Wonders of Offshore Wind (Student Guide)

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Wonders of Offshore Wind

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Student Guide

ELEMENTARY


What is Wind? You can’t see air, but it is all around us. You hear leaves rustling in the trees. You see clouds moving across the sky. You feel cool breezes on your skin. Wind is moving air.

The Sun Makes the Wind Blow

North Pole

The energy in wind comes from the sun. When the sun shines, it heats the Earth’s surface. The Equator gets more sunlight (radiant energy) than the North or South Poles. The Earth is not heated evenly. Dark areas of land, like forests, absorb a lot of solar energy. Areas of water reflect solar energy. Light colored desert sand, snow, and ice reflect the sunlight, too.

Equator

South Pole

As the Earth’s surface absorbs the sun’s energy, it turns the light into heat. The heat on the Earth’s surface warms the air above it. The air over the Equator is warmer than the air over the poles. The air over land is warmer than air over water. As air heats, it expands. Hot air rises. Cooler air rushes in to take its place. This moving air is wind. Wind is caused by the uneven heating of Earth’s surface.

How Wind is Formed

WA

RM A IR

CO O L A I

R

1. The sun shines on land and water. 2. Land heats up faster than water. 3. Warm air over the land rises. 4. Cool air over the water moves in.

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Wind Effects

WAVES AT THE SHORELINE

The wind makes waves on lakes and oceans. The wind pushes desert sand into dunes and creates sandstorms. The wind spreads the sun’s heat throughout the atmosphere. This keeps the Earth warm enough for us to survive. The wind carries air pollution away from where it is made. Sometimes, the wind creates violent storms out on the ocean and on land.

Storms

A CYCLONE FROM ABOVE

Sometimes, storms have very strong winds, especially over the oceans. These storms can be dangerous and have different names depending on where they are located. In the Atlantic Ocean, they are called hurricanes. In the Pacific Ocean, they are called typhoons. In the Indian Ocean, they are called cyclones. A powerful storm on land can produce a tornado. A tornado develops from a giant “thunderhead” cloud. Air rises and falls inside the cloud. When cool air in the cloud sinks, it carries its spinning motion to the ground.

TORNADO TOUCHING DOWN

Ocean storms and tornadoes can be very dangerous. The strongest hurricane winds can blow over 155 miles per hour, and the most powerful tornadoes can blow over 300 miles per hour.

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Plants and Animals Some small plant seeds are very light. They are carried by the wind to new places. This is an important part of nature. The plant seeds spread out across the land. As they grow in new places, they don’t have to compete with other plants for nutrients, water, and sunlight. Many plant seeds, spores, and fruits use the wind to survive. Animals also depend on the wind for survival. Many animals depend on smell to warn them of danger. The wind can carry smells a long way. Animals can stay away from predators and catch prey with help from the wind. Birds soar in the sky and migrate with the help of the wind. Some tiny animals even depend on the wind to carry them from one living area to another.

People Use the Wind People all over the world use the wind every day. Sailors depend on the wind to move their boats. Children fly kites. In some countries, people in remote villages depend on the wind for survival. Windmills pump water for people and animals to drink. People have developed tools so that they can understand the wind better. Some common wind tools are the anemometer and the wind vane. An anemometer is used to measure the wind’s speed and a wind vane is used to show from which direction the wind is blowing. These tools help meteorologists predict the weather. They also help people find good locations to put up wind turbines that can be used to generate electricity.

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Wind Energy History More and more we are using wind to generate electricity. However, people have been using wind to do work for a long time. In the 1200s, Europeans began to build windmills. They were called postmills. They were built out of wood. Postmills ground grain between large rocks called millstones. This is how windmills got their name. The entire postmill could be rotated when the wind changed directions. It was the miller’s job to rotate the postmill.

POSTMILL

SMOCKMILL

In the 1300s, smockmills were invented. Sails were attached to the top of the windmill. Only the top rotated when the wind changed directions. These mills were much bigger and stronger, since the entire building didn’t move. In the 1500s, tower windmills were built in Spain, Greece, and the Mediterranean Islands. Tower windmills were small and made out of stone. They had many small, lightweight sails. The winds there were very light. Tower windmills were used to pump water and grind grain.

TOWER WINDMILL

In the 1600s, the Dutch began to use drainage windmills to pump water. These windmills dried out flooded land below sea level. The size of the country doubled, because they could now use the land. Windmills had many uses. In the 1700s, windmills were used to grind grain, cocoa, gunpowder, and mustard. Some mills pressed oil from seeds. Some pounded wool into felt. Some mills ground herbs and chemicals to make medicines.

DRAINAGE WINDMILL

Windmills were used for other work, too. Miners used windmills to blow fresh air into deep mine shafts. Windmills provided power to run sawmills and paper mills. Sawmills cut logs and paper mills made paper.

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Windmills came to America in the mid 1600s. Windmills were a common sight in the colonies. Colonists used windmills to grind corn and wheat, and to cut wood at sawmills. By the 1800s, settlers began to explore the West. Much of the land was too dry for farming. A new style of windmill was invented that pumped water. It was named after its inventor, Daniel Halladay. The Halladay Windmill sat on a tall wooden tower. It had 12 or more thin wooden blades and turned itself into the wind. In the 1890s, Poul LaCour of Denmark invented a wind turbine with large wooden sails that generated electricity. Today, scientists study new ways to capture the energy in the wind. New wind turbines are being built and installed every day that are bigger, more efficient, and can be used on land and offshore. Wind is one of the fastest growing energy sources in the world.

Photo courtesy of Dominion Energy

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Introduction to Energy

The wind is energy, but what is energy? Energy is many things. Energy is light. Energy is heat. Energy makes things grow. Energy makes things move. Energy runs machines. Energy is the power to change things. Energy is the ability to do work and make change.

Energy is Light We use light energy to see. Most of our light comes from the sun. In our homes and schools we use electricity to power lights. Flashlights use batteries to produce light. We call light energy radiant energy.

Energy is Heat We use energy to make heat. We burn fuel to cook our food. The food we eat helps our bodies stay warm. When it is cold outside, we use energy to heat our homes. A campfire makes heat, too. Factories burn fuel to make the products they sell. Some power plants burn or use the heat from fuels to make electricity. Heat is also called thermal energy.

Energy Makes Things Grow All living things need energy to grow. Plants use light from the sun to grow. Plants change the sun’s energy into sugar. The sugar is stored in their roots and leaves, and provides nourishment for the plant. This process is called photosynthesis. Animals cannot change light energy into food. Neither can people. We eat plants and use the energy stored in them to grow.

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Energy Makes Things Move Look around you. Many things are moving. They are in motion. Clouds drift across the sky. Leaves fall from trees. Birds fly. Plants grow and so do you. The Earth moves. The water moves. The air moves. Every living thing moves, too. It takes energy to make things move. Many vehicles use the energy in gasoline to move. Many toys run on the energy stored in batteries. Sailboats and wind turbines are pushed by the energy in the wind.

Energy Runs Machines It takes energy to run our TVs, video games, computers, and microwaves. This energy is electricity. We use electricity every day. It gives us light and heat. It runs our toys and appliances. What would your life be like without electricity? We make electricity by burning coal, oil, gas, and even trash. We make electricity from the energy that holds atoms together. We make electricity with energy from the sun, the wind, and falling water. Sometimes, we use heat from inside the Earth to make electricity. Most of these items will eventually turn a turbine to bring us electricity.

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Energy is the Power to Change Things When we use energy, we don’t use it up. We change it into other forms of energy. When we burn wood, we change its energy into heat and light. When we drive a motor boat, we change the energy in the fuel into heat, sound, and motion.

Energy Transformations Energy Transformations

Chemical

Motion

Chemical

Motion

Radiant

Chemical

Electrical

Thermal

Energy is the Ability to Do Work Work means many things. Many adults leave the house every morning to go to work. They go to their job. Physical exercise is often called working out. Your teacher gives you homework to do. You might think that work is the opposite of play. But in science, work has a special meaning. Work is using force to move an object across a distance. To do work, there must be energy. Energy is the ability to do work. Think about playing soccer. A soccer ball cannot move by itself. You must kick it. The food you eat gives your body energy. Your muscles use this energy to kick (a force) the ball. The soccer ball (the object) rolls down the field (a distance) to score a goal. You have just done work!

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U.S. Consumption of Energy by Source, 2020

88%

Nonrenewable Sources Renewable Sources 0%

12%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

100%

PERCENTAGE OF UNITED STATES ENERGY USE

Nonrenewable Energy Sources and Percentage of Total Energy Consumption *Propane consumption is included in petroleum and natural gas figures.

PETROLEUM 35% Uses: transportation, manufacturing - Includes Propane

NATURAL GAS 34% Uses: heating, manufacturing, electricity - Includes Propane

COAL

Uses: electricity, manufacturing

10%

URANIUM

Uses: electricity

9%

PROPANE

1%

GEOTHERMAL <1%

Uses: heating, manufacturing

Renewable Energy Sources and Percentage of Total Energy Consumption

BIOMASS

5%

Uses: heating, electricity, transportation

HYDROPOWER 3% Uses: electricity

WIND

Uses: electricity

3%

SOLAR

Uses: heating, electricity

Uses: heating, electricity

Data: Energy Information Administration *Total does not equal 100% due to independent rounding.

Energy Sources In the United States we use ten energy sources to do work. We put these sources into two categories: nonrenewable and renewable. The nonrenewable energy sources we use are petroleum, coal, natural gas, propane, and uranium. These sources are found in the Earth. It takes a very long time for the Earth to produce these sources. Once we use them, we can’t use them again or get them back quickly. We use nonrenewable energy sources to move our cars, heat our homes, and make electricity. Renewable energy sources can be used over and over again. It does not take very long to replenish the supply of these resources, so we will never run out. Renewable energy sources are biomass, hydropower, solar energy, wind energy, and geothermal energy. Day after day, the sun shines, the wind blows, and the rivers flow. We use renewable energy sources mainly to make electricity. Nonrenewable sources are relatively inexpensive and we can use them 24 hours a day. Some renewable sources, like solar and wind, are free to use because no one owns the sun or the wind. However, the machines and parts needed to turn these sources into energy we can use can be expensive. Every source of energy has advantages and disadvantages to using it. 10

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Electricity We use electricity to run our machines. Day or night, all we need to do is flip a switch or press a button to access the power of electricity. In order to use electricity whenever we want, we need to generate electricity. A generator turns motion into electricity. Inside a generator, magnets rotate around copper wires causing electrons to move. This creates electricity. Coils of wire can also rotate around the magnets. Electrons will move either way. We need energy to run the generator to make electricity, so scientists try to find the most efficient ways to spin the magnets. Engineers discovered that steam can be used to turn a turbine. A turbine is a system of blades connected to a rod, or shaft, which turns the magnets and coils to create electricity.

Generator Generator MAGNETS COPPER COILS ROTATING SHAFT

GENERATOR

The copper coils spin inside a ring of magnets. This creates an electric field, producing electricity.

U.S. Electricity Net Generation, 2020 40%

Natural Gas

20%

Uranium

19%

Coal Petroleum

<1%

Other

<1% 8%

Wind

7%

Hydropower Solar Biomass Geothermal

NONRENEWABLE

2%

RENEWABLE

1% <1%

* Total may not equal 100%, due to independent rounding. ** Other: non-biogenic waste, fossil fuel gases. Data: Energy Information Administration ©2021 The NEED Project

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Generating Electricity with Fossil Fuels FUEL BURNING

3

ELECTRICITY GENERATION

STEAM LINE BOILER

Fuel Supply

2

ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION

GENERATOR TURBINE

4

5

SWITCHYARD

FEED WATER CONDENSER

6 DETAIL

1

1. Natural gas, coal, biomass, and petroleum are burned to release thermal energy. 2. Water is piped into the boiler and heated, turning it into steam. 3. The steam travels at high pressure through a steam line.

MAGNETS COPPER COILS ROTATING SHAFT

4. The high pressure steam turns a turbine, which spins a shaft.

GENERATOR

5. Inside the generator, the shaft spins coils of copper wire inside a ring of magnets. This creates an electric field, producing electricity.

6. Electricity is sent to a switchyard where a transformer increases the voltage, allowing it to travel through the electric grid.

The top diagram illustrates how heat is used to generate electricity in many power plants. The second diagram illustrates how the energy in wind is used to generate electricity. How are the two processes the same? How are they different?

Using Generate UsingWind WindtoEnergy to Electricity Generate Electricity Wind

Wind Turbine

1. Wind turns the blades. 2. The blades are connected to a rotor (hub) and shaft that also turn. 3. A generator is attached to the shaft that then spins wires to produce electricity.

Generator

Electricity

4. Electricity is sent to a transformer to increase the voltage and send it on its way through the electric grid.

Locations where a lot of electricity is generated are called power plants. At some power plants we burn coal, natural gas, biomass, or petroleum to create steam to spin the turbine. Nuclear, geothermal and some solar power plants create steam to turn a turbine, but do not burn any fuel. Hydropower, solar panels, and wind turbines do not use steam heat or burn any fuel to create electricity! Wind turbines use only the moving air to generate electricity. 12

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WindTurbine TurbineDiagram Diagram Wind

How does a wind turbine generate electricity? When the wind blows, it pushes against the blades of the wind turbine. The blades spin around and turn a long pole called a shaft. This shaft spins inside a generator to make electricity.

Rotor Hub

Small Wind Turbines Wind turbines come in all sizes. Some turbines are small and can be used to help generate electricity on boats, in homes, and even schools. These turbines do not generate enough electricity to meet all of the demands of a home, but they do help reduce the amount of electricity people need to purchase from their electric company. They can be very helpful when people are far away from power lines, too.

de

Nacelle

Bla

The amount of electricity a turbine generates depends on its size and the speed of the wind. A small turbine may help to power one home. A large turbine may power over 750 homes. Some wind turbines are taller than 20-story buildings! The CVOW project in Virginia will have turbines taller than a 90-story building.

Blade

A Closer Look at Wind Turbines

Tower

Gene Ge neraato t r Generator

Wind Turbine Scale Comparison Wind Turbine Scale Comparison

Large Wind Turbine 328 feet tall

Small Wind Turbine 80 feet tall

People 6 feet tall

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House

25 feet tall

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Wind Farms Sometimes, there are hundreds of wind turbines in one place. This is called a wind farm, or wind power plant. The turbines work together to make a lot of electricity. This electricity is sold to utility companies, who sell the electricity to you at home. Wind farms take up a lot of space, but the land and water around them can still be used. Choosing where to build a wind farm is known as siting a wind farm. Scientists and wind farm developers spend many years studying an area before they start to build a wind farm. They study the speed of the wind. They study the direction the wind blows. They think about the birds, animals, and fish that live in the area. Will the turbines hurt animal habitats? They think about the activities that happen in the area like farming, fishing, and transportation. They decide if new power lines need to be built near the wind farm. Wind farms can be built in the ocean, too. These wind turbines sit in the water, sometimes far away from shore. The wind is often stronger and more reliable offshore. There is nothing in the way to block the wind. These turbines can make a lot of electricity. It can be an expensive challenge to build offshore wind farms. Power lines must be buried deep under the water. The U.S. has completed construction on its first offshore wind farm off the coast of Rhode Island. The Deepwater Wind farm began operating in 2016. Virginia has two offshore turbines in operation. A much larger wind farm is going to begin construction in 2024 in the same area.

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Image: Dominion Energy

Today, wind energy makes only a small amount of the electricity we use in the United States. But, wind power is growing. There are plans for many more wind farms all over the country and offshore.

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Offshore Wind in Virginia

U.S. Offshore Windspeeds

The United States has lots of good wind available on its coastlines. The U.S. Atlantic Coast has good wind speeds, and the area off the coast of Virginia has a sandy bottom that is not too deep. These conditions make it a great location for offshore wind turbines. Dominion Energy leased 2,100 acres of the ocean from the government to begin exploring offshore wind in the Mid-Atlantic Region. In 2020, two turbines were constructed and began generating electricity 27 miles offshore from Virginia Beach. These two turbines are able to generate 12 MW of power. This is enough to power 3,000 homes! In 2024, Dominion Energy will begin constructing a full wind farm on this site called the Coastal Virginia Offshore Wind (CVOW) project. The wind farm will have 176 turbines, each over 800 feet tall. Once completed, the wind farm is expected to power over 660,000 homes, help avoid 5 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions each year, and create more than 1,000 jobs.

Image: NREL

Offshore Wind Turbine Max Height: 1.3 million ft3

Blade Rotor Hub Nacelle Blade Length: 354ft

Tower

Rotor Diameter: 728ft

Offshore Turbine Technology and Parts In the water, we use different types of turbines than on the land. Offshore turbines are larger than turbines on land and can generate more electricity. The turbines planned for the CVOW project will each generate 14 MW of electricity.

~800ft to 900ft

Swept Area:

Transition Piece

Tower:

*452ft to 492ft

Service operation vessel

Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV)

Foundation Water Depth: 80ft - 150ft+

Electricity Cables

Building a giant turbine that is able to handle ocean conditions requires lots of special Generation Capacity: 14MW technology! In more shallow, sandy waters, turbines are installed with a large steel tube or pole called a monopile as their foundation. The monopile is driven into the seafloor and is designed to handle storms, waves, high winds, and even ice flows in some areas. Most offshore wind turbines currently installed are fixed in one spot for their entire operating lives. Some of the places in U.S. waters where the wind is strongest are also where the water is too deep for a conventional, fixed bottom turbine. This is when a floating turbine is most appropriate. ©2021 The NEED Project

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On top of the monopile, another large cylinder RIGHT WHALES is installed called a tower. On top of the tower is the nacelle. The nacelle holds a gear box, generator, and electronic components. It is specially designed to protect the machinery and electronics inside from corrosive sea water. The blades on the turbine turn a shaft. The gears help to turn the turbine faster to generate electricity. Sensors on some turbines help to keep the nacelle and blades facing into the wind. Wind turbine blades, nacelles, and towers are often painted lighter colors to help them blend into Image: Wikimedia Commons the sky. Lower sections of the turbines are often painted bright colors to help warn passing boats NAVY SHIP and ships. Offshore turbines always include navigation and aviation signal lights, too.

Siting the Turbines Building large, offshore wind farms depends on many conditions. As we have discussed, developers do look at water depth and geology of the seabed, as well as wind speed and waves. In choosing the right spot for the CVOW project, developers also needed to consider marine traffic. The coast of Virginia is home to a large, active port and lots of naval activity. Fishing and other commercial shipping and activities were also considered.

Image: Wikimedia Commons

Once a site was picked that was good for all of these conditions, developers also had to make sure that the site wouldn’t interfere with fish, birds, and animals in the area. Right whales, turtles, and seabirds are all important to the area and the construction and generation can not harm these creatures. Finally, once all this is considered, developers need to make sure the chosen spot is near enough to a spot to connect to!

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Transporting the Electricity

UNDERWATER POWER LINE

An offshore wind farm will generate lots of electricity. Once the electricity is produced, it needs to be moved to our homes and businesses. On land and under water, it moves through large electrical lines. Electricity moves most efficiently under high voltage. When the electricity leaves a wind turbine, its voltage must be increased by items called transformers. Offshore transformer substations will help increase the voltage, while also providing a safe landing area for helicopters or boats traveling to maintain the turbines.

Image: Wikimedia Commons

The electricity must travel to shore by large, underwater cables, buried under the seafloor. Once onshore, transformers again help to increase the voltage before sending it onto transmission lines and local power lines that bring electricity to homes and businesses. When it reaches our homes and businesses, the voltage must be reduced so it will not burn or damage things that use electricity.

Transporting Electricity

Transporting Electricity Wind Turbine

Transformer in offshore substation steps up voltage for transmission

Transmission lines carry electricity long distances under water to land

Transmission lines carry electricity long distances

Onshore substation with transformers to adjust voltage for further transmission

Power Tower

Distribution lines carry electricity to houses

Step-down transformer reduces voltage (substation)

Electric Poles

Neighborhood transformer on pole steps down voltage before entering house

*Image not to scale

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Date __________________________

Observing the Wind ? Question

What evidence is there that the wind is blowing?

__________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________

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New Learning About Wind and Energy

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Date __________________________

Measuring Wind, Part 1 ? Question

How fast is the wind? The Beaufort Scale Beaufort Scale Wind Speed

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1-3 mph

4-7 mph

8-12 mph

13-18 mph

19-24 mph

25-31 mph

32-38 mph

39-46 mph

47-54 mph

55-63 mph

Flag on Land

Procedure 1. Create a windsock or flag by taping or securing a plastic strip to the pencil. 2. Draw your windsock in the space below. 3. Take the windsock or flag outside to two locations. 4. Use the Beaufort Scale chart above and your observations to fill in the data section on the next page. Windsock Drawing

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 Data and Observations Location 1: _______________________ Observations: Draw how the banner looked in the wind.

Data: Using the Beaufort Scale on the previous page, what is the wind speed for location 1? _____________________ miles per hour Location 2: _______________________ Observations: Draw how the banner looked in the wind

Data: Using the Beaufort Scale, what is the wind speed for location 2?

_____________________ miles per hour

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Date __________________________

Measuring Wind, Part 2 ? Question

What do you notice when you record wind measurements around your school?  Data Record wind data around your school grounds using the wind vane and anemometers. Wind Direction: Location

Time

Wind Measurement Observations

Wind Speed

!Diagram:

__________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________

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Date __________________________

OFF

My Energy Use

? Question

How are the ways you use energy at home and at school the same? How are they different? Ways I Use Energy at Home and at School

Different Ways I Use Energy

School

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Date __________________________

Wind Can Do Work ? Question

How many paper clips can be lifted all of the way to the straw?  Hypothesis

If ____________________________________________________________________________ then__________________________________________________________________________ because ______________________________________________________________________ Procedure 1. Build your windmill using the directions and windmill blade template your teacher gives you. 2. Attach a paper clip to the string. Can the wind lift the paper clip all of the way to the straw? Record data in the table below. 3. Continue adding paper clips one at a time until the paper clips fail to reach the straw. Record data below. Add onto the data table, if needed. IMPORTANT: Use the same wind speed for each test!  Diagram Draw a picture of your windmill in the box to the right. Use the vocabulary below to label the parts. Blades Tower Shaft Load  Data Fill in the chart below to show how many paper clips can be lifted. Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Trial 4

Trial 5

Trial 6

Trial 7

Trial 8

Trial 9

Number of Paper clips 24

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 Conclusions

How do windmills work? Use observations and data from your investigation to help explain how the system works. __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________

What changes could you make to the windmill system so you could lift more paper clips? Draw a picture and use words to show your new windmill design.

__________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ ©2021 The NEED Project

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Date __________________________

Blade Design Introduction Observe how the weightlifter windmill and wind turbine work with your teacher’s standard blade design. Record the results of your teacher’s tests.

My Teacher’s Results ? Question

What blade design will lift the most mass to the top of the windmill? Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Average

Trial 3

Average

Weightlifter Windmill ? Question

What blade design will generate the most electricity? Trial 1

Trial 2

Wind Turbine

My Group:

My Turbine:

___________________________________________

___________________________________________

___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________

Focus Question: __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________

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Date __________________________

Blade Design Think about the blades your teacher used. What changes could you make to the design that might get better results? On your own, make a list of changes you could make and draw some sketches of different blade designs. ______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

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Share your ideas with everyone else in your group. What are some of the same ideas you had? What are some of the different ideas? Why do you think one design would work better than another? Decide as a group which one design you will use. Draw the design below and explain why you chose this design.

 Hypothesis

Write a hypothesis explaining why you think this blade design will do more work than the standard blade your teacher demonstrated. I predict __________________________________________________________ (blade design) will do more work than the standard blade design because ____________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

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Date __________________________

Blade Design ? Focus Question __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________

Procedure 1. As a group, work together to construct the blades that you decided on. 2. Draw a diagram of your blades on the windmill or wind turbine, whichever tower you are testing. Label all of the parts. 3. Test your blades. Conduct three trials and then calculate the average of the three trials. NOTE: You may have to wait for other groups to test their blades before it is your turn. Pay attention to their blade designs and the results they get. What blade designs are getting good results? What do those designs have in common?  Diagram

 Data Output Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average  Observations ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________

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Date __________________________

Blade Redesign ? Focus Question __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________

Procedure 1. As a group, brainstorm changes you can make to your design. Decide which new blade design you will use for your second investigation. Work together to construct the new blades. 2. Complete the prediction below explaining why you think these blades will get better results. 3. Test your blades on the same tower as before. Conduct three trials and calculate the average.  Hypothesis

If we change___________________________________________________________________ then__________________________________________________________________________ because ______________________________________________________________________  Diagram

 Data Output Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average  Observations _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________

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 Conclusion

What did you learn from your investigations? Were your results better than your teacher’s? Did your blade redesign improve your results? Why or why not? (Use data from your investigations to support the statements in your conclusion.) __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________

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Date __________________________

Trying the Other Tower ? Question

What results will your blade design achieve on the other tower?  Hypothesis If ____________________________________________________________________________ then__________________________________________________________________________ because ______________________________________________________________________  Data and Observations Output Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average  Conclusion

Compare the two towers. How are they the same and how are they different? What are the results on the other tower? How do the results between the two machines compare? __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________

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Date __________________________

Siting an Offshore Wind Farm ? Question

How do you choose the best spot for an offshore wind farm?  Challenge Deciding where to build an offshore wind farm can be very challenging. Engineers and developers have to find the best location to build a farm that will meet the needs of the people onshore. When we stand on the shore and look at the ocean, it can seem like there is just nothing there. The ocean is home to a lot of animals. Some of them live in the same area their whole lives. Others migrate or travel great distances to search for food or have babies. Large ships travel across the sea to bring supplies back and forth between ports. Engineers must understand all of this when they are trying to find the best location. The town of Seaside has decided to build an offshore wind farm. The town wants to save money while generating renewable electricity, so they need to be close to the onshore power lines to reduce construction costs. The town of Seaside attracts lots of tourists for its animal and whale watching and has a very port busy for shipping and fishing. Can you help them? Procedure Your job is to decide the best place to build an offshore wind farm for the town of Seaside. 1. Pick colors for each of the items on the map key. Shade or color over each with the colors of your choice. 2. Shade in the areas on the map where the barriers and concerns might be. 3. Use your shaded map and the key to decide which letter region on the map will be the best spot. Circle the best spot. 4. In the space below the map, write a paragraph describing the site or sites where you might place your wind farm. Use evidence from your map to explain your reasoning.

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B

e d i s a Se

Harbor

Powerlines p Ship

Bird Migration Pattern

D

l nne Cha

Ship Channel

ing

KEY Right Whale Feeding

A

C

__________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________

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Date __________________________

Offshore Wind STEM Challenge Offshore wind engineers are faced with a difficult challenge when constructing wind turbines. On land, they can build strong foundations in the ground to support the turbines in strong winds. At sea, this becomes more difficult because they must construct the bases underwater. They must also think about how the waves and ocean currents might affect the turbines. An ocean current is sort of like a river of water that moves through parts of the ocean. They can be very powerful.  Challenge Design and build a foundation to support your turbine in the wind and water. For this challenge, you will use pinwheels to represent the turbines. ? Question

How can wind turbines be anchored so that they don’t tip over in the wind and waves?  Materials Seafloor Box (provided by your teacher) Fan filled with sand and water Clay, wooden blocks, strings, rocks, etc that Pinwheel can be used to build the foundation for your Hose turbine PART 1: FOUNDATIONS Procedure 1. Test how well your pinwheel stands up in the wind from the fan. Make sure to wear eye protection if it is very windy! 2. Design a base or foundation structure to help support your pinwheel better from the wind and waves.  Observations: 1. How did the wind affect your pinwheel?

2. Did the speed of the wind matter?

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3. Did you have to build something to support your pinwheel? If so, draw your design.

4. Did the wind affect other pinwheels in the class differently? Why or why not?

5. How do you think water will affect your pinwheel’s ability to stand up?

PART 2: WATER AND WAVES Procedure 1. Test to see how the water changes the stability of your pinwheel. Be careful not to get the fan too close to the water! 2. Modify your foundation to better stand up in the water if necessary.  Observations: 1. How did adding water to the box affect your pinwheel?

2. Did you have to modify your foundation to support your pinwheel? If so, draw or describe how you changed your design.

3. How is this model similar to an offshore wind turbine? How is it different?

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PART 3: WATER AND WAVES Procedure 1. Test to see how the ocean current changes the stability of your pinwheel in the windy water. Be careful not to get the fan too close to the water! 2. Modify your foundation to better stand up in the water, if necessary.  Observations: 1. How did the current affect your pinwheel?

2. Describe or draw any changes you needed to make to your foundation to get your pinwheel to stand up.

 Conclusion

1. What challenges do engineers face when constructing offshore wind turbines? What should engineers do to the turbines to be successful?

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Offshore Wind Turbine Point of View ? Question  How will different community members react to their community installing an offshore wind farm?

Procedure The local government is going to approve an offshore wind farm. If it is successful there, more wind energy may follow, so siting is very important. There are many points of view on this project. Match the perspectives below to the different community members. Write the names of the community members below each statement. Some people may have more than one perspective. Fisherman Homeowner 1 Government Official Naval Officer Coal Plant Worker

Homeowner 2

Environmentalist

Cetologist (whale expert)

The electricity costs are killing me! My daughter is about to start college and I need to save every penny I can. A wind farm here would help save on my electricity costs.

What about sea creatures? How will this affect the migration of whales through our waters? Will the equipment cause sea life to leave our area?

A new wind farm will create lots of jobs onshore and offshore. We could use more jobs to build our economy!

Our country needs to move more towards renewable energy. This is a start to our community leading the way in sustainability. Of course, it would have to be properly sited to not disturb any animals or cause erosion with the construction of new cables underwater.

I don’t want to look out the windows of my beachfront house and see wind turbines! What about my property values?

Our ships and planes may have to adjust their travel during construction. However, after a little time to get used to the new equipment, it should be business as usual here.

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Making a living off the water has not been easy. How will the wind farm affect this town’s love of seafood? Will it cause the fish to go away or could it make a nice place for fish to hangout?

I don’t want this new technology to put me out of a job. My dad and his dad both worked here, and it is a stable paycheck.

Point of View Challenges Now that you have an idea how your community might respond, pick one of the following activities to complete with your group to show your understanding of the perspectives involved. Create a skit of a community meeting where various perspectives are shared. Create a slideshow of explaining the perspectives and how you might decide where to put the offshore wind farm. Stage a debate about the siting issue, with each person picking a role from the list above. Add additional community members like a governor, Coast Guard officer, wind farm developer, or electrician. Add a moderator with questions to keep the debate moving. Create a comic strip or other artwork to show the various perspectives and how the government makes the final decision.

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Wind in the Community Think about how a property owner, a government offical, and a utility company owner would respond to the questions below. Answer the questions from each different point of view.

PROPERTY OWNER

GOVERNMENT OFFICIAL

UTILITY COMPANY OWNER

How could an offshore wind farm improve or cause concern for the local community?

How would an offshore wind farm impact the economy of the community?

How would an offshore wind farm impact the environment?

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Wind Reflections

Date __________________________

Think about your reading, your wind observations, and your wind investigations. ? Question

What have you learned about wind and energy? Use empty space to draw and label pictures and diagrams.

__________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ ©2021 The NEED Project

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__________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________

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New Questions about Wind and Energy What new questions do you have about wind and energy? What are you wondering about now? How could you find the answers to your new questions?

__________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ ©2021 The NEED Project

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a

b

c

Glossary

absorb anemometer blade cyclone distance electricity electron energy Equator force gear box generator hub hurricane magnet monopile nacelle nonrenewable energy sources photosynthesis pole pollution radiant energy reflect renewable energy sources shaft siting substation sugar tornado

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to take in or hold a tool used to measure wind speed part of the turbine that is pushed by wind strong rotational storm in the Indian Ocean the length of a path between two points a form of energy, moving electrons very tiny, negatively charged particle that moves around the nucleus of the atom the ability to do work or make a change an imaginary line around the Earth that is equally between both poles a push or pull an item used to increase a turbine’s speed to generate electricity a device that turns motion into electricity connects the blades of a turbine to the shaft a strong rotational storm in the Atlantic Ocean material that is attracted to metals and helps create electricity large steel tube driven into the seabed to support the tower of a wind turbine the part of the turbine that holds the magnets and wire sources of energy that cannot be made in a short amount of time process when plants use light from the sun to make food a location on the end of the Earth or a magnet, North or South Pole a harmful substance that does not belong in the environment energy that travels in waves or rays, such as light to cast or bend back from a surface sources of energy that can be made or replenished in a short time a turning or rotating part that connects the turbine to the generator the process of choosing a location for a wind turbine or farm part of the electricity transmission grid where voltages are stepped down before the power is distributed to a neighborhood or community an energy-rich substance made by plants a strong rotational windstorm over land

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tower transformer turbine typhoon utility company wind wind farm wind vane work

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structural support of the turbine a device that converts the generator’s low-voltage electricity to higher-voltage levels for transmission to the load center, such as a city or factory a machine that converts kinetic energy of a moving fluid to mechanical power strong rotational storm in the Pacific Ocean a company that sells electricity to homes and businesses moving air; created by uneven heating of the Earth by the sun groups or clusters of wind turbines that produce large amounts of electricity together an instrument used to show the direction of the wind anything that requires energy to make a change

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NEED’s Online Resources NEED’S SMUGMUG GALLERY

SOCIAL MEDIA

http://need-media.smugmug.com/ On NEED’s SmugMug page, you’ll find pictures of NEED students learning and teaching about energy. Would you like to submit images or videos to NEED’s gallery? E-mail info@NEED.org for more information. Also use SmugMug to find these visual resources:

Online Graphics Library Would you like to use NEED’s graphics in your own classroom presentations, or allow students to use them in their presentations? Download graphics for easy use in your classroom.

Stay up-to-date with NEED. “Like” us on Facebook! Search for The NEED Project, and check out all we’ve got going on! Follow us on Twitter. We share the latest energy news from around the country, @NEED_Project. Follow us on Instagram and check out the photos taken at NEED events, instagram.com/theneedproject. Follow us on Pinterest and pin ideas to use in your classroom, Pinterest.com/NeedProject. Subscribe to our YouTube channel! www.youtube.com/user/NEEDproject

AWESOME EXTRAS

NEED Energy Booklist

Looking for more resources? Our Awesome Extras page contains PowerPoint presentations, helpful energy sites, and other great resources to compliment what you are teaching in your classroom! This page is available under the Educators tab at www.NEED.org/ educators/awesome-extras/.

Looking for cross-curricular connections, or extra background reading for your students? NEED’s booklist provides an extensive list of fiction and nonfiction titles for all grade levels to support energy units in the science, social studies, or language arts setting. Check it out at www.NEED.org/booklist/.

The Blog

U.S. Energy Geography

We feature new curriculum, teacher news, upcoming programs, and exciting resources regularly. To read the latest from the NEED network, visit www.NEED.org/about-need/news/.

Evaluations and Assessment

Maps are a great way for students to visualize the energy picture in the United States. This set of maps will support your energy discussion and multi-disciplinary energy activities. Go to www.need.org/resources/ energy-in-society to see energy production, consumption, and reserves all over the country!

Building an assessment? Searching for standards? Check out our Evaluations page for a question bank, NEED’s Energy Polls, sample rubrics, links to standards alignment, and more at www.NEED.org/educators/evaluations-assessment/.

E-Publications The NEED Project offers e-publication versions of various guides for in-classroom use. Guides that are currently available as an e-publication can be found at www.issuu.com/theneedproject.

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National Sponsors and Partners Adapt2 Solutions Alaska Electric Light & Power Company American Electric Power Foundation American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers Arizona Sustainability Alliance Armstrong Energy Corporation Robert L. Bayless, Producer, LLC Baltimore Gas & Electric Berkshire Gas - Avangrid BG Group/Shell BP America Inc. Blue Grass Energy Bob Moran Charitable Giving Fund Boys and Girls Club of Carson (CA) Buckeye Supplies Cape Light Compact–Massachusetts Central Alabama Electric Cooperative CLEAResult Clover Park School District Clovis Unified School District Colonial Pipeline ComEd Confluence ConocoPhillips Constellation Delmarva Power Dominion Energy, Inc. Dominion Energy Charitable Foundation DonorsChoose Duke Energy Duke Energy Foundation East Baton Rouge Parish Schools East Kentucky Power EcoCentricNow EDP Renewables EduCon Educational Consulting Enel Green Power North America Eugene Water and Electric Board Eversource Exelon Exelon Foundation Exelon Generation Foundation for Environmental Education FPL The Franklin Institute George Mason University – Environmental Science and Policy Georgia Power Gerald Harrington, Geologist Government of Thailand–Energy Ministry Green Power EMC Greenwired, Inc.

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Guilford County Schools–North Carolina Honeywell Houston LULAC National Education Service Centers Iowa Governor’s STEM Advisory Council Scale Up Illinois Clean Energy Community Foundation Illinois International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers Renewable Energy Fund Illinois Institute of Technology Independent Petroleum Association of New Mexico Jackson Energy James Madison University Kansas Corporation Energy Commission Kansas Energy Program – K-State Engineering Extension Kentucky Office of Energy Policy Kentucky Environmental Education Council Kentucky Power–An AEP Company League of United Latin American Citizens – National Educational Service Centers Leidos LES – Lincoln Electric System Liberty Utilities Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative Llano Land and Exploration Louisiana State Energy Office Louisiana State University – Agricultural Center Mercedes-Benz USA Minneapolis Public Schools Mississippi Development Authority–Energy Division Motus Experiential National Fuel National Grid National Hydropower Association National Ocean Industries Association National Renewable Energy Laboratory NC Green Power Nebraskans for Solar NextEra Energy Resources Nicor Gas NCi – Northeast Construction North Shore Gas Offshore Technology Conference Ohio Energy Project Oklahoma Gas and Electric Energy Corporation Omaha Public Power District Pacific Gas and Electric Company PECO Peoples Gas

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Pepco Performance Services, Inc. Permian Basin Petroleum Museum Phillips 66 PNM PowerSouth Energy Cooperative Providence Public Schools Quarto Publishing Group Prince George’s County Office of Sustainable Energy (MD) Renewable Energy Alaska Project Rhoades Energy Rhode Island Office of Energy Resources Rhode Island Energy Efficiency and Resource Management Council Salal Foundation/Salal Credit Union Salt River Project Salt River Rural Electric Cooperative C.T. Seaver Trust Secure Futures, LLC Shell Shell Carson Shell Chemical Shell Deer Park Singapore Ministry of Education SMECO SMUD Society of Petroleum Engineers South Carolina Energy Office SunTribe Solar Tri-State Generation and Transmission TXU Energy United Way of Greater Philadelphia and Southern New Jersey Unitil University of Kentucky University of Louisville University of Maine University of North Carolina University of Rhode Island University of Tennessee University of Texas Permian Basin University of Wisconsin – Platteville U.S. Department of Energy U.S. Department of Energy–Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy - Water Power Technologies Office U.S. Department of Energy–Wind for Schools U.S. Energy Information Administration United States Virgin Islands Energy Office We Care Solar