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School Energy Inspectors

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Teacher Guide

Hands-on activities that introduce students to the ways we use energy in school buildings. Students explore and observe how thermal energy, electricity, and lighting are used throughout the building as they catalog their energy use, monitor school rooms and occupants for positive and negative energy behaviors, and begin to make recommendations for efficiency and conservation improvements.

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Grade Level:

Pri EInt lem Ele

Elementary

Sec

Subject Areas: Science

Social Studies

Language Arts

Math

Int Sec

Technology

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NEED Mission Statement The mission of The NEED Project is to promote an energy conscious and educated society by creating effective networks of students, educators, business, government and community leaders to design and deliver objective, multisided energy education programs.

Teacher Advisory Board

Permission to Copy

Constance Beatty Kankakee, IL

Barbara Lazar Albuquerque, NM

James M. Brown Saratoga Springs, NY

Robert Lazar Albuquerque, NM

Mark Case Randleman, NC

Leslie Lively Porters Falls, WV

Amy Constant Schott Raleigh, NC

Melissa McDonald Gaithersburg, MD

Nina Corley Galveston, TX

Nicole McGill Washington, DC

In support of NEED, the national Teacher Advisory Board (TAB) is dedicated to developing and promoting standardsbased energy curriculum and training.

Samantha Danielli Vienna, VA

Hallie Mills St. Peters, MO

Energy Data Used in NEED Materials

Shannon Donovan Greene, RI

Jennifer Mitchell Winterbottom Pottstown, PA

Nijma Esad Washington, DC

Mollie Mukhamedov

Linda Fonner New Martinsville, WV Teresa Fulk Browns Summit, NC Michelle Garlick Long Grove, IL Erin Gockel Farmington, NM Robert Griegoliet Naperville, IL Bob Hodash DaNel Hogan Tucson, AZ

NEED curriculum is available for reproduction by classroom teachers only. NEED curriculum may only be reproduced for use outside the classroom setting when express written permission is obtained in advance from The NEED Project. Permission for use can be obtained by contacting info@need.org.

Teacher Advisory Board

NEED believes in providing teachers and students with the most recently reported, available, and accurate energy data. Most statistics and data contained within this guide are derived from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Data is compiled and updated annually where available. Where annual updates are not available, the most current, complete data year available at the time of updates is accessed and printed in NEED materials. To further research energy data, visit the EIA website at www.eia.gov.

Port St. Lucie, FL Cori Nelson Winfield, IL Don Pruett Jr. Puyallup, WA Judy Reeves Lake Charles, LA Tom Spencer Chesapeake, VA Jennifer Trochez MacLean Los Angeles, CA Wayne Yonkelowitz Fayetteville, WV

Greg Holman Paradise, CA

1.800.875.5029 www.NEED.org Š 2019 Printed on Recycled Paper

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School Energy Inspectors Table of Contents Standards Correlation Information

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Materials 5 Teacher Guide

School Energy Inspectors Kit 1 Incandescent bulb 1 Compact fluorescent bulb (CFL) 1 Light emitting diode bulb (LED) 1 Kill A Watt® meter 1 Digital humidity/temperature pen (hygrometer) 4 Digital thermometers 10 Student thermometers 1 Indoor/outdoor thermometer 1 Light meter 1 9-volt Battery for light meter 30 Student Guides

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Lesson 1

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Lesson 2

9

Lesson 3

12

Lesson 4

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Lesson 5

15

Lesson 6

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Assessment and Evaluation

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Answer Keys

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Energy Efficiency Bingo Instructions

22

Conservation in the Round

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Baseload Balance

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Masters

31

The Energy I Used Today

31

Forms of Energy

32

U.S. Energy Consumption by Source, 2017

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Energy We Use

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Thermometer 36 Student Thermometer

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Hygrometer 38 Transporting Electricity

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Kill A Watt® Meter

40

Light Meter

41

Recommended Light Levels

42

Building Buddies Calendar

43

Energy Efficiency Bingo

44

Conservation in the Round Cards

45

Evaluation Form

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Standards Correlation Information www.NEED.org/educators/curriculum-correlations/

Next Generation Science Standards This guide effectively supports many Next Generation Science Standards. This material can satisfy performance expectations, science and engineering practices, disciplinary core ideas, and cross cutting concepts within your required curriculum. For more details on these correlations, please visit NEED’s curriculum correlations website.

Common Core State Standards This guide has been correlated to the Common Core State Standards in both language arts and mathematics. These correlations are broken down by grade level and guide title, and can be downloaded as a spreadsheet from the NEED curriculum correlations website.

Individual State Science Standards This guide has been correlated to each state’s individual science standards. These correlations are broken down by grade level and guide title, and can be downloaded as a spreadsheet from the NEED website.

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School Energy Inspectors Materials

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LESSON LESSON 1

ACTIVITY

MATERIALS IN KIT

The Energy I Used Today

Calculators

Forms and Sources of Energy

Calculators

Exploring Temperature

10 Student thermometers Indoor/outdoor thermometer 4 Digital thermometers

Conduction, Convection, and Radiation Demonstration

LESSON 2

Hygrometer Demonstration

Digital humidity/temperature pen (hygrometer)

Insulation Station

Digital thermometers Student thermometers

4 Mugs/cups of similar size and of different material Rubber bands Plastic wrap Hot water Stopwatch/timer Beaker or graduated cylinder

Dodging Drafts

Pencils Tape Tissue or crepe paper

Elementary Baseload Balance

Double pan or bucket balances Legos or weight sets Clock

Measuring Electricity Use

Kill A Watt® meter

Pluggable devices Calculators

Facts of Light

Incandescent bulb CFL bulb LED bulb Light meter (with battery) Kill A Watt® meter

1-3 Lamps

Building Buddies

Indoor/outdoor thermometer

School Audits

4 Digital thermometers 10 Student thermometers Digital humidity/temperature pen (hygrometer) Kill A Watt® meter Light meter

LESSON 4

LESSON 6 Building Buddy Energy Plan

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Ice water Room temperature water Hot water 2-3 Pieces of scrap paper per student Large buckets or boxes

LESSON 3

LESSON 5

ADDITIONAL MATERIALS NEEDED

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School Energy Inspectors Teacher Guide

Clipboards or folders Sticky name tags

Construction paper Cardstock Art supplies Stickers Random trinkets or prizes www.NEED.org

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Teacher Guide &Background

Grade Level Elementary, grades 3-5

 Time 10-12 class periods or less, depending on the activities selected and in-class and out-ofclass time used

&Introduction School Energy Inspectors is designed to help students observe and measure energy and develop an energy management and behavior plan for their elementary school. The activities in this unit have been designed in a series of lessons to build upon one another, providing all the information students need to conduct a student energy audit of the building, monitor energy use, and understand building operation.

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School Energy Inspectors introduces students to the concepts of energy, energy consumption, environmental effects of energy consumption, and conservation and efficiency. This series of activities involves hands-on learning, teaching others, monitoring energy use, and changing behaviors. Students will use the school as their real-world laboratory to explore how energy is consumed, and ultimately how energy can be conserved using technology and behavioral changes. The activities encourage the development of cooperative learning, math, science, language arts, technology, and critical thinking skills, as well as expose students to career and adult skills.

2Preparation Familiarize yourself with the Teacher Guide, the Student Guide, and the information for each activity. Make sure that you have a working knowledge of the information, definitions, and conversions. Familiarize yourself with the equipment in the kit. Procure materials needed that are not included within the kit (see chart on page 5). Also included in this guide are two reinforcement activities – Energy Efficiency Bingo and Conservation in the Round. These formative assessments are fun additions to the content and can be used as introductory activities or assessments throughout. Familiarize yourself with the instructions on pages 22-24 and make copies of pages 44-47 as needed. Make copies or digital masters of the following pages in the Teacher Guide for projection: MASTER

TEACHER GUIDE PAGE

The Energy I Used Today

31

Forms of Energy

32-33

U.S. Energy Consumption by Source, 2017

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Energy We Use

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Thermometer

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 Home Kit

Student Thermometer

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Managing Home Energy Use is an at-home supplement to the energy consumption activities in this guide. Managing Home Energy Use follows the same format as this guide and expands on the efficiency and conservation knowledge gained while using the home as the learning laboratory. Additional home kit materials can be purchased as well. For more information, visit shop.NEED.org.

Hygrometer

38

Transporting Electricity

39

Kill A Watt® Meter

40

The Light Meter

41

Reccomended Light Levels

42

Building Buddies Calendar

43

Energy Efficiency Bingo

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Conservation in the Round Cards

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School Energy Inspectors Teacher Guide

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 Additional Resources The data in this curriculum comes mostly from the Energy Saver website, http://energy.gov/energysaver/energy-saver. This website has additional information, maps, and statistics that the students can use. Copies of the Energy Saver Guide may be downloaded from the Energy Saver website. NEED’s Blueprint for School Energy Teams is an excellent resource to couple with this guide as you begin studying the efficiency of your buildings. The blueprint helps teachers and school staff to utilize their students to create energy teams and affect energy change in their buildings.

@Science Notebooks This unit refers to students using science notebooks to record their questions, hypotheses, data, observations, and conclusions as they work through each activity. If your students are not familiar with science notebooking, they may use the student worksheets in the Student Guide for guidance. Rubrics for assessing student work can be found on page 19.

Lesson 1 – Introduction to Energy Use &Background In this introductory lesson, students are introduced to forms of energy, sources of energy, energy consumers (sectors of the economy), and energy efficiency and conservation. These activities aim to help students summarize information in the student text and provide a foundation for understanding how technology helps us use less energy (energy efficiency), and how our behaviors can affect our energy consumption (energy conservation).

Objectives Students will be able to list the forms of energy and sources of energy. Students will be able to describe different ways in which we use energy in society. Students will be able to describe efficiency and conservation, and categorize an energy saving measure as either efficiency or conservation.

Concepts Energy is the ability to do work or make change. Energy exists in many forms. To use energy, it is often transformed from one form to another several times. Sectors of the economy use energy differently. Energy efficiency relates to how much energy machines use to do work. Energy conservation is modifying behavior to save energy.

 Time 1-2 class periods

Materials Calculators The Energy I Used Today master, page 31 Forms of Energy masters, pages 32-33 U.S. Energy Consumption by Source, 2017 master, page 34 Student Guide, pages 2-23

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2Preparation Make copies of the student pages as needed. Print the Today in Energy Cards from the Student Guide so that each student or group has one set. Pre-cut the cards and fold on the dotted line, or ask students to do this together. Prepare copies of the masters to project and discuss.

Procedure 1. Introduce the unit to students, explaining that this unit will help them understand more about energy and how we use it, and how students and staff can work together to reduce the energy used in the building. Remind students that many of the things they learn in this unit at school can be used at home, too. 2. To get students engaged in thinking about energy, hand out The Energy I Used Today student pages. Explain to students that they will circle all the items they used this morning and used when they got home after school yesterday. Project the master and have students tally up their total energy use in energy bucks. A total score of 45 or below is considered very good in terms of energy savings. Discuss as a class what students might have to do to cut down their score. Ask students what part of their day is missing from the list (school time). Ask students to come up with a list of ways in which they use energy in school or see energy being used at school. 3. Introduce the student informational text on energy, and ask students to read pages 2-5 individually, or read it as a class. Discuss that energy is the ability to do work or make a change. We use energy in many forms to help us do many different types of work. 4. Display the Forms of Energy masters and discuss the differences between potential and kinetic energy and the various forms of energy. Encourage students to write their own examples in their notebooks or on the blank student pages. 5. Introduce or review the sources of energy by asking students to complete the matching activity on page 16 of the Student Guide. Have students read pages 6-9 of the informational text to learn more about the sources of energy. Make sure to reinforce or define renewable vs. nonrenewable for students, and/or have them complete page 17 of the Student Guide. 6. Introduce the Forms and Sources of Energy activity, providing as much guidance for students as is necessary (answers can be found on page 20). Display the U.S. Energy Consumption by Source, 2017 master and discuss how each source is used and the forms of energy within each one. 7. Explain that we use energy in society to produce light, create sound, make heat, power technology, and to make things move or grow. Ask students to create a list of the ways they see these things happening in homes, schools, businesses, nature, and more. Make sure to focus a bit of time on the school. Show students the Energy We Use master and compare it to their list. 8. Hand out a set of Today in Energy Cards by asking students to flip over the card based on what they presently do in their day-to-day activities. Make sure to discuss student choices and have students complete the Today in Energy Chart, if you like, from the Student Guide. Ask students what parts of their day are missing. 9. Introduce the terms energy efficiency and energy conservation, by reading or reviewing the student text on page 7. Guide students through the activity on page 23 of the Student Guide. 10. Ask students to revist their Today in Energy Cards, this time considering energy conservation behaviors. Discuss as a class which items they could more easily turn over, and which items might be more difficult, and why.

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Lesson 2 – Understanding Thermal Energy

 Additional Resources

&Background Lesson 2 focuses on thermal energy (heat), and how it is transferred. Students are introduced to conduction, convection, radiation, and insulation, while reinforcing measurement of temperature using the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales.

Objectives Students will be able to identify conduction, convection, and radiation examples around them. Students will be able to describe how different surfaces can transfer thermal energy (heat) differently. Students will be able to identify good insulators and describe the role of insulation in energy savings.

Concepts Thermal energy is the energy of moving particles. Gases have more thermal energy relative to solids. All substances have some thermal energy.

For additional explorations on thermal energy transfer and temperature measurement, download NEED’s EnergyWorks guides. As a fun challenge, have the class complete NEED’s Energy House. Students will work in teams to build a cardboard house that is well insulated and can hold temperature, while observing the prescribed budget and building code. Download these titles for free in PDF format by visiting shop.NEED.org.

Thermal energy always transfers from high temperature to low temperature. Thermal energy is transferred via three mechanisms: conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction is transfer of thermal energy via direct contact with a warmer object. Convection is transfer of thermal energy via a moving fluid, such as water or air. Radiation is transfer of thermal energy via radiating waves, known as infrared radiation. Thermal insulators block or slow down the transfer of thermal energy. Temperature is measured primarily with two temperature scales. The Fahrenheit scale is used in the United States, and the Celsius scale is used world-wide.

2-4 class periods

Materials Student thermometers Indoor/outdoor thermometer Digital thermometers Ice water Room temperature water Hot water Scrap paper 2 Buckets or boxes 4 Mugs or cups of similar size, but different nonmetallic material (ceramic, plastic, paper, foam, or glass)

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When the procedure calls for: ice water, use water <7°C or <45°F room temperature water, use water between 20-22°C or 6872°F hot water, use water just under boiling (the teacher should handle the container for hot water)

 Time

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 ! Safety Note

Rubber bands Beaker or graduated cylinder Plastic wrap Stopwatch or timer Pencils Tape Tissue paper or crepe paper Thermometer master, page 36 Student Thermometer master, page 37 Hygrometer master, page 38 Student Guide pages 24-38

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2Preparation Gather all materials needed for each of the activities, setting up experiment stations for the temperature and insulation activities if needed. If you are able, ask a building manager, energy manager, or facilities personnel member to talk to students about where insulation is found in their classroom and around the building. Crumple pieces of scrap paper ahead of time for the demonstration activity, if desired. Students can quickly do this also. Prepare copies of the masters to project. Make copies of student pages as needed. Set up the indoor/outdoor thermometer so that students can visibly see and record the classroom and outdoor temperatures.

Procedure 1. Use the Thermometer master to explain how to read a thermometer and the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales. Use the Student Thermometer master to show students the range of the thermometer they will be using in the kit. 2. Have students complete the Exploring Temperature activity on page 32 of the Student Guide, obtaining the actual temperature readings of the classroom, outdoors, and two temperatures of water, using the student thermometers, indoor/outdoor thermometer, and digital thermometers for liquids. Use the Thermometer master to explain how to convert temperature from Celsius to Fahrenheit and vice versa. 3. Explain to students that thermal energy, or heat, is always on the move, moving from higher temperature areas to lower temperature areas, until everything balances. Explain that, as a class, you will model how heat can move. 4. Model conduction by having your students stand side-by-side in a line, with one bucket or box at each end of the line. Place all the paper wads in one box. Explain to the students that the paper represents thermal energy, and the box with all the paper is hotter because it has more thermal energy than the empty box. Tell students they, standing in a line, are a conductor from one box to another. Students should make sure they can easily pass paper wads between them, and if not, they should adjust their positions. When you say begin, students begin passing paper wads along the “conductor” (the line of students) until all the “heat” (the paper wads) is distributed evenly between the two buckets and the students. It may be helpful to know how many pieces of paper you are using, or you can just visually estimate the distribution of the paper. Tell students that when they have the thermal energy evenly distributed, both buckets and the conductor between them are all the same temperature and energy is no longer being transferred. 5. Model convection by having the students move in a long, narrow circle. Place the buckets on opposite sides of the room and indicate a circular pathway the students should move in. Place all the “heat” in one bucket. Explain to students that the full bucket is hotter than the empty bucket. To transfer the energy by convection, students will pick up some “heat” from the full bucket and carry it in the pathway you indicate to the empty bucket. Students will continue to do this until the “heat” is evenly distributed among the buckets and students. At that point everything is the same temperature and energy transfer stops. 6. Radiation is modeled in the most fun way of all! To model radiation, you will stand at the front of the room holding one bucket. You can have another student hold the other bucket if you wish, and you can each have a partner to help you “radiate” if you wish. Students will be given the “heat.” They are hotter than you and the buckets, and they should radiate the energy toward you by throwing it to the buckets. You or your partner then radiate some of it back until the energy is evenly distributed. This models radiation in that it is the least efficient way to transfer energy to a specific object, and shows how other objects (the floor, for example) get heated as well. 7. Instruct students to return all of their crumpled paper to the recycling bin. Review the student text on pages 24-28 if you need to ensure understanding of the movement of heat/thermal energy. 8. Explain to the class that all three of these methods of heat transfer can play a big role in how comfortable we are in the classroom. If our class is next to the boiler room, the walls may conduct some thermal energy through them. This will then make the room feel warmer, because that heat is able to radiate into the classroom. And, if we are in a classroom on the second floor, the temperature is often warmer, because the thermal energy rises and the cool air sinks through convection. All of these methods can work together to make a room feel colder or warmer than the thermostat may say.

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9. Have students create the foldable graphic organizer from the Student Guide, pages 33-34. 10. Ask students if they have ever used an insulated mug. Ask them to explain why the mug is insulated. Explain to the class that insulators slow down thermal energy or heat movement. They help us keep hot and cold separate. 11. Ask students to complete the Insulation Station activity. Students can collect and share data as a classroom, conduct the activity in centers, or you can piece together additional thermometers to create multiple set-ups if necessary. Digital thermometers will make temperature readings more seamless in the time frame, but student thermometers can also be used. Discuss the results as a class, explaining that buildings use insulation to serve the same purpose as the cups. Review the student text section on insulators and insulation. Different materials can be used in different places within the home, or within the country, to keep the cool and warm air separate. Remind students insulation can be effective in cold or warm climates, if heating and cooling systems are used. 12. As an assessment, have the students complete the Insulation Assessment on page 36 of the Student Guide. 13. Remind students that thermal energy is always on the move. When we have cracks or openings in a building air will flow into the building or out of the building all the time. It’s why your parents probably always ask you to shut the door behind you on a hot day with the A/C on! Tell the class that in the next activity they will look for areas where air can leak into or out of cracks in the building. 14. Demonstrate to the class how to assemble their draft -finder tool, by taping a piece of crepe or tissue paper onto the end of the pencil, as shown on the Dodging Drafts worksheet on pages 37-38 of the Student Guide. Allow students time to peruse the classrooms, hallways, or additional spaces, as allowable, and record their data. Discuss as a class. 15. Show students the hygrometer. Explain that adding moisture to the air can help it hold its temperature. Too much or not enough moisture in a room can also help the room feel colder or warmer than the thermostat says. Explain how to use the hygrometer, displaying the Hygrometer master. Allow students an opportunity to use it, if needed. Make sure to have students review the text section on moisture and ventilation. Discuss a time they noticed a space that was too dry or too humid.

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 Additional Resources Check out NEED’s ElectroWorks at shop.NEED.org for more activities and hands-on fun that will give students more insight into electricity and magnetism.

Lesson 3 – Understanding Electrical Energy &Background In this lesson, students are introduced to electricity and electrical devices and the basic units for measuring electricity: current, voltage, and watts. Efficiency of appliances is introduced briefly. Students will also measure how much electrical energy devices at school use. Students who are able can begin to try to calculate the cost to use a device over time, just as the utility company may bill, in kilowatt-hours. Students who are not yet ready for the math can make inferences and predictions based on their data collections.

Objectives Students will be able to list ways they use electricity. Students will be able to explain how electricity is generated and transported. Students will be able to measure and infer or calculate which devices will use more electricity than others and cost more than others.

Concepts Electricity and magnetism are related. Generators create electricity in a power plant. Electric utilities bill schools for their electrical energy use. Not all devices use the same amount of energy. Some are more efficient and earn an ENERGY STAR® rating. All plug-in devices use at least a small amount of energy. These devices can add up to big savings when turned off.

 Time 1-2 class periods, plus an additional class period for Baseload Balance, if needed

Materials Kill A Watt® Meter master, page 40 Student Guide, pages 39-51

Kill A Watt® meter Pluggable devices Calculators (optional) Transporting Electricity master, page 39

2Preparation Gather materials needed for the activities, including a wide variety of pluggable appliances and devices found in school for using with the meter. Printers, computers, charging stations, copy machines, small refrigerators, etc., make good test subjects. Make sure they are safe for students to use and manipulate. Prepare copies of the masters to project and discuss. Familiarize yourself with the Kill A Watt® meter and its controls. Make copies of the student activities as needed. Read through the information for Elementary Baseload Balance and decide if you will use it. The instructions and suggested materials can be found on pages 25-30 of this guide.

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Procedure 1. To get students thinking about electricity, have students complete the writing activity, Life Without Electricity on page 47 in the Student Guide. Have students share their thoughts in small groups or as a class. 2. Have students read the student text as a class or individually about electricity on pages 39-43 of the Student Guide. Review vocabulary and concepts as needed. Explain that moving electrons can create magnetic fields, and vice versa. This is called electromagnetism, and it is how we can generate electricity at a power plant. 3. Project the Transporting Electricity master and discuss how electricity is moved from power plant to customers. Allow students to write the descriptions in their own words in their notebooks or in the Student Guide on page 48. 4. Explain to students that utility companies have to make sure we have power available as customers all day, every day. This is a good time to incorporate Elementary Baseload Balance if you choose to do so. 5. Have students read the student text sections on watts, appliances, and the environment on pages 44-46. For students with some prior background, you may discuss common vocabulary used when measuring electricity: current, voltage, and power (watts). Current describes how fast the electrons are moving, and voltage describes the force that moves them. Explain to students that power or watts is a measurement that combines current and voltage. We measure a device’s energy consumed or power in watts. 6. Project the Kill A Watt® Meter master. Discuss its use with students. Review electrical safety in the student text, if necessary, and give students an opportunity to each measure a device. 7. For students with more math aptitude, record the data on the board from each device. Guide them in filling in the Measuring Electricity Use activity and completing the calculations or allow them to proceed with basic instruction. 8. For students with developing math skills, prompt the class to predict or find a device that measures less than 10 watts, 10–100 watts, 100–500 watts, 500-1000 watts, and over 1000 watts. Record each item on the board with its wattage. Ask the class how each item is used, and how often it is used, and then ask the students to write about which items they think will cost the most to use.

 Extensions Have your students go out into their neighborhood or community and photograph, from a safe distance, the different parts of electricity transmission systems that they see. Ask students to complete the Measuring Electricity Use activity again and look closely at each device for its changes in wattage during use in various modes or cycles (i.e., a copier in standby vs. a copier in use, or a laptop at full charge vs. a laptop charging). Have students hunt for “phantom loads” by looking for devices that are off/not it use and still drawing wattage. Ask students to discuss why they think this happens and to list or infer devices at home that might do this, too.

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Lesson 4 – Understanding Lighting &Background Lighting used to be simple. We would buy bulbs based on their wattage, and schools and offices used long fluorescent tubes for light. That was that. Then in 2007, The Energy Independence and Security Act was passed, changing lighting for many, and mandating better efficiency in lighting options. Now, we have a variety of lighting choices, which can be confusing. This lesson helps students understand the types of lighting available for purchase, and those that may still be in homes, allowing students to compare how they work, their efficiency, and their cost to use.

Objectives Students will be able to describe how different light bulb types produce light. Students will be able to compare and contrast light bulb types for efficiency and cost.

Concepts Light fixtures and light bulbs transform electrical energy into radiant energy, but they do it different ways. Old-style incandescent bulbs using filaments are 90 percent inefficient and have been replaced with more efficient lighting. Simply changing a light bulb in a fixture can dramatically reduce the amount of electrical energy used in a building. Light bulbs should be compared according to the lumens emitted, found on the Lighting Facts label, and not by the wattage as was done years ago.

 Time 1-2 class periods

Materials Incandescent bulb CFL bulb LED bulb Kill A Watt® meter Light meter (with battery)

1 to 3 Lamps Recommended Light Levels, page 42 Calculators (optional) Light Meter master, page 41 Student Guide, pages 52-58

2Preparation Gather the materials needed to conduct the activities. Prepare copies of the masters to project. Make copies of the student pages as needed.

Procedure 1. Ask the class what kinds of light bulbs they see in their homes. Help them to identify the lighting they might use indoors and outdoors, and use the classroom to serve as a model, where needed. Ask students to predict how many light bulbs they have in their home. 2. Have students read the student text individually or as a class. 3.

Project the Light Meter master, and show students the light meter. Give each student an opportunity to measure the light level in a different part of the room, hallway, etc, and report their findings. Project the Recommended Light Levels master or refer to the Recommended Light Levels handout in the Student Guide to determine if the space is correctly lit. Discuss that the unit they are using is foot-candles, or the distance (in feet) that the light moves away from the candle or light source.

4. Plug in your lamp or lamps with the CFL, LED, and incandescent bulbs inserted. Then plug each into the Kill A Watt® meter. Demonstrate to students how they all are meant to provide roughly the same brightness, but all use different amounts of energy. 5. Have students complete the Facts of Light activities on pages 56-58 of the Student Guide.

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6.

Review the fairy tale “Goldie Locks and the Three Bears.” Ask students to work in a small group to write their own version of the story using the three types of lighting explored in the earlier activities: incandescent, CFL, and LED. It may be helpful to provide guidelines on length, amount of creative license students are allowed to take in their writing, and vocabulary used. Provide a rubric of your own or modify our sample group work rubric on page 19 to fit the story assignment.

Lesson 5 – Energy Systems Working Together &Background Just like a team works together, systems in a building work together. For example, a heating system in the building requires a fuel for heat (natural gas, or fuel oil), and an electrical system to distribute the energy around the building. If a building’s windows are open to let in fresh air, the heating system will work overtime to heat the space that is now cool and fresh. Weather and occupants can also work with the building or against it. In this lesson, students will analyze how systems work together in a building, and begin to monitor their building and daily conditions to look for systems and/or occupants that might not be allowing all of the building to operate efficiently.

Objectives Students will be able to explain how one energy-using system in a building might affect another. Students will be able to keep track of data and record observations.

Concepts Energy systems use more than one form of energy. Buildings require a group of system components that work together to keep its occupants comfortable and working well. If one system within a building does not function properly, the others may not operate efficiently.

 Time 1 class period

Materials Indoor/outdoor thermometer

Building Buddies Calendar, page 43

Student Guide, pages 59-64

2Preparation Preview the lesson to anticipate student questions. It may be helpful to gather some basic knowledge about the energy consuming systems in your school building to relate the fictional texts in this lesson to students’ own experiences. Make copies of the student pages as needed. Decide if you will create your own Building Buddies Calendar or use the template on page 43. You may choose to make this a digital file, in which students can record data and access at any time. You may also wish to have students add small items or tasks to the calendar.

Procedure 1. Introduce the lesson by asking students to brainstorm energy consuming systems in your school. List their ideas on the board. 2. Have students read the Energy at School story. Have the class make a venn diagram comparing energy at school today and in the past. 3. Ask students to read A Tale of Two Schools. As they read they should underline or highlight differences between the two schools in the stories. Encourage students to compare notes and make an action plan for Jackson based on their notes from Hopper. 4. Have students brainstorm ways in which they know their classroom, or another classroom, might be able to be more efficient in their energy use.

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5. Show students the calendar. Remind students that each of the items on the list impacts how their whole school uses energy, including behaviors! Ask the class to come up with a list of behaviors that make them good Building Buddies. Ask if there is anything they might like to add to the calendar. Post the list of Building Buddy Behaviors you created and the calendar prominently in the classroom or digitally for all to access. Assign a new student each day to record and enter data.

Lesson 6 – Surveying and Auditing Energy Use &Background By this point in the unit, students may begin to recognize that they are a big part of the energy system in their school. However, they may also feel somewhat powerless in creating change, as the building contains many occupants and systems that they do not control. One way students can take control and create some change is by conducting a student energy audit, and coupled with their Building Buddy Behaviors list, create a school-wide Building Buddy Energy Plan. Students will hone their leadership skills as they collect data, evaluate classrooms and occupants for their behavior, and share their findings with the school.

Objectives Students will be able to keep track of data and record observations. Students will be able to use energy tools to audit school spaces with guidance. Students will be able to list and describe positive energy-related behaviors.

Concepts All buildings use energy. Many areas in a school use energy the same ways, such as from one classroom to another, and others use energy very differently, such as in the cafeteria or gymnasium. Even the most efficiently equipped schools can reduce the amount of energy used.

 Time 1-2 class periods for introduction, modeling, and discussion, and several blocks of 15-30 minutes for student groups to gather data

Materials Student thermometers Digital thermometers Digital humidity/temperature pen (hygrometer) Kill A Watt® meter Light meter Clipboards or folders

Sticky name tags Construction paper Cardstock Art supplies Stickers Trinkets or prizes, as needed Kill A Watt® Meter master, page 40

Light Meter master, page 41 Reccomended Light Levels master, page 42 Hygrometer master, page 38 Student Guide, pages 65-71 Additional copies of School Audit form, Student Guide, pages 67-68, as needed

2Preparation Familiarize yourself with all of the audit tools again, as needed (Kill A Watt® meter, light meter, hygrometer, digital thermometers). Prepare digital copies of the masters to project during discussion and instructions. Ahead of your audit times/days, communicate with other teachers and staff in your building to inform them of what your students are doing. Seek permission to enter their rooms and work spaces to gather data. It is ideal to have spaces audited while the rooms are in use, and while the rooms are empty/unused for comparison.

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Communicate and coordinate with your building manager, facilities personnel, or district energy manager about your audit days/times. These individuals may be able to work with your students and offer interesting insight and data, while serving as student helpers and guides. Predetermine student groupings of 3-5 students. Assign each group a work area or segment of the building that consists of at least one classroom and one other non-classroom space (library, cafeteria, office, etc.). Work out how each group will audit and which tool(s) each group will use. Arrange for additional staff, parent volunteers, or older students to guide your students into their audit spaces, if needed. Design a set of audit rules and regulations ahead of student audits. If necessary, make a handout for students to carry, reminding them of positive and respectful behavior as they move through the building. Make as many copies of the School Audit Form as needed for each group. Decide if you wish for each student in the group to record data, or if you will designate one student as the recorder. Gather clipboards or folders and writing utensils for student groups. Assemble their audit clipboard or folders, and label each of the spaces they will audit. Make a set of “Student Auditor” name tags or stickers for students to wear while auditing.

Procedure 1. Project the masters of each of the audit tools and review how each is used. Decide as a group which temperature scale you will use to record temperatures. HVAC professionals will use Fahrenheit, so this may be the best scale for student data, too. 2. Discuss your audit rules and regulations with the class and break students into their groups. Assign roles within each group, as needed. Review your classroom list of Building Buddy Behaviors. Remind students they will be looking for these things and recording energy consumption data. 3. Practice following the rules and filling out a sample audit form in your own classroom. 4. Make sure students have the tools they need and send them on their audits. 5. When students return, ask each group to complete the Energy at School worksheet. Discuss as a class. 6. Further class discussion by asking each group to report their audit findings and point out at least one positive and negative energy use they saw in their spaces. Make a list of the positives and negatives on the board or screen for students to see. Save this list for later. 7. Review your classroom Building Buddy Behaviors as a class and take note of any items that could help in other spaces in the building. Ask students to identify other behaviors and changes students, teachers, or the school could make to help in other spaces schoolwide. Complete the Building Buddy Energy Plan, recording a few tasks or behaviors for each space. Create your own version as a class, if needed, to allow for extra space, or prioritizing of information based on your building structure. Make copies for students to post around the building. 8. Ask the class to design stickers, certificates, door knob hangers, etc., to use to remind teachers and students in each space of the positive behaviors they see, and to remind students and teachers when they are neglecting certain behaviors. Download NEED’s Blueprint for School Energy Teams for sample templates if needed. Designate times of the day or week to distribute these items. 9. Allow students to continue auditing their spaces, or designate one to three students per day or week to become the Building Buddy Auditors who observe the Energy Plan in action, rewarding or reminding students, teachers, or spaces of their success and challenges. They may wear sashes, similar to safety monitors, and carry prizes, certificates, and stickers as they travel. 10. Conduct an audit again after several weeks or months of your Energy Plan in action. As a class, revisit the positives and negatives list from their first audit. Ask them to compare and contrast this list with the most recent results. Ask the class if they should adjust their Energy Plan or their rewards structure to lower energy use further, or focus on certain behaviors.

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 Unit Extensions and Assessments Ask students to create Most Wanted posters or Superhero posters to increase awareness of habits and behaviors. You may have students focus on wasteful behaviors, or positive behaviors. Have students take pictures of themselves or the subjects of their poster and record their crimes OR their super behaviors. Decorate the posters and hang around the building. For an example of this activity, visit NEED’s Energy Games and Icebreakers Guide at shop.NEED.org. NOTE: if using other people as the subjects for a Most Wanted poster, it may be necessary to ask permission first. Revisit the Today in Energy Efficiency activity and The Energy I Used Today activities and ask students how their behaviors might have adjusted. Use the Energy Efficiency Bingo and Energy Conservation in the Round as reinforcement activities, formative assessments, or interest grabbers throughout your unit. Instructions and activities can be found on pages 22-24. Have students learn energy conservation songs from NEED’s Energy Songbook, at shop.NEED.org. Students can write their own songs about energy conservation. Have students write persuasive letters or create PSA video spots to encourage the behaviors on their Building Buddy Energy Plan. Adopt a younger grade in the building to share energy tips and practice auditing. Have students create picture books, coloring sheets, or handouts to help the younger students. Student energy audits lend themselves very nicely to a NEED Youth Awards project. Audits and energy plans can provide an avenue for your students to further develop their leadership and presentation skills, while being rewarded for their efforts. For more information, visit www.NEED.org/youth-awards. Evaluate student work using the rubrics on page 19 or create your own. Evaluate the unit using the evaluation form on page 51 and return it to NEED.

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Assessment and Evaluation  Student Reporting Form or Science Notebook Rubric This is a sample rubric that can be used with student reporting forms or science notebooks. You may choose to only assess one area at a time, or look at an investigation as a whole. It is suggested that you share this rubric with students and discuss the different components ahead of time.

SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS

SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY

DATA/OBSERVATIONS

CONCLUSIONS

4

Written explanations illustrate accurate and thorough understanding of scientific concepts.

The student independently conducts investigations and designs and carries out his or her own investigations.

Comprehensive data is collected and thorough observations are made. Diagrams, charts, tables, and graphs are used appropriately. Data and observations are presented clearly and neatly with appropriate labels.

The student clearly communicates what was learned and uses strong evidence to support reasoning. The conclusion includes application to real life situations.

3

Written explanations illustrate an accurate understanding of most scientific concepts.

The student follows procedures accurately to conduct given investigations, begins to design his or her own investigations.

Necessary data is collected. Observations are recorded. Diagrams, charts, tables, and graphs are used appropriately most of the time. Data is presented clearly.

The student communicates what was learned and uses some evidence to support reasoning.

2

Written explanations illustrate a limited understanding of scientific concepts.

The student may not conduct an investigation completely, parts of the inquiry process are missing.

Some data is collected. The student may lean more heavily on observations. Diagrams, charts, tables, and graphs may be used inappropriately or have some missing information.

The student communicates what was learned but is missing evidence to support reasoning.

1

Written explanations illustrate an inaccurate understanding of scientific concepts.

The student needs significant support to conduct an investigation.

Data and/or observations are missing or inaccurate.

The conclusion is missing or inaccurate.

 Group Work Rubric This is a sample rubric that can be used to assess group recommendation projects for Lesson 6. Ask students to help devise a rubric to asses their group work on data collection and/or class discussions throughout the audit process. This is a sample rubric that can be used to assess group recommendation projects for Lesson 6.

CONTENT

ORGANIZATION

ORIGINALITY

WORKLOAD

4

Project covers the topic in-depth with many details and examples. Subject knowledge is excellent.

Content is very well organized and presented in a logical sequence.

Project shows much original thought. Ideas are creative and inventive.

The workload is divided and shared equally by all members of the group.

3

Project includes essential information about the topic. Subject knowledge is accurate.

Content is organized in a logical sequence.

Project shows some original work. Work shows new ideas and insights.

The workload is divided and shared fairly equally by all group members, but workloads may vary.

2

Project includes essential information about the topic, but there are 1-2 factual errors.

Content is logically organized but may have a few confusing sections.

Project provides essential information, but there is little evidence of original thinking.

The workload is divided, but one person in the group is viewed as not doing a fair share of the work.

1

Project includes minimal information or there are several factual errors.

There is no clear organizational structure, just a compilation of facts.

Project provides some essential information, but no original thought.

The workload is not divided, or it is evident that one person is doing a significant amount of the work.

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Answer Keys Energy Source Matching | STUDENT GUIDE PAGE 16 9, 7, 8, 3, 2, 4, 5, 1, 10, 6

Forms and Sources of Energy | STUDENT GUIDE PAGE 18 Part 1 Nonrenewable

Renewable

Petroleum – chemical

Biomass – chemical

Coal – chemical

Hydropower – motion

Natural Gas – chemical

Wind – motion

Uranium – nuclear

Solar – radiant

Propane – chemical

Geothermal – thermal

Part 2 Chemical – 85% Nuclear – 9% Motion – 5% Radiant – 1% Thermal – 1% Nonrenewable – 89% Renewable – 12%

Transporting Electricity | STUDENT GUIDE PAGE 48 1. Power Plant: Site of electric power generation 2. Step-up transformer: Voltage from the power plant is increased dramatically for transmission 3. Transmission line: Carries very high voltage power over large distances 4. Power tower: Supports very high voltage lines 5. Step-down transformer: Reduces voltage of electricity for local distribution 6. Distribution line: Carries power from transmission lines to neighborhoods and businesses 7. Neighborhood transformer: Reduces voltage to safer level for home use

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Facts of Light | STUDENT GUIDE PAGE 56 COST OF BULB

INCANDESCENT BULB

HALOGEN

COMPACT FLUORESCENT (CFL)

LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED)

1,000 hours

3,000 hours

10,000 hours

25,000 hours

25 bulbs

8.3 bulbs

2.5 bulbs

1 bulb

$0.50

$1.50

$1.50

$1.33

$12.50

$12.45

$3.75

$1.33

COST OF ELECTRICITY

INCANDESCENT BULB

HALOGEN

COMPACT FLUORESCENT (CFL)

LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED)

Total Hours

25,000 hours

25,000 hours

25,000 hours

25,000 hours

60 watts = 0.060 kW

43 watts = 0.043 kW

13 watts = 0.013 kW

12 watts = 0.012 kW

1,500 kWh

1,075 kWh

325 kWh

300 kWh

$0.129

$0.129

$0.129

$0.129

$193.35

$138.57

$41.89

$38.67

INCANDESCENT BULB

HALOGEN

COMPACT FLUORESCENT (CFL)

LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED)

Cost of bulbs

$12.50

$12.45

$3.75

$1.33

+

Cost of electricity

$193.35

$138.57

$41.89

$38.67

=

Life cycle cost

$205.85

$151.02

$45.64

$40.00

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

INCANDESCENT BULB

HALOGEN

COMPACT FLUORESCENT (CFL)

LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED)

Total kWh consumption

1,500 kWh

1,075 kWh

325 kWh

300 kWh

x

Pounds (lbs) of carbon dioxide per kWh

1.6 lb/kWh

1.6 lb/kWh

1.6 lb/kWh

1.6 lb/kWh

=

Pounds of carbon dioxide produced

520.0 lbs carbon dioxide

480.0 lbs carbon dioxide

Life of bulb (how long it will light) Number of bulbs to get 25,000 hours x

Price per bulb

=

Cost of bulbs for 25,000 hours of light

x

Wattage

=

Total kWh consumption

x

Price of electricity per kWh

=

Cost of Electricity

LIFE CYCLE COST

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2,400.0 lbs carbon dioxide 1,720.0 lbs carbon dioxide

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Energy Efficiency

Energy Efficiency Bingo is a great icebreaker for a NEED workshop or conference. As a classroom activity, it also makes a great introduction to an energy unit.

2Preparation 5 minutes

Time 45 minutes

BINGO

Instructions

Get Ready Duplicate as many Energy Efficiency Bingo sheets (found on page 44) as needed for each person in your group. In addition, decide now if you want to give the winner of your game a prize and what the prize will be.

Get Set Pass out one Energy Efficiency Bingo sheet to each member of the group.

Go PART ONE: FILLING IN THE BINGO SHEETS Give the group the following instructions to create bingo cards:

Bingos are available on several different topics. Check out these resources for more bingo options! Biomass Bingo—Energy Stories and More Change a Light Bingo—Energy Conservation Contract Coal Bingo—Coal guides Energy Bingo—Energy Games and Icebreakers Forms of Energy Bingo— Science of Energy Hydropower Bingo— Hydropower guides Hydrogen Bingo—H2 Educate Nuclear Energy Bingo— Nuclear guides Oil and Natural Gas Bingo— Oil and Natural Gas guides Solar Bingo—Solar guides Transportation Bingo— Transportation guides Wind Energy Bingo—Wind guides

This bingo activity is very similar to regular bingo. However, there are a few things you’ll need to know to play this game. First, please take a minute to look at your bingo sheet and read the 16 statements at the top of the page. Shortly, you’ll be going around the room trying to find 16 people about whom the statements are true so you can write their names in one of the 16 boxes. When I give you the signal, you’ll get up and ask a person if a statement at the top of your bingo sheet is true for them. If the person gives what you believe is a correct response, write the person’s name in the corresponding box on the lower part of the page. For example, if you ask a person question “D” and he or she gives you what you think is a correct response, then go ahead and write the person’s name in box D. A correct response is important because later on, if you get bingo, that person will be asked to answer the question correctly in front of the group. If he or she can’t answer the question correctly, then you lose bingo. So, if someone gives you an incorrect answer, ask someone else! Don’t use your name for one of the boxes or use the same person’s name twice. Try to fill all 16 boxes in the next 20 minutes. This will increase your chances of winning. After the 20 minutes are up, please sit down and I will begin asking players to stand up and give their names. Are there any questions? You’ll now have 20 minutes. Go! During the next 20 minutes, move around the room to assist the players. Every five minutes or so tell the players how many minutes are remaining in the game. Give the players a warning when just a minute or two remains. When the 20 minutes are up, stop the players and ask them to be seated.

PART TWO: PLAYING BINGO Give the class the following instructions to play the game: When I point to you, please stand up and in a LOUD and CLEAR voice give us your name. Now, if anyone has the name of the person I call on, put a big “X” in the box with that person’s name. When you get four names in a row—across, down, or diagonally—shout “Bingo!” Then I’ll ask you to come up front to verify your results. Let’s start off with you (point to a player in the group). Please stand and give us your name. (Player gives name. Let’s say the player’s name was “Joe.”) Okay, players, if any of you have Joe’s name in one of your boxes, go ahead and put an “X” through that box. When the first player shouts “Bingo,” ask him (or her) to come to the front of the room. Ask him to give his name. Then ask him to tell the group how his bingo run was made, e.g., down from A to M, across from E to H, and so on.

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Now you need to verify the bingo winner’s results. Ask the bingo winner to call out the first person’s name on his bingo run. That player then stands and the bingo winner asks him the question which he previously answered during the 20-minute session. For example, if the statement was “can name two renewable sources of energy,” the player must now name two sources. If he can answer the question correctly, the bingo winner calls out the next person’s name on his bingo run. However, if he does not answer the question correctly, the bingo winner does not have bingo after all and must sit down with the rest of the players. You should continue to point to players until another person yells “Bingo.”

BINGO

ENERGY EFFICIENCY A. Can name two ways to increase a car’s MPG

B. Can name three ways to save energy at home

C. Can name three ways to save energy at school

D. Has at least one ENERGY STAR® appliance at home

E. Knows the definition of energy efficiency

F. Knows the definition of energy conservation

G. Knows what an ENERGY STAR® label means

H. Knows what SEER is

I. Knows a type of bulb that uses one-quarter of the energy of incandescents

J. Knows where to find an EnergyGuide label

K. Can name two appliances that should be run only when fully loaded

L. Uses day lighting in the classroom instead of overhead lights

M. Sets this item differently at day and night and for the season

N. Knows the number one use of energy in the home

O. Has an energy conservation team at school

P. Knows whether energy is the first, second, or third highest expenditure in a school district (choose one)

A

B

C

Switch to CFLs or LEDs, use a programmable thermostat, wash clothes in cold water, etc.

Turn off computers/lights/ appliances when not in use, close doors and windows, etc.

E

F

G

Using technologies to continue activities at the same level while using less energy

Choosing to use less energy through alternative behaviors or actions

I

J

proper tire inflation, drive the speed limit, slow acceleration

CFL or LED

M programmable thermostat

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D ask for location/description

H The product meets energy efficiency requirements

K

seasonal energy efficiency ratio of cooling output by power consumption

L

On appliances and products for dishwasher and clothes washer homes and business

N

O heating/cooling

School Energy Inspectors Teacher Guide

ask for details

P ask for description/details

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second, the first is personnel

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Conservation in the Round

Conservation in the Round is a quick, entertaining game to reinforce information about energy sources, forms of energy, and general energy information from the Monitoring and Mentoring student informational text or the Intermediate Energy Infobook.

Grades 5–12

2 Preparation 5 minutes

 Time 20–30 minutes “In the Rounds” are available on several different topics. Check out these guides for more, fun “In the Round” examples! Coal in the Round—Coal guides Energy in the Round—Energy Games and Icebreakers Forms of Energy in the Round—Science of Energy guides

Get Ready Copy the Conservation in the Round cards on pages 45-47 onto card stock and cut into individual cards. Make an additional copy to use as your answer key. This page does not need to be cut into cards. Have the class refer to the informational text in the Student Guides for quick reference, or refer to the Intermediate Energy Infobook.

Get Set Distribute one card to each student. If you have cards left over, give some students two cards so that all of the cards are distributed. Have the students look at their bolded words at the top of the cards. Give them five minutes to review the information about their words from their Student Guides.

Go Choose a student to begin and give the following instructions: Read the question on your card. The student with the correct answer will stand up and read the bolded answer, “I have _____.” That student will then read the question on his/her card, and the round will continue until the first student stands up and answers a question, signaling the end of the round. If there is a disagreement about the correct answer, have the students listen to the question carefully looking for key words (forms versus sources, for example) and discuss until a consensus is reached about the correct answer.

Alternative Instructions Give each student or pair a set of cards. Students will put the cards in order, taping or arranging each card so that the answer is directly under the question. Have students connect the cards to fit in a circle or have them arrange them in a column.

Hydrogen in the Round—H2 Educate Oil and Natural Gas Industry in the Round—Fossil Fuels to Products, Exploring Oil and Natural Gas Solar Energy in the Round— Energy From the Sun Transportation Fuels in the Round—Transportation guides Uranium in the Round— Nuclear guides

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Elementary Baseload Balance  Introduction

&Background Most students don’t give electric power much thought until the power goes out. Electricity plays a giant role in our day-to-day lives. This activity demonstrates how electricity supply is adjusted to meet the demands of consumers. It also encourages students to explore the differences between baseload and peak demand power, and how energy source cost and availability factor into the decisions made in power generation. You will lead your students through a hypothetical day, consisting of morning, all day, evening, and night. As the time of the day changes, students are encouraged to think about how their energy use changes. Brass or plastic weight sets or plastic building bricks are used to represent power demand or power generation, and you can adjust the activity according to the age and abilities of your students. Some groups may be able to self-direct in this activity and determine the mass in grams or the number of plastic bricks to use, and others will need your guidance and direction. A simple, double-pan balance is used to show how demand for electricity is balanced with generation by electric power producers. NOTE: If you do not have access to a double-pan balance, you can download an alternative procedure at: www.NEED.org//Files/curriculum/Elementary_Baseload_Balance.pdf.

Objectives Students will be able to explain how demand for electricity changes throughout the day. Students will be able to list energy sources used for baseload generation and those that can be used for peak demand.

 Suggested Materials Double-pan balance Gram weight set OR plastic building blocks Clock Cheat Sheet, page 28 Balance Placards master, page 29 Peak Demand and Generation Cards master, page 30

2 Preparation In this activity, a five gram weight will represent 5 MW of load or generation. If your weight set has enough pieces to accommodate this activity, use it. If not, collect enough plastic building bricks, using a scale of one brick is equal to 5 MW of load or generation (two bricks of the same size equal 10 MW). Consult the Cheat Sheet to see how many you will need. If you use building bricks, you may want to designate one color for generation and one color for demand. If you teach younger students and decide to use bricks, you might assemble brick sets representing the different amounts of load or generation as written in the Procedure. Use a dry-erase marker to label them.

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A more thorough demonstration of this activity is played out in the original Baseload Balance, recommended for grades 6-12 and found in Exploring Coal and Exploring Wind. Download these resources at shop.NEED.org.

Grade Levels Primary, grades K-2 with guidance Elementary, grades 3-5

Time 30-45 minutes

Number of Students Any number of students can do this activity

Extensions Have students keep a daily log of things that are turned on and off throughout the day. They should list the time of day something is turned on and something is turned off. Discuss these lists and see how they compare to the changing demand in this activity. As a class, decide how you might update this activity to reflect your class’s energy use. Invite a representative from your utility company to talk to your class about managing demand for electricity and how the utility keeps up with changing consumer demand.

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Copy the Balance Placards. Cut them apart and fold them on the dotted line to make tent-style labels that stand up. Copy and cut apart the Peak Demand and Generation Cards. Designate one student to be the time keeper. That student will be responsible for indicating the time on the demonstration clock as you move through the activity.

Procedure 1. Start by explaining what demand, load, generation, baseload, and peak mean in this activity. Demand is our desire for electricity exactly when we want it. Load is the amount of electricity we pull from the grid. Generation is the amount of electricity that power plants produce. Baseload or base generation refer to electricity use or production at all times of the day or night, all year long. Peak demand or generation refer to electricity use or production that vary at different times of the day or night, and different times during the year. For example, hospitals use power all day and all night, and coal-fired power plants generate power all day and night. However, we may only use air conditioning during the warmer months and usually more in the afternoon and evening than in the morning. Some energy sources, like solar and wind, are only able to produce power at certain times of the day. Some energy sources, like hydropower and natural gas, can be used as base generation, and can increase their generation to meet peak demand. 2. Distribute the peak load or generation cards to students. Hand them as many weights or bricks as they need, or have them calculate what they need, depending on age and ability. 3. Place the balance on the table in front of you. Place the “Demand” card on one side of the balance such that students can read the word. Place the “Generation” card on the other side of the balance in a similar fashion. 4. Say, “All day and all night, we use electricity. Our refrigerators run, hospitals take care of people, and factories produce goods.” Place 115 MW worth of bricks or weights in the Demand pan. The balance will tip to the Demand side. 5. Say, “All day and all night, power plants produce electricity. Coal, natural gas, hydropower, and nuclear power plants run all day and all night, generating electricity.” Place 115 MW worth of bricks or weights in the Generation pan. The pans should now be balanced. 6. Say, “See how the two pans are balanced? Electric utility companies are careful to make only as much electricity as we will use. If they produce more electricity than needed, the energy is wasted and cannot be stored. If they don’t produce enough, some things we need will not be able to work correctly.” 7. Instruct the time keeper to set the clock to read 7:00. Say, “It is now 7:00 in the morning, and people are getting up to start their day. Who has the morning peak demand?” As this student comes to the table with the balance, ask students to think of things they use in the morning that need electricity. Answers may include things like a coffee maker, toaster, the lights in the bathroom, or an electric toothbrush. When the Morning Peak Demand student places the weights or bricks in the pan, the balance should tip toward Demand. 8. Say, “What will the power company do now?” Allow students a moment to think about what should be done. Allow them to see the card the Morning Peak Demand student had, and know how much demand was placed on the system. Ask students to come to a consensus about what peak power source(s) should be utilized to balance the scale. 9. The student(s) with the power source(s) to meet morning demand should place their weights or bricks in the Generation pan. The pans should now be balanced. 10. Say, “Utilities try to make sure they spend as little as possible while meeting demand. This way they don’t have to bill customers even more in the future. How much money did it cost to meet the morning demand? Do you wish to change the sources you used?” Allow students some time to discuss this and come to a consensus, adjusting the Generation pan as appropriate.

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11. Say, “Some things are turned on and run all day long, like lights at a school or computers at a business. Who has all day demand?” As this student comes to the front, ask students to think of things that we use during the day that use electricity. Answers may include things like television, computers, and any machines at school. The All Day Demand student should place the correct number of weights or bricks in the Demand pan. 12. Say, “What will the power company do now?” Allow students a moment to think about and come to a consensus about what should be done. Remind them to consider the cost of their choice. Students should add generation weights or bricks to balance the pans. 13. Instruct the time keeper to move the clock to 5:00. Say, “It’s now 5:00 and the end of the day. School is over, offices are closing, and people are going home for the day. What do we need to do to the Demand pan?” Allow students to think about what should be done, and come to a consensus. 14. As students remove the morning demand and perhaps the all day demand weights or bricks from the Demand side of the balance, the balance will tip toward the Generation pan. 15. Use your hand to equilibrate the balance so it’s even on both sides. Say, “Are there any other adjustments we need to make? Does someone have a card that says, ‘Evening Peak Demand’?” As that student comes forward, ask students to think of things that might be used in the evening, but not during the day. Ask students to guess whether evening demand would be less than, the same as, or greater than demand during the day. As the Evening Peak Demand student lays the appropriate weights or bricks in the Demand pan, hold the balance steady until students decide how demand will shift in the evening. Then remove your hand, allowing the balance to equilibrate. 16. Say, “What about generation? What will happen to the source(s) you have chosen to use to generate power during the day?” If students have chosen solar power, they will need to remove that from the generation side of the balance and replace it with something else. They may or may not need to add or subtract generation depending on what they did with the all day long demand. 17. Instruct the time keeper to move the clock to read 11:00. Finally, say, “It is now 11:00 pm, and everyone is in bed or will be in bed very soon. We are back to baseload and base generation.” Remove all of the peak demand weights or bricks, and remove excess generation weights or bricks, returning to the same amount you started with at steps 4-5. 18. Discuss with students how demand and generation changed throughout the day. Ask them how they think it changes from one month to the next, or how different seasons affect the demand and generation of electricity.

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27


Cheat Sheet Demand and Generation Equivalents MW Equivalent

Total mass of weights

Bricks needed (examples)

5

5 grams

1 2x2

10

10 grams

1 2x4 or 2 2x2

15

15 grams

1 2x2, 1 2x4

20

20 grams

2 2x4

25

25 grams

1 2x2, 2 2x4

30

30 grams

3 2x4

35

35 grams

1 2x2, 3 2x4

40

40 grams

4 2x4

45

45 grams

1 2x2, 4 2x4

50

50 grams

5 2x4

55

55 grams

1 2x2, 5 2x4

60

60 grams

6 2x4

65

65 grams

1 2x2, 6 2x4

70

70 grams

7 2x4

75

75 grams

1 2x2, 7 2x4

80

80 grams

8 2x4

85

85 grams

1 2x2, 8 2x4

90

90 grams

9 2x4

95

95 grams

1 2x2, 9 2x4

100

100 grams

10 2x4

105

105 grams

1 2x2, 10 2x4

110

110 grams

11 2x4

115

115 grams

1 2x2, 11 2x4

Time of Day

Demand

Generation

Baseload (all day, all night)

115 MW

115 MW

Morning

20 MW

20 MW

All day

15 MW

15 MW

Evening

15 MW

15 MW

Demand and Generation Amounts

NOTE: Baseload remains on the balance throughout the activity. Morning, all day, and evening are added and removed according to the time during the activity, and whether students consider the all day activities to be included with evening. The maximum demand or generation on the balance is 150 MW.

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Balance Placards

Demand

Generation ©2019

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Peak Demand and Generation Cards

30

Morning Peak Demand 20 MW

Natural Gas Peak Generation 10 MW $150 any time

All Day Peak Demand 15 MW

Wind Generation 10 MW $45 evening only

Evening Peak Demand 15 MW

Solar Generation 10 MW $75 daytime only

Natural Gas Peak Generation 10 MW $90 any time

Hydropower Peak Generation 5 MW $50 any time

Natural Gas Peak Generation 5 MW $90 any time

Hydropower Peak Generation 10 MW $60 any time

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MASTER

The Energy I Used Today OFF

ENERGY BUCK VALUES

Waking Up

After School

Alarm Clock or Radio...........................................2

Air Conditioning/Heating................................10 Travel in Vehicle....................................................5

Breakfast Microwave...............................................................2 Stove/Oven.............................................................5 Toaster Oven/Toaster..........................................3 Refrigerator.............................................................3

Lights........................................................................2 Computer................................................................3 iPad/Tablet..............................................................2 Gaming System.....................................................3 Radio/CD Player/MP3 Player/iPod.................. 2 TV/DVD Player.......................................................3

Ready for School Air Conditioning/Heating................................10

Telephone/Cell Phone........................................ 2

Radio/CD Player/MP3 Player/iPod.................. 2

Snack Preparation................................................2

TV/DVD Player.......................................................3

Last Night

Gaming System.....................................................3 Shower/Bath..........................................................3 Hair Dryer................................................................3 Curling Iron/Curlers/Flat Iron........................... 3 Telephone/Cell Phone........................................ 2 Computer................................................................3 iPad/Tablet..............................................................2

Air Conditioning/Heating................................10 Microwave...............................................................2 Stove/Oven.............................................................5 Toaster Oven/Toaster..........................................3 Refrigerator.............................................................3 Grill............................................................................2 Lights........................................................................2 TV/DVD Player.......................................................3

Room Lighting Bedroom..................................................................2 Bathroom................................................................2 Kitchen.....................................................................2 Family Room..........................................................2

Gaming System.....................................................3 Shower/Bath..........................................................3 Hair Dryer................................................................3 Telephone/Cell Phone........................................ 2

Other.........................................................................2

Computer................................................................3

Getting to School

Radio/CD Player/MP3 Player/iPod.................. 2

iPad/Tablet..............................................................2

Walk...........................................................................0 Bicycle.......................................................................0 School Bus...............................................................1 Carpool.....................................................................2 Family Vehicle........................................................5

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MASTER

e

Forms of Energy

Energy can be stored. Stored energy is called potential energy. Gravitational Potential Energy

Elastic Energy

the energy of place or position

the energy stored in compressed or stretched objects

Chemical Energy

POTENTIAL ENERGY

the energy stored in the bonds between molecules

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Nuclear Energy

the energy stored in the nucleus of an atom - the energy that holds the nucleus together

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MASTER

e

Forms of Energy

Energy can be in motion. Motion energy is called kinetic energy.

En

f o t ne n n it o e o r o m e rom the M v o t f no m ec o a e j th ob e t an plac

T su the her or bs in m m mov tanc tern al E n ol e e a ec m s - l e erg ul en th ne es t e rg y in of a vib y su to ra in bs m tio ta s a n nc n es d

tric a

Radiant Energy

Elec

gy ner nd E Sou f nt o eme h mov roug the rgy th e in a ene bstanc l wave a su itudina long

KINETIC ENERGY

l En erg the y mov elec ement tron of s

gy r e

electromagnetic energy that travels in transverse waves

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MASTER

e

HYDROPOWER

Uses: electricity

WIND

Uses: electricity

5%

3%

1%

< 1%

Uses: heating, electricity

GEOTHERMAL

Uses: heating, electricity

SOLAR

2%

Uses: heating, electricity, transportation

BIOMASS

RENEWABLE

U.S. Energy Consumption by Source, 2017 37%

U.S. Energy Consumption by Source, 2016

NONRENEWABLE PETROLEUM 29%

Uses: transportation, manufacturing - includes propane

NATURAL GAS

9%

15%

Uses: heating, manufacturing, electricity - includes propane

COAL Uses: electricity, manufacturing

URANIUM

*Propane consumption is included in petroleum and natural gas totals.

Uses: electricity

PROPANE

Uses: heating, manufacturing

**Total does not add up to 100% due to independent rounding. Data: Energy Information Administration

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MASTER

e

• • • •

Energy We Use

We can HEAT with

natural gas electricity coal biomass

• • • •

We can HEAT WATER with

• natural gas • electricity

We can COOL with

propane geothermal petroleum solar

• propane • solar

• electricity

We can LIGHT with • electricity • solar

We can run APPLIANCES with • electricity

Note: Electricity is not a source of energy, but an energy carrier - we must use another source to get it.

We can COOK with

• natural gas • electricity • propane ©2019

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We can make ELECTRICITY with

• coal • hydropower • petroleum www.NEED.org

• solar • uranium • natural gas

• biomass • wind • geothermal

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MASTER

Thermometer A thermometer measures temperature. A thermometer measures temperature. The temperature of a substance is a measure of the average amount of kinetic energy in the substance. This thermometer is a long, glass tube filled with colored alcohol. Alcohol is used in many thermometers because it expands in direct proportion to the increase in kinetic energy or temperature. Temperature can be measured using many different scales. The scales we use most are:

°F BOILING POINT OF WATER 212° F

Celsius

The Celsius (C) scale uses the freezing point of water as 0°C and the boiling point of water as 100°C.

Fahrenheit

The Fahrenheit (F) scale uses the freezing point of water as 32°F and the boiling point of water as 212°F. In the United States, we usually use the Fahrenheit scale in our daily lives, and the Celsius scale for scientific work. People in most countries use the Celsius scale in their daily lives as well as for scientific work. Notice the numerical difference between the freezing and boiling points of water are different on the two scales. The difference on the Celsius scale is 100, while the difference on the Fahrenheit scale is 180. There are more increments on the Fahrenheit scale because it shows less of an energy change with each degree.

Celsius to Fahrenheit Conversion

To convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit, multiply the C number by 180 100 9 or 5 , then add 32, as shown in the formula below.

F = (C x

9 5

32° F FREEZING POINT OF WATER

) + 32

If C = 5

9 ) + 32 5 F = 9 + 32 F = (5 x

220 210 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 -20

°C 100

100° C

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

0° C

-10 -20 -30

F = 41

Fahrenheit to Celsius Conversion

To convert from Fahrenheit to Celsius, subtract 32 from the F number, 100 then multiply by 180 or 5 as shown in the formula below. 9

C = (F - 32) x If F = 50 C = (50 - 32) x C = 18 x

5 9

5 9

5 9

C = 10

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MASTER

Student Thermometer

F

O 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10

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C

O

50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 -20

37


MASTER

Hygrometer

HUMIDITY/TEMPERATURE PEN Directions

Scientists measure the amount of water vapor in the air in terms of relative humidity—the amount of water vapor in the air relative to (compared to) the maximum amount it can hold at that temperature. Relative humidity changes as air temperature changes. The warmer the air is, the more water vapor it can hold. Air acts like a sponge and absorbs water through the process of evaporation. Warm air is less dense and the molecules are further apart, allowing more moisture between them. Cooler air causes the air molecules to draw closer together, limiting the amount of water the air can hold. It is important to control humidity in occupied spaces. Humidity levels that are too high can contribute to the growth and spread of unhealthy biological pollutants. This can lead to a variety of health effects, from common allergic reactions to asthma attacks and other health problems. Humidity levels that are too low can contribute to irritated mucous membranes, dry eyes, and sinus discomfort. This digital humidity/temperature pen measures relative humidity and temperature and displays the readings on its face. It has a battery for power. It can display the temperature in Fahrenheit or Celsius. Devices that measure humidity are also called hygrometers. The hygrometer displays relative humidity in terms of percentage. If the screen shows a reading of 35%, it means the air contains 35 percent of the water vapor it can hold at the given air temperature. When the air contains a lot of water vapor, the weather is described as humid. If the air cannot carry any more water vapor, the humidity is 100 percent. At this point, the water vapor condenses into liquid water. Maintaining relative humidity between 40 and 60 percent helps control mold. Maintaining relative humidity levels within recommended ranges is a way of ensuring that a building’s occupants are both comfortable and healthy. High humidity is uncomfortable for many people. It is difficult for the body to cool down in high humidity because sweat cannot evaporate into the air.

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ON/OFF KEY Press the ON/OFF key to turn the power on or off. °F/°C Press the °F/°C key to select the temperature unit you want to use, Fahrenheit or Celsius. MAX/MIN Press the MAX/MIN key once to display the stored maximum readings for temperature and humidity. An up arrow will appear on the left side of the display to indicate the unit is in the maximum recording mode. Press the MAX/MIN key a second time to display the stored minimum readings for temperature and humidity. A down arrow will appear on the left side of the display to indicate the unit is in the minimum recording mode. Press the MAX/MIN key a third time to return to normal operation. CLEAR If an up or down arrow is displayed, press the CLEAR key until - - - appears on the display. The memory is cleared. New maximum or minimum values will be recorded within 3 seconds.

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1 2

3

4 5

6 7

Explain what each of the components numbered below does to get electricity from the generator to the consumer.

Transporting Electricity

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MASTER

LESSON 3

Kill A Watt® Meter The Kill A Watt® meter allows users to measure and monitor the power consumption of any standard electrical device. You can obtain instantaneous readings of voltage (volts), current (amps), line frequency (Hz), and electric power being used (watts). You can also obtain the actual amount of power consumed in kilowatt-hours (kWh) by any electrical device over a period of time from one minute to 9,999 hours. A kilowatt is 1,000 watts.

Operating Instructions 1. Plug the Kill A Watt® meter into any standard grounded outlet or extension cord. 2. Plug the electrical device or appliance to be tested into the AC Power Outlet Receptacle of the Kill A Watt® meter. 3. The LCD displays all meter readings. The unit will begin to accumulate data and powered duration time as soon as the power is applied. 4. Press the Volt button to display the voltage (volts) reading. 5. Press the Amp button to display the current (amps) reading. 6. The Watt and VA button is a toggle function key. Press the button once to display the Watt reading; press the button again to display the VA (volts x amps) reading. The Watt reading, not the VA reading, is the value used to calculate kWh consumption. 7. The Hz and PF button is a toggle function key. Press the button once to display the Frequency (Hz) reading; press the button again to display the Power Factor (PF) reading. 8. The KWH and Hour button is a toggle function key. Press the button once to display the cumulative energy consumption. Press the button again to display the cumulative time elapsed since power was applied.

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MASTER

Light Meter Operating Instructions 1. Insert the battery into the battery compartment in the back of the meter. 2. Slide the ON/OFF Switch to the ON position. 3. Slide the Range Switch to the B position. 4. On the back of the meter, pull out the meter’s tilt stand and place the meter on a flat surface in the area you plan to measure. 5. Hold the Light Sensor so that the white lens faces the light source to be measured or place the Light Sensor on a flat surface facing the direction of the light source. 6. Read the measurement on the LCD Display. 7. If the reading is less than 200 fc, slide the Range Switch to the A position and measure again.

LCD Display

ON/OFF Switch Range Switch

Light Sensor

Light Output or Luminous Flux A lumen (lm) is a measure of the light output (or luminous flux) of a light source (bulb or tube). Light sources are labeled with output ratings in lumens. A T12 40-watt fluorescent tube light, for example, may have a rating of 3050 lumens.

Light Level or Illuminance A foot-candle (fc) is a measure of the quantity of light (illuminance) that actually reaches the workplane on which the light meter is placed. Foot-candles are workplane lumens per square foot. The light meter can measure the quantity of light from 0 to 1000 fc.

Brightness or Luminance Another measure of light is its brightness or luminance. Brightness is a measure of the light that is reflected from a surface in a particular direction. Brightness is measured in footlamberts (fL). Š2019

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MASTER

Recommended Light Levels Below is a list of recommended illumination levels for school locations in foot-candles. These illumination levels align with the recommendations from the Illumination Engineering Society of North America. AREA

FOOT-CANDLES

Classrooms (Reading and Writing)

50

Classrooms (Drafting)

75

Computer Labs (Keyboarding)

30

Computer Labs (Reading Print Materials)

50

Computer Labs (Monitors)

3

Labs-General

50

Labs-Demonstrations

100

Auditorium (Seated Activities)

10

Auditorium (Reading Activities)

50

Kitchens

50

Dining Areas

30

Hallways

20-30

Stairwells

15

Gymnasiums (Exercising and Recreation)

30

Gymnasiums (Basketball Games)

75

Locker Rooms

10

Libraries and Media Centers (Study Areas)

50

Libraries and Media Centers (Other Areas)

30

Shops (Rough Work)

30

Shops (Medium Work)

50

Shops (Fine Work)

75

Offices (Reading Tasks)

50

Offices (Non-Reading Tasks)

30

Teacher Workrooms

30

Conference Rooms

30

Washrooms (Grooming Areas)

30

Washrooms (Lavatories)

15

Maintenance Rooms

30

Building Exteriors and Parking Lots

1-5

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Building Buddies Calendar Monday Weather: _________________

Tuesday __________________________

Weather: _________________

Wednesday

Outside Temperature

__________________________

Weather: _________________

Thursday

Outside Temperature

__________________________

Weather: _________________

Friday

for the week of __________________

Weather: _________________ __________________________

Outside Temperature

OFF

__________________________

Outside Temperature

___:___ a.m.

Outside Temperature

___:___ a.m.

___:___ p.m. _____°F _____°C

_____°F _____°C

___:___ a.m.

___:___ p.m. _____°F _____°C

Inside Temperature

_____°F _____°C

___:___ a.m.

___:___ p.m. _____°F _____°C

Inside Temperature

_____°F _____°C

___:___ a.m. ___:___ p.m. _____°F _____°C

Inside Temperature

_____°F _____°C

___:___ p.m. _____°F _____°C

Inside Temperature

_____°F _____°C

Inside Temperature

_____°F _____°C

___:___ a.m.

_____°F _____°C

___:___ a.m.

_____°F _____°C

___:___ a.m.

_____°F _____°C

Try to record the temperatures at the same time each day.

___:___ a.m.

Try to record the temperatures at the same time each day.

 We turned off the lights when we did not need them.

_____°F _____°C

Try to record the temperatures at the same time each day.

 We turned off the lights when we did not need them.

 We used sunlight when we could or turned off lights.

___:___ a.m.

Try to record the temperatures at the same time each day.

 We turned off the lights when we did not need them.

 We used sunlight when we could or turned off lights.

 We turned off computers at the end of the day.

___:___ p.m. _____°F _____°C

Try to record the temperatures at the same time each day.

 We turned off the lights when we did not need them.

 We used sunlight when we could or turned off lights.

 We turned off computers at the end of the day.

 Monitors, projectors, and devices were turned off at breaks.

___:___ p.m. _____°F _____°C

 We turned off the lights when we did not need them.

We used sunlight when we could or turned off lights.

 We turned off computers at the end of the day.

 Monitors, projectors, and devices were turned off at breaks.

___:___ p.m. _____°F _____°C

 We used sunlight when we could or turned off lights.

 We turned off computers at the end of the day.

 Monitors, projectors, and devices were turned off at breaks.

___:___ p.m. _____°F _____°C

 We turned off computers at the end of the day.

 Monitors, projectors, and devices were turned off at breaks.

___:___ p.m. _____°F _____°C

 Monitors, projectors, and devices were turned off at breaks.

We did not waste water.

 We were good Building Buddies.

 We unplugged unused devices. We did not waste water.  We were good Building Buddies.

 We unplugged unused devices. We did not waste water.  We were good Building Buddies.

 We unplugged unused devices. We did not waste water.  We were good Building Buddies.

 We unplugged unused devices.

We did not waste water.

 We were good Building Buddies.

 We unplugged unused devices.

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A. Can name two ways to increase a car’s MPG

B. Can name three ways to save energy at home

C. Can name three ways to save energy at school

D. Has at least one ENERGY STAR® appliance at home

E. Knows the definition of energy efficiency

F. Knows the definition of energy conservation

G. Knows what an ENERGY STAR® label means

H. Knows what SEER is

I. Knows a type of bulb that uses one-quarter of the energy of incandescents

J. Knows where to find an EnergyGuide label

K. Can name two appliances that should be run only when fully loaded

L. Uses day lighting in the classroom instead of overhead lights

M. Sets this item differently at day and night and for the season

N. Knows the number one use of energy in the home

O. Has an energy conservation team at school

P. Knows whether energy is the first, second, or third highest expenditure in a school district (choose one)

©2019

ME NA

ME

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E NA M

E NA M The NEED Project

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NA

ME

P

NA

E NA

NA

L

O

ME

N

ME

M

K

NA M

NA M

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H

NA

ME

G

NA

NA

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D

NA

NA

NA

F

ME

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C

ME

B

ME

A

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BINGO

ENERGY EFFICIENCY

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School Energy Inspectors Teacher Guide

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I have landscaping.

I have kilowatt-hour. Who has a light bulb that produces more heat than light?

Who has the most effective way for consumers to reduce the amount of energy used by industry?

I have an incandescent.

I have reduce, reuse, repair, recycle.

Who has energy is neither created nor destroyed?

Who has any behavior that results in using less energy?

I have the Law of Conservation of Energy.

I have conservation.

Who has the number one use of energy in the home?

Who has the length of time you use an energy efficient appliance before you begin to save money?

I have heating and cooling.

I have payback period.

Who has the label designating energy efficient Who has the nation’s leading recycled product? home appliances?

I have ENERGY STAR®.

I have steel.

Who has a way to reduce energy use by planting trees to block wind and provide shade?

Who has a material that resists the flow of heat?

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I have energy efficiency.

I have insulation. Who has a way to use gasoline more efficiently?

Who has a digital meter installed in your home that communicates with your utility company to monitor and control energy usage?

I have keep tires properly inflated.

I have Smart Meter.

Who has solar, hydropower, geothermal, biomass, and wind?

I have renewables.

I have energy audit.

Who has a light bulb that uses less than onefourth the energy of a traditional incandescent bulb?

Who has the label that shows an appliance’s annual energy use and operating cost?

I have a light emitting diode (LED).

I have EnergyGuide.

Who has the leading source of air pollution?

46

Who has a way to learn how a building can use energy more efficiently?

Who has the flow of electrons?

I have vehicle emissions.

I have electricity.

Who has using technology that needs less energy to perform the same function?

Who has caulking, sealing, and weatherstripping cracks around doors and windows?

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I have ways to reduce air infiltration.

I have take short showers. Who has an energy intensive industry?

Who has an alternative mode of transportation?

I have riding a bicycle.

I have petroleum refining.

Who has the concept that a society should Who has a device that allows you to control the meet its energy needs without compromising temperature in your home? the needs of future generations?

I have programmable thermostat.

I have energy sustainability. Who has the sector of the economy that uses the most petroleum?

Who has a renewable transportation fuel?

I have transportation.

I have ethanol.

Who has the kitchen appliance that uses the most energy?

Who has a nonrenewable energy source that is used to generate electricity?

I have refrigerator. Who has a way to reduce the cost of heating water? Š2019

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Want to Take Your Energy Efficiency Knowledge Home With You? Check out our fun supplemental energy efficiency home kit!

MANGING HOME ENERGY USE & Kit Managing Home Energy Use is an at-home supplement to the energy Managing Home Energy Use follows the same format as this guide and expands knowledge gained while using the home home kit materials can be purchased as shop.NEED.org

And There’s More! Check out shop.NEED.org for free pdf downloads of our other

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Awesome Extras! Our Awesome Extras page contains PowerPoints, animations, and other great resources to compliment what you are teaching! This page is available at www.NEED.org/educators/awesome-extras/.

A.

Knows the average cost per kilowatt-hour of electricity for residential customers

B.

Can name two renewable energy sources

C.

Has an ENERGY STAR® appliance at home

E.

Can name two ways to save energy at home

F.

Has taken the ENERGY STAR® change a light pledge

G.

I.

Can explain the concept of energy efficiency

J.

Uses two CFLs at home

K.

Knows the perfector/patent holder of the incandescent light bulb Can name two reasons to use an ENERGY STAR® CFL or LED

N. Knows how much energy an incandescent bulb converts to wasted heat

O.

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E www.NEED.org

www.NEED.org

NA E

ME NA

School Energy Inspectors Teacher Guide

P

E

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1.800.875.5029

ME

L

NA M

E NA M

8408 Kao Circle, Manassas, VA 20110

NA

ME E NA M

E NA M

NA NA NA ©2015 The NEED Project

P.

Knows the significance of the ENERGY STAR® rating on appliances Knows what CFL stands for

H

K

N

ME

M

L.

D

G

J

ME

I

Knows which energy source generates the most electricity in the U.S. H. Knows how electricity is generated

NA

NA

NA

F

ME

E

C

ME

B

ME

A

D.

Knows a greenhouse gas produced by the burning of fossil fuels

NA M

M. Knows what a lumen is

©2019

BINGO

NA M

CHANGE A LIGHT

17

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Youth Energy Conference and Awards

Youth Awards Program for Energy Achievement

The NEED Youth Energy Conference and Awards gives students more opportunities to learn about energy and to explore energy in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math). The annual June conference has students from across the country working in groups on an Energy Challenge designed to stretch their minds and energy knowledge. The conference culminates with the Youth Awards Ceremony recognizing student work throughout the year and during the conference.

All NEED schools have outstanding classroom-based programs in which students learn about energy. Does your school have student leaders who extend these activities into their communities? To recognize outstanding achievement and reward student leadership, The NEED Project conducts the National Youth Awards Program for Energy Achievement. Share Your Energy Outreach with The NEED Network! This program combines academic competition with recognition to acknowledge everyone involved in NEED during the year—and to recognize those who achieve excellence in energy education in their schools and communities.

For More Info: www.youthenergyconference.org

What’s involved? Students and teachers set goals and objectives and keep a record of their activities. Students create a digital project to submit for judging. In April, digital projects are uploaded to the online submission site.

Want more info? Check out www.NEED.org/event/youth-energy-conferenceand-awards/ for more application and program information, previous winners, and photos of past events.

50

©2019

The NEED Project

School Energy Inspectors Teacher Guide

www.NEED.org


School Energy Inspectors Evaluation Form State: ___________ Grade Level: ___________ Number of Students: __________ 1. Did you conduct the entire unit?

Yes

No

2. Were the instructions clear and easy to follow?

Yes

No

3. Did the activities meet your academic objectives?

Yes

No

4. Were the activities age appropriate?

Yes

No

5. Were the allotted times sufficient to conduct the activities?

Yes

No

6. Were the activities easy to use?

Yes

No

7. Was the preparation required acceptable for the activities?

Yes

No

8. Were the students interested and motivated?

Yes

No

9. Was the energy knowledge content age appropriate?

Yes

No

10. Would you teach this unit again? Please explain any ‘no’ statement below.

Yes

No

How would you rate the unit overall?

excellent 

good

fair

poor

How would your students rate the unit overall?

excellent 

good

fair

poor

What would make the unit more useful to you?

Other Comments:

Please fax or mail to The NEED Project

©2019

8408 Kao Circle Manassas, VA 20110 FAX: 1-800-847-1820

The NEED Project

School Energy Inspectors Teacher Guide

www.NEED.org

51


National Sponsors and Partners 2019 Exelon Women’s Leadership Summit Association of Desk and Derrick Clubs Foundation Alaska Electric Light & Power Company American Electric Power Foundation American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers Apex Clean Energy Armstrong Energy Corporation Association for Learning Environments Robert L. Bayless, Producer, LLC Baltimore Gas & Electric BG Group/Shell BP America Inc. Blue Grass Energy Bob Moran Charitable Giving Fund Boys and Girls Club of Carson (CA) Buckeye Supplies Cape Light Compact–Massachusetts Central Alabama Electric Cooperative Citgo CLEAResult Clover Park School District Clovis Unified School District Colonial Pipeline Columbia Gas of Massachusetts ComEd ConocoPhillips Constellation Cuesta College Cumberland Valley Electric David Petroleum Corporation David Sorenson Desk and Derrick of Roswell, NM Desert Research Institute Direct Energy Dominion Energy, Inc. Dominion Energy Foundation DonorsChoose Duke Energy Duke Energy Foundation East Kentucky Power EduCon Educational Consulting Edward David E.M.G. Oil Properties Energy Trust of Oregon Ergodic Resources, LLC Escambia County Public School Foundation Eversource Exelon Exelon Foundation Exelon Generation First Roswell Company Foundation for Environmental Education FPL The Franklin Institute George Mason University – Environmental Science and Policy Gerald Harrington, Geologist Government of Thailand–Energy Ministry Grayson RECC ©2019 The NEED Project

Green Power EMC Greenwired, Inc. Guilford County Schools–North Carolina Gulf Power Harvard Petroleum Hawaii Energy Houston LULAC National Education Service Centers Illinois Clean Energy Community Foundation Illinois International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers Renewable Energy Fund Illinois Institute of Technology Independent Petroleum Association of New Mexico Jackson Energy James Madison University Kansas Corporation Commission Kentucky Office of Energy Policy Kentucky Environmental Education Council Kentucky Power–An AEP Company Kentucky Utilities Company League of United Latin American Citizens – National Educational Service Centers Leidos Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative Llano Land and Exploration Louisiana State University – Agricultural Center Louisville Gas and Electric Company Midwest Wind and Solar Minneapolis Public Schools Mississippi Development Authority–Energy Division Mississippi Gulf Coast Community Foundation National Fuel National Grid National Hydropower Association National Ocean Industries Association National Renewable Energy Laboratory NC Green Power Nebraskans for Solar New Mexico Oil Corporation New Mexico Landman’s Association NextEra Energy Resources NEXTracker Nicor Gas Nisource Charitable Foundation Noble Energy North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality North Shore Gas Offshore Technology Conference Ohio Energy Project Oklahoma Gas and Electric Energy Corporation Oxnard Union High School District Pacific Gas and Electric Company PECO Pecos Valley Energy Committee People’s Electric Cooperative Peoples Gas Pepco Performance Services, Inc. Petroleum Equipment and Services Association Permian Basin Petroleum Museum

8408 Kao Circle, Manassas, VA 20110

1.800.875.5029

www.NEED.org

Phillips 66 Pioneer Electric Cooperative PNM PowerSouth Energy Cooperative Providence Public Schools Quarto Publishing Group Prince George’s County (MD) R.R. Hinkle Co Read & Stevens, Inc. Renewable Energy Alaska Project Resource Central Rhoades Energy Rhode Island Office of Energy Resources Rhode Island Energy Efficiency and Resource Management Council Robert Armstrong Roswell Geological Society Salal Foundation/Salal Credit Union Salt River Project Salt River Rural Electric Cooperative Sam Houston State University Schlumberger C.T. Seaver Trust Secure Futures, LLC Seneca Resources Shell Shell Carson Shell Chemical Shell Deer Park Shell Eco-Marathon Sigora Solar Singapore Ministry of Education Society of Petroleum Engineers Sports Dimensions South Kentucky RECC South Orange County Community College District SunTribe Solar Sustainable Business Ventures Corp Tesla Tri-State Generation and Transmission TXU Energy United Way of Greater Philadelphia and Southern New Jersey University of Kentucky University of Maine University of North Carolina University of Rhode Island University of Tennessee University of Texas Permian Basin University of Wisconsin – Platteville U.S. Department of Energy U.S. Department of Energy–Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy–Wind for Schools U.S. Energy Information Administration United States Virgin Islands Energy Office Volusia County Schools Western Massachusetts Electric Company Eversource