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Viking

Volume XI Issue 2

November, 2017

Gray Area

Some people are influenced by their community, while others are the influence. Ex-NFL player and Palo Alto Resident Henry Ford is one of them.

p. 36


Viking Magazine

would like to thank our sponsors

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Line Up Zooms

4

Letter from Editor/Editorial

11

Intro Package Get to know some fall sports athletes in the pop

12

Viral Stars

16

Steph’s New Contract

18

Failed College Stars A look at how some dominant college athletes

21

... And the Crowd Roared Anyway

24

Atheletes and Politics

30

Trading Places This summer was a record breaking off season for

32

Parental Pressure

34

Grey Area

36

Viking Tries: Beach Volleyball

42

Preseason Training

45

Final Word

47

Hit, Tackle, Shoot

The staff view on the recent NCAA basketball scandal.

culture grid, 10 questions and Inside the Mind.

An inside look at the new sensation of viral athletes, and heir rise to fame. Viking takes a look at famous basketball star Steph Curry’s ridiculous new contract.

faired after graduation.

Viking Magazine takes a look into the athletic program at the California School for the Deaf.

As athletes continue to kneel, our columnists will support them throughout this contreversey.

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45

47

the NBA as seven All-Stars were traded.

Viking examines how involved parents should be in their kids’ sports. Viking dicusses Ex-NFL player and Palo Alto resident Henry Ford’s life long struggle with racism.

Viking heads out to the sand court and try increasingly popular ariaion of beach volleyball. How some Paly athletic teams prepare for their seasons through strict CCS and school rules. Why is the NFL restricting the use of marijuana when so many other organizations are legalizing it.

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Hit

Chelsea Fan (‘18) spikes the ball to earn the point vs. Gunn. Paly won in straight sets 25-9, 25-9, 25-15. Photo by David Hickey


Tackle

Viking defenders bring down the Los Gatos ball carrier in the backfield. Paly lost 31-8. Photo by David Hickey


Shoot

Matthew Nemeth (‘18) evades a Titan defender to shoot. The Vikings fell 8-4. Photo by David Hickey


Viking Editors-in-Chief Sabrina Hall Bryan Look Executive Senior Staff Writer Will Strauch Multimedia Editors Wes Walters Matan Ziv Features Editors Lauren Daniel Sabrina Hall

Volume XI, Issue 2 October 2017

Staff Writers Eric Aboytes Zach Baumgarten Nathan Ellisen Maria Fletcher Ellie Jeffries Josh Kasevich Mallory Kuppe Zach Phillips Nathan Seto Jason Shorin Cole Sotnick Ryan Strathearn Staff Adviser Brian Wilson

Design Editor Yue Shi

Photo Editor David Hickey Copy Editor Stan de Martel News Editors Max Jung-Goldberg Hayley Levine Head Columnists Wes Walters Matan Ziv Business Manager Lauren Daniel

Viking Magazine Palo Alto High School 50 Embarcadero Road Palo Alto, CA 94301 650-329-3837 Email contact: vikingeds@gmail.com Advertising and Sponsorship Contact: vikingads@gmail.com Viking, a sports magazine published by the students in Palo Alto High School’s Advanced Magazine Journalism class, is an open forum for student expression and the discussion of issues of concern to its readership. The Viking is distributed to its readers and the student body at no cost. The staff welcomes letters to the editor, but reserves the right to edit all submissions for length, grammar, potential libel, invasion of privacy and obscenity. Advertising in Viking The staff publishes advertisements with signed contracts providing they are not deemed by the staff inappropriate for the magazine’s audience. For more information about advertising with The Viking, please contact the The Viking by email at vikingeds@gmail.com Printing Services 2,500 copies of The Viking are printed, six times a year by Fricke-Parks Press in Fremont, Calif. Logo Font Courtesy of Måns Grebäck All photos taken from Creative Commons unless noted

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From the editors Dear readers,

ARE. YOU. READY. FOR. The second issue of Viking? As fall sports wind down and temperatures start to drop, we here at Viking are gearing up for winter. Congratulations to all you seniors who submitted early college applications, and good luck to those of you still applying. For the rest of you Paly students, keep up the good work! Regardless of what you have going on, make sure to take advantage of the cold, rainy days and curl up with a cup of cocoa and the latest issue of Viking.

Lucky for you, the Viking stories this issue will be worth curling up for. Our cover story, “Gray Area” is written by Yue Shi (‘19), Maria Fletcher (‘19), Ryan Strathearn (‘19), and Nathan Seto (‘19). It includes an exclusive interview with Henry Ford, who was one of the first black players to play in the NFL and lives with his wife in Palo Alto. Our second feature this issue, “... And The Crowd Roared Anyway” by Lauren Daniel (‘19), Will Strauch (‘18), Hayley Levine (‘18), Mallory Kuppe (‘19) delve into the athletic department at the Cal-

ifornia School for the Deaf in Fremont and how being deaf affects the athletic experience. Another stand-out piece this issue is “Athletes in Politics” by Matan Ziv (‘18) and Wes Walters (‘19), who wrote a column decribing their opinion on professional athletes’ role in politics specifically regarding the issue of national anthem protests in the NFL and out spoken athletes like Steph Curry. Stay healthy and keep up the effort Paly, finals and second semester are just around the corner! We hope you enjoy

Sko Vikes! Bryan Look Sabrina Hall

Staff view

On the College Basketball Scandal

On October 3, the entire world of college basketball was turned upside down. An undercover FBI investigation presented findings that uncovered overwhelming levels of NCAA violations that will result in major legal consequences for employees of major college programs. The investigation brings out a multitude of violations, but the focal point is that four major programs provided illegal incentivization including money to recruit high school athletes to attend their university and sign with that school’s apparel company once turned pro. One thing is certain, no matter the amount of scandals and punishments, corruption will always prevail under the current NCAA system. Time after time, we continue to see scandals reappear, and the NCAA does little to make an actual change. At this point, it is the nature of the game. In the end, although the many coaches and shoe company associates may end up with the legal consequences, the NCAA is the one responsible. The NCAA continues to base its system on the theory of amateurism, which simply is not a logical or fair system for a multi billion dollar industry. The NCAA argues that basketball players are student athletes, and that colle-

giate universities are preparing their athletes for a life beyond athletics. This is a great system for Division II or Division III collegiate basketball, since the players are preparing for a life beyond basketball. However, this is not the case for Division I men’s basketball. Firstly, in Division I basketball a large portion of the players are not staying in school long enough to achieve a degree and are leaving early to enter the NBA. Secondly, the universities themselves are not giving their athletes an education equivalent to that of the rest of the students. Former Stanford football player and Seahawks cornerback, Richard Sherman summarized the education inequalities between athletes and regular students “No, I don’t think college athletes are given enough time to really take advantage of the free education that they’re given, and it’s frustrating because a lot of people get upset with student-athletes and say they’re not focused on school and they’re not taking advantage of the opportunity they’re given. ” Sherman said. What’s even more concerning is that there have been many instances where universities have created “paper classes” specifically for athletes, that essentially incentivize athletes to completely avoid

studying while receive passing grades. The general consensus is that the NCAA system is broken. The most logical way is to let college basketball players earn the money that they are worth. Why not make the underground market public and create a legitimate and fair system for playing players. The argument that paying college players will ruin the legitimacy of the game is simply false, since for a substantial, although undisclosed, period of time, college basketball players have been paid under the table and no one even noticed or complained. If a high school recruit is worth a certain amount of money to the university, let him be compensated for his talents. If the athlete is not paid, the money doesn’t just disappear. It goes directly into the university and NCAA’s pocket. The system contradicts any resemblance of common sense. At the end of the day, everyone involved benefits from the billion dollar industry, except the players, who are the ones who actually generate the lucrative product. In order, for college basketball to be a legitimate league they need to pay players what they are worth which is more than just a free college education.

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Pop Culture Grid Best Winter Sports Team? Cheznie Chung (‘20) Water Polo

Warriors for Applie Pie or Pumpkin Pie? Repeat?

Boys’ Basketball

Boys’ Basketball

Mr. Knight Golf Coach

Boys’ Basketball!

Boys’ Basktball

Watch/Play Football? Watch Football

Definitely!

Pumpkin Pie

I Don’t Watch Baseball

For Sure Warriors Repeat

I Don’t Like Pie

Yankees

Play Football

Warriors will repeat

Pumpkin Pie

Houston Astros

Play Football

Nope!

Apple Pie

Yankees

Play Football

Dub Nation!

Apple Pie

What’s the World Series?

Boys’ Basketball

Reed Foster (‘18) Cross Country

World Series Winner?

Andres Jimenez (‘19) Football

Lauren Wagner (‘18) Golf

Definitely Watch

Which Fall Sport Are You Fantasy football is... Stupid

Join Viking

Life

Ok

Kevins Courts

Fav Brand

Speedo

LULU Water bottle? Swell

Hydro

Pump upsong

Nike Pregame Stetch? arms

legs

“Tennis Courts” Lorde

“Jump” Van Halen

Trails

Pre game meal

Drink of choice Lemonade or Tea

Week end work outs

Weight Room

Laps surf

V-ball

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Wopo

Golf

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Kirks Friday Night...

Water

Gatorade

Tennis

Spot

X Country

Leaving @ half

turf

Fake Fan

Lights

Football


10 Questions With

Susanna Limb

Viking Magazine had the chance to ask Paly Volleyball’s Susanna Limb (‘18) 10 Questions. We then asked her coach, teammate and friend. Here are their responses...

as told to Eric Aboytes and Mallory Kuppe

Susanna Limb (‘18) Volleyball

Daniele Desiderio Coach

Avery Wooten (‘18) Teammate

Zoe Lusk (‘18) Friend

Question: Siena Brewster

Funniest Teammate?

Avery Wooten

Avery Wooten

Deedee Ringwalt

Theo James

Celebrity Crush?

Taylor Swift

Daniel Dae Kiim

Steph Curry

Cucumber Rolls

Pre-game Meal?

Sushi

Cucumber Rolls

Rice

Hawaii Five-0

Favorite TV Show?

Lab Rats

Hawaii Five-0

Hawaii Five-0

Hitting Drills

Favorite Drill?

Passing

Back Row 3’s

Passing

The Volleyball Team

Best Thing About Paly?

Friends

Friends

Town and Country

British Accent

Secret Talent?

Handwriting

The Worm

Dancing

Less Work

Best Part of Senior Year?

College Soon

Wearing Camo

College Acceptance

Snapchat

Favorite App?

Instagram

Snapchat

Snapchat

Rockstar

Favorite Song?

A Taylor Swift Song

Rockstar

Rockstar

10%

40%

30%

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Inside the mind of

Ben Rapperport On Junior Year

“I’m On Fu coa hopi tu n s re loo t sch g to pla ked ool Pl som wo y in an a t u itie e of a co ld be colleg s th s u e, a aw e pla , so I em ple yin ’d r hav sch some n eas o e ga . I’v t e fter ally l grea ols a t fa nd e hig ove hs t o cho kee cilol.” p On W hat H He Di e'd Do dn't If Play WoPo

“I would have a lot more free time, but I would probably pick up another one of the sports I could go pro at, maybe football.”

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lly ua us I e I’m now ts im olo ept igh T r P xc we lo e e ate . E th po r W ork wi ater o. I F ng w ut to o On ayi ol rko th W at o Id l i h t p sch wo w g t at .” no ing g to help oin e wh ason I’m do tin to e d ll b se “If ust star tuff ld b t wi e off j u a s am and I co th of th so hink all t or f

“It has been really difficult to balance water polo and school, but I think I’m starting to figure it out. It’s also really nice that we have our own pool now, so that has made it an exciting year.”

ls

ua

Pr

it eR m a e-G

I listen to hype music, for like thirty minutes before the game. One of my personal favorites is “Love Sosa” by Chief Keef RL grime remix. Then I stretch for fifteen minutes and jump into the water. Once the whistle blows, I dive both ways in the water.

On


@ v i k i n g s p o r t s m a g | NOVEMBER 2017


Viral Stars

An inside look at the new sensation of viral athletes, and their rise to fame, all stemming from their high school years and for some leading them into the pro’s. by Ellie Jeffries and Wes Walters

Since platforms such as Instagram, Facebook, Youtube, and Snapchat have risen in popularity, the ability for young athletes to achieve internet fame has skyrocketed. Whether it be a six second vine, making it to ESPN’s snap story, or a reposted instavideo, if a young athlete can create a brief, yet overly impressive snapshot of their talents, they could go viral. Before social media gave athletes the chance to showcase their skill, there were those who still managed to capture the sports world, despite the lack of immediate media sources. Their fame was mostly gained through exposure on sports television broadcasts such as ESPN and Sportscenter. Arguably the first national high school star was Lebron James, who enthralled the world even before he entered the NBA. Today the athletes that gain popularity through any of the many social media platforms have a spotlight not only on their performance, but also their personality. A great move or an exceptional game can garner a good amount of attention for a short while, but an interesting personality in addition to that can make a star. This is particularly obvious in the entire Ball family, Mo’ne Davis, Zion Williamson, and others. No two players have the same path to stardom, especially from decade to decade, each having their own specific traits that catapult them to viral status.

Lebron James:

Sport: Basketball Defining moment: National championship versus Oak Hill High School and Carmelo Anthony. Rise to fame: He led his high school team to a state championship his freshman and sophomore year and dubbed the next Micheal Jordan by his junior year. With the rise of the Internet he had become the first viral high school athlete. The next year all of his games were televised on ESPN and millions of people watched. Where are they now? He is a three time NBA champion and is regarded as one of the top five NBA players of all time.

An overview of the rise of viral athletes and the platforms that catpult high school stars to rthis covented viral staus. 2984328 Veiws Posted 10/16/17

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Lamar Jackson:

Sports: Football Defining moment: Beating Florida State, ran for 4 touchdowns and threw for one in this upset. Rise to Fame: He was an internet sensation with crazy athletic jukes and was just far and away the best player in every high school game he played in. He also went on to play at Louisville. Where are they now? Past Heisman winner and a contender again this year, looking to the future he hopes to end up playing in the NFL.

What Paly Thinks...

Do viral high school athletes deserve the hype?

Yes

55%

No

45%

Will they succeed in the pro’s?

Yes

15%

No

85%

Is the rise of viral high school athletes hurting youth athletics?

Yes

45%

No Zion Williamson:

Sport: Basketball Defining moment: Huge dunks in AAU games that went viral Rise to fame: He was a top basketball recruit for the class of 2018. He was a only 16 years old when he broke the internet with one of the most memorable windmill dunks of all time. He is followed by many basketball Youtube pages and has continued to show off his unreal athleticism and potential to be one of the greats of the game. Where are they now? After becoming an internet sensation, and somewhat of a celebrity. Zion Williamson has become friends with Drake and one of the most well known high school athletes of all time.

55% Mo’ne Davis:

Sport: Baseball/basketball Defining moment: Throwing a shutout in the little league world series Rise to fame: Following the little league world series, Davis was recognized widely by the general public. She took home the breakthrough athlete award at the ESPYS , wrote a book, and created her own shoe collection. Where are they now? Focusing on her basketball career, eventually hoping to become a D1 prospect in that field.

Subscribe 34728 @ v i k i n g s p o r t s m a g | NOVEMBER 2017


steph s new contract by MAX JUNG-GOLDBERG and JASON SHORIN

$17.9K

Steph Curry made $17,900 for every minute he played during the 2016-2017 NBA season.

$23.7K For every point that he scored during the last NBA season, Steph Curry made $23,700.

$47.3M Steph Curry’s annual revenue including endorsments and contract with Warriors

$90.7k During the 2016-2017, for every assist Steph Curry had, he made $90,700. 18 | V I K I N G M A G A Z I N E |

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$133k

Steph Curry made $133,000 for every rebound he recorded last season.


Stephen Curry makes a total revenue of $47.3 million per year. These are estimates based on average annual salaries for teachers, lawyers, nurses, chefs, and police officers calculating how long they would have to work to match Curry’s yearly income.

It would take a nurse ...

347

years to make $47.3 million It would take a Lawyer ...

561

years to make $47.3 million

It would take a Police officer ...

347

years to make $47.3 million

It would take a chef ...

561

years to make $47.3 million

All income statistics courtesy of Forbes*

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855 El Camino Real #157, Palo Alto, CA 94301

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ailed College Athletes by ZACH BAUMGARTEN, STAN DE MARTEL and NATHAN ELLISEN Not all players that dominate at the collegiate level have success later down the road in their professional careers. Some athlete’s professional legacies will be forever seen as failures due the unmatchable success they attained in college.

@ v i k i n g s p o r t s m a g | NOVEMBER 2017


Jimmer Fredette Jimmer Fredette is one of the most iconic college basketball players of the past decade. As a point guard for Brigham Young University from 2007-2011, Fredette was the center of attention in the 2011 college basketball season after leading his team to a sweet sixteen run in the NCAA tournament that year. Jimmer averaged 28.9 points a game in his senior year at BYU and also led the nation in three pointers averaging over 3 triples a game. Fredette was also awarded the John R. Wooden award given to the most valuable player in college basketball, along with several other awards honoring his success at Brigham Young. After his senior year, Jimmer entered the NBA draft and was selected 10th overall by the Sacramento Kings (courtesy of the Milwaukee Bucks) behind only star guards such as Kyrie Irving, Brandon Knight, and Kemba Walker. Jimmer started his career on the subpar 2011-2012 Sacramento Kings where he was less successful than his infamous run at BYU. In 2014, Fredette was waived from the Kings and the BYU alum played for the Bulls, Pelicans, and Knicks from 2014-2016 before eventually ending his NBA career. Jimmer is currently dominating the Chinese league on the Yao Ming owned Shanghai Sharks, but is not very well known compared his fame in college. Jimmer Fredette was one of the best college basketball players of his time and was adored by college basketball fans but his career was short lived after failing in the NBA and settling on a team in the Chinese League.

Robert Griffin III Robert Griffin the Third, or RG3, had a very successful career as a quarterback Baylor and was often considered the best college football player of his time. In his senior year at Baylor University, Griffin was one of the leaders in both passing and rushing for quarterbacks across the nation. Griffin lead Baylor to an unexpected 10-3 record in his 2011 senior season and also lead his team to a 67-56 win over the Washington Huskies in the Alamo bowl. Griffin also won the 2011 Heisman trophy, an award given to the most valuable college football player every year. Griffin declared for the 2012 NFL draft after graduating from Baylor and was selected second overall by the Washington Redskins and had a very successful rookie year. Critics thought Griffin III was very overrated entering the year but Griffin proved them wrong throwing for 3,200 yards as well scoring 27 total touchdowns. Griffin peaked after this year, however, after completing only 60% of his passes and throwing 12 interceptions in year two for the Redskins. In the following years, Griffin was plagued by injuries before being released by the Redskins and being sent to the Browns. Cleveland had high hopes for the former Heisman winner but he again fell to an injury in the first week of the season and never came back to start an NFL game. Today, Griffin is a free agent who no team seems to be interested in. Griffin is a perfect example of a dominant college athlete who failed at the top level.

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Johnny Manziel Manziel was a college superstar, being the first freshman to ever win the Heisman. He led the Aggies to a 11-2 record, and a Cotton Bowl win over Oklahoma. He also broke various records, becoming the first freshman to ever pass for 3,000 yards and rush for 1,000 in a single season. Some called him “the human highlight tape” and for good reason. Johnny Football became a Texas A&M legend. After the 2013 season, Manziel declared for the 2014 NFL draft, and was picked 22 overall by the Cleveland Browns. There was a lot of hype surrounding him, being such an explosive player in college, but his off the field issues were problematic. He loved to party and didn’t take the NFL seriously. The owners refused to start him because of his behavior, and Manziel didn’t change his ways. In the 2015 season, the Browns decided to give him a chance, seeing if he was worth a first round pick. In 9 games, he threw for 1,500 yards, 7 touchdowns, and 5 interceptions. He was a bust. He simply couldn’t control himself off the field and his performance on the field wasn’t a good enough reason for Jimmy Haslam and the Browns to keep him on their team. He was cut in the 2015 season and has not played since. Johnny Manziel went from being a college legend to a free agent with no interest from any team all in the span of two years.

Tim Tebow Tebow is arguably one of the best college football players of all time. During his reign at Florida, he lead the Gators to two National Championships in three years and was the first sophomore to win a Heisman trophy award in college football history. Tebow simply dominated at the college level during his reign at Florida. In the Division I record books, Tebow is ranked second in career passing efficiency, third in career yards per attempt (9.33), and 8th in career rushing touchdowns. Tebow also owns the record for most consecutive games in which he both threw at least one touchdown pass and scored at least one rushing touchdown (14). As the 25 pick in the 2009 NFL draft, Tebow’s professional football career began with a hot start, as he replaced starting quarterback Kyle Orton mid season and lead the Broncos to a playoff win, throwing an iconic game winning overtime pass to Demarius Thomas. However, Tebow’s skillset did not effectively translate to the NFL, as he was not a consistent enough pocket passer to succeed in a NFL offense. Tebow was released by Denver in 2012 and had a few quick stints with the Jets and Patriots until eventually pursuing a career in Minor League Baseball with the New York Mets.

Tyler Hansbrough Tyler Hansbrough was one of the most dominant college basketball players of the 2000s. During his playing career, Hansbrough was one of the major faces of college basketball, and was a significant player all four years. The North Carolina alum was an National All American all four years of his career and lead the Tarheels to a national championship in 2008. In addition, Hansbrough was the first Tar Heel freshman to lead the team in scoring and rebounding, and was ACC Freshman of the year in 2006.Coming out of college Hansbrough was a top prospect and had the size and skill to become a quality NBA center. He was drafted by the Indiana Pacers with the 13th pick in the 2009 draft. However, Hansbrough had significantly less success in the NBA, as he only averaged 6 points per game and never lived up to his high draft pick. During his career, he played four seasons for the Pacers before joining the Toronto Raptors in 2013. After two seasons with the Raptors, he joined the Charlotte Hornets for the 2015–16 season. However, Hansbrough is currently out of the NBA and his playing professional basketball in the Chinese Basketball Association for the Guangzhou Long-Lions.

@ v i k i n g s p o r t s m a g | NOVEMBER 2017


...AND THE CROWD ROARED

Anyway

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Viking Magazine takes a look into the athletics program at the California School for the Deaf, exploring the culture behind Deaf athletics. by LAUREN DANIEL, MALLORY KUPPE, HAYLEY LEVINE and WILL STRAUCH Mahlia Thorton ('20) and Jade Dawson ('19) communicating to their teammates in between plays.

Photo by Will Strauch

P

arents and students fill the bleachers as anticipation builds. The only talking in the gym is done by the opposing team, fans are waiting for the match to begin. The match begins. CSD hammers home the last points of the first set to win and the crowd erupts. The gym had gone from mostly silent to having a roar spread throughout the crowd to support their team. These players are Deaf and communicate with coaches and teammates by American Sign Language (ASL). The California School for the Deaf (CSD), located in Fremont, is an elementary, middle, and high school for deaf students around the Bay Area. Deaf students come from near and far to attend this school because of the unmatched opportunity to be educated in their native language, ASL, and to be surrounded by Deaf peers and Deaf adults. It was founded in 1860 and has had previous campuses in San Francisco and Berkeley before moving to its current 91acre campus in Fremont. According to CSD’s website, the school is a free public school that serves deaf children. Deaf students from ages three to 21 from 46 counties in Northern California must meet the eligibility requirement and be referred by their local school district in order to attend CSD. Attending CSD comes at no cost to parents as the majority of the education is covered by the state of California while the student’s respective district covers the rest. Even if students are part of the residential program, which allows students to live on campus if they live too far away for the daily commute, the program is at no cost to the students. The school runs a bilingual program in which ASL and English are the two languages used for instruction. They aim to preserve and build upon students abilities and fluency in both languages. Students develop their expressive and receptive skills in ASL and also their abilities to read and write in English. CSD provides full accessibility all day, so no student is ever left in a position where they are excluded due to communication. All staff members are required to be fluent in both English and ASL. Teachers must be certified in Deaf education as well as in the subject they teach. Kevin Kovacs is a CSD alumnus and former Athletic Director, and is now the Men’s Basketball Head Coach at Gallau

@ v i k i n g s p o r t s m a g | NOVEMBER 2017


det University, the only Deaf university and making it to the second round of the in the world, located in Washington D.C.. CIF North Coast Section Playoffs, CSD’s He describes his experiences in both at- football team gained national attention tending and coaching at CSD. with a video done by Sports Illustrated. “It’s one of the best places to go as a Before this, not many people knew about student and as an employee,” Kevin said. CSD or their sports teams. “In both of my times I learned a lot and Not too long after, in 2015, ESPN folwould not be where I am today without lowed suit with their own segment tiCSD teaching me.” tled “Silent Night Lights.” This segment Current Athletic brought a lot of eyes Director and Head and attention toVarsity Football wards CSD and their Coach Warren Keller successful football echoes Kevin’s stateteam who was domment. inating against both “It’s one of the Deaf and hearing largest Deaf schools schools. in the country,” Keller Following this, said. “We have over multiple local news 400 students and stations created we serve the entire their own segments northern California highlighting the from early childhood successful program. education to high The national attenschool. We’re altion shed light onto ready pretty unique people who usually for being such a do not gain much small population.” representation in Despite being a the media. The year unique school in following the seggeneral, CSD’s athment, ESPN also letic program is very broadcasted one of dominant. CSD offers their games, mak10 varsity sports for ing it the first time their students to parthey broadcasted a ticipate in. They play game featuring an in the North Central all-Deaf team. II/Bay League and Current Girls’ face schools from all Varsity Basketball around California as Head Coach and Photos by Hayley Levine well as schools from second-year physout of state. CSD has a very successful ical education teacher at CSD, Joshua athletics program which has won nation- Weinstock, believes these videos helped al championships in all of their sports. people recognize that Deaf athletes are Their most recent championship came no different from regular athletes. in 2016 when the boys’ basketball team “We hope to show and inspire peodefeated Rio Lindo Adventist in the NCS/ ple that Deaf people can do anything,” Les Schwab Tires Boys’ Basketball Cham- Weinstock said. “Now our athletes are pionships. Many other varsity teams at motivated to better themselves and take CSD have won championships within the our athletic programs to new heights. past 25 years. Opponents that once took us lightly now The biggest game of the year is the have showed respect because they rechomecoming game against the Califor- ognize how we work hard to even the nia School for the Deaf, Riverside. CSD playing field.” Riverside is the other Deaf school in CalKevin’s sister and CSD alumna, Dyan ifornia and is located in Southern Califor- Sue Kovacs thinks that people need to nia. On this day CSD competes against be more educated about Deaf people. CSD Riverside in cross country, volleyball “We really need to tell the people who and football. Unfortunately, the game don’t know about Deaf people that we was cancelled this year due to bad air do function just like hearing people, just quality caused by the recent Northern that we communicate differently. It shows California wildfires. hearing people that we are just humans In 2012, after posting a 10-2 record too. We really need to exposure people

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about our “culture” especially when the [hearing] parents have deaf children,” Dyan said. Current CSD baseball head coach Ryan Lentz thinks the segments exposed many people to Deaf people and schools. “The media exposure is showing everyone around the world that Deaf people are capable of doing great things,” Lentz said. “It shows that you do not need to have hearing to be a phenomenal athlete. So many Deaf students out there in this nation were born to hearing parents, and have no knowledge of American Sign Language or Deaf schools. It has been a great exposure that there are places where you can be comfortable being who you are.” Besides producing alumni who have gone on to be successful in many different fields, successful athletes have also come from CSD. Two examples of these successes are siblings Kevin and Dyan. Kevin graduated from CSD in 1990. He then attended Gallaudet University, receiving his BA in 1995 and MA in 1997. After he graduated, he went to Minnesota to get his first teaching job and coach youth basketball. In 2007, he made his way back to CSD to become the Youth Athletics Coordinator for one year before becoming the high school athletic director and coaching basketball at all levels. In 2015, he was offered a head coaching job at Gallaudet University for the men’s basketball team. He has been the coach there ever since. Dyan graduated from CSD in 1992 and was inducted into the Hall of Fame for volleyball and basketball. She then went on to attend Gallaudet and was a member of the volleyball team at her time there. In 2014, she was inducted into the University’s Hall of Fame for her outstanding volleyball career. She was then an assistant coach for five years. She is currently the president of the Phoenix Deaf Women Organization. She has also won three medals for volleyball at the Deaflympics, winning bronze in 1997 in Denmark, silver in Rome in 2001, and bronze again in Melbourne in 2005. She later coached the volleyball team at Deaflympics in 2013. The experience of being an athlete is different for everyone and each person has a unique experience. Some Deaf athletes do not identify themselves as a “Deaf athletes”, and rather see themselves as just athletes. “I have had great experiences growing up as an athlete,” Kevin said. “I did not see myself as a Deaf athlete but an ath-


lete like everyone else”. That being said, a unique thing about Deaf athletes is that they tend to know more of the other athletes personally. “We have a lot of tournaments where we play and compete with other Deaf people around the world that we have connections with,” Kevin said. “In the Deaf world, our world is smaller and we usually know each other or have some sort of connection. If we don’t, then we usually connect and become friends.” There is a common misconception among hearing people that Deaf people cannot play sports because they cannot hear. This is obviously not true. “Sometimes, hearing people look at us as having a ‘disability’ so they wouldn’t want to lose to a disability team,” Dyan said. “So we play twice as hard to be able to beat them, the hearing teams feel humiliated by that. We are just humans like hearing people, too.” Kevin also does not see being Deaf as a disadvantage, but something that is just a part of who they are. “We all have to compete either as a Deaf or hearing person,” Kevin said. “I don’t look at our deafness as disadvantages, but we know that we cannot hear each other so we don’t hear the whistles and we do audibles with our hands and just make up for it by working hard and using our eyes more.” While being Deaf does not affect one’s ability to be successful in a sport, Deaf athletes are often less noticed by colleges simply because of their deafness. “The disadvantage that sticks out to me is that colleges, because of the fact that the said athlete is Deaf, often overlook the talent level of certain athletes,” Lentz said. The major difference between Deaf and hearing teams is the way the athletes communicate with each other. While hearing teams usually communicate through speech and mostly verbally, Deaf teams communicate using ASL. “We do not need to invent complex play codes or gestures – our signing works just fine and is too quick for the other team to catch on,” Weinstock said. Given the players’ inability to communicate with one another through speech, coaches are not able to get players’ attention by yelling so everyone has to be more aware. “Getting the team’s attention on the playing field or court requires being alert and teamwork in getting each other’s attention by waving or pointing to the sidelines which is much quicker than signing

‘hey, coach needs to talk to you,’ so we rely on eye contact, communicating with ASL and gestures,” Weinstock said. Coaches get their player’s attention in different ways depending on the sport. “We have to help each other out. I normally get the atMahlia Thornton ('20) and captain Malia Zornoza ('19) distention of my catchcussing strategy in between plays. er or the shortstop and they, in turn, get the attention of the player I need to communicate with,” Lentz said. “I always stress to my ballplayers that they need to have their heads on a swivel to look towards me, as much as possible, as well as look to the field generals for alignments within the defense.” C S D teams play other Deaf schools as well as hearing schools. Obviously, these can be two very different experiences for the athletes. “Sometimes when Deaf athletes play other Deaf athletes they start to talk to each other when they probably would not if they were playing hearing opponents,” Kevin said. “The same goes for when there are Deaf referees, the Deaf athletes tend to talk a lot more to the Deaf referee because they usually cannot talk to the referee, so Photo by Will Strauch when there is a Deaf referee, they finally can comfortably talk as much as they want to the referee which sometimes can become too much.” Weinstock believes that the language used to communicate among teammates is the biggest difference between

@ v i k i n g s p o r t s m a g | NOVEMBER 2017


Coach provides instruction for his players during a volleyball match at California School for the Deaf. The team won, 4-1. Photo by Will Strauch

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playing Deaf opponents versus those who can hear. “The biggest difference between Deaf and hearing opponents clearly is the sign language,” Weinstock said. “Our players are used to ignoring hearing players’ trash talk on the court, but with Deaf players it is difficult. Deaf opponents can also see our signs so we adjust how we use our play signs. We help each other out when the referee signals stoppage of play as a show of sportsmanship.” Since most Deaf athletes know each other, playing Deaf people can be mean more to the athletes. “The Deaf community is small, so playing against Deaf opponents becomes more meaningful to us,” Dyan said. “Once we beat those teams, we will talk about it for decades and decades- generation to generation. However for me, it really feels good when we beat a great hearing team. For example, there was a high school team (Head Royce) that was “impossible” to beat. In my sophomore year, we beat them in basketball. They left with a lot of tears.” Because the athletes tend to know most of the athletes from other Deaf schools, the games can feel like more than just a game.

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“When we play against other Deaf schools, it is always a big thrill for our athletes, regardless of the sport,” Lentz said. “Our athletes get a chance to compete with their friends that they have met through other Deaf sports events from previous years, or against their friends that they met through Deaf camps throughout the summer. There is always a big sense that it is more than a game, it brings the national community closer together.” CSD has had a very long and rich history of athletic success. Being an athlete comes along with holding on to some of the most memorable moments for the rest of your life. Dyan vividly remembers some of the best moments. One of her favorite memories from CSD was winning the Deaf national championship for volleyball in 1991. “Our record was 20-5 that year,” Dyan said. “Our team is one of two national championship teams from CSD history, so it’s a huge honor for us.” At Gallaudet, she remembers the team rallying together and working extremely hard after losing to the same team twice. “Our senior year at Gallaudet (1995) we were 41-4 and lost to the same team twice. Our hearts were wrecked. In the spring before the season, my coach told me that we need to have at least four players to practice at six a.m. and I made sure of that. The result was worth it.” Her brother, Kevin’s favorite moment at CSD, is also the most memorable game in Weinstock’s mind. Kevin was the boys’ varsity basketball head coach at the time and their most memorable game was winning the North Coast Section Division VI Boys Basketball Championship in 2014. “It was very sweet because we had a wonderful group of humble guys who were more than willing to make a sacrifice for the guy next to them in order to achieve something they would not be able to do by themselves,” Kevin said. “This made it a lot more sweeter than the 25th win and NCS championship.” Weinstock agrees. “We played St. Elizabeth, a league rival for the third time on our home court. The game was delayed two hours because of a scheduling mistake, and there were no officials at the game,” Weinstock said. “The buildup at the gym was incredible and the team won a hard fought game 55-47 under Head Coach Kevin Kovacs.” Debbie Ayres is a hearing PE teacher


at CSD and former Girls’ Varsity Basketball Coach. Prior to coaching at CSD, she taught and coached at many levels, including coaching Division I women’s basketball. “I had heard about the school for the Deaf when I was graduating college,” Ayres said. “At that time, I thought I would like to coach a Deaf basketball team someday,” She applied for a job at CSD and they hired her based on her collegiate coaching experience and work with Pat Summitt. However, when she was hired, she did not know ASL. “Hiring me did not make some Deaf people happy because I was a hearing person, who did not know ASL,” Ayres said. “I took ASL classes in the evening, taught PE at CSD and coached the CSD girls’ varsity team for 6 years.” Under Ayres, the team was successful in competing against Deaf and hearing teams in their Division V league. Ayres also coached the USA Deaf National team to a gold medal in the World Games for the Deaf in Athens, Greece and coached the USA Deaf National team to a gold medal in Poland in the U21 World Games. She is still on the board for the USA Deaf Basketball Federation. In 2003, Ayres left CSD to coach college basketball in New York before coming back to CSD in 2006. “When I returned, things had changed,” Ayres said. “More opportunities became available for the Deaf due to technology. The school offered ASL classes; so that, students could learn the language in a formal way. ASL gained respect by being identified as a language from linguists,” When coaching Deaf athletes, Ayres has to use alternative ways to get their attention. “Sometimes, we would continue to make a lay-up after the whistle and I stomped my right foot on the hardwood floor to gain my players attention by feeling the vibrations across the floor,” Ayres said. “I really could only communicate with them when play had stopped (i.e., free throw, out of bounds).” Current athletic director and football coach, Warren Keller has done so much for CSD’s athletic program. Keller grew up wanting to be a coach. His first experience in coaching came when his younger sister’s softball coach got pregnant and Keller stepped in to help and loved it. Keller then went on to coach youth Deaflympics and intramurals while he was in college. His first job was starting

the athletics program at Sequoia School basketball and baseball. When asked for the Deaf which was a small main- why he believes CSD is unique he anstreamed program in Mesa, Arizona. He swered, “full Deaf communication with then came to CSD. all students and staffs “I wanted to work so we can understand at a large Deaf together.” school where high LeMaster thinks that level competition the biggest misconstarted so I knew ception that hearing that there was no people have is that place better than they believe Deaf peoCSD for that,” Keller ple can’t play sports said. because they can’t When he came to hear. CSD, he taught PE “Most hearing peoand coached variple think that Deaf ous sports, such as athletes can’t play any football, basketball, sports because we baseball and softcan’t hear anything, ball, while learning that is not true because from others until he we very useful with became the head our eyes to see everyvarsity football thing,” LeMaster said. coach in 2012. “Some hearing people “Two years ago, think that Deaf people our former Athletcan’t play like pro athic Director left to letes, and that is not coach Gallaudet true too because there University Men’s’ are Deaf pro athletes.” Basketball Program LeMaster believes so I thought this that the national attenwould be my best tion brought to CSD opportunity to not helped inform people Photos by Hayley Levine just be involved with who have deaf children football, but the entire student body,” “ESPN helped CSD and all people who Keller said. have deaf children by showing them it is Weinstock began coaching at CSD be- best for them to go to their Deaf school cause of Keller. to have success in life,” LeMaster said. “I began coaching because of WarCSD junior Malia Zornoza plays four ren Keller, our current Athletic Director, sports, volleyball, basketball, softball at that time was just the Varsity Football and track. She believes CSD’s athletic Head Coach,” Weinstock said. “He sat program is unique because many of the down with me and shared his vision, pas- athletes play several sports. sion and dreams for building a program. Like LeMaster, Zornoza thinks that the I wanted to be part of that too, to see most common misconception it that our student-athletes grow on and off the Deaf people cannot play sports successfield.” fully. Keller also believes that the national “Some people don’t know that Deaf exposure has benefitted many Deaf stu- people can play,” Zornoza said. “Many dents. people wonder how we communicate “It makes me proud that CSD has rep- on the court and/or field.” resented the Deaf community well and She believes that the segments on that ESPN and other media outlets has ESPN and Sports Illustrated helped edportrayed deafness the right way,” Keller ucate people. said. “We have been learning that the “It shows that we can play and it spread CSD story over the years has really made knowledge of Deaf schools all over the a difference and improved many Deaf America,” Zornoza said. students and schools’ situations right CSD’s athletic program is extremely now” dominant and has been for many years, The uniqueness of CSD and its athletic showing that the experience of being a program is apparent even to current ath- Deaf athlete is parallel to being a hearing letes. athlete. Senior Tivon LeMaster plays football,

@ v i k i n g s p o r t s m a g | NOVEMBER 2017


Athletes and

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n athlete’s place in politics has always been a hot topic. It has been debated for years; from Adolf Hitler’s refusal to congratulate Jesse Owens in the 1936 Olympics in pre-World War II Berlin, all the way to players in the modern day NFL kneeling during the national anthem. People typically see athletes as human entertainment; dumb animals who bash heads or run after a ball. The last thing athletes are viewed as is intelligent or well educated. Therefore, when an athlete begins to talk about things other than sports, many’s reaction is shut up and play. Athlete’s protests are simply seen as a joke. Well, athletes are no joke. They are smarter, wealthier, more powerful, and more connected to the rest of the world than they ever have been. Social media networks such as Twitter and the globalization of the media have given every popular athlete a platform. However, it appears as though President Donald Trump has not gotten that memo. “Get that son of a bitch off the field right now,” President

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Trump said referring to the NFL players who kneel. This comment caused NFL commissioner Roger Goodell to call him “divisive”. Yes, that is right, Roger Goodell came out in defense of the NFL players. That shows just how disrespectful President Trump’s comments are. While President Trump can


Politics say whatever he wants (and he does), he must also be respectful of the people of this country that he represents. Calling the athletes who kneel “son[s] of bitch[es],” is just not necessary. Athletes are respected for their physical ability, but do not get any respect as humans and as citizens. Not only did President Trump disrespect them in the political sphere, but he is also criticising them for using their freedom of speech, a right everyone has in this country. It simply is not right, especially by the President, to call anyone names for exercising a birth right. Frankly, it is just childish, and the athletes taking this stand deserve the respect of everyone regardless of agreement with their protest. Whether or not the athletes protest is deemed ‘right’ by society, the athletes deserve respect as humans and not just entertainers. After all, these athletes are regular people who worked countless hours to get to where they are now. These athletes are not just talented, they are hard workers who earned their standing. They have the right to freedom of speech and a national stage, and both of those together means an ability to effectively speak out for whatever cause they deem important. Whether that cause or the manner of protest is convenient for the public does not matter. Kneeling during the national anthem of the country that enables people to speak out however they choose is ironic. However, that simply should not matter. People have the right to protest however they see fit for whatever cause they deem as necessary. No one needs permission to protest, including athletes. In addition to the fact that athletes have a right to speak out, much of the criticism of the protests has been coming from white people against black athletes. These protests are racially driven, and the racial bias is clear. Warriors stars Kevin Durant and Stephen Curry decided that they would decline an invite to the White House. Immediately, their decision received lots of backlash. However, Tim Thomas, a white athlete, never received the same backlash that Durant and Curry received. Thomas was the goaltender on the Bruins Stanley Cup Championship team in 2011, and he refused to visit the White House with his team after they won the NHL championship. “I believe the Federal government has grown out of control, threatening the rights, liberties, and property of the people,” Thomas said. While Thomas did spark some commentary, it wasn’t even close to what resulted from Kevin Du-

As athletes continue to kneel for the natonal anthem, we will support them throughout this contreversey.

by MATAN ZIV and WES WALTERS

rant and Steph Curry saying they would refuse an invite to visit President Trump. The criticism of Durant and Curry and lack thereof of Thomas conveys just how biased these criticisms are. Thomas, Durant, and Curry all have a right to protest a White House visit, and anyone who wants to has the right to criticize whoever they would like. However, it is completely unfair to criticize just Curry and Durant while Thomas gets to live by without any commentary just because he is a white athlete refusing to visit a black president. Colin Kaepernick has been the focal point of the NFL protests. His initial sitting during the national anthem has become a massive movement against injustice, and the movement is picking up more traction every week. However, while Kaepernick’s protests have become very popular, Kaepernick paid the price of his career. He is a free agent and has been blacklisted by the NFL, meaning he is highly unlikely to get a job in the league in the coming years. The fact that Kaepernick is being punished for speaking his mind goes against the fundamental values of this country. Freedom of speech does not mean that there is a tradeoff between speaking one’s mind and having a job. Speech is not truly free if there is a punishment for it. Speech came at a heavy price for Kaepernick, a career of doing what he loves that makes him millions per year to be exact. All Kaepernick was doing was using his right to freedom of speech. If he was a politician, he would not have been fired for speaking his mind on police brutality. However, since he is an athlete whose job is to entertain and bash heads, no one wants to hear him speak his mind. There is a reason why athletes have cameras on them 100% of the time, they are entertaining. However, every time an athlete opens their mouth about something other than sports, it results in outrage. What is the point in having the stage most athletes have if they don’t use it to support their beliefs. They worked hard to get to where they are, and if they want to talk about politics, they have a right to do so right into those cameras.

@ v i k i n g s p o r t s m a g | NOVEMBER 2017


Trading Places

by STAN DE MARTEL and RYAN STRATHEARN

Student point of view “Kyrie Irving is the biggest win of the off-season because he is is a top tear guard who can lead a team” - Jackson Chryst (‘19) “Cavs won the trade because now Kyrie and LeBron won’t be fighting over the balll and LeBron can dominate” - Jared Wulburn (‘18)

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Which team had the best off-season?

8%

6% 30%

26% 16%

14%


The rise of NBA super teams This off-season was one of the most exciting and eventful off-seasons ever. A record breaking seven All-Stars were traded, and with that came the rise of new superteams. The Boston Celtics, Minnesota Timberwolves, Oklahoma City Thunder, Houston Rockets, and Cleveland Cavaliers are all going to give the reigning champions, the Golden State Warriors, a run for their money. The individual talents of the players has already been proven but how they gel and play as a team has yet to been seen; only time will tell how sucssesful they will be. With all these new super teams the NBA now has new matchups with talent on both sides that fans have never seen before ... aside from at the All-Star game.

Impactful players who got traded Cavaliers Timberwolves

• • • • • • •

Carmelo Anthony Paul George

Other Thunder Rockets

Jimmy Butler Paul Milsap

Chris Paul

Celtics

• • • • • • •

Carmelo Anthony

Dwight Howard

Derrick Rose

Dwane Wade

Kyrie Irving

Isaiah Thomas

Gordon Hayward

D’Angelo Russel

Brook Lopez Zach LaVine

@ v i k i n g s p o r t s m a g | NOVEMBER 2017


Parental Pressure

Photo Courtesy of Karen Ambrose Hickey

The Ball family has become notorious for the extreme comments the father LaVar has made about his three talented sons, Lonzo, LiAngelo, and Lamelo. These comments have incited a large debate on how involved parents should be in their kids’ sports. by COLE SOTNICK and ERIC ABOYTES

I

t is a common occurrence to scroll through social media and see a video of LaVar Ball making outrageous comments about his sons. From claiming that Lonzo is the best player in the world to pulling his youngest son Lamelo out of high school, LaVar has practically done it all. While it is in the parent’s best interest to help their child, when does their involvement cross the line? While many claim that these comments put his sons in danger of harsh criticism, others see it as a way to promote his children in the basketball world. After Lonzo Ball was drafted second overall by the Los Angeles Lakers in the 2017 NBA draft, LaVar was interviewed by ESPN and he described how Lonzo will prosper in the league. “Lonzo Ball is gonna take the Lakers to the Playoffs his first year,” LaVar said. Although Lonzo claims that his father’s comments have no effect on his game, they put him in a situation where he receives massive amounts of media attention.

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In 2016, the Ball family created the Big Baller Brand to promote all three sons. In November 2017, The Big Baller Brand released Lonzo Ball’s signature shoes called the ZO2’s. They are priced at $495 which outraged many sports fans. In a twitter post, LaVar expressed how he felt about the price of the shoes. “If you can’t afford the ZO2’s you’re not a big baller!” LaVar wrote. This tweet attracted a large amount of media attention and was featured on various sports programs. Before Lonzo had played a single minute in the NBA, LaVar put him in a situation where he’s always been in the spotlight. Because of the attention he has received, spectators had high expectations for Lonzo going into the regular season. Many see this stress from his parents as unnecessary and could potentially hurt him in the long run. On the Scott Van Pelt show, sports analyst Scott Van Pelt expressed his issues with LaVar. “This isn’t about loving his sons, it’s about loving a spotlight that he never had. And this is


where you tell me it’s working because people keep putting microphones in his face,” Van Pelt said. “From this point forward we will pay attention to the young man in the jersey and not the dad who can’t stop talking.” The problem with parental involvement in sports is not just an issue with Lonzo, Lamelo, and LiAngelo. Kids all around the world feel the pressure of parents in sports. At Paly and other high schools throughout the country, students feel the pressure from parents. With many students attempting to pursue a collegiate athletic career, there can be great pressure from parents to succeed in high school sports. Varsity lacrosse player Aidan Gans (‘19) sees excessive parent involvement as harmful to the kids involved. “A parent can really influence their kid, but it gets to a point where it’s too much... when they are choosing the sports for their kid and what they do,” Gans said. Other Paly students feel similarly about

parental involvement. Many agreed upon the fact that parents should be there for the means of transportation and funding of sports, but communication with coaches should be left to the kids. Varsity soccer player Caroline Furrier (‘19) reflected on parents in sports. “I think that parental involvement in sports is okay, but it comes to a certain point where they are hovering too much,” Furrier said. “It is the kid’s responsibility to represent themselves and make their own names.” An important aspect of pursuing a collegiate or professional career in sports is recognition. Often times, when a parent becomes too involved in the process, it can have a negative impact on the child. For instance, Lamelo Ball is 16 years old and receives a large amount of criticism; not for the things he personally does, rather, what his father says about him. With many talented athletes at Paly, the competition to receive an invitation or scholarship to play collegiate sports is

“It comes to a certain point where they [parents] are hovering too much.” - Caroline Furrier (‘19)

Photo by Cole Sotnick

high. This can lead to parents becoming too involved and creating an unhealthy environment for the athlete. Varsity Football player Jamir Shepard (‘20) recognizes how parental involvement can be really stressful for an athlete. “If an athlete is trying to get a scholarship or recruited to a D1 school and their parents are too involved with it, it could be very stressful for the athlete,” Shepard said. “If parents keep constantly talking to you about it, it could reach a point where you really get frustrated.” Not only is there stress for the athlete, but it can restrict their college options. Athletes work hard to get offers from colleges, however, parents’ actions sometimes cross the line. Varsity football player Andres Jimenez (‘19) has some knowledge of excessive parent involvement in the recruiting process. “Coaches are the ones who usually help athletes get their names out to colleges. When parents get too involved with the scouting process, it can affect the player’s decision on what colleges they want to go to,” Jimenez said. As Paly sports seasons swing by, many student athletes are faced with the problem of excessive parent involvement. Although some students may not experience pressure from their parents, some athletes endure detrimental effects from the involvement of their parents. Andres Jimenez (‘19) is one of the few students who sports Lavar’s pricey Big Baller Brand.

@ v i k i n g s p o r t s m a g | NOVEMBER 2017


Gray Area

The life of Palo Alto resident Henry Ford, a black ex-NFL player who broke the country’s standards in career, sports, and personal life – and changed Menlo-Atherton football forever.

by MARIA FLETCHER, YUE SHI, NATHAN SETO, and RYAN STRATHEARN

O

n the shady street of Waverley, one house pops out from under the trees. Each of its walls are painted a different bright shade. Metal sculptures peek out from behind bushes. A big oak tree reigns over the walkway to its quaint turquoise door. Inside and out, the house is beautiful and alive with character, and like the couple that live inside, there is more to it than the eyes can see. Rochelle and Henry Ford have lived in their vibrant house for 40 years, raised two sons, and now enjoy watching their grandson Ethan play football at Bishop O’Dowd High School located in Oakland, California. Ethan has the sport in his genes: his grandpa played football 60 years before him – it was one of the ways he was able to break away from his difficult childhood and become the man

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he is today. Henry Ford was born in 1931 in Homestead, Pennsylvania, a black community in which the majority of the population lived off welfare. With his mother and three sisters, he lived for many years in a two-room house with 15 other residents. There was no running water and the one toilet of the building was in the rat-infested cellar. The closest father-figure Ford had was his junior high basketball coach, having only met his father once for 15 minutes throughout his life. He spent most of his childhood in Pittsburgh where he played baseball, basketball, and football. In high school, Ford focused on the latter and began to pick up great skill. He was an All-American football player, and the first black team captain for the school. His academic dedication made him an outstanding student as well; however, Ford explained that athletic ability was African American

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students’ only identity in the eyes of colleges. Although he had the grades and intelligence to attain an academic scholarship, this was generally not an option for blacks going to predominantly white universities. When Ford graduated, University of Pittsburgh offered him a four-year athletic scholarship for football. “I wanted to prove to [my black teammates] that I could go to a white school and play,” Ford reflects. Ford chose to take their offer and majored in business. His decision made him the first colored man to major in business in the nation. However, breaking this barrier did not immediately prove fruitful because the country, particularly the South, wasn’t ready to give African-Americans jobs traditionally given to whites. Ford played all four years for University of Pittsburgh without missing a game. Although he was a skilled quarterback,


Photo by Yue Shi Ford played on the defensive line either as a safety or a cornerback. “They didn’t have black quarterbacks back then,” Ford said. He expected to play as the starting quarterback, but the coach never let it happen. In the six or seven games he played as a backup to the injured QB’s, he made history by being the first black person to ever play the position at a major university. Ford not only defied the country’s athletic standards for minorities, but also made his own path in his personal relationships. Among the other racial barriers he faced, Ford, like other blacks was expected to stay away from any interaction with white girls. One of the years Ford played on his high school football team, the school sent them to training camp in nearby Ligonier, Pennsylvania – a white, upper class, mainly conservative Republican town that was popular for football train-

ing. Ford was traveling with his team when he first saw Rochelle Shamey out of the bus window, standing in the Diamond - where the town’s youth gathered to socialize. He called for the bus driver to stop so he could talk to her, but the bus driver refused and the team drove on to camp. Ford recalled running back to the spot after being dropped off at camp, and finding Rochelle still there. “That was the best luck I ever had,” Ford said. As he approached, however, he had to apologize. “‘Oops, I’m sorry.’ She said, ‘What are you sorry for?’ I said, ‘I thought you were colored.’” At the time, interracial marriages were

illegal and would be for another 25 years. Relationships between blacks and whites were shunned by society, especially those between a black man and a white woman. Despite the country’s stigma, that day Rochelle and Henry began what would be a 60-year friendship; the two stayed in contact throughout their college years and eventually were married after Henry’s football career ended. Ford’s skill increased through college and caught the attention of the NFL. He was drafted in the ninth round as the 109th pick by the Cleveland Browns in 1955. Ford’s rookie year, the Browns won the NFL Championship (the Super Bowl had not been

“There were no [business] jobs for blacks back in those days.”

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invented), beating the Los Angeles Rams 38-14. He played one year for the Browns before being traded to the Pittsburgh Steelers. In the two games he played during the season at Cleveland, he had great performances in several positions including safety, quarterback, halfback, and special teams return. Ford was more qualified for the quarterback position than the two white men who the coaches typically played, but again he was denied his deserved role based on skin color, not skill. Ford was traded after the first season and played for the Steelers during the 1956-57 seasons. In the fall of 1957, the Steelers returned to Ligonier to train like Ford’s high school and college teams had years before. It was convenient for Henry and Rochelle (who at this point had been dating for several years), since it allowed them to see each other without risking suspicion when Henry’s team came to town. That fall when the Steelers came to Ligonier the couple had been together for seven

years unbeknownst to their families and friends. “Henry’s high school, college, and pro team always came in the fall to practice before the season started, because you couldn’t get into any trouble in this little town,” Rochelle said. It was during one of these trips that Ford’s secret relationship with Rochelle was discovered, and little did either of them know the incident would crush his professional football career. “One night, he was in the hotel, talking to me on the phone. We were laughing and having a good time, and the Steelers management [that overheard the conversation] said he shouldn’t know anybody in this town he was talking to like

that,” Rochelle said. “so they tapped the phone and found out who he was talking to.” After the Steelers management found out that Henry had been dating a white girl, they gave him a heartbreaking choice. “‘You can choose white girls or football,’ and I chose white girls,” Ford said. The next day, Ford played in the Steelers’ game without consequence. He didn’t know that would be his last game as a professional football player. The day after the game, Ford got a call. “I got cut by a news reporter, not a coach… only because he was a pretty good friend of mine and he called me on the phone to inform me,” Ford said. The Steelers had dropped Ford from their

“Little did either of them know the incident would crush his professional football career”

Photo by Yue Shi

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In 2015, Ford was given the Pittsburgh Pro Football Hall of Fame’s President’s Award for “displaying superior courage, integrity, and professionalism beyond the playing field” (left). Photos by Maria Fletcher, Yue Shi roster. Ford had protested that “dating white girls was [his] private business,” whereas playing football was a separate area of his life, and the two shouldn’t affect each other; apparently the league had a different opinion. After three years of playing great football for both the Browns and the Steelers, they simply told him to pick up his cleats, officially ending his professional career. Ford was devastated. He had struggled with employment throughout the years playing in the NFL, because at the time pro players’ salaries didn’t cover the cost of living. “Us players back then had to work two jobs because the pay wasn’t enough,” he said. Even with a business degree from a reputable university, no one would hire Ford in positions for which he was qualified. He instead worked for the city as a garbage collector during his professional playing years. “[I was] throwing a sack over my shoulder and going up the ladder… People would see me and say ‘Hey Model T!’” (That was his nickname amongst his friends and teammates.) “I would say ‘Hey! How are you doing?’ They’d say ‘What are you doing up there?’ I said, ‘I’m staying in shape.’ That was my excuse, for going up the ladder, working for the city of Pittsburgh during the summer, cause that’s the only job I could get.” After being dropped from the profes-

sional league, Ford worked for several different companies before getting an unexpected opportunity out of San Francisco. In 1977, Coca-Cola offered Ford a business opportunity in the Bay Area and Henry and Rochelle moved from

“People think, ‘Nothing like that happens in Palo Alto’ but it still does”

Pittsburgh to Palo Alto. That year, the couple’s ambitious mission was to buy all the vending machines from Sonoma to Santa Cruz. While the Fords did end up buying the vending machines, they ran into trouble as soon as they began working on them. As they were servicing the vending machines for the first time, the police showed up, assuming the couple was stealing from it.

“Within three minutes the cops came… it took us the longest time to convince them that we did own the [vending machine] and they shouldn’t take us to jail,” Rochelle said. With this, the racial discrimination Henry Ford had experienced his whole life followed him into California. Before they had even moved into the state, their realtor refused to show them houses in the Professorville district of Palo Alto and took them elsewhere around the Bay, from East Palo Alto to San Jose. When they were finally able to buy the house they wanted on Waverley, the couple was not received well. The first day in their new home, they got a knock on the door. “How many people are going to live here?” A neighbor asked. Frustrated with the ignorance of the question, Ford said there would be 13. “I knew it!” the woman said. Surprisingly, racial profiling has been a continuous struggle for all three generations of Ford’s family. Henry and his sons have gotten stopped by police countless times for driving nice cars the officers thought were stolen. Rochelle told us that most recently, their grandson Ethan was followed home by police on his bike. “[Ethan] came home one night on his bike and he said, ‘Oh Grandma, this is a safe place to live,’” Rochelle recalled.

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Ethan was only 11 at the time. “And I said, ‘It is? What makes you say that?’” “He said, ‘Cause I was downtown on my bike and a policeman followed me all the way home.’” “I thought, ‘You’ll know someday what that was all about,’ [but] for now I said, ‘I’m glad you were safe’. People think nothing like that happens in Palo Alto, but it still does.” After having a successful run with the Coca-Cola venture, Ford searched for a job related to the passion he had been away from for 35 years: football. In 1990, Ford was offered a coaching job for the Menlo Atherton Bears. He gladly took the job, although no one imagined the influence he would have on the students and the school. Before Ford arrived as the head coach, the Bears had many problems on and off the field. To start with, Menlo Atherton hadn’t won a game in two and a half years, making it the longest losing streak of any California high school playing at the time. Things began to change within Ford’s first season, and the team won three games. “All the students acted as if we won the championship,” said Ford. Two years later the team did win the CCS championship and would continue to be in the championships the next four seasons after that. Their reputation as a football powerhouse continues to this day. Prior to Ford’s hiring, the student body was diverse and extremely segregated; racial tension was a school-wide issue. Ford specifically recalls his first day as the new coach, where a racial riot broke out and the school was forced to call an assembly. With nobody willing or ready to speak, the principal asked Ford to talk to the students. Ford opened up the assembly with a Virginia Satir quote “In sameness we connect, in

differences we grow.” He continued to rally the students the rest of the assembly, marking the beginning of his seven-yearlong project to establish a more uplifting and accepting community at MA. Ford not only worked hard on the field to increase his players’ skill, but he was involved in their academic and personal lives as well. According to Rochelle, he didn’t hesitate to drive players to and from school, pay for their necessities, and sit in on their classes to make sure they were keeping up. Ford’s impact on his players’ academic lives was enormous. The last football scholarship given to an MA student was seven years prior to Ford’s hiring; over the seven years he was their coach, 34 players received collegiate scholarships. With this job he rediscovered his passion for the sport. This time, he was making a difference in the opposite role. Meeting and exceeding the expectations of his coaching position was Ford’s way of giving back to the community, and redeeming himself in the sport that rejected him years ago. “Of all the jobs I had, that was the one I held the longest and the one that brought me the least amount of money, which I ended up investing back into the football program,” Ford reflected. “It also brought me the most satisfaction of any job I ever had.” Today, Ford enjoys watching his grandson play. Ethan may not face the same profound racism as Ford did, but as proved by the recent National Anthem protests the country is still struggling to rise above racism and provide equal protection for all. The protests by NFL athletes during the singing of the national anthem have become a major news item in the world of sports as well as civil rights, and Ford has

“Menlo Atherton had been on a two and half year losing streak, the second longest in California history”

“Those guys kneeling down, there’s nothing wrong with that”

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his own opinions on the controversy. “Those guys kneeling down, there’s nothing wrong with that,” Ford said. He sees the platform as an acceptable place for players to have their voices heard. He takes issue with Trump’s call to fire the individuals who choose to protest, saying that Trump wouldn’t jeopardize his businesses by firing people key to their success. Ford recounts his life’s story with a calm countenance, peacefully explaining the road he traveled despite the gravity of the things he had to overcome. One might expect bitterness looking back, however he does not seem to have ever carried grudges about his setbacks and roadblocks. Sitting in his living room, discussing his experiences, it was his wife Rochelle who said she can get angry over what happened to Ford but he never does. Ford’s life is more than a “rags to riches” story. He had to fight his way out of poverty to be a successful player and student; he started in perhaps the humblest way and now enjoys life with a happy family in a beautiful house. Despite having his NFL career immorally stripped from him, the love of the sport never left Ford. Perhaps it could explain the differences he was able to make with his own players four decades later. Discrimination faced him at every step, but he returned people’s judgements with passion and dedication. Despite poverty, prejudice, ignorance, and inequality, Ford pushed to follow a path of his own, and with the love of a woman who was willing to face these challenges with him, now lives a fulfilled life. Today, his countenance fully testifies to his character: resilient, dedicated, convicted.

You can read more about Henry Ford’s story in “Gridiron Gauntlet: The Story of the Men who Integrated Pro Football”.


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Viking TRIES: by Nathan Seto and Zach Phillips

Since its addition to the Olymics in 1996, Beach Volleyball has gained supporters worldwide. Viking heads out to the sand courts to try indoor volleyball’s increasingly popular variation: Beach Volleyball.

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he sand, sun, and competition has driven people towards beach volleyball for a century. In the years since 1996, when beach volleyball was added to the Olympics, the popularity of the sport has soared. In the past few years, sand courts have been built and opened all over the Bay Area at a remarkable rate. To learn more about this trend, Viking went out and gave it a try. It was a sweltering Saturday afternoon when we stepped onto the court; the warm, grainy sand embraced our bare feet with each step. Viking Staff Writer Joshua Kasevich (‘19) pulled out a volleyball, and declared that he was “the best vol-

leyball player in the world.” With the confidence of an Olympic champion, Kasevich quickly assembled three relatively equal teams; each with two players. It was soon apparent that no participant was aware of the rules of beach volleyball. Each player assumed that the rules would be the same for beach volleyball as they are for indoor volleyball, but we soon figured out that this was not the case. A quick visit to allvolleyball.com helped cement our understanding of the blossoming sport. Viking Staff Writer Ryan Strathearn (‘19) suggested that we play “tournament style,” where two teams play sets to 21 and a match is best of three sets. The winning team would go on to play the third team. The first game consisted of Kasevich’s team and Strathearn’s team facing off. Strathearn’s teammate, Viking Staff Writer Zach Phillips (‘19), kicked off the game by serving to Kasevich and Viking Copy Editor Stan de Martel (‘19). In an attempt to bump the ball, Kasevich dove headfirst with his arms outstretched. The result was a ball out of bounds and a faceful of sand; the first of many for Kasevich. It was a rocky start for everybody, with many mishits and little verbal communication. Whether it was blaming each other for losses, or accidentally getting sand in each other’s eyes, the team chemistry was not superb. Once we got into a groove and started passing better, the game became competitive and engaging. Throughout the games, we always heard the classic excuses: “the sun was in my eyes!” and “it’s the wind’s fault!” Although our immediate reaction was

to mock the complainer, we soon began to empathize as we started to use those same indignant excuses. In indoor volleyball, natural factors such as wind and sun do not affect players, but these outdoor components clearly influenced play in beach volleyball. To make it fair, we would switch sides of the court around halfway through each game, as in professional beach volleyball. Nobody wanted the glaring sun in their eyes, or the noticeable breeze to throw off their timing. A little over halfway through the time spent on the court, we started to notice a small burning feeling in our calves. The unstable sand court forced us to put an extra effort when diving for the ball or jumping up to spike the ball. Nonetheless, we were all thankful for our school-required physical education and conditioning which allowed us to push through. “It was a really great workout for the calves and the glutes,” Strathearn said. But despite the physical toll, playing on sand might be even better than the firm court of an indoor gym. With a softer surface below us, the fear of diving left our minds. But as Kasevich’s first play taught us, be wary of a faceful of sand. After the games, participants gave us their take on the sport. Overall, Viking found beach volleyball to be a great physical workout, and an intriguing form of the original sport. The game teaches teamwork, communication, and precision. It’s a competition full of participation, so there’s no need to worry about being stuck on the sidelines. Every player on each team contributes and plays a vital role in success, or failure. If you are interested in playing beach volleyball, places such as the Stanford beach volleyball courts, University Club, and Red Rock Volleyball Club have beach volleyball courts for use. You will need a volleyball and people to play with. Sunglasses and sunscreen recommended.

“It was a really great workout for the calves and the glutes” - Ryan Strathearn (‘19)

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Dear Seniors,

Mardrono Yearbook deadlines for baby ads, senior portraits and senior quotes are 10/13/17.

Got coverage ideas?

Cotact your editors!

Chloe

Nooran

Xander Take our buzzfeed quiz! goo.glXEqpx2 44 | V I K I N G M A G A Z I N E |

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PRESEASON

Training Viking explores how Paly sports teams prepare for their seasons including detailed explanation into specific sports preseason schedules and how Paly athletes feel about the strictly regulated offseason in high school athletics. shu photo by Jo

by NATHAN ELLISEN AND JOSHUA KASEVICH

P

aly athletics have many different waysthey train and prepare for each season. Many sports tend to do preseason conditioning, while others do specialized sport training. Even with this, there are plenty of rules and regulations limiting a sports’ ability to train before the season and each sport’s limitations can be very different as some sports receive more attention than others, and some sports are considered more competitive. The football team is a perfect example of how limiting the rules on preseason training can affect a team. After finishing their fall season, the football team has a few months off to relax and stay away from the sport. However, once spring comes, the team gets right back into preparing for the upcoming fall. Unless an athlete is participating in a winter or spring sport, the football players are recommended to do offseason conditioning with weights and aerobics. Once

April hits, the football team is allowed 10 full practices from April until May as CCS rules do not allow any more than 10 of these practices. The football team generally spaces these practices out across the two months to ensure the athletes are in shape when the season comes into full swing. After the spring conditioning and practicing, summer starts and the players have another few weeks off. However, after June 13th, the team starts seven on seven practices and also restarts conditioning and lifting in order to stay in shape for their games in the fall. These practices occur every weekend during the summer. The team gets a few weeks off in the end of July, but full practices start right up on August 3rd. The team then practices every weekday and some Saturdays from August 3rd through the season. “If you join the football team you should expect some physical activity even if it requires a lot of time commitment,” Tyler Foug (‘19) said. “You can’t expect to be physical for a couple of months of the year, therefore coaches should require as much preseason training as [they] feel best suits the team.” Along with the football team, the Palo Alto boys’ baseball

a Kasevich

team is another prime example of a team finding ways to get better in the offseason. The group of boys who make up the team all have one goal: to win a CCS championship. With that, they are motivated to do all they can to get better. The team members go to the weight room on their own, and work out to push themselves to the limits. CCS does not allow the team to have tryouts until mid-February. However, the team starts working out together around the start of the new year. Optional conditioning workouts take place during the week and consist of running, body exercises, and explosive speed drills. “The workouts are brutal. It’s like the coaches are testing our physical limits,” Nathan Willis (‘18) said. In addition to the conditioning, the team has open field workouts, and occasionally 4-1’s. 4-1’s are different from open field, because it allows coaches to get involved. As the name suggests, there are groups of four players for each coach. Players then have the opportunity to get better with instruction from their coach. On the other hand, open field workouts are like practice, but it is run entirely by players. No coaches are allowed to give advice, or help the drill in any way. This is still helpful for players, because it gives them a canvas for their art. With all of the CCS regulations, the boys’ baseball team still finds ways to get

“You can’t expect to just be physical for just a couple of months of the year” Tyler Foug (‘19)

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their work in. Along with baseball and football, the basketball teams also have preseason training to help them prepare for the winter season. After last year’s NorCal semifinal loss, the boys look to get stronger and more physical for the upcoming season. For the boys trying to get in shape before tryouts there is optional conditioning throughout the fall. Although it is technically optional, many boys on the team say it should be required for those not involved in a fall sport. The boys also are given occasional open gyms to not only keep their bodies in shape, but keep their basketball skills sharp. The players enjoy the open gym sessions, but realize there is more to do than just the occasional open gym workout in order to be prepared for the season. Both the conditioning and the open gyms last around two hours and

Photo by Joshua Kasevich

occur on weekdays in the fall. The boys start try outs a few weeks after finishing the conditioning and open gyms in the fall. They have a regular practice schedule right after tryouts begin and the season starts just a few weeks later. The girls’ basketball team has a similar preseason schedule to the boys. During the fall, the girls team is offered open gym scrimmages on Tuesdays and Thursdays for around two hours to maintain their basketball skills before tryouts and the season. This is open to all athletes hoping to try out for the team as well as returning players. Similar to the boys, the girls team is also offered conditioning and weightlifting if they are not on a fall sport team. The girls start tryouts around the same time as the boys and the season starts arond the same time as well. The girls team hopes to avenge their Norcal loss as well as repeat as CCS champions. Finally, The Palo Alto girls’ volleyball team has a busy offseason schedule along with the rest of Paly athletics. Once the previous school year ends, the girls are back at it. Throughout the month of

“Most of our players play club volleyball during our offseason for school” Chelsea Fan (‘18)

n a h t ith Na

‘18) ( s Willi

w r a e Y Weight lifting 1-2 hours 5-6 days in a week

Preseason Paly Training

Preseason Paly Training plus baseball season

Paly Season

Paly Season End

Club baseball plus workouts

Club baseball plus workouts

Club baseball plus workouts

Diet Month plus workouts

Run 2-3 miles plus position work

Run 2-3 miles plus position work

Run 2-3 miles plus position work

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June, the four open gym workouts take place at the Paly gym and are open to everyone. However, after the month of June, the girls are not allowed to have any sort of contact with the coach whatsoever. During the quiet period, players go to the weight room, and condition on their own until tryouts begin. Some of the girls also find alternative ways to get ingame experience away from school. Co-team captain Chelsea Fan (‘18) said, “Most of our players play club volleyball during our offseason from school.” Most paly athletes need to play during the offseason to keep their skills sharp. In the end, most sports have strictly regulated offseason schedules, but the outside work the players put in puts athletes in the best shape for the upcoming season. The teams must maintain their skills at peak performance before the season begins, while staying safe from breaking any CCS rules.

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Word. THE FINAL

by WES WALTERS and MATAN ZIV In this issue we tackle the hot topic of the decriminalization of marijuana. Many states have begun to decriminalize it, why should’nt the NFL, let’s not forget it is called the No Fun League. This is for you, Josh Gordon.

R

andy Moss, Martavis Bryant, Le’Veon Bell, Von Miller, and LeGarrette Blount. What do all of them have in common, except for that they’re good at football? They all were suspended for use of marijuana. Marijuana has been a hot topic around politics the past few years, with California, Alaska, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Colorado, Massachusetts, and Maine voting to legalize the recreational use of marijuana. The entire country is shifting towards the legalization of marijuana, so why are sports not modernizing their rulebook? The incredibly corrupt NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell simply has an archaic stance on marijuana. “There are a lot of compounds in marijuana that may not be healthy for the players long-term.” Goodell said. Science shows that alcohol has a worse effect on the human brain than marijuana does, but the NFL, NBA, and other major sporting groups allow their players to drink alcohol but do not allow the use of marijuana for pain or recreational uses. The NFL signed a $1.5 billion deal making Bud Light

the official beer sponsor of the NFL through 2022. It is illogical to be so pro alcohol when it has been scientifically proven to be worse health wise than marijuana when the NFL’s reasoning for being against marijuana is the health effects. The league wide pain suppressor in the NFL and NBA are opioids. According to a recent study done by Healthline, more people across the world are addicted to opioids than are marijuana. To make matters worse, 15,000 people died in the United States from opioid overdose in 2015. That’s 15,000 more than died from Marijuana overdose. One of the greatest receivers of all time, Calvin Johnson, who just recently retired told reporters that pain killers were handed out “like candy”. It does not make sense that a league so against marijuana is alright promoting the use opioids if the worry is player health. Roger Goodell has been against legalizing marijuana ever since players and advisers have been advocating for allowing its use.“To date, they haven’t said this is a change we think you should make that’s in the best interests of the health and safety of our players. If they do, we’re certainly going to consider that. But to date, they haven’t really said that.” Goodell claims he has people around him who

are supposedly advising him but there is no way the people around him are at all qualified if they are allowing players to get addicted to opioids and continue to allow players to mess up their livers with alcohol. Another issue with the NFL marijuana policy is the degree to which the players are punished. Players like Ray Rice and Greg Hardy received much more lenient punishments after they abused their fiance and girlfriend, respectively. Rice was suspended 2 games initially and eventually it was bumped up to a season after public backlash to the ruling. Hardy was suspended 10 games after hitting his girlfriend and carrying an illegal weapon. Then there is Martavis Bryant, who was suspended for an entire season after he was caught having marijuana in his system a third time. They need to get their priorities staright. It is true that third time offenders are clearly not getting the point and therefore should be punished more harshly. However, taking a player’s paycheck away for an entire year just because they use marijuana just like 52% of Americans over the age of 18 (NBC) is simply absurd. Banning players like Bryant for longer than people like Rice is ludicrous. The NFL must develop their archaic views to match modern day governing. The NFL has much bigger things to worry about than urine tests of hard working athletes. If they were able to focus on the real crimes that are really affecting people. Maybe if the $10 million currently being spent annually on marijuana testing was spent on making the game safer, then former players won’t keep dropping dead at 55. Legalize the Reefer.

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Volume XI Issue 2  
Volume XI Issue 2  
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