The Parking Professional September 2018

Page 1





Improving the Fan Experience

How parking made a difference at Mercedes-Benz Stadium in Atlanta.


The trends in parking, transportation, and the evolution of mobility. 20


Experts and professionals weigh in on what to expect. 28


Offering intermobility services to maximize campus access. 38


A university turned to students and a mathematical theorem. 44

SEPTEMBER 2018 VOL. 34 | NO. 9




Driving Smart Cities

The trends affecting parking, transportation, and the evolution of mobility. By Brett Wood, CAPP, PE; and Rachel Yoka, CAPP, LEED AP BD+C


Disruption! Mobility! What’s a Parking Professional to Expect?

Experts and professionals weigh in on what to expect in transportation, shared mobility, and effecting positive change. By Trevyr Meade, LEED GA


Improving the Fan Experience

How parking made a difference at Mercedes-Benz Stadium in Atlanta. By David Hoyt


Connecting the Commuting Dots

Offering intermobility services to maximize campus access. By Casey Jones, CAPP


The Shuttle Predicament

A university turned to students and a mathematical theorem to find solutions that worked to fix their shuttle system. By George Richardson


Inside the Minds of Parkers

Research says there’s plenty of parking but drivers disagree. Here’s what a new survey says about that dichotomy. By Devorah Werner



Departments 4 ENTRANCE

Networking: The Heartbeat of IPI By David Onorato, CAPP


Five Things to Know About Transit


Creating A-List Parking in Urban Settings By Taylor Kim, AIA, LEED AP

1 0 THE GREEN STANDARD A Remarkable Day By Paul Wessel

1 2 THE BUSINESS OF PARKING Don’t Be Arbitrary and Capricious

By Michael J. Ash, Esq., CRE


Be Who You Represent By Cindy Campbell


Embracing Growth Through Greater Mobility at Ole Miss By Mike Harris, CAPP, MBA


Shine the Light on You By Stephanie Santoro


SPOTLIGHT Pacific Intermountain Parking & Transportation Association


Reaching Mobility

PAID A KING’S RANSOM for a reserved parking space outside the stadium concert my daughter and I attended this summer. The closest Metro stop is a mile’s walk away through a rough part of town and the Uber/Lyft pickup area is a half-mile from the stadium, so the parking space made the most sense for us. My first inkling that things weren’t going to go so well was when attendants directed me away from the back-of-lot space I’d reserved and to an area right up against the stadium—and far from the exit—instead.

About 25 minutes before the concert ended, groups of people started leaving. Metro closed before the concert ended and they had that mile walk between their seats and the station, so they missed a good bit of the performance. We were able to catch the encore but then spent an hour in the car after the show creeping from our parking space to the main road that led to the highway. Along the way, we passed throngs of people—largely young girls— standing in clusters through the neighborhood. The Uber/Lyft lot was packed way past capacity and there was a long wait for cars, so people scattered off-property to wait for rides, hoping that might be faster even if it was more dangerous than staying with the crowds. I wondered if the folks who built this stadium consulted with transportation and mobility experts. Probably not—there was nothing mobile about this experience. And I suspect this isn’t the only large venue in the U.S. whose customer transportation system suffers similarly. Thankfully, I know a lot of IPI members whose expertise could fix this sort of thing, and I’m hopeful with an increased focus on mobility everywhere, future arenas and similar venues will be designed with movement in and out as a priority. This issue strengthens that hope. Mobility is top-of-mind, and loads of experts are focusing on better ways to get people everywhere they need to go, and in ways that are easier, less expensive, and more sustainable than ever before. I hope you enjoy reading about it as much as I did—let me know what you think. As always, I love hearing from you. The stadium we visited is a 30-minute drive from my house in normal traffic. Our concert ended shortly after 11 p.m. We walked through our front door at 1 a.m. There’s got to be a better way, and I think it’s coming. Until next month...

By Laura Lierz, CAPP




For advertising information, contact Bonnie Watts at or 571.699.3011. For subscription changes, contact Tina Altman, The Parking Professional (ISSN 0896-2324 & USPS 001436) is published monthly by the International Parking Institute. 1330 Braddock Place, Suite 350 Alexandria, VA 22314 Phone: 571.699.3011 Fax: 703.566.2267 Email: Website: Postmaster note: Send address label changes promptly to: The Parking Professional 1330 Braddock Place, Suite 350 Alexandria, VA 22314 Interactive electronic version of The Parking Professional for members and subscribers only at Periodical postage paid at Alexandria, Va., and additional mailing offices. Copyright © International Parking Institute, 2018. Statements of fact and opinion expressed in articles contained if The Parking Professional are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent an official expression of policy or opinion on the part of officers or the members of IPI. Manuscripts, correspondence, articles, product releases, and all contributed materials are welcomed by The Parking Professional; however, publication is subject to editing, if deemed necessary to conform to standards of publication. The subscription rate is included in IPI annual dues. Subscription rate for non-members of IPI is $120 per year (U.S. currency) in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. All other countries, $150. Back issues, $10. The Parking Professional is printed on 10 percent recycled paper and on paper from trees grown specifically for that purpose.

Networking: The Heartbeat of IPI By David Onorato, CAPP


T’S BEEN JUST ABOUT THREE MONTHS since we all gathered at the 2018 IPI Conference & Expo in Orlando. As evidenced by the numbers of vendors, operators, and others who shared a full Expo hall, professional development sessions, and social schedule, we turned out in force. And from the degree of enthusiasm and interaction exhibited by attendees during those activities, it’s fair to conclude that the momentum established during previous IPI events is alive and well.

The benefits gained through networking and the furthering of professional relationships were particular strengths of this year’s meeting. As with past gatherings, the contacts made and the wisdom acquired will prove central to the career advancement of many who were there. We also were introduced to numerous vendor-sourced advances in equipment and technology that, if adopted, can increase performance standards across the industry. Beyond its capacity for personal career enhancement, the real benefit of the IPI experience is our use of it once we return to our public- or ­private-sector positions. Our awareness of gains in parking practices do little good for our respective operations if we leave our appreciation for them at each successive meeting site. Instead, our obligation as IPI attendees includes the responsibility of sharing the gains we’ve become familiar with and implementing them where they may apply. The organization’s leadership recognized the importance of this “ambassador” role by establishing a network of state and


regional association (SRA) committees to foster communication across all tiers of the IPI function. SRAs are the foundation of the IPI networking system— they serve as the core bloodline for communication between and among the organization’s individual, commercial, and institutional members. Networking topics range from ­problem-solving and issue resolution at the operational level to explorations of career advancement by individual professionals. But whatever the purpose, IPI views networking as an essential tool for personal and industry growth and has established a variety of paths to employ it. Their value is bounded only by their users’ imaginations. Welcome their presence. Explore them. And put them to their best use, both for you as an individual and for the organization you serve. DAVID ONORATO, CAPP, is

executive director of the public parking authority of Pittsburgh and chair-elect of IPI’s Board of Directors. He can be reached at donorato@pittsburghparking. com.


Publisher Shawn Conrad, CAE Editor Kim Fernandez Technical Editor Rachel Yoka, CAPP, LEED AP BD+C Assistant Editor Monica Arpino Contributing Editor Bill Smith, APR Advertising Sales Bonnie Watts, CEM Subscriptions Tina Altman Publication Design BonoTom Studio Proofreader Melanie Padgett Powers

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About Transit

Public transit is a natural feature in larger cities, but it wasn’t always that way—it took a lot to build subway, light rail, commuter train, and other systems to get people where they wanted to go without having to own a car. Here are five things you might not have known about transit.

1 2 3

Chicago, Illinois’ famous L system, now run by the Chicago Transit Authority, started out as four different systems under four different companies running trains in four different parts of the city. They were merged into the Chicago Elevated Railways Collateral Trust. Another interesting fact: Today’s Chicago Blue Line used to cater to the dead with funeral trains that stopped at specific cemeteries. Source: It’s said that nobody walks in Los Angeles, Calif., and that may be true: the city boasts 140 years of transit history. In that time, a staggering 220 companies have provided mass transportation to L.A. residents. Source:


In California, San Fransisco’s cable cars were largely replaced after the 1906 Great Earthquake took out much of the system. When it was rebuilt, cable cars were switched out for electric streetcars on all routes except a few, whose steep grade meant cable cars still made more sense. They were almost put out of commission in 1947 and would be a distant memory but for the Citizens’ Committee to Save the Cable Cars, which supported a charter amendment forcing the city to continue operating two cable car lines. Source:


Alfred Ely Beach built a demonstration site for a subway in New York City, N.Y., in 1869, but city officials were unconvinced they needed public transportation. That ended in 1888 when a massive blizzard paralyzed the city. The first underground segment of the New York Subway opened in 1904. The system suffered significant damage in the September 11, 2001, attacks; most was reopened the following March, and the entire system was back online a year after the attacks. Source:



The St. Charles streetcar line in New Orleans, La., part of the Regional Transit Authority, is the oldest continuously operated street railway in the world. It started running back in 1835, taking New Orleans residents from and to Carrolton, a suburb that’s become part of the city since then. Source:

Strategic Planning and Management Maintenance and Restoration Design and Construction Technologies


Creating A-List Parking in Urban Settings By Taylor Kim, AIA, LEED AP

At Lumina Towers, a luxury residential development in the Rincon Hill neighborhood of San Francisco, each of these technologies was used to not only improve the residential experience, but also provide a cost-effective way to offer sufficient parking within a limited footprint. Lumina consists of four highrise towers that take up an entire city block. While this site is larger than most, it was still a challenge to accommodate the number of parking spaces needed to serve its 655 units. Given the amount of parking needed and the high level of service desired to serve Lumina’s clientele, it was determined that full valet parking, rather than self-parking, was the right approach.

The Specs

Parking for the development is supplied on three basement levels. The first basement consists of the valet dropoff and pick-up areas and accessible parking, as well as pedestrian connections to each of the four towers. The second and third basement levels are only accessible to valet attendants. To densify the parking to meet the project’s program, the third basement level also incorporates mechanical stackers that use volume to make more efficient use of available space. Valet-operated mechanical parking allows for more flexible operations and

By integrating mobile app technology, seamless valet services, and mechanical parking for increased flexibility, parking can become an amenity rather than an inconvenient necessity. increased parking capacity with minimal increases to the volume of the garage. Because the prime location means many residents don’t regularly use their vehicles, valets are able to manage demand by leveraging stackers and remote spaces in the garage for long-term storage. Experienced valets also make it possible to use a complicated parking layout with a delicate one-way traffic pattern and parking at various angles, resulting in extremely efficient operations.


Why Valet Makes Sense

Valet is often thought of as an expensive, slow, labor-intensive operation. However, with the use of technology, many of the disadvantages of valet parking have been minimized at Lumina Towers. Instead of a traditional valet operation where drivers request their vehicle once they reach the valet station in the parking garage, residents at Lumina text or call the valet desk for their cars before leaving their units. The valet then queries the central system at the main valet office, where attendants can locate and retrieve the vehicle. By the time the resident reaches the garage, their car is staged and ready. The garage drop-off was carefully designed with the driver in mind. There is adequate queuing space for residents to be able to leave their cars on arrival and proceed to their building during heavier peak periods. Attendants are also able to prepare for the morning peak demands during the slower overnight hours by staging the regular vehicles for pick up on the B1 level. Having a regular dedicated valet staff onsite also forges a personal connection, increasing the level of service to the residents. In one of the densest, busiest cities in the country, Lumina Towers not only overcame the innate challenges posed by parking, but also turned the parking experience into a luxury amenity that provides residents with a seamless, high-level experience. TAYLOR KIM, AIA, LEED AP, is

project manager and associate with Watry Design. She can be reached at tkim@watrydesign. com.



ARKING IS OFTEN THE FIRST AND LAST IMPRESSION a patron has when visiting a destination. In parking-challenged urban centers such as San Francisco, Calif, where parking isn’t expected to be easy, providing an A-list parking experience can add tremendous value. By integrating mobile app technology, seamless valet services, and mechanical parking for increased flexibility, parking can become an amenity rather than an inconvenient necessity.


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A Remarkable Day By Paul Wessel


ANGING OUT WITH THE CHICKENS at my Airbnb in upstate New York and reflecting upon my day at Cornell University, I had an epiphany: I had just seen the future of mobility emerging before my eyes!

Let me explain.

I was invited to talk about sustainable mobility and Parksmart by Cornell’s Center for Transportation, Environment, and Community Health, otherwise known as CTECH. Specifically, I was joining Cornell’s parking and transportation wizards Bridgette Brady, CAPP, and Reed Huegerich, to speak at CURIE Academy, a summer residential program for high school girls who excel in math and science. It’s always good to get a sense of your audience, so Bridgette, Reed, and I arrived during the morning session. I walked into a classroom of 50 young women from across the U.S. discussing “systems engineering and systems

design thinking for urban mobility” with Cornell engineering professor Samitha Samaranayake, who did his PhD work on “efficient algorithms for stochastic route planning and dynamic network flow allocation.” Though it took me a few minutes to grasp it, they were talking about Uber, Lyft, and taxis; mathematical modeling and optimization; and information technologies. I was clearly not in Kansas anymore. It quickly dawned on me that these were the kids I’m going to be working for in 10 years when they’ve got their PhDs. If, as Parksmart visionary John Schmid is apt to say, “no one is as smart as everyone,” then standing in that room, my IQ went up 50 points.

Our job was to talk with these young women about how we turn academic theories, formulas, and data visualizations into something real. We shared what parking and transportation professionals do and how Parksmart (parking. org/parksmart) is a tool to inspire adoption of the technologies and approaches they were learning about. We explained that while our generation didn’t create a lot of the negative externalities of transportation—pollution and congestion among them—we certainly exacerbated the problem and, for better or worse, are leaving it to their generation to resolve. We wrapped up by sharing heat maps and drone videos showing how Cornell uses GIS (graphic information system) to reduce vehicle accidents and single-occupant vehicle trips and then prepped them for a walking tour of a new green parking lot under construction.



CURIE Academy, a summer residential program at Cornell University for female high school students who excel at math and science.


A Green Lot

The Peterson lot, designed by landscape architecture students at Cornell, funded by the transportation department and grants, managed by a host of Cornell experts, and being constructed by the university’s engineers, is a leading example of green surface parking design. It is expected to be certified by SITES, the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) and Parksmart sister program recognizing sustainable-­ landscaped site development. After our walk past the intersection being reconstructed to reduce the pedestrian, bike, bus, and vehicle conflicts and past a series of bioswales built to reduce water pollution, we landed at the Peterson parking lot. Among other things, we learned about “structural soil,” a Cornell-developed combination of stone and soil that is stable enough to support pavement but penetrable enough to allow for tree root growth.

The Peterson lot integrates and applies more than a decade of research by Cornell faculty and students into a teaching landscape, interpretation, and outreach tool for multiple college programs and campus green infrastructure. Using SITES, a robust monitoring plan, and a comparison to a nearby traditional lot, students and faculty will document the water quality improvements and quantity reduction achieved by their thoughtful surface parking design and construction.


It was a full day, so I was happy that the increasingly frequent 90-degree weather broke, that my Airbnb hosts had some lawn chairs, and that the chickens were quiet in their pen. Reflecting back on the past seven hours, I was struck by how the combination of academics modeling transportation with arcane formulas, crackerjack-smart high school girls on the way to becoming our next

generation of problem solvers, parking and transportation leaders building tomorrow’s infrastructure today, structural soil, backhoes, and French drains all wrapped up an Ivy-league land-grant university driven to do research that changes the world. This was the essence of leadership: In secluded upstate New York, I was in the presence of people who Parksmart certified the first university parking structure, were on the path to SITES to certify the first university parking lot, were pushing my organization to reach beyond the parking structure to promote integrated parking and transportation systems, were doing seminal research and roll-your-sleeves-up development on the mobility infrastructure that might just save us, and were building the young minds that are going to have to pick up the mantle. It was all there. And for an instant, I got to be part of it. PAUL WESSEL is director of

market development with the U.S. Green Building Council. He can be reached at pwessel@

We learned about “structural soil,” a Cornell-developed combination of stone and soil that is stable enough to support pavement but penetrable enough to allow for tree root growth.



Don’t Be Arbitrary and Capricious By Michael J. Ash, Esq., CRE


ENRY “HANK” ROWAN JR.’S induction furnace design is used throughout the world to melt metal, but he is best known for his philanthropy. In 1991, Hank and Betty Rowan donated $100 million to Glassboro State College, which became Rowan University. Rowan University began an almost 30-year program of development that resulted in new education programs, departments, and facilities. The physical campus and student body have expanded tremendously, and its hometown of Glassboro, N.J., has also been transformed.

Regulating Parking

While there is little doubt that onstreet parking can be regulated throughout a municipality with the establishment of parking meters, signage, and a program of penalty enforcement, typical police powers must be implemented in such a way as to conform with the law. Some of the first residential permit parking programs were subjected to legal challenges alleging discrimination against non-residents and an improper allocation of the public resource of on-street parking. The U.S. Supreme Court, in upholding the legality of a residential parking permit program, can be interpreted to support additional aspects of on- and off-street parking regulation. In previous cases, the Supreme Court clearly identified the rational objectives of a residential permit parking program, including enhancement of the quality of life for residents of a community, properly regulating the utilization and balance between off-street parking facilities and on-street parking resources, and promoting the flow of traffic by limiting the circling of non-residents searching for free on-street parking.



One of the typical controversies in a college town is the balance between student and resident parking. In Glassboro, this recently reached the New Jersey appellate courts in the matter Glassboro Guardians v. Borough of Glassboro, Docket No. A-1670-16 (April 18, 2018). In an attempt to control the use of on-street parking and restore a balance between student and resident on-street parking, the Glassboro Town Council adopted an ordinance requiring all rental properties within the municipality to “provide a minimum of one off-street parking space for every one authorized occupant 18 years of age or more.” This new parking regulation was challenged in court by the Glassboro Guardians, a nonprofit corporation comprised of individuals who own rental properties within the municipality and presumably rent to students for off-campus housing. The Guardians claimed the ordinance: ■■ Was arbitrary and capricious. ■■ Was improperly enacted under the municipality’s police power. ■■ Violated the equal protection clause of the New Jersey Constitution and New Jersey Civil Rights Act. After a three-day trial the judge struck down the ordinance.

Judging Municipal Actions

In New Jersey and most states throughout the country, municipal actions are presumed to be valid, and an objector has a heavy burden in seeking to overturn them. A challenger must clearly show that the municipal action is “arbitrary, capricious, or unreasonable” because the underlying policy and wisdom of an ordinance is assumed to reside with the governing body, not the courts, which are not as familiar with the issues in dispute. An ordinance will not be set aside if any set of reasonable facts justifies it. Although a court will typically not investigate the motives behind an ordinance, the court will weigh evidence about the legislative purpose when the reasonableness of the enactment is not apparent on its face. Here, it seems that the Glassboro Council sought to maintain the balance between student and resident parking through the adoption of the ordinance. However, the court observed the lack of

any introductory language or statement of reasons justifying why it was enacted. Without any explanation included in the rule itself, the judge examined the legislative history but

Tips For Adopting Parking Regulations ■■

Include detailed recitals or “whereas” provisions setting

forth the factual basis for the parking regulation. ■■


Accumulate and reference documents that support the reason for the parking regulation in the form of parking studies, correspondence, or internal analysis. Make a record at the adoption of the policy through comment and discussion.

found no explanation for adoption of the ordinance. Glassboro failed to articulate any valid reason for the parking policy, and it was set aside after years of litigation. When considering the implementation of new parking regulations, the parking professional should be able to identify the rational basis for the policy. In addition to the desired regulatory changes, the legislation, whether by ordinance or resolution, should clearly articulate the objectives of the regulation. MICHAEL J. ASH, Esq., CRE, is a partner with Decotiis,

Fitzpatrick, & Cole, LLP. He can be reached at mash@


Be Who You Represent By Cindy Cambell


RECENTLY SAT DOWN FOR DINNER in a well-known chain restaurant during my travels. Arriving in town the night before a long week of training, I decided a decent meal would be a good idea. Now, I’ve dined at this national chain a number of times and I always leave with a very positive feeling about food quality and customer service, so it surprised me when the proverbial wheels came off the wagon on this particular visit.

It started out as it always has: I’m seated, menu provided, drink delivered, order placed. It did seem to take an exceptionally long time for my simple order to arrive, and when it did, I immediately noticed that it wasn’t right. Knowing that things like this happen, I politely pointed it out to the server. Without comment, he picked up the plate and took it back to the kitchen. After 20 minutes, I asked if he thought it would be much longer. His response started with a heavy sigh and finished with, “I’ll check with the kitchen.” An additional 25 minutes passed and at that point, I was done. The server stopped again at the table and told me he would recheck with the kitchen, to which I responded, “No. I’m done. I believe I’ve waited long enough. If you would give me my bill for the drink, I’d appreciate it.” Again, without comment, he briefly stepped away and came back with my bill. As he set it down, another server arrived at the table with my order, which, frustratingly, was still not correct. The server silently stood looking at me, presumably waiting to see if I wanted to keep it this time around. “Sorry, still not what I ordered,” I said. He shrugged his shoulders and curtly responded, “Well, I don’t know what to tell you. It’s not my fault. I gave the right order to the kitchen.” In fairness to this young man, his observation could have been ­accurate— it’s entirely possible that he had entered

the order correctly and kitchen staff had misread it twice. Here’s my point: The issue wasn’t in the mistake happening; it was in the server’s failure to understand his role as a representative of the brand.

Representing the Brand

We all work for someone. Whether you work for a private company, a public organization, or even if you’re self-­ employed, in some way we all represent a larger entity. Let’s say for example that you work for a municipality as a parking ambassador. You may be the only city representative with whom members of the public have ever personally interacted. At that very moment, you are the face of the city. Your attitude, demeanor, word choice, and body language help shape their opinion of you, your agency, and of the city—the entire city. What about service limitations, agency policies, or even errors that are out of our control? What happens when the customer is unhappy and you’re left holding the proverbial bag on behalf of the city? Is it OK to simply shrug your shoulders and declare that it’s not your fault? The public will not always be satisfied with the answers and options you are able to give. In that moment, you have the responsibility to recognize that you are the city, and even when you don’t agree with the options, you must


always be who you represent. With your words and actions, you have the potential to shape perceptions and future decisions about you and of your greater agency, even if the circumstances are completely out of your control. Setting our personal viewpoints aside can be difficult. Because we represent a larger brand, we must consistently fight the urge to disassociate ourselves from regulations or circumstances with which we disagree. This type of professional disassociation serves no one well.

The Takeaway

That night at the restaurant, I left feeling frustrated. I know that I will never go back to that specific restaurant, and it will probably be a very long time before I set foot inside another of the franchise locations. I committed to telling others about my bad experience, knowing that many of them may adopt my viewpoint and avoid experiencing it personally. One more notable thing to share about this experience. As I walked away that night, I was also thinking about situations early in my career where I’m certain I reflected poorly on my personal brand and that of my employer. On many occasions throughout my career, I know I’ve made similar customer service blunders where I lost sight of my brand and who I represented. The lessons are there if we’re willing to recognize and learn from them. CINDY CAMPBELL is IPI’s

senior training and development specialist. She is available for onsite training and professional development and can be reached at

Every year, there are

42 million

more cars on the street.


of them will park.

Do you have a plan?



Embracing Growth Through Greater Mobility at Ole Miss By Mike Harris, CAPP, MBA


or those of us fortunate enough to work on a college campus, days can arrive with many challenges that range from parent and student interactions to construction plans that view every surface lot as the next construction site. At the University of Mississippi, we are facing growth at an unprecedented rate. From 2007 to 2017, the university’s student body increased 39 percent, which has made it necessary for our administration and parking teams to look at various ways to accommodate a lot of change. The only constant on a college campus is change, and we have had to embrace a lot of changes during the past few years, including construction of five new residence halls and two parking garages. These changes have created several new options for our campus community—as change goes, this is a good thing. The more options people have, the better decisions they can make about what works for them.

Expanding Options

One of those changes has been to expand our biking options, which include free bicycle registration for bike owners as well as an expanded bike rental program and a newly launched bike-share program through Gotcha. These expand-

ed options have proven very popular with our students. We all know the benefits of increased bike use: a reduction in the number of vehicles on campus and a healthier community. However, we could not just expand bike programs without also looking at infrastructure to make sure the programs were safe and convenient to use. To accommodate more bicycling, we removed on-street parking on several main arteries on campus and created bike lanes. We also added more bike racks throughout campus to handle the increased number of bicycles.

Reducing Traffic

We considered campus streets and cross-campus traffic. How could we eliminate as much cross-campus traffic as possible while still maintaining emergency, bus, and delivery access? This was accomplished by installing gates that work with emergency strobe sensors and bus clickers, as well as a keypad with an intercom system to accommodate unexpected deliveries. This decision contributed not only to less cross-campus traffic, but also created a much safer environment for our pedestrians and bicyclists and helped develop a more efficient bus operation.


This brings us to buses and the enormous effects they have in helping us manage the growth we have experienced. The bus system, which is known as Oxford University Transit (OUT) has been a life preserver in a sea of growth. What began in 2008 as a small system with two routes and five buses has grown to 14 routes and 31 buses with two more on order. This past year saw ridership in excess of 1.4 million people.


Some changes in the past few years have helped create a more efficient transit system. One of the biggest changes was to create two transit hubs on campus. One is located at Kennon Observatory, which we call our South Hub, and one is located at our newly constructed student union, which we refer to as our North Hub. Prior to this change, the bus routes all ran from the city with stops around campus. As you might imagine, this was inefficient. The buses would get bogged down on campus due to traffic and pedestrians. This was extremely problematic during class change, when vehicle traffic came to a standstill at certain intersections as masses of students crossed campus. Our goal was to create two locations that would serve as destinations for the buses coming onto campus. Those routes entering campus from the north would drop off students at the North Hub, and those entering from the south would drop off students at the South Hub.

We, as parking professionals on college campuses, should never lose sight of our overall goal, which is to support the mission of the university. This starts by improving transportation for our students, as well as faculty, staff, alumni, families, and visitors, so they can get to where they need to go to take the next steps in their lives

These hubs increased the speed of our turnaround time tremendously and helped the buses leave campus and stay on route without slowing down by going through campus. Along with this change, we added internal campus bus loops to help transport people to classes and offices. The campus loop is composed of two routes and four buses: Rebel Red goes counter-clockwise, and Rebel Blue goes clockwise, making various stops around campus across from each other. People choose the route that is closest to their destination and, therefore, arrive

at their destinations quicker. The hubs serve as transfer points for all routes. The gates mentioned above really do help with keeping the buses on time and eliminating traffic interference for a more efficient transit system. Our campus has come a long way, and a lot of the changes have been due to construction and the growth we have experienced. We, as parking professionals on college campuses, should never lose sight of our overall goal, which is to support the mission of the university. This starts by improving transportation

for our students, as well as faculty, staff, alumni, families, and visitors, so they can get to where they need to go to take the next steps in their lives. Thanks to the various options available now on our campus, I think we have helped make this possible. MIKE HARRIS, CAPP, MBA, is

director of parking and transportation at the University of Mississippi. He can be reached at gmharris@olemiss. edu.

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What is your definition of “mobility” and what does or should it mean for parking operations?

Megan Leinart, LEED AP BD+C

David Hill, CAPP

Mobility encompasses all the modes of transportation that get us to our destinations and the various combinations of such. Now and moving forward, parking facilities and their operations must accommodate the needs of those walking, biking, taking public transit, and driving to ensure a safe and efficient travel experience, while incorporating the resources, technologies, and infrastructure to complement them.

Simply put, urban mobility is the process used in moving individuals from A to B in the most efficient manner utilizing a variety of modes. Parking is an essential part of the modes that utilize personal vehicles and the primary money maker of the modes available, and so parking is the beating heart of the urban mobility process.

President Leinart Consulting

CEO Clayton Hill Associates

Kathryn R. Hebert, PhD

Director, Transportation, Mobility, and Parking City of Norwalk, Conn. Mobility is about providing convenient, easy-to-access travel choices to move people from one place to another and is critical to the sustainability of our cities, businesses, and jobs. The parking industry will have to rethink parking operations and technology to accommodate the different modes of transportation, both onand off-street, including bike-share, on demand transportation, and selfdriving cars.

Casey Jones, CAPP

Roamy Valera, CAPP

Mobility broadly refers to the systems, programs, and services that connect people and their destinations and specifically describes the ease or burden of moving between an origin and destination. The implication for our industry is that we need to embrace and provide for all modes of mobility, not just that which is accommodated by automobiles. This represents a fundamental shift in thinking that will define the parking industry moving forward.

Mobility is the ability to move people and things with little and/or no friction by providing access with ease of mind and significant effort. This means that as legacy parking professionals, parking is a key component of the mobility ecosystem and we all play a role.

Vice President Timothy Haahs & Associates, Inc.

CEO NewTown Advisors, LLC

HAVE A QUESTION? Send it to and watch this space for answers from the experts.

The opinions and thoughts expressed by the contributors do not necessarily reflect the opinions and viewpoints of the International Parking Institute or official policies of IPI.







PARKING MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS CPA Trade Show | Booth 602 NPA Expo | Booth 221

Driving Sm The trends affecting parking, transportation, and the evolution of mobility.


he goal of this piece is to share seven key trends and innovations that will affect our industry and your business. This is not a definitive tome predicting the future, but rather a place to start examining where we are headed as an industry and generate conversations (and possibly arguments) about what

that means for us as professionals. While it’s important to review recent survey results and relevant research, we also felt it’s critical to take a look at key bleeding-edge, disruptive, and innovative trends from within our typical space—as well as outside of it.


mart Cities


By Brett Wood, CAPP, PE; and Rachel Yoka, CAPP, LEED AP BD+C

Trend 1: Evolution of the Curbside Environment During the past 10 years, the curbside environment in our cities, universities, and airports has changed dramatically, with rapid growth in competition for needs along the curb. What was once the domain of parking, loading, and transit now sees competition from food trucks, parklets, bicycles, transportation network companies (TNCs), and a variety of other uses. This rapid rise in competing interests naturally draws the concern of parking professionals, but the multi-faceted need is actually empowering industry professionals to think creatively and dynamically. In recent years, our cities have adopted policies that promote flexible use of the curb, aiding businesses with loading needs in the morning, parking needs mid-day, and advanced passenger drop-off in the evenings. This dynamic approach is improving use of the curb and promoting higher activity and revenue for parking programs and businesses alike. With this new approach, we have seen increased thoughtfulness related to policy development, data collection and aggregation, and curbside access. As the transportation industry continues to change, the need to be flexible, creative, and dynamic along the curb will also grow.



2 Current Tool Box/ Qualities of the Parking Professional ■■ ■■ ■■ ■■ ■■ ■■ ■■ ■■ ■■ ■■ ■■

Operations Administration Management Technology Politics Economic development Community outreach Human resources Accounting Planning Sustainability Transportation demand management (TDM)

Evolving responsibilities mean changing skill sets that are required for professional success, as organizations and as individuals. IPI’s 2018 Emerging Trends in Parking survey cited massive change on the horizon for parking professionals; in response to the question “Which of the following best describes the parking professional of the future?” 60 percent stated “parking, transportation, and mobility professional.” Roughly 10 percent selected parking professional or transportation professional. The role of the current industry professional is already exceedingly more complex than it seems. Our readers know that well. However, the lists below, though not comprehensive, provide a snapshot of our professional areas of practice today and our evolving and anticipated ones. How will we prepare new team members who join our organizations? How will we keep our current employees and leaders engaged and learning these broad skill sets for continued growth? A significant strategic (and ideally annual) investment in continued training and professional development will be required of those organizations that are determined to stay ahead of the curve.

Tool Box/Qualities of the Future Industry/Mobility Professional All current qualities, plus… ■■ ■■ ■■ ■■ ■■ ■■ ■■

Curb management Mobility as a service (MaaS) Smart city development and support Urban planning Data analysis and benchmarking/KPIs Mobile applications and technology integration Investment and management of alternative modes, including microtransit

■■ ■■ ■■



Transit integrations and partnerships (all modes) True TDM Integration Bicycle/electric bicycle/ scooter programs/ storage/share Accommodating and encouraging active transportation, including pedestrians Adaptive reuse and capital planning for industry change

And that is just the beginning… SHUTTERSTOCK / OLLYY


Trend 2: The Dynamic Parking (and Transportation, and Mobility) Professional



The concept of big data in the parking industry is nothing new—our leaders in the technology realm have been pushing us farther and farther into the worlds of data collection, aggregation, validation, and analytics. During the past decade, everyone from experts to field personnel have been focused on collecting and unearthing data from all parts of our systems, including: ■■ Back-end program management systems. ■■ Sensors and counting equipment. ■■ License plate recognition. ■■ Video analytics. ■■ PARCS equipment. Now that we have all this technology, what do we do with it? First and foremost, professionals should be collecting data in a way that they can develop and maintain key performance indicators that support the growth of their programs. Whether that means internal performance metrics to validate and adapt program decisions or external benchmarks to compare against industry peers, the data we have been collecting and maintaining is a valuable source of information to chart our programs. Second, as more and more cities adapt smart city policies and practices, parking can be at the forefront of this movement, both internal and external to our programs. Most of our advanced technologies are already in place and should be easily adapted for contributions to smart city systems. More importantly, the parking technologies of the past few years are likely customer focused and, we hope, revenue positive, both of which are central tenets of successful smart city technologies. A few examples of parking-related smart city technologies include: ■■ Wayfinding integrated into everyday apps. ■■ Smart and efficient enforcement. ■■ Mapping existing and underutilized assets. ■■ Creating opportunities for more informed choice and behavioral change.


Trend 3: Wrestling with Big Data


Trend 4: Generational Shifts

Our conversations about millenials and their tremendous effect on society will continue, but more change is coming. Get ready for Generation Z or Gen Z (also known as iGeneration or iGen and post-millennials). Although the name and precise birth years aren’t yet decided (roughly mid-1990s to mid-2000s), we


sure they find the best deal, either in stores or online. ■■ They are ambitious, driven, and under pressure to make a difference and gain work experience, including internships and mentoring experience. ■■ They communicate with multiple platforms—social media, podcasts, and their own branded material. Your typical public relations campaign for the boomers simply will not work across these platforms; they need shareable content and will create their own. ■■ They are collaborative, but also entrepreneurial—they don’t trust the establishment to provide them with longterm employment and a pension. They are prepared to make their own way. Perhaps most importantly at present, gen Z grew up connected from birth. With approximately Gen five devices per person (and increasing by the day), they demand immediate and real-time information and seamless integration of services, including those in the mobility sphere.



do know quite a few things about how this generation is different. According to Nielsen data, Generation Z currently makes up 26 percent of the U.S. population, making it larger than the baby boomers or millennials. Its members will comprise 40 percent of all consumers by 2020. Much has been published about their eight-second attention span (down from 12 seconds in 2000), but this may be interpreted in more than one way. Fast Company magazine dug a bit deeper into the attention span question and found that Gen Z has what they call “highly evolved eight-second filters.” Because of the wealth of information and sources of that information, they make decisions on what to read or digest and what to discard very quickly. As professionals, we will need to understand and adapt, as Gen Z will be our customers as well as our employees. Other attributes of this cohort: ■■ They seek value for their money. They won’t hesitate to invest, especially on tech, but they will spend time making

5 During the past decade, the workplace has steadily taken on a new look in an effort to meet the desires of a new generation of workers. Led by the technology and innovation sector, the workplace has become less rigid and more about open collaboration. And the way we work has changed, with a great focus on flexible work schedules, digital and telecommute work options, and mobility to do your work from wherever you may be. In response to this changing approach to the work environment, the professional who manages transportation and parking choice for the employment sector may need to rethink the way they provide for and manage parking. Employers will likely need to think about commute options for their employees, including flexible transit, parking, and mobility options. Employers also need to help educate and inform their employees of commute options, to help them make better decisions on a day-to-day basis. And commute choices should come with options for digital data access, which help employees keep working, even when on the move.


Trend 5: Managing the Changing Workplace


6 This trend often gets the most press, as almost all elements of the transportation industry are waiting eagerly to see the effects of full vehicle automation and driverless systems. The good news (we think) is that we don’t really need to wait for impactful transportation disruption. Today’s impacts, such as TNCs and shared mobility options, are already changing the way we manage parking. Changing electric vehicle ownership trends will likely change the way people make decisions about parking. And data-sharing, along with connected vehicles, will change the way we interact with parking technologies.


In regard to autonomous vehicles, the parking professional has a large stake in the ultimate outcome of their implementation and adoption. Vehicles that never park and always shuttle between destinations, waiting on their owners, have the potential to completely change how parking facilities operate. Autonomous vehicles that are part of a larger ride-sharing fleet could also change how and where vehicles are stored and recharged. The ultimate goal of the parking professional should be to have a seat at the table to help craft policy and make decisions about how cities adapt to and manage autonomous vehicles.


Trend 6: Disruptive and Innovative Technology

Trend 7: Active Transportation as A New Frontier Active transportation,otherwise known as “nonmotorized transportation,” includes human-powered activity such as walking or bicycling and plays a significant role in the development of real estate. A high walk score can improve the value of your home or facility. Aside from the dollar value impact, the built environment, which includes neighborhood design, street layout, and building design, has a significant effect on the health of communities, families, and individuals. Walkability directly affects health. Living in a neighborhood with shops and retail within walking distance lowered the risk of obesity by 35 percent , according to a study in the American Journal

of Preventive Medicine. Roughly 45 percent of respondents to the Emerging Trends survey citied the desire for more livable, walkable communities as a key societal trend affecting our industry, mirroring the 50 percent of U.S. residents who stated this was a high or top priority when considering where to live. Access to trails and green space further amplifies these impacts. So it follows that where we place our facilities and our programs matters—in terms of access, convenience, and overall usage. Consider active transportation as a catalyst for development, a way to make employees healthier and more productive, and a method

BRETT WOOD, CAPP, PE, is a parking planner

with Kimley-Horn and co-chair of IPI’s Parking Research Committee. He can be reached at

to increase retail visibility and sales volume. Perhaps what’s most interesting about these trends will be where and when they intersect and amplify, or contradict, each other. The rise of TNCs and competition for the curb will be directly affected by the progress of autonomous vehicles (AVs) and other disruptive technologies. The focus of Gen Z on active transportation and the changing shape of work will transform how we develop real estate, especially in major metropolitan areas. Each of these trends will also help shape the evolution of the mobility, transportation, and parking professional—as an industry, we should be poised and ready for change.


vice president for program development. She can be reached at




! n o i t p u r Dis


What’s a Parking Professional to Expect? By Trevyr Meade, LEED GA

IPI’s Parking Research Committee convened experts and professionals and invited them to weigh in on what to expect in transportation, shared mobility, and effecting positive change.



E HEAR A LOT ABOUT MOBILITY—the ability to get from place to place—especially in cities. But what do trends in transit, shared rides and vehicles, and alternate modes of transportation mean for parking organizations? IPI’s Parking Research Committee asked some of the industry’s top experts for their opinions.


During the next 10 years what will be the biggest driver of change in our transportation systems? Gary Lawrence: I think there will be three major drivers of change in our mobility and access systems. First will be the degradation of existing infrastructure with insufficient funding to replace it while also embedding needed communications architecture. The second will be a shift from fossil to alternative fuels. And there will be increases in urban congestion in surface transportation system, requiring multidimensional thinking. Chris Atkins: The biggest drivers will be the rise of the sharing economy, its effects on driving, as well as the rise of autonomous and electrically powered vehicles. Also, from a technology perspective, the continued rise of digital transformation using data to design new models of citizen mobility. Robert Ferrin: Mobility behavior enabled by innovation will be the biggest driver in our transportation system. Conventional norms on how we access place are rapidly changing, spurred by shared-­ mobility providers and instant information at your fingertips. Owning a car is no longer a necessity in locations where good public transit is coupled with robust carand bike-share, dynamic shuttle systems, and other shared-mobility providers. As mobility behavior continues to change, it is important we create forward-thinking policies and programs to encourage the efficient movement of people and goods to support the growth of our communities. Diana Alarcon: For South Florida, it will be the development of a regional mass transportation system. Our current mode of transportation in South Florida is a car. The three regional counties are currently

working with the local transit agency on developing a mass transportation system of moving folks through all three counties. As these transitions occur, it will be the local cities’ challenge of that first/last mile travel. That is using all modes: walkability, bicycle, ride-sharing, car, car-sharing, trolley, bus and modern street car. And the biggest challenge will be: How do we make it work with the limited right-of-way available and curb to manage the traffic flow? Joachim Hauser: The biggest driver for change will be digitalization indeed. There is no other technology around the block that will have more influence. ­Decision-making by each driver and individual will be accomplished by city-wide fleet management and in-car traffic management, observing singular movements of cars, and managing traffic in a wider city-appropriate manner.


What should parking and transportation professionals know about shared mobility? What effects will shared mobility have on parking? David Stein: The effects of shared mobility are real, but at the same time, there is still a great unknown in what the end results will be regarding parking. Adoption rates, investment in new technologies, and varying approaches to these emerging concepts mean there is no one-size-fitsall model and each municipality, region, or country will have already experienced different impacts to date. However, I think there is some consensus that as shared mobility begins to rise, the demand for parking will decrease and the way we think about parking will change. Accordingly, we should be proactive and resolute in our approaches and response to the emerging and evolving system.



Our Experts DIANE ALARCON is transportation and mobility department director for the City of Fort Lauderdale, Fla.

Robert Ferrin: In our urban centhink about moving from space to space ters, shared-mobility providers are and mobility in general. While car-share offering a new way to get from point has changed our perception of mobility A to point B that does not include and is viewed as a mechanism to reduce taking traditional transportation car ownership and use, the pure funcoptions such as public transit or a tionality, cost, and convenience offered CHRIS ATKINS is vice president single-occupancy vehicle. These proby ride-hail vehicles is changing the for digital government viders are having profound effects on transportation landscape. For example, transformation at SAP Public our industry. For off-street providers, a recent article in Crain’s New York Sector. shared mobility is, in some cases, Business cites the rise of Uber and Lyft driving down parking demand and as both a major contributor to congesforcing operators to think differently tion while at the same time, discourROBERT FERRIN is assistant about how they allocate spaces and aging people from driving into the city. director for parking services permits to users. For on-street proOperationally, parking operators are with the City of Columbus viders and regulators, shared-mobiliseeing less volume and demand in their (Ohio) Department of Public ty providers are changing the way we facilities, creating what the author calls Service. allocate curb lane space beyond the a “one-two punch” to our transportation traditional uses such as taxis, limos, system and skewing transportation JOACHIM HAUSER is head of and metered parking spaces. Flexible trends like ­never before. project, automated driving on use of curb lane space is important Diana Alacorn: Ride-sharing is a business ground, with the BMW to maximize limited parking and game changer in how people move in Group. loading areas. two ways: It allows someone the flexibilJoachim Hauser: We know ity of moving without the responsibility from scientific studies that each car-­ of a car, but at the same time, the numGARY LAWRENCE is chief sharing car is able to substitute for up ber of ride-share vehicles on the roadplanning and resilience to seven individual cars. This figure way is creating more traffic congestion. strategist/principal with Enviro might not be scalable to the entire In time, the market will work through Dynamix. car park, but there is a clear option to the number of ride-share vehicles that reduce the number of cars in a city. are on the road, but the demand for Most of these eliminated cars might parking spaces will decrease as less peoDAVID STEIN is director, have their parking at roadside, and ple bring their own cars. Ultimately it parking planning and policy, with they are seldom used. So this might may be a wash because reduced parking the New York City Department not affect off-street parking at all. demand will open up curb space, which of Transportation. Furthermore, cities might use the can accommodate ride-share queuing chance to reduce on-street parking to reduce the traffic congestion on city capacities to the advantage of parksurface streets. ing operators. Also, mobility as such Gary Lawrence: Declines in the does not seem to be close to its saturation yet, which means more quality of infrastructure—roads, rail, bridges—and associated options for rides probably will lead to more rides but not to more infrastructure such as parking structures are compounding incars. New opportunities are given by usage of strategically intercreases in vehicle trips and associated congestion. In addition, esting parking locations as mobility hubs. online shopping is putting more delivery vehicles on the streets, particularly in dense urban centers. Demand increases coupled What current trends are you seeing related to mobility with a reduced delivery speed and reduced reliability are causing that are disrupting traditional transportation trends? frustration in many communities. David Stein: The growth in the ride-hail industry is probably the most prevalent and identifiable trend that’s disrupting tradiHow do you see the design of parking structures evolving in tional transportation throughout the world. First and foremost, response to these changes? the concept and functionality of a taxi has been transformed, and Robert Ferrin: Parking garages will need to adapt to new transin many places, the ride-hail industry has outpaced and outnumportation innovations and be more than buildings that house bers the traditional taxi market. It has also changed the way we vehicles. Older garages will need to be retrofitted to accommodate


The effects of shared mobility are real but at the same time, there is still a great unknown in what the end results will be regarding parking.


connected vehicles or lose their competitive advantage to newer facilities. Revenue-control equipment will need to be flexible to allow for in-vehicle payment and access and share real-time parking availability in an efficient manner. New garages should be designed to accommodate non-parking uses such as housing or office space, as the latest urban infill projects in Columbus, Ohio, are being designed. Chris Atkins: Large-scale deployment of the internet of things (IOT) and communications infrastructure will generate lots of data. The data will be used to design mobility solutions, including parking, to take advantage of the ability to sense, monitor, and respond in real time. New pricing techniques and unified payment systems will also be designed using this data. David Stein: With parking operators experiencing less demand, cities are seeing a golden opportunity for redevelopment through the adaptive reuse and/or redevelopment of their parking assets, both surface and garages. With many cities seeing their assets reaching the end of their useful life and limited opportunities for growth, as well as people moving back into cities from the suburbs, there is little point to continued investment in such properties. Cities across the U.S. are seeing these properties transformed into mixed-use development, rich in transit accessibility, and reinvigorating what were once desolate blocks. How can the parking industry partner with mobility providers and managers to positively effect change? Diana Alacorn: Parking operators from all branches of the business need to look and recreate the experience for the first and last mile. We work to meet federal, state, and local laws, but we

forget to provide the patron an amazing experience. What is that experience? How can we all make it better? What is the customer service that you want to deliver and have your customer experience? What do we need to do to make that experience the best! Working on the first and last mile will be the most important linkage between the parking and mobility industries. Chris Atkins: Embrace the sharing economy, develop partnerships to enhance the “smartness” of your infrastructure, and view yourself as a critical part of citizen mobility. Gary Lawrence: I think the parking industry will need to move from being peripheral to mobility problem-solving to a more centralized role bringing together all modes and potential uses for storage and distribution. Robert Ferrin: Municipal parking leaders should be creating forward-thinking regulations to celebrate and grow these new mobility options for our customers. Setting the stage in the public realm for these transportation options to prosper will lead to additional mobility opportunities for all citizens in our communities. Taking chances with pilot or demonstration projects can test a concept and lead to increased acceptance of mobility options, such as car-share, ride-share, dynamic shuttle systems, and bike-sharing systems. TREVYR MEADE, LEED GA, is certification program lead

with the U.S. Green Building Council and a member of IPI’s Parking Research Committee. He can be reached at


Improving the




By David Hoyt

he new Mercedes-Benz Stadium (home to the Atlanta Falcons football team and Atlanta United FC soccer) opened for business in 2017. The state-of-the-art facility replaced the Georgia Dome, which was in operation since 1992. From day one, the new stadium’s owners challenged both internal and external team members to create a fan experience like no other, and from the unique architectural design elements to cutting-edge technologies inside and out, Mercedes-Benz Stadium did just that. And, by the way, the new stadium, which rivals some of the most iconic event venues in the world, includes one of the most innovative parking experiences anywhere.

How parking made a difference at Mercedes-Benz Stadium in Atlanta.

If you have never been, Mercedes-Benz Stadium includes some of the most captivating features ever seen in a sports arena environment. The design includes an eight-panel retractable roof that resembles and opens like a pinwheel, allowing the stadium to open and close depending on weather and other elements. Inside the stadium, a 360-degree “halo” cylindrical video board curves around the top, from end zone to end zone, showcasing game highlights, advertisements, and other graphics and features. Further, the stadium also features a 100-yard bar stretching the length of the football field on the upper concourse, as well as a fantasy football lounge and premium field-level club seating behind the team benches.



Ownership continues to invest in this world-class venue by adding more entry and exit points into the stadium, creating a Home Depot Backyard fan zone, a future pedestrian bridge providing access from certain parking areas, and a nearby MARTA transit station. Ownership is relentless in providing a fan experience like no other.


One of the most critical elements to improving the fan experience was to accommodate the parking needs of the thousands of spectators arriving to events at the stadium. In a place like Atlanta, Ga., the majority of event attendees drive, so the project required the integration of numerous parking facilities and lots. As is the case with most event operations, but particularly a 70,000-seat urban stadium, the effective and efficient movement of vehicles in and out of the parking

The new stadium’s location left many options for fans to get to and from events, and all were considered when building its transportation system.


areas can have a profound effect on the overall fan experience. Therefore, parking was one of the highest priorities to this project. In particular, a main question was how to administer a parking program that can enhance—not detract from—the arrival experience.

Designing a Program for Fans

The first step to ensuring a positive parking experience was to develop a parking program specifically designed for the fans. The project team, which consisted of team and ParkMobile staff, was tasked with creating a program that would work for all stakeholders, including suite holders, season ticket holders, single-game ticket holders, one-off event holders, VIPs, staff, third-party employees, volunteers, and the media. The project team had to account for each of these stakeholders and, in many cases, develop a specific parking strategy for each.

Attendees can reserve spaces in specific lots online.

The parking program at the stadium had to effectively engage with the fans before their automobiles came to rest at their parking spaces. Out of those initial discussions, an interactive web interface was designed that could provide all necessary stakeholders with the ability to take their appropriate parking action remotely via multiple mediums. This Mercedes-Benz parking reservation interface creates an efficient process for administering the appropriate parking rights to the various stakeholders. The interactive reservation system allows future parkers to select the event they are planning to attend and the parking facility or lot in which they wish to park. The platform provides the location and details of each parking area, including a map, distance from the stadium, pricing, and ease of exit. Patrons can then either print their parking pass or retrieve their pass in their stadium or parking reservation app at any time. Future enhancements will include the purchase of the parking pass via certain connected cars, allowing the fan to reserve and drive straight to a stadium parking lot via the in-vehicle navigation screen. Further, the site provides digital parking passes that are accountable and auditable, with each game or event permit being unique to that particular date and time. As ownership only had control of a limited number of parking spaces, the project team had to engage with the area operators to secure enough parking for the fans, staff, third-party vendors, and all other stakeholders. Because the program had to provide access to all stakeholders, parking inventory had to include both prime and secondary spaces. The current program includes more than 20,000 parking spaces from seven different parking operators up to two miles away from the stadium.

The Importance of Reservations

Because the stadium was going to have a high drive ratio, getting the fans to their parking areas was critical to the success of the program. The project team knew early on that we must focus primarily on providing the ability to pre-purchase and reserve parking. While parking reservations took the guesswork out of making the parking purchase decision, providing fans with THE PARKING PROFESSIONAL | SEPTEMBER 2018 | PARKING.ORG/TPP  35

real-time routing could reduce the number of people driving around looking for their parking locations. Thanks to a partnership with Waze, every parking permit allows for real-time routing to the parking facility entrance. Not only does this help create a more efficient and pleasant experience for parkers (and parking staff ), but it also helps reduce congestion and improve safety by expediting fans directly to a parking garage or lot.

Another very unique element to this project was the promotion of bicycle transportation. Biking to the stadium is extremely easy. The stadium partnered with the Atlanta Bicycle Coalition to provide an enjoyable riding experience, including a bike valet at most events and 250 bike racks around the stadium. Monitoring Is Key

While the program encompasses multiple parking operators, some have embraced the concept of improving the fan experience through parking. SP+ constantly monitors event parking in real time via its command center at the Georgia World Congress Center (GWCC). Through a robust campus-wide camera system, as well as significant personnel on the ground, watching the situation in the parking areas and on the streets, ingress times are closely monitored. This system also includes real-time tracking of how many parking passes have been purchased, as well as an inventory of vehicles and used parking spaces as facilities fill up. This information is critically important to the ability to park as many cars as quickly as possible, taking advantage of unclaimed reservations and under-used parking areas. GWCC recently invested in additional technology that tracks all transactions down to the smallest detail and is fully integrated to accept stadium parking reservations in real time. All the data—electronic and visual—is used to make real-time decisions at the most critical time of the parking experience. The parking team evaluates its performance after every event, taking into account all the factors that influence the ingress and egress of the events—weather, score, date of the event, time of the event, etc. If there are potential improvements to be made, the team takes immediate action before the next event.


Promoting Alternative Transportation

The project team knew that promoting alternative modes of transportation would reduce congestion and improve the overall fan experience at the stadium. In addition to providing significant accommodations to attendees driving vehicles, the project team focused on creating more mobility options for those who may seek an alternative to driving. As mentioned, there is a MARTA public transportation station next to the stadium, so people have the option to take the train if they choose. Ride-sharing is also growing in popularity, with many attendees being dropped off near the stadium by services such as Uber and Lyft. Mercedes-Benz Stadium partnered with Lyft to provide two pick-up/drop-off locations in close proximity to the stadium. Another very unique element to this project was the promotion of bicycle transportation. Biking to the stadium is easy. The stadium partnered with the Atlanta Bicycle Coalition to provide an enjoyable riding experience, including a bike valet at most events and 250 bike racks around the stadium.


The final step to the development and implementation of the Mercedes-Benz Stadium parking program is communication. It is extremely important to keep the fans connected and make them feel they are being served in the best manner possible, from arriving at the stadium in their vehicle, via public transportation, or even on a bike or on foot, throughout the course of the game or event, and when they leave at the end. In addition to the various applications and websites mentioned, the media has also been critical to helping get the word out to patrons. Local Atlanta media regularly provide important information related to parking, technology, alternative-transportation options, and event tailgating. Mercedes-Benz Stadium also uses social media to a great extent to communicate directly with future customers regarding events weeks in advance and their parking and transportation options the day of their planned event. The undertaking of such a significant new stadium, in an urban downtown setting like Atlanta, comes with a number of complications. However, after less than a year in operation, they have already seen many successful events and results, including: ■■ Rated No. 2 in 2017 NFL fan arrival. ■■ Voted No. 1 in the NFL and MLS “Voice of the Fan” surveys.

■■ Won the SportTechie award for most innovative venue. ■■ Sports Business Journal Sports Breakthrough of the

Year for food and beverage experience. ■■ Sports Team of the Year—Atlanta United. ■■ Sports Executive of the Year—Arthur Blank (owner

of the Atlanta Falcons). ■■ Hosted the 2018 college football playoff champion-

ship game. host of the 2019 Super Bowl and MLS All-Star Game, as well as the 2020 NCAA Men’s Final Four. While the average, everyday event attendee may not necessarily make the connection, we in the parking industry understand that without an effective and quality parking and transportation program, not only would the day-to-day events be far more complicated and difficult, but it would be nearly impossible to provide the highest-level fan experience possible. The owners, managers, and decision-makers of Mercedes-Benz ■■ Future

Stadium understood the importance of not only creating a great experience inside the stadium, but outside the stadium as well. They took into account the events of the entire event day, from arrival to departure, and went to great lengths to consider the many details of a very complicated process. Parking and transportation issues often get lost in the details of such a significant project, yet the development of a comprehensive, intuitive, and quality parking and transportation program has helped to dramatically improve the Mercedes-Benz Stadium experience for fans from beginning to end. DAVID HOYT is senior vice president, sales and

account management, with ParkMobile. He can be reached at


Connecting Commuting the

Offering intermobility services to maximize campus access. By Casey Jones, CAPP




FUNDAMENTAL SHIFT IN THE PARKING INDUSTRY has occurred during the past decade or so in which parking professionals see their role as service providers rather than simply ensuring cars are parked between yellow or white lines. This shift has resulted in a sea change in the relationship between the provider of parking and the parker and has given rise to the development of new technologies, services, and products aimed at improving the parker experience. Another shift is currently underway that is perhaps even more tectonic in nature and further defines not just the relationship between the deliverer of the service and the receiver, but what services our industry is tasked to provide. The parking industry is beginning to embrace the idea that our product is more than just a space to park cars and that instead we provide access and mobility. Access allows people to reach the destinations of their choice, whereas

mobility is the ease at which we move from point A to point B. We’re beginning to realize that a significant enough number of commuters desire access to multiple transportation modes and are likely to use alternatives to driving, at least part of the time, if we couple parking and transportation options in a complementary and seamless manner. In the U.S., universities and colleges are leading this revolution and serve as examples for the entire industry.



Driving Change

There are many factors driving this shift. First, and perhaps most importantly, higher education in the U.S. is facing significant budgetary challenges. To remain competitive and relevant, institutions of higher education must add high-caliber faculty, offer inspiring and up-todate buildings and facilities, and provide programs that inspire, entertain, and support life-long loyalty from alumni. Building parking structures can be expensive, and the typical method of paying for parking garages with permit and citation revenue is largely insufficient to construct what is needed. Even if permit holders can fund new garages through increases in permit fees, there is often little or no political appetite for such endeavors. Second, a growing sector of the campus c­ ommunity— namely students—wants commuting options. Sometimes riding a bike to campus is desired while other trips require a car. Sometimes taking Uber or Lyft is the best option while other times the campus shuttle or public transportation works just fine. The myriad of choices is a good thing, but often the options are not designed to work together to provide a mix-and-match approach that can save money and time and improve convenience. Commuters are typically left to figure out on their own how to fit the options together.

Fortunately, several high-performing university parking and transportation programs are figuring out that people shouldn’t be considered uni-modal and may, in fact, prefer to use different options depending on the day, season, and circumstance. Knitting together commuting services in a seamless, convenient, and effective manner is referred to as mobility-as-a-service (MaaS).

Mobility as a Service

The MaaS Alliance is a European public-private partnership working to create “the foundations for a common approach to MaaS, unlocking the economies of scale needed for successful implementation and take-up of MaaS in Europe and beyond.” Its goal is to facilitate a single open market and full deployment of MaaS services. The Alliance defines MaaS as “the integration of various forms of transport services into a single mobility service accessible on demand. To meet a customer’s request, a MaaS operator facilitates a diverse menu of transport options, be they public transport; ride-, car-, or bike-sharing; taxi or car rental/lease; or a combination thereof.” The European MaaS framework centers on a single commercially motivated, private-sector technology


Mass Framework


aggregator that interfaces directly with the consumer. In the U.S., it is more probable that public-sector providers of parking and transportation will remain as the centerpiece of the commute services delivery. Public-sector players may be supported by both private operators and technology providers, but delivery will likely flow through the owners of publicly owned facilities and services. The U.S. version of MaaS is mobility on demand (MOD) which, according to the U.S. Department of Transportation, is defined as “an innovative, user-focused approach which leverages emerging mobility services, integrated transit networks and operations, real-time data, connected travelers, and cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) to allow for a more traveler-centric, transportation system-of-systems approach, providing improved mobility options to all travelers and users of the system in an efficient and safe manner.” To avoid confusion between MaaS and MOD, I’ll use the term “intermobility” to describe offering a variety of commuting options in a coordinated, complementary, and flexible manner that may or may not be tech-­enabled. In the U.S., intermobility is already well beyond the concept stage and found most often at progressive, forward-thinking institutions of higher education. Here are some examples:

can purchase a discounted bundle of 30 all-day parking passes for parking in a designated parking lot or structure.

The University of Virginia

The University of Virginia provides incentives in which carpool (known as Cavpool) members get 20 occasional use parking permits per year when they sign up to become members. For added flexibility, permits are interchangeable among members of the same carpooling group.

Arizona State University


Arizona State University’s (ASU’s) robust alternative transportation features the Eco-Pass program that ties together important modal options. Registered bicyclists, holders of high-occupancy-vehicle carpool permits, and student and employee bus pass holders


Stanford University

Stanford University in California offers the Commute Club, which includes incentives to reduce parking demand while providing modal flexibility. For starters, members receive up to $300 per year for agreeing not to drive alone or park near campus. Club members can buy up to eight daily parking permits per month for times they need to drive and can pocket a few hundred dollars per year even when they buy the maximum number of daily permits allowed. Eligible commuters also receive free transit passes and can join a free vanpool or receive a free permit if they carpool. Promotions during the spring and fall include generous prize drawings for members and make the program fun and exciting. THE PARKING PROFESSIONAL | SEPTEMBER 2018 | PARKING.ORG/TPP  41

Barn. The program was recently revamped. Now called the Deluxe Bicycle Registration program, the program provides registrants access to secure bicycle storage; their bike is registered (easier to recover if stolen) and they receive four all-day parking passes and 15 percent off university bike shop merchandise and services.

Sacramento State University


University of Wisconsin

Flex Parking is available at the University of Wisconsin. Users of this program sign up for parking for a specific lot or garage but only pay for the actual time they are on campus. Unlike the typical annual parking pass, this approach promotes the use of alternatives to driving. Another innovation allows members of carpools and vanpools to have priority over non-­carpoolers when permit renewal occurs. Front-of-the-line privileges mean those who share a ride get their pick of campus parking locations.

Boise State University


Several years ago, Boise State University in Idaho offered 10 scratch-off daily parking passes for bicycle commuters who purchased access to the university’s secured bicycle storage facility known as the Bike


Most schools have a mobile app that provides a wealth of information about events, dining options, athletics, and more, and most also provide some information about parking and transportation. Sacramento State University in Californa features commuting information prominently on its app, and with one click users can get real-time parking availability information, pay for parking, find out when the next shuttle arrives, and find bicycle routes and bike parking options.

The truth is that even a modest modal shift away from single-occupancy driving will Keys to Success

The examples above make clear a few emerging keys to intermobility success: ■■ Less all-you-can-eat. In The High Cost of Free Parking, Don Shoup cleverly (and accurately) labels the typical way of selling annual parking permits as “all-you-can-eat.” The problem, Shoup notes, is that when you sell someone something for a whole year, they’re likely to use it. This may not be true of gym memberships, but it’s true for parking. A meaningful enough number of people on your campus may only want or need to drive occasionally. Let’s figure out who those people are and sell boutique permits that may only be good for certain days of the week. ■■ Data is key. If we intend to sell fractional parking permits, we’ll need to have a good handle on how our parking facilities are used by day, week, season, and time of day so we don’t over- or under-sell them. Collecting, analyzing, and making data-driven decision will help us ensure that a space will be available even for the occasional parker. ■■ Flexibility is a must. I live in a place that isn’t all that friendly to biking a few months out of the year. What’s more, life happens to people, and a mode that seemed to work at one point in your life may not meet all your commuting needs at another time. Intermobility requires flexibility so people can pick and choose their modal options based on what best meets their needs. Like with a cellphone contract with no immediate way out, commuters may feel as if making the shift from one mode (driving) to something else (public transportation) may be too much of a commitment because they anticipate life happening. The best intermobility programs are those that provide patrons with the most flexibility and an easy way to move from one mode to another based on their needs. ■■ Parking is still prime. Let’s face it: Driving is still the dominant mode of transportation and is likely to be for the foreseeable future. Experience suggests that many within the campus community are reluctant to move completely away from their preferred option. The successful intermobility professional understands this and will package offerings to include parking. Several occasional-parker options exist in the higher education space. Maybe we need to welcome and accommodate occasional cyclists and transit riders with pricing and service

have a meaningful effect on parking demand, especially if we can spread the reduction in demand broadly across facilities and times of peak occupancy. packages that allow parking most of the time. The truth is that even a modest modal shift away from single-occupancy driving will have a meaningful effect on parking demand, especially if we can spread the reduction in demand broadly across facilities and times of peak occupancy. ■■ Single point of sale. Most commuters need some help figuring out what commuting options work best for them, and if we up the complexity ante by allowing people to piece their commutes together as they see fit, we’ll likely need a common delivery platform and a single customer interface that easily allows access to each mode. ■■ Partnerships make it possible. Universities typically control most, but not all, the modal programs and services offered on a campus. Public transportation systems, private parking owners adjacent to campus, transportation network providers, and others are involved in the provision of transportation services; partnering with outside entities will be essential to maximizing access and mobility and customer convenience most of all. We’ve understood for a while that we maximize access and mobility when we design, build, and operate parking facilities to accommodate multiple modal options. We also accept and embrace that ours is a service industry and that providing a positive customer experience is crucial to our success and relationship with those we serve. It’s now time to fully integrate parking and transportation programs and services to accommodate a mix of commuting options that offer convenience, flexibility, efficiency, and ease of use. CASEY JONES, CAPP, is vice president at

Timothy Haahs & Associates, Inc. He can be reached at


The Shuttle Predicament When a university faced issues with its shuttle system, it turned to students and a mathematical theorem to find solutions that worked. By George Richardson



N A CRISP JANUARY MORNING, I was discussing with Roque Perez-Velez, management engineering coordinator at University of Florida (UF) Health, our shuttle predicament: How can we identify and correct the inefficiencies present in our current shuttle system?

UF Health Shands Hospital operates several shuttle routes to serve both patients and employees, offering a single transportation method between several surrounding health care facilities. One of the goals of the system is to have a wait time for any shuttle at any stop of 15 minutes or less. Unfortunately, these complimentary shuttles currently do not meet the target wait time of 15 minutes, leading to frustration for passengers trying to get to their various destinations around the medical campus.


We obviously want to provide the best possible experience to shuttle users. In our conversation, Perez-Valez indicated that there are several methods available to allow us to identify and correct inefficiencies in the system, by analyzing and changing route structures, stops, paths, and other qualities that are sources of ineffectiveness. Perez-Valez’s background in industrial enginnering, as well as his position as adjunct faculty in the industrial and systems engineering (ISE) department of the University of Florida, has equipped him with the tools and techniques necessary to address this kind of problem. Perez-Valez suggested an optimization methodology that aims to get shuttles to be within the 15-minute wait time goal by eliminating bottlenecks in the shuttle routes. These bottlenecks include, but are not limited to, minimizing left turns, avoiding high-traffic areas, and adjusting route stops based on use. These changes require little effort on the part of UF Health Shands administration but can provide tremendous value to passengers. Because this is not a simple optimization modeling methodology,


Perez-Valez enlisted Michael Lucic to provide the research capabilities needed to solve this problem. Lucic is a graduating senior under the ISE program. After careful consideration, Lucic suggested to Perez-Valez modeling the shuttle system with the traveling salesman problem (TSP), which determines the shortest path between all stops. The TSP asks, “Given a list of stops and the distances between each pair of stops, what is the shortest possible route that visits each stop and returns to the origin stop?” The TSP is a problem in combinatorial optimization, important in operations research. A sub-field of applied mathematics, operations research is a discipline that deals with the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions. Under Perez-Valez’s mentoring and supervision, Lucic led a team of students in field observations, data collection, and testing to ensure that proposed route changes were feasible for shuttle drivers to implement. UF Health Shands operates several complimentary shuttle routes to assist employees and patients in moving around the various hospitals and parking areas in the main medical region at the southeastern section of the UF campus. The red, blue, and purple lines serve UF Health Shands employees while the pink, green,

Pink Line Recommendations

Average current route cycle time: 38 minutes/cycle

Perez-Valez observed the current state of the system and used the data to solve route optimization problem.

Estimate of updated route cycle time: 24 minutes/cycle

and yellow lines assist To find a feasible solution, we patients. In particular, used the nearest neighbors heuUF Health Shands Hospital the yellow line patient ristic, which works by selecting operates several shuttle route serves patients a node on the graph and selectwith special requests for ing the next node that directly routes to serve both patients additional locations not connected to the previous node and employees, offering a normally serviced by the with the shortest connecting single transportation method shuttle system. distance until all nodes have between several surrounding After analyzing the been selected. We used this spequantitative and qualitacific heuristic because the graph health care facilities. tive data, the team realis fully connected—each vertex ized that there was a need connects to all other vertices to consider rerouting the pink, blue, and green lines directly in both directions, and a fully connected graph to make significant improvements to the operation of has all other vertices as direct neighbors. Because we those routes. The team used the TSP and the nearest used a heuristic, optimality is not guaranteed, but the neighbors heuristic to attempt a quantitative approach results are a good approximation. at improving the routes. Recall, the solution to TSP is After running these models for 10,000 replicathe shortest Hamiltonian cycle or the fastest way to tions and analyzing the results, we concluded that travel between all points in a network where we end up the green and blue line routes needed no changes, as back where we started. On a TSP, the number of steps the best cycles outputted by the model all matched needed to solve the problem grows astronomically fast with the current green and blue line setups. In the as complexity increases. pink line, there was one significant change—we We needed to use a heuristic algorithm (which found that having the shuttles travel from the house finds solutions to problems traditional methods can’t, to either the veterans’ or cancer hospital is best acbut uses approximations and may not be 100 percent complished by driving a different route. With these accurate) to efficiently solve this problem by approxchanges, the team was able to accomplish its goal: 15 imating a close-to-optimal result. We optimized the minutes or less wait times. routes by modeling each as a fully connected directed Did it work? It did! Using operation research tools, graph (or digraph), where the vertices represented the such as the TSP, can solve difficult problems such as stops for the route, the directed edges represented the our own shuttle predicament. shortest route from one stop to another, and the edges GEORGE RICHARDSON is manager, transportation, and parking, are weighted based on the expected travel time driving with the University of Florida Health Shands Hospital. He can be reached at between those two stops.

Read the Report

Impressive project! To read the student team’s full conclusions and their final report, visit parking. org/resource-center and search for keywords “shuttle predicament.”







Parkers Research says there’s plenty of parking but drivers disagree. Here’s what a new survey says about that dichotomy.


By Devorah Werner

t’s a balmy Saturday afternoon at the University of Tennessee and the college football team is gearing up to play. You can feel the energy in downtown Knoxville as the streets fill up, typically with more than 100,000 visitors eager to watch the game at the stadium or at local bars. A few of the downtown garages fill up quickly, almost within moments. And then, nothing. Several other garages downtown, well situated and with myriad spots available remain virtually empty. And drivers circle and circle, frustrated at not being able to find a spot where they’d like one. Why? Why do some lots fill up quickly while others remain unnoticed? How much time are people wasting looking for parking? Do people avoid certain areas because they don’t think they’ll find parking? How does that affect local businesses and events? Would better access to parking availability data make a difference in people’s mindsets? We set out to discover what goes on in the mind of parkers with an omnibus survey of 1,000 randomly selected drivers from across the country. Here’s what we discovered:

There’s Nothing out There

There seems to be widespread feeling, despite many studies to the contrary, that there simply isn’t anywhere to park. More than three quarters (76 percent) of


respondents to the survey said they avoid traveling to certain areas because of a perceived lack of parking. But apparently spots do exist. Studies of the plethora of available parking across the U.S. often lament a world of excess. One study estimated as many as eight parking spots for every car in the U.S., and some cities such as Houston, Texas, are said to have 30 per resident. Yet people think there isn’t anywhere to park. Wade Roberts, manager of parking services for the city of Knoxville, provides firsthand evidence of this dichotomy. He manages eight parking garages in downtown Knoxville and says, “People visit downtown and pack into two of our garages. Everyone then becomes frustrated with the perceived lack of available parking.” And that’s with six lots sitting empty.


But his anecdotal evidence is even more telling. Roberts lives in the suburbs of Knoxville and says almost everyone he meets tells him they “avoid downtown because they don’t want to deal with parking.” Knoxville seized the problem by the horns and installed a parking counting system at one of the city’s garages to test what would happen if drivers could see parking availability data clearly displayed. A sign at the entrance of the garage lets drivers know how many spots are available, which is particularly helpful at underutilized garages. The pilot project was deemed a success as drivers learned when it was worth entering the garage and when to search elsewhere. The city is now installing the same system in three more downtown lots, with the goal of countering the fear of downtown parking. This phobia of downtown parking does more than just frustrate suburbanites. It negatively affects local businesses, city revenues, and growth potential.

This phobia of downtown parking does more than just frustrate suburbanites. It negatively affects localbusinesses, city revenues, and growth potential.

Increasing parking availability data has the power to reverse that by bringing people back to downtown areas as they become aware that spots do exist and can be surprisingly easy to find. The outcome of better parking guidance in downtown areas can be exponential for cities as profits increase for shops and restaurants, more businesses become interested in investing in downtown locations, and increased job availability helps grow local economies.

Wasted Time

Of the 1,000 drivers surveyed, 15 percent attest to spending more than 30 minutes each week looking for parking. That’s a minimum of 26 hours a week of wasted productivity per person or an aggregate sum of more than 3,900 wasted hours every single week.


Those hours spent in search of a spot also translate into increased emissions and congestion on local roads—a blight on the environment and traffic patterns. The experience of wasting time searching for spots also leads to the added cost of the frustration drivers experience and the effect it has on the rest of their day, including their work productivity and interpersonal relationships. If spots were indeed unavailable, these wasted hours would be a necessary evil. But what about when they are? While this is likely the case in cities, universities, and shopping centers across the U.S., Baylor University in Waco, Texas, provided some firsthand evidence of how wasted that time really is. The university boasts 11,000 parking spaces across five student garages but was constantly fielding complaints of insufficient parking. How hard can it be to find a spot in a college with 11,000 of them? Apparently harder than you might think. For students struggling to get to class on time, driving into a garage, circling each area, and then having to leave the lot without finding a spot is indeed a waste of valuable time. While the administration could clearly document sufficient parking, student experience clearly evidenced insufficient parking. In truth, both experiences were valid. Without parking guidance directing students to where spots were available, the plethora of parking was nearly useless and, at best, inefficient. For Baylor, simply installing a parking guidance system helped eliminate a lot of that wasted time. When a lot is full or almost at capacity, students can see that information displayed. The data allows them to make the choice to bypass one lot and move on to another with more available parking. Matt Penney, director of parking and transportation at Baylor, found that the stress and frustration stemming from wasted time was virtually eliminated once the university turned to parking guidance. Not only did complaints stop but, he says, “I started getting texts from students [about the variable message signs displaying spot availability] saying things like ‘that sign is awesome’ and ‘that sign is a winner.’” Baylor students also put their money where their mouths are—while the school initially funded a parking counting system at one of the campus garages as a pilot program, the student government used $20,000 in discretionary funds to help fund systems at three more of the university’s garages.

When thinking about parking, local road congestion Public Transportation

When thinking about parking, local road congestion and time wasted searching for spots are what usually come to mind. But highway congestion and the colossal waste of time it creates are almost a thing of legend in some areas of the U.S. The Washington, D.C., region is notorious for its endless commuting time. It consistently ranked as having some of the highest levels of congestion in the country. D.C. drivers spent an average of 63 hours stuck in traffic last year. That’s two and a half days just sitting behind the wheel, waiting to get to work or back home. The obvious solution is increasing the use of public transportation. The Virginia Railway Express (VRE) is a joint project of the D.C. region and the Commonwealth of Virginia, aimed at reducing peak period congestion with commuter trains. When the VRE was first introduced in 1992, it averaged around 3,000 users a day. Two summers ago, the average ridership was more than 20,000 and growing. That can be interpreted as 20,000 fewer cars on the highways commuting to and from D.C. But where did those 20,000 cars go? Commuters may celebrate the option to avoid the daily angst of using local highways, but they certainly didn’t want to replace it with the aggravation of trying to find parking to get on the train on time. In Boston, Mass., for example, weekday mornings see long lines of cars waiting to enter commuter lots. Some wait as long as 20 minutes for a spot. It’s not quite as long as commuting would be, but it’s enough to dissuade some drivers. At the VRE, there was an acknowledgement that they couldn’t increase rail use without considering parking for commuters. Earlier this year, the VRE installed automated parking counting systems that provide real-time data to commuters to help them assess parking availability. A mobile app provides the same live data so that drivers can check parking lot status before they even leave home. This allows them to better plan their time and avoid the frustration and wasted time of circling for a spot when there aren’t any.

Planning Ahead

People may be apt to complain about lack of parking, about wasting time, about the frustrations of looking for parking. But how likely are they to care enough to do something about it? Pretty likely, actually. The survey found that nearly 70 percent of respondents reported they would use an app to find parking information at their destination. People are willing and interested in doing what they can to avoid parking angst as long as cities

and time wasted searching for spots are what usually come to mind. But highway congestion and the colossal waste of time it creates are almost a thing of legend in some areas of the U.S.

and parking lot vendors are willing to invest in gathering and displaying that data. Tracking and displaying real-time parking data does more than just bring passing parkers in. Having that information available lets parking lots, cities, and universities display parking data on their websites or via apps so that drivers can make better informed decisions about where to look for parking. At the University of California, Riverside, parking data for each of five lots is displayed on the college’s website. Each lot displays the number of available spots and what the occupancy levels are. For students heading out to class, that data can make the difference between being calm and on time or being harried, stressed, and late. For the Virginia Railway Express, parking data displayed on the VRE mobile app and at gives passengers a head start on their commutes. With two rail stations commuters can choose from, parking availability data can make a crucial difference in getting to work on time. In Knoxville, for football fans at the University of Tennessee, parking data available via app means they can make more intelligent decisions about where to look for parking instead of all congregating to the same lots. In a world where 76 percent of people avoid downtown because they think there’s nowhere to park, and people waste countless hours every year in search of parking, providing real-time parking data is of inestimable value. It can improve profitability in downtown areas, help universities and public transportation run more smoothly, and improve a city’s bottom line. Perhaps most importantly though, access to data on parking availability can make a difference in people’s mindsets about parking and help reduce everyday stress and frustration. DEVORAH WERNER is content strategist with

Logixits. She can be reached at dwerner@logixits. com.



Shine the Light on You by Stephanie Santoro


VERY YEAR, THE IPI CONFERENCE & EXPO hosts an awards ceremony honoring the incredible people, projects, and programs of the parking, transportation, and mobility industry. Entries for the 2019 IPI Awards Program will be accepted from September 12 to November 7, 2018. Visit to get started.

One of the easiest and most inexpensive ways for businesses to stand out from others is to win industry awards. Awards are an effective way to gain recognition and better visibility for you, your business, and online presence. Awards with IPI bring prestige, greater credibility, and increased opportunity. Submitting an entry for any of the three different International Parking Institute award programs is now easier than ever! We have exciting changes coming to some of the categories and criteria that make submitting and nominating more accessible, in addition to opening doors to a newer variety of entries. Winners embody industry excellence and will be celebrated in an awards ceremony during the 2019 IPI Conference & Expo in Anaheim, Calif., June 9–12. They will be prominently showcased in IPI’s monthly award-winning magazine, The Parking Professional; on IPI social media channels, discussion forums digital publications; and by ­industry word-of-mouth. We all want our names in lights for the distinctive contributions we make to the parking, transportation, and mobility community. This is a unique profession we are all proud to be a part of. So, put yourself or someone else in the running this fall so the spotlight lands where it belongs, on you (or your nominee)! STEPHANIE SANTORO is IPI’s program

marketing and special projects manager. She can be reached at

Awards of Excellence: Focus on Innovative Design, Construction, Renovation, and Sustainability

We encourage consultants and project owners to submit their successful garages, lots, and innovative parking programs for consideration. Awards of Excellence winners in seven categories are rewarded extensively through ongoing recognition—the buzz and exposure surrounding these awardees is a gift that keeps on giving for consultants, designers, and owners. Questions about this program? Email

Professional Recognition: Focus on People and Professionalism

The Professional Recognition awards focus on one parking organization and people who stand out among the rest. IPI members can nominate a peer or themselves, and there is no fee to enter. Winners from the 2018 competition report they are still on cloud nine, getting high fives and serving as the proud faces and ambassadors of IPI’s stellar member organizations. Winners experience a renewed sense of leadership and pride in their work, keeping them striving toward their best—a contagious morale booster. Questions about this program? Email

Parking Matters® Marketing & Communications Awards: Focus on Results-Oriented Programs

The Marketing & Communications Awards recognize outstanding marketing, public relations, social media, and communications programs. The program is open to all sectors, as well as commercial operators, consultants, and supplier/vendors. You can submit a comprehensive marketing, advertising, social media campaign—or just one component, such as a video. In many cases, the marketing department or an outside agency prepares the award entry. This awards program typically showcases a number of winners, with three that particularly stand out, designated as Best of the Year. Questions about this program? Email

Awards open September 12, 2018 and close November 7. For criteria and details about entering, visit




September 12, 2018 – Call Opens October 24, 2018 – Last Day to Submit

For criteria and submission details, visit



PIPTA Advances the Profession with Professional Development By Laura Lierz, CAPP


HE PACIFIC INTERMOUNTAIN PARKING & TRANSPORTATION ­A SSOCIATION (PIPTA) was founded by a group of professionals who saw value in a regional organization designed to provide those involved in parking and transportation programs with an open forum to discuss common challenges, share information, and remain abreast of industry best practices. Membership consists of professionals from the states of Alaska, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

Conference & Expo

The 2018 PIPTA Conference & Expo was held in Portland, Ore., in July. The conference offered more than 25 educational sessions that focused on parking, technology, personal development, and alternative transportation. Attendees also had the option of mingling with more than 25 exhibitors to learn about the latest technology in parking and transportation. Specialty educational sessions included frontline enforcement training by Shawn McCormick from the San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency and active shooter and casualty care by James “Mitch” Coley from MV2 Consulting. Musical entertainment was provided by MoShow the Cat Rapper at Thursday’s evening reception. The 2019 PIPTA Conference & Expo will be in Boise, Idaho, July 24–26. We hope to see you there! Special thank you goes to Jeff Petry and Vanessa Solesbee Schnipkoweit, CAPP, for their time on the PIPTA board. Jeff and Vanessa helped build PIPTA to what it is today and will be missed. LAURA LIERZ, CAPP, is regional sales

manager with Flowbird. She can be reached at



SECRETARY Cindy Patton

CHAIR Laura Lierz, CAPP

MEMBERS AT LARGE John Cowley Aaron Fodge Sean Mackin Michelle Rhoads Travis Hargitt Mike Estey Melissa Yates Brett Dodson

VICE CHAIR Casey Jones, CAPP TREASURER Kelly Sills CTO Sara Becraft

How Do You Transform a Tangled Web of Parking Data Terminology into One Cohesive, International Standard?

The new Alliance for Parking Data Standards, founded by the International Parking Institute, the British Parking Association, and the European Parking Association, is developing a global standard for parking data that will allow organizations to share parking data across platforms worldwide. Summary documents are available for download today. Visit our website and subscribe for updates.

Around the Industry Avinor Oslo Airport Partners with IDeaS WITH CLOSE TO 30 MILLION travelers annually, Oslo Airport in Norway is a major hub in the European airport network. A strategic move to grow non-aeronautical revenues through parking revealed an immediate and significant opportunity. Avinor partnered with IDeaS Revenue Solutions to optimize revenue growth for its 11 car parks and more than 20,000 parking spaces at Oslo Airport. This strategy will create a better experience for the growing number of travelers, and customers will receive more dynamic pricing on Avinor’s pre-book solution, with prices regulated based on actual demand. “In an increasingly complex ground transportation environment, we recognized that, while we have done a good job to date, investing in analytics to better understand and price the demand for

our car park business would enable us to truly optimize our parking inventory. It would also create a better customer experience for the growing number of travelers looking to pre-book online,” says Amy-Caroline Løken, category manager for Avinor. “We’re truly excited to partner with IDeaS. The company will not only give us a system to automate pricing updates to our selling systems but also will guide us through the journey, given their extensive expertise in airport parking revenue management.” IDeaS Car Park Revenue Management System empowers airport commercial and parking managers to automate revenue management and price distribution, leveraging best-in-class SAS® Analytics and easy-to-use data visualizations and interactive dashboards. The web-based, self-learning tool dy-


namically forecasts parking demand, enabling optimal pricing decisions to be set over a full booking window so travelers are accurately charged according to demand and parking revenues are optimized. “One of the best ways airports can manage a correct pricing system is through applying automated revenue management to their parking assets. Moving from manual or less sophisticated pricing decision-making to a data-driven environment delivers significant revenue growth to an area that typically delivers the greatest EBITDA for airports,” says Guy Barnes, director of strategic accounts for IDeaS. “We’re hugely excited to partner with Avinor and Oslo Airport, and we look forward to working with the team to provide increased control in driving performance.”


October 18-19, 2018 Denver, Colorado Attendance is limited to 100 registrants.


Around the Industry


ParkCloud Expands Shareholder Base as It Bolsters Growth Plans PARKCLOUD WILL EXPAND ITS shareholder base with investment partner Mercia Fund Managers, allowing the company to move forward with a new ownership structure. Mercia Fund Managers’ equity stake, which has been invested through funding from its £45.1million EV Growth II Fund, will enable co-founders Joe Kennedy and Mark Pointon to step down and founder and current Managing Director Mark Pegler to focus on the continued growth of the company as majority shareholder.

“This year we celebrate ParkCloud’s 10th birthday, over which time we’ve established the ParkCloud brand and created a significant presence in a wide spectrum of markets,” Pegler says. “This coincides well with what will be a step change for the company, as we enter our second decade. Having Mercia Fund Managers on board for the next exciting phase of our business is really going to help accelerate our growth. “First and foremost, we remain dedicated to our team, customers, and suppliers, with our new structure supporting


our plans to explore new technologies, further enhancing the booking journey for our global network.” Wayne Thomas, who leads the EV Growth team, says, “ParkCloud is the leading independent aggregator of its type and stands out within the industry due to its size and international reach. The business is well-positioned within the expanding travel market and has the potential for much further growth. This investment will allow Mark to pursue his growth strategy. We look forward to working with him as he continues to build the business.”

ParkMobile Appoints New Chief Technology Officer ParkMobile announced the appointment of Matt Ball as its new chief technology officer. In this role, Ball will be responsible for information technology, as the company continues to scale and create the next generation of mobility solutions. Ball brings more than 18 years of financial services, fintech, and global transaction processing experience to ParkMobile. Most recently, he was the vice president of global business solutions technology for First Data Corporation, a leading financial services company that processes 3,000 transactions every second every day. He was responsible for the reporting and analytics for the global merchant business as well as the execution of the North America technology plan and security initiatives. Prior to First Data, Ball spent 15 years at Fifth Third Bank in various leadership positions across treasury management

and transaction banking services. In his role as payments CIO, he was responsible for 150 platforms and the successful processing of more than $14 trillion in payments annually. Ball holds an undergraduate degree in engineering and a MBA from Purdue University. “This is a critical stage in our company’s history,” says Jon Ziglar, CEO of ParkMobile. “We have transitioned from a small software startup to a true market leader. As we continue to scale our smart parking and mobility solutions, we need a technology executive with the experience and vision to take us into the future. Matt’s extensive experience with large-scale transaction processing, digital channel strategy, and data analytics makes him the right person at the right time as we scale our business globally. We are excited to welcome him to our growing team.”

“I am extremely proud to join ParkMobile,” Ball says. “This is a unique opportunity to work on innovation solutions that will change the parking and mobility industry. I believe my experience in payments and digital strategy will help us rapidly scale our solutions in North America and around the globe. The company already has a strong foundation built on modern technology, created by an extraordinarily talented team. I could not be more excited.

ABM chooses Inugo for 18 Downtown San Diego Parking Lots INUGO ANNOUNCED THAT ITS FRICTIONLESS PARKING technology will be used in ABM’s 18 downtown lots in downtown San Diego, Calif., to improve customer experience and speed of payment. Inugo is leading the parking industry with new frictionless technologies based on Bluetooth,™ LTE,™ and GPS wireless technologies. For ungated surface parking lots, Inugo’s advanced geo-fencing technology creates a virtual boundary so that drivers who enter the boundary can start a parking session with the touch of a button on the Inugo mobile app. The user’s credit card will be charged when the parking session has ended. “We are excited that ABM has chosen Inugo for frictionless parking in San Diego,” says Inugo CEO Sam Barclay. “Our unique technology offers ABM the ability to easily manage their sites from a single cloud-based portal, significantly reducing operational costs. Users love that they can find park-

ing, park easily, and pay when they are done without needing to line up and pay manually at a pay machine.” Frictionless, ticketless, and cashless payments are controlled in this platform so all parking payments can be tracked. Rates can be varied per site, and special pricing can be preloaded. “Inugo is the perfect solution for ABM,” says Josh Boen, operations manager for ABM. “Our mission is to make a difference for our customers every day, and Inugo helps us improve our customer experience by making the parking experience frictionless. Inugo also offers us the ability to manage complex parking operations through a simple to use cloud portal, including pricing and occupancy. Inugo just simplifies the whole process.” Inugo is the developer of the Inugo Smart Gate Controller, the Inugo App, and the Inugo Operator portal, which together make frictionless parking a reality in gated or ungated parking facilities. THE PARKING PROFESSIONAL | SEPTEMBER 2018 | PARKING.ORG/TPP  59

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Advertisers Index CHANCE Management Advisors, Inc. .. . . . . 61 215.564.6464

International Parking Design, Inc.. . . . . . . . . .60 818.986.1494

TIBA Parking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 855.901.8883

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IPS Group Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C2 858.404.0607

Toledo Ticket. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C4 800.533.6620

EDC Corporation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 800.886.6316

Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc. . . . . . . . .7, 60 919.653.6646

Walker Consultants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 800.860.1579

Flexpost. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 888.307.6610

Leonardo/ELSAG LPR Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . 13 877.773.5724

Walter P Moore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 800.364.7300

Flowbird. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 800.732.6868

ParkMobile.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C3 770.818.9036

Women In Parking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 800.397.5130

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Rich & Associates, Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 248.353.5080

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IPI Webinar Park that Phone! The Road to a New Brand


Seventh Brazilian Parking Conference Sao Paulo, Brazil


Canadian Parking Association Annual Conference Toronto, Canada


Southwest Parking and Transportation Association Annual Fall Conference Las Vegas, Nev.


IPI Webinar Introduction to APDS Version 1.0: International Parking Data Standard


Carolinas Parking Association Annual Conference & Tradeshow Hilton Head, S.C.

Pennsylvania Parking Association Fall Training and Golf Outing Bethlehem, Pa. Campus Parking and Transportation Association 2018 Conference Springdale, Ark.


New York State Parking Association 26th Annual Conference & Exposition Verona, N.Y.


New England Parking Council University Forum University of Connecticut


Parking Association of the Virginias Fall Workshop and Tradeshow Richmond, Va.

IPI Training Parksmart Advisor Online, Instructor-Led Training Abrapark Conference Brazil


Mid-Atlantic Parking Association Annual Conference


California Public Parking Association 35th Annual Conference Los Angeles, Calif.


USGBC Greenbuild Conference featuring Parksmart Chicago, Ill.




IPI Webinar Being a Superhero to Your City

Gulf Traffic & Transpotech Conference 2018 Dubai



IPI’s Leadership Summit Denver, Colo.

Florida Parking & Transportation Association Conference Sawgrass, Fla.




In Case You Missed It… ON THE BLOG Communicate. Connect. Lessons learned by Matt Penney when he played ➚ Don’t catch with his son and later emailed parkers at the beginning of Baylor’s year. My Customers Said What? Alex Smith, AAE, on the best ways to find out ➚ Wait, what your customers are saying about you and why. Are Mobility, by Todd Tucker, CAPP. The parking industry? You mean the ➚ We mobility industry, right? Hands, New Ideas, by Victor Hill, CAPP, MPA. Want some perspective on ➚ Dirty your parking operation? Go get your hands dirty. to Use Social Media in Real Time. Still not using social for your operation? ➚ How Josh Cantor’s thoughts on why you should and how to get started. more at and in your daily Forum email. ➚ Read

AT THE FORUM and evaluating for new PARCS. ➚ Scoring of private-public partnership agreements. ➚ Examples shuttle RFP examples. ➚ On-demand LPR equal increased revenue? ➚ Does for annual garage maintenance. ➚ Budgeting lots more. Join the conversation at ➚ And ON THE WEBSITE for Parking Data Standards releases version 1.0 of the Global Parking Data ➚ Alliance Standard.

2018 Leadership Summit, this October in Denver. ➚ The ➚ A complete industry calendar of events. for information in the Resource Center. ➚ Search Stay up on everything in parking, transportation, and mobility—! 64  THE PARKING PROFESSIONAL | SEPTEMBER 2018 | PARKING.ORG /TPP




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