTIONS

LAYERS

SCANWICH

2D PLANE

DESIGN TOOL TACTILITY

FILTERS

INSIGHT

LOGIC REVEALS

Image - Scanwich, Sandwich Sections, 12/5/13, http://scanwiches.com/

42


B 1.1

DESIGN APPROACH SECTIONING

- Any of the more or less distinct parts into which something is or may be divided or from which is made up. - To divide into smaller parts or units. - A part that is cut off or separated. - A distinct part or portion of something written. - The plane figure resulting from the cutting of a solid by a plane. - A natural subdivision of a taxonomic group. - One segment of a fruit. - A basic military unit usually having a special function. - A part of a permanent railroad way under the care of a particular crew. - A division of an orchestra composed of one class of instrucments. - The process of drawing an object imagining it to be cut through by a cutting object.

43


STRUCTURE

PROGRAM

DISCOURSE

44


B 1.2

DESIGN APPROACH SECTIONING DEFINED

[1] Le Corbusier, Ronchamp Chapel, Ronchamp 1954

Sectioning as a design approach is one that has been thoroughly utilised and explored. As a result the idea of producing a design that is authentic is very challenging. As a team, we decided to explore and investigate further into the idea and concept of sectioning. From our explorations, we developed 3 areas which we thought SECTIONING could contribute towards an innovative design through the means of a STRUCTURE, PROGRAM and DISCOURSE. The Ronchamp Cathedral (above) was a starting point which got us thinking about different ways a section could be thought of and used. First and foremost, sectioning is well known for its use as a structural system where complex geometries and forms can be easily defined. Hence, using it as a design tool, sectioning serves as a pragmatic and practical way of producing architectural structures.

Secondly, when looking at the Ronchamp building, it is evident that the space is sectioned by these walls and planes. By doing so, the space within is organised and grouped according to the functional programs. It presented an interesting idea in which systems can be manipulated. Thirdly, as a whole, it was interesting to also see how the idea of sectioning, the idea in which small units and components such as screens, walls and planes could work together and produce a building or rather an idea which contributed to the discourse. In my opinion, the Ronchamp Cathedral really challenges the norms of what a chapel/cathedral has to be, what it should look like and how it should function.

45


Kogod Courtyard Smithsonian Institution Architect:

Foster + Partners

Location:

Washington DC, USA

46 [2]


B 1.3

DESIGN APPROACH

STRUCTURE

SECTIONING AS A STRUCTURE

As a structure, sectioning is an approach that is capable of producing large and wide spanning structures such as the renowned waffle roof structure (left) of the Kogod Courtyard Smithsonian Institution by Foster & Partners. The structural integrity and its ability to resist large loads is attributed to the nature of the waffle grid as a strucutral system where the lateral bracing provided by the perpendicular intersection produces a very rigid structure.

[3] Bill Brand, New York 1980, Masstransiscope subway installation.

Not only is the technique capable of producing structurally proficient structures, it is also efficient and economical in its use of materials and construction/fabrication. As ooposed to having to describe a single and continuous surface, the technique enables large and complex forms to be broken down into smaller components. This aids designers by making the construction and fabrication process through the organisation and management of components. Furthermore, the types of structures the technique produces, possesses a unique aesthetic quality that delves into the essence of space and time. With the example of Bill Brand’s subway zoetrope “Masstransiscope”, sections are capable of capturing moments or instance of views/experiences which can be quite provocative and interesting in terms of visual expression. As the design is targeted at an audience that will be viewing the structure at speeds of up to 100km/hr, a design which uses sections would serve as an interesting experience for drivers/passengers by considering the concept of viewing a design that deals with the notion of change in a span of space and time.

1 2

- Brand, Bill,, Masstransiscope, 12/5/13, http://www.bboptics.com/masstransiscope.html - Foster and Partners, 2013, Simthsonian Instittion, 12/5/13, http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/smithsonian-institution/

47


[4]

Wall House Architect: Location:

John Hedjuk

Groningen, Netherlands

48


B 1.4

DESIGN APPROACH SECTIONING AS A STRUCTURE

PROGRAM

As a physical approach and from a technical point view, sectioning simply refers to the idea of dividing a whole object or idea into smaller units or distinct parts. However, once we expand the conceptual parameters, sectioning could also be interpreted to emobdy ideas which relate to the ways in which information can be organised, managed and comparmentalised into layers. This essentialy refers to the functional program that determine the way in which space is designed or organised in a building.

[5] Hejduk, John, Wallhouse 2, Netherlands, 1973 - diagram of functional spaces.

[6] Hejduk, John, Wallhouse 2, Netherlands, 1973 - 3D computer model of functional groups

Take thework of Hejduk for instance. WallHouse 2 is an interrogation of architecture in terms its organisation of a building’s functional program where colours and dissimilar spatial forms outline different spaces of the house. What is also really interesting is the the way in which Hejduk makes use of a 2 dimensional planar wall that both disconnects and groups functions as to comment on the nature and spatial heirarchy of a home. This is particularly relelvant to the Wyndham City Gateway proposal in that it presents the idea of a physical threshold whilst heightening the momentary condition of passing through a space in an instance - “the moment of the present”. Considering this, it would be interesting to consider designing an object that interrogates or disrupts the conventional program of a gateway.

- Hejduk, John, 1973, Wallhouse by John Hejduk, 12/5/13, http://bartlettyear1architecture.blogspot.com.au/2011/04/wall-house-by-john-hejduk.html - Hejduk, John, 1973, Wallhouse by John Hejduk, 12/5/13, http://bartlettyear1architecture.blogspot.com.au/2011/04/wall-house-by-john-hejduk.html 3 - Hejduk, John, 1973, akurkolova Wallhouse 2, 12/5/13, http://risddrawintar.wordpress.com/category/assignment-1/ 1 2

49


[7]

Political architecture (machines) Fictional/ Paper Archiecture Architect:

Lebbus Woods

50


B 1.5

DESIGN APPROACH SECTIONING AS A STRUCTURE

SOCIAL POLITCAL

As discussed in part I of the EOI, architecture is irrefutably informed, influenced and in constant dialogue with the social, political, economical and cultural agendas of society. Forming the built environment and urban fabric of cities, architecture can be thought of being a â&#x20AC;&#x153;sectionâ&#x20AC;? of our lives - the human condition.

[8] Woods, Lebbus, Political Machines, 2009 - Freespace structures serving as communication centres and personal spaces.

Although didgital technology and architecture has become increasingly popular and efficient, the virtual world is still remains subordinate to the physical one. As Lebbus Woods explains, although the primary means of communication these days may be through social media and text messaging, people still have to be physically present to claim space as their own. Hence, architecture and the design of physical space still posesses an important role to play. Thus, the intent

[9] Woods, Lebbus, Political Machines, 2009

- Hejduk, John, 1973, Wallhouse by John Hejduk, 12/5/13, http://bartlettyear1architecture.blogspot.com.au/2011/04/wall-house-by-john-hejduk.html - Hejduk, John, 1973, Wallhouse by John Hejduk, 12/5/13, http://bartlettyear1architecture.blogspot.com.au/2011/04/wall-house-by-john-hejduk.html 3 - Hejduk, John, 1973, akurkolova Wallhouse 2, 12/5/13, http://risddrawintar.wordpress.com/category/assignment-1/ 1 2

51


1.0

BANQ

52


2.0

URBAN A&O

CASE STUDY 53


Banq restaurant Architect:

Nader Tehrani - Office dA

Location:

Boston, MA, 2006-2008

54[10]


B 2.0

1.0

DESIGN PRECEDENT: OFFICE dA BANQ RESTAURANT

The Banq Restaurant by Office dA serves as an excellent example of parametric sectioning by transforming what is a relatively rectangular room into one that is vibrant and dynamic. Responding to the relationship between the functional dining spaces and the services located in the ceiling, the striated wooden panels system functions not only contributes to the interior design and fine dining experience but also acts as a canopy that conceals the equipment above. The system of sectioning here overcomes many concerns that come with fabrication. Instead of having to create moulds to produce a large monolithic surface, which would be both time consuming and costly, the contours and sections allow each of the panels to be milled by a CNC machine. [11] Office dA, 2008, Banq Restaurant, Boston - 3D model of the interioir and structural systems used to secure the timber panels.

FIELDS

SURFACE

DIVISION

Reference geometry from Rhino

Divide surface into X and Y points

BREP

CONTOUR

Brep surface

Produce contour lines from brep surface

Optional field attractors and point charges to produce variation in surface

EXTRUDE Extrude contours to produce vertical planes

55


B 2.1

DESIGN MATRIX

TECH A

TECH B

TECH C

VARI. 01

VARI. 02 VARI. 03

VARI. 04

VARI. 05 VARI. 06

VARI. 07 56


TECH D

TECH E

TECH F

TECH G

57


TECH H

TECH I

TECH J

VARI. 01

VARI. 02 VARI. 03

VARI. 04

VARI. 05 VARI. 06

VARI. 07 58


TECH K

TECH L

TECH M

59


TECH N

TECH O

TECH P

VARI. 01

VARI. 02

VARI. 03

VARI. 04

VARI. 05

VARI. 06 VARI. 07 60


B 2.1

DESIGN MATRIX CONTOURS AND SECTIONING Using the provided definition of the Banq Restaurant, I conducted a series of algorithmic explorations to produce a design matrix of various outcomes in relation to section as a technique. By playing around with the inputs which dealth with the number of divisions are made to the base geometry or the vectors in which the planes are extruded, a wide range of interesting forms and geometries began to emerge. To gain a greater degree of control within the geometries and forms that were being produced, I had added input sliders wherever possible. Of the various outcomes produced, the most interesting variations of the definition include Technique H, J and L simply because they generated the most unexpected forms. However, as a group, we still remained dissatisfied as the results still lacked any sort of great variation between them. The definition is essentially only capable of generating iterations of the same basic model of planes and contours. As this is a form/technique that has been thoroughly explored, we felt that we had to move on to developing our own definition.

The definition used to generate the models was relatively straightforward. A base geometry/surface is first referenced in Rhino where it is then divided into a grid of points where lines are interpolated and extruded to produce the lofts and contours. To produce the various variations of the base model, I added a number of controls so that vectors, points and lines could be controlled. Some of the inputs which be controlled include the direction/vector in which the contours are extruded towards, the number of grid divisions, point attractors, and scale. To further extend the degree of control of the surface geometry, I had attempted to produce a definition which defined a surface from a grid of vectors determined by point charges.

61


PROTOTYPING

WAFFLES

EXPERIME

62


ENTATION

HONEYCOMB

EXPLORATION

63


64


B 3.0

PROTOTYPE 1

WAFFLE

WAFFLE GRID

SURFACE

DIVIDE

RIBS

REFERENCE GEOMETRY FROM RHINO

DIVIDE SURFACE INTO A GRID

EXTURDE THE GRID LINES

This first prototype was fabricated based on the forms produced from the Banq Restaurant matrix. As illustrated with the parametric diagram above, an existing surface is first referenced in Rhino where it is then dividied into equal segments. A grid is overlayed on the surface and then extruded to produce the waffle structure. It is a relatively simple design to fabricate. However, it has the potential in becoming a complex object as the number of connections and strips increases. This was particularly evident in a second variation of the model we produced where the system was scaled up to a bigger size.The photograph on the left shows the connection problems we had with a bigger model. Just from producing a small scaled model such as this, we were able to demonstrate the integruty and rigidity of sectioning as a structural system. The model was self supporting fairly rigid.

Prototype 1.1 - Larger scaled

65


66


B 3.1

PROTOTYPE 2 HONEYCOMB STRUCTURE

HONEYCOMB

GRID

SCALE

LOFT

VERTICES

HEX GRID WITH ATTRACTOR

MOVE GRID UP AND SCALED SMALLER

CREATING THE SURFACE BETWEEN THE GIRD

MOVING TO RHINO TO FABRICATE

In the attempt to explore other techniques, we moved away from using contours and planar extrusions and turned to the use of grids, patterning and geometry. This second prototype is produced from a pair of hexagonal grids which are then scaled and lofted. The vertices of the cells are then extracted and connected with lines as to create a spoke and wheel-like geometry. The experiment was able to produce quite an interesting and unique pattern which we thought could be used as units to create a structure of sorts. However, there were many issues that were encountered during the process of fabrication. This particular prototype illustrates the importance of using the right material as it created a lot of conenction problems as each piece had to be manually joined together. The final outcome was a rather messy model.

67


68


B 3.2

PROTOTYPE 3 HONEYCOMB STRUCTURE

HONEYCOMB

GRID

SCALE

LINE

LOFT

HEX GRID

MOVE UP AND SCALED SMALLER

CONNECTION OF TWO GRIDS

SURFACE MADE OUT OF THE CONNECTUINS

Referring back to the concept of the filter and the one way gateway, we developed a variation of the honeycomb definition that expressed the idea of a funnel. From a single hexagonal grid, a single point attractor was used to establish a single vector in which all the vertices were extruded to. Although relatively simple, the outcome generated a very interesting geometry. The structure was successful in capturing vistas and views which defined moments or instances which the user can view from or towards. We were particularly interested in the types of apretures that were being produced from this prototype. The test was also able to replicate the process of filtration which in this case was light.

69


70

39


B 3.3

PROTOTYPE 4 HONEYCOMB STRUCTURE

GRID HEX GRID

HONEYCOMB

CENTERED SELECTING THE CENTER OF THE HEX

SCALE

RIB

MOVING THE GRID UP AND SCALING SMALLER

SLICING THE MODEL TO CREATE THE RIBS

Trying to maintain some form of contouring and sectioning, we made an effort to integrate the honeycomb definitions with layers of contouring. Utilising the same hexagonal grid, the base was copied and moved in the Z axis and scaled by a factor of 0.9. This process was repeated several times to generate an inverted pagoda like structure. This prototype produced quite a beautiful sculptural quality to it. However, it lacks the dynamism achieved with the other models. By adapting the contouring definition, we were able to fabricate quite easily a relatvely complex geometry if surfaces had to be unrolled.

71


72

39


B 3.4

PROTOTYPE 5

WAFFLE

WAFFLE GRID

SURFACE

HONEYCOMB

EXTRUDE

REFERENCE SURFACE FROM RHINO

REFERENCE SURFACE FROM RHINO

CREATING A SURFACE FROM THE GRID

Determined to produce something that was dynamic, we returned to the waffle and attempted to replicate the Manifold Wall by Matsys. Ideally, we wanted to create a number of point charges that would push and pull different groups of points on a wall to give it an interesting wavy geometry, However, we were unable to achieve this and had to simply reference a NURBS surface in Rhino and overlay a honeycomb/waffle grid into it. What was particularly fascinating with this prototype was the performance of the material and structure in its ability to flex, bend and stretch to produce interesting variations and effects.

73


74


B 3.5

PROTOTYPE 6

WAFFLE

WAFFLE GRID

SURFACE

MESH

GRID

MOVE

EXTRUDE

REFERENCE SURFACE FROM RHINO

TURNING THE SURFACE INTO A MESH

CREATING A GRID FROM THE MESH

MOVING THE GRID POINTS

EXTRUDING THE GRID

STRESS After receiving feedback from the mid-semester EOI presentation, we as a team decided to take our design approach a step further by considering stress as a driver and input for our design. Our argument here is that the crossing will be filtering stress and congestion from the city towwards the country. We want to produce something that responds kinetically. The prototype/experiment illustrates the test we conducted in the way our waffle wall and the choice of materials will react and respond to stresses of something inflatable that is plugged into the cells. The idea is that these membranes or pockets of air will inflate or deflate according the traffic flow at particular times of the day. This way the architecture is site specific and contextually responsive.

75


76

39


77

40


B 3.6

DESIGN PRECEDENT: NILS VOLKER ONE HUNDRED AND EIGHT

78

[12]


[13] Volker, Nils, One Hundred and Eight Installation

INFLATION/DEFLATION The installation One Hundred and Eight by Nils Volker is an interactive installation which consists of a number of ordinary pastic bags which can be selectively inflated or deflated by cooling fans and vaccums. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Although each plastic bag is mounted stationary the sequences of inflation and deflation create the impression of lively and moving creatures which waft slowly around like a shoal. But as soon a viewer comes close it instantly reacts by drawing back and tentatively following the movements of the observer. As long as he remains in a certain area in front of the installation it dynamically reacts to the viewers motion. As soon it does no longer detect someone close it reorganizes itself after a while and gently restarts wobbling around.â&#x20AC;?

With regard to the concept of Stress, this precedent is informative as it is able to react and respond to site specific conditions and thus comment on the way viewers our in the case of Wyndham City, commuters may interact with architecture and roads. As opposed to Kinetic Rain by Art+Com (pg. 13-14), this precedent interprets live data input, making it unique when experienced.

79


urban A&o outdoor sculpture Architect:

Washington University School of Architecture Location:

Washington

80 [14]


B 4.0

DESIGN PRECEDENT: URBAN A&O OUTDOOR PARAMETRIC SCULPTURE

2.0

This project was an innovative outdoor structure produced by the Washington university School of Architecture which focused primarily on the explorations of sectioning, divison, marking and assembly of a parametric design. It is particualrly useful as a precedent in illustrating the formal and compositional possibilities of sectioning as a design aprroach. The design is interesting as it consists of multiple layers of reticulated surfaces that differs from the conventional ribs and portal frames used in most architectural structures.

[15] Urban A&O, Outdoor Parametric Sculpture

It demonstrates the flexibility, and adaptibility of sectioning in incorporating other methods of subtraction, solid differentiation and field distortions. In my attempt to reverse engineer this particular model, a set of curves were firstly defined, distanced, scaled and then finally lofted. The distortions were controlled by a series of vectors at each curve. A possibly random set of points about the model was then used to define spheres and elipses which were then subtracted from the surface. [16] Urban A&O, Outdoor Parametric Sculpture - use of composite materials and use of varying scaled contours,

CURVES Reference geometry from Rhino

MOVE/ SCALE Manipulating and distorting curves to produce geometrical variations

SHIFT Shifting curves along the X and Y axis

SUBTRACT

LOFT Loft between the curves to produce a form

Evaluating the solid differential by cutting circles and ellipsoids from the loft

BREP/ CONTOUR Brepping and dividing surface into contours

81


1. Base re-engineerd model

2. Subtraction of spheres from base model

3. Resulting geometry

82


B 4.0

REVERSE ENGINEERING THE BLOB

2.0

Rendered digital models

The Blob The process of reverse engineering is a process of exploration whereby the technological principles of a devide, object or system is reproduced through the analysis of structure, function and operation. In this specific example, I produced a parametric definition which attempts to reproduce the Urban A&O sectioning sculpture. The process fundamentally follows an algorithm which transforms a set of curves step by step into a series of contours and sections and finally into a rib-like cylinder.

The overall exercise was useful in informing the group about the possibilies and disadvantages of pursuing sectioning as a design approach. Contouring and extrapolating sections in a complex geometry isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t as easy as it seems. There are often sequences and lists that need to be resolved for the model to actually work; such as the issue with regard to closed lofted surfaces before solid differentiation can be cpplied. However, the approach does provide flexibility in how we can treat surfaces and produce a wide range of forms. It proved to be a lot more successful as compared to Case Study 1.0.

Adding a slider wherever possible, the definition was successful in having a great degree of control over the base geometry. This enabled me to produce a great variety of variations. A number of additonal supplementary definitions were plugged into the main definition for panelling, extrusions and other experiments.

83


84


B 4.0

REVERSE ENGINEERING THE BLOB

Fabrication The process of fabricating the model was challenging as it required a certain degree of organisation in dealing with hundreds of dissimilar components. To replicate Urban A&O sculpture as closely as possible, we decided to fabricate the model using a combination of perspex and plywood as materials. To mimic the interesting undulations and intrusions of layers, a set of curves were selected and scaled down. This meant that the model consisted of alternating layers of perspex and plywood contours. Once the materials had been laser cut, we referred closely back to the digital model to attach the pieces together. The exercise was useful in allowing us to understand the fabricative process a lot better.

2.0

In the future, particularly in the production of the final model, an elaborate system of labelling parts and components must be established. Although this prototype of the blob worked fairly well, it wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t perfect in the sense that the overall form was slightly lob-sided due to our system of estimation and approximation.

Lighting The intent of using perspex as opposed to coloured acrylic was so that we could conduct ligthing experiments with the model. Inserting LED lights into model produced some very interesting effects and visuals. The photographs we took (left) illustrates the effects we expect to achieve using sectioning as a technique. The rays and beams of light that are diffused between the ribs replciate the effect of night conditions when car headlights shine out from the object or structure.

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REVERSE ENGINEERING THE BLOB

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REVERSE ENGINEERING THE BLOB

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B 5.0

TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL THE BLOB

TECHNIQUE

PROPOSAL

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As demonstrated, Sectioning is a design approach that should be strongly considered for the design of the Wyndham City Gateway project. Not only has the system proven to be a viable option in terms of its economical efficiency and practical structural system, sectioning is also capable of providing Wyndham with a unique iconic identity in the way it “plugs” and “connects” the region to the network of the city. Employing this approach would hence identify Wyndham as being a new section of the greater and wider community; a threshold (border crossing) between the city and country. Furthermore it acts as a platform of expression which allows Wyndham to contribute and physically comment on the greater social community.

The proposed technique for further development and design from here on would be inclined towards the concept of the one way gate where the architecture will symbolise the notion or the idea of an intrusion to the landscape. This would hopefully also serve as physical and visual intrusion into the viewer’s commuting routine. Incorporating the notion of creating a one way design, the architecture/form will be linear and directional. We would like to develop a landscape that will inherently respond to the natural conditions of the site and utilise site specific inputs as drivers of the final form. The explorations and prototypes resulting from of our analysis of the Urban A&O precedent will be used, refined and further developed as both a system and parametric defintion towards producing a final outcome.

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B 6.0

ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATION 1 THE BLOB

Definition - The Blob The definition above is the one developed for the reverse engineering task. The process of developing such an algorithm requires a break down of the object into its constituent parts and components. Once the object has been dissected into its respective sections, an analystical system of interrogating how they are made is required. The whole algorithm essentially operates with a central trunk of compnents which describe the overall form. Branches that diverge from the trunk are plug-ins or inputs which allow me to genereate interesting iterations from the base model. One such problem with sich a large definition is the management and organisation of the nodes. Once an error is made, it can often be very difficult to identify the exact problem within the entire definition. Grouping, labelling and naming groups of functions is the key to organising the algorithm. 96


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ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATION 2 STARLING

Starling Plug-Ins Plug-Ins are features which contain preset clusters of algorithms which allow you to complete or produce a desired outcome without having to manually script or define the definition from the most basic commands or expressions. Of the many plug-ins available, Starling was very

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B 7.0

LEARNING OUTCOMES AND OBJECTIVES RECAP The design studio for this portion of the course saw the development of work from a group effort to a team effort. As the weeks progressed it was evident that our ideas gradually converged towards a unanimous decision and an agreement upon the direction we would be taking our design. Throughout the design process, the most challenging task was to reinvent the design approach we had taken on early this semester. As parametric and computational architecture has been around and explored for at least more than a decade, systems such as sectioning, patterning and geometry have been thorougly researched and experimented with. Although computational tools enable us to shift and manipulate the conventional order of the design process, this flexibility cannot be achieved without adequate understanding and technical skills with the use of the design tools such as Grasshopper, CATIA etc. In other words, the limitations of what you can produce is only limited to your knowledge of the tools.I do not dispute the usefulness and practicality of coputational tools. As demonstrated through this studio, parametric modelling has allowed us to develop, generate and translate very loose and abstract ideas into physical models.

With regard to feedback from our presentations, it was clear that we, as a group, were playing it rather safe when it came to the development of possible design outcomes. I was particularly concerned with our ability to fabricate, manage and organise complex models and geometries within the capabilities and scope of the course. Producing something interesting and worthwhile does not necessarily have to result in a completely extreme or radical idea. Rather, it is simply about adding an extra layer of complexity to an existing system or model or perhaps finding new ways of reinterpreting them. That is the approach which we have adopted. In considering stress and the mundane function of a filter, we have decided to apply that the routine of a drive between point A and point B; to insert an anomaly or disrupt conventions that would simply cause the user to react or respond and thus become aware of their environment. The place where architecture thrives and exists.

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PART B - REFERENCES IMAGES and TEXT - Image - Scanwich, Sandwich Sections, accessed 12/5/13, http://scanwiches.com/ - Le Corbusier, Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp, 1954, accessed 9/6/13, http://artmagonline.wordpress.com/2011/07/06/on-ronchamp/ - Le Corbusier, Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp, 1954, accessed 9/6/13, http://aedesign.wordpress.com/2010/03/12/notre-dame-duhaut-haute-saone-france/ronchamp-chapel/ - Brand, Bill,, Masstransiscope, 12/5/13, http://www.bboptics.com/masstransiscope.html - Foster and Partners, 2013, Simthsonian Instittion, 12/5/13, http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/smithsonian-institution/ - Hejduk, John, 1973, Wallhouse by John Hejduk, 12/5/13, http://bartlettyear1architecture.blogspot.com.au/2011/04/wall-house-by-johnhejduk.html - Hejduk, John, 1973, akurkolova Wallhouse 2, 12/5/13, http://risddrawintar.wordpress.com/category/assignment-1/ - Woods, Lebbeus, Political Machines, 2009, accessed 5/5/13, http://lebbeuswoods.wordpress.com/2009/07/23/political-machines/ - Office dA, Banq Restaurant, Boston, 2008, accessed 20/5/13, http://www.yatzer.com/BANQ-restaurant-by-Office-dA - Office dA, Banq Restaurant, Boston, 2008, accessed 20/5/13, http://www.archdaily.com/42581/banq-office-da/ - Volker, Nils, One Hundred and Eight, 2010, accessed 28/5/13, http://www.nilsvoelker.com/content/onehundredandeight/ - Volker, Nils, One Hundred and Eight, 2010, accessed 24/5/13, http://blog.gessato.com/2010/11/19/one-hundred-and-eight-by-nils-volker/ - Urban A&O, Parametric Explorations for an Outdoor Sculpture, accessed 8/5/13, http://www.evolo.us/architecture/parametric-explorationsfor-an-outdoor-sculpture/

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PART C GATEWAY PROJECT:

FINAL MODEL

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C 1.0

FEEDBACK AND COMMENTS A NEW DIRECTION

ROUTINE

CHANGE

Based on the feedback provided from the interim presentation and submission, the panel and tutors were all rather animated and interested with the outcome of our blob explorations and prototype models. Although this decision sort of defeats the design intent of producing something authentic it was undeniable that the outcome had resulted in a design that was visually appealing. The use of different materials, particularly the alternating layers of perspex and plywood, were able to produce interesting visual and lighting effects. Some were relatively quick to relate the design back to our early interests in exploring the ideas of apertures and views likened to the Ronchamp windows. Thus from the suggestions, we decided to refine and revise our concept. With regard to our intent to disrupt the system, we have agreed to pursue the concept of a one way design. The concept here is not necessarily referring to the idea of altering the traffic system into becoming a one way highway but to produce a design that is directional. In this sense, the form will have two sides in which it can be viewed, with both having very different views/effects.

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DESIGN CONCEPT THE ONE WAY GATEWAY

To implement this one way concept, we first had to consider where and how this would relate to the site. The idea of a one way design is that it is linear and directional, hence, there ought to be a sense of progression from one end to the other. With the intent of designing something that has two very different views, the decision to locate the design on either the road inbound or outbound from the city is not advisable. By doing so, the design would not be able to engage with both sides of traffic simultaneously and that the effect of having two distinct and dramatic views would be lost. Thus, as the diagram below illustrates, the decision was made to place the one way form across, perpendicular to either highways. With the mound situated in between, the form would have to somehow overarch or cut through it.

ONE WAY

Concept sketch of locating the one way system

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C 1.2

DESIGN PRECEDENT: REM KOOLHAAS KUNSTHAL

[1] Rem Koolhaas, Kunsthal, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 1992

[2] Ground Floor

[3] 1st Floor

[4] Dike Floor

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The world renowned architect in which many consider to be “the” most influential architect of our time [1], is particularly well versed with the concept of disruption when it comes to his designs. Amongst the numerous buildings he has done such as the Casa da Musica, Seattle Library and Netherlands Embassy, the Kunsthal in Rotterdam is one of the better examples which illustrates his design intent of disrupting functional programs ina building. One of Koolhaas’ formal principles is the use of circulation, namely a ramp, to cut through multiple levels of the building. It is used to disrupt the logic and functional program of the building thus creating a problem in which he attempts to resolve and produce interesting architectural spaces. The floor plans on the left show this ramp used within the Kunsthal. To Koolhaas, the ramp serves as a path in which users may experience the entireity of the building and interior spaces. It allows people to engage and interact with the space through a visual dialogue. Often, these ramps terminate abruptly which irritates the user. In a way, this is Koolhaas’ way of contributing to the discourse. Forcing people out of their comfort zones and encouraging them to ask why the design was done this way.

ADS Water - Form-making via disruption

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Shard 1.0 and 2.0 - Digital Model

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C 2.0

ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATION SHARDS AND CRACKS Having established our intent to disrupt the site/landscape, we began looking into ways we could parametrically define shards and cracks. The first thing that came to mind was the graph of a â&#x20AC;&#x153;richter scaleâ&#x20AC;? - a curve that exponentially increases in frequency over time. The mathematical equation describing this graph is:

[y = asin ( becx)] Although Grasshopper operates based on algorithms and mathematical equations, we had quite a bit of trouble trying to define the curve. However, once successful, the equation proved to be relatively successful in producing interesting shard-like geometries as seen below. As illustrated not all the outcomes could be used.

We ended up using the curves which had lower input values as they produced simpler geometries. To produce the shards, the curves were simply extruded, scaled and lofted. From this exploration, we made a decision to prototype the model utilising the same technique for the blob. Having extruded, scaled and lofted the base curve, solids of various geometries were subtracted from the surface. For this particular prototype, we produced two variations utilising different combinations of materials. Apart from having one made from perspex and plywood, we had another made from box-card and white acrylic.

Shard/Crack algorithmic matrix

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PROTOTYPE: SHARD 1.0 SHARDS AND CRACKS

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PROTOTYPE: SHARD 1.0 SHARDS AND CRACKS

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PROTOTYPE: SHARD 1.0 SHARDS AND CRACKS

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PARAMETRIC DEFINITION CURVE/POINT DISTRIBUTION

SURFACE

CURVES

From site contour

PULL OUT CRUVES FROM THE CONTOUR

DISTRIBUTING POINTS

LOCATION OF POINTS DRIVE BY SINE EQUATION

REFERENCE GEOMETRY

PLUGIN CREATED GEOMETRY

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CURVE

GEOMETRY

extrapolated from contoured site model

referenced from shard definition

GRAPH MAPPER

EVALUATE CURVE

graph slider limited by a set range

evluates point on curve specified by the graph mapper

AMPLITUDE

DOMAIN

AMPlifies vectors and values

specifies range of input values which scale gemoetries

ORIENT DIRECTION

CULL PATTERN

orients referenced geometetires along a specified set of points

alters distribution via true and false values

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C 2.3

DEFINITION MATRIX CURVE/POINT DISTRIBUTION

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C 2.4

DEFINITION MATRIX CURVE/POINT DISTRIBUTION

Final Digital model - Left

FInal Digital model - Right

Final Digital Model - Front

Final DIgital Model - Top

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FINAL PARAMETRIC DEFINITION The shard prototypes proved to be successful in terms of how the materials complemented one another to produce a form that was visually dynamic and expressive. Seeking feedback from our tutors, Gwyll and Angela insisted that the final model should play with a range of different materials and vectors of contours. We now had to develop a definition in which we can insert these geometries and produce a final outcome.

The definition was particularly successful as it was able to produce a huge variety of different configurations and geometries. New shard model defined by other definitions could easily be interchanged. The only issue we had was tweaking the values so that the definition produced a specific outcome which we could work with. Most of the results were either far too dense or sophisticated to fabricate.

Referring back to our objectives of producing a piece of archtiecture that responds to the conditions of the site, we developed a 3D model of the site. Extracting the contours and translating them into usable curves, the shards were distributed along them to produce a spiky form. The shards were then scaled, shifted and unevenly distributed via slider inputs which manipulated domain and amplification values. The diagram of the parametric definition can be found on page 118-119.

Once the desired form was achieved, a variety of shards were nested and boolean/subtracted for that added layer of disruption. These are to be the regions of different materials. Finally, utilising the contouring definition from the blob, the entire model is contoured. Multiple copies of the definitions were used to create regions where the contours are rotated in different directions.

Shards nested and subtracted from the overal form

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C 2.5

FINAL DIGITAL MODEL ALGORITHMIC SKETCH

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Truss structural system for the shards

steel framing system inside 360 Timber pannels exterior

concrete bored footing system to hold steel Sectional diagram of structural system and components

Truss frames for indiividual contoured panel

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C 3.0

CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM TECHNICAL DRAWINGS/DIAGRAMS As explained in part B, one of the reasons supporting our argument for using sectioning as a design approach was that it can easily be adapted into structural systems. Proven by the models, experiments and prototypes, the approach was capable of describing intricate and complex geometries. Obviously, if the design proposal was chosen to be developed, the construction system would be very different from the one used for the model. As opposed to using large single sheets or panels of timber and steel, the structure would be composed of frames and trusses which will then be cladded. As illustrated in the sectional diagram (left), the frames would be anchored or piled back into the hill or ground with poured concrete as anchors.

As for the shards which protrude from the other end of the structure, these could easily be composed of steel trussed frames. The frame will then be cladded with eitehr steel or timber to achieve the desired finish. Obviously, perspex would not be a viable option for a full scaled development/project such as this. However, this can easily be replaced for heavy duty polymers and plastics.

Algorithmic sketch - digital model

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P50-PX8.3

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P47-PW7.4 P49-PW8.1 P53-PW8.3

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P50-PX8.6 P51-PW8.4 P51-PW8.2 P40-PX6.3

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P46-PX7.2

P46-PX7.1

P54-PX8.1

P48-PX7.3

P61-PW10.1

P54-PX8.1

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P58-PX9.1 P60-PX10.2 P60-PX10.4

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P43-PW7.1

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P48-PX7.5 P48-PX7.1

P57-PW9.3

P42-PX6.6

P62-PX10.1

P64-PX10.3

P37-PW6.1

P66-PX11.4

P66-PX11.3 P70-PX12.4 P66-PX11.2

P41-PX6.5

12.3 -PX P70

P40-PX6.3 P41-PX6.4 P37-PW6.2

P66-PX11.1

P45-PW7.3

P70-PX12.1

P68-PX11.1 P68-PX11.4

2.2 P70-PX1

P41-PX6.2

P45-PW7.2

P64-PX10.1

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P45-PW7.1

P64-PX10.2

P62-PX10.2 P62-PX10.3

P45-PW7.4

P60-PX10.1

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P41-PX6.1

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Exported fabrication documents for laser cutting

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FABRICATION PROCESS TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION 7

P43-PW7.5 P43-PW7.3

P43-PW7.1

P43-PW7.6 P43-PW7.2

P43-MD7.1

P43-PW7.4

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P44-PX7.4 P44-PX7.2

P44-MD6.1

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P45-MD6.2

P45-PW7.1

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P46-MD6.1

P46-PX7.2

P46-PX7.1

P46-MD6.1 P47-PW7.3

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P47-PW7.4 P47-PW7.2 P47-MD6.1

P47-MD6.2

P47-PW7.1

P48-PX7.4

P48-PX7.2

P48-MD6.1

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P48-PX7.3

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As previously experienced during the prototyping of other models such as the blob 1.0 and shard 1.0, precision is key when dealing with sectioned models. A small discrepancy in the way two panels are put together can have a knock-on effect where millimeters can turn into tens of centimeters. The major challenge for us was to develop a system that would enable to understand how each of the pieces and panels fit and relate to one another once they have been laser cut. From the digital model, we began pulling each layer out and laying them out on sheets. Whilst doing this, a reference point was established so that we knew exactly how the adjacent pieces would be glued and attached to one another. This is illustrated in the technical construction documents (left) where dotted lines serve as a guide in which pieces can be laid over one another. Altogether there were three sets of documents required for the fabrication and construciton of the final model.

P49-PW8.1 P49-PW8.1

P49-MD8.1

P49-PW8.1

P49-MD8.2 P50-PX8.5

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1. Set of different material sheets with labelled pieces.

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2. Technical construction documents serving as an instruction manual for assembly.

P50-PX8.6 P50-PX8.3 P50-PX8.1

P50-PX8.4

P50-PX8.2

P50-MD8.1

P50-MD8.1 P51-PW8.3

P51-PW8.4 P51-PW8.1 P51-MD8.1

P51-PW8.2

P51-MD8.2 P52-PX8.3

P52-PX8.4

P52-PX8.1 P52-PX8.2

P52-MD8.1

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3. Second set of construction documents for the nested shards of objects of different materials.

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P52-MD8.2 P53-PW8.3

P53-PW8.4

P53-PW8.5

P53-PW8.1 P53-MD8.1

P53-PW8.2

P53-MD8.1 P54-PX8.1 P54-PX8.1

P54-PX8.1 P54-MD8.1

P54-PX8.1

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P54-MD8.1

Technical construction documents - sheets 7/9

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FABRICATION PROCESS CONSTRUCTION

THE PROCESS The process of fabrication was a long and daunting phase of the design project. In total, the team spent a total of nearly forty hours in the design workshop putting the pieces together. Despite having the required documents and various labelling systems, the shear number of pieces involved made it very challenging to assemble. Utilising the A0 instructional sheets that were printed, the pieces and panels were laid one and glued one by one. We were quick to learn that absolute precision could not be achieved simply because this was a manual process which would inevitably result in human error. At times, sections were attached in the wrong sequence or pieces would go missing. There were instances where several sheets of MDF, perspex, acrylic and plywood had to be recut. Nevertheless, the final outcome was relatively a success.

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FINAL OUTCOME PHYSICAL MODEL

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FINAL PHYSICAL MODEL A LANDSCAPE OF SHARDS

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FINAL PHYSICAL MODEL A LANDSCAPE OF SHARDS

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FINAL PHYSICAL MODEL A LANDSCAPE OF SHARDS

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C 4.0

FINAL PHYSICAL MODEL A LANDSCAPE OF SHARDS

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FINAL PHYSICAL MODEL A LANDSCAPE OF SHARDS

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LEARNING OUTCOMES AND OBJECTIVES RECAP

CONCLUSION After an entire semesterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s worth of work, the final outcome in producing a design proposal for a gateway for the City of Wyndham was relatively succesful. The final design was able to meet the objectives and requirements of being an iconic structure as well as serve as a marker or landmark which can be associated to the City of Wyndham through the concept of a section. However, whether or not it succeeded in contributing to the discourse cannot be measured as this is simply a hypothetical piece of paper architecture. The outcomes of such a design can only be speculated. However, in terms of fabrication and construction of the physical model, the outcome was a great success considering the complexity involved in the craft.

From the ideas of flitering to the concept of a one way gate, the intent had generally evolved several times over the period of twelve weeks. Much of this was due to the many issues we encountered with what we could actually physically replicate. There was always a constant conflict between the interests of developing something that was buildable and something that was radical and sophisticated. In the end, we were pushed to the limits and somewhat forced to compromise with our design to produce something within a limited amount of time. We often found ourselves struggliing to translate our intent into Grasshopper. At times, it was often faster to do things manually in Rhinoceros.

The final presentation to the panel of judges raised several interesting points for discussion. Although our design intent was not disputed, there were obviously some flaws with regard to the way in which the final form communicated the concept we were arguing for. One of the points raised was that although our intent was to produce a piece of architecture that disrupted and challenged conventional routies and norms, the proposed design is a static form that would eventually appear or become a norm having been seen or viewed over time.

Over the course of the semester of using a variety of computational methods for design. The one thing I believe I have learnt is that these design tools are excellent in producing and describing complex geometries, forms and topologies. They are also unique in the sense that they are able to provide a platform for which we can begin to incorporate performance and qualitative criteria into a design. However, there are many flaws which have ultimately grounded parametric systems. Despite having the ability to describe/define these vast systems to produce geometry, these tools overlook the small details which ultimately determine whether the design can be built or not. Hence, it is my belief why parametricism along with other computational systems have not been fully adopted and endorsed by practicing architects. At the moment, these tools remain as a generative tool for ideas and concepts.

In our defence and as part of the discussion surrounding the use of computational design, I would argue that we had actually considered this point and devised strategies to respond to this, however, it was often our lack of knowledge and skill with the use of the parametric tools that prevented us from realising our ideas. Once again, although the whole notion of parametricism supports and enforces the idea of innovation and creativity, I would like to reiterate that the real limitation lies in the technical knowledge in using these tools as opposed to what these tools can do for you.

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Design Studio Air - Tommy Heng