ANSI/APSP/ICC-5 2011 (R2022) American National Standard for Residential Inground Swimming Pools

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ANSI/APSP/ICC-5 2011 (R2022) American National Standard for Residential Inground Swimming Pools Includes Addenda A Approved June 28, 2012 Approved April 22, 2011 Reaffirmed June 6, 2022 Copyright©2022bythePoolandHotTub Alliance.Allrights reserved.

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SECRETARIAT:

Pool & Hot Tub Alliance

2111 Eisenhower Avenue, Suite 500 Alexandria, VA 22314 703 838-0083

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Includes Addenda A Approved June 28, 2012

Approved April 22, 2011

Reaffirmed June 6, 2022

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(R2022)
ANSI/APSP/ICC-5 2011
American National Standard for Residential Inground Swimming Pools
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Addenda A to: American National Standard for Residential Inground Swimming Pools

ANSI Approved 2012-06-28

Following approval by the APSP-5 Committee and the ANSI Standards Consensus Committee, and after public review, Addenda A was approved by the American National Standards Institute on June 28, 2012. The original edition of the revised standard was approved by ANSI on April 22, 2011.

Page Error

7 6.1 Entry/exit. All pools shall have a means of entry/exit in the shallow area if water depth exceeds 24 in. (61.0 cm) at the shallowest point. The means of entry/exit shall be located on the shallow side of any first slope change. Pools having more than one shallow area, including but not limited to; center deep, play or sports pools, shall use the same means of entry/exit in all shallow areas.

6.1.1 A secondary means of entry/exit shall be provided in the deep area of the pool if the water depth exceeds 5 ft (152.4 cm).

EXCEPTION: In pools where a deep end egress may present a potential hazard, handholds may be substituted for a means of egress.

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American National Standard

Approval of an American National Standard requires verification by ANSI that the requirements for due process, consensus, and other criteria for approval have been met by the standard developer. Consensus is established when, in the judgment of the ANSI Board of Standards Review, substantial agreement has been reached by directly and materially affected interests. Substantial agreement means much more than a simple majority, but not necessarily unanimity.

Consensus requires that all views and objections be considered and that a concerted effort be made toward their resolution. The use of American National Standards is completely voluntary; their existence does not in any respect preclude anyone, whether he has approved this standard or not, from manufacturing, marketing, purchasing, or using products, processes, or procedures not conforming to the standards.

The American National Standards Institute does not develop standards and will in no circumstances give an interpretation of any American National Standard. Moreover, no person shall have the right or authority to issue an interpretation of an American National Standard in the name of the American National Standards Institute. Requests for interpretations should be addressed to the secretariat or sponsor whose name appears on the title page of this standard.

NOTICE: This American National Standard may be revised or withdrawn at any time. The procedures of the American National Standards Institute require that action be taken periodically to reaffirm, revise, or withdraw this standard.

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Important Notice about this Document

This voluntary standard has been developed under the published procedures of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The ANSI process brings together volunteers representing varied viewpoints and interests to achieve consensus.

The Pool and Hot Tub Alliance (PHTA) does not write the standards. Rather, PHTA facilitates a forum for its members, and others interested in pool and spa design and safety, to develop standards through the consensus procedures of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). While the PHTA administers the process and establishes rules to promote fairness in the development of consensus, it does not independently test, evaluate, or verify the accuracy of any information or the soundness of any judgments contained in its codes and standards.

In issuing and making this document available, the PHTA is not undertaking to render professional or other services for or on behalf of any person or entity. Nor is the PHTA undertaking to perform any duty owed by any person or entity to someone else. The PHTA disclaims liability for any personal injury, property, or other damages of any nature whatsoever, whether special, indirect, consequential, or compensatory, directly or indirectly resulting from the publication of, use of, or reliance on this document.

The PHTA has no power, nor does it undertake, to police or enforce compliance with the contents of this document. The PHTA does not list, certify, test, or inspect products, designs, or installations for compliance with this document. Any certification or other statement of compliance with the requirements of this document shall not be attributable to the PHTA. Any certification of products stating compliance with requirements of this document is the sole responsibility of the certifier or maker of the statement. The PHTA, its members, and those participating in its activities do not accept any liability resulting from compliance or noncompliance with the provisions given herein, for any restrictions imposed on materials, or for the accuracy and completeness of the text.

Copyright Notice

Copyright ©2022 by The Pool & Hot Tub Alliance, 2111 Eisenhower Avenue, Suite 500, Alexandria, VA 22314-4695. Printed in the United States of America. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transcribed, or transmitted, in any form or by any means or method, electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording, or otherwise, without advance written permission from the publisher: The Pool & Hot Tub Alliance, 2111 Eisenhower Avenue, Suite 500, Alexandria, VA 22314-4695.

The APSP The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals® word mark and the APSP logo are trademarks of The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals registered in the U.S.

The Pool & Hot Tub Alliance® word mark and logo are registered trademarks of The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals d/b/a Pool & Hot Tub Alliance registered in the U.S.

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Foreword

This Foreword is not part of the American National Standard ANSI/APSP/ICC-5 2011 (R2022). It is included for information only.

Addenda A was approved by the American National Standards Institute on June 28, 2012. The original edition of this standard was approved by ANSI on April 22, 2011.

This standard is a reaffirmation of ANSI/APSP/ICC-5 2011, American National Standard for Residential Inground Swimming Pools. The reaffirmation was approved by ANSI on June 6, 2022."

The objective of this standard is to provide recommended minimum guidelines for the design, equipment, installation, and use of residential inground swimming pools. It is also intended to assist local jurisdictions and other regulatory bodies, where necessary, in the development and promulgation of criteria for residential inground swimming pools.

The design recommendations and construction practices in this standard are based upon sound engineering principles, research and field experience which, when applied properly, contribute to the delivery and installation of a safe product.

The words “safe” and “safety” are not absolutes. While the goal of this standard is to design and construct a safe, enjoyable product, it is recognized that risk factors cannot, as a practical matter, be reduced to zero in any human activity. This standard does not replace the need for good judgment and personal responsibility. In permitting use of the pool by others, owners must consider the skill, attitude, training and experience of the expected user.

As with any product, the specific recommendations for installation and use provided by the manufacturer should be carefully observed.

This standard was prepared by the APSP-5 Residential Inground Swimming Pool Standards Writing Committee of the Association of Pool & Spa Professionals (APSP) in accordance with American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Procedures for the Development and Coordination of American National Standards utilizing the ANSI-accredited canvass method. Consensus approval was achieved by ballot of the APSP-5 canvass list.

The canvass list that approved this standard was balanced to ensure that individuals from competent and concerned interests have had an opportunity to participate. The proposed standard was made available for public review and comment, which provides an opportunity for additional input from industry, academia, regulatory agencies, and the public at large.

The organizations listed on page iv, recognized as having an interest in the standardization of residential inground swimming pools, were contacted prior to the approval of this standard. Inclusion in this list does not necessarily imply that the organization concurred with the submittal of the proposed standard to ANSI.

Consensus approval was achieved by a ballot of the ANSI Consensus Voting Body below and through an ANSI Public Review process. The ANSI Public Review provided an opportunity for additional input from industry, academia, regulatory agencies, safety experts, state code and health officials, and the public at large.

Suggestions for improvement of this standard should be sent to The Pool & Hot Tub Alliance, 2111 Eisenhower Avenue, Alexandria, VA 22314.

This standard is published in partnership with the International Code Council (ICC). ICC develops and publishes the International Building Code (IBC) and International Residential Code (IRC), which are adopted as the basis for the building codes used in most states and jurisdictions within the United States. Additionally, PHTA and ICC have collaborated to develop the first comprehensive model swimming pool and spa code, known as the International Swimming Pool and Spa Code. This landmark document incorporates and references material from ANSI/PHTA standards and ICC’s model codes, to create a stand-alone code that is consistent with codes and standards from both organizations.

These codes and standards are the result of a joint effort between ICC and PHTA as a service to both the swimming pool and spa community, and building code professionals. It is the hope of both organizations that they will lead to enhanced safety for pool and spa users around the world.

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Organizations Represented

Consensus approval in accordance with ANSI procedures was achieved by ballot of the following APSP Standards Consensus Committee. Inclusion in this list does not necessarily imply that the organization concurred with the submittal of the proposed standard to ANSI.

Producers

Advantis Technologies, Inc. John Puetz

Autopilot, Inc. ........................ Bill Kent

Dal Pino Quality Pools, Inc. Dick Dal Pino Elegant Pool Design & Construction, Inc.. . . . . Hugh Lynch

FreshWater Pools Mike Ribnikar Gary Pools, Inc. ....................... Leif Zars Inter-Fab Inc. Michael Hagerty

JMK Plastering Inc...................... Jeff McGalliard

LBI Pools & Spas Larry Biscornet Mill Bergen Pool Center ................. Robert Blanda Paragon Pools Joe Vassallo

San Juan Pools ....................... Ken Butler

S.R. Smith, LLC Thomas Masterson Van Kirk & Sons, Inc. Don Cesarone, Jr.

General Interest

American Red Cross Connie Harvey Aquatic Risk Management Corp............ Thomas Ebro Con-Serv Associates, Inc. Wally James D&D Technologies Maureen Williams

Foundation for Aquatic Injury Prevention Ron Gilbert

HEDJ Engineering, Inc. Herman Weinberg

Korda/Nemeth Engineering, Inc. David Dexter National Plasterers Council Mitch Brooks

National Swimming Pool Foundation ....... Don Witte Recreation Safety Institute Arthur Mittelstaedt Toff’s Pool Inspection .................. Steven Toff USA Diving Donald Leas Gene Wells Consulting ................. Gene Wells

User

City of Missouri City, Texas ............... Lalo Flores

City of Mount Dora, FL Tom Allen

Clark County Development Services, NV Wesley Walters Wisconsin Dept. of Commerce Safety and Buildings Division Lynita Docken

Fairfax County Health Dept., VA Marc Mordue

Fulton County Dept. of Health & Wellness, GA John Gormley

Madison County Inspection Dept., WI Matthew Danner

N.J. Dept. of Community Affairs Division of Codes and Standards .......... Thomas Pitcherello

New Mexico Environment Dept. Raj Solomon

New York State Dept. of Health ........... Ramesh Kapur

Portsmouth, VA Government James Pippin

Massachusetts Department of Public Health .. Peter Wheeler

Texas Dept. of State Health Services Kathleen Moore

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission ... Troy Whitfield* Wyoming Dept. of Agriculture Neal Bloomenrader *non-voting

In accordance with American National Standards Institute (ANSI) procedures, this document will be reviewed periodically. The Pool & Hot Tub Alliance welcomes your comments and suggestions, and continues to review all PHTA standards, which include:

ANSI/APSP/ICC-1 2014 American National Standard for Public Swimming Pools

NSPI-2 1999 Standard for Public Spas ANSI/APSP/ICC-3 2014 American National Standard for Permanently Installed Residential Spas and Swim Spas ANSI/APSP/ICC-4 2012 (R2022) American National Standard for Aboveground/Onground Residential Swimming Pools

ANSI/APSP/ICC-5 2011 American National Standard for Residential Inground Swimming Pools

ANSI/APSP/ICC-6 2013 American National Standard for Residential Portable Spas and Swim Spas

ANSI/PHTA/ICC-7 2020 American National Standard for Suction Entrapment Avoidance In Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs and Catch Basins

ANSI/APSP/ICC-8 2005 (R2013) American National Standard Model Barrier Code for Residential Swimming Pools, Spas, and Hot Tubs

IAF-9 2005 Standard for Aquatic Recreation Facilities ANSI/PHTA/ICC-10 2021 American National Standard for Elevated Pools, Spas and Other Aquatic Venues Integrated into a Building or Structure

ANSI/APSP/ICC-11 2019 American National Standard for Water Quality in Public Pools and Spas ANSI/APSP/ICC/NPC-12 2016 American National Standard for the Plastering of Swimming Pools and Spas ANSI/APSP/ICC-13 2017 American National Standard for Water Conservation Efficiency in Pools, Spas, Portable Spas and Swim Spas

ANSI/APSP/ICC-14 2019 American National Standard for Portable Electric Spa Energy Efficiency ANSI/PHTA/ICC-15 2021 American National Standard for Residential Swimming Pool and Spa Energy Efficiency ANSI/APSP/ICC-16 2017 American National Standard for Suction Outlet Fitting Assemblies (SOFA) for Use in Pools, Spas and Hot Tubs

APSP-5 Writing Committee

Swim, Incorporated

Dan Johnson, Chair Gene Wells, Past Chair Wells’ Consulting Blue Hawaiian Pools ................. Roger Erdelac Champagne Pools & Spa Richard Moseley Consultant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray Cronise Freshwater Pools Mike Ribnikar JMK Plastering ...................... Jeff McGalliard Latham Plastics, Inc. Peter Moran Newport Controls, LCC ............... Lee West Pool Chlor Kim Skinner

Preferred Pool Corp .................. Billy E. Irvin Royal Fiberglass Pools, Inc

Tony Hebert S.R. Smith, Inc Bill Svendsen San Juan Pools Ken Butler

The Pool & Spa Place John Migliaccio Tropical Pools & Spas, Inc. Adam Alstott

APSP Staff

Bernice Crenshaw, Director, Standards and Technical Information Carvin DiGiovanni, Senior Director, Technical and Standards

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NOTE: Solid vertical lines within the body of the standard indicate a technical change from the requirements of the 2003 edition. Deletion indicators in the form of an arrow ( )are provided in the margin where an entire section, paragraph, exception, or table has been deleted, or an item in a list of items or a table has been deleted.

Tables Page

Minimum Diving Water Envelope ........................ 4

Appendices

A Chemical Operational Parameters ................. A-1

B Use of Ozone A-10 C Use of Elemental Chlorine A-12 D Use of Electrolytic Chlorine Generators ............ A-14 E Use of Mineral Systems and Ionizers A-15 F Signage Warning Against Shallow Water Diving A-16 G Safety Considerations and Warning Recommendations A-17 H Safety Brochures and Education Programs A-19

I Wooden Deck Materials A-20

J Metric Conversion Table ....................... A-21

K Entrapment Avoidance A-22

L Sources of Material A-23

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Sections Page 1 Scope ....................................... 1 2 General Design Criteria 3 3 Plans and Per mits 3
Structural Design ............................... 3
Pool Dimensions and Tolerances 3
Entry/Exit 7
Decks ....................................... 8
Materials of Construction and F inishes 9
Circulation Systems Components and Related Equipment 9
Water Supply ................................. 13
Waste Water Disposal 13
EPA-registered Sanitizers and Systems 13
Supplemental Sanitizers ......................... 14 14 Chemical Feeders and Chlorine/Bromine Generators 14
Electrical Requirements 14 16 Instructions for the Circulation System, Pressure Filters and Separation Tanks 14 17 Safety Features 14 Figures 1 Maximum allowable wall slope ..................... 3 2 Typical pool design configurations 3
Minimum diving water envelope 4 4 Offset ledges .................................. 5
Shallow end depths ............................. 5 6 Top view examples of accessory equipment and pool features prohibited in the diving envelope ............. 6 7 Pool stairs–side view 7 8 Sign warning against shallow water diving A-12 9 Entrapment avoidance symbols ................. A-16 Contents
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Residential Inground Swimming Pools

1 Scope

1.1 Residential pools. This standard applies to permanently installed residential inground swimming pools intended for noncommercial use as a swimming pool by not more than three owner families and their guests and exceeding 24 in. (61 cm) in water depth.

EXCEPTION. Separate ponds, fountains, decorative water features, and reflecting pools or other similar bodies of water that are not intended for bathers are outside the scope of this standard

1.2 Construction. This standard covers specifications for new construction and remodeling of residential inground swimming pools and includes design, equipment, operation, and installation.

1.3 Variation in designs. This standard permits variations in equipment, and design, including special features such as, but not limited to ledges, beach entries, waterfalls, fountains, bridges, tanning shelves, grottoes, seats, benches, in pool tables and bar stools, walls over 12 in. (305 mm) elevated or angled walls or beams, scuba pools, spas, lap pools, swim spas, spillways, slides, coves, walls, etc. to accommodate special needs consideration and advances in technology.

1.3.1 Special purpose pools. Examples of special purpose pools include, but are not limited to, training pools, island pools, scuba pools, polo pools, spas, and lap pools.

1.4 Important safety consideration. The variations in para. 1.3 shall consider safety for the intended use and the circulation of the swimming pool water.

1.5 Normative References. The following standards contain provisions that, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this American National Standard. At the time of publication, the editions indicated were valid. All standards are subject to revision, and parties to agreements based on this American National Standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the standards indicated below.

ACI 302.1R-04, Guide for Concrete Floor and Slab Construction1

ANSI Z21.56-2006/CSA 4.7-2006, Gas fired pool heaters2

ANSI Z223.1-2002, National Fuel Gas Code (same as NFPA 54-2009)3

ANSI/APSP-7 Standard for Suction Entrapment Avoidance in Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs, and Catch Basins

ANSI/APSP-8 Model Barrier Code for Residential Swimming Pools, Spas, and Hot Tubs

ANSI/ASME A112.19.8-2007, Suction Fittings for Swimming and Wading Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs and Whirlpool Bathtub Appliances4

ANSI/NEMA MG1-2009 (Rev. 1-2010), Motors and generators5

ANSI/NFPA 54 (2009), National fuel Gas Code (same as ANSI Z223.1-2002)6

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ANSI/NFPA 58 (2004), Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code7 ANSI/NSF 50 (2009), Equipment for Swimming Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs and Other Recreational Water Facilities8

ANSI/ASHRAE 62.1-2007, Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality9

A112.1.2 (2004), Air gaps in plumbing systems10

ASTM F1346-91 (2003), Standard performance specification for safety covers and labeling requirements for all covers for swimming pools, spas, and hot tubs11

ASTM F2208 (2008), Standard safety specification for residential pool alarms12

NFPA 70 (2011), Article 680 of the National Electrical Code (NEC®)13

OSHA Standard 29, CFR1910.1000 Table Z-114

UL 1081 (2008), Standard for swimming pool pumps, filters, and chlorinators15

UL 1261 (2001), Standard for electric water heaters for pools and tubs16

ANSI/UL 559, Heat Pumps

U.S. Code of federal regulations, 16 CFR, Part 1303.1 et seq.17

1–4. ACI, American Concrete Institute, 3800 Country Club Drive, Farmington Hills, MI 48331, (248) 848-3800, www.concrete.org

5. National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA), 1300 N. 17th Street, Suite 1847, Rosslyn VA 22209, (703) 841-3200, www.nema.org

6–7. NFPA, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269, (617) 770-3000, www.nfpa.org

8. NSF International, 789 N. Dixboro Rd, P.O. Box 130140, Ann Arbor MI 48113, (734) 769-8010, www.nsf.org

9. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, 1791 Tullie Circle NE, Atlanta,GA 30329, (404) 636-8400, www.ashrae.org

10. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 3 Park Avenue, 20th Floor, New York, NY 10016, (212) 591-8562, www.asme.org

11–12. ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Dr, West Conshohocken, PA 19428, (610) 832-9585, www.astm.org

13. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 1 Batte-rymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269 (617) 770-3000, www.nfpa.org

14. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, DOL, 200 Constitution Ave, Washington, DC 20210, www.osha.gov

15–16. Underwriters Laboratories (UL), 333 Pfingsten Road, Northbrook, IL 60062, (847) 272-8800, www.ul.com UL, previously listed

17–18. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250; toll free (866) 512-1800; order online from http://bookstore.gpo.gov

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U.S. Code of federal regulations, 16 CFR, Part 120718

1.6 Other standards. This standard does not apply to pools and spas covered by:

ANSI/APSP-1 Standard for Public Swimming Pools

ANSI/APSP-2 Standard for Public Spas and Swim Spas

ANSI/APSP-3 Standard for Permanently Installed Spas and Swim Spas

ANSI/APSP-4 Standard For Aboveground/Onground Residential Swimming Pools

ANSI/APSP-6 Standard for Residential Portable Spas and Swim Spas

ANSI/APSP-9 Aquatic Recreation Facilities, and ANSI/APSP-11 American National Standard for Water Quality in Public Pools and Spas.

1.7 Workmanship. All work shall be performed in accordance with the latest published edition of APSP Workmanship Guidelines and Practices for Residential Inground Swimming Pools and Spas.

1.8 Definitions

alteration: See Remodel.

beach entries: Sloping entries starting above the waterline at deck level and ending below the waterline (Does not refer to sand only); ZERO ENTRY.

circulation system: The mechanical components that are a part of a recirculation system on a pool or spa. Circulation equipment may be, but is not limited to, categories of pumps, hair and lint strainers, filters, valves, gauges, meters, heaters, surface skimmers, inlet/outlet fittings, and chemical feeding devices. The components have separate functions, but when connected to each other by piping, perform as a coordinated system for purposes of maintaining pool or spa water in a clear and sanitary condition.

deep area: Areas of water depth exceeding five ft (5 ft, 1.52 m)

diving area: Area of a swimming pool that is designed for diving.

diving platform: Stationary platform designed for diving. diving stand: Any supporting device used for supporting a springboard or diving board.

drain: A suction outlet, comprising a fitting, fitting assembly, cover/grate, and related components that provide a localized low-pressure area for the transfer of water from a swimming pool, wading pool, spa, or hot tub. (See Suction Outlet).

dynamic head: The sum of the total resistance caused by friction and/or changes in elevation, of the water flow

through the entire circulation system that the pump has to overcome to achieve the necessary flow rate.

EPA-registered product: A product bearing the EPA stamp indicating that it meets EPA standards for efficacy, human health and safety, environmental impact, use instructions, and product labeling. All products that claim to kill or control bacteria, algae, etc., are required to be registered. manufactured diving equipment: Manufactured diving equipment shall include diving boards, jump boards, springboards, and starting platforms. Architectural features such as decorative rocks and elevated bond beams are not considered to be manufactured diving equipment.

manufactured or field fabricated diving equipment for inground swimming pools (diving board/stand combination or manufactured platform. The term “field fabricated” covers diving platforms that may be fabricated on site, including but not limited to: platforms incorporated into elevated planters or water features, split-level decks, boulders, or diving rocks that may be poured into or mounted on a pool deck, etc.

remodel: To install cosmetic changes, accessory add-ons, or modernizations. Can be for either residential or commercial installations.

shallow areas: Portions of a pool or spa with water depths of less than five ft (5 ft, 1.52 m) slip resisting: A surface that has been treated or constructed to significantly reduce the chance of a user slipping. The surface shall not be an abrasion hazard. special purpose pool: A pool intended to be used exclusively for a specific activity, such as swimming instruction, diving, competition, or physical therapy. suction outlet: A submerged aperture or fitting, other than a skimmer, on the sidewall or bottom of a swimming pool or spa through which water under negative pressure (vacuum) is drawn from the pool or spa to the pump or circulation system.

suction piping (influent): Piping that is connected to the suction side of the pump.

swimming area: Area of pool greater than three feet (3 ft, 914 mm) in depth, that is devoted to swimming. swimout: An underwater seat area that is placed completely outside of the perimeter shape of the pool. When located at the deep end, swimouts are permitted to be used as the deep-end means of entry/exit of the pool; LOVE SEAT.

waterline: The waterline shall be defined in one of the following ways:

1. Skimmer system: The waterline shall be at the midpoint of the operating range of the skimmers when there are no users in a pool or spa.

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2. Overflow system: The waterline shall be at the top of the overflow rim.

2 General Design Criteria

2.1 Materials of components and accessories. The materials of components and accessories used for permanently installed inground residential swimming pools shall be compatible with the user and the environment in which they are installed. The materials shall be capable of fulfilling the design, installation, and the intended use requirements in this standard.

2.2 Selection of materials. The selection of materials, manufactured components, accessories, and construction processes shall be such that external surfaces and edges that are exposed to the user are arranged and finished so that they will not constitute a cutting, pinching, puncturing, or abrasion hazard.

2.3 Entrapment avoidance. There shall be no protrusions or other obstructions in the swimming area, which may cause the entrapment or entanglement of the user.

3 Plans and Per mits

3.1 Approval by state or local authority. Prior to construction, remodeling, or alteration of a permanently installed residential pool, plans and specifications shall be submitted as required by the state or local authority for review, approval, and issuance of a permit.

4 Structural Design

4.1 Structural design. The structural design and materials used shall be in accordance with accepted structural engineering practices and methods.

4.2 Freezing. In climates subject to freezing temperatures, the pool shell shall be designed and constructed to protect it from structural damage due to freezing.

5 Pool Dimensions and Tolerances

5.1 General requirements. Design dimensions shall comply with the specifications in this standard. The pool shall be constructed to these design dimensions within the tolerances listed in 5.1.1.

5.1.1 Construction tolerances. There shall be construction tolerances allowed on dimensional designs. The length, width, and depth shall be limited to a tolerance of plus or minus 3 in. (±76 mm). All other dimensions shall be limited to a tolerance of ±2 in. (±51 mm), unless otherwise specified.

NOTE: Negative construction tolerances shall not be applied to the shallow area dimensions of the Minimum Diving Envelope given in Table 1, p. 4.

5.2 Perimeter shape. No limits are specified for shapes of pools. Consideration shall be given to circulation and safety to the user.

5.3 Walls–Requirements

5.3.1 Walls in the shallow area and deep area of the pool shall not slope greater than 11° (5:1 slope ratio) to a transition point of the floor (see Figure 1). The transition to the bottom of the pool between points D and E (see

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Figure 1 Maximum allowable wall slope Figure 2 Typical pool design configurations
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Figure 3 Minimum diving water envelope

Table 1. Minimum diving water envelope for swimming pools designated types I-V

Pool Types

Minimum Depths at Point

Minimum Widths at Point

Minimum Lengths between Points

A B C D A B C D WA AB BC CD DE WE

O Manufactured diving equipment is prohibited

1 6' 0" 7' 6" 5' 0" 2' 9" 10' 0" 12' 0" 10' 0" 8' 0" 1' 6" 7' 0" 7' 6" Varies 6' 0" 28' 9" (1.82 m) (2.29 m) (1.52 m) (838 mm) (3.05 m) (1.52 m) (3.05 m) (2.44 m) (457 mm) (2.13 m) (2.29 m) (1.82 m) (8.76 m) 2 6' 0" 7' 6" 5' 0" 2' 9" 12' 0" 15' 0" 12' 0" 8' 0" 1' 6" 7' 0" 7' 6" Varies 6' 0" 28' 9" (1.82 m) (2.29 m) (1.52 m) (838 mm) (3.66 m) (4.57 m) (3.66 m) (2.44 m) (457 mm) (2.13 m) (2.29 m) (1.82 m) (8.76 m)

3 6' 10" 8' 0" 5' 0" 2' 9" 12' 0" 15' 0" 12' 0" 8' 0" 2' 0" 7' 6" 9' 0" Varies 6' 0" 31' 3" (2.08 m) (2.44 m) (1.52 m) (838 mm) (3.66 m) (4.57 m) (3.66 m) (2.44 m) (610 mm) (2.29 m) (2.74 m) (1.82 m) (9.53 m) 4 7' 8" 8' 6" 5' 0" 2' 9" 15' 0" 18' 0" 15' 0" 9' 0" 2' 6" 8' 0" 10' 6" Varies 6' 0" 33' 9" (2.34 m) (2.59 m) (1.52 m) (838 mm) (4.57 m) (5.49 m) (4.57 m) (2.74 m) (762 mm) (2.44 m) (3.20 m) (1.82 m) (10.3 m)

5 8' 6" 9' 0" 5' 0" 2' 9" 15' 0" 18' 0" 15' 0" 9' 0" 3' 0" 9' 0" 12' 0" Varies 6' 0" 36' 9" (2.59 m) (2.74 m) (1.52 m) (838 mm) (4.57 m) (5.49 m) (4.57 m) (2.74 m) (914 mm) (2.74 m) (3.66 m) (1.82 m) (11.2 m)

NOTES

1. Minimum length between points CD may vary based upon water depth at point D and the slope between points C and D.

2 Drawings are not to scale.

3. Negative construction tolerances (see para. 5.1.1) shall not be applied to any of the dimensions shown in the Minimum Water Envelopes given in Table 1.

4. Pool types designate minimum water envelope sizes as specified by the diving board manufacturers.

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Figure 4 Offset ledges

Figure 5 Shallow end depths

Figure 3, p. 5) shall not be less than 2 ft 3 in. (686 mm) below the waterline.

5.3.2 As shown in Figure 2, at the depths of (A) and (B), the walls are permitted to continue to join the floor.

5.4 Offset Ledges

5.4.1 Offset ledges shall be a maximum of 8 in. (203 mm) wide.

5.4.1.1 Offset ledges located less than 42 in. (1.07 m) below waterline shall be proportionately less than 8 in. (203 mm) wide and fall within 11° from plumb, measured from the top of the waterline (see Figure 4).

5.5 Floor slopes. Floor slopes shall be reasonably uniform and comply with paras. 5.5.1 through 5.5.3.

5.5.1 The slope of the floor from the shallow end wall towards the deep area shall not exceed a 1:7 incline to the point of the first slope change, if any (D–E) as shown in Figure 5.

5.5.2 Changes in slope between shallow and deep areas shall be at a minimum water depth of 2 ft 9 in. (838 mm) and be at least 6 ft (1.83 m) from the shallow end, except as specified in para. 6.3.

5.5.3 The slope of the floor shall not exceed a 1:3 incline under the lengths (B–D) of the Diving Envelope (see Figure 5).

5.6 Shallow end water depths. Water depth in the shallow area shall be a minimum of 2 ft 9 in. (838 mm), except for those locations specified in para. 6.3 “Shallow End Detail for Beach and Sloping Entries.”

5.7 Manufactured diving equipment for in-ground swimming pools (diving board/stand combination, manufactured platform, or field fabricated)

5.7.1 When manufactured or field fabricated diving equipment is installed, it shall conform to the specifications set forth in paras. 5.7–5.9. It shall be located in the deep

area of the pool to provide the minimum dimensions as shown in para. 5.8, and shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.

5.7.1.1 Manufactured or field fabricated diving equipment shall be located directly above Point A. Diving equipment shall not be installed on Type O pools (see Table 1).

5.7.1.2 Maximum elevation of a diving board above the water shall be in accordance with manufacturer’s installation instructions. Raised decking may be installed around the diving board up to level with the top of the board.

5.7.2 Manufactured diving equipment installation and use instructions shall be provided by the diving equipment manufacturer and shall specify the minimum water dimensions required for each diving board and diving stand combination. They shall refer to the diving envelope type of their choice by dimensionally relating their products to Point A on the diving envelopes as shown in Figure 3, Table 1, and paras. 5.8.1–5.8.3.

5.7.2.2 Diving equipment shall be permanently labeled and affixed to the diving equipment or jump boards and include, but not be limited to the following: manufacturer’s diving equipment name and address date of manufacture minimum diving envelope maximum weight limitations.

5.7.2.3 Diving equipment shall have slip-resisting tread surfaces.

5.8 Figure 3 diagrams show dimension points referred to in Table 1.

5.8.1 Point A: Point A is the point from which all other forward dimensions of width, length, and depth are then established for the Minimum Diving Water Envelope. If the tip of the diving board or diving platform overhang is located at a distance of WA or greater from the deep end wall and the water depth at that location is equal to or

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greater than the water depth requirement at Point A (see Table 1), then the point on the water surface directly below the center of the tip of the diving board or diving platform shall be identified as Point A.

5.8.1.2 Location of Point A: The minimum Diving Water Envelope dimensions for pools with manufactured diving equipment shall be taken from Point A as shown in Figure 3. Point A shall be defined as the point on the water surface where the water depth is required at Point A and is provided at a distance of WA as shown in Table 1 from the deep end wall. The center of the tip of the diving board, platforms, manufactured or field fabricated shall be located directly above Point A.

5.8.1.3 Point A as shown in Figure 3 and Table 1 shall be the reference point of origin for all dimensions defining the minimum diving envelope.

5.8.2 Type O pools (where diving is prohibited) shall not be limited in width, length, or water depth except as specifically provided for in this standard.

5.8.3 Location of equipment and pool features in the minimum diving envelope. If the pool is designed for use with diving equipment, all steps, pool stairs, ladders, underwater benches, offset ledges special features and other accessory items or any parts thereof, these features shall be located outside the Minimum Diving Envelope (see Figure 6).

5.9 Stationary diving platform(s) and diving rock(s). Stationary diving platform(s) and diving rock(s) built on site field fabricated shall be allowed to be flush with the wall and located in the diving area of the pool. Point A shall be in front of the wall at the platform or diving rock centerline. Diving rocks or platforms are prohibited on Pool Type O.

5.10 Stationary diving platfor m(s) and diving rock(s)

5.10.1 Stationary diving platform(s) and diving rock(s) shall not be permitted on Pool Type O.

5.10.2 The maximum height of the stationary diving platform or diving rock above the waterline shall be as follows:

Pool Type I 42 in. (1.07 m)

Pool Type II 42 in. (1.07 m)

Figure 6 Top view examples of accessory equipment and pool features prohibited in the minimum diving envelope

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Pool Type III 50 in. (1.27 m)

Pool Type IV 60 in. (1.52 m)

Pool Type V 69 in. (1.75 m)

5.10.3 The diving equipment manufacturer shall specify minimum headroom above water.

5.11 Swimming pool slides

5.11.1 Slides, where installed, shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications and comply with the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) Standard for Swimming Pool Slides as published in the Code of Federal Regulations, 16 CFR Ch. II, Part 1207.

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5.11.2 Slides constructed on-site are not covered by this standard.

NOTE: For consumer safety information, warnings, and education programs, see Appendices F, G, H, and K.

6 Entry/Exit

6.1 Entry/exit. All pools shall have a means of entry/exit in the shallow area(s) if water depth exceeds 24 in. (61.0 cm) at the shallowest point. The means of entry/exit shall be located on the shallow side of any first slope change.

6.1.1 A secondary means of entry/exit shall be provided in the deep area of the pool if the water depth exceeds 5 ft (152.4 cm).

EXCEPTION: In pools where a deep end egress may present a potential hazard, handholds may be substituted for a means of egress.

6.1.2 Entries/exits shall consist of one (1), or a combination of, the following: steps, stairs, ladders, treads, ramps, beach entries, underwater seats, benches, swimouts, mechanical lifts, and other designs or products that provide the minimum utility as specified in this standard.

6.1.3 Pools over 30 ft (914 cm) wide at the deep end shall provide entries/exits on both sides of the deep area of the pool.

6.1.4 Entries, exits, pool stairs, ladders, underwater benches, special features, and other accessories shall be located outside the minimum diving envelope when the pool is designed for diving (see Figure 6).

6.1.5 All treads shall have slip resisting surfaces.

6.2 Pool stairs. The design and construction of stairs into the

Figure 7 Pool stairs – side view

shallow end and recessed pool stairs shall conform to paras. 6.2 through 6.3 (see Figure 7).

6.2.1 Treads shall have a minimum unobstructed horizontal depth of 10 in. (254 mm), and a minimum unobstructed walking surface of 240 square in. (1548 cm2)

6.2.1.1 When stairs are equipped with a handrail, treads shall have a minimum unobstructed horizontal depth of 8 in. (203 mm), and a minimum unobstructed walking surface of 192 square in. (1239 cm2)

6.2.1.1.1 On shallow end stairs, the bottom riser height is allowed to vary to the floor. The bottom riser shall not exceed 12 in. (305 mm) to the floor for the width of the walking surface.

6.2.2 All risers shall have a maximum uniform height of 12 in. (305 mm), except the top riser, which may vary but shall not exceed 12 in. (305 mm)

6.2.2.1 The vertical distance from the pool coping, deck or step surface to the uppermost tread shall be a maximum of 12 in. (305 mm)

6.2.2.2 Steps are required in the first 48 in. (1219 mm) of water depth. In water depths exceeding 48 in. (1219 mm), no additional steps are required.

6.2.2.3 If the bottom riser does not have a single point that is 12 in. (305 mm) or less to the floor another riser shall be added. The last riser shall exceed 12 in. (305 mm) if the water depth is over 48 in. (1.22 m) at that point.

6.3 Shallow end detail for beach and sloping entries

6.3.1 Sloping entries used as a pool entrance shall not exceed a 1:7 incline (see Figure 6 C).

6.3.2 Sloping entries are permitted to be used in conjunction with steps and benches.

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6.3.2.1 When benches are used in conjunction with sloping entries, the vertical riser distance shall not exceed 12 in. (30.5 cm). For steps used in conjunction with sloping entries, all requirements of para. 6.2 shall apply.

6.3.3 Architectural features are not required to comply with the 1:7 incline.

6.3.4 Beach and sloping entry surfaces shall be of slip resisting materials.

6.4 Handrails. If handrails are used, they shall conform to paras. 6.4.1 through 6.4.4.

6.4.1 Handrails shall be of corrosion resisting materials.

6.4.2 Handrails shall be installed so they cannot be removed without the use of tools.

6.4.3 The leading edge of handrails/handholds facilitating stairs and pool entry/exit shall not exceed 18 in. (457 mm) back from the vertical face of the bottom riser (see Figure 7).

6.4.4 The outside diameter of handrails shall be a minimum of 1 inch (254 mm) and not exceed 1.9 inch (48 mm) (see Figure 7).

6.5 Pool ladder design and construction. Design and construction of ladders shall conform to paras. 6.5.1 through 6.5.7.

6.5.1 All steps and ladders shall be located outside the Minimum Diving Envelope (see Figure 7).

6.5.2 All ladder and staircase treads shall have slip resisting surfaces.

6.5.3 Ladders shall provide two (2) handholds or two (2) handrails.

6.5.4 There shall be a minimum clearance of 3 in. (76 mm) and a maximum of 6 in. (152 mm) between the pool wall and the ladder.

6.5.5 The clear distance between ladder handrails shall be a minimum of 17 in. (432 mm) and a maximum of 24 in. (610 mm)

6.5.6 There shall be a uniform vertical distance between ladder treads, with a 7 in. (178 mm) minimum and a 12 in. (305 mm) maximum.

6.5.7 Ladder treads shall have a minimum horizontal uniform depth of 2 in. (51 mm).

6.6 Recessed treads. The design and construction of recessed treads in the pool wall shall conform to paras. 6.6.1 through 6.6.6.

6.6.1 All recessed treads shall have slip resisting surfaces.

6.6.2 Recessed treads at the centerline shall have a minimum uniform vertical spacing of 7 in. (178 mm) and a maximum of 12 in. (305 mm).

6.6.3 The vertical distance between the pool coping edge, deck, or step surface and the uppermost recessed tread shall be a maximum of 12 in. (305 mm)

6.6.4 Recessed treads shall have a minimum depth of 5 in. (127 mm) and a minimum width of 12 in. (305 mm).

6.6.5 Recessed treads shall drain into the pool.

6.6.6 Recessed treads shall be provided with a handrail, grabrail, or handhold on each side of the treads.

6.7 Underwater seats, benches, and swimouts. The design and construction of underwater seats, benches, and swimouts shall conform to paras. 6.7.1 through 6.7.3 (see Figure 6).

6.7.1 Underwater seats, benches, and swimouts, when provided, shall be a maximum of 20 in. (508 mm) below the waterline.

6.7.2 Underwater seats, benches, and swimouts shall be permitted in the deep area of the pool. They shall be located outside of the required Minimum Diving Envelope if the pool is designed for use with diving equipment (see Figure 6).

6.7.3 Underwater seats, benches, or swimouts are permitted to be part of the stairs, recessed treads, beach entries, ramps, or other special features.

6.8 Underwater shelves

6.8.1 Underwater shelves may be placed in any area of the pool, but shall be outside of the diving envelope of diving pools.

6.8.2 They may be of any size, shape, or design.

6.8.3 They shall have no minimum depth, and a maximum depth of 4 ft (1219 mm).

6.8.4 Walls connecting shelves to floor must meet the requirements of para. 5.3.

6.8.5 Examples of underwater shelves include, but are not limited to: bridges, tanning shelves, grottoes, seats, benches, in pool tables, bar stools, etc.

7 Decks

7.1 General requirements. There is no requirement to provide decking around residential inground swimming pools.

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7.1.1 Deck(s), when provided, shall be designed and installed in accordance with local construction practices and applicable building codes for the decking type and the site condition.

7.1.2 All deck surfaces, when provided, shall be of slip resisting materials, including, but not limited to, special deck features such as markers and brand insignias.

7.1.3 Deck(s), when provided, shall be installed to protect the coping tile and its mortar bed from damage as a result of deck movement.

7.1.4 Deck(s), when provided, shall be edged, radiused, or otherwise relieved to eliminate sharp corners.

7.2 Drainage

7.2.1 Deck(s) shall be sloped to effectively drain away from the pool or towards the deck drains.

EXCEPTION: Wet deck areas.

7.2.2 Level areas for diving equipment installations are permitted.

7.2.2.1 A minimum slope for decking of 1/8 inch per linear foot (1:96) shall be provided, except for wood decking.

7.2.3 Site drainage shall direct all perimeter deck drainage, general site, and roof drainage away from the pool area.

7.2.4 Backwash water that depends on surface drainage for removal must be diverted away from the adjacent deck area.

7.3 Concrete decks

7.3.1 Work for the concrete deck(s) shall be performed in accordance with the local construction practices and the recommendations of the latest published edition of the American Concrete Institute (ACI) standard 302.1R-04, Guide for Concrete Floor and Slab Construction.

7.3.2 Typical slopes for the immediate pool decking (the area from the water’s edge to the point of first drainage) are:

1/8 inch per 1 foot (1:96) shall be provided for textured, hand finished concrete decks; ¼ inch per 1 foot (1:48) for exposed aggregate concrete decks; ½ inch per foot (1:24) for in-door/outdoor carpeted concrete decks, unless an alternative drainage method is provided.

7.3.3 Expansion or control joints shall be provided to help control cracks due to expansion, contraction, and movement of the slab.

7.4 Wooden decks

See Appendix I for suggested wooden deck materials.

7.4.1 There is no minimum slope requirement for wooden decks. The maximum slope for wooden decks shall be ¼ inch per foot (1:48).

7.4.2 Expansion gaps shall be required between deck boards and shall be consistent with good construction practices with respect to the type of wood used.

7.5 Stone, brick, brick pavers, concrete pavers, and tile decks

7.5.1 Installation of these types of decks shall follow local accepted construction practices. Drainage slope requirements shall be in accordance with the drainage requirements of paras. 7.2 through 7.2.4.

7.6 Deck steps

7.6.1 Step risers for the deck shall be uniform and have a maximum height of 7½ in. (191 mm). The minimum tread depth shall be 10 in. (254 mm).

8 Materials for Construction and F inishes

8.1 Surfaces. The surfaces within the pool intended to provide footing for bathers shall have a slip resisting surface. The roughness or irregularity of such surfaces shall not cause injury or be an abrasion hazard during normal use.

8.1.1 The interior surfaces of the pool shall be watertight.

NOTE: Specific information regarding recommended application procedures for pool/spa interior finishes on shotcrete/concrete and/or gunite pools can be found in the latest published edition of the Technical Manual by the National Plasterers Council (NPC), 2811 Tamiami Trail, Suite P, Port Charlotte, FL 33952, 941-766-0634.

8.2 Finishes (paint). All paints and finishes shall be in compliance with the latest published edition of U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1303.1 et Seq. (2011).

9 Circulation System Components and Related Equipment

9.1 Compliance. Circulation systems, components, and equipment shall comply with the latest published editions of ANSI/NSF 50 Equipment for Swimming Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs and Other Recreational Water Facilities, and the ANSI/ APSP-7 Standard for Suction Entrapment Avoidance in Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs, and Catch Basins.

9.1.1 Location. When used, a circulation system consisting of pumps, piping, return inlets, outlets, filters, and other

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necessary equipment shall be provided for the circulation of water throughout the pool and shall be located so as to prevent their being used as a means of access to the pool by young children.

9.1.2 Temperature. In climates subject to freezing temperature, the appurtenances, piping, filter system, pump and motor, and other components shall be designed and constructed to protect them from damage due to freezing.

9.1.3 Turnover and water clarity. The equipment shall be sized to provide a turnover of the pool water at least once every twelve (12) hours. The system shall be designed to give the proper turnover rate based on the manufacturer’s specified maximum flow rate of the filter, in clean media condition of the filter. Water clarity shall be maintained. (Clarity is a function of proper filtration and maintenance of proper chemical operational parameters; for recommendations, see Appendix A.) When standing at the pool’s edge at the deep end, the deepest portion of the pool floor shall be visible.

9.1.4 Installation and accessibility. Circulation system components, which require replacement or servicing shall be accessible for inspection, repair, or replacement, and shall be installed according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Circulation equipment shall be properly installed to prevent damage from settlement and to minimize the potential for the accumulation of debris and moisture.

9.1.5 Pressure test. Circulation system piping, other than that integrally included in the manufacture of the pool, shall be subject to an induced static hydraulic pressure test (sealed system) at 15 pounds per square inch (15 psi, 103.4 kPa) for 30 minutes. The test shall be performed before the deck work is started; the pressure maintained until the deck is poured or installed.

9.2 Water velocity. The water velocity in the pool piping shall not exceed 8 ft (2438 mm) per second for both suction and pressure piping, and shall comply with the latest published edition of ANSI/APSP-7 Standard for Suction Entrapment Avoidance in Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs, and Catch Basins and the latest published edition of A112.19.8 Suction Fittings for Use in Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, and Hot Tubs or its recognized successor standard.

9.2.1 Flow rates through submerged grates shall comply with the latest published editions of ANSI/APSP-7 Standard for Suction Entrapment Avoidance in Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs, and Catch Basins, and the latest published edition of A112.19.8 Suction

Fittings for Use in Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, and Hot Tubs or its recognized successor standard.

9.3 Piping and fittings. The circulation system piping and fittings shall be considered process piping, made of material compatible with the user and able to withstand operating pressures of 1.5 times the design working pressure.

9.3.1 The suction piping shall not collapse when there is a complete shutoff of flow on the suction side of the pump.

9.3.2 Equipment shall be designed and fabricated to drain the pool water from the equipment and exposed face piping, by the removal of the drain plugs and manipulating valves, or by other methods.

Refer to manufacturer’s instructions for specific information on draining the system.

9.3.3 Valves installed in or under any deck(s) shall be provided with an adequately sized access cover and valve pit to facilitate operation and servicing.

9.4 Filters

9.4.1 Filters. Swimming pool filters shall be tested and listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory and shall comply with latest published edition of ANSI/NSF 50 Equipment for Swimming Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs and Other Recreational Water Facilities.

9.4.2 Filters installed in swimming pools shall be capable of providing water clarity as noted in para. 9.1.3.

9.4.3 All filter elements, media, and other components that require servicing shall be accessible for inspection, removal, and repair, and be installed in accordance with the filter manufacturer’s instructions.

9.5 Prevention of accumulated air pressure. Pressure type filters shall provide an automatic internal or a manual external means to prevent accumulated air pressure inside the tank. Filter tanks composed of upper and lower tank lids that are held in place by a perimeter clamp shall provide a slow and safe release of air pressure before the clamp disengages the lids.

9.5.1 Any separation tank used in conjunction with any filter tank shall have as a part of its design an air release, lid, or manual means, which provides a slow and safe release of pressure as it is opened.

9.6 Piping. Piping furnished with the filter shall be made of suitable material capable of withstanding 1.5 times the rated maximum working pressure of the pump.

9.7 Filter components. Filter components that require servicing shall be accessible for inspection and repair in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.

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9.8 Pressure or vacuum gauge. A pressure or vacuum gauge or other means of indicating system conditions shall be provided in the circulation system in an easily readable location.

9.9 Time clock/related devices. Time clocks and/or other devices are permitted to be used to set the operating period of the circulation system and its components. The circulation system shall be capable of supporting water clarity and water chemistry requirements (see Appendix A).

9.9.1 When appurtenant devices such as chemical/ disinfectant feeders, heaters, and other devices that depend on circulation pump flow are used, they shall be permanently wired into the time clock (when applicable), see manufacturer’s specifications.

9.10 Pumps

9.10.1 Swimming pool pumps shall be tested and listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory and shall comply with the latest published edition of ANSI/NSF 50 Circulation System Components and Related Materials for Swimming Pools, Spas/Hot Tubs.

Pumps rated five (5) horsepower or less shall comply with the latest published edition of ANSI/UL 1081 Standard for Swimming Pool Pumps, Filters, and Chlorinators.

9.10.2 A pump and motor shall be provided for the circulation of the pool water. Performance of all pumps shall meet or exceed the conditions of flow required for filtering and cleaning (if applicable) the filters against the total dynamic head developed by the complete system.

9.10.3 Pressure filter systems with a cleanable strainer or screen shall be provided between the pool and circulation pump(s) to remove solids, debris, hair, and lint.

9.10.4 Access to the pump(s) and motor(s) shall be provided for inspection and service.

9.10.5 Pump(s) and component parts shall be installed to provide access so as not to be hazardous to the operator or maintenance personnel.

9.10.6 Where a mechanical pump seal is provided, components of the seal shall be corrosion resisting and capable of operating under conditions normally encountered in pool operation.

9.10.7 All motors shall have an open drip-proof enclosure as defined by the latest published edition of ANSI/NEMA MG1-2009, Motors and generators or comply with the latest published edition and be constructed electrically and mechanically to perform satisfactorily and safely under the conditions of load and environment normally encountered in swimming pool installations.

9.10.8 Motor(s) shall be capable of operating the pump under full load with a voltage variation of ±10% from the nameplate rating. If the maximum service factor of the motor is exceeded (at full voltage), the manufacturer shall indicate this on the pump curve.

9.10.9 All motors shall have thermal or current overload protection.

9.10.10 When the pump is below the waterline, valves shall be permanently connected in the suction and discharge lines.

9.11 Surface skimmer systems

9.11.1 A surface skimming system or a perimeter overflow system shall be provided, designed, and constructed to skim the pool surface.

9.11.1.1 Surface skimming devices shall be tested by a national recognized testing laboratory and comply with the latest published edition of ANSI/NSF 50 Equipment for Swimming Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs and Other Recreational Water Facilities.

9.11.2 Skimming devices shall be designed and installed so as not to constitute a hazard to the user.

9.11.3 Where automatic surface skimmers are used as the sole overflow system, at least one (1) surface skimmer shall be provided for each 800 square ft (74 m2) or fraction thereof of the water surface area. When skimmers are used, they shall be located to optimize skimming action over the surface of the pool.

9.12

Inlets and outlets

9.12.1 Entrapment avoidance. The submerged suction piping and fittings shall comply with the latest published edition of ANSI/APSP-7 Standard for Suction Entrapment Avoidance in Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs, and Catch Basins.

9.12.2 Testing and certification. Submerged outlet(s), (other than skimmers) when used, shall be sized and installed in accordance with the latest published editions of ANSI/APSP-7 Standard for Suction Entrapment Avoidance in Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs, and Catch Basins, and the latest published edition of A112.19.8 Suction Fittings for Use in Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, and Hot Tubs, or its recognized successor standard.

9.12.3 Water velocity. Water velocity through submerged grates shall comply with the latest published editions of ANSI/APSP-7 Standard for Suction Entrapment Avoidance in Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs, and Catch Basins, and the latest published edition

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of A112.19.8 Suction Fittings for Use in Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, and Hot Tubs, or its recognized successor standard.

9.12.4 Performance. Inlets and outlet(s) shall be provided and arranged to produce a uniform circulation of water and maintain the distribution of sanitizer residual throughout the pool.

9.12.5 Number of inlets. The number of return inlets shall be based on a minimum of one (1) return inlet per 300 sq. ft (27.9 m2) of pool surface area or fraction thereof. Return inlet fittings shall be of sufficient size or quantity to allow for a full turnover rate of the circulation system in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications for return inlets.

9.12.6 Inlets and outlets from the circulation system shall be designed so as not to constitute a hazard to the user.

9.12.7 IMPORTANT SAFETY CONSIDERATION: To avoid serious injury or death, close the pool or spa to bathers if any outlet cover/grate is missing, broken, or inoperative. There is no backup for a missing or damaged outlet cover/grates for all five (5) entrapment hazards:

• hair entrapment

• limb entrapment

• body entrapment

• mechanical entrapment

• evisceration

(See Appendix K.)

9.12.8 When provided, vacuum cleaner fitting(s) shall be located in an accessible position(s) at least 6 in. (152 mm) and no greater than 18 in. (457 mm) below the waterline or as an attachment to the skimmer(s). They shall be installed in accordance with the latest published edition of ANSI/ APSP-7 Standard for Suction Entrapment Avoidance in Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs, and Catch Basins.

9.13 Heaters

Z21.56 Gas fired pool heater, and UL 1261 Electrical Water Heaters for Pool and Tubs. Heat pumps shall comply with the latest published edition of ANSI/UL 559 Heat Pumps.

9.13.4 Owner/operator shall routinely check the water to ensure that the temperature does not exceed 104 °F (40 °C). If adjustments are necessary, they shall be performed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions or by a qualified technician.

9.13.5 Sizing. For efficient and economical operation, it is important that the heater be properly sized. To determine the proper size, first find the surface area of the swimming pool in square ft (m2). Then select a heater that is properly sized for that surface area from the manufacturer’s charts.

9.13.6 Installation. The heater(s) shall be installed in accordance with all federal, state, and local codes, as well as the manufacturer’s recommendations.

9.13.7 Support. Heaters shall be installed on a surface of sufficient structural strength to support the heater when it is full of water and operating. The heater shall be level after plumbing, gas and/or electrical connections are completed.

9.13.8 Combustible surfaces. If the heater requires a non-combustible surface as required by the manufacturer, it shall be placed on concrete or other accepted surface and shall comply with the latest published edition of ANSI Z21.56, or federal, state, and local codes.

9.13.9 Clearances. When installing a heater, adequate clearances shall be maintained on all sides and over the top of the unit. Clearances shall be in accordance with federal, state, or local codes, and the manufacturer’s instructions.

9.13.10 Ventilation.

9.13.10.1 Indoor pool area shall have its own dedicated ventilation equipment.

9.13.1 IMPORTANT SAFETY

CONSIDERATION:

Fossil fuel swimming pool heaters produce poisonous carbon monoxide gas as a by-product of combustion. Proper venting of exhaust gases and correct sizing of gas meters, gas supply piping, make-up air intakes, etc. is critical in preventing potential carbon monoxide gas poisoning or loss of life.

9.13.2 This section pertains to appliances using either fossil fuels such as natural gas, propane (LPG), #2 fuel oil, or electric heating equipment for heating pool water.

9.13.3 Heaters shall be tested and shall comply with the requirements of the latest published editions of ANSI

9.13.10.2 All pools and their related components that are installed in an indoor environment shall comply with the latest published edition of the ventilation requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE 62.1- Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality, table 6-1, “Minimum Ventilation Rates in Breathing Zone,” (Sports and Entertainment section), and federal, state or local codes.

9.13.11 Combustion air. When installing a fossil fuel heater indoors, openings to the room are a necessity. The heater shall be installed in accordance with federal, state, or local codes and the manufacturer’s specifications.

IMPORTANT SAFETY CONSIDERATION: Some manufacturers recommend that the heater be turned off prior to stopping the water flow. Mechanisms such as a fireman’s switch adapted to the time clock will turn the heater off long

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enough for it to cool down before the time clock turns off the pump.

NOTE: The fireman’s switch does not protect against a manual override or a system shut down by a power failure.

IMPORTANT SAFETY CONSIDERATION: Heaters shall be so located as to prevent their being used as a means of access to the pool by young children.

9.14 Heating energy source

9.14.1 Natural gas energy supply. The heater gas supply piping shall comply with the manufacturer’s specifications and the latest published edition of ANSI/NFPA 54.

IMPORTANT SAFETY CONSIDERATION: A gas cock shall be installed, properly sized and readily accessible outside the jacket to stop the flow of natural gas to the heater for service or emergency shutdown.

9.14.2 Propane energy supply. Whenever a propane (LPG) appliance is installed, special attention shall be given to ensure that the storage tank, supply piping, and regulator shall be adequately sized to ensure operating fuel pressures as specified by the appliance manufacturer. Consult the fuel supply company and ensure that the system is installed in accordance with the latest published edition of NFPA-58 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code.

IMPORTANT SAFETY CONSIDERATION: Propane gas is heavier than air, and can create an extreme hazard of explosion or suffocation, if the heater is installed in a pit or enclosed area not in accordance with the latest published edition of NFPA 58 for installing valves and other controls in pits and similar areas.

IMPORTANT SAFETY CONSIDERATION: A gas cock shall be installed, properly sized and readily accessible outside the jacket, to stop the flow of propane (LPG) at the heater for service or emergency shutdown.

9.14.3 Electrical energy supply. Electric heating appliances shall be installed in accordance with the latest published edition of the National Electrical Code NFPA 70 (NEC®), the authority having jurisdiction and any federal, state, or local codes. In areas where no authority has jurisdiction, the latest published NEC and any federal, state, or local codes shall apply.

IMPORTANT SAFETY CONSIDERATION: Grounding and Bonding. The requirements for grounding and bonding are particularly important and shall be adhered to. Water flow through the heater and any plumbing installations shall be done in compliance with the manufacturer’s specifications and local codes.

10 Water Supply

10.1 Treatment. The water supply shall be of a quality allowing adjustment to meet the water quality standards in Appendix A.

10.2 Backflow. No direct mechanical connection shall be made between the potable water supply and the pool or its appurtenances, unless it is protected against back pressure and back siphoning in a manner approved by the state, local authority, or through an air gap meeting the latest published edition of ANSI/ASME Standard A112.1.2 Air Gaps in Plumbing Systems or other equivalent means approved by the state or local authority.

10.3 Fill spout. A fill spout, if used, shall be located under a diving board, adjacent to a ladder, or otherwise properly shielded so as not to create a hazard.

10.4 Hose use. If a hose is used to fill the pool, the end of the hose shall not be permitted to hang inside the pool basin unless the hose bibb is protected with a backflow prevention device approved by the appropriate state or local authority.

11 Wastewater Disposal

11.1 Backwash water. Backwash water is permitted to be discharged into a sanitary sewer through an approved air gap, or into an approved subsurface disposal system, or by other means approved by state or local authority.

12 EPA-registered Sanitizers and Systems

12.1 Residual. A residual of an EPA-registered sanitizer shall be present at all times and in all areas of the pool. One of the following EPA-registered sanitizer systems shall be used: Chlorine Bromine PHMB, poly(hexamethylene biguanide); or Metal-based systems.

Not all of these sanitizer systems are approved for all pool uses. Please refer to the EPA label as well as applicable codes and regulations.

Chlorine generators are permitted and when used shall have the requirements of an EPA establishment number and meet the requirements in Section 14 (Chemical Feeders), Section 15.1 (Electrical Components) and either para. 12.1.1 or 12.1.2.

12.1.1 Free available chlorine (FAC). A minimum free available chlorine residual of 1.0 ppm shall be maintained at all times and in all areas of the pool. A maximum of 4.0 ppm shall not be exceeded when bathers are present.

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NOTE: The U.S. EPA has established a maximum chlorine level of 4.0 ppm for re-entry of swimmers or bathers into pool water.

12.1.2 Bromine (Br). A minimum bromine residual of 1.0 ppm (as Br2) shall be maintained at all times and in all areas of the pool. A maximum of 8.0 ppm (as Br2) shall not be exceeded when bathers are present.

Operators shall refer to manufacturer’s product label for specific use concentrations since allowable concentrations can vary depending upon which brominating compound is used.

12.1.3 PHMB, Poly(hexamethylene biguanide). The level of PHMB shall be maintained between a minimum of 30 ppm and a maximum of 50 ppm (as product) for pools.

12.1.4 Metal-based systems. Any system used shall incorporate an EPA-registered sanitizer. Follow product manufacturer’s EPA-accepted label for use and/or operation requirements.

13 Supplemental Sanitizers

13.1 Ozone. Ozone shall be used only in conjunction with an EPA-registered sanitizer or chlorine generator that meets the requirements of this standard.

13.1.1 Ozone concentrations in the air above the pool water shall not exceed Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limits found in OSHA Standard 29, CFR 1910.1000 Table Z-1, currently 0.1 ppm over an 8 hour Time Weighted Average. 18

13.2 Ultraviolet light (UV). UV lamps shall be used only in conjunction with an EPA-registered sanitizer or chlorine/ bromine generator that meets the requirements of this standard.

14 Chemical Feeders and Chlorine Generator Systems

14.1 All chemical feeder/generator systems shall be installed, maintained, and operated as directed in the manufacturer’s instructions. These systems shall be installed so they cannot operate unless there is return flow to properly disperse the chemical throughout the pool as designed. If the device has an independent timer, the pool pump and chemical feed pump or electrolytic chlorine or bromine generator timers shall be interlocked. The protection shall be designed and installed in such a way as to prevent chemical feeding or generation when the circulation pump is off, or when the filter is being backwashed.

14.2 When chemical feeders are used to add sanitizing

agent to pool water, these systems shall be capable of introducing a sufficient quantity of an EPA-registered sanitizing agent to maintain the appropriate residual concentrations. (For recommendations, see Appendix A.)

14.3 When chlorine/bromine generators are used, these systems shall be capable of introducing a sufficient quantity of chlorine or bromine to meet the requirements in paras. 12.1.1 or 12.1.2.

15 Electrical Requirements

15.1 Electrical components. Electrical components installed in and/or adjacent to an inground residential swimming pool shall comply with the requirements of the latest published edition of the National Electrical Code NFPA 70 (NEC®), the jurisdiction having authority and any federal, state, or local codes. In areas where no authority has jurisdiction, the latest published NEC and any federal, state, or local codes shall apply.

16 Instructions for the Circulation System, Pressure Filters, and Separation Tanks

16.1 Written operation and maintenance instructions. Written operation and maintenance instructions shall be provided to the homeowner for the circulation system.

16.2 Labeling for circulation system, pressure filters, and separation tanks. Pressure filters and separation tanks shall have operating instructions permanently installed on the filter or separation tank including a precautionary statement not to start up the system after maintenance, without first opening the air release and properly re-assembling the filter and/or separation tank. The statement shall be visible and noticeable within the area of the air release.

17 Safety Features

17.1 Handholds. Handholds shall be provided around the pool edge in any area where the water depth exceeds 4 ft (1219 mm).

17.1.1 Handholds shall be accessible within 4 ft (1219 mm) and not exceed 8 ft (2438 mm) at any two points along the inside of the pool perimeter where the water depth exceeds 4 ft (1.22 m).

17.1.1.1 Deck, coping and ledges located not more than 12 in. (305 mm) above the waterline;

17.1.1.2 Rocks, masonry joints and tooled joints that allow a handhold within 12 in. (305 mm) of the waterline;

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17.1.1.3 Ladders, stairs and underwater seats or ledges;

17.1.1.4 Secured rope or rail placed within 12 in. (305 mm) above the waterline;

17.1.1.5 Any finish or design that will afford a single handhold within 12 in. (305 mm) of the waterline.

Handholds may include, but are not limited to any one or combination of the following items listed in 17.1.1.1 through 17.1.1.5.

17.2 Rope and float. In pools where the point of first slope change (see Figure 5, Point D) occurs in water depths less than 4 ft 6 in. (1372 mm), a rope and float assembly shall be installed across the width of the pool generally parallel to, and at a minimum of 1 ft (305 mm) and a maximum of 2 ft (61 cm) on the shallow side of the change in floor slope.

17.2.1 The rope anchor devices shall be permanently attached to the pool wall, coping, or deck in a manner which provides for their reinstallation should they be required to be removed for maintenance or repair.

17.2.2 Replacement vinyl liners shall be supplied with a notification of the responsibility to reinstall the rope anchor devices and the rope and float assembly following the installation of the liner.

17.3 Pool lighting. The use of artificial pool lighting is at the discretion of the pool owner. When lighting is installed, it shall be installed in accordance with the latest published edition of the National Electrical Code NFPA 70 (NEC®) currently enforced in the jurisdiction having authority and any federal, state, or local codes. In areas where no authority has jurisdiction, the current edition of the NEC and any federal, state, or local codes shall apply.

17.4 Pool alarms. If used, pool alarms shall comply with the latest published edition of ASTM F-2208 Standard Safety Specification for Residential Pool Alarms.

17.5 Safety covers. When an automatic power/manual safety cover for a swimming pool is used as a barrier, it shall comply with the latest published edition of ASTM F 1346 Standard Performance Specification for Safety Covers and Labeling Requirements for All Covers for Swimming Pools, Spas and Hot Tubs.

17.6 Model child protection/barrier code. If a model child protection/barrier code is used, it shall comply with the latest published edition of ANSI/APSP-8 Model Barrier Code.

NOTE: For consumer safety information, warnings, and education programs, see Appendices F, G, H, and K.

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Appendix A (Non-Mandatory)

Chemical Operational Parameters

This appendix is not part of the American National Standard ANSI/APSP/ICC-5 2011 (R2022). It is included for information only.

These guidelines set forth the suggested operational parameters for the proper chemical treatment and maintenance of pools and spas. Applicable health department guidelines and label directions supersede these parameters. Chemical treatment alone will not produce sanitary pool and spa water. A filtration system in proper operational condition is also required to attain clear and sanitary water.

KEY

APSP-1 Public Inground Pools

NSPI-2 Public Spas

APSP-3 Residential Permanent Spas

APSP-4 Residential Aboveground/Onground Pools

A. SANITIZER LEVELS

1. Sanitizer Residual

APSP-5 Residential Inground Swimming Pools

APSP-6 Residential Portable Spas

IAF-9 Aquatic Recreation Facilities

APSP-11 Water Quality for Public Pools and Spas

A residual of an EPA-registered sanitizer shall be present at all times and in all areas of the pool or spa. One of the following EPA-registered sanitizer systems shall be used: chlorine; bromine; PHMB; or metal-based systems. EPA-registered pool and/or spa sanitizers and systems with EPA-accepted labels indicating chlorine levels outside of the ranges in this appendix must be used in accordance with the product manufacturer’s EPA-accepted label for use and/or operation requirements.

1. Free Chlorine, ppm

Standard Minimum Ideal Maximum Comments

APSP-1 APSP-4 APSP-5 IAF-9 APSP-11

1.0 2.0−4.0 The U.S. EPA has established a maximum chlorine level of 4.0 ppm for re-entry of swimmers into the water. However, state or local health codes may allow or require the use of chlorine levels above 4.0 ppm.

NSPI-2

APSP-3 APSP-6 APSP-11

2.0 2.0−4.0 The U.S. EPA has established a maximum chlorine level of 5.0 ppm for re-entry of swimmers into spas. However, state or local health codes may allow or require the use of chlorine levels above 5.0 ppm.

Hot water/heavy use may require operation at or near maximum levels.

• Test kits are available for a variety of free chlorine ranges.

• Free chlorine test color (DPD) may be completely or partially bleached by chlorine levels greater than 5 ppm to give a false low reading.

For appropriate test kit, consult pool professional or test kit manufacturer. Regular oxidation is recommended and remedial practices may be necessary.

Public spas and swim spas: During hours of operation, test the water hourly, record the results, maintain the ideal range continu ally, and shock treat at the end of the daily use period.

Residential spas and swim spas: Maintain these levels continually during hours of operation. Test water before use. During extended use test water hourly. Shock treat water after use.

2011 (R2022) A-1 ©2022 The Pool & Hot Tub Alliance
ANSI/APSP/ICC-5
Combined
ppm
combined chlorine results in reduced sanitizer
Ideal
2.
Chlorine,
High
efficacy. Take remedial action to reduce combined chlorine. Standard Minimum
Maximum Comments
APSP-1 APSP-3 APSP-4 APSP-5 APSP-6 IAF-9 APSP-11 0 0 0.2 Signs of combined chlorine: Sharp chlorine-like odor and eye irritation (e.g., mucous membrane).
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3. Total Bromine, ppm

NOTE: Refer to manufacturer’s product label for specific use concentrations. Use concentrations vary between different types of brominating compounds.

EPA-registered pool and/or spa sanitizers and systems with EPA-accepted labels indicating bromine levels outside of the ranges in this appendix must be used in accordance with the product manufacturer’s EPA-accepted label for use and/or operation requirements.

APSP-1 APSP-4 APSP-5 IAF-9 APSP-11

1.0 2.0–3.0 Residential pools 3.0–4.0 Public pools

NSPI-2 APSP-3 2.0 2.0–4.0 Residential spas

APSP-6 APSP-11 4.0–6.0 Public spas and swim spas

The U.S. EPA allows maximum bromine levels of up to 8.0 ppm for re-entry of swimmers into the water. However, state or local health codes may allow or require the use of bromine levels above 8.0 ppm.

• Hot water/heavy use may require operation at or near maximum levels.

• Public swimming pools require maintenance of higher total bromine residuals than residential pools.

• Regular oxidation is recommended.

Residential: During hours of operation, maintain these levels continually. Test water before use. During extended use test water hourly. Shock treat water after use.

Public: During hours of operation, maintain the ideal range continually. Test the water hourly and record results. Shock treat water after use.

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Certain classes of pool chemicals or treatment processes are incompatible with PHMB sanitizer. The pool or spa owner should consult with the supplier of PHMB if there is any question about compatibility of an auxiliary chemical or process. These include, but are not limited to:

• Chlorine/bromine sanitizers

• Copper-based algicides

• Monopersulfate (peroxymonosulfate) oxidizers

• Phosphate-based chelating (metal sequestering) agents and detergents

• Electrolytic chlorinators

• Metal-based ionizers

When used with ozone, follow manufacturer’s directions. Consult pool professional or test kit manufacturer for appropriate test kit. Regular oxidation is recommended with a compatible oxidizer, such as hydrogen peroxide.

If pH is too low:

• rapid dissipation of sanitizer

• plaster and concrete etching

• eye discomfort

• corrosion of metals

• vinyl liner wrinkling

If pH is too high:

• low chlorine efficacy

• scale formation

• cloudy water

• eye discomfort

ANSI/PHTA/ICC-15 2021 ©2022 The Pool & Hot Tub Alliance A-2
Standard Minimum Ideal Maximum Comments
4. PHMB (polyhexamethylene biguanide), ppm as product Standard Minimum Ideal Maximum Comments All facilities 30 30–50 50
Any metal-based system used must incorporate an EPA-registered sanitizer; follow product manufacturer’s EPA-accepted label for use and/or operation requirements. B. CHEMICAL VALUES NOTE: When operating outside the ideal ranges, an LSI calculation should be performed to ensure the water is balanced. 1. pH Standard Minimum Ideal Maximum Comments All facilities 7.2 7.4 – 7.6 7.8
5. Metal-Based System
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2. Total Alkalinity (Buffering) ppm as CaCO3*

Standard Minimum Ideal Maximum

All facilities 60 80–100 for calcium hypochlorite, lithium hypochlorite, and sodium hypochlorite

180

If total alkalinity is too low:

• pH bounce

• corrosion tendency If total alkalinity is too high:

Comments

180

• cloudy water 60 100−120 for sodium dichlor, trichlor, chlorine gas, and bromine compounds

• Increased scaling potential

• pH tends to be too high or to drift upward more rapidly. * These values are based on the alkalinity from bicarbonate and carbonate only. Alkalinity should be corrected to account for cyanuric acid when used (see APSP-11, Section A 7.5).

3. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) ppm

Standard Minimum Ideal Maximum Comments

All facilities NA NA 1500 ppm greater than TDS at pool or spa start-up. (Start-up TDS includes source water TDS and any other inorganic salt added at start-up or later.)

An increase in TDS may indicate an accumulation of impurities during the course of operation. Excessively high TDS (excluding the amount of sodium chloride added) may lead to hazy water and scale formation and corrosion of fixtures, and may inhibit sanita tion. TDS can be reduced by partial draining and addition of fresh water. For spas: TDS should be periodically reduced by draining. (See Section K, Water Replacement Procedure.)

100 150−250 800 5.

Heavy Metals Standard

• staining may occur

• water may discolor

• filter cycle may decrease and require more frequent backwashing

Minimum Ideal

Maximum

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4. Calcium Hardness, ppm, as CaCO3
Standard Minimum Ideal Maximum Comments
APSP-1 APSP-4 APSP-5 IAF-9 APSP-11 150 200−400 1000
Total alkalinity and pH may need to be adjusted to the lower end of their respective ranges if hardness is over 500 ppm. NSPI-2 APSP-3 APSP-6 APSP-11 Minimum Ideal Maximum
Comments
All facilities NA NA If excessive heavy metals (such as copper, iron, and manganese) are present:
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• may indicate pH too low, corrosion, metallic source water, exces sive metal ions from treatment chemicals, etc. 6. Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) Standard
Comments All facilities −0.3 0.0− +0.5 +0.5
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C. BIOLOGICAL VALUES

1. Visible Algae Standard

All

2. Bacteria

Standard

All facilities (See APSP11) (See APSP11) (See APSP-11)

If algae growth is observed, recommendations may include but are not limited to:

• superchlorinate the pool or spa. Superchlorination should not be performed when PHMB is used.

• Use an EPA-registered algicide according to label directions.

• Supplement with brushing and vacuuming.

• Some algicides may cause foaming.

Public facilities: If bacteria count exceeds local health department requirements, superchlorinate and follow proper maintenance procedures. Superchlorination should not be performed when PHMB is used.

Residential facilities: Maintain proper sanitizer level and pH to control bacteria.

D. STABILIZER (WHEN USED)

Standard

All

If stabilizer is too low: Chlorine residual is rapidly destroyed by sunlight. If stabilizer is too high: May reduce chlorine efficacy against algae and pathogens.

The effect of cyanuric acid on slowing the oxidation of organics, kill rates of bacteria, viruses, and algae has been demonstrated, primarily in controlled laboratory studies. However, no disease outbreaks linked to cyanuric levels in properly sanitized pools have been reported.

NOTE: Cyanuric acid is not recommended for indoor pools or spas where protection from sunlight is not necessary. Cyanuric acid does not stabilize bromine sanitizers.

E. OXIDATION

Some high-use pools may require oxidation several times per week.

Regular oxidation is recommended to prevent the build-up of contaminants, maximize sanitizer efficiency, minimize combined chlorine, and improve water clarity.

Chlorine should not be used to oxidize a pool or spa sanitized by PHMB.

ANSI/APSP/ICC-5 2011 (R2022) ©2022 The Pool & Hot Tub Alliance A-4
adequate sanitizer levels is critical to prevent growth of algae and bacteria.
Maintaining
Minimum Ideal Maximum
Comments
facilities None visible None visible None visible
Minimum Ideal Maximum
Comments
1. Cyanuric Acid, ppm
Minimum Ideal Maximum
Comments
facilities 10 30-50 100
Regular oxidation is recommended for pools and spas with normal bather load as a preventive treatment. 1. Chlorine Products Standard Minimum Ideal Maximum Comments APSP-1 APSP-4 APSP-5 IAF-9 APSP-11 NSPI-2 APSP-3 APSP-6 APSP-11 As needed Weekly At the end of each day facility is used Determined by bather load, weather conditions
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2. Potassium Monopersulfate

Standard

APSP-1

APSP-4

APSP-5 IAF-9 APSP-11

NSPI-2 APSP-3

APSP-6 APSP-11

As needed Weekly

At the end of each day facility is used

Determined by bather load, weather conditions, etc.

Some high-use pools may require oxidation several times per week.

Regular oxidation is recommended to prevent the build-up of contaminants, maximize sanitizer efficiency, minimize combined chlorine and improve water clarity.

Potassium monopersulfate will measure as combined available chlorine in DPD test system.

Refer to test kit manufacturer’s directions.

Potassium monopersulfate should not be used to oxidize a pool or spa sanitized by PHMB.

3. Hydrogen Peroxide

All facilities Monthly As needed Determined by bather load, weather conditions, etc.

F. REMEDIAL PRACTICES

1. Superchlorination

Standard

All facilities

Standard

APSP-1

NSPI-2

APSP-4

APSP-5 IAF-9

Hydrogen peroxide should be used only with PHMB sanitizers. Hydrogen peroxide should not be used as an oxidizer for pools and spas sanitized by chlorine or bromine.

Follow label directions. Use a registered chlorine sanitizer. Do not re-enter pool or spa until water meets the prescribed values in Section A. Do not superchlorinate a pool or spa treated by PHMB.

Some symptoms that may indicate a need for superchlorination are:

• cloudy water

• slime formation

• musty odors

• difficulty in maintaining a sanitizer residual

• algae and/or high bacteria counts

• eye irritation from chloramines

For fecal response guidelines, refer to http://www.cdc.gov/ healthywater/swimming/index.html

High dosage may be required to satisfy chlorine demand. If com bined chlorine persists, water replacement should be considered. Superchlorination should not be performed when PHMB is used.

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ANSI/APSP/ICC-5
Minimum Ideal Maximum Comments
Standard Minimum Ideal Maximum Comments
Ideal
Minimum
Maximum Comments
to establish breakpoint, dosage
2. Superchlorination
in ppm
Minimum Ideal Maximum
Comments
APSP-11 At least 10 times combined chlorine
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3. Shock Treatment and Shock Oxidizers

All facilities

Some conditions that may indicate a need for a shock or a shock oxidizer are:

• cloudy water

• difficulty in maintaining a sanitizer residual

• periods after heavy bather use

• adverse weather

Shock oxidizers are not sanitizers. They are effective in oxidizing organic contaminants. If the purpose is to treat bacteria or visible algae, an EPA-registered shock product should be used; follow label directions.

Spas should be shocked or shock-oxidized on a daily basis when used.

4. Chlorine Dioxide - THIS SECTION IS VACATED.

Explanation: Chlorine dioxide was withdrawn from the U.S. pool market and is no longer federally regulated.

Standard

As needed Determined by occurrence of biofilms in skimmer or plumb ing, or by abrupt disappearance of hydrogen peroxide

White or pink-colored biofilms can infest the plumbing of PHMB pools and eventually spread onto pool surfaces. On other occasions, the biofilms will be hidden from view, but will cause a rapid decrease in hydrogen peroxide. Chlorine dioxide kills the peroxide-degrading organisms, but should be used only to treat the plumbing and not the pool itself.

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Follow label directions.

All

All facilities As needed There shall be no persistent foam (foam remaining in a spa after the jets are turned off).

Foam may harbor persistent microorganisms. If foaming is not adequately controlled, consider a daily shock or oxidation treatment, water replacement, or an appropriate antifoam agent. Follow manufacturer’s directions. 8. Nitrates Standard

Nitrate ion is a nutrient for algae and a number of bacteria. Elevated algae and bacteria populations associated with elevated nitrate ion concentrations create a significant chlorine demand. Nitrate ion is at the highest oxidation state of nitrogen, and does not have a chlorine demand.

ANSI/APSP/ICC-5 2011 (R2022) ©2022 The Pool & Hot Tub Alliance A-6
Standard Minimum Ideal Maximum Comments
Minimum Ideal Maximum Comments
5. Clarification/Flocculation
Standard Minimum Ideal Maximum Comments
Minimum Ideal Maximum
facilities As needed Follow manufacturer’s directions. 6. Algicides Standard
Comments All facilities As needed Use U.S. EPA-registered products. Follow manufacturer’s directions. Use of some algicides may cause foaming. 7. Foam Control
Ideal
Standard Minimum
Maximum Comments
Minimum Ideal Maximum
Comments
All facilities
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9. Phosphate

Standard Minimum Ideal Maximum Comments

All facilities

Phosphate is an oxidized form of phosphorous. Phosphorous is a non-metallic element and an essential nutrient for all living organ isms, including bacteria and algae. Phosphate does not create a chlorine demand since the phosphate ion does not react with free chlorine. However, inadequate maintenance and sanitization can allow algae and bacteria to reproduce rapidly by using phospho rous as a nutrient. Under these circumstances, the multiplying algae or bacterial populations will cause chlorine demand.

G. TEMPERATURE

Standard Minimum Ideal Maximum Comments

All facilities Personal preference 78–94°F (26–34°C) depending on pool type and use Up to 104°F (40 °C) depending on spa type and use

104°F (40°C)

If temperature is too low:

• bather discomfort

If temperature is too high:

• excessive fuel requirement

• increased evaporation

• bather discomfort

• increased scaling potential

• increased use of sanitizers

Overexposure to hot water may cause nausea, dizziness, and faint ing. The Consumer Product Safety Commission states: “Hot tub water temperatures should never exceed 104 degrees Fahrenheit.”

Temperatures well below 104°F (40°C) are recommended for extended use (exceeding 10−15 minutes) or for pregnant women, people with certain medical conditions or medications, and for young children.

H. WATER CLARITY

Standard Minimum Comments

All facilities The deepest part of the pool or spa and/or main drain shall be visible and sharply defined.

Pools: Pool water shall be of a clarity to permit an 8 in. (203 mm) diameter black and white Secchi disc or main suction outlet (main drain) located on the bottom of the pool at its deepest point to be clearly visible and sharply defined from any point on the deck up to 30 feet (9.14 m) away in a direct line of sight from the disc or main drain.

Spas: The bottom of the spa at its deepest point shall be clearly visible.**

** This test shall be performed when the water is in a nonturbulent state and bubbles have been allowed to dissipate.

If water is turbid:

• sanitizer level may be low

• filtration/circulation system may require maintenance or increased run (filtering) time

• improper chemical balance (Section B)

• consult remedial practices (Section F)

I.

See OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910.1000 Table Z-1.

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SUPPLEMENTAL
1. Ozone: Concentration in air above pool or spa water, ppm
Minimum Ideal Maximum Comments
SANITIZERS
Standard
0.1 ppm over eight-hour timeweighted average and 0.3 ppm for any 15-minute period
All facilities
Serves
oxidizer of water contaminants.
as
used
Ozone shall be
only in conjunction with an EPA-registered sanitizer.
Indoor installations should have adequate ventilation. When ozone is used for indoor installations, air monitoring is required.
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reserved.
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2. UV

Standard Minimum Ideal Maximum Comments

All facilities As needed

J. OXIDATION REDUCTION POTENTIAL (ORP)

UV lamps shall be used only in conjunction with an EPA-registered sanitizer.

Standard Minimum Ideal Maximum Comments

APSP-1

NSPI-2 IAF-9 APSP-11

When an ORP controller is used, it shall not be relied upon as a method for measuring the concentration of sanitizer in the water. The sanitizer level shall be measured with traditional wet chemical methods capable of detecting specific sanitizer residuals (e.g. DPD, N, N-diethyl-p-phenylene diamine for free available chlorine), to ensure that the minimum sanitizer residual is maintained. For PHMB-treated pools, levels for ORP values are not applicable. ORP reading may be affected by a number of factors including, but not limited to, pH, probe condition, cyanuric acid, sanitizer type, and supplemental oxidizers.

Follow manufacturer’s recommendations.

K. WATER REPLACEMENT

Standard Minimum Ideal Maximum Comments

APSP-1

APSP-4

APSP-5

IAF-9

APSP-11

NSPI-2

APSP-3

APSP-6

APSP-11

The water should be drained and replaced at a rate of 7 gallons per bather.

Water in spas or hot tubs with high bather use requires partial or complete replacement of water periodically.

Water in spas or hot tubs with high bather use requires complete replacement of water per the replacement guidelines below.

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It is recommended that regular water replacement be applied to pools, although certain circumstances may prohibit this practice (e.g., drought conditions) or make it unnecessary (e.g., supple mentary water treatments such as reverse osmosis to extract contaminants from the water). Evaporation loss will not remove contaminants; make-up water for evaporation loss should not be counted as water drained and replaced.

Water replacement is necessary to dilute dissolved solids, to maintain water clarity, and to do necessary routine maintenance. Water replacement can be necessary even if water has been maintained properly. High bather use is defined as amount of bathers per day, not necessarily the amount of time each bather is in pool or spa.

Frequent water replacement is required to control TDS buildup from bathers and treatment chemicals:

Residential: Drain and refill every three months with average use. More frequent water replacement is required for heavy use. Public: More frequent water replacement is required due to heavier bather loads.

This procedure provides guidelines on how to determine the frequency for which spa or hot tub water should be replaced.

Test the TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) and calculate the WRI (Water Replacement Interval) to determine when a spa needs to be drained. Drain the spa completely, clean it thoroughly, and refill it with source water when either of the following conditions is met: 1. The Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) in the spa water exceeds the source-water TDS by 1,500 ppm or more, OR 2. The Water Replacement Interval (WRI) is less than or equal to the number of days since the last time the water was drained. WRI is calculated as shown in the formula and examples: WRI, days = (1/3) × (Spa Volume, U.S. Gallons) (No. Bathers/Day)

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Example 1

The TDS of the original source water was measured and recorded to be 800 ppm. The TDS of the spa water now reads 2,500 ppm. The difference is greater than 1,500 ppm (2,500 ppm – 800 ppm = 1,700 ppm). Therefore, the spa should be drained immediately.

Example 2

Consider a 600 gallon (2.271 kL) spa last drained and refilled on Sunday evening, with the usage pattern outlined in the table below:

600 Gallon (2.271 kL) Spa Usage Pattern Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun

Bathers Water changed at end of day 85 2 19 20 105 100 50

The WRI is computed in the table below and compared to the interval since the last change. If the Difference (WRI – Days since last change) is less than or equal to zero, the spa should be drained.

600 Gallon (2.271 kL) Spa Usage Pattern Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun

Bathers Water changed at end of day 85 2 19 20 105 100 50 WRI 2 2 11 5 1 2 1

Difference (WRI minus Days since last change) 1 0 10 3 –2 1 –1

Change Water (Difference = <0?) NO YES NO NO YES NO YES

L. TESTING FREQUENCY

1. Ozone

Standard Minimum Ideal Maximum Comments

All facilities The parameters for sanitizer, pH, clarity, and water tempera ture shall be met at all times. Exceptions: when shocking/ oxidizing the pool, when closed for the season, or similar activities.

Testing frequency shall be sufficient to ensure that the sanitizer, pH, clarity, and water temperature (spa) standards set forth in this document are met at all times.

Several factors will determine how often testing is required. Weather, water conditions, facility design, and bather load are the primary factors for determining how often pools and spas should be tested. Depending on the facility, testing may be required every one or two hours during operation.

Rain and wind will introduce materials to the water such as plant debris (leaves, pollen), dirt, airborne pollutants, and other con taminants that will decrease sanitizer concentrations and increase the likelihood of chloramines. Rain also tends to decrease pH and alkalinity readings. After a major rainstorm, sanitizer, pH, and alkalinity should be tested. Bathers introduce microorganisms and body oils that increase sanitizer demand. Bathers usually will cause a decrease in pH. If there is a high bather load, particularly in a spa, the sanitizer and pH should be checked more frequently.

M. AIR QUALITY

Standard Minimum Ideal Maximum Comments

All facilities

All pools and their related components that are installed in an indoor environment shall comply with the ventilation requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE 62.1-2007 Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality, Table 6-1, “Minimum Ventilation Rates in Breathing Zone,” (Sports and Entertainment Section).

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Use of Ozone

This appendix is not part of the American National Standard ANSI/APSP/ICC-5 2011 (R2022). It is included for information only.

1. General Description

Oxygen exists normally as a diatomic molecule, O2. Ozone (chemically written as O3) is a high energy form of the element oxygen. Like oxygen, it is a gas and can be readily dissolved in water, being approximately thirteen (13) times more soluble than oxygen itself at standard temperatures and pressures.

Gaseous ozone dissolved in water is referred to as aqueous ozone and has no odor. It is harmful to breathe gaseous ozone. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) is currently 0.1 ppm over an eight-hour time weighted average. In general, breathing even low levels of ozone should be avoided at all times. No OSHA regulations apply to aqueous ozone; it is not anticipated to be harmful to humans at the concentrations used.

Ozone has a distinct odor readily identified by most humans even at very low (0.02 ppm) concentrations. The smell of ozone is often noted in the air after an electrical storm because some ozone is generated by lightning. Ozone molecules in air or in water decompose to oxygen and energetic free radicals, which also are formed when ozone reacts with contaminants. Since ozone decomposes, it cannot be packaged, but must be gener ated and used on-site.

2. Ozone Generators

Ozone generating systems are electromechanical devices that generate and inject ozone gas into swimming pool or spa water. They produce ozone gas and introduce it into the water commonly through venturi injection in the recirculation flow. All ozone generating systems must be used in conjunction with an EPA-registered sanitizer.

A residential ozone generating system consists of two basic components:

The ozone generator

For Corona Discharge (CD), plasma or micro-plasma ozone generation:

This component consists of an electrical enclosure which includes a high voltage power supply, ozone producing cell, and ancillary items that control these components. Ambient air or oxygen is drawn into the ozone generator and some of it is converted into ozone gas. Corona discharge, plasma, and micro-plasma generation create significantly more ozone than ultraviolet generation.

For Ultraviolet (UV) ozone generation:

This component consists of an electrical power supply and an ozone-producing ultraviolet lamp (185 nm). Ambient air is drawn into the ozone generator and some of it is converted into ozone gas.

• The ozone management system

This component consists of some means of injecting the ozone into the water, and degassing and destroying any undissolved ozone gas. Ozone is typically introduced to the water after filtration (and heating), and before the chlorine feeder or introduction of EPA-registered sanitizer.

NOTE: All equipment should be installed according to manufac turer’s instructions and local code requirements.

3. What Ozone Does

Ozone provides antimicrobial oxidation for supplemental treatment or secondary disinfection, oxidation of organic and inorganic contaminants, chlorine byproduct reduction and some algae reduction. It can also act as a micro-flocculant and antifoaming agent. Ozone leaves little or no residual in a pool or spa and is used in conjunction with an EPA-registered primary sanitizer. It has the added benefit of destroying chloramines as well as reducing chlorine consumption.

The NSF/ANSI Standard 50 states the following: Ozone should be used with registered or approved disinfection chemicals to impart residual concentrations in accordance with state and local regulations.

Once the ozone has been dissolved in the water, an oxidation reaction occurs upon any collision between an ozone molecule and an oxidizable substance. Organic contaminants are destroyed, and many dissolved metals become insoluble.

Ozone is capable of killing all known microorganisms (including Cryptosporidium and Giardia), destroying organic contaminants that may create chloramines, and breaking down existing chloramines. This oxidation occurs immediately at the ozone gas injection point and continues in the return lines. A small residual (~0.1 ppm) of dissolved ozone may enter the pool, providing further oxidation.

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Appendix B (Non-Mandatory)
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An ozone generating system is considered a pesticidal device under U.S. EPA Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), and has an EPA Establishment number. Commercial ozone generating systems are tested and listed under NSF/ ANSI Standard 50, Equipment for Swimming Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs and Other Recreational Water Facilities. The device must meet the requirements of NSF 50, Disinfection Efficacy, and is intended for supplemental treatment (Normative Annex 8 N-8.1) or secondary disinfection (Normative Annex 8 N-8.1 and Normative Annex 8 N-8.4), depending on which test criteria are chosen. For either listing, the system should be used with an EPA-registered sanitizer to impart residual concentrations in accordance with state or local regulations. Residential ozone generating systems can also be tested and listed under NSF/ ANSI Standard 50, Equipment for Swimming Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs and Other Recreational Water Facilities.

4. Application in Swimming Pools and Spas

Residential Pools: Ozone is appropriate for use in conjunction with chlorine but is not recommended for use with bromine, because of the potential to produce bromate. UV-generated ozone systems can be used with biguanide.

Residential Spas: Due to low levels produced from spa ozone equipment, ozone is appropriate for use with all EPA-registered sanitizers.

5. More Information and References

Resources on ozone may be obtained from OSHA or the International Ozone Association, Pan American Group (PAG), 1521 I Street, Sacramento, CA 95814, Tel: 916-441-0629, Email: support@ioa-pag.org. More information is also found in the PHTA “Ozone Generating Systems” Fact Sheet, Pool and Hot Tub Alliance, 2018, https://www.phta.org/standards-and-codes/ fact-sheets/water-quality/.

1 Robert S. Donofrio, Sal Aridi, Ratul Saha, Robin Bechanko, Kevin Schaefer, Lorelle L. Bestervelt and Beth Hamil. 2013. Laboratory Validation of an Ozone Device for Recreational Water Treatment, Journal of Water and Health, doi: 10.2166/ wh.2013.198, pp. 267-276.

2 The Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) to ozone, as specified by the OSHA, is 0.1 ppm, time weighted average over 8-hour day, with Short Term (up to 15 minutes) Exposure Limit of 0.3 ppm. Ref. Federal Register 54(12): 2519 (Jan. 19, 1989)

3 Ref. Henschler, D., A. Stier, H. Beck, and W. Neumann. Geruchsschwellen einiger wichtiger Reizgase (Schwefel-dioxyd, Ozon, Stickstoffdioxyd) und Erschcinungen bei der Einwirkung Geringer Konzentrationen auf den Menschen. Arch Gewerbepath. Gewerbehyg: 17:547 570, 1960

4 Federal Technology Alert. 1986. U.S. Department of Energy

5 D. A. Meier and J. D. Lammering. 1987. A Comparative Use of Ozone versus Other Chemical Treatments of Cooling Water Systems. , ASHRAE Transactions, Part 2.

6 R. Wellauer and M. 1990. Cooling Tower Water Treatment with Ozone. Oldani, Ozone: Science and Engineering. 12(3):243253.

7 Federal Technology Alert - Ozone Treatment for Cooling Towers. 1995 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, December.

8 Thomas Ruisinger. August 1996. Ozonation in Cooling Water Systems, Plant Engineering Magazine.

9 Dennis Kelly. August 1993. Ozone and Cooling Tower Treatment, Water Conditioning and Purification.

10 J. Fred Wilkes, PE. Ozone for Cooling Towers - Facts, Update, and Predictions, Titusville, FL.

11 Bruno Langlais, David Reckhow, and Deborah Brink (Eds.). 1991. Ozone in Water Treatment: Application and Engineering, a cooperative research report, American Water Works Association Research Foundation.

12 Surveillance for Waterborne Disease and Outbreaks Associated with Recreational Water Use and Other Aquatic Facility -- Associated Health Events --- United States, 2005— 2006 MMWR Surveill Summ. September 12, 2008 / 57(SS9);1-38.

13 NSF/ANSI 50 - Annex H; NSF P308; NSF J-00047649; NSF AOAC 960.01; NSF AOAC 961.02

14 LT2ESWTR Federal Register Vol. 71, No. 3, pp 653-786

15 Li, H., G. Finch, D. Smith, and M. Belosevic. 2001. Sequential Disinfection Design. Criteria for Inactivation of Cryptosporidium Oocysts in Drinking Water. American WaterWorks Association Research Foundation, Denver, CO

16 Owens J., R. Miltner, E. Rice, C. Johnson, D. Dahling, F. Schaefer, and H. Shukairy, 2000. Pilot-scale ozone inactivation of Cryptosporidium and other microorganisms in natural water. Ozone: Sci. & Eng. 22: (5) 501–517

17 Oppenheimer J., E. Aieta, R. Trussell, J. Jacangelo, and N. Najim. 2000. Evaluation of Cryptosporidium inactivation in natural waters. American Water Works Association Research Foundation, Denver, CO

18 Rennecker J., B. Mariñas, J. Owens and E. Rice. 1999. Inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts with ozone. Wat. Res. 33:(11)2481–2488

19 Article Haag, W. R. and Hoigné, J.(1984) ‘Kinetics and products of the Reactions of Ozone with Various forms of Chlorine and Bromine in Water’, Ozone: Science & Engineering, 6:(2)103 — 114

20 Wert, Eric C. and Rosario-Ortiz, Fernando L. 2011. Effect of Ozonation on Trihalomethane and Haloacetic Acid Formation and Speciation in a Full-Scale Distribution System. Ozone: Science & Engineering, 33:(1)14— 22

21 40 CFR 152.500 US EPA, Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)

22 29 CFR 1910.1000 Table Z-1, February 28, 2006 www.osha. gov

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Appendix C (Non-Mandatory)

Use of Elemental Chlorine

This appendix is not part of the American National Standard ANSI/APSP/ICC-5 2011 (R2022). It is included for information only.

1. General

Chlorine is one of the chemical elements. When not under pressure, chlorine gas has a characteristic odor and greenish yellow color, and is about two and one-half (2½) times as heavy as air. Chlorine is shipped in Department of Transportation specification steel containers; standard sizes contain 100, 150, or 2000 pounds (45, 68, or 907 kg) of chlorine. Residential pool applicators using elemental chlorine for chemical treatment typically repackage the product from 2000-pound containers into 15–20 pound (7–9 kg) cylinders for poolside treatment. In the cylinder the chlorine has both a liquid and a gas phase. All cylinders are equipped with the Chlorine Institute (CI) standard chlorine cylinder valve.

Chlorine is a “hazardous material” subject to Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements. When used for pool disinfection, chlorine is considered a pesticide and as such is subject to pertinent regulations of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as various state agriculture and environmental regulations. Vehicles transporting elemental chlorine in any quantity must be placarded and must be operated by drivers holding a Hazmat-endorsed commercial driver’s license (CDL) in compliance with DOT regulations.

Users of chlorine must be trained as to the proper procedures for handling chlorine and as to appropriate emergency procedures. Detailed information is available from chlorine suppliers and the Chlorine Institute (CI), 2001 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036.

Chlorine gas is injected into swimming pool water using dispersers which control the release of tiny bubbles of gas into the pool. The gas dissolves into the water as it rises. As the gas dissolves, elemental chlorine and water combine to form hypochlorous and hydrochloric acids.

Cl2 + H2O HOCl + HCl

2. Residential Pools, Equipment, and Repackaging

Various local, state and federal regulations apply to chlorine gas. Chlorine cylinders must conform to applicable DOT specifications. Chlorine valves and associated equipment should also comply with CI specifications. Cylinders must be marked with an EPA-approved label, which includes the re-packager’s EPA establishment number and EPA product registration number. Applicator personnel must comply with the cautions and directions for use contained on the label.

Cylinders and valves must be maintained in good repair, and inspections and upkeep must be performed and documented per regulation. Storage and repackaging of filled and unfilled chlorine containers must be in compliance with applicable zoning ordinances and with applicable Fire and Building Codes. Cylinders should never be stored or left unattended at private residences. Chlorine is repackaged and also normally dispensed by weight. Scales must be maintained in good working order.

3. Transportation and Residential Application

Where required, companies and/or applicators must be licensed by municipality or state.

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Transport of chlorine in any quantity must be in properly placarded vehicles driven by commercial drivers with hazmat endorsements. Driver Qualification and Vehicle Maintenance record- keeping must be maintained per federal regulation. Vehicles must conform to DOT and other applicable regulations, and should comply with CI recommendations, including proper securing of the chlorine cylinders as well as the recommended safety and communications equipment. Shipping papers or manifests, vehicle inspection and maintenance logs, driver time logs, and driver qualification documentation, financial responsibility, etc. must be maintained and available per DOT regulation. If the truck is unattended, vehicles and contents must be secured per regulation and in accordance with the company Security Plan.

Precautions should be taken to prevent others, including homeowners, children, and pets, from disrupting the applicator from conscientious attention to safety. Safety issues such as cylinder discharge rate, cylinder elevation relative to the water, vacuum and suck back prevention, etc. must be addressed.

Chlorine levels in pools, spas and hot tubs should be maintained per the product labels, and in accordance with APSP chemistry guidelines.

4. Safety

All companies and personnel handling chlorine gas must follow applicable federal, state, and local laws and regulations. These primarily include (but are not limited to) DOT, OSHA, and EPA, as well as local fire agencies.

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Safety devices, such as chlorine sensors, automatic safety valves, audible alarms, emergency kits for sealing or containing leaks, etc., should be in place as required, inspected per manufacturer’s directions, and in good working order.

Programs including Response Management Programs, Process Safety Management, Respiratory Programs, Security and Emergency Response Plans, Material Safety Data Sheets, etc. must be maintained and documented per regulation.

Employee safety training and awareness must be provided and documented as federally mandated. This training includes (but is

not limited to) driver and transport safety, product-specific safety, and safe handling.

NIOSH-approved respiratory protective and/or emergency escape equipment should be available, and may be mandated by the product label. If available, training must be provided and documented per regulation.

For additional information, contact The Chlorine Institute, Inc., 2001 L Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20036, 202-775-2790, and request a copy of the Chlorine Manual and the wall chart entitled “Handling Chlorine Cylinders and Ton Containers.”

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Appendix D (Non-Mandatory)

Use of Electrolytic Chlorine Generators

This appendix is not part of the American National Standard ANSI/APSP/ICC-5 2011 (R2022). It is included for information only.

1. General

Electrolytic chlorine generators are used as an alternative to adding various chlorine products to the water. Salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) is added to the water, usually to a concentration of between 3000–4000 ppm. As part of the daily filtration cycle, the saline pool water travels through the generator. By passing low-voltage current through water, the generator produces hypochlorous acid, which dissolves in water and sanitizes it.

A typical generator system is comprised of: an electrolytic cell, power supply, flow detector, and a chlorine output control. Optional features for the controller of the system can include a “superchlorinate” function, Low/High Salt indicator LED, No Flow indicator, salt level indicator, a battery backup for settings, and remote operation.

The generator works by the process of electrolysis. The generator cell contains negatively and positively charged plates that convert the salt and water into free chlorine, plus hydrogen, as shown in the equation:

NaCl + H2O DC Current NaOCl + H2 (gas)

Since most of the chlorine generated reverts to chloride during use, the salt is recycled many times, and needs replacement only as it is eventually lost due to water loss.

Special care should be taken with chlorine generators. Since they generate hydrogen gas, there is some risk of explosion if water flow through the cell is blocked. Also, be aware that the added salt causes a higher level of total dissolved solids (TDS) in the water and should be taken into account when calculating the LSI (Langelier Saturation Index).

Chlorine generators may cause electrolysis of metal parts in a pool. There are devices that can be installed that contain a sacrificial anode, which will protect the other metal parts of the pool.

2. Equipment And Installation

Electrolytic chlorine generators should be installed so that the system only allows the generator to operate when the pool pump system is running.

Electrolytic chlorine generators should be the last piece of equipment water travels through before returning to the swimming pool, to protect the pump, filter, and/or pool heater from chemical corrosion.

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Appendix E (Non-Mandatory)

Use of Mineral Systems and Ionizers

This appendix is not part of the American National Standard ANSI/APSP/ICC-5 2011 (R2022). It is included for information only.

1. General

In mineral systems, metal ions are used to inhibit bacteria and algae growth in swimming pool and spa water. Several methods of application are used including, but not limited to, electronic ionization, flow through systems, and liquid products. Metal ions introduced by these systems can include copper, silver, and zinc.

EPA requires testing and registration for all products produced for the purpose of controlling microorganisms. Refer to the EPA accepted label for use and/or operation requirements. There can be substantive use and/or operation differences between systems. Halogen or oxidizer residuals may be required in addition to the metals in order for the system to be considered a sanitizer.

Metal-based systems may be registered as ‘sanitizers,’ ‘bactericides,’ ‘bacterial suppressants,’ or ‘algaecides.’ It is important that the system be registered as a ‘sanitizer’ in order to ensure the safety of the swimmers.

2. Equipment And Installation

Ionizers should be connected to the pool booster pump, or a system that only allows the generator to operate when the pool pump system is running.

Mineral systems without automatic sanitizer addition, and ionizers, should be placed after the filter on the main return line to the swimming pool. These systems may be installed before or after the heater, but prior to any chemical dispensing unit. If a chlorinator is being used, make sure a check valve is installed, to prevent backflow of highly chlorinated water.

Mineral systems and Ionizers with automatic sanitizer addition should be the final piece of equipment installed on the pool system prior to returning water to the swimming pool. This will prevent corrosion of the pump, filter, and/or pool heater.

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Appendix F (Non-Mandatory)

Signage Warning Against Shallow Water Diving

This appendix is not part of the American National Standard ANSI/APSP/ICC-5 2011 (R2022). It is included for information only.

Recommended methods to warn against shallow water diving may include but are not limited to:

A. Safety Signs

The use of a warning sign as a device to warn against shallow water diving is still an open question before the Human Factors Society and others as to whether or not signage is an effective means that will modify human behavior to prevent accidents.

If warning signs are chosen as a means to warn against shallow water diving, the signage should be in compliance with ANSI Z535 Series of standards for safety signs and colors or the latest revision.

B. Additional Signage Use

The ANSI Z535 Series of Standards reflects the consensus of various experts on warning sign appearance and content. Signage that is consistent with the ANSI Z535 Standards is permitted to be added to components, equipment, facilities, or installations, to provide additional information.

Manufacturers are permitted to either affix additional signage to their products or packaging, or to supply the signage with the product to be affixed at the time of installation.

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Appendix G (Non-Mandatory)

Safety Considerations and Warning Recommendations

This appendix is not part of the American National Standard ANSI/APSP/ICC-5 2011 (R2022). It is included for information only.

In addition to requirements established by the authority having jurisdiction, The Pool & Hot Tub Alliance (PHTA) suggests that the builders/installers of swimming pools advise the initial owner/ operator of a public pool of the following.

Warning Recommendations: The PHTA suggests the builder/ installer advise the pool owner of the risk of drowning, especially for children under the age of five, and the risk of diving into shallow water in one or more of the following ways: verbally, through publications, or signage. The following are suggested recommendations:

Prevent Unsupervised Access to the Pool or Hot Tub. Apply multiple layers of protection to secure the pool and hot tub area and minimize the likelihood that anyone could gain unsupervised entry to the pool or hot tub. Multiple layers include:

• Non-climbable 4-sided fencing that is at least 4' high with self-closing, self-latching gates.

• Automatic locks and alarms on all doors (including pet doors) and windows that lead to the water.

• Pool and hot tub covers.

• Pool alarms.

• When children are not intended to be in the water, keep pool toys out of the water and out of sight.

• Keep chairs, tables and other items a child could climb on away from the pool or hot tub enclosure.

For detailed information on barriers, download Safety Barrier Guidelines for Residential Pools from the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission website. (https://www.cpsc.gov)

Lifesaving Equipment: PHTA suggests that the builder/installer advise the pool owner/operator that basic lifesaving equipment including one or more of the following items should be on hand at all times:

• A light, strong, rigid pole not less than 12 feet (3.7 m) long

• A minimum 0.25 inch (6 mm) diameter throwing rope as long as 1.5 times the maximum width of the pool or 50 feet (15.2 m), whichever is less, which has been firmly attached to a Coast Guard-approved ring buoy having an outside diameter of approximately 15 inches (381 mm), or some other similar flotation device.

Safety Considerations for Pool Owner/Operators:

For additional safety information see www.PHTA.org.

This standard does not replace good judgment and personal responsibility. In permitting use of the pool by others, own ers/operators must consider the skill, attitude, training, and experience of the expected user. It is the pool owner/opera tor’s responsibility to learn, understand, and enforce these basic safety principles and rules:

• Encourage children to learn how to swim.

• Never allow diving, jumping, or sliding into shallow water.

• Adequate adult supervision is required when the pool is in use.

• Adequate adult supervision is always required when children are present.

• Encourage parents to learn CPR.

• Encourage children to never swim alone.

• Keep all electrical radios, speakers, and other appliances away from the swimming pool.

• Do not allow roughhousing and horseplay.

• Keep deck clean and clear of objects that may create a hazard.

• Keep all breakable objects out of the pool area.

• Alcohol consumption and pool activities do not mix. Never allow anyone to swim, dive, or slide under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

Do’s and Don’ts for Diving into swimming pools with manufactured diving equipment, diving rocks, and stationary diving platforms:

• Do know the shape of the pool bottom and the water depth before you dive or slide headfirst.

• Do plan your path to avoid submerged obstacles, surface objects, or other swimmers.

• Do learn headfirst entries using a progression from a certified instructor.

• Do know the depth of the water and the shape of the pool bottom before you dive. (The depth should be at least 9 feet deep, according to guidance from the American Red Cross.)

• Do dive straight ahead, never off to the side.

• Do hold your head up, arms up, and steer up with your hands.

• Do practice carefully before you dive or slide.

• Do test the diving board for its spring before using.

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• Do remember that when you dive down, you must steer up.

• Do dive straight ahead, not off the side of the diving board.

• Don’t drink and dive.

• Don’t dive or slide headfirst in the shallow part of the pool.

• Don’t dive from any place that is not specifically designed for diving.

• Don’t ever dive head first into shallow water (5 feet/1.5 m or less).

• Don’t dive across the narrow part of the pool.

• Don’t run and dive.

• Don’t dive from any place that is not specifically designed for diving.

• Don’t engage in horseplay on diving or sliding equipment.

• Don’t use diving equipment as a trampoline.

• Don’t do a back dive.

• Don’t try fancy dives; keep the dives simple.

• Don’t dive or slide headfirst at or through objects such as inner tubes.

• Don’t put diving or sliding equipment on a pool that wasn’t designed for it.

• Don’t swim or dive alone.

• Don’t dive into unfamiliar bodies of water.

Rules for General Use of Swimming Pool Slides.*

Under all circumstances you should prohibit:

• All headfirst entry from slide.

• Horseplay.

• Any slide entries by non-swimmers into deep water, to protect them from drowning.

• Standing on the top of a slide or outside the guardrails.

• Jumping from a slide.

• Diving from a slide.

• Sliding into areas with submerged obstacles, surface objects, or other swimmers.

• Do not engage in extended breath holding activities underwater

* Consult safe use instructions of the pool slide manufacturer.

ANSI/APSP/ICC-5 2011 (R2022) ©2022 The Pool & Hot Tub Alliance A-18
Copyright©2022bythePoolandHotTub
Alliance.Allrights reserved.

Appendix H (Non-Mandatory)

Safety Brochures and Education Programs

This appendix is not part of the American National Standard ANSI/APSP/ICC-5 2011 (R2022). It is included for information only.

Consumer awareness information is available on the following topics:

Children Aren’t Waterproof Entrapment Avoidance Guidelines

Layers of Protection Start with You Plan Your Dive, Steer Up

Pool and Spa Emergency Procedures for Infants and Children

The Sensible Way to Enjoy Your Aboveground/Onground Swimming Pool

The Sensible Way to Enjoy Your Inground Swimming Pool

The Sensible Way to Enjoy Your Spa or Hot Tub

These brochures are published by the Pool & Hot Tub Alliance, and are available at www.PHTA.org

Safety Education Programs and Materials

Educational programs and materials (i.e., seminars, workshops, brochures, videos, instructional guides, etc.) are available from PHTA, other aquatic safety groups, and private firms. As a means of communicating useful safety information to pool owners/operators and users, industry members are permitted to provide such information to owners/operators and to request or require owners/operators to sign a statement that they have received, read, and will follow the guidelines.

Pool & Hot Tub Alliance

2111 Eisenhower Avenue, Suite 500 Alexandria, VA 22314 www.PHTA.org

Alliance.Allrights reserved.

2011 (R2022) A-19 ©2022 The Pool & Hot Tub Alliance
ANSI/APSP/ICC-5
Copyright©2022bythePoolandHotTub

Appendix I (Non-Mandatory)

Wooden Deck Materials

This appendix is not part of the American National Standard ANSI/APSP/ICC-5 2011 (R2022). It is included for information only.

As a guide, it is recommended that the following standards be referenced: American Wood Preservers Bureau Quality Control and Inspection Procedures for:

LP 2 88 Softwood Lumber, Timber, and Pressure Treated with Waterborne Preservatives for Aboveground Use.

LP 22 88 Softwood Lumber, Timber, and Plywood Pressure Treated with Waterbome Preservatives for Ground Contact Use.

FDN 88 Softwood Lumber, Timber and Plywood Pressure Treated with Waterbome Preservative for Ground Contact Use in Residential and Light Commercial Foundations.

Alliance.Allrights reserved.

ANSI/APSP/ICC-5 2011 (R2022) ©2022 The Pool & Hot Tub Alliance A-20
Copyright©2022bythePoolandHotTub

Appendix J (Non-Mandatory)

Conversion Table of English Standard-Metric Measurements

This appendix is not part of the American National Standard ANSI/APSP/ICC-5 2011 (R2022). It is included for information only.

Symbol When You Know Multiply by To F ind Symbol

LENGTH

in. inches 2.5 centimeters cm ft.feet 30.48 centimeters cm yd. yards 0.9 meters m mi. miles 1.6 kilometers km

AREA

in2 square inches 6.5 sq. centimeters cm2 ft2 square feet 0.09 square meters m2 yd2 square yards 0.8 square meters m2 mi2 square miles 2.6 sq. kilometers km2 acres 0.4 hectares ha

MASS

oz. ounces 28.35 grams g lb. pounds 0.45 kilograms kg short tons (2000 lb.) 0.9 metric tons t

VOLUME

tsp. teaspoons 5 milliliters mL Tsp. tablespoons 15 milliliters mL in3 cubic inches 16 milliliters mL fl.oz. fluid ounces 30 milliliters mL c. cups 0.24 liters L pt. pints 0.47 liters L qt. quarts 0.95 liters L gal. gallons 3.8 liters L ft.3 cubic feet 0.03 cubic meters m3 yd.3 cubic yards 0.76 cubic meters m3

TEMPERATURE (See also below)

°F degrees Fahrenheit 5/9 degrees Celsius °C (after subtracting 32)

Symbol When You Know Multiply by To F ind Symbol LENGTH

mm millimeters 0.04 inches in. cm centimeters 0.4 inches in. m meters 3.3 feet ft. m meters 1.1 yards yd. km kilometers 0.6 miles mi.

AREA

cm2 sq.centimeters 0.16 square inches in2 m2 square meters 10.8 square inches yd2

km2 sq. kilometers 0.4 square miles mi2 ha hectares (10,000 m2) 2.5 acres

MASS

g grams 0.035 ounces oz. kg kilograms 2.2 pounds lb. t metric ton (1,000 kg) 1.1 short tons

Alliance.Allrights reserved.

VOLUME

mL milliliters 0.06 cubic inches in3 mL milliliters 0.03 fluid ounces fl.oz.

L liters 2.1 pints pt. L liters 1.06 quarts qt. L liters 0.26 gallons gal. m3 cubic meters 35 cubic feet ft3 m3 cubic meters 1.3 cubic yards yd3

TEMPERATURE

°C degrees Celsius 9/5 degrees °F (then Fahrenheit add 32)

* Many websites provide on-the-fly metric and other conversions. This standard has used All Conversions (www.allconversions.com).

ANSI/APSP/ICC-5 2011 (R2022) A-21 ©2022 The Pool & Hot Tub Alliance
Copyright©2022bythePoolandHotTub

Appendix K (Non-Mandatory)

Entrapment Avoidance

This appendix is not part of the American National Standard ANSI/APSP/ICC-5 2011 (R2022). It is included for information only.

ANSI/APSP/ICC-5 2011 (R2022) ©2022 The Pool & Hot Tub Alliance A-22
Copyright©2022bythePoolandHotTub
Alliance.Allrights reserved.

Appendix L (Non-Mandatory)

Sources of Material

This appendix is not part of the American National Standard ANSI/APSP/ICC-5 2011 (R2022). It is included for information only.

ACI American Concrete Institute 38800 Country Club Drive Farmington Hills MI 48331 248-848-3800

ANSI American National Standards Institute 25 West 43rd Street New York NY 10036 212-642-4900

APSP Association of Pool & Spa Professionals (formerly National Spa and Pool Institute) 2111 Eisenhower Avenue Alexandria VA 22314 703-838-0083

ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers 3 Park Avenue New York NY 10016 212-591-8562

ASTM ASTM International (formerly American Society of Testing & Materials) 100 Barr Harbor Drive West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959 610-832-9585 610-832-9555 (fax)

IAPMO International Association of Plumbing & Mechanical Officials 4755 E. Philadelphia Street Ontario CA 91761 909-472-4100

NEC National Electrical Code (see NFPA)

NFPA National Fire Protection Association 1 Batterymarch Park Quincy MA 02269 617-770-3000

NSF NSF International (formerly National Sanitation Foundation) 789 N. Dixboro Rd. P.O. Box 130140 Ann Arbor MI 48113-0140 734-769-8010

NSPI National Spa and Pool Institute (ss APSP)

UL Underwriters Laboratories 333 Pfingsten Road Northbrook IL 60062-2096 847272-8800

(R2022) A-23 ©2022 The Pool & Hot Tub Alliance
ANSI/APSP/ICC-5 2011
Copyright©2022bythePoolandHotTub
(Approved by the American National Standards Institute April 22, 2011)
Alliance.Allrights reserved.

Alliance.Allrights reserved.

Copyright©2022bythePoolandHotTub

Alliance.Allrights reserved.

Copyright©2022bythePoolandHotTub
American National Standard for Residential Inground Swimming Pools ANSI/APSP/ICC-5 2011 (R2022) Familiarity with the ANSI/PHTA standards is essential for anyone who builds, manufactures, sells, or services pools, spas or hot tubs. 2111 Eisenhower Avenue, Suite 500 Alexandria VA 22314-4679 703.838.0083 standards@phta.org PHTA.org Copyright©2022bythePoolandHotTub Alliance.Allrights reserved.
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