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Volume XI Issue I

Viking October, 2017



A detailed explanation of the past, present and future of sports betting in the US Pg. 34

Viking Magazine would like to thank our sponsors Arden and Marilyn Anderson Melissa Anderson and Howard Look Viki and Jim Anderson Michele Ashland James and Danielle Christopherson Mark and Melinda Christopherson Sandy and John Gifford Jim Haydel The Haydel-Brown’s Fran Hall Mary Larson Harlean McClenny Adam and Dana Phillips Jennifer Seto Chip and Trey Anderson

Viking is fully funded by ads and sponsorships. If you are interested in supporting the magazine by becoming a sponsor or if you wish to buy an ad, contact us at



10-11 Staff Photo, Editorial, Letter from the editors 12-14 Intro Package 16-17 Paly to the Pros 18-19 10 Years of Viking 20-25 Paly’s Pep Problem 26-27 The Contract Gap 29-31 Obscure Sports: Off the Beaten Path 32-33 Getting Huge Viking Style 34-39 Bet on in: The Future of Sports Gambling 41-42 Viking Tries: J.J. Watt Diet 42-43 Evolution of Jerseys 44-45 Obscure CCS Rules: Not a Minor Issue 47

Final Word



Ria Pai (‘20) reaches for a backhand in a doubles match versus Homestead. The Vikings went on to win 4-3. Photo by David Hickey



Britney Fan (‘19) sets the ball for a spike by Amelia Gibbs (‘20). Paly won the game against Gunn in straight sets. Photo by David Hickey

Aiden Chang (‘19) stiff arms a defender to elude the tackle and gain more yards. Paly lost the game to Aragon 41-14. Photo by Grace Thayer



Volume XI, Issue 1 October 2017

From everyone at Viking, please enjoy our first issue! Staff List

Editors-in-Chief Bryan Look Sabrina Hall Executive Senior Staff Writer Will Strauch Features Editors Lauren Daniel Sabrina Hall Design Editor Yue Shi Multimedia Editors Wes Walters Matan Ziv

Staff Writers Cole Sotnick Ellie Jeffries Hayley Levine Jason Shorin Mallory Kuppe Nathan Seto Ryan Strathearn Zach Baumgarten Zach Phillips Eirc Aboytes Josh Kasevich Maria Fletcher Nathan Ellisen Photo Editor David Hickey

Copy Editor Stan de Martel News Editors Max Jung-Goldberg Hayley Levine Head Columnists Wes Walters Matan Ziv Business Manager Lauren Daniel Staff Advisor Brian Wilson

Viking Magazine Palo Alto High School 50 Embarcadero Road Palo Alto, CA 94301 650-329-3837 Email contact: Advertising and Sponsorship Contact: Viking, a sports magazine published by the students in Palo Alto High School’s Advanced Magazine Journalism class, is an open forum for student expression and the discussion of issues of concern to its readership. The Viking is distributed to its readers and the student body at no cost. The staff welcomes letters to the editor, but reserves the right to edit all submissions for length, grammar, potential libel, invasion of privacy and obscenity. Advertising in Viking The staff publishes advertisements with signed contracts providing they are not deemed by the staff inappropriate for the magazine’s audience. For more information about advertising with The Viking, please contact the The Viking by email at Printing Services 2,500 copies of The Viking are printed, six times a year by Fricke-Parks Press in Fremont, Calif. Logo Font Courtesy of Måns Grebäck All photos taken from Creative Commons unless noted

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From the editors Dear readers,

Welcome back! We here at Viking Magazine hope that you all had wonderful summer vacations and are settling into the new school year well. We are so excited to bring you the first issue of the eleventh year of Viking Magazine and we cannot wait to see what the rest of this year brings. We have welcomed twelve wonderful new members to our staff, and we are looking forward to teaching them the ways of Viking and working with them this year. Each new member has been vital to the publication of Issue 1 and we cannot wait to see what else they bring to the table as the rest of the year unfolds. In our cover story, Stan de Martel (‘19), Nathan Ellison (‘19), Ellie Jefferies (‘19), and Zach Phillips (‘19) look into sports

gambling and the controversy that has surrounded it since its inception. Additionally, Lauren Daniel (‘19), Mallory Kuppe (‘19), and Max Jung-Goldberg (‘18) explore student athletes’ feelings about peer support at verious sporting events, as well as their view on how sports contribute to social standing. Make sure to also check out Wes Walters (‘19) and Nathan Seto’s (‘19) overview of some of the world’s most obscure sports, and be sure to use the QR codes for a fun video representation of the sports that are discussed. Additionally, If you’re looking to be more informed about the reasons behind some controversial CCS rules, check out Eric Aboytes (‘19) and Ryan Strathearn’s (‘19) quest to learn more about the Central Coast Sec-

tion. This year, we began a sponsorship program in an effort to recognize those who have given generous donations to the magazine, and we are so thankful for all of the people who have given. This magazine is entirely student run and is not funded by the school at all, so we rely on ads and the generosity of community members like you to publish each issue. If you would like to become a sponsor or purchase an advertisement please email or talk to someone on staff. We hope that you will take a well-deserved break from homework, tests and those dreaded college applications and enjoy this first issue of Viking Magazine, we know you’ll love it.

Sko Vikes!

Bryan Look Sabrina Hall

Staff view

On the Potential for a Hall of Fame

After months of anticipation, the new Peery Family Center is open to students and fall sports teams are enjoying the complex’s many features. The large gym boasts many memorable tributes to outstanding Paly athletes, including huge murals of former students Jeremy Lin (‘06) and Maddie Kuppe (‘12), a trophy case at the south end, and the names of state championship-winning teammates surrounding the four corners. However, the Athletic Department is being careful to not call the collection a hall of fame. Why? The topic is not a new discussion for the department. The administration involved in the debate deliberated about whether the planned collection of tributes could themselves be called a hall of fame, but they honor only team achievements and a few coaches rather than highlighting a group admitted by passing criteria. Requiring more work than they had originally thought, the project was set aside

in absence of a director for it. Although it would take a little extra effort from the school, we think that the benefits of a hall of fame are well worth it. Menlo-Atherton High School created a hall of fame in 1994 and held inductions annually until 1998, then held two more a few years later. The program stalled for a number of years until its re-boot in 2014 and an induction is now held every other year. According to Menlo-Atherton Athletic Director Paul Snow, the hall of fame is a great tradition because it honors accomplished athletes and allows their legacy to live on. “It is a great way to not only honor those who made a huge athletic contribution to your school, but also a way for alumni to reconnect and reminisce about their high school days,” Snow said. “Inductions are always the highlight of my year, and the same can be said for all those who attend.” Menlo-Atherton’s example would be

invaluable for setting up Paly’s own hall of fame. Their criteria, Snow told us, has five elements. Teams, individual athletes, coaches, and other influential figures that helped progress the athletic department could all be potential candidates. Each nominee must have made a significant achievement in his or her sport at the high school, college, professional, or amateur level. There is also an athletic Community Service Award for those who have helped promote the department. Creating a hall of fame is both an opportunity to enhance our gym and a form of tangible appreciation for notable alumni. The school will need to decide on induction criteria, but more importantly we need a member of the community to take the initiative to spearhead the project. Under good leadership, with a sustainable induction system, Paly could honor the staff and students that have made our school’s athletics great.


Pop Culture Grid Maddi Page (‘21) Tennis

Dexter Gormley (‘20) Water polo

Henry Saul (‘19) Cross Country

Favorite Movie?


We’re the Millers

Star Wars

Get Out

Shark Tale

Better to watch, college or pros?











Water polo



A maze but really nice



Kirks or Gotts?

Favorite fall sport to watch?

The new gym is...


Avery Wooten (‘18) Volleyball

Reece chasing down students on his bike Saucy

Sophie Frick (‘18) Water polo


Pretty sweet

Moment of the Month

Girls Volleyball wins first game 3-0 in the new Peery Family Center against cross-town rival, Gunn. 12 | V I K I N G M A G A Z I N E |

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Viking Magazine had

the chance to ask Paly Football’s Jackson Chryst (‘19) 10 questions. We then asked his coach, teammate and friend. Here are their responses... as told to Ellie Jeffries and Jason Shorin

10 Questions with

JacksonCHRYST Jared Wulburn (‘18) Friend

Danny Sullivan Coach

Bryant Jefferson (‘18) Teammate

Funniest Teammate?

Bryant Jefferson

Andres Jimenez

Brey Johnson

Favorite Profesional Athlete?

Clayton Kershaw

Kevin Durant

Russell Westbrook College Football

Jackson Chryst (‘19) Football


Andres Jimenez Aaron Rodgers Football

Favorite Sport to Watch?


Margot Robbie

Celebrity Crush?

Jennifer Aniston

Jason Shorin

Best Fantasy Football Owner?

Nathan Willis’ Dad BBQ ranch chicken quesadillas Rollin Like a Stoner

PB&J Sandwich

Pregame Meal?

Danger Zone

Hype Song?


Favorite Team?


Football or Basketball?


In-N-Out or Five Guys?

Hockey Charlize Theron


Wes Walters


Red Bull

Driftwood Sandwich

Enter Sandman San Jose Sharks

Just a Friend Palo Alto Vikings




Five Guys


Five Guys




10% OCTOBER 2017

Onh o

“Ev highwvol l e s a t c g to r sin scho eyba affe ein n lla c p i b o e a l t On cap is just a help ay w fresh lex ffec a g ein . It in bein ed w ith u man peri tedhe p nk b e team capta en r it i g h t a th c .” enjo mor h ma per c year nt s l o l n e d a o e y h eo r kin las I w e “I e y w le f l l o e a r u a o r i s g g m s tg u my . Basic to the spo ld ha h sch oing frien an. able T o d v . title s is talk r wit t to e if I ol m I defi s an his h o hel doe o d d n the p m idnt re th etly a rp h e eo con ave t I ple ne a ct .”


“I think the student base is definitely better than the previous years. A lot of my firends are really supportive and for the past two years driving to Gunn has been a pain. I’m really glad that for my senior year, my friends are able to suppport our team through the season.” e

On her n kna ic me the ha mmer

“Haha I h am n lly t ia a mickn ot sure how it bec in a ec d m p an n decided e, I think Tyle ame es al ew n er r jus to v , m i a n k r n e la a hamm t Gu n st y e a r un est the t to a er n g pe d it caugh s G t on.” in O t igg in lo ’ve t m ea r b ying we we m a b e Gy ou pla ear py the B to t are e y ap er On ea y tim n h w gr he st am lly o wlt e t fir sh rea erp fe waus our fre ’m ov I to y “It c s be t wa m. M , so ble i y nn a g u n ” G ee ce. b in s

t cap

Chelsea Fan

Inside the mind of

On the student fan base

2190 W Bayshore Rd #150 Palo Alto, CA 94303

855 El Camino Real #157, Palo Alto, CA 94301

Would you like to advertise here? contact us at


Many high school athletes terminate their sporting careers after graduating, however, a handful continue their athletic careers to play as professionals. Viking takes a look at former Paly athletes and where they are now after making it to the pros.



tu Pederson: Former Major League Baseball player Stu Pederson (‘78) started his impressive career at the grounds of Palo Alto High School (Paly). After his years at Paly, Pederson went on play at three different institutions: Foothill College, University of South Carolina, and University of Pacific. After college, Pederson was drafted in the 9th round (209 overall) of the 1981 MLB Draft by the Los Angeles Dodgers. Pederson led the Vero Beach Dodgers (minor league team) in triples in 1982 . He was leaps and bounds ahead of the competition in the minors batting .292 which is why he got the call to the big’s. Pederson made his major-league debut on September 8, 1985. During his time in the majors he struggled to find


ways to help the Dodgers win games. of four children; he has three sons and This shortcoming lead to his final one daughter. Two out of three of Pedgame in the MLB on October 6, 1985. ersons sons have played in the DodgHe failed to record a hit in the eight ers farm system. Joc made it to the big games he played, which leagues, and was an All left him with no batting Star his rookie year. His average. The one stat youngest child is his he recorded was a run daughter Jacey who batted in by a sacrifice is an elite soccer playfly. He will always have er at UCLA. Pederson a big league stat, which has been able to settle is more than millions of down in Palo Alto and baseball players can say. - Stu Pederson (‘78) in watch his family follow After his baseball career, conversation with the in his athletic foothe went on to coach at steps. His family looks LA Times Paly, as well as Cuperto improve as people tino High School. He and athletes and keep owns a family business that sells tickets their roots in Palo Alto. for sporting events. Pederson is a father

“As a man that’s just what you do, you be there for your kids.”


im Harbaugh: Before playing and coaching for elite football teams, Jim Harbaugh (‘82) was an accomplished athlete at Palo Alto High School. After moving to Palo Alto from Michigan, Harbaugh competed in three separate varsity sports; football, baseball, and basketball. During his high school career he racked up some impressive numbers in all of his competitions, including a nearly 20 point per game average during his senior basketball season. Based on a Viking article written by Sammy Solomon and Jonny Glazier, Harbaugh enjoyed his experi-

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ence at Palo Alto High. “[Paly’s] academics are sensational,” Harbaugh said. “[Paly] Really helped prepare me for college which I always appreciate.” Harbaugh excelled academically and athletically at the University of Michigan. Harbaugh led the wolverines to the number two ranking in the country as a ju`nior and placed third in the Heisman Trophy race as a senior. After college, Harbaugh played for four different teams in a span of 13 years in the league. He raked in an impressive 26,288 passing yards over his career and was nicknamed “Captain Comeback” for his ability to rally his team when they were down. Af-

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ter his long history of playing football, Harbaugh now is an elite coach. He coached for numerous teams including hometown favorites, the 49ers and Stanford University. Today you can find Harbaugh on the sidelines at University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, where he is currently trying to get the Wolverines up to Number two overall, as he did many years ago. Last season, Harbaugh was not able to live up to his nickname as a choch in a game against Ohio State University. They fell to the Buckies in overtime and ended up not making the College Football Playoffs. Harbaugh looks to make it to the playoffs in future years and hopefully make it to the College Football National Championship.




hristoph Bono: From the start of his high school career, Christoph Bono (‘11) was a different kind of athlete. During the 2010 Paly school year, Bono led the football team with his quarterbacking skill to win a state championship in football, and was a key contributor to a quality baseball team. Bono’s skill at quarterback for the football team was what led them to great success. The next year he went on to win a CCS championship for baseball which is the only CCS championship for the sport in Paly’s records. It turned out that his niche was in baseball, which gave him the opportunity to play Division 1 at UCLA. UCLA is a part of the


Pac 12 conference and has a very com- get a strong education and find a way petitive baseball program, so for a play- to make it to the College World Series er to go there they must be top notch. (CWS). In 2013 his second dream came Along with his baseball true; after winning “I am thankful for the skills, Bono was also an the Super Regionals elite student. With the experiences I had at Paly he had made it to the academics that Paly ofCWS. UCLA went on that laid the foundafers as a high school it to defeat Mississippi tion for my transition to State to win the Namade the transfer to a UCLA” strong academic unitional Championship. - Christoph Bono (‘10) versity not as hard After his years in colas it could be. lege, Bono was draft“Paly helped me prepare me for ed in the 27th round of 2016 MLB Draft college by teaching me time by the local San Francisco Giants. Soon management, prioritization, after being drafted, Bono was traded to and how to balance being be a part of the San Diego Padres orsuccessful in the classroom, ganization. His goal is to make it to the and on the field.” said Bono. big leagues. His goal is to make it to the His dreams in college were to Big leagues.


ily Zhang: After picking up her first nearly 400 thousand people viewed table tennis paddle at the age of Zhang destroy her opponents in an Inseven, Lily Zhang (‘14) has never stagram post by the Bleacher Report. looked back. She started playing at the The video shows her impressive table Palo Alto Table Tennis tennis skills and amazClub where she made “Paly was fantastic in ing accomplishments the United States the 21 year-old. consistently supporting of women’s national Zhang currently is atteam at age 12, which and encouraging my table tending UC Berkeley was the youngest where she continues tennis goals” ever by a table tennis to prove herself as -Lily Zhang (‘14) player. At Palo Alto one of the best Amerihigh School, Zhang furthered her table can table tennis players. She is a 4 time tennis skills and confidence. national ping pong champion and took “Paly was fantastic in consistently sup- gold and bronze at the Pan American porting and encouraging my table ten- Games in 2015. Zhang also competed nis goals,” Zhang said. in the 2012, and 2016 Olympics in LonRecently, on September 12th, 2017 don and Rio, and is training for the up-

coming Olympics. Zhang was honored with being the number one qualifier in the 2016 olympics. “I’m training a lot less than I did in high school, but I’m also planning on trying to graduate college a semester earlier so I have the option of training full time in preparation for the Tokyo 2020 Olympics,” Zhang said. As of now she is doing what she can to train and prepair for the upcoming olympic games in Tokyo. “It would be such an honor and an absolute dream come true if I could win the first Olympic medal for the U.S.” Zhang said.




Years Of Viking

Viking Magazine was proposed by three students spring of 2008. Ellen Austin, hired over the summer to be a part of the growing paly journalism program, became the adviser and it was an official publication at the beginning of the 2008-2009 school year.


“Looking back I didn’t have any idea what we were getting ourselves into, and how could we? Thankfully plenty of talented students were interested in the idea and joined the staff…” -- Peter Johnson Johnson (‘10) and Noah Sneider (‘10), two of the original editors, now have careers in journalism, working at San Luis Obispo News and The Economist respectively.


Oct. 29, 2007 Viking made history with their first issue as the first sportsfocused high school publication in the country.

Seizing the Opportunity

“I have a distinct memory of being at baseball practice with Noah, outside the old batting cages, throwing ideas around and getting each other psyched. [...] We capitalized on a rumor that Woj wanted to expand the journalism department.” -- Charlie Avis (‘10), First Editor in Chief of Viking Magazine

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A Legacy

“[I’m] so glad that the Viking legacy has lived on… Viking was a groundbreaking high school publication when we started it in 2007, and it quickly made its presence known in the pantheon of high school publications right from the start.” -- Ellen Austin, First Adviser of Viking Magazine “Working with the Viking Staff in 2013-14 was one of my most enjoyable experiences as a teacher. The enthusiasm and talents of the staff, as well as the quality of their work, continued the tradition of a stalwart member of the Paly Journalism program.” -- Mike McNulty, Adviser of Viking Volume 7

In flight

“I’m excited to see where Viking goes in the future because it’s the type of area you can really push a lot of issues that are important to students – to not just be a vehicle for covering sports but also to be a place where students can really get into some social issues that are important to them through the viewpoint of sports.” -- Brian Wilson, Current Adviser of Viking Magazine


PALY’S PEP PROBLEM Viking explores the large gap between student attendance at popular events like football and basketball, and other sports that are generally under-supported.



right lights shine onto the football field on a Friday night. The bleachers are packed to the brim with fans and sounds fill the stadium. From student chants and the energy of the cheerleaders to the band playing classics like “Drum Cadence”, “Green and White”, and “All Right Now”, the team rallies behind the school spirit. There is no better feeling than playing in front of a sold out crowd. The energy and fire that passionate fans bring to sporting events rubs off on the athletes. This scene is fairly similar across all high schools in America on Friday nights and is shown as such in the media. Contrast this high energy, loud, pumped up scene to that of a typical game for the majority of other high school sports. The only spectators at most high school sports games are parents and sometimes a few friends, but other than that the scene is pretty desolate. Soccer player Leela Srinivasan (‘19) agrees with this. “I definitely think that Paly soccer is under supported, our fans are consistently players’ parents and a couple friends that felt obliged to come,” Srinivasan said. In popular media, it seems to be the go-to stereotype that football players are at the top of the social totem pole and are somewhat emotionless jocks who only date cheerleaders. However, in reality, this is not the case for most high schools in America. This image of the social hierarchy in American high schools can be seen in many TV shows and movies, including more recent ones like Friday Night Lights, High School Musical, Riverdale, Glee, Teen Wolf, and One Tree Hill. In all of these stories, the social groups tend to

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center around sports. The sports that these shows frequently depict are football, cheerleading, basketball, or baseball. Since these sports are the only ones being represented in the media, it has become second nature for students to feel the highest social obligation to attend

perate sport,” Wagner said. “No one believes it’s a real team which is a real bummer, because we’re actually really good in our league.” Boy’s water polo player Ben Rapperport (‘19) also feels that his team is under supported by the Paly student fan base. “Water polo is actually a really intense and high scoring game to watch,” Rapperport said. “I just think most people have never actually seen a game so they don’t appreciate it. I think we just need our fans to come to our big home games and they will realize how exciting it is.” Wrestler Andrew Wang (‘19) feels that more extensive reports of the playby-play action of generally less known sports could bring attention to the team. “I think the best way to attract students attention to the sport are descriptive reports by the media,” Wang said. “If the media shines more light onto our sport daily and encourages students to come watch our tournaments, I believe our fan base could rise exponentially.” Basketball and badminton player Marvin Zou (‘19) sees the same pattern at his badminton games, especially in contrast to his lively basketball games. “Most people don’t know much about badminton so a lot of them don’t take the team seriously,” Zou said. “So even though there are over 80 kids who try out

“I think the consistent entertainment is what makes sports fun to watch” -Jackson Chryst (‘19) the games or to play for the team itself. While some Paly sports get a lot of hype, and deserve to keep receiving it, some other sports are not feeling the love. Girl’s golf team member Lauren Wagner (‘18) thinks the golf team deserves much more recognition as a successful Paly sport. “I believe [girls’ golf] is under supported, the majority of the school doesn’t even know we have a golf team,” Wagner said. “Even some of my senior friends didn’t know until I told them I was on the team; and even then they didn’t believe me.” Little to no student support can bring down a team’s spirit and hold them back from reaching their full potential. “It really makes us feel more like a des-

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for the team every year, people outside of the team don’t really care about it.” A reason that large student audiences seem to only be present for a small percentage of sports could be that a lot of students attend sports games for the social aspect. Srinivasan agrees with this. “For a lot of people, attending football games is purely for the social experience,” Srinivasan said. Starting football quarterback Jackson Chryst (‘19) shares the same views as Srinivasan, despite playing for one of the most popular sports to attend. “I think people at Paly go for more of the social aspect,” Chryst said. “Some students tend to go to sporting events to see their friends from both Paly and other schools to hang out and they’re not so interested in the game.” Because lots of people go for the social opportunity, students don’t usually attend games with few other fans if they don’t have a connection to the team. If a greater population of the student body attended games for more sports, there would be more school pride towards our entire athletic program. Coverage of sports, whether in a news publication or on a television station, plays a very significant role in how the popularity of the sport gets out into the world of Paly students. “I think Paly media does a great job at covering all sports,” basketball player Max Dorward (‘18) said. “There have

been times when I’ve read about sports that I didn’t know people at Paly participated in.” On the contrary, other students like tennis player Hunter North (‘18) feel that even when occasionally covered by media outlets, some sports

tion in Paly media.” Even the school takes advantage of the popularity of certain sports by making admission cost slightly more for those sports. The price for a standard league football game is $5 for students, while a volleyball game or wrestling match is $3. Also, most other sports games are free to attend which reflects the small amount of student attendance at a normal game. Historically in America, the same sports have always had the highest attendance. The root of why these sports usually have a higher attendance rate than others is most likely due to many cumulative reasons. Many people believe this huge attendance gap could be partially due to the national attention of the professional versions of the sports. Since people are more familiar with these sports, they are more likely to attend these games than sports they don’t know much about. Wa-

“If the media shines more light onto our sport daily and encourages students to come watch our tournaments, then I believe our fan base could grow exponentially” -Andrew Wang (‘19) still do not get equal representation in relation to the sports with a higher following. “Not all sports gain equal coverage in the media; although that makes sense because most of them don’t generate the same attention and money that sports like football and basketball do,” North said. “The sports that get the most attention among the Paly student community will get the highest representa-


ter polo captain Hollie Chiao (‘18) agrees that this is one of the reasons that some sports usually do not gain a lot of spectators. “I’m super proud to go to a school with such a dedicated fan base, but water polo games historically haven’t been popular events to attend,” Chiao said. “This is probably because it’s a relatively new sport compared to football and basketball, and people aren’t aware of how exciting it is.” Before high school basketball games and football games were the place to be, these sports could have been “chosen” to be the ones everyone attends because there always seems to be something going on. Chryst echoed this statement. “I think consistent entertainment is what makes sports interesting to watch,” Chryst said. Basketball and volleyball are both sports with action occurring for most of the time which could explain the popularity surrounding the sports. For other sports, the popularity of the sport is more accurately an interest passed down generation after generation and it has become more like a part of the American culture. This has been portrayed in sports such as football and

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baseball. For example, according to ESPN, in 1985, 24 percent of people said that professional football was their favorite sport to watch. By the year 2014, that number raised to 35 percent. The majority of our parents were young adults in the 80s and chances are, if we had parents that enjoyed watching football, we would grow up watching it. This constant exposure throughout one’s childhood inevitably builds a sentimental connection between the sport and the spectator. Also, baseball and football are such an ingrained part of our culture as Americans, even much so that baseball is often nicknamed our “national pastime.” This is a big part of our culture that is not seen in many other parts of the world as prevalent as it is here. Some images that come to mind when people think of American culture are insane sports fans at football tailgates, with tents and RVs parked side by side and/ or a day out at a baseball game with a hot dog in hand. Considering their signifigance in our culture, it is clear why these sports tend to have higher attendance of fans, even at the high school level. Student-athletes make up a majority of the Paly population and whether they

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are on teams that are under supported or well supported, it is easy for them to make friendships among other Paly individuals. Based on a poll of 100 Paly students, 88 percent of the students said that athletes either sometimes, often or always get more social attention than non-student athletes. Then, when asked to select all sports that attract the most social attention, 85.7 percent of the students selected football and 60.4 percent selected basketball. Generally there seems to be a consensus about this subject across the student body, which is consistent with even the athletes themselves. “I think it [playing basketball] definitely has brought me closer to a lot of people,” Dorward said. “When on a team, you spend a lot of time with your teammates which brings everyone really close together. Not only that, but by getting closer with my teammates, I have gotten to know a lot more people at Paly which I hadn’t met before.” Dorward’s teammate concurs with his statement above. “I’m close friends with students in my class and with athletes from the sports I play,” basketball player Spencer Rojahn (‘18) said. “In general, there is just a bigger pool of people who student athletes can become closer with.” Although the popularity surrounding

certain sports and the players of those sports have seemed static in the past, these social hierarchies are everchanging. In the future, it will be interesting to see how other sports gain and lose popularity at both the high school and professional level. Meanwhile, comparing the attendance at girls’ sports games versus boys’ sports games is a completely different story. Similar to the massive attendance gap between the few popular sports and most other sports is the gap between attendance at girls’ and boys’ basketball games. Some believe that since the girls’ game is right before the boys’ game, most people only commit to the boys’ varsity game because they don’t want to stay for more than an hour or two. “A lot of people think that guys are more ‘entertaining’ than girls and I think girls aren’t taken as seriously as the guys in some people’s eyes,” basketball player Carly Leong (‘18) said. “Although, I think the attendance gap is getting a lot better because people are supporting both teams recently.” Once other sports gain equal coverage in the media, they will likely increase in popularity and support for sports all across the board may even out. Once all sports have significant student attendance, our viking pride will reach new heights. At the heart of our Paly spirit is our love for competition and our support towards the one team we all fall under, the Vikings.

Viking Polls Student's Favorite Sport to Attend

Google forms Favorite Paly sport to watch Othe r : 10 % T rack : 2 % Othe r : 10 %

Football : 27 %

Cross Country : 4 % T rack : 2 % Football : 27 %

Base ball : 2 % Cross Country : 4 % Socce r : 5 % Base ball : 2 % Socce : 4 r : 5 % Lacrosse % Lacrosse : 4 % Volle yball : 11 % Volle yball : 11 %

Baske tball : 35 %

Football Basketball Cross Country Track

Volleyball Other

Baske tball : 35 % Lacrosse Soccer


Sports that bring the most social attention

Based off a poll of 100 Paly Students


The Contract Gap NFL players are significantly underpaid and deserve more lucrative contracts


by ZACH BAUMGARTEN and HAYLEY LEVINE hroughout the 21st first century, the National Football League has been the largest American professional sports organization, yet its players are paid significantly less than players in the National Basketball Association and other professional sports organizations. Just last year, the NFL is estimated to have brought in $14 billion, a revenue sum much higher than the NBA’s $5.2 billion. This year Otto Porter, an emerging fourth year player from the Washington Wizards, will have a higher annual salary than the two-time most valuable player award winner Aaron Rodgers, Mr. Discount Double Check himself. This is not a quirky statistic, but rather a common theme present in current NFL and NBA contracts. In 2016, the average NFL salary was $2.1 million per year, whereas the average NBA salary was $6.2 million a year. The most common explanation for the inferior NFL contracts is football teams’ larger rosters. The NFL teams each carry a 53 man roster compared to the 14 man NBA roster. The common theory behind this is that NFL owners have more players to pay, and therefore the pie will be cut into smaller pieces. However, the NFL has 32 teams, a number similar to the NBA’s 30. With a similar number of teams, both the NFL and NBA have similar numbers of star players. Both of the league’s revenues are highly contributed to by their following and the popularity generated from star players. These players in many ways define each individual league, as their athletic ability creates the public demand for content, which then enables both leagues to bring in tremendous amounts of money. The fact of the matter is that without star players, both the NFL and NBA would have similar amounts of public relevance as semi professional leagues. Given the tremendous size of the NFL’s revenue, it does not make sense why NFL stars are given significantly less lucrative contracts compared to their NBA counterparts. In addition, the individual performances of NFL players has created an enormously profitable market in fantasy

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football. According to American Express, 74.7 million Americans will play fantasy football this year. Fantasy football has added a new motive to watch NFL games and has created a huge viewer audience for the NFL. A 2011 study done by the Journal of Sport Administration and Supervision, found that ESPN Monday Night Football had more views during games that included players who started on more than 50% of fantasy football teams. Star players generate the most excitement in playing fantasy football, and owners are most intrigued by the performances of star players. In many ways, the star players in the NFL have generated

5 yrs / $110,000,000 Avg: 22,000,000

Aaron Rodgers, QB Green Bay Packers Accomplishments: Super Bowl Champ Super Bowl XLV MVP 2x NFL MVP

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the growing interest in fantasy football which directly correlates to NFL viewership and therefore revenue. Another explanation as to why NFL players are paid less compared to their NBA counterparts is the higher chance of injury and shorter careers. Why would NFL owners offer large guaranteed contracts if players are likely to get hurt? NFL superstar Odell Beckham Jr is one of the many players advocating for more money and is a great representation of the value a star player brings to the NFL. Throughout his three year career, Beckham has been a major revenue asset to the league; he recently led the league

2 yrs / $41,000,000 Avg: 20,500,000

Tom Brady, QB New England Patriots Accomplishments: 5x Super Bowl Champ 4x Super Bowl MVP 2x NFL MVP

in jersey sales and has almost nine million instagram followers. Beckham has voiced his concerns over the constant threat of injury in the NFL and believes that players are undercompensated for the injury threats they face on the field. “It’s not even a full-contact sport, I would call it a full-collision sport,” Beckham said. “You have people running who can run 20 miles per hour and they’re running downhill to hit you, and you’re running 18 miles per hour. That’s a car wreck. The careers are shorter. There’s injuries that you have after you leave the game, brain injuries, whatever it is, nerve injuries. And it’s just something that I feel as if there’s no way someone who — even if they did their three or four years in the league — should have to worry about money for the rest of their lives,” he finished.

5 yrs / $201,158,790 Avg: $40,231,758

Stephen Curry, PG Golden State Warriors Accomplishments: 2x NBA Champion 2x NBA MVP

Beckham’s concern over injuries is not an unworthy claim. In fact, the NFL has had exceptional amounts of instances of severe post career medical issues that have resulted not only in high medical bills but have also affected a player’s ability to live a comfortable, healthy lifestyle. A 2017 study done by the Medical Journal of JAMA found that Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, known as CTE, was found in 99% of deceased NFL players’ brains that were donated to scientific research. The symptoms of CTE include memory loss, confusion, impaired judgment, impulse control problems, aggression, depression, anxiety, suicidality, parkinsonism, and, eventually, progressive dementia. In addition, many NFL players with CTE have committed suicide or have experienced symptoms that dramatically affect their ability to live a func-

tional life after football. NFL players deserve to be compensated for playing a game that has such a dramatic chance of serious injury. After all, NFL players are more than dispensable business assets and deserve to be treated as such. The NFL has done little to support players suffering through dramatic post career injuries highlighted by brain damage such as CTE. Although it is possible for the NFL to fully reimburse players for long term injuries attained while playing, larger contracts would be a start. At the end of the day, NFL players are the ones most responsible for the revenue generated by the league and its owners. Not only do they deserve to be paid more than NBA players for playing in a more profitable league, but also for the risk involved in playing such a dangerous sport.

4 yrs / $228,000,000 Avg: 57,000,000

James Harden. SG Houston Rockets Accomplishments: 4x NBA All Star NBA Assists Leader


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Off the BEATEN

PATH by Nathan Seto and Wes Walters

In the world of sports today, athletes are not limited to classic ball games. These unheard-of sports have yet to become as popular as their vintage counterparts. Today, there are many obscure sports that have not been discovered by the majority of the world. Here is a closer look at a few of them. OCTOBER 2017


Canoe/Kayak Polo

verybody has heard of canoeing down a river, and possibly even white-water kayaking, but very few know about canoe polo. It’s an aqueous fuse of water polo, kayaking, and a bit of basketball where teams go head to head in the water. Most people recognize canoe polo from the hilariously dangerous accidents that are filmed and posted on YouTube. Canoe polo is played in the World Games, which is basically the Olympics for the sports that do not make it into the actual Olympics. Every four years, one year after the Summer Olympics, national teams from around the world gather to compete for the chance to play in the World Championship of Canoe Polo. Other than the World Games, there are many other competitions for Canoe Polo as well. Canoe polo players ride in a lighter and faster kayak that has better maneuverability than a regular kayak. They are equipped with a double-sided paddle for boosting themselves through the water and for blocking the ball. The object of the game is to throw the ball into a goal suspended two meters above the surface of the water, much like basketball. The difference is that a goal is used instead of the basket, and goaltending is legal. The goalie is the

player closest to the center of the goal and they use their paddle to block the ball from going into the goal. Benjamin Rapperport (‘19), a varsity Water Polo player from Palo Alto High School, has actually played canoe polo. He and some friends went out to Shoreline Lake to attempt the sport. “I really like waterpolo and I love to kayak, so it seemed like a lot of fun,” Rapperport said. The experience did not disappoint. Rapperport described the game as “super fun” and “really com- petitive and intense.” Something key that he m e n t i o n e d when reviewing the game was teamwork.

“Teamwork was super important because you couldn’t advance without passing, so you really relied on your team,” Rapperport said. Much like the games of water polo and basketball, teamwork is vital in the game of passing and shooting. Teams pass the ball around, looking for openings and hoping to catch the goalie off guard. Although it doesn’t seem like a physical sport, it is considered a contact sport because of the violent tackles and capsizing of o p p o n e n t s kayaks. Canoe polo is one of the entertaining and fascinating sports that many do not know about.

“Teamwork was super important... you really relied on your team” -Benjamin Rapperport (‘19)

Underwater Hockey

Ice hockey is one of the most played and most watched sports in the world. In the summer when there is no ice to play on people will grab their roller skates and play out in the streets. There is a new evolving variation off of the original game that has taken off in Singapore, it’s called Octopush. Many people will recognize it as underwater hockey. Imagine playing hockey with a snorkel and a tiny little stick. You are submerged under 6-8 feet of water, but there are a few differences in the rules. It is non-contact, so a player who touches someone else gets a penalty. Many may think that you can’t get hurt because

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it is underwater and non-contact. Many people suffer your typical sports injuries, but recently players have begun to get concussions which could be potentially life threatening. Underwater hockeywas created in the United Kingdom in 1954 and has been played ever since. The first Underwater Hockey World Championship was held in Canada in 1980. It has been played pretty much

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every other year since then. In 1998 it was held right in our backyard in San Jose, California. Although it has been played for over half a century, underwatwer hockey is one of the least known and most interesting sports on the planet. We hope that it becomes a more mainstream sport and begins to be covered by the media.

Chess Boxing One of the least explored sports in the world is chess-boxing, a hybrid of mental and physical strength. It blends two traditional pastimes together: chess and boxing, despite being close opposites. Chess is a mental and strategic board game in which one player attempts to checkmate their opponent, whereas boxing is a bodily fight in which the two boxers win by knocking out their opponent or by a judge decision. The two are combined into chess-boxing, in which the athletes compete in 11 alternating rounds of chess and boxing. Participants may win by checkmate, knockout in the ring, a judge’s decision, or if someone runs out of time in the chess game. The intensity of the sport is as high as it gets. Complete focus is necessary during both the chess and boxing rounds for a successful chess boxer. The contestants must worry about winning the boxing match as well as the chess game because they can lose either way. Different chessboxing strategies are used to play

unique,” although she also claimed it would be impossible to perfect, as “the two disciplines are too far away from each other.” “You can obviously be good at both chess and boxing, but you need to invest to the competitor’s strength, either the 100 percent of time and effort into one boxing or the chess. Some thing to be even near the may use the chess rounds top,” Wang said. as time to rest before put- “The two disWang herself is immenseting all their mental and ly intrigued by the idea of ciplines are chess-boxing, and “would physical strength in the boxing match. Others may too far away totally do it.” use the boxing rounds The beauty of the game is to think about the chess from each oth- that it is not enough to be game while attempting er” -Ashley an amazing chess player or to avoid their opponent’s an incredible boxer. The athgloves. Wang (‘19) letes must be respectable in Ashley Wang (‘19), a both features. If they lack in former judoka and comone area, it can be completely petitive chess player, and curexposed and they may lose rent wrestler at Palo Alto High the whole match. School, has her own thoughts Chess-boxing is not a on chess-boxing. As a former very well known sport competitive chess player and due to its recent crecurrent contact sport athlete, ation, although it is Wang views the combining of becoming more popchess and boxing as “really cool and ular. Many find Chess obvi- o u s l y Boxing as the ultimate sport because it features both the body and the mind. Hopefully in the future it will be covered by the media and be more well known throughout the world.

Scan For Some Fun Kayak Polo Start Knockout

Underwater Hockey GoPro Montage

Chess Boxing World Championships Highlights


GET A detailed explanation of the fats you need (and do not need) to gain strength. For athletes around the world, it is extremely important to maintain a healthy, balanced diet in order to achieve peak performance. Exercising for periods of 60 minutes or more, regardless of sport, takes endurance, muscle mass, and a diet that helps you achieve great things. Meals consisting of fats, carbohydrates, and protein, can be the first step towards “getting huge.� Each meal should contain around 50% carbs, 30% proteins and 20% of fats. You must not only eat healthier, but more than before. This does not imply piling more garbage onto a plate. The following foods, which have been individually selected by the Viking staff, will make or break your physique.


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Avocados are praised for their high nutrient value, and is the main ingredient in guacamole. Avocado can be easily found at nearly every restaurant. The avocado has become a popular food among health conscious individuals and is considered a super food due to its tremendous health qualities. Avocados have twice the amount of potassium as a banana, and contains approximately 1/3 of the daily requirement of vitamin K and folate. Each avocado contains 21 grams of fat, which seems like quite a bit. However, this is not the same type of fat that is found in french fries. Monounsaturated fat, found in avocados, promotes brain development, weight loss and muscle growth. Get HUGE with avocados.

DONUT Donuts are made of white flour, a simple carbohydrate which has most of the nutriens and fiber removed. Donuts are loaded with sugar and lack any meaningful nutrients. Adding a donut a day to your regular diet vastly increases calorie intake, and can lead to an auxiliary pound of weight every 10 days. On top of that, donuts are a very bad choice for heart health. For one, they are fried, which means they contain lots of saturated and trans fats. One donut meets the maximum allowance for trans fats for one day, and nobody eats just one donut. Donut themselves are also extremely high in sugar, which soars with the addition of glazing, cream or jam. One chocolate glazed donut contains 5 teaspoons of pure cane sugar, which also is not healthy. According the the american Heart association men and woman should eat a maximum of 6tsp a day, thus establishing that a single donut almost exceeds the maximum amount of sugar recommended by the government in a day. Get SMALL with donuts.


Bet on it: The future of sports gambling A detailed explanation of the past, present, and future of sports betting in the United States, including all of the legalities and ideas surrounding the world of gambling in sports. by STAN DE MARTEL, NATHAN ELLISEN, ELLIE JEFFRIES, ZACH PHILLIPS 34 | V I K I N G M A G A Z I N E |

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ven before Floyd Mayweather faced off against Conor McGregor, the “biggest fight in combat sports history” had amassed over $60 million in bets, more than any previous fight. A group of friends from Palo Alto payed the $100 dollar pay-per-view fee and watched the infamous fight. They decided to put a few dollars on the fight to make it more interesting. “Five bucks on McGregor,” one friend said. “You’re on,” another friend said from across the room. Although this casual “backyard” form of betting is common, the majority of gamblers placed their wagers through sports bars and casinos in Vegas and on Indian reservations. Most would argue they do not deserve to be arrested, but according to federal law, these informal bets are in fact, illegal. The prevalence and magnitude of sports gambling has transformed informal betting into a highly-regulated $240 billion dollar industry with a rich history and a possible bright future in the United States. We were not the first to bet on sports, and neither were our parents. In fact, the true origins of sports betting can be traced to ancient Rome, with some of the most powerful humans in history placing wagers on sporting events. While the games and matches themselves have changed, people’s obsession with solidifying one’s beliefs with money on the line has not. In the 2,000 years since, sports have revolutionized

the idea and landscape of gambling. Over the years, regardless of legality, sports betting has remained near and dear to the hearts of the ultimate sports fan. With the rapid industrialization of the 19th century, wages grew and sports began to develop as we see them today, a major entertainment and economic mecca. Within a few decades, baseball went from an obscure sport to “America’s pastime.” This was, in large part, due to the rapid normalization of casual sports betting. The American sports environment was irreparably broken, and gambling was on its way to gaining a foothold in the new economy. Legal issues were

“Five Bucks on McGregor”

bound to plague the sports world. One of the earliest and most infamous sports betting scandals was the 1919 World Series. It was October of 1919 and the Cincinnati Reds and Chicago White Sox had made it to the World Series. Over 98 years ago, the World Series was a best-of-nine set of extremely competitive games. The Chicago White Sox were heavily favored. Unexpectedly, the White Sox went on to lose the first game of the series 9-1, causing bookies and fans to shake their head in disbelief. After losing the first two games, the White Sox went on a two game winning streak, placing themselves back in contention to win. Against all odds, the Cincinnati Reds were able to win the World Series in eight games. Not long after the Series concluded, rumors of a fix began to surface in Las Vegas. It soon came to light that gangsters had paid eight White Sox players to intentionally lose the World Series. Terms were agreed to, and the players concurred that in return for $80,000 each, they would intentionally lose the World Series. However, part way through the series, White Sox players began to feel unsure of their decision to throw the game. Several of those who had originally agreed to throw the game chose to back out. However, it later surfaced that gangsters began to threaten player’s families and loved ones. Once it had been discovered that the White Sox had thrown the games, each player was banned from the MLB for life. These historic events centering around sports gambling have changed the way laws are carried out today, not only in sports gambling, but the controversy of


gambling itself. Some argue that gambling is and should be illegal, while others argue that they have the right to gamble and should not be micromanaged on how they use their money. The true law of this issue is just as unclear as the debate surrounding it. In 1992, the Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act (PASPA) banned all states from betting on sports, however, the law contained many exceptions. Gambling on horse racing was continued across the country, mainly due to the economic consequences that would come with ending the practice. According to Victoria Craig of Fox Business, the horse racing industry as a whole adds $101.5 billion to the United States GDP, proving how important horse racing is to the economy. The horse racing side of the controversy is relatively clear but is commonly debated among anti-gambling supporters. The PASPA does not specify anything about horse racing and therefore betting on horse racing remains legal. Horse racing has been a tradition in the United States for years and continues to be used as it boosts the economy and continues long held gambling traditions. However, the horse racing industry is losing money, with the institution of new and easier forms of gambling. With new forms of betting that are far easier to use and make money on, horse racing is losing its popularity. The industry is in trouble as they are losing significant amounts of money and horse racing tracks as well as the traditions horse racing comes with. These issues were strongly argued throughout statewide governments na-

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tionwide, as four states quickly ignored the laws and continued to allow sports gambling. Nevada, Oregon, Delaware, and Montana allow gambling today, as the passed laws allowing for sports gambling in their individual states. This defiance against the national government has stirred up even more controversy than before. The federal government prohibits any gambling, yet they allow for horse racing as it benefits the national economy and is a long held tradition. However they do not allow any other sports to be bet on, and some states ignore this federal law and allow for gambling anyway. This issue is evidently very controversial and confusing. Nevada, Oregon, Montana, and Delaware have all passed laws in their states that legalize sports gambling and ignore the PASPA of 1992. These states thus have created huge economic gains from gambling and have taken advantage of the PASPA for their own state’s personal economic gain. It is still very controversial whether or not the federal government should and can interfere with these states laws. Many argue that the federal government should assert its power and end gambling across the country to avoid

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individual states from taking advantage. However, others argue that states have jurisdiction over an issue like sports gambling and therefore the allowance of gambling should remain. There is no definite solution to these gambling problems the government faces and it’s unlikely there will be any progress on the matter in the near future. There are many ways to avoid the ruling of the PASPA and many gamblers use means other than government-monitored casinos or websites to bet on the sports they love. While it is impossible for the government to monitor every bet between friends, the laws are still in effect. This principle manifests itself when Fantasy Football comes around. Each year, millions of Americans will place bets, outside of casinos or websites, and face no punishment. It is likely, that as you are reading this article, thousands are illegally betting sports games worldwide. While each of these acts is illegal, there is no sector of local or federal government which feels the need to delegate

California legalizes gambling on Native American reservations

The constitutional ammendment (proposition 1A) was passed by popular vote in the year California in 2000 legalized gambling on Native American reservations.


FanDuel is created

Fan duel is a web based fantasy sports platform created in 2006, it retains legality under the “fantasy sports act” of 2006. It ha over 6 million registered users.




Fantasy Betting legalized In 2006 the Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcment Act allowed fantasy sports to be allowed under the law, classifying them as “a game of skill”, unlike sports gambling.

resources to crack down on casual sports betting. Placing a weekly bet on a home team does not seem like much of a misdemeanor, let alone a punishable felony. However, according to United States law, millions are committing crimes each week and going unpunished. Another method of avoiding the PASPA ruling is the institution of Indian Casinos in states that prohibit gambling. Since gambling is considered a Native American ritual, casinos are legal when operated by Native Americans. This allows for gambling in most states and therefore abolishes the ruling of the PASPA and gives the Indian Casinos an unfair economic advantage in sports gambling. Physical Education teacher Jason Fung agrees with the controversy of this topic. “Technically it’s legal, but [only when] on an indian [Native American] reservation.. There’s two places in San Jose you can go gamble at. But the way they get around the rules is every time you place a bet you have to pay the house,” Fung said. “It’s not illegal, its just how you get

PASPA Re-Introduced The re-introduction of the PASPA happened in May of this year, it could potentially allow sports wagering in California and the rest of the country if passed.

around the words.” The law of sports gambling is still an unknown, however, the institution of new and easier forms of betting, specifically sports betting, are completely changing the way sports gambling is policed and carried out by the government as well as the people. One of the great allures of betting on sports, and anything in fact, is the possibility of making great returns on a relatively small investment. With obsessive, odds-calculating sharks congregating in the world of organized sports betting, the morale of normal players had diminished over the course of the 20th century. However, with the advent of alternative platforms, ordinary people have begun to win extraordinary sums of money. The world of sports gambling has revolutionized itself as apps and technology

have become more accessible and easy to use. In the past, in order to bet on a sporting event people had to actually go to the casinos, and if you didn’t live near one, or lived in a state where it was legal, you were out of luck. Today, all it takes is a tap on screen to place a bet, and you don’t even have to leave your bed. However, these luxuries may be short lived. Since the rise of sports betting websites and apps began, their legality has been in question. While it is illegal to operate an online sportsbook (sports betting website) in America, there is still the option of visiting certified offshore outlets. These sites operate under the oversight of a governing jurisdiction which allow sports betting to be legal in their territories. This allows them to legally allow bettors all over the world, including the U.S., to use their sites and


partake in sports gambling. No federal laws prohibiting this method of gambling exist in the U.S. A single loophole allows apps such as Draftkings & Fanduel to retain legality in America. Under the Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act, which was passed in 2016, fantasy sports are categorized as a “game of skill” rather than a “game of chance” which is illegal. Under the law, if the game is not dependant solely on one team’s performance, or a player’s individual performance, as well as has an outcome that is reflective of the participants knowledge and not left to chance, then it is considered legal. Because of this, all betting on fantasy sports through websites and apps in America is legal, despite any other type of gambling on sports being prohibited. This causes confusion though, because in some people’s eyes betting on games and players requires just as much, or more, skill than fantasy. “It definitely does require skill, you have to do a lot of research, you have to know trends, you have to know teams, you have to know injury,” Paly teacher David Duran said. “It’s still gambling so you could do all the research you want and still end up on the wrong end, but there’s skill involved, some people make a lot of money off of it.” In order to repeatedly profit from betting, it is highly improbable a person’s choices are solely based on luck. Many studies have found that there is high correlation between the true odds of a game’s outcome and the closing lines (the betting line before a bookmaker sets the odds for an event) on some of the

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best bookmakers. In order to have the best ability to make money off of sports betting one must study trend, stats, and outliers in the sports world, this can be done well and as a result, bring in an income. If this is the case, it seems obvious that sports gambling can contain skill, but does not necessarily need too. This leaves a gray area between those who take sports gambling professionally and seriously, and those who necessarily rely on it and abuse it. If sports gambling were to be classified as a skill, there is no clear answer as to how it would be regulated to a point where it was both fun, profitable, but all the while, still safe. The laws surrounding gambling in sports have brought with them many arguments regarding its legality. A big argument for legalizing betting on sports is that it happens whether it is legal or not. People bet all the time on sporting events. It could be simply putting 10 dollars on your fantasy football league with your friends, or using illegal platforms like overseas websites. Billions of dollars are spent every year in casinos

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and online, and people are saying that it’s time states such as California start cutting into those profits. People also say that they work for their own money, so they can spend it however they like. Also, just like anything else, gambling on sports requires work; everything should require work and dedication, and sports betting is no exception. On the other hand though, a big concern of doing this is that it does bring a lot of problems with it, such as underage gambling, compulsive gambling, fraud and money laundering. Legal gambling is the fastest growing industry in the world, and it can have a corrupt influence on the government, since the casinos brings such a large revenue back to the government. Gambling is immoral as isn’t a fair way for people to earn their money, and it doesn’t contribute to society. Unrestricted betting can also lead to compulsive gambling, which can cost billions annually. Recently, assemblymember Adam Gray recently proposed a new amendment that, if passed, would legalize sports betting in California. Gray is the one who pushed for legalizing online fantasy football betting and online poker, and now hopes to take it even further by loosening the restrictions on all sports betting. There will still be limitations in order to prevent money laundering, fraud, and underage gambling. The Golden State wants back in on the multi-billion industry that is sports gambling. The likelihood of the amendment being passed has gone up, due to the New Jersey sports betting case heading to the US Supreme Court. This case essentially is about New Jersey (the sports betting capital of the world) trying to expand the reach of sports gambling, and legalizing it all across the US. So how do student at Paly feel about the topic? The school wasn’t very opinionated although most people said that gambling

“It is an individual’s right to spend their money however they see fit” - Nathan Ramrakhiani (‘19)

fell under citizen’s first amendment rights, and that it should be legalized. “I think it should be held to a democratic process and if legalized, only be allowed in specific locations to ensure that it doesn’t get out of hand,” Leyton Ho (‘19) said. “Sports gambling should be legal as it is an individual’s right to spend their money however they see fit. The government should therefore not restrict gambling as it is an infringement on individual rights” Nathan Ramrakhiani (‘19) said. The consitution restricts the government from making desicions for US citizens and as a free country we should be able to spend the money however we wish. By instituting laws against sports gambling the government is not fully giving us our rights. Instead, the government should allow us to spend our money how we see fit which should include gambling. The issue isn’t as pressing to Paly students now because they are not of age, but once they are in a place where these platforms will be accessible to them, their viewpoints on the issue may change. Evidently, the issue of sports gambling is highly debated and controversial with its many layers. The history of sports gambling is thick with strong consequences given to

seemingly small crimes across the country. The legality of sports betting is very disputed and unclear today with the unadvertised institution of new laws on the topic and the ability of many corporations and people to avoid these strict laws in order to continue sports betting and gambling in their states. New forms of sports gambling have paved their way

= DraftKings

vs $776 Million

$1.2 Billion

into our everyday lives with their ease and big winnings while old gambling traditions lose their former popularity.. Through all this however, individual citizens know very little about the deep and debated topic and how it may pertain to our everyday lives. Right now, sports gambling is still a big question with no apparent answers.

= FanDuel $1.2 Billion


$363 Million


Total Funding

Reported Valuation

Highest Stakes OCTOBER 2017


J.J. Watt


Viking Magazine attempts to eat like J.J. Watt for a day, which means eating around 9,000 calories. This large amount of food keeps Watt in prime condition to get to the quarterback.


.J. Watt is a six-foot five-inch defensive end for the Houston Texans who weighs 289 pounds, so it is not shocking that he eats around 9,000 calories daily, consuming over 300 grams of protein. Viking Executive Senior Staff Writer Will Strauch (‘18) and Viking Multimedia Editor and Head Columnist Matan Ziv (‘18) took a shot at eating like Watt for a day. However, when we combine both of our weights it still does not add up to Watt’s weight, making this a very difficult challenge. Going into the day, we knew it would be a lot of food but we were confident in our eating abilities. We believed that the toughest part would be getting up at 7 a.m. on a Sunday to start the day of eating. By separating the meals and planning on working out in between meals, we believed we could get close to finishing Watt’s diet.

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However, it did not take long for our optimism to dissipate. After the first breakfast we truly understood what we were in for and collapsed on the ground out of exhaustion. The eggs made us feel awful and all we could do was lay down. The thought of four more soft scrambled eggs made the thought of quitting be at the top of our minds. Not only does Watt eat this much, but he works out throughout the day, something we could not even imagine doing. We instead were spread out on the couches groaning and complaining about how second breakfast is just around the corner. Second breakfast brought us close to quitting, every single bite of eggs tasting worse than the last. The eggs oftentimes just sat in our mouths,

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Our Weight Chart Before Meal 1

After Meal 1

After Meal 2

After Meal 3

After Meal 4













swallowing felt impossible, but the toast helped us power through. However, after toughing through, we felt worse than ever before. By this time, there was just a brick in our stomach and every step we took was painful. We realized it would be an impossible task to work out because every move was difficult. This ruined our plan of being able to work hard enough to burn off all of the calories throughout the day, and we never even considered going to the JCC to work out. After a solid three hour break of watching Watt dominate on the field we began preparing the first

lunch of the day. We both felt sluggish while preparing our six chicken breast meal and realized how much we were regretting our decision. The only positive experience was the exercise we got while slicing the chicken breast pieces. The sauce, made of soy sauce and honey, made the chicken taste delicious but the amount of food we w e r e putting into our

mouths was just too much. We barely got through two chicken breasts before

we had to lie down and take a break. We felt like we had a brick of food sitting in our stomach that weighed us down for the next hour. Not only were we gaining weight, but we could feel our body masses increase with every bite. An executive decision was made to skip the second lunch and finish the chicken breast we had left over from first lunch. After finishing we could barely move and realized how incredible it is that Watt can eat this and continue to put in work by going through two grueling workouts. We decided to give our stomachs time to digest and watched football to see what we could become if we actually ate this much daily. By the time first dinner came around we felt like we were in good shape but realized quickly that second dinner would not be possible. The pasta and lamb chops filled us up quickly which forced us to call it a day early. By the end of the day, we realized that this challenge was way too difficult for people of our size, and our work ethic did not match the amount of food we put in our body. Watt is much larger than an average man and is always working out so eating this large amount of food is not difficult for him. Watt uses the large amounts of protein and carbohydrates to fuel his performance in training and out on the field.

The nutrition facts of what we ate (above). Watt’s meal plan during the offseason (left).

Old Style In the early decades of Paly’s sports, jerseys and sportswear typically had more fabric and less protection. Jerseys were loose-fitting, hindering movement and making players more susceptible for injury. Helmets were not required for half of the century and footwear was no where near as supportive as it is today.

Evolu Of Jers

lution rseys

New Style

As clothing technology has increased, the thicker cotton uniforms and bulkier outfits have been replaced with better-performing fabric hybrids. Jersey’s have trended more tight-fitting for injury and comfort’s sake. With the growing amount of research around contact sport injuries, better protective gear has been developed and jerseys have become more suited to their unique sport.


MINOR ISSUE CCS sets the guidlines for league rules. Many of them make perfect sense, but others are somewhat controversial



Jamir Shepard ('20) was unable to play varsity football until age 15, despite having the skills and talent to do so. Photo courtesy of Karen Ambrose Hickey

s Jamir Shepard (‘20) comes down with his 2nd touchdown of the game against Milpitas High School, he knows even with his superior performance he will have to wait until he’s 15 to play varsity football. Many student-athletes have to deal with the rules and regulations of the Central Coast Section, better known as CCS. There are some rules that cause them to miss games, while there are other rules that prevent players from really “getting into the game”. Specifically, the CCS has an age requirement to compete at the varsity football level. Article 190 - Football, Section 1900 Age Requirement, states, “A student under 15 years of age may not participate in an interscholastic contest or scrimmage against the varsity team of another school.” However, there is one exception: if the player is at least 14 years of age, has a letter from their doctor, consent from their parents, a statement from the varsity coach about their physical and mental

44 | V I K I N G M A G A Z I N E |

maturity, and a statement of compliance sent by the principal to a Section Office for verification, then the requirement can be waived. The process stated above is one that requires a lot to be done and many coaches and principals may not want to comply. One student-athlete that was affected by this rule was Shepard, who was denied the chance to move up to varsity due to his age. “Since I was 14 at the start of the season, I wasn’t able to move up to varsity until my 15th birthday,” Shepard said. “I think that if you’re good enough to play varsity, you should be allowed to play at any age." Once Shepard turned 15 and was pulled up to varsity, he instantly became a starter. Even though he was just a fresh-

w w w. v i k i n g s p o r t s m a g . c o m

man with little varsity experience, he acted as one of the team’s standout players. In the CCS Football Bylaws, it is not clear why this rule even exists. Although these rules are implemented throughout the whole section, the CCS may have these to prevent injuries. “This rule probably exists because CCS is trying to protect the players. They don’t want really young 14-year olds to go up against athletes who are 16 or 17,” Shepard continued. “I think CCS thinks that the players might be really small, height and weight wise. But if they were too small to play, they wouldn’t move up” The Paly varsity football coach, Danny Sullivan, offers a different point of view regarding the rule. “It’s a rule across the state, not the section only. It’s pretty straightforward, you

“I think that if you’re good enough to play varsity, you should be allowed to play at any age.” - Jamir Shepard (‘20)

have to be 15 years old," Sullivan said. "We are not going to be bring a kid up to varsity unless we have permission from parents or grandparents, whoever is the legal guardian." Although Shepard is not in total agreement with the rule, Sullivan believes that this rule was not too bad for Shepard. “In Jamir’s case it was good because he got experience playing football… we wanted him to get experience playing at the Frosh-Soph level,” Sullivan said. Another bizarre CCS rule that affects student-athletes is the ban on pre-game music. This rule is seen in the CCS Basketball Bylaws in Section 16. Subsection C. It states: “Pre-game amplified music during team warm-ups is prohibited at all sites in all rounds.” According to many leading sports psychologists, music is a powerful tool that can give an edge to any player at any level. High tempo tunes can inspire the player to achieve game success, as well as increase adrenaline levels for a higher level performance. There was a recent study done by sport scientists at Brunel University in the United Kingdom. These scientists discovered “that listening to music during exercise increases the efficiency of that activity and it postpones fatigue.” Many student-athletes participate in high intensity sports such as basketball. Basketball requires athletes to maintain energy throughout the whole game, so playing music may help their performance. The rule has no meaning behind it and many players are affected by the rule, as music has become a pregame tradition for many athletes. Jackson Chryst ('19) said, “The lack of pre-game music really affects me. Without it I feel less energetic and it takes me longer to get into the game.” Pre-game music is a way for players to get ready and into the game so they are prepared to do their best during the game. This is especially important in team sports, where it is vital for the team to get ready and pumped up so they all can perform their best as a unit. “The lack of music before a CCS game really makes it harder to get pumped up and ready for the game,” Makenna De-

geronimo (‘19) said. When preparing for a big game with lots of pressure, it may be crucial to concentrate and get those nerves out. “They also established that these athletes listened to music in order to achieve five broad states: Appropriate mental focus, confident, positive emotional state, psyched-up, and relaxed ” stated in an article published by Believe Preform. Although music has its benefits on athletes pre-game it may make communication harder in the gym between the team itself, or even fans. “I don’t think that pre-game music negatively affects my performance in game, but I think it might disturb audience members who are trying to talk to each other,” Marvin Zou (‘19) said. The rule itself has no explanation for why it is in place. Given the great upside, it is seen as an odd rule. The Central Coast Section has a few unusual sports rules but high school teams and student-athletes in the area have to abide by them. The Palo Alto student-athletes that deal with these rules throughout their seasons see them as insignificant and abnormal, sometimes hindering their success in game. Obscure CCS rules affect the high school student athletes in the Central Coast Section in many ways. With their odd reasoning and specifications it seems to be only negatively affecting the athletes themselves. “I think the CCS should look for athlete and coach input for rule changes, especially those that negatively affect the performance of players,” Zou said.


CHARGE... "I would allow pregame music because p ers onally I think it helps the team prepare and I see no negative effects," KC Florant ('19) said. “As a Fan I think pregame music really excites and connects the crowd to the game so I wish it wasn't a rule. I think the football rule is good, as it protects the young players from injury,” Lara Nakamura ('19) said.

Photo by of Eric Aboytes Marvin Zou ('19) is forced to listen to music on his earphones before the game because pre-game music is against CCS Basketball Bylaws. OCTOBER 2017

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very athlete knows that the commitment you make to your team means less time available for schoolwork. However, it is the school’s responsibility to ensure that athletes are not falling behind, and to give them the resources they need to succeed. The California Interscholastic Federation, or CIF, is the governing body for high school athletics in California. The CIF rules state that in order to maintain eligibility, it is required that, “The student has maintained during the previous grading period a minimum unweighted 2.0 grade-point average, on a 4.0 scale, in all enrolled courses.” This means that a student earning C’s in all of their classes in the previous quarter (for PAUSD), is eligible to play. Our athletes should be able to achieve a C average because to get a C at paly all you have to

The 2.0 GPA threshold must be raised to at least 2.3 and the district must create an academic system to support struggling athletes.

do is attend class and turn in all of your work. Since a C is considered “passing” at Paly, this threshold makes sense. However, setting a low number as the CIF does causes athletes to make earning a C their goal. The NCAA has been in talks to raise their minimum GPA requirement for athletes, and finally agreed “you must earn at least a 2.300 GPA in NCAA core courses to be eligible to compete,” according to the NCAA eligibility website. Also, many school districts across the nation continue moving their GPA minimum requirement up. Two years ago in Beaufort County in South Carolina, “about 13 percent of athletes had GPAs below 2.0, but many were still eligible to play.” Now, after raising their GPA requirement, “About 5.5 percent” of athletes failed to meet their 2.0 requirement. Due to those positive results, the county is considering raising

“You must earn at least a 2.300 GPA in NCAA core courses to be eligible to compete” -NCAA rule book


their threshold yet again, this time up to 2.3. People who oppose raising the threshold say that it could discourage some athletes from participating in something that could be a positive influence in their lives. We agree that raising the GPA threshold a lot would do this, but it is completely irrational to have a GPA threshold lower than the one maintained by the NCAA. In addition, athletes should not be fighting for their grades alone, the threshold must come with an entire band of resources for the athletes. Many colleges do this with tutors and academic support teams to help out the athletes. Coaches and teachers must work together with the athlete to ensure that the athlete is completing their academic requirements before participating in athletics. The CIF maintains that, “participation in interscholastic athletics is a privilege,” meaning that academics come before athletic under California law. Therefore, there must be resources available to athletes to make this the case. If coaches and teachers do not cooperate in ensuring the athlete has the resources they need to succeed, the athlete will see the threshold as their academic goal, and not as an academic bare minimum. In Beaufort County, “academic interventions and tutorials are put in place to support those student-athletes below the 2.0 threshold to help them regain eligibility.” While this is a great start, it is not enough to make this the case for athletes below the threshold, but for any athlete earning below a 2.5. The best way to make that happen is mandatory tutoring for athletes earning below a 2.5 in their core classes. PAUSD setting up a system in which students tutor athletes earning below a 2.5 sends the message that the 2.0 threshold is really a minimum and not a goal. It will not only make athletes earning under a 2.5 to work to improve their grades, but also make them feel like they are in a community that has high expectations for them, and wants them to perform at their highest possible level.


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Viking Volume XI Issue 1  
Viking Volume XI Issue 1