Centre for Animal Welfare Activity Report 2020

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The Centre for Animal Welfare (CAW) is an interdisciplinary centre that undertakes research, teaching and public engagement in animal welfare and related fields. In 2020 it included 15 full-time and part-time faculty members, some of whom are world leaders in their fields. The Centre is also proud to host some of the University’s best students, including a growing pool of postgraduate research students.

Hedgehogs are in dramatic decline, but by enacting positive change on their campuses, universities can be part of the solution. MSc Student Carol Cook has led our successful campaign to have Winchester become an accredited Hedgehog Friendly Campus. Cover image: Mark Blake, Ground Supervisor at Winchester, relocating one of our carp from a small campus pond into the lake at Basingstoke Crematorium, July 2020. Photo by Maurice James.


CONTENTS Overview.............................................................................................................................................page 2 Animal welfare successes................................................................................................... page 4 Reports.................................................................................................................................................page 6 Selected academic articles and chapters.............................................................page 6 Popular articles/letters........................................................................................................ page 7 Selected presentations.......................................................................................................... page 7 Awards & PhD completions................................................................................................page 8 Grants awarded............................................................................................................................page 9 Who we are.................................................................................................................................... page 10


OVERVIEW First surging in March, Covid-19 had a severe impact on the higher education sector globally in 2020. However, our staff and students rose to the challenge, rapidly switching to various combinations of online and on campus teaching within our BA Animal Welfare and Society (BA AWS), as national lockdowns came and went. Our MSc Animal Welfare Science, Ethics and Law (MSc AWSEL) was not directly affected, as it has been entirely online since its 2016 inception. However, Covid-19 had significant direct or indirect effects on literally everyone. One effect seemed to be a dramatic spike in enrolment numbers into our MSc – much as we like to hope this was purely due to the growing reputation of the programme! MSc student numbers were already greatly in excess of

Grounds Supervisor Mark Blake checking our fish in their new home at Basingstoke Crematorium, July 2020. Photo by Maurice James.

national averages, and this resulted in some very high academic workloads. I’m very grateful to our staff who have done, and continue to do, an amazing job, given very high student numbers. Our BA and MSc both entered their fifth years of operation in 2020. The BA relocated back to the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, whilst the MSc and Centre for Animal Welfare (CAW) remained in the Faculty of Health and Wellbeing. In 2020 we were also joined by Visiting Prof. Paula Sparks. Prof. Sparks is Executive Chairperson of the UK Centre for Animal Law, and teaches animal law and policy to our BA students. Prof. Knight was also assisted by lecturers Jenny Mace and Natalie Light, after receiving over £39,000 of funding for


research, knowledge exchange and teaching development projects. The Covid-related challenges of 2020 were unanticipated and profound. Nevertheless, our animal welfare students and staff still somehow managed to excel. With the assistance of our lecturer Jenny Mace and Head Gardener Maurice James and his team, MSc student Pauline Braun and several others were successful in rehoming our campus fish (four large carp) from a small pond, to a much larger off campus lake (in Basingstoke crematorium). Also with the support of Winchester estates and grounds staff, MSc student Carol Cook managed to secure for the University, Bronze hedgehog-friendly campus status, for completing the first stage of a national campaign to make university campuses hedgehog (and wildlife) friendly. Dr Steve McCulloch created an excellent website on the animal welfare issues associated with Brexit, and other CAW colleagues created or co-authored numerous podcasts, submissions and letters on a diverse range of animal welfare issues, to multiple governmental and nongovernmental organisations. Our academics and even some students jointly published at least two expert reports, 10 academic articles and chapters, 26 popular articles and letters, and provided at least 23 external presentations on animal welfare issues. Our work attracted at least 52 media interviews or mentions worldwide, on topics as diverse as Covid-19, pandemics, Brexit, intensive farming, badger killing, vegan pet food, hedgehog conservation, and purebred dogs. The work of our students and staff continued to attract multiple awards. Our students continued to prove they’re among the University’s best, with MSc student Francesca Bandoli and BA AWS student Bethany Powell winning essay competitions. Prof. Knight’s PhD student Constança Carvalho was awarded a PhD with Distinction by the University of Lisbon, for a thesis critiquing animal experimentation within depression research. Paula Sparks was appointed Visiting Professor within the University of Winchester Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, and Prof. Knight was awarded Principal Fellowship of Advance HE and 2020

Griffith University Outstanding Alumnus winner for its Sciences Group. And our BA AWS module ‘Animals and Alternatives Within Research and Education’ was shortlisted for the Lush Prize 2020 – Training category, the largest international prize covering 3Rs methods. Selected examples of our work are highlighted in the following. However, much additional fine work exists. I remain very grateful for the support of our academics and students, our expert Administrative staff, and the various faculties, schools, departments and other staff who have supported us all. These successes would not have been possible without their support. Andrew Knight, Director, Centre for Animal Welfare


ANIMAL WELFARE SUCCESSES After visiting our campus, MSc AWSEL student Pauline Braun noticed that our five campus carp had outgrown their small pond. With the support of fellow students and CAW lecturers, she launched a campaign to have them relocated to a much larger pond. A suitable lake was located at nearby Basingstoke Crematorium, and a submission to the University outlined current understanding of fish sentience, and the welfare benefits that would accrue from relocation to a larger space. Vice-Chancellor Professor Joy Carter and other senior managers enthusiastically supported the campaign, and the relocation was successfully undertaken in July 2020 by Winchester grounds staff. Said Maurice James, Head Gardener, “The relocation went very well, it was a very warm,

nice day. After having to drain at least half of the pond here, catching the fish went better than expected. After leaving the fish in their containers for approx. 20 minutes, they were all released without any hitches and swam away.” A check two weeks later revealed the fish to be swimming together as a group, and doing well. Pauline’s blog on this wonderful success story helped inspire others to consider fish welfare. She said, “Most of us studying on the MSc programme want to make the world better for animals, and by working together as a group with our lecturers and other University staff, we were able to bring about positive change, for the lives of these fish. “If you spot something that doesn’t seem right, where animals or people are suffering, then with the application of reasoned argument, and persistence, sometimes you really can make a difference.” Also with the support of Winchester estates and grounds staff, MSc student Carol Cook continued her very successful campaign of the previous year, managing to secure for the University, Bronze hedgehog-friendly campus status. Winchester became one of the first UK universities to achieve this, by completing the first stage of a national campaign to make university campuses hedgehog (and wildlife) friendly. Her team is now working toward Silver accreditation. In November, previous work by Prof. Andrew Knight resulted in some major successes for New Zealand’s animals. A New Zealand High Court judge has ruled that the government’s legalisation of extremely restrictive cages (‘farrowing crates’) for pregnant sows - the main confinement system used for around 15,000 – 20,000 pregnant New Zealand pigs, for decades - was illegal, along with mating stalls. This is the most significant legal development for animals in New Zealand, for years, and is expected to result in legal change to significantly improve the lives of New Zealand pigs. This follows Prof. Knight’s detailed report on this issue and the campaigns of partner


organisations including the NZ Animal Law Association and SAFE - NZ’s main animal advocacy organisation. Also in November, a New Zealand farmer was found guilty of using electric shock prodders on calves to force them through a chute into a rodeo ring. This private prosecution by the New Zealand Animal Law Association was the first rodeo prosecution in the country. Prof. Knight provided expert testimony on this case in 2019.

Other CAW colleagues have also been actively working to advance animal welfare. Dr Steve McCulloch created the excellent website: https://chlorinatedchickenbrexit.com/ focused on the multiple and important animal welfare concerns raised by Brexit. And Dr Lisa Riley produced a podcast on the welfare issues associated with keeping primates as pets. CAW colleagues also authored or co-signed at least eight submissions and letters to international and national governmental or non-governmental organisations, corporations and funding bodies, on the keeping of primates as pets, animal research, intensive farming and badger killing.


REPORTS (2) • Open Cages, Knight A, Wiebers D (2020). A British Pandemic: the Cruelty and Danger of Supermarket Chicken. UK: Open Cages. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1Suu8AuEHmxdM8h7uYB7sB0ol-0DS0Ln4/ view. • De Boo J and Knight A (2020). The Green Protein Report: Meeting New Zealand’s Climate Change Targets by 2030 Through Reduced Reliance on Animal Agriculture. Auckland: Vegan Society of Aotearoa New Zealand.

SELECTED ACADEMIC ARTICLES AND CHAPTERS (10) • Adam, M. B., D. L. Clough, and D. Grumett. (2020). A Christian case for farmed animal welfare. Animals 9, 1116. • Carvalho C, Varela SAM, Marques TA, Knight A and Vicente L (2020). Are in vitro and in silico approaches used appropriately for animal-based Major Depressive Disorder research? PLoS ONE. 15(6), e0233954. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233954 • Carvalho, C., Peste, F., Marques, T. A., Knight, A., & Vicente, L. (2020). The contribution of rat studies to the current knowledge of Major Depressive Disorder: results from citation analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1486. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01486 • Clough, D. L. (2020). Rethinking our treatment of animals in light of Laudato Si. In Laudato Si’ and the Environment: Pope Francis’ Green Encyclical, edited by R. McKim, 95-104. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. • Kipperman, B., Rollin, B., & Martin, J. (2020). Veterinary student opinions regarding ethical dilemmas encountered by veterinarians and the benefits of ethics instruction. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, e20190059. • Knight A (2020), Should New Zealand do more to uphold animal welfare? Animal Studies Journal, 9(1), 114-149. https://ro.uow.edu.au/asj/vol9/iss1/5. • Mace, J. L. and McCulloch, S. P. (2020). Yoga, Ahimsa and Consuming Animals: UK Yoga Teachers’ Beliefs about Farmed Animals and Attitudes to Plant-Based Diets. Animals 10(3), 480. https://doi.org/10.3390/ ani10030480. • Riley, L. M. and Rose, P. E. (2020). Concepts, applications, uses and evaluation of environmental enrichment: Perceptions of zoo professionals. Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research, 8(1), 18-28. • Rollin B. (2020). Animal welfare. In Golderg AM (Ed.). Feeding the World Well: A Framework for Ethical Food Systems. John Hopkins University Press. • Lymbery P. (2020) Covid-19: how industrial animal agriculture fuels pandemics: why people and animals are in it together: a one-health perspective on people, animal production and a safer environment dA.Derecho Animal (Forum of Animal Law Studies), 11 (4), 141-149 https://doi.org/10.5565/rev/da.514


POPULAR ARTICLES/LETTERS • CAW members published at least 14 popular articles, blogs and letters on pandemics, Brexit and animal welfare, animal law, trophy hunting and badger killing, vegan pet food, and animal welfare and politics, as well as 12 monthly animal ethics case discussions by Prof. Rollin in the Canadian Veterinary Journal.

SELECTED PRESENTATIONS (23) • Knight A. (2020). Climate change: the livestock connection. University of Gothenburg’s Network for Critical Animal Studies, 17 Nov. [Invited oral]. [webinar]. https://www.facebook.com/ events/631309934229243. https://youtu.be/MOI_yPIp5LA • Knight A. (2020). Hammerhead sharks and sea turtles: adventures in animal welfare. [RCVS Fellows on Tour – invited oral]. Surrey University veterinary school. 18 Feb. • Knight A. (2020). Humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education. 24/04/20. Zoom webinar organised by Animal Rebellion for World Day for Animals in Laboratories. https://youtu.be/6-9Ug6QXDSY The Facebook-streamed version quickly attracted 1,500+ views. • Knight A. (2020). The 3Rs – an Overview. University of Padua, Italy. [invited oral] [webinar]. • Lymbery P. (2020) [Speech] 2nd Animal Welfare Science (China) Conference 2020 (Shanghai), 14 Oct. • Lymbery P. (2020) [Speech]. One Health, One Welfare. ICCAW/CAPIAC International Forum on Animal Welfare and Public Health (Beijing), 03 Dec. http://www.iccaw.org.cn/a/The_industry_ information/20201211/1853.html • Lymbery P. (2020) [Speech]. Special EAT broadcast on the issue of equitable livelihood, the theme of action Track 4 of the UN Food Systems Summit, 08 Dec. https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_ continue=406&v=PJZfBYmQ1YM&feature=emb_logo • Lymbery P. (2020) Animal Farm – how to strike the balance between welfare and competitiveness. POLITICO’s fourth annual Agriculture and Food Summit. 25 September https://youtu.be/JiL-JA_lmog. • Lymbery P. (2020) Building back better: ensuring that nature, animal and human well-being thrive postCOVID. UN High Level Political Forum (HLPF) on Sustainable Development. NGO Major Group Side Event, 08 Jul. • Lymbery P. (2020) Coronavirus and animals: the human-animal relationship in pandemic society. International Center of Animal Law and Policy (ICALP)/dA. Derecho Animal (Forum of Animal Law) Webinar Series, 02 Jul. https://youtu.be/nZH_sJSCl2M • Lymbery P. (2020) Health and environment: what a post-pandemic recovery looks like. The Oslo Act #ForNature Global Online Forum (The Norwegian Forum for Development and Environment). 07 Jun. https://youtu.be/C0db0Ah2qKQ. • Lymbery P. (2020) How to bring birds flooding back. Interview with Dan Richardson. Virtual Bird Fair, 21 Aug. https://youtu.be/pGmvSZWkpd8


• Lymbery P. (2020) How to love food and save nature. Compassion in World Farming/United Nations Environment Programme session, EAT@Home (EAT Food Forum digital event), 11 Dec. https://youtu.be/ piLuDWmR_dU • Lymbery P. (2020) Our food system, through the lens of Covid-19. Compassion in World Farming Webinar, 27 May. https://youtu.be/1toMKQd1dQ0. • Lymbery P. (2020) Pandemic world: why future food security relies on moving beyond factory farming. 4th Africa Animal Welfare Conference on Animal Welfare, Wildlife and Environmental Conservation for Sustainable Development in Africa: Enhancing Nature-Based Solutions, 09 Sep. https://wedocs.unep. org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/34602/The%20Conference%20report%202020_Without%20 Abstracts.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y Official Report from ANAW, p. 48 • Lymbery P. (2020) Pandemics, wildlife and intensive animal farming. Compassion in World Farming Webinar, 02 Jun. https://youtu.be/EmUG8erxH20. • Lymbery P. (2020) Sense, Science and Sustainability – Can genome editing and agroecology co-exist in the sustainable food and farming mix? A bigger conversation (a beyond gm initiative) and natural products global biotech and sustainability webinar, 22 Jul. https://youtu.be/yDrnIYdS_GY • Lymbery P. (2020) Taste and the TV Chef: how storytelling can save the planet by Gilly Smith. Book Launch Webinar, by Food Foundation, 18 Sep. • Lymbery P. (2020) Time for nature with Inger Andersen, UNEP Executive Director and Louise Mabulo, Young Champion of the Earth. United Nations Environment Programme – Food Basket by Nature - World Environment Day Live Broadcast 2020 #ForNature, 05 Jun. https://youtu.be/vulB212EvrI. • Lymbery P. (2020) We need to talk about chicken. Eating Better Webinar, 26 Mar. • Lymbery P. (2020) Working with leading food companies to create change at scale. Compassion in World Farming Webinar, 15 Sep. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zVk0W9dCN1A&feature=youtu.be • Lymbery. P (2020) Why do we need a more sustainable and resilient food system? Good Food Fund Good Food Summit (Beijing), Food System Forum (1), 28 Oct. • McCulloch, S. P. (2020). Representing sentient animals in public policy. UK Centre for Animal Law. Watch it online. 10 Jun.

AWARDS & PHD COMPLETIONS • Andrew Knight’s PhD student Constança Carvalho defended her thesis Animal Use in Major Depressive Disorder: a Necessary Evil? Assessing the Past to Improve the Future, and was awarded a PhD with Distinction by the University of Lisbon. • MSc AWSEL student Francesca Bandoli won the 2020 CAW-Compassion in World Farming Essay Competition with her essay ‘Can we stop the unstoppable? Addressing the relationship between intensive animal farming and antimicrobial resistance’. • BA AWS student Bethany Powell won the 2020 CAW-International Fund for Animal Welfare Essay Competition, with her essay ‘The impact of anthropogenic plastic pollution on marine life’. • Paula Sparks was appointed Visiting Professor within the University of Winchester Faculty of Health and Wellbeing.


• Prof. Andrew Knight was awarded Principal Fellowship of Advance HE. He was also named the 2020 Griffith University Outstanding Alumnus winner for its Sciences Group, and appointed Adjunct Professor in its School of Environment and Science. Griffith is Australia’s ninth largest higher education provider, and has consistently been ranked within the top 5% of universities worldwide. Prof. Knight was awarded his PhD by Griffith in 2010. • Prof. Knight’s BA AWS module ‘Animals and Alternatives Within Research and Education’ was short-listed for the Lush Prize 2020 – Training category. This is the biggest international prize covering 3Rs methods, and is worth £250,000 across five categories. Regrettably, second place is worth £0, but we were very honoured, nevertheless.

GRANTS AWARDED (4) • £26,042. Knight A. ‘The relative sustainability of meat-based and alternate pet foods’, Wild Earth, US. • £9,738. Knight A. ‘Multimedia-facilitated knowledge transfer of current research findings’. Research England via University of Winchester. • £2,000. Knight A. ‘Video creation for ‘flipped’ remote learning.’ University of Winchester Learning & Teaching Innovation Funding. • £1,525. Knight A. ‘Humane teaching methods: analysing the evidence’. Animalfree Research Switzerland.

Professor Philip Lymbery speaking at Compassion in World Farming’s Extinction and Livestock Conference, London


WHO WE ARE ANDREW KNIGHT is Professor of Animal Welfare and Ethics, and Founding Director of the Centre for Animal Welfare; a veterinary specialist in animal welfare accredited in the UK, EU, US and New Zealand; a Fellow of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons; and a Principal Fellow of Advance HE. Andrew founded and leads Winchester’s distance-learning MSc Animal Welfare Science, Ethics and Law. He regularly publishes and presents, and has an extensive series of YouTube videos, on animal welfare and ethics issues. His work has attracted 13 awards and 13 grants, including a University of Winchester Student-Led Teaching Award. ROBERT GRAY is a Lecturer in Environmental History. After a BA in History at the University of Leeds, Robert completed an MA in Central European History (with Hungarian) at the School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University College London, from where he also gained his PhD on land reform and the Hungarian peasantry in 2010. His teaching interests include environmental history from the beginnings of time to the present day and covering much of the world (and beyond), as well as a more limited range of Modern and Early Modern Central and Eastern Europe. ANNA KING is Professor of Theology, Religious Studies and Philosophy. For her doctorate, Anna spent two years living in a sacred pilgrimage centre on the banks of the Ganges with religious specialists. She has since then undertaken periods of ethnographic fieldwork in India, Pakistan, Thailand, Nepal and Myanmar. Anna is interested in the interface between human rights and religious and cultural particularism, and in in religious attitudes to non-human animals. She is the founder-editor of Religions of South Asia (RoSA), and the contributing editor of several books. She has published numerous articles and was consultant to two ethnographic films.

NATALIE LIGHT is a Certificated Clinical Animal Behaviourist and has been working professionally in the companion animal sector since 2006. She graduated from University of Southampton with a Zoology BSc (2:1) and Newcastle University in Applied Animal Behaviour & Welfare PGDip. She is currently completing her PhD at University of Winchester, is a Fellow of Advance HE and a part-time lecturer on the Animal Welfare and Society BA Hons at University of Winchester. JENNY MACE is a part-time lecturer in our MSc in Animal Welfare, Ethics and Law, having graduated with Distinction from the same MSc herself in 2018. She recently co-authored a paper based on a mixed-methods study within Animals, with another paper forthcoming. Faunalytics has also published several of her research articles such as ‘The reality of humane slaughter in the UK’. She is a scholar member of the Animals and Society Institute and is a Fellow of Advance HE. STEVEN MCCULLOCH is Senior Lecturer in Human-Animal Studies. He qualified as a veterinary surgeon in 2002 from Bristol University and holds a BA Philosophy from Birbeck College, London University. Steven has a PhD from the RVC, London on the political representation of animals. Steven is ‘Animals in Public Policy, Politics and Society’ Section Editor for Animals. He is on the editorial board for the Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics. Steven is a diplomat of ECAWBM and a recognised veterinary specialist in Animal Welfare Science, Ethics and Law. NEIL MESSER is Professor of Theology in the Department of Theology, Religion and Philosophy, University of Winchester. His research, teaching and supervision are focused on Christian ethics, including bioethics and animal ethics, and the


interaction of science and theology. Recent and forthcoming publications include Theological Neuroethics: Christian Ethics Meets the Science of the Human Brain (Bloomsbury, 2017) and Science in Theology: Encounters between Science and the Christian Tradition (Bloomsbury, forthcoming, 2020). He is currently working on a University-funded collaborative project on the interactions of neuroscience, theology and ethics. THOMAS NØRGAARD is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Education Studies and Liberal Arts. He received his DPhil in Philosophy from Oxford in 2002 with a thesis on compassion. He contributes primarily to Winchester’s Value Studies Scheme, and to programmes in Modern Liberal Arts, and Philosophy, Politics and Economics. He is the Director of Winchester’s Institute for Value Studies and interim leader of the King Alfred Award Scheme. In 2016, Thomas was shortlisted for one of the student-led teaching awards (Best Delivered Module) and received a Learning and Teaching Award for his work in the Institute for Value Studies. LISA RILEY is a Lecturer in Animal Welfare. Also an animal welfare scientist and primatologist, specialising in zoo welfare assessment and cognition, environmental enrichment and welfare, Lisa has over five years’ experience lecturing and managing animal welfare programmes. She has helped organisations campaign to raise awareness of the pet primate industry in the UK, and the need for prohibition or regulation. Lisa was previously an RSPCA Senior Scientist, where she instigated a primate rehoming scheme to rescue traumatised pet primates and provide them with safe, specialised care and an opportunity to experience good welfare, trust and good health. LIAM SATCHELL is a lecturer in psychology at the University of Winchester, where he specialises in theoretical and methodological issues in applied research. His work focuses on the psychology of individual and is the Secretary for the British Society for the Psychology of Individual Differences. From

this perspective, he has conducted research into personality and behavioural problems in human and non-human animals. His current research focuses on examining ways to efficiently measure welfare and wellbeing of individual animals (with Dr Lisa Riley). Elsewhere he works in other applied psychology fields of mental health, crime, sports, and education. AMORET WHITAKER is a Senior Lecturer in Forensic Studies and Programme Leader of our BA (Hons) Forensic Studies programme. Her qualifications include a BSc in Zoology, an MSc in Taxonomy and Biodiversity, and a PhD in Forensic Entomology. She also has a Diploma in Forensic Medical Sciences. She specialises in Forensic Entomology and since 2004 has undertaken forensic casework throughout the UK for many police forces and forensic providers, attending crime scenes, deposition sites and postmortems, analysing data and submitting reports, and attending court as required. Within the Centre for Animal Welfare her teaching applies forensic science to animal cruelty and abuse cases.

VISITING PROFESSORS DAVID CLOUGH is Professor of Theological Ethics at the University of Chester. He has recently completed the landmark two-volume monograph On Animals (2012, 2019), on the place of animals in Christian theology and ethics. He is the cofounder of CreatureKind (http://becreaturekind. org), an organization engaging Christians with farmed animal welfare, and Principal Investigator for a three-year AHRC-funded project on the Christian Ethics of Farmed Animal Welfare in partnership with major UK churches. He is a Methodist lay preacher and has represented the Methodist Church on national ecumenical working groups on the ethics of warfare and climate change. PHILIP LYMBERY is Global CEO of Compassion in World Farming, President of Eurogroup for Animals, Brussels and founding Board member of World


Federation for Animals. He’s an award-winning author, ornithologist, photographer, naturalist, animal advocate; played leading roles in major animal welfare reforms, including Europe-wide bans on veal crates for calves and barren battery cages for laying hens; and directed global engagement with over 1,000 leading corporates, resulting in commitments to better lives for over two billion animals annually. Philip is a recognised thought-leader and media spokesperson on issues relating to industrial agriculture, including its impact on animal welfare, wildlife and the environment. BERNARD E. ROLLIN is University Distinguished Professor, Professor of Philosophy, Professor of Biomedical Sciences, Professor of Animal Sciences, and University Bioethicist at Colorado State University. He authored Natural and Conventional Meaning (1976), Animal Rights and Human Morality (1981, 1993 & 2006), The Unheeded Cry: Animal Consciousness, Animal Pain and Scientific Change (1988 &1998), Farm Animal Welfare (1995), The Frankenstein Syndrome (1995), Science and Ethics (2006) and Putting the Horse Before Descartes (2011). He edited The Experimental Animal in Biomedical Research (1989 & 1995). He is one of the leading scholars in animal rights and consciousness and has lectured over 1,500 times internationally. PAULA SPARKS is a Visiting Professor at the University of Winchester teaching an animal law and policy module to undergraduate students, covering topics around the legal protection of animals used in farming and research and for wildlife and companion animals. She is also executive chairperson of the UK Centre for Animal Law (A-LAW), a charity whose vision is a world where animals are fully protected by law. In her role at A-LAW she oversees the programme of animal law events, publications, and student outreach. She also works closely with animal advocacy groups, lawyers, and academics and frequently lectures about animal law.


RESEARCH STUDENTS PAM ADAMS-WRIGHT: ‘An investigation into why post-weaning stereotypical pacing develops in red squirrel kittens at Wildwood Escot and Wildwood Kent’ REBECCA HAMMERTON: ‘Keeper perceptions of captive primate diets: nutritional and welfare perspectives’ ELIZABETH ROE: ‘Breeding Success and Welfare in Aye-Ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis): Wild and Captive Perspectives’ NICKY SHAW: ‘Responses of the domestic dog to artificial intelligence technology: training and welfare perspectives’


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