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Bauhaus Kolleg XII (2010/2011)

East Tilbury England

topic: A Catalyst for the Region? project participants: Susana S. Saraiva


HISTORY

When starting researching for this topic it seemed not necessary to look for the reasons for Bata UK choice: The company wanted to conquer the British market being the only remaining question why the selection of the particular site of East Tilbury for its main satellite city and how did it relate to its surroundings. However, during the field research we realized that there were technicalities of the Bata company that we were not aware before, namely its organization and strategy to reach foreign markets. In 1931, in order to survive the Great Depression, and the protective policies of European countries applying taxes to foreign companies the company establishes factories abroad, together with housing estates for employees in the style of Zlín architecture creating a coherent image recognisable as Bata. In Britain’s case, Bata starts selling in that country around 1920s and a trading office is established in London already in 1924. In 1933 Bata East Tilbury starts producing and until 1965 several others production plants are established in Britain to support East Tilbury production. From 1960s onward Trade Union becomes stronger and Bata company starts its withdrawal from Britain selling part of the estate in 1970; subcontracting and demolishing several communal facilities in the estate around 1975. In 1980 Bata sells the housing estate and the shops to Sears and finally closes in 2006.


PEAK

2004

2006 FACTORY IS DISPOSED PRODUCTION CONTINUES IN RENTED SPACE

PRODUCTION IN RENTED SPACE STOPS

BATA COMPANY CLOSES

BATA BEGANS TO CONTRAC DEMOLISHION OF FARM, SCHOOL, T.COLLEGE, SWIMING POOL

BATA SELLS HOUSIGN ESTATE BATA SELLS RETAIL SHOPS

PART OF BATA PROPERTY IS SOLD TO FAIRVIEW PRIVATE DEVELOPERS

MANUFACTURE BEGANS TO SHIFT OVERSEAS

BATA CUMNOCK, SCOTLAND STARTS PRODUCING FOOTWEAR

BATA ET = 3000 WORKERS BRITISH BATA = 5000 WORKERS

BATA MARYPORT, CUMBRIA STARTS PRODUCING RUBBER FOOTWEAR

BATA DUDLEY, WEST MIDLANDS STARTS PRODUCING HEAVY INDUSTRIAL LEATHER BOOTS AND FOOTBALL BOOTS

BATA EAST TILBURY STARTS PRODUCING RUBBER AND LEATHER FOOTWEAR

BATA BUYS SITE IN EAST TILBURY FOR A BATA CITY

BATA SHOE AND LEATHER CO.:LONDON TRADING OFFICE

BATA STARTS SELLING IN THE BRITISH MARKET

A CATALYST FOR THE REGION - EAST TILBURY SUSANA SOARES SARAIVA BAUHAUS KOLLEG XII (2010|2011) URBAN FOOTPRINTS: BATA CITIES - MID-TERM PRESENTATION

1997 1990 1980

1985 1975 1970 1960

1965 1955 1949 1940

1945 1933 1931 1924 1920


WHY BRITAIN?

In the beginning of 1930s the Bata shoe company rules the European shoe market. It looks only logical its move to conquer the UK market. Britain however, had a well-established shoe industry in the north, based on the British tradition, of customize and quality footwear. British Bata would shake this industry with its cheap prices of canvas footwear sold on groovy shops with complete foot care services. In the Bata organization each subsidiary company had a great degree of independence, following the guidelines of the mother company but with specific goals and market targets. British Bata was responsible for: Far East and West Indies market, inclusive survey for new places for establishing new production plants; Search for new raw materials sources in Africa, USA and Canada; Training workers and managers to supervise actions on those areas like Sierra Leone, Malaysia, USA and Canada; Around 1960s, the Trading office in London is closed and moved to Canada, along with the company headquarters, British Bata planning department is then responsible for designing plans and buildings especially for Bata India. So, unlike our first understanding of the company, East Tilbury was not just a Bata satellite city, producing shoes for the British Market according to the Headquarters commands, but an independent company with its own market targets, goals, suppliers, etc…

It was also pretty much export oriented – 40% of its total production was sent to mainly Far East and West Indies. Confirming this hypothesis is the fact that, when looking for Bata advertisements in UK fashion magazines from 1935 to 1975, we can hardly find anything. The company didn’t focused on promoting its image to the British public. It relied on governmental contracts and exports for its sustainability. So, why Britain? Because of the British Colonies potential, not only in terms of market sells, but also in the opportunity of establishing production plants in places with less protective polices against foreign companies, less demanding bureaucratic procedures, less workers protection, less Trade Unionism (even if that was not always the case, like in India, it still compensated in terms of workers rights, to set up on those countries). And also because of the enormous availability of raw materials at very competitive prices. As production plants start functioning in those countries the company starts exporting mainly to Europe, North America and Canada. As competition grows and Bata starts loosing its governmental contracts (great amount coming from the war), the company’s former leadership is taken over. Today however one of Bata’s main markets is India, which proofs that Britain, was probably a very well calculated bet.


WHY BRITAIN?

MA T

E

RT PO IM

RA W

R I A L RUBB ER

I

ON TI UC OD PR

MP O

RT

RAW

H EAT MATERIAL - L

ORT EXP RUBBER + O L THE IA R R E T MA

S

OF

L TA TO

ER EATH - L L A RI TE MA

IM PO RT

% 40

RA W

ER

U OD PR

CT IO N

FAR EAST

RT PO IM

W RA

WEST INDIES

EXPORT 4 0% OF TO TA L

DISTRIBUTION CENTERS EXPORTS - MAIN IMPORTS BRITISH COLONIES

BAUHAUS KOLLEG XII (2010|2011) URBAN FOOTPRINTS: BATA CITIES - MID-TERM PRESENTATION

A CATALYST FOR THE REGION - EAST TILBURY SUSANA SOARES SARAIVA


BRITISH BATA British Bata followed the model established by the mother company in ZlĂ­n including production system, architecture, planning, communication, social and professional ethics. For that reason the company tend to prefer unskilled or semi-skilled people to be trained from scratch, moulded into the Bata way. Even those hired for higher positions, like management, had to complete the Bata training that included experience in all departments of the production plants, from cleaning, to production, sales and management. In British case, as the company decides to settle a production plant in this country around 1930-31, it complied not only with the traditional planning rules, but also the vertical control organization of the company. The new settlement was located slightly near the London Trading office, to the East, along side the River Thames, next to Tilbury docks: the main export/import facility of London and Britain. The central location, near the capital city and the main export facility allowed quick connections both out as to the inner land where there were the more proper places to establish other Bata companies aimed to support East Tilbury:

There was: a leather factory in Lancashire; a Mill in Leicester (textiles); production plant at Maryport, established in 1940, specialized in rubber footwear; production plant at Dudley, West Midlands in 1949, specialized in heavy industrial leather footwear and football boots; production plant at Cumnock established in 1965, we believe specialized in canvas footwear (?). All the production of these facilities would be transported to Bata East Tilbury thru the company’s lorries and then distributed to the British market also by lorry or exported by boat, thru Tilbury docks. Apparently, the train trasportation was never heavily used by Bata, despite its close location to East Tilbury. One of the reasons might be the problems existing between the rail company and Bata from the beginning of the settlement. Bata had to have long negotiations with the rail company to be allowed to build a station on site. It was only built in the end of 1930s, paid by Bata on location chosen by the rail company and not on site desired by Bata.


DUDLEY 1949

CUMNOCK 1964

MARYPORT 1940

MILL FAR EAST

TANERY 300 SHOPS 60%

TRADING OFFICE 1935-1960S

EAST TILBURY 1933-2006

40%

WEST INDIES

BAUHAUS KOLLEG XII (2010|2011) URBAN FOOTPRINTS: BATA CITIES - MID-TERM PRESENTATION

A CATALYST FOR THE REGION - EAST TILBURY SUSANA SOARES SARAIVA


HISTORICAL REASONS FOR ALLOCATION

Following the general common Bata rules, the settlement is located near a big economic centre (and Bata trading office), but far enough to not be influenced by its urbanity. Bata wanted to be located in a region that had no shoe tradition so that the potential employees would not come with “professional habits”; slightly rural in character with cheap land and not influenced by trade unionism. That way people were more likely to comply with Bata rules, and subject themselves to Batas working conditions. The site chosen, in the East of London, was suffering for de-industrialization for some years with a high rate of unemployment being Tilbury docks the main employer of the region. Even if the payments in the docks were high, there was no security in the job, because the workers were hired by the day, and you never knew if you would have a job tomorrow. Bata recruited workers mainly from the surrounding villages or towns.

The site was a potato farm, crossed by a main road that connected an old military fort located on the Riverside (Coalhouse fort) to the rail line and up North to Grays, and London to the West and Southend to the East. There was also a road connecting to Tilbury docks. The land was mainly Marshfield’s with gravel in the sublevel considered good both for laying out the foundations of buildings and to be used as construction material. On the North side the farm was crossed by LondonSouthend rail line. Even if, that track existed since 1850 this area remained quite rural in character (around 90%), which was considered a plus by Tomas Bata. If we analyse the growth of London, and the surrounding area of East Tilbury, we realize that the settlement still remains quite detached from its surroundings, being the exception the neighbourhoods dating from 1970s. The old urban centres continue their modest development, unaware of Bata existence, and some others appear more related to the previous than to Bata settlement.


GREATER LONDON AND EAST THAMES - 2010

GREATER LONDON AND EAST THAMES - 1979

GREATER LONDON AND EAST THAMES - 1940

ROMFORD

CORRINGHAM

LONDON

ORSETT

STANFORD-LE-HOPE

CHAFFORD HUNDRED

Farmer Wilson farm: - marshfields facilitate construction - gravel below can be extracted and used for construction

GRAYS

EAST TILBURY

RIVER THAMES TILBURY

MAIN URBAN SETTLEMENTS

BATA SETTLEMENT

GRAVESEND

THURROCK COUNCIL

RAIL LINE LONDON-SOUTHEND 1850

THURROCK 1935 BAUHAUS KOLLEG XII (2010|2011) URBAN FOOTPRINTS: BATA CITIES - MID-TERM PRESENTATION

MAIN ROADS

A CATALYST FOR THE REGION - EAST TILBURY SUSANA SOARES SARAIVA


CONDITIONS OF THE REGION - URBAN SETTLEMENTS

In 1931, Thurrock council was considered by many “the wasteland of London”, preferential place for settling of industrial activity connected to the River Thames, it was clearly in decay by that time. The main industry in the area was cement (the extraction of chalk and clay led to the existence of a lot of quarries in the area), brick, soap, margarine and oil refineries in west Thurrock, because oil, could not pass Coalhouse fort area, for the safety of London. However, as said before, all these industries were dying around the time Bata announced the intention of coming to the area. Obviously the news was received with appraisal. The council was suffering by severe unemployment rates. The area was mainly rural 90%, mainly potato culture, sold in London on Convent Garden and transported by train. There was clear lack of transport infrastructures and facilities besides the rail and docks mainly existing to serve industry and London. The main settlements were Tilbury town, Grays, Orset, Stanford-le-Hope. The market was in Romford were people from the region would go once a week, and to Gravesend for leisure on the weekends.

As Bata settles in, it catches mainly people from this surrounding settlements, plus Chadwell and some from the other side of the River – Gravesend – who would come by ferry. They would cycle in, walk and use Bata bus service mainly. Besides all Bata promises, the settlement never became more than a small village, hosting less than 1/4 of its workers. Most workers remained in their hometown, commuting everyday to East Tilbury. As reported by a former manager, arriving at East Tilbury train station was impressive: the intense smell of rubber, and the movement of cars and people concentrated in that small place in the middle of green fields was astonishing. The company didn’t seem to have any suppliers in the region besides shoebox making. The facilities on site were enough for residents but didn’t attracted outsiders accept, maybe on weekends, for special events in the ballroom. The surrounding areas continue to develop, independent from the Bata settlement. As it starts its decline, there is no support urban structure to hold it, except, the old residents and the Designation of English Heritage.


CONDITIONS OF THE REGION - URBAN SETTLEMENTS

THURROCK 1935

THURROCK 2010

ROMFORD

BASILDON

NORTH OCKEDON

CORRINGHAM

ORSETT

CORRINGHAM HORNDON HILL

SOUTH OCKEDON STANFORD-LE-HOPE

STANFORD-LE-HOPE

ORSETT NORTH STIFFORD

CHAFFORD HUNDRED

CHAFFORD HUNDRED

AVELEY EAST TILBURY

GRAYS

SOUTH STIFFORD PURFLEET

GRAYS

CHADWELL ST.MARY

LINFORD EAST TILBURY

WEST THURROCK TILBURY

TILBURY

GRAVESEND

GRAVESEND

BAUHAUS KOLLEG XII (2010|2011) URBAN FOOTPRINTS: BATA CITIES - MID-TERM PRESENTATION

A CATALYST FOR THE REGION - EAST TILBURY SUSANA SOARES SARAIVA


CONDITIONS THE- TRANSPORT REGION - TRANSPORT CONDITIONS OF THEOF REGION

THURROCK 2010 WARLEY ST

M25

3 A1

RD

ON ND LO

THE MAN ORWAY

K

ST.CHADS TA

RD

RD

CAL CU T

RD

EAST TILBURY

DO C

RAINH A

RD

EAST TILBURY ST.CHADS

DO CK

A1 30 6

A128

RD

CAL CUT TA

NORTH ROAD

ON ND LO

RO AD

RD NDON

OAD OD R

RDS

THE MAN ORWAY

OCKE

TWO BREN

M NHA

NE W

A128

NORTH ROAD

A1 30 6

RD NDON

ROAD OOD

RDS

AD

RAI

M NHA

RO

TW BREN

RAI

NE W

OCKE

A127

M RD

ST MA RYS L N RAINH A

LN

M RD

ST MA RYS

WARLEY ST

THURROCK 1935

A206 GRAVESEND

BAUHAUS KOLLEG XII (2010|2011) URBAN FOOTPRINTS: BATA CITIES - MID-TERM PRESENTATION

GRAVESEND

A CATALYST FOR THE REGION - EAST TILBURY SUSANA SOARES SARAIVA


CONDITIONS OF THE REGION Today, Thurrock Council presents, ironically many characteristics of 1930: suffering severely from the effects of de-industrialization, lack of infrastructures, lack of facilities, high rate of unemployment, lack of life quality standards. The area remains a mix of countryside with industrial landscape. Tilbury docks are still operating as major receiver of imports to the country – goods and people. But a new container port is being planned East of East Tilbury that will certainly produce some changes in the character of the region. There is also a lot of pressure to extend the growth of London to this area, but maybe because of its past history, Thurrock people tend to mistrust London’s intentions. Curiously enough, they tend to refuse any kind of development for the region. The Bata settlement, remains, a small village in the middle of green fields, enclosed by the rail line. Only residents go to that area.


CONDITIONS OF THE REGION

BULPHAN

GREAT LONDON

NORTH OCKENDON

LITLE MALGRAVES

ON ND LO

ND HE UT O -S

M2

5

FORBING

CORRINGHAM

HORNDONON-HTE-HILL

STANFORD-LE-HOPE CORYTON ORSETT SOUTH OCKENDON

LONDON GATEWAY

A1 3

SHELL HAVEN

NORTH STIFFORD arena essex raceway

CHAFFORD HUNDRED

LINFORD

lakeside WEST THURROCK

EAST TILBURY

CHADWELL ST.MARY

BADGERS DENE

SOUTH STIFFORD

PURFLEET

WEST TILBURY

TILBURY

EU RO ST A STONE

EAST TILBURY

RIVE

GRAYS

BATA SETTLEMENT

R TH AMES

AVERLY

R

GREENHITHE SWANSCOMBE

NORTHFLEET

RIVER THAMES

GRAVESEND

THURROCK COUNCIL

RIVER THAMES

MAIN ACCESS ROADS

BATA SETTLEMENT

SECONDARY ACCESS ROADS

SURROUNDING URBAN AREAS

RAIL LINE

RAIL LINE STATION

EUROSTAR

EUROSTAR STATION

BAUHAUS KOLLEG XII (2010|2011) URBAN FOOTPRINTS: BATA CITIES - MID-TERM PRESENTATION

A CATALYST FOR THE REGION - EAST TILBURY SUSANA SOARES SARAIVA


CONDITIONS OF THE REGION - COMMERCIAL CENTRES CONDITIONS OF THE REGION - COMERCIAL CENTRES

THURROCK 2010

THURROCK 1935

BASILDON

ROMFORD

NORTH OCKEDON

CORRINGHAM

ORSETT

STANFORD-LE-HOPE

STANFORD-LE-HOPE

ORSETT NORTH STIFFORD CHAFFORD HUNDRED

AVELEY

CHAFFORD HUNDRED

SOUTH STIFFORD PURFLEET

GRAYS EAST TILBURY

GRAYS

CHADWELL ST.MARY

LINFORD EAST TILBURY

WEST THURROCK TILBURY

TILBURY

SHOPPING

MARKET - ONCE WEEK BATA SETTLEMENT

CORRINGHAM HORNDON HILL

SOUTH OCKEDON

GRAVESEND

BAUHAUS KOLLEG XII (2010|2011) URBAN FOOTPRINTS: BATA CITIES - MID-TERM PRESENTATION

BATA SETTLEMENT

GRAVESEND

A CATALYST FOR THE REGION - EAST TILBURY SUSANA SOARES SARAIVA


CONDITIONS OF THE REGION - MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE

CONDITIONS OF THE REGION - MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE

THURROCK 1935

THURROCK 2010

ROMFORD

MAR KET ONC

COMMUT

BASILDON

E A WEE K

D HEN

T SOU CORRINGHAM

ING TO LONDON ORSETT

CO MM

UT IN G

STANFORD-LE-HOPE

NORTH OCKEDON

TO

LO

ND

CHAFFORD HUNDRED

WORK

TILBURY

MARKET - ONCE WEEK LEISURE - WEEKENDS

NORTH STIFFORD

SOUTH STIFFORD PURFLEET

EAST TILBURY

STANFORD-LE-HOPE

ORSETT

ON AVELEY

GRAYS

CORRINGHAM HORNDON HILL

SOUTH OCKEDON

CHAFFORD HUNDRED

GRAYS

CHADWELL ST.MARY

LINFORD EAST TILBURY

WEST THURROCK

WORK

TILBURY

SHOPPING GRAVESEND

LEISURE - WEEKENDS

GRAVESEND

BATA SETTLEMENT

BAUHAUS KOLLEG XII (2010|2011) URBAN FOOTPRINTS: BATA CITIES - MID-TERM PRESENTATION

A CATALYST FOR THE REGION - EAST TILBURY SUSANA SOARES SARAIVA


PORTRAIT THE REGION PORTRAIT OF THEOF REGION

PITSEA BENFLEET

LEIGH-ON-SEA

BARKING DAGENHAM DOCK FENCHURCH STREET

WEST HAM

RAINHAM STANFORD-LE-HOPE

LIMEHOUSE

PURFLEET PORTRAIT OF THE REGION

EAST TILBURY

GRAYS

BAUHAUS KOLLEG XII (2010|2011) URBAN FOOTPRINTS: BATA CITIES - MID-TERM PRESENTATION

TILBURY

A CATALYST FOR THE REGION - EAST TILBURY SUSANA SOARES SARAIVA


THE END

BAUHAUS KOLLEG XII (2010|2011) URBAN FOOTPRINTS: BATA CITIES - MID-TERM PRESENTATION

A CATALYST FOR THE REGION - EAST TILBURY SUSANA SOARES SARAIVA


Bauhaus Kolleg XII - Mid Term Presentation