Energy Sources Exhibition

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Energy Sources Exhibition Activities Inside: • Core Sampling • Candy Chemistry • Cookie Mining Challenge

• Solar Distiller • Wind Can Do Work Challenge

Grade Levels:

Pri

Primary Intermediate

Elem

Elementary Secondary

Subject Areas: Science Engineering

Math


Teacher Information &Background Throughout human history, energy use has been key to advances in society. The first energy sources used were solar, hydropower, and biomass (wood), but they did not have high enough energy densities necessary to propel technological development. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, coal and petroleum were beginning to be exploited for their high energy density, wide availability, and relative ease of recovery. Today, nonrenewable energy sources make up the majority of the energy consumed in the United States. We use coal primarily to generate electricity, petroleum for our transportation needs, and natural gas for heating homes, industrial processes, and generating electricity. Uranium is the most recent addition to our nonrenewable supply, being used to generate electricity and power Naval vessels. In the last 50 years, more attention has been directed toward renewable resources in an effort to make our energy use cleaner and more sustainable. Wind is the fastest-growing contributor to energy consumption in terms of percentage increases, while technological advances are providing materials that can double as building materials and solar panels. The activities contained in this sampler are designed to expose students to some of the challenges and concepts involved in finding and using energy resources, renewable and nonrenewable. “Core Sampling” models the challenge in finding petroleum and natural gas deposits and is excerpted from Exploring Oil and Natural Gas. “Candy Chemistry” demonstrates the important concept of half-life in radioactive decay and can be found in Exploring Nuclear Energy. “Cookie Mining Challenge” models the economic and environmental challenges of removing minerals and resources from the ground. In this case, chocolate chips in cookies represent coal deposits but they can also be used to represent any minerals being removed from the ground. It is one of the activities found in Understanding Coal. Students can construct a device for purifying fresh water from salt water, and if time allows, develop a better model. “Solar Distiller” was excerpted from Energy From the Sun. Lastly, students are challenged to design a simple wind turbine that maximizes lifting power in ”Wind Can Do Work Challenge”, adapted from Wind is Energy. Visit shop.NEED.org to download these activities within their guides. Each guide contains student text, a teacher guide, and additional activities about the formation, exploration, production, and utilization of these energy sources.

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MATERIALS The table below contains a list of materials needed to complete the activities in this suite. Many of the materials can be found in a common lab setting, or easily procured from a grocery, craft, or home improvement store. Refer to the activity instructions for more specifics about each item. Contact NEED if you have any questions or difficulty locating a certain item.

ACTIVITY

MATERIALS NEEDED

Core Sampling

3-4 Colors of craft sand Clear plastic straws Small opaque cups (bathroom sized) Plastic spoons

Plastic containers Soil or gravel (optional) Water in spray bottles Rulers

Candy Chemistry

M&M’s® candies* Small cups

Paper towels Graph paper

Cookie Mining Challenge

Wooden toothpicks Plastic toothpicks Large paper clips

Napkins or paper towels Play money Chocolate chip cookies

Solar Distiller

Large container Small glass beaker or bowl Marble Clear plastic wrap

Large rubber band Water Food coloring Light source**

Wind Can Do Work Challenge

The following materials are suggestions only. You may choose other materials according to what is available to you at low or no cost: Paper clips Tall, disposable cups (plastic, foam) Plastic straws Old CDs or DVDs Cardboard or posterboard Recycled materials such as soda cans, water bottles, cereal boxes Binder clips Corks or stoppers Popsicle sticks or splints

In addition to these materials, you will also need: String or thread Fans -- at least one Tape or glue Fasteners such as pins, tacks, wire, or staples Scissors Utility knives or safety blades for cutting thicker materials

*NOTE: Any marked, two-sided object will work for this activity, including other candies, pennies, and two-sided discs. If using candies, it is sometimes difficult to clearly see the printing on each piece of yellow candy. **NOTE: Energy efficient bulbs like CFLs and LEDs will not produce the amount of thermal energy needed in the time allotment. Using sunlight or a traditional incandescent bulb, if available, will work best.

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Core Sampling TEACHER INFORMATION

&Background This activity can be found within the following NEED guides at shop.NEED.org: Exploring Oil and Natural Gas Wonders of Oil and Natural Gas Oil, Natural Gas, and their Energy

Grade Levels Primary, grades K-2 Elementary, grades 3-5 Intermediate, grades 6-8 Secondary, grades 9-12

 Time One class period

Oil and natural gas were formed from the remains of marine plants and animals that lived millions of years ago, long before dinosaurs. Their remains were buried under layers and layers of sediment, a combination of heat, pressure, and time changed those compounds into hydrocarbons, the predominant components of petroleum and natural gas. These compounds remain trapped underground in porous rock layers until geologists locate them and engineers build a well to pump them to the surface. Geologists use a variety of techniques to locate petroleum or natural gas deposits, including core sampling. A specialized drill bit is used to cut into the rock to depths of several hundred meters or more, removing a cylindrical core of all the rock layers below the surface. The core samples are removed and examined for the correct formations that will likely contain hydrocarbons. Note: Two levels of the student activity page are presented. While the activity is largely the same for all students, the page for younger students is in larger text, on page 7. The page for older students concludes with more complex questions.

Objective Students will be able to describe how a core sample can help geologists interpret rock layers and find oil and natural gas formations.

 Materials PER CRAFT 3-4 Containers of sand (different colors) Water in spray bottles Plastic spoons Ruler Container of soil or gravel (optional) Paper towels, plastic bags, or table cloths (optional – help with cleanup)

 Materials PER STUDENT 1 Clear plastic straw 1 Small opaque cup Student activity, page 6 or 7

2Preparation Gather all materials. Pour the colored sand, soil, and gravel into smaller containers for each group. It can be helpful if you provide several containers of each material for students to share, so they’re not waiting a long time for any given material to construct their sampling cups. This activity can be messy. It is recommended to have paper towels, plastic bags, or even table cloths on hand. Decide ahead of time which color sand or soil will represent the desired formation layer that is likely to contain hydrocarbons. Make a copy of the student activity page for each student. Pre-assign student partners for trading core sample cups. If you have an odd number of students, arrange a 3-way trade.

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Procedure 1. Distribute the activity and discuss the instructions for set-up. 2. As students proceed through the activity, monitor their progress to make sure they’re not getting their materials too wet. 3. Discuss student results and challenges with the class, and ask students to connect their results and challenges to those that might be facing geologists in the exploration process.

Extensions Before starting the activity, decide if you would like the activity to have a competitive element, with students winning a small prize for locating the layer with the desired sediment. Some teachers bake cupcakes using different colors of cake batter, and assigning a particular color of “rock” to be the desired “sediment layer.” Students then have a tasty treat to eat!

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EXPLORING CORE SAMPLING INTERMEDIATE AND SECONDARY

? Questions Are all core samples the same? How can a core sample tell us where to find oil or natural gas?

 Hypothesis Draft a hypothesis to answer the questions using an “If...then...because...” format.

 Materials Several colors of sand 1 Clear plastic straw 1 Opaque cup Water in a spray bottle

Plastic spoons Ruler Additional sand or gravel (optional)

NOTE: When layering earth materials in cups, you can arrange the layers in any order, and in any thickness (within reason).

Procedure 1. Using the ruler to measure, place a layer of one of the earth materials in the cup using a spoon. Mist with the spray bottle of water until damp, but not soaking. 2. Place another earth material on top of the first layer. Mist with water until damp. 3. Continue alternating layers of earth materials and water. The total height of the layers stacked in the cup should be at least 4 cm deep. 4. Trade cups with someone else so you are not pulling a core sample from your own cup. 5. Use a straw to extract a core sample by pushing the straw straight down through the layers in the cup. 6. Place your finger tightly over the top end of the straw and withdraw it from the cup. Observe the layers in the straw core sample. 7. Lay several core samples from different cups side by side. Compare results.

 Conclusions 1. What are core samples?

2. Did you encounter any challenges when pulling up your core sample? If so, what was the challenge? How does this relate to real world drilling?

3. What might petroleum geologists look for when they examine core samples to find oil and natural gas?

4. What about your core sample might be similar or different from an actual core sample?

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EXPLORING CORE SAMPLING PRIMARY AND ELEMENTARY & Background Scientists explore the Earth to find oil and gas and then drill deep down in the Earth to get it out. Explore what it’s like to drill deep down into the Earth. ?

Questions

Are all core samples the same? How can core samples help us find oil and natural gas?

 Materials Several colors of sand 1 Clear plastic straw 1 Small opaque bathroom sized cup Water in a spray bottle

Plastic spoons Ruler 1 Bag of soil or small gravel (optional)

NOTE: When layering earth materials in cups, you can arrange the layers in any order.

Procedure 1. Using the ruler to measure, place a 1 cm layer of one of the earth materials in the cup using a spoon. Mist the layer with water to make it a bit damp. 2. Place another earth material on top of the first layer. It can be thicker or thinner than the first layer. Moisten with water until damp. 3. Continue alternating layers of earth materials and water. The total height of the layers stacked in the cup needs to be at least 4 cm deep. 4. Trade cups with a classmate - you don’t want to take a core sample from your own cup. 5. Use a straw to extract a core sample. Push the straw straight down through the layers in the cup. 6. Place a finger tightly over the top end of the straw and remove it from the cup. Observe the layers in the straw core sample. 7. Lay several core samples from different cups side by side. Compare results.

 Conclusions 1. What are core samples?

2. What might geologists look for when they examine core samples? ©2019 The NEED Project

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Candy Chemistry TEACHER INFORMATION &Background This activity can be found within the following NEED guides at shop.NEED.org: Exploring Nuclear Energy Energy From Uranium

Grade Levels Intermediate, grades 6-8 Secondary, grades 9-12

 Time One class period

Elements with an atomic number over 83 are naturally radioactive; their nuclei are too big to keep the positive protons from repelling each other and flying apart. There are many isotopes with fewer than 83 protons that are also radioactive, such as carbon-14 and sulfur-35. While the pathways of decay vary from one radioisotope to another, all include emission of alpha or beta particles, and sometimes gamma rays. With each alpha- or beta-particle emission, the atomic number of the nucleus changes, which in turn changes the identity of the atom to another element. The half-life of any radionuclide is the amount of time needed for half of the original mass to decay, or change into another element. Thus if the half-life of an element is 30 seconds, an original sample with mass of 100 grams will decay to only 50 grams of the original element after 30 seconds. The other 50 grams of original material will have changed identity into other elements that may or may not be radioactive themselves. After two half-lives one-quarter of the original material remains, and after three half-lives the original mass is one-eighth its original mass. The candies in this activity represent atoms. With each “shake” of the candies, the probability that any piece of candy will land face up is ½. If you wish to have a larger data set for students to use, you can begin with more than 100 pieces of candy. If you wish to display data that conforms to the equation y=(original mass)/2^x , have all students plot their data on the same graph using a computer spreadsheet program, projecting it for the entire class to see.

Objectives Students will be able to define half-life. Students will be able to draw a decay curve.

 Materials 100 M&M’s ® candies* Small cup Paper towel Graph paper Radioactive Decay worksheet, page 10 *NOTE: Any marked, two-sided object will work for this activity, including other candies, pennies, and two-sided discs. On yellow candies, however, it is sometimes difficult to clearly see the printing on each piece.

2Preparation Put 100 M&M’s ® in a small cup for each pair or group of students. Make one copy of the student activity page per student.

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Procedure 1. Review the concept of radioactive decay as a means for some isotopes to achieve stability. Share the background information on page 8, or explain that the amount of time necessary for half of an isotope sample to decay is the isotope’s half-life. Provide examples of half-lives, such as carbon-14 is 5,730 years, uranium-238 is 4.5 billion years, and so on. 2. Pass out the student activity page and cups of candies. 3. When students have completed the activity, they should use graph paper or a computer spreadsheet program to graph their data. 4. If desired, have students add their data to the classroom spreadsheet for projection.

 Extension After completing the activity with small two-sided candies or objects, provide a long piece of licorice to each student. Have them measure the mass of the piece of licorice, then using a ruler or meter stick cut the licorice in half. Continue cutting each piece in half until a very, very small piece of licorice remains, then measure the mass of that piece of candy. Line up the successively shorter pieces of candy after each cut on a piece of graph paper, placing a dot at the top of each piece. The dots should resemble the data from the original activity, and the mass of the smallest piece of candy should be the original mass divided by 2x, with x representing the number of cuts made (see diagram below).

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RADIOACTIVE DECAY & Background Radioactive isotopes emit particles in an effort to become stable. For some elements, this takes a long time and in other cases it happens very quickly. The route to stability is not always the same. There are many different paths an element could take as it decays toward stabilization.

 Materials Cup of 100 M&M’s® Paper towel Graph paper

Procedure 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Place all 100 M&M’s® in your cup. Lightly shake the cup and spill the contents onto the paper towel. Remove all of the candies that are face up (with the M showing)—these have “decayed” in the simulation. Record the number of decayed candies in the data table below and move these aside. Record the number of remaining M&M’s® in your data table. Place the leftover candies back into the cup, shake lightly and repeat this process until your M&M’s® have all decayed. Graph your data on a piece of graph paper.

 Data and Analysis

Shake

Decayed M&M’s®

Remaining M&M’s®

0

n/a

100

1. Create a graph showing the decay of your element. Label the X-axis “Shakes” and the Y-axis “Number of M&M’s®.” 2. Compare your graph to a neighbor’s.

 Conclusions As you look at your graph and your neighbor’s, what do you notice? How is this activity similar to what happens in the natural world?

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Cookie Mining TEACHER INFORMATION &Background Coal is an abundant energy source in the United States, with the U.S. having one of the largest known reserves. Until recently, coal was the primary energy source used to generate our nation’s electricity; it is now ranked second behind natural gas in electricity generation. Coal was formed long ago from the remains of plants and swampy land that were buried, compressed, and subjected to long amounts of time, great pressure, and heating inside the earth. Coal can exist in many forms, from lignite to anthracite, with each having distinguishing characteristics and composition. The unifying property of coal is that it is buried underground and must be mined to be used. Coal mines exist in two types: Surface and Underground. Surface mines use large machinery to push back the upper layers of soil and rock to expose the coal beneath them. Most western coal mines are surface mines. Underground mines rely on deep shafts and long tunnels to access the coal, where miners dig it out and load it into machines for transport to the surface. Both surface and underground mines disrupt the surface environment, and Federal law mandates that when a mine is closed it must be reclaimed, or returned to as close to its original state as possible.

This activity can be found in the following NEED guides at shop.NEED.org: Exploring Coal Understanding Coal

Grade Levels Elementary, grades 3-5 Intermediate, grades 6-8 Secondary, grades 9-12

 Time One class period

This activity uses chocolate chip cookies as a “coal mine” model, challenging students to think critically about the best way to access the coal while maintaining environmental integrity.

Objective Students will be able to describe the process and challenges of mining.

 Materials

1 Box of wooden toothpicks 1 Box of plastic toothpicks Napkins or paper towels Chocolate chip cookies* Mining Challenge worksheets, pages 14-16 Play money (optional)** NOTES: *A variety of textures of chocolate chip cookies helps to make this activity more authentic. Using a mixture of soft/chewy, hard, large chunk, etc., cookies is suggested. It is also suggested to have enough cookies on hand to complete the activity and extra on-hand for eating, if desired. Be sure the cookies used will be safe for students with allergies. **If using play money, each team of students will need $105 in play money in varied increments. Extra cash will be needed for the banker.

2Preparation Make copies of the worksheets for students. Split up students into teams of 3-5 students. Separate the play money, if used, for each team so that each group has varied denominations adding up to $105. Select 3 students or helpers to serve as the banker, equipment salesman, and realtor. Set up work stations or areas where teams can purchase materials and do their mining.

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Procedure 1. Pass out the student worksheets for the activity. 2. Preview the rules of the activity and the steps each group will need to follow. For younger students, you may choose to have a sample page completed ahead of time to project so students can work through the process and see the calculations they will make. 3. Help teams pick their jobs or roles and determine how many mine sites and tools they want to purchase. For younger students, it is recommended that each team only purchase one mine site. Older students may purchase more, but they will also need extra grid space. If allowing teams to purchase more than one mine (cookie), you may consider giving teams more than the prescribed amount of play money. 4. Hand out cookies as students visit the realtor to purchase their mines. Instruct the teams that these cookies are just for mining and that they should not be eaten until AFTER the activity if at all. Make sure each team maps out their mine on their grid. 5. Direct the teams to begin mining. Keep time for the 1-minute shifts and moderate as teams are determining their earnings and/or buying supplies. Give the signal for when teams should start each shift. Make sure teams are mining only the number of shifts they have selected to mine. You may choose to pre-determine the number of shifts each team will have to do their mining. 6. As teams finish their shifts, remind them to begin the reclamation process. Assist mineral engineers in assessing fines to their teams. 7. Direct the teams to help their accountant tally up their final balances. 8. Discuss the profits and losses each team faced. Ask students why they might have had losses despite mining plenty of coal. What challenges did they face during mining? What challenges did they face during reclamation? 9. Allow students to eat cookies, if appropriate.

General Rules of the Challenge 1. Each team tries to mine the most coal (chocolate chips) from their mine (cookie). 2. Each team member has a job and must keep that job throughout the game. 3. Cookies must be mined with the tools purchased only – NO hands! 4. Teams must mine in 1-minute shifts. No mining should take place between the timed shifts. 5. After each team finishes their shift allotment, they must reclaim the land using their original outline map. 6. Teams should tally up their total costs and earnings to determine net profit/loss.

Jobs Banker: Handles all money, gives each team their initial investment. Makes change, collects payroll, and pays out after each shift. Equipment Salesman: Sells teams their tools before mining and during shifts. Realtor: Sells teams their mine, hands out cookie. Mineral Engineer: Purchases mine land from realtor. Determines which tools will be used and purchased. Outlines/maps out their mine land on the grid. Oversees reclamation. Accountant: Tracks the expenditures and income of the team. Completes the worksheet table and calculates the final balance. Determines how much coal is mined in each shift. Goes to the banker to seek pay. Miners: Responsible for mining the coal and reclaiming the land.

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Finances Each team receives $105 as an initial investment. Each mine site (cookie) costs $20. Tools have varying costs: wooden toothpick $1, plastic toothpick $2, and paper clip $3. Each team must pay EACH miner $15 for each minute-long shift they work. Money will be deposited in the bank until “pay day“. This can be paid up-front to the bank or after each round. For every ton (square) of coal, teams earn $5 (square must be at least half-full). After reclamation, any land outside the original outline of the mine will be assessed a $1 fine for each square.

Extension If desired, extend the activity to two or more days, developing an opportunity for students to purchase more mines.

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MINING CHALLENGE Objective You will work in teams of 3 to 5. Each team will become a mining company. Your company wants to mine as much coal (chocolate chips) from your mine (cookie) as possible. Each team will be given a starting investment of $105.00 to purchase land, equipment, and pay their miners. There will be a class banker, equipment salesman, and realtor who sells the land to be mined. A list of costs includes:

Each mine will cost $20.00 to purchase

Wooden tools will cost $1.00 each to purchase

Plastic tools will cost $2.00 each to purchase

Metal tools will cost $3.00 each to purchase

Each miner must be paid $15.00 for each shift

Each ton (square) of coal mined is worth $5.00

Land outside the original mine after reclamation will cost $1.00 (per square)

Procedure 1. Each team member will assume a role in the company. Read the job descriptions below and write each team member’s name on the line next to the job he/she has picked. The mineral engineer (1 team member) is responsible for purchasing the land to be mined and determining which tools the team will purchase. He/she will also survey the boundaries of the mine, outlining the land boundaries on the grid. When the mining shift ends, he/she will oversee reclamation of the land. Mineral Engineer_______________________________________________ The accountant (1 team member) is responsible for tracking the expenses and income of the company. Accountant_______________________________________________ The miners (1-3 team members) are responsible for ‘mining’ the coal and reclaiming the land. Miner 1 _______________________________________________

Miner 2 _______________________________________________ Miner 3 _______________________________________________ 2. Decide how many mines ($20.00 each) your company wants to purchase and what mining supplies you wish to purchase. 3. Determine how many 1-minute shifts your team will use to complete the mining. 4. Mine your land (cookie) during the timed shifts. Remember, you may ONLY use the tools purchased to do your mining – NO HANDS! Try to recover as much coal (chocolate chips) as possible during each shift. At the end of each minute shift, place your coal in the grid to be counted. Each ton will earn you a payout. A square must be at least half-full to count as a ton. Tally up labor costs to pay the miners and take this money to the bank for safe keeping. Your accountant will keep track of your funds earned and paid.

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5. Once your team has mined for the number of shifts you selected, you must reclaim your land. Try to piece your cookie together so that the land is as good as, or better than, it was before. 6. The mineral engineer will determine if any land is outside the original mine and fine your team $1.00 for any land leftover outside of the original mine outline. 7. Help your accountant total up your expenses and earnings and complete the final balance.

ď‚?Data Name of your company:_______________________________________________________ Beginning Balance: $_________________

EXPENSES Mine Site Wooden Toothpick Plastic Toothpick Paper Clip Labor Costs Reclamation

QUANTITY

UNIT PRICE $20.00 $1.00 $2.00 $3.00 $15.00 per shift $1.00 per square

TOTAL

$

TOTAL EXPENSES

Final Balance Step 1 Step 2 Beginning balance

$_______________

Current balance

$_______________

Minus expenses

$_______________

Plus income from coal

$_______________

Current balance

$_______________

Ending balance

$_______________

Did your company make a profit or suffer a loss?

(+ or -)

______________________

What was your profit/loss amount?

$______________________

List several reasons why your team may have ended with the profit or loss total above.

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Area of Mine Site Outline your mine (cookie) on the grid below.

Put mined coal (chips) here.

Income from coal: ________________ $5 per ton (square must be at least half-full to be counted as a ton)

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Solar Distiller TEACHER INFORMATION

&Background Solar energy has been used for millennia for daylighting, heating interior spaces, and drying agricultural products. The most recent applications include generating electricity and using solar collectors as a source of heat for different tasks. This activity highlights how solar energy drives a solar collector for water distillation. A solar collector is a general term for any device that allows sunlight in, changes the radiant energy to thermal energy, and keeps the thermal energy trapped inside. A common “solar collector” is an automobile. The windows allow the sunlight in to warm the dark surfaces inside the vehicle. The air inside the car gets warm, and the warm air is trapped inside. This is welcome on a cold day, not as welcome on a hot day! Solar water heaters use this principle to heat water with sunlight. Copper rods are inserted into glass tubes and sealed in place with a bit of copper sticking out. One side of the tube is transparent, while the other side of the tube has a dark surface. Air is removed from the tube, and the copper pieces extending from the tubes are used as a heat exchanger to warm water. Sunlight shines through the transparent side of the glass and is absorbed by the dark surface, heating the copper. The thermal energy is then conducted to the water, heating the water. The model in this activity uses a large, waterproof container to heat water mixed with food coloring. The water is warmed and evaporates. On the surface of the collector, the water vapor condenses and collects on the plastic film. The marble weighs the film down below the rim of the large container, and the condensed, distilled water runs down and drips into the smaller container.

 Objectives Students will be able to define the process of distillation. Students will be able to compare a solar distiller to the steps in the hydrologic cycle.

 Materials Large containers Small glass beakers or bowls Marbles Clear plastic wrap Large rubber bands

Water Food coloring Sunny day or lamps Water Cycle master, page 18 Solar Distiller worksheet, page 19

This activity can be found Energy From the Sun, which can be downloaded for free at shop.NEED.org.

Grade Levels Elementary, grades 3-5 Intermediate, grades 6-8 Secondary, grades 9-12

 Time One class period, plus time for setup

Extensions Challenge students to improve on the model to maximize fresh water extraction while minimizing time. Cross-collaborate with social studies teachers to study regions where obtaining fresh water is a challenge and sea water distillation is a necessity. Students can test multiple liquids to determine water content.

2 Preparation Set up stations or centers so that each group has the materials to complete the activity. Make copies of the worksheet and/or master.

Procedure 1. Distribute the student activity page. Explain the procedure and have the students complete the activity in groups. 2. Review the water cycle. You can project the water cycle master to enhance discussion. 3. Revisit the distiller the next day. Review and discuss the following concepts: radiant energy can pass through transparent materials such as plastic wrap, but thermal energy does not pass through as easily; evaporation and condensation in Earth’s natural water cycle; and evaporation and condensation can be replicated and modeled. ©2019 The NEED Project

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WATER CYCLE

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SOLAR DISTILLER ? Question What happens when colored water evaporates?

 Hypothesis In your science notebook, write your hypothesis in an “If…then…because…” format.

 Materials 1 Large container (e.g., cake pan, glass bowl, disposable aluminum pan) 1 - 100 mL Beaker (or small glass bowl shorter than the depth of your larger dish) 1 Marble Clear plastic wrap Large rubber band Water Food coloring Sunny day or bright light source

Procedure 1. 2. 3. 4.

Measure and pour 50 mL of water into the large container. Add four (4) drops of food coloring to the water and mix. Record the color of the water. Set the small beaker/bowl in the center of the large plastic container. Weigh it down if it is floating. Place the plastic wrap over the top of the large plastic container leaving a depression in the center over the small beaker/bowl. Secure the plastic wrap with the rubber band, making sure no air is able to flow in or out of the model. 5. Place a marble in the center of the plastic wrap over the small beaker/bowl. 6. Place the container in the full sun, or bright light. 7. Observe the container after 30 minutes.

 Data Record your observations using pictures and words in your science notebook. If technology is available, take at least one picture every 5 minutes.

 Conclusions 1. What did you observe in the center small beaker/bowl? 2. Draw and label the solar distiller. Explain the processes of evaporation and condensation in the solar distiller. 3. Draw and label Earth’s natural water cycle. Explain the processes of evaporation and condensation in the water cycle. Compare and contrast how they are the same and how they are different.

 Extension Test a variety of liquids to find out which ones contain water.

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Wind Can Do Work Challenge TEACHER INFORMATION This activity was adapted from the activity, “Wind Can Do Work”, which can be found in the following NEED guides at shop.NEED.org: Exploring Wind Energy From the Wind Wind is Energy Wonders of Wind

Grade Levels Primary, grades K-2 Elementary, grades 3-5 Intermediate, grades 6-8

&Background The energy in wind has been harnessed for centuries: First for transportation on water, and later for grinding grain or pumping water. Recently, wind energy has been used to generate electricity. Wind is formed when the earth’s surface is heated unevenly. Warm air becomes less dense and rises, and the cooler, denser air rushes in behind it. Combined with the Coriolis effect, the convection currents establish predominant wind patterns in the northern and southern hemispheres. A turbine is a device that changes linear motion into rotational motion. A wind turbine captures the energy in wind and uses it to turn a turbine to do work. On wind farms, the energy of the wind turbine is connected to a generator used to produce electricity. The spinning of the turbine turns the coils inside the magnetic field of the generator, and electric current is induced. Wind energy can be used to turn gears to do mechanical work, too. This is what wind mills and wind-powered water pumping systems do. This model is more closely aligned to wind mill and water pumping systems in that it is designed to maximize lift. Students use common materials to design, build, test, and modify a wind turbine that will lift a certain number of paperclips within a certain amount of time.

Secondary, grades 9-12

 Objectives

 Time

Students will be able to identify a problem and design a device to solve the problem. Students will be able to refine and optimize their device. Students will understand how wind energy can be harnessed to do useful work.

One class period

 Materials Paper clips Tall, disposable cups (plastic, foam) Plastic straws Old CDs or DVDs Cardboard or posterboard Recycled materials such as soda cans, water bottles, cereal boxes Binder clips Corks or stoppers Popsicle sticks or splints String or thread Fans – at least one Tape or glue Fasteners, such as pins, tacks, wire, or staples Scissors Utility knives or safety blades for cutting thicker materials

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Energy Sources Exhibition

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2 Preparation Gather materials for students to use Decide what the final challenge will be – how many paperclips must the turbine lift, and in what time frame? How high must they be lifted? Be prepared to adjust this if student designs are not coming at all close within the amount of time you have allotted for the activity. Designate a testing location where students must certify their wind turbines as meeting the challenge

Procedure 1. Introduce the activity. If you wish, project several pictures of different kinds of wind turbine systems, including old wind mills as well as new, utility-scale wind turbines that generate electricity. Explain how each of these designs is harnessing wind energy. Include photographs of the interior workings of a wind mill if they will help students understand the concepts. 2. Explain the challenge. Make sure the goal is well defined: Lifting a certain number of paper clips a certain height within a certain amount of time. For example, the turbine must lift 15 paper clips a height of 10 centimeters within 3 seconds. 3. Emphasize that the purpose of the activity is to design, build, and test a turbine in the test area. If their turbines are not successful in meeting the challenge, they should return to their seats, modify their designs, and re-test, repeating the process until they are successful. 4. Show students the test station, explaining the limitations for behavior in that location – how many attempts they may make, how much time each group can spend before moving on, etc. 5. Emphasize that students may not modify their turbine designs in the testing station. All modifications must be made at their original seats. 6. Show students the materials you have available, and any limitations each group has in how many of each material they may use. 7. Divide students into groups and instruct them to begin designing their turbines.

©2019 The NEED Project

Energy Sources Exhibition

www.NEED.org

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©2019 The NEED Project

Energy Sources Exhibition

www.NEED.org


©2019 The NEED Project

Energy Sources Exhibition

www.NEED.org

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