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STUDIO: AIR

RAN MA, 788329 2018, SEMESTER ONE, TUTOR: CHELLE


Table of Contents 0.0  Introduction 3 0.1 Brief 3 0.2 Previous Learning Experience 4 1.1  Design Futuring 5 1.2 Philips Pavilion 7 1. 3 La Stasium Hollywood Park 9 2.1  Design Computation 13 2.2 ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15 15 2.3 Underwood Pavilion 17 3.1  Composition/Generation 21 3.2 Esker House 23 3.3 P-Wall 25 4.1  Conclusion 29 5.1  Learning Outcome 31 6.1  Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches 33 7.1  Bibliography 43

FIG.1&2: The Grasshopper ieterations of Dubai AA Visiting School project.


INTRODUCTION

Brief I am Ran Ma, a third year architecture student of Melbourne University. I come from Hangzhou, which is located in south part of China. Hangzhou has both charming landscape and fancy buildings. One of my favorite design is just near my house. It is the China Academy of Art School---Xiangshan Campus. Its architect is my favorite architect, Shuo Wang. He is the first Chinese who won the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 2012. The façade of buildings in Campus is made from bamboo and tiles. They are hiding inside surrounding mountains. Shuo Wang’s architectural theory is utilizing natural materials to incorporate buildings with environment. The mild color of buildings is referenced from ink painting. I have been learning ink drawing for several years. The combination of art and architecture inspired me to explore more possibility of design.

My father is a civil engineer and my sister is an architect. They provide me an excellent laerning environment of architectural study. When I was in high school, my enjoyment was listening to the architectural reports with my father and sister. After every report, we would have a communication with the reporter, discussed about the feasibility of each design. From these activities, I learned that construction and fabrication process was quite significant for designer to be considered. 3D Modelling tools were helpful for architect to express their ideas. Digital tools can predict some potential risks and opportunities for us. After graduate from high school, I came to Melbourne University on February 2016. During my undergraduate architecture studying, I begin to use some basic graphic drawing tools, for example, Auto CAD, Photoshop, Indesign and so on. However, I found that they are sometimes limit the expression of my design ideas. Although we only need 2D diagram: perspective, plan, section and elevation in traditional architecture drawings. The diversity of materials, form and composition requires architect to consider their works with fabricate methods at the same time.

FIG.3: My Rhino Model of Exploration Studio. 4

CONCEPTUALISATION


Previous Learning Experience When I reading the architectural magazine, parametric architectural design attracted my attention. My first two studios in Melbourne University were only used conventional architectural language in architectural design. I had never tried to use mathematical solution finding a building form. I would like to test them in a real studio. Therefore, I want to Beijing AA Visiting School, which taught me how to utilize grasshopper and kangaroo to model a tension shell form in digital design. Although I was still not that professional at using software, I started to be familiar with the workflow of digital design in my first parametric design studio. In January 2018, I went to Dubai AA Visiting school. The topic of our group was lattice structure. We 3D printed several iterations of our models. I learned how Stereolithography and Selective laser melting 3D print tecnology worked during this studio.

From these two AA visiting school experience, I started to build some formal understanding of digital design and fabrication. What the process and how it is produced. At the current stage, I want to explore more about the application of parametric design in our real life. Recently, more and more architects fabricate their works in 1:1 scale and put them in the site. However, these works are almost built in small scale, such as pavilions. Due to the feasibility and economical reason, digital fabrication method is not very popular in factories, though the number of digital design growth rapidly. My next interested area would be how digital fabrication can be utilized in a larger scale.

FIG.4: The rendered minimal surface model of Beijing AA Visiting School project. CONCEPTUALISATION 5


Design Futuring

Revolution The context of our society and life transfer swiftly. The major concept of design in every era is reflected on the most significant discovery or invention of human. Computation is the symbol of this age. Digital technologies highly speed up the development of each industry. Increasing information dissemination promotes the inter-connection between disciplines1. Computational architectural design, which references computing technique into architectural and construction production, is more popularized in this generation. It is undeniable that digital generation will be an irreplaceable architectural design method in the future. Computing can inspire us in multi-aspects of Design futuring. Computation design provides architects the ability to represent design by 3-dimensional model. The communication between architects and other specialists are easier. One of the digital design thinking is explore design possibility in disciplines. Computational programs can utilize the knowledge from several subjects, such as biology, climate or physics, to analysis site conditions. Then designers can reflect these data into the design strategy and find a optimized solution2. Because of the development of analysis and construction skills, architects start to think much more bravely and create complex geometries. They iterate diverse modules to generate master models. These parametric design instigate the achievement of great scale organic architectural project.

The theory of computational design is materialization and fabrication. Digital tools support architects an excellent opportunities to testing material properties and prefabrication possibility. Designers can predict the shape of models in different materials 3. Architectural materials are not restrict on rigid form any more. More innovative material will be adopted in further. According to the diverse morphology of materials, construction methods is improved as well. Prefabricated industry is available for architecture design now. Assemble and prefabricated buildings can be accomplished in software. Designers only need to submit the model file to the factory. Then, prefabricated materials will be constructed by machines 4. These type of construction not only saves construction time, but only has less damage on the site. Designer is considering utilizing the environment and material analysis capability of computer to implement the sustainability of future improvement. The overall climate and material storage conditions are not optimistic. Recycle and eco-friendly strategy is a challenge of architecture. Architects can generate sustainable policy only when they put comprehensive data together and simulate all the possibilities 5. It is difficult for Human to do it, but artificial tools can. Computing optimization helps architects select the most suitable results of energy saving from thousands options. Digital tools have infinite potential to assist designers towards sustainability in recent future.

1. Fry, Tony, DESIGN FUMING SUSTAINABILITY, ETHICS AND NEW PRACTI, First edn (First Floor, Angel Court, 81 St Clements Street, Oxford 0X 4 1AW, UK 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010, USA: 1, 2009), p. 2.. 2. Dunne,Anthony; Raby, Fiona. Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (The third floor of 1 Rogers Street in Cambridge, MA 02142.: MIT Press, 2013), p. 44. 3. Dunne,Anthony; Raby, Fiona. Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (The third floor of 1 Rogers Street in Cambridge, MA 02142.: MIT Press, 2013), p. 6. 4. Oxman, Rivka and Oxman, Robert, eds. Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge, 2014), p. 5–6. 5. Fry, Tony, DESIGN FUMING SUSTAINABILITY, ETHICS AND NEW PRACTI, First edn (First Floor, Angel Court, 81 St Clements Street, Oxford 0X 4 1AW, UK 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010, USA: 1, 2009), p. 8 - 9.


“Once we accept that conceptual design is more than a style option, corporate propaganda, or designer self-promotion, what uses can it take on? There are many possibilities—socially engaged design for raising awareness; satire and critique; inspiration, reflection, highbrow entertainment; aesthetic explorations; speculation about possible futures; and as a catalyst for change.” ------Anthony Dunne & Fiona Raby

FIG.5: The photograph of Philips Phavilion Construction.


Philips Phavilion Architect: Le Corbusier & Iannis Xenakis Location: Brussel’s World’s Fair; Brussels, Belgium Project Year: 1958 Engineer: Hoyte Duyster I would say that Philips Pavilion started a new generation of digital architectural design. Le Corbusier was fearless to using advanced mathematical program to 3D modelling and testing the geometric free-form, hyperbolic parabolods in 1958. At that time, cement was mainstream material 6. Construction of concrete were mostly processed insite. The architectural communication was still based on 2D drawing. Architecture had less interact with other subject7. However, Le Corbusier adopted prefabricated concrete and pre-stressed steel masts and cables to construct the unique polytype. He tried computer software as an innovative architectural grammar to express and analysis the design. Meanwhile, he set up a muiltidisciplinary experts team for this project, architectural design was not about “building” itself anymore. In my view, the most significant contribute of Philips Pavilion was introduce digital design methods and theory to the world during the 1958 World’s Fair in Brussel. In fact, its influence did not decrease after the the event. The project pomoted the development of computation design methods in several decades. For example, Philip Pavilion inspired the train station Warszawa Ochota of Arseniusz Romanowicz in Portland, which is constructed in 1975 8. Unlike conventional construction method, Le Corbusier employed prefabricated concrete panels and pre-stressed steel as the main materials of the building. These materials were mostly produced in factory before transport to site 9. Prefabrication greatly decrease the waste of material and pollution on site. It is more environmental friendly solution. Moreover, machinery production has less and faster onsite construction processes. As a assembled building, the temporary exhibition pavilion could be teardowned easier.

Overall, prefabrication construction is economical and sustainable. The material and geometric expression of Philip Pavilion was ingenious at the age. Le Corbusier utilized computation technique to resolve the formation and concept of this design. Digital methods supported his team to optimized the structure and material expression. More accurate structural and material analysis provides greater possibility of design. The computational program based project is popularized and referenced more frequently now. Optimization is continuously evaluating. Philip Pavilion was constructed temporary for the 1958 World’s Fair in Brussel. As temporary building, the pavilion was fast assembled and disassembled. It did not damage or pollute the site as well. It had less impact on the inhabitants and site. Meantime, it worked efficient as an exhibition space for the event. Le Corbusier advocated design with multi-disciplinary and multi-media10. The rule is still useful in this century. Involving more experts from distinct aspects and expressing design through diverse platform is always the centre of development. Architects should not only focusing on building, exploring more possibilities of other areas and interacting knowledge together is the future tasks.

6. Joseph Clarke, ‘Iannis Xenakis and the Philips Pavilion’, Architecture New York, The Journal of Architecture.17:2, (2012), p216-228. 7.Joseph Clarke, ‘Iannis Xenakis and the Philips Pavilion’, Architecture New York, The Journal of Architecture.17:2, (2012), p213-215. 8. WikiArquitectura. (2015). Philips Pavillion Expo 58 - Data, Photos & Plans - WikiArquitectura. [online] Available at: https:// en.wikiarquitectura.com/building/philips-pavillion-expo-58/ [Accessed 6 Mar. 2018]. 9. Joseph Clarke, ‘Iannis Xenakis and the Philips Pavilion’, Architecture New York, The Journal of Architecture.17:2, (2012), p220. 10.. Iannis Xenakis and Iannis Le Corbusi, ‘Philips Pavilion’, Architecture New York, NEXUS NETWORK JOURNAL .5, (March/April 1994), 34-35.Clements Street, Oxford 0X 4 1AW, UK 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010, USA: 1, 2009), p. 8.

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FIG 6&7: The sketches of Philips Pavilion.

FIG 8: The photograph of Philips Pavilion.

CONCEPTUALISATION 9


la stadium hollywood park Architect: Jmes Warton & Heath May HKS LINE RODOVAN KOVACEVIC. Location: Inglewood, California, U.S. Project Year: 2016. The stadium roof structure is consisted by 70000 prefabricated, shop-assembled perforated panels. The facade is an achievement of interactive computational intensive program. The design team abandon conventional architectural language, such as CAD diagram, which is 2D presentation skill11. They explored a new design process: design-to-fabrication workflow to produce the tessellated cladding patterns. These workflow means designing with softwares, and outputing the outcome of design as fabrication software file12. After translating these file into machine industry. The components of facades would be produced automatically. These project is a successful test of the workflow thinking. These workflow theory will be beneficial in prefabricated construction. This workflow will increase production scope and efficiency, as well as the accuracy of building components. The design team prepared a alternative hypothetical solution of connections for achieve feasibility of the components. The alternative plan is 3D print the fixations. 3D print will follow the file-to-factory workflow as well. Both 3D print and CNC machine omitted graphical representation and avoid the delays and errors in production. The revolutionary skills consumed less time, required no review step and was visual performance available.The skills instigate the growth of complex geometric design, because building more complexly is a shift of architectural design13. The prefabricate machine can satisfy the requirement more easily. The facade is produced as components in factory. Then workers would assemble them in site. The off-site production protects the site environment. Assemble process saves labour forces and time. It supports sustainable and economical design strategy.

The aspect of the project should be appreciated is the transformation between 3D coordinators and 2D machine space. All the simulation of the facade is set up in software. Designers worked on design optimisation to find best iteration and solution of the shapes and materials. Without making physical model, they identify the real 3D coordinator of patterns in binary computational program. They tested the framing and details elements in digital software14. Computers can provide broader datas, have more analysis and cost less time than human force. Engineers can detect the potential risks and possibilities of structure.These project generalize the benefits of digital design in real application. This design explored the possibilities of applications of computational software and industrial prefabrication in future architecture improvement. However, more integrated description of elements in software should be developed either. Meanwhile, the resources supplied fabricators are scarce. Increasing types of materials and supplier is one of the further tasks. The advantage of prefabrication decrease the construction impact of site and surrounding environment. The construction schedule and cost are predictable and easy to control. The design and construction results are more accurate. Software program can minimize the deviation of angles and scales. The building can pass the government criteria15. Therefore, the building is a safer building that has longer lifespan for its inhabitants.

11. Achim Menges, Bob Sheil, Ruairi Glynn and Marilena Skavara, Fabricate, Third edn. (University of Collage London: University of stuttggert, Insitute of Computational Design and Construction, University of Collage London, The Bartlett School of Architecture, 2017), p. 36-43 in UCL Press, <http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1546589/1/Fabricate.pdf> [accessed 29 March 2018].p36 -38 12.Achim Menges, Bob Sheil, Ruairi Glynn and Marilena Skavara, Fabricate, Third edn. (University of Collage London: University of stuttggert, Insitute of Computational Design and Construction, University of Collage London, The Bartlett School of Architecture, 2017), p. 36-43 in UCL Press, <http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1546589/1/Fabricate.pdf> [accessed 29 March 2018].p36-40 13. Dunne,Anthony; Raby, Fiona. Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (The third floor of 1 Rogers Street in Cambridge, MA 02142.: MIT Press, 2013), p. 42. 14. Achim Menges, Bob Sheil, Ruairi Glynn and Marilena Skavara, Fabricate, Third edn. (University of Collage London: University of stuttggert, Insitute of Computational Design and Construction, University of Collage London, The Bartlett School of Architecture, 2017), p. 36-43 in UCL Press, <http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1546589/1/Fabricate.pdf> [accessed 29 March 2018].p41,42. 15. Dunne,Anthony; Raby, Fiona. Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (The third floor of 1 Rogers Street in Cambridge, MA 02142.: MIT Press, 2013), p. 39-41

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FIG 9, 10, 11 & 12: The compunents of the stadium;s facade and the computing simulating diagram.

FIG 13: The rendered digital model of La Stadium.

CONCEPTUALISATION 11


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FIG 14: The rendered digital model of La Stadium. CONCEPTUALISATION 13


Design Computation

Brief Architectural design is a process that solving problems of existing site. How could the space become more well arranged and inhibits has more convenient life? At the same time, architects should consider how to using least budget to create most benefits. Therefore, architectural design itself is a extremely complex issue. Computational tools are invented for minimizing the design process. At the beginning, digital tools can aid the architects to frame the problems more detailed. Due to its forceful database storage, computer could help designers collect information and find the shortcuts of design16. It is why computing can be employed to re-define practise. Computation supports architects to reset the relation between goals and solutions17. Optimization directs the goals that designers should working on. Meantime, unlike traditional design process architects present the outcome through drawings, digital designers use computational linguistic directly transform products to 3D models. Also, there are more modus, such as diagrams, videos or texts, to represent design in computer. Computation promotes the rise of materialization and fabrication in architectural and constructional industry. The novel materials, like smart materials, hybrid material or flexible materials, are increasing used in digital design. Now, architects can test their characteristics and performance in software easily. However, there were research problems of materials without computers in some decades ago. Because of the diversity of materials, more fabrication technologies, for instance, prefabricated and assemble constructions, are capable in digital architecture. 3D software. The up-to-date presentation media can link to fabrication industry directly. There is a new relationship between generation and production---”file to factory”19.

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Moreover, digital model is a straightforward visual communicate methods that is understood by public. Non-professional workers can involve in fabrication process currently. Also, computing programs can generate the structural forces and geometric expression in 3D modules. It breaks the limitation of free-form. By generating and simulation the model, geometries of design will closely response the conditions of site context. Performance analysis is one of the dominant functions of computation. Digital tools can evaluate the materials expression and overall performance of models in simulated environments. Architects will get comprehensive feedback of the design strategies, and then fixing the existing issues. Not only the outlook of the model, but also the performance of design will be tested. These technique provides opportunities of sustainability. Architects are looking for a more organic and dynamic plan that can reflect on nature20. This is the innovation of parametric design. The new theory of architecture emerged from computation is biology and sustainability.

16. Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, eds.Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge, 2014), p. 3-4. 17.Anthony Dunne, Fiona Raby, Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (The third floor of 1 Rogers Street in Cambridge, MA 02142.: MIT Press, 2013), p. 39-40. WikiArquitectura. (2015). Philips Pavillion Expo 58 - Data, Photos & Plans - WikiArquitectura. [online] Available at: https://en.wikiarquitectura.com/building/philips-pavillion-expo-58/ [Accessed 6 Mar. 2018]. 18. Anthony Dunne, Fiona Raby, Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (The third floor of 1 Rogers Street in Cambridge, MA 02142.: MIT Press, 2013), p. 41. WikiArquitectura. (2015). Philips Pavillion Expo 58 - Data, Photos & Plans - WikiArquitectura. [online] Available at: https://en.wikiarquitectura.com/building/philips-pavillion-expo-58/ [Accessed 6 Mar. 2018]. 19.. Anthony Dunne, Fiona Raby, Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (The third floor of 1 Rogers Street in Cambridge, MA 02142.: MIT Press, 2013), p. 36. WikiArquitectura. (2015). Philips Pavillion Expo 58 - Data, Photos & Plans - WikiArquitectura. [online] Available at: https://en.wikiarquitectura.com/building/philips-pavillion-expo-58/ [Accessed 6 Mar. 2018]. 20. Fry, Tony, DESIGN FUMING SUSTAINABILITY, ETHICS AND NEW PRACTI, First edn (First Floor, Angel Court, 81 St Clements Street, Oxford 0X 4 1AW, UK 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010, USA: 1, 2009), p. 4 - 6.. CONCEPTUALISATION


â&#x20AC;&#x153;Design is a process we engage in when the current situation is different from some desired situation, and when the actions needed to transform the former into the latter are not immediately obvious.â&#x20AC;? ------Yehuda E Kalay

FIG 15: The photography of Underwood Pavilion. CONCEPTUALISATION 15


ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15 ICD Institute for Computational Design: Prof. Achim Menges ITKE Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design: Prof. Jan Knippers Scientific Development: Moritz Dörstelmann, Valentin Koslowski, Marshall Prado, Gundula Schieber, Lauren Vasey ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15: Interactive Panorama  is a Pavilion that based on the concept of spider silk to create a stable and dynamic pneumatic structure. The morphological lightweight structure is reinforced by fibre. Due to its unique material and construction methods, the design process greatly relies on cyber-physical analysis and calculation and involves interdisciplinary experts. Without testing thousands materials, designers can select the most adoptable and efficient materials from digital database directly. Then, they will simulating the shell geometry of the fibrereinforced ETFE surface by introducing digital form finding methods. According the environment conditions and material properties, designers can utilize software to generate the most efficient locations of the fibre. Without submitting a drawing, architects only need to input the robot control codes, construction commends will be operated21. Comparing with conventional design process, computational design saves construction time and physically testing materials to generate a geometry of the shell. The examination and considerations of conditions are more comprehensive. In this case, computation can be utilized to re-define the complex shell structure into simpler form. This action reduced the construction load. However, the biggest revolution of computing in design and constructions industry is materials of fabrication. Fibre, a soft material that were never considered as a reinforced material two decades ago. Computation program methods can identify the locations of force bearing points on the lightweight shell. Robotic construction will place the fiber on the preset trails accurately 22. Embedded sensor system is used to predict the structure failure. With the cooperation of these mature computational software,

Computation could predict the feasibility and deformation of geometries. This technique can optimize the forms of geometries. Because of the optimization of shape, the pavilion contains minimal formwork 23. Meanwhile, the pavilion has extreme low density compare with general shells. It is only 6.5 kg/m2. The shell geometry is very rigid to bear large force. Therefore, computational optimization provides more possibilities of geometric forms to be tested and constructed. Computation is a storage of various data. Designers can apply these information from multi-subjects, and then interrelate the parameters from each area. The performance could be developed in many disciplinaries. Such as the research pavilion designing team, they utilized biology as their concept. Spider habitat is stable and safe that has excellent mechanical performance. Architects employed performance analysis program to operate the biologic and mathematical performance into design. Meantime, Bionic is a novel theory of architectural design24. For achieving sustainable architecture, design should react to the natural environment. Organic and dynamic form is popularized. Computation design gives architects the opportunities to analysis the optimize the design closer to natural principle.

21. Icd.uni-stuttgart.de. (2017). ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15 | Institute for Computational Design and Construction. [online] Available at: http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=12965 [Accessed 10 Mar. 2018]. 22.  Designboom | architecture & design magazine. (2016). subaquatic water spider nests inform ICD/ITKE research pavilion 2014-15. [online] Available at: 23. Dunne,Anthony; Raby, Fiona. Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (The third floor of 1 Rogers Street in Cambridge, MA 02142.: MIT Press, 2013), p. 6. 24. Icd.uni-stuttgart.de. (2017). ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15 | Institute for Computational Design and Construction. [online] Available at: http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=12965 [Accessed 10 Mar. 2018]. 25. Yehuda E Kalay. Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2014), p. 16

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FIG 16, 17 & 18: The digital analyses of ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15.

FIG 19: The construction photograph of ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15.

CONCEPTUALISATION 17


Underwood Pavilion Project Name: Underwood Pavilion – Ball State University – 2014 Location: Muncie, IN, USA Design And Realization: Gernot Riether, Prof. Dipl.-Ing., M.S. Architect, Andrew Wit, Prof. M.S. Student Team: Noor Al-Noori, Andrew Heilman, Chris Hinders, Charles Koers, Huy Nguyen, Nick Peterson, Steven Putt, Ashley Urbanowich Underwood Pavilion is a tensegrity structure based assemble pavilion. It is constructed by lightweight structure. The design team applied Rhino, Grasshopper, Kangaroo and Galapagos to generate, simulate and analysis the project model. The designers rejected conventional physical model form-finding process. They complete the design by utilizing several digital structural simulation softwares and applied physics engines as design tools. The whole design process is consisted by one digital simulation and two physical experiments. Meantime, teams are separated into four groups for distinct analysis tasks. The total time consumed by the studio is only five weeks26. Therefore, computational design could have high efficiency and simplified process. These architects defined the final form by transform it into computing definition. The software also helped to exam the higher level complexities of models and physical properties of materials. At the same time, computation could minimize the construction material with minor changes to identify the final form. Therefore, the computational analysis methodology can re-define design elements. After defining the position of each elements and the elastic level of material, construction would be processed in the site. The materials were selected for construction are durable and flexible. The pavilion itself is assembled27. So there is less waster and environmental damage than normal project. Through the simulation in computer before construction, the potential ricks and issues were predicted before construction. So, digital program is safer and more efficient in construction as well.

The tensegrity structure has pure tension. This form can be finded only by making physical model before computation appeared previously. Now, digital calculation can not only simulate the geometry, but also predict the curvature and analysis the stress number of fiber. A stronger, lighter and material efficient model were generated. The geometries of elements are more accurate. So, flexibility is possible in complex geometries. Moreover, except tensegrity structure, more irregular forms could be generated in computer quickly. Computational simulation can suggest the most adoptable material, which has less waste and more sustainablity. For this pavilion, sportwear cloths, which is non-synthetic material. The material, contains 84% recycled polyster, is more durable and suitable material28. The pavilion gets a better performance because of its flexible skin indeed. Computational program, which has greater knowledge storage and faster operation speed than human, would provide more precise evidence and performance-oriented options. The same as ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILLON 2014-15, underwood pavilion also utilized bionic as architectural theory. Human body bones, ligaments, tendons and muscles all act as pure compression structure. By referencing to examples, architects could prototyping the model rapidly. The environmental friendly and transportable design reflects the significance of sustainability.

26. Arch2O.com. (2017). Underwood Pavilion | Gernot Riether & Andrew Wit. [online] Available at: https://www. arch2o.com/underwood-pavilion-gernot-riether-andrew-wit/ [Accessed 14 Mar. 2018].p3. 27. Gernot Riether, Andrew J. Wit and Steven T. Putt, ‘THE UNDERWOOD PAVILION An investigation in parametric tensegrity structures ‘, Emerging Experience in Past, Present and Future of Digital Architecturee, Proceedings of the 20th International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in, The Journal of Architecture.CAADRIA 2015, (2015), p.669. 28. Wit, Andrew and Riether, Gernot. (2016). [ebook] Underwood Pavilion, pp.160-165. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281205650 [Accessed 10 Mar. 2018].

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F


FIG 20: The photograph of Underwood Pavilion..

FIG 21: The digital analyses of Underwood Pavilion..

CONCEPTUALISATION 19


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FIG 22: The photograph of ICE/ITKE Research Pavilion. CONCEPTUALISATION 21


Composition/Generation

Brife After the engaging of digital tools, architectural and constructional design concept and process transformed entirely. The participate groups of digital design shifts rapidly. Computers can replace some specialists in analysis stages. Meanwhile, these tools can support the communication between architects and disciplines experts. Architects can involve broader topics into design, such as biology and sustainability. At the same time, computers remedy the lack of architects’ construction background. They supports architects design straightforwardly into the concept without worry too much about the structure capability. Like what we has done in the Beijing AA visiting school. Our team is composite by architects wholely, but we successfully generated the flexible shell structure and built it physically. Moreover, we inserted the digital model into public media and generated the SQ code of the final model. The inter-media transfer helps us disseminate our architectural concept widely. In some complex digital design, architects tend to create software by themself 29. Digital tools support the individuation of design. Flexibility and complexity of geometries is the recent theme. It has a higher demands on construction. Computing assists designer selecting suitable materials and simulate the satisfy the local performance request. These digital tools link the physical site conditions to models and provide feedback at diverse stages. In this aspect, predictable construction issues would have less limitation on design.

However, computer, the cold machine, lacks creative capability and intuition. It can not distinguish right and wrong, ugly and beautiful. Designers should always be the one to control aesthetic and development direction30. Also, digital tools have not cover all the areas of study at this moment. Not all the functions of products are computable. Meanwhile, architects are required to professionally operate computing language. omputational skills will be the obstacle of normal people to become a digital designer. Despite the design process is well controlled and physically-practised, unexpected results could appearce. These surreal digital design can be both positive or negative. Possibly these shortcomings of computation could bring more inspiration to us in the further progress. Although computation has had a long history. The interoperability protocals between each software were appeared only 60 years ago. Overall, Designers tried hard to explore more design possibilities. Computation is constantly improving. We could image more innovations of digital design will arise in the future, because it is powerful and full of potential.

29. Definition of ‘Algorithm’, ed. by Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, eds (London: The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press), 1999), p. 11, 12. 30.Peters, Brady, ‘Architectural Design’, ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, 83.2, (2013), 08-15.

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“There is the danger that if the celebrationof skills is allowed to obscure and divert from the real design objectives, then scripting degenerates to become an isolated craft rather than developing into an integrated art form.’12 This issue of 3 promotes the idea of computation in architecture as an integrated art form. “ ------Brady Peters

FIG 23: The surface of P-wall. CONCEPTUALISATION 23


Esker House Lcation: Italy - San Candido Dsigner: Plasma Studio Project yesr: 2006

Esker House is a excellent re-constructed work that combines conventional architecture with the innovative computational design. The original building was built in 1960s 31. I would see this project as an optimization design. It demonstrates the capacity of computational design on developing the host house without destroy its initial structure. The generative approaches of computation can be divided into design process and construction methods. The geometry of Esker House is unique because of its folded roof. The roof is generated from computational software. It is a split-level wood structure that flows through the top. The stairs and roof interleaved as circles. Their morphology is fluid and soft. The special geometry looks freely and integrated with surrounding smoothly. All the deformation and softening of the roof forms are complete in computational programs. The external staircase is one of the modular 32. To exploring the most suitable geometry of design, a lots of simulations and iterations are utilized to compare different results. Digital tools can ever-creating the simulated forms of the roof. And it can record the whole design process and data. The results of each forms can be contrasted together to get an optimized shape. This methods of data collection is more precise and case less side effects than artificial records. Moreover, the computation analysis could go through a wide range of aspects, such as material, environmental conditions cost and time consuming. Digital programs help architects comprehensively and infinitely optimize the design.

Functionality of buildings takes a vital role in architectural design. This project did very well in this aspect. The roof has various terraces and intensity. It is a innovated outdoor spaces with rich texture. Parametric design can help designers to find the most suitable scale for the height, width and so on. Arrangement of each zones can also be identified by its functions. Architects will get the best simulation of spaces according the anthroposomatology 33. Computation itself is a specialist of several displicinaries. The digital tools assist architect to achieve biological development in architecture. Computing is critical in material and construction methods selections. Generation approaches can predict the risks of construction process. The designers of Esker House generate a structure with minimal materials in computer. The material selected is prefabricated. These fabrication data directly come from the 3D digital model. computation significantly lowers the communication time between designers and engineers. In this case, digital program can be a detector and an engineer.

31. ArchDaily. . Esker house / Plasma Studio. [online](2018) Available at: https://www.archdaily.com/11957/esker-house-plasma-studio [Accessed 14 Mar. 2018].30.Peters, Brady, ‘Architectural Design’, ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, 83.2, (2013), 08-15. 32. ArchDaily.. Esker house / Plasma Studio. [online] (2018) Available at: https://www.archdaily.com/11957/esker-house-plasma-studio [Accessed 14 Mar. 2018].30.Peters, Brady, ‘Architectural Design’, ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, 83.2, (2013), 08-15. 33. Meier, Alexis. life in:formation (France: University of Strasbourg, 2010), p.50-52.

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FIG 24 & 25: The exterior and interior photographs of Esker House.

FIG 26 & 27: The line drawings of Esker House wood roof.

CONCEPTUALISATION 25


P-Wall Date: 2013 Size: 6.1m x 3.6 x 0.3m Materials: Fiber-Reinforced Thin-Shell Precast Concrete Panels mounted on Steel Frame Tools: Rhino, Grasshopper, Kangaroo Location: FRAC Centre, Orleans, France Fabrication: Concreteworks, Oakland, California The generative approach of P-wall is highly relying on computing. This project is designed in conventional process, but employed a large pattern through computational simulation to analysis the possibility of design34. The design team challenges the combination form of fabric form and concrete. How could heavy and rigid concrete cast in lightweight flexible fiber? Computation software could help designers solve the problem and get several iterations of distinct results.

P-wall was constructed in a complex, flexible, cheap and low-technical methods. The final geometry of P-wall was formed by self-organization of material under forces. Rather than normal wood formwork, nylon fabric and wood dowels become the formwork 36. Computing generative approach gives the designer brave to attempt novel material and technique. Computation is also an insurance to decrease the failure of design in physical context. It speeds up the modern architectural design course.

The actual geometry of design sometimes is uncertained during form-finding process. In P-wall, the locations of contraints are vital for the final form of these white bubbles. The shapes of bubbles will influence by every conditions. In this situation, unexpected results should be controlled to reduce architectural accidents. Computational analysis can minimize the risks. The spring-net of meshed in grasshopper has an acceptable range of accuracy to do testing. Designers can exam the architectural performance through operating software. Meantime, this generative approach explores the boundary between repetition and modularity. The iterations of forms come from 5 modules. However, all the concrete bubbles in the 34 panels are diverse35. It means modularity will not limit diversity. The architectural theory about biological design and manufacture relate closely to computation. These variable organic form is a example of biologic design.

Another rule of computation is inspiring architects to further develop the projects. Digital programs are extremely powerful. It could provide designers more opportunities to generate one module. Therefore, designers never stops to develop their explorations. There are some further design project from P-wall, like the weathered P-wall and P-ball. Computer can become a recorder to help architects catch up the design process. It is also a researcher to provide precedents. Computation breaks the limitations of design improvement. However, digital design restrict designers’ cognitive logic. Computer is possible to make mistakes either. Once designers are used to produce in digital mode, they will be lazy to critically analysis the design logical. After all, computer is not the one who has consciousness, human is.

34. Ornamentalplaster.blogspot.com.au. (2017). Inspirational Modern Design: “P-Wall” by Andrew Kudless. [online] Available at: http:// ornamentalplaster.blogspot.com.au/2013/01/inspirational-modern-design-p-wall-by.html [Accessed 14 Mar. 2018]. 35. Matsysdesign.com. P_Wall (2013) « MATSYS. [online] (2018). Available at: http://matsysdesign.com/2013/09/02/p_wall-2013/ [Accessed 15 Mar. 2018]. 36. Matsysdesign.com. . Seed (p _ball) « MATSYS. [online] (2018) Available at: http://matsysdesign.com/category/projects/seed-p_ball/ [Accessed 15 Mar. 2018]. 37. Matsysdesign.com.. Weathering (P_Wall) « MATSYS. [online] (2018) Available at: http://matsysdesign.com/category/projects/weathering-p_wall/ [Accessed 15 Mar. 2018].

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FIG 28, 29 & 30: The photograph of different types P-wall.

FIG 31: The digital line work analysis of P-wall.

CONCEPTUALISATION 27


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FIG 32: The weathered P-wall. CONCEPTUALISATION 29


Conclusion

Overall Review

Intended Design Approach

Digital design is an innovative design approach that benefits architects in several aspects. It reschedules the design process. The transformation of architectural language between disciplines is easier. 2D Architectural drawings is no longer the main communication tools. Architects can submit the digital file straightforwardly to fabrication industry. Meanwhile, designers could generate the geometry freely in software and simulate it in site conditions. The load bearing, material efficiency and environmental context could be analyses. Computational analysis could be an insurance of one model be able to suit and construct on site. The deeper architects develop the model, the closer the design to sustainability. Material diversity is another feature of digital fabrication. More flexible and novel materials can be offered in parametric design. The form of buildings can be assemble, prefabricable and mobile. However, computational software has no intuition. It would be wrong as well. The simulation in computation is still slightly distinct with physical conditions. Architects cannot rely on computer enteirly. They need to explore the potentials of computing and repairing the bugs of digital software.

The design topic of our group is P-wall. It is a organic and dynamic form that generated by grasshopper and kangaroo. At the beginning of design, I will search the design intend and concept behind P-wall. After fully understand its architectural approach, I can explorer its potentials and shortcomings more deeply. Then, I will site visit the new Unimelb Student Precinct. Considering recent and future environment conditions of our site Thinking about what aspects will influence my design directionn on transportation, climate, surrounding buildings, target clients and so on. Our design goal is a bike shelter. I need to realize the opportunities relate to the site and the bike shelter. Afterwards, I will back to computing form-finding. By re-defining and generating the form of P-wall, I would get a more suitable result for our design. Then simulating the model in site context and analysis its structural ability. This step of design can predict the risk of construction. Meanwhile, I intend to apply sustainability as my design approach.Digital tools can help me working towards this direction. Computational testing could provide the feedback immediately. It could assist me to reduce cost, errors and time consuming. Better overcome means energy saving. I also want our bike shelter to be assemble. The materials that we choose can be prefabricated and lightweight. Then, we only need sending the digital file to machine and then assembling the patterns on site. In this way, the bike shelter will be flexible and portable. Construction process can take less time and case less damage. It benefits both the designers and clients.

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CONCEPTUALISATION 31


Learning Outcome

Knowledge Review

Further Development

Before studying Air studio, I had attended two AA Visiting parametric design studios during the summer holiday of 2018. In these digital design studios, I learned the basic design process and technologies briefly. However, I could not understand each steps of digital design before the learning of Part A. Previously, I only knew how to use digital tools, but I did not know why they are arranged in this way. Through reading these theory about design and computing, I have a clearer logic about digital design approach. The readings solve my question about the differences between traditional design and digital design. I will apply the advantages of digital tools in my further design, avoid shortcomings of computing at the same time . Also, These theories change my thinking about prefabrication. I will try to prefabricate my design models in later studying.

I realize that software skills is the basement of parametric design. It is the professional language of digital design. Even I have had some experience of digital studio study, my software skills still required to be improved. The grasshopper teaching video that provided on LMS is really useful and easy to understand for me.

My view about the scales of parametric is challenged. Without deeply research the precedents, I thought parametric design were mostly employed in small scale buildings, such as pavilions or shelters. Meanwhile, I thought the function of parametric buildings were restricted on exhibitions or outdoor resting areas. However, by researching the six precedents, I aware that parametric design can be large as the stadium. Digital tools cannot only used on structures of buildings, but also on the details of buildings, for instance: a wall.

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I am not very experienced in software modeling previously. My past works are rendered by Photoshops. The 2D graphic presentation tools are not enough to represent architectural model in perspective view. My building models were handmade. They spent me a lot of time. I could try 3D model simulation in software next time to increase my efficiency. Moreover, my design considerations and analysis were not comprehensive enough. If possible, I would generate them under environment context. And developing these design in more sustainable way. My last studio: Water, was learning design from Alvaro Siza. If I could redesign it, I will search through the database of Alvaro Sizaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s works in computer. And then summarize the features of Sizaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s works in software. After the three weeks learning experience, I am more interested in digital design. I have get ready to continue my explorations in Part B.


CONCEPTUALISATION 33


Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches week 1

Perspective

Iteration 1

Top View

Elevation

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Iteration 2

Iterati


ion 3

Iteration 4

Iteration 5

CONCEPTUALISATION 35


Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches week 1

This is a general way to make a loft.

Iteration 1

The more complex the basic shape, the more complex the geometry.

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Iteration 3


I change the basic geometry and varify the data. Using panel to check the data.

Iteration 2

I start to try the loft options of the component. The shape of geometry can be closed and adjest to smoother surface.

Iteration 5

The overall shape looks like a wave. And I learned how to make contours.And I also hade a try of domain and random components.

Iteration 4

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Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches week 2

These two geometries are generated from the same surface. But they are completely different. It is important to find the right input and outout,

I started my exercise Then I try some comp grasshopper to look a this shapes.

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with simple points. plex forms from at what I can get from

CONCEPTUALISATION 39


Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches week 3

This shape looks like our Beijing AA Visiting School Model. I practise it by selecting some vertices from the mesh.

The basic geometry of the mesh is a sqare. I want the eight vertices of the sqaure to be anchor points. Then, I selected some vertices on the mesh surfaces as well. The spring is flying upwards. But there are some points still connected to the inside of the squre.

I tried to use sphere as my mesh durface. But I think the result is not very successful. The spring mesh is always flying uo really high even I changed the data. It does not have a very regular form. I think the main problem is that the sphere mesh do not have end point on the surface. The line and length options is running infinitly. So it is always flying. Maybe I should find out how can I fine its diameter.

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CONCEPTUALISATION 41


Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches week 3

This is come from a circle. Circle is a little different with other shapr. It does not have corner. For iterating the form better, I should learn more ways about select points from meshes.

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The basic curve is a star. The result is very cute. I choose U ans V count on mesh component as 25, because if the data is too big, it will running so slowly. But due to the low U and V count, The shape of the spring mesh is not very clean. It is a â&#x20AC;&#x153;low resolutionâ&#x20AC;? star from the top view. It would be bettr if I can find out how to run grasshopper faster.

I used the flatten tree to rearrange the data. Then I try use mathetical calculation, such as multiplication to select the data in mesh. But I should learn how to control the omain component. Also, I should study how to use random to select data. I think the random result wil looks like P_Walls better.

CONCEPTUALISATION 43


Bibliography: ArchDaily. Esker house / Plasma Studio. [online] (2018). Available at: https://www. archdaily.com/11957/esker-house-plasma-studio [Accessed 14 Mar. 2018]. Arch2O.com. Underwood Pavilion | Gernot Riether & Andrew Wit. [online] (2017). Available at: https:// www.arch2o.com/underwood-pavilion-gernot-riether-andrew-wit/ [Accessed 14 Mar. 2018]. Architectural Design Research in, The Journal of Architecture.CAADRIA 2015, (2015), 663-672. Clarke,Joseph. ‘Iannis Xenakis and the Philips Pavilion’, Architecture New York, The Journal of Architecture.17:2, (2012), 213-229. Capanna, Alessandra . ‘Iannis Xenakis:Architect of Light and Sound’, Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming, NEXUS NETWORK JOURNAL .3, (2001), 1 (p. 19-26). Definition of ‘Algorithm’, ed. by Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, eds (London: The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press), 1999), p. 11, 12. Divisare. Plasma Studio · Esker House. [online] (2018). Available at: https://divisare.com/ projects/330820-plasma-studio-esker-house [Accessed 18 Mar. 2018]. Doerstelmann,Moritz; Knippers,Jan; Koslowski,Valentin; Menges,Achim; Prado,Marshall; Schieber,Gundula and Vasey,Lauren. ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion (United States: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2015), p. 60-65. Domusweb.it. ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion. [online] (2018). Available at: https://www.domusweb. it/en/news/2015/07/14/icd_itke_research_pavilion.html [Accessed 10 Mar. 2018]. Dunne,Anthony; Raby, Fiona. Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (The third floor of 1 Rogers Street in Cambridge, MA 02142.: MIT Press, 2013), p. 1-9, 33-45. Fry, Tony, DESIGN FUMING SUSTAINABILITY, ETHICS AND NEW PRACTI, First edn (First Floor, Angel Court, 81 St Clements Street, Oxford 0X 4 1AW, UK 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010, USA: 1, 2009), p. 1- 16. Kalay, Yehuda E, Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2014), p. 5-25. Matsysdesign.com. Seed (p _ball) « MATSYS. [online] (2018). Available at: http:// matsysdesign.com/category/projects/seed-p_ball/ [Accessed 15 Mar. 2018]. Matsysdesign.com. P_Wall(2006) « MATSYS. [online] (2018). Available at: http:// matsysdesign.com/category/projects/p_wall2006/ [Accessed 15 Mar. 2018].

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Matsysdesign.com. P_Wall(2009) « MATSYS. [online] (2018). Available at: http:// matsysdesign.com/category/projects/p_wall2009/ [Accessed 15 Mar. 2018]. Matsysdesign.com. P_Wall (2013) « MATSYS. [online] (2018). Available at: http:// matsysdesign.com/2013/09/02/p_wall-2013/ [Accessed 15 Mar. 2018].  Matsysdesign.com. P_Wall(2009) « MATSYS. [online] (2018). Available at: http:// matsysdesign.com/2009/08/11/p_wall2009/ [Accessed 15 Mar. 2018]. Matsysdesign.com.  Weathering (P_Wall) « MATSYS. [online] (2018). Available at: http:// matsysdesign.com/category/projects/weathering-p_wall/ [Accessed 15 Mar. 2018]. Meier, Alexis. life in:formation (France: University of Strasbourg, 2010), p. 49-52. Menges,Achim; Sheil, Bob; Glynn, Ruairi and Skavara,Marilena. Fabricate, Third edn. (University of Collage London: University of stuttggert, Insitute of Computational Design and Construction, University of Collage London, The Bartlett School of Architecture, 2017), p. 36-43 in UCL Press, <http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1546589/1/Fabricate.pdf> [accessed 10 March 2018]. Ornamentalplaster.blogspot.com.au. Inspirational Modern Design: “P-Wall” by Andrew Kudless. [online] (2017). Available at: http://ornamentalplaster.blogspot.com.au/2013/01/inspirational-modern-design-p-wall-by.html [Accessed 14 Mar. 2018]. Oxman, Rivka and Oxman, Robert, eds. Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge, 2014), p. 1–10. Paskus, Benjamin. [ebook] (2013). pp.1-10. Available at: https://core.ac.uk/ download/pdf/73940268.pdf [Accessed 14 Mar. 2018]. Peters, Brady, ‘Architectural Design’, ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, 83.2, (2013), 08-15. Riether,Gernot; Wit, Andrew J. and Putt,Steven T. ‘THE UNDERWOOD PAVILION An investigation in parametric tensegrity structures ‘, Emerging Experience in Past, Present and Future of Digital Architecturee, Proceedings of the 20th International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Swackhamer, Marc and Satterfield, Blair. ADAPTIVE ARCHITECTURE (Unitied State: ACADIA 2013, 2013), p. 269-278. Xenakis,Iannis and Le Corbusi, Iannis. ‘Philips Pavilion’, Architecture New York, NEXUS NETWORK JOURNAL .5, (March/April 1994), 34 WikiArquitectura. Philips Pavillion Expo 58 - Data, Photos & Plans - WikiArquitectura. [online] (2018). Available at: https://en.wikiarquitectura.com/building/philips-pavillion-expo-58/ [Accessed 10 Mar. 2018].

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Image Reference: Fig 1, 2, 3 & 4: Source from author. Fig 5: WikiArquitectura. Philips Pavillion Expo 58 - Data, Photos & Plans - WikiArquitectura. [online] (2018). Available at: https://en.wikiarquitectura.com/building/philips-pavillion-expo-58/ [Accessed 10 Mar. 2018]. Fig 6 , 7 & 8: ArchDaily. (2018). Gallery of AD Classics: Expo ‘58 + Philips Pavilion / Le Corbusier and Iannis Xenakis - 21. [online] Available at: https://www.archdaily.com/157658/ad-classics-expo-58-philips-pavilion-le-corbusier-and-iannis-xenakis/image-2-6 [Accessed 10 Mar. 2018]. Fig 9, 10, 11 & 12: Menges,Achim; Sheil, Bob; Glynn, Ruairi and Skavara,Marilena. Fabricate, Third edn. (University of Collage London: University of stuttggert, Insitute of Computational Design and Construction, University of Collage London, The Bartlett School of Architecture, 2017), p. 36-43 in UCL Press, <http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1546589/1/Fabricate.pdf> [accessed 10 March 2018]. Fig 13 & 14:KCET. (2018). How the Rams’ Stadium Development Could Impact Inglewood. [online] Available at: https://www.kcet. org/shows/town-hall-los-angeles/how-the-rams-stadium-development-could-impact-inglewood [Accessed 14 Mar. 2018]. Fig 15:ArchDaily. (2018). Students of Ball State Construct Parametric Tensegrity Structure for Local Art Fair. [online] Available at: https:// www.archdaily.com/553311/students-of-ball-state-construct-parametric-tensegrity-structure-for-local-art-fair [Accessed 14 Mar. 2018]. Fig 16, 17 & 18: ArchDaily. (2018). Gallery of ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15 / ICD / ITKE University of Stuttgart - 25. [online] Available at: https:// www.archdaily.com/770516/icd-itke-research-pavilion-2014-15-icd-itke-university-of-stuttgart/55acef82e58ece12db00024e-icd-itke-research-pavilion2014-15-icd-itke-university-of-stuttgart-various-fiber-layers-robotically-placed-in-icd-itke-research-pavilion-2014-15 [Accessed 15 Mar. 2018]. Fig:19:Domusweb.it. ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion. [online] (2018). Available at: https://www.domusweb. it/en/news/2015/07/14/icd_itke_research_pavilion.html [Accessed 10 Mar. 2018]. Fig 20:Moritz Doerstelmann. >> - Moritz Doerstelmann. [online]. (2018) Available at: http://moritzdoerstelmann. com/portfolio/icditke-research-pavilion-2014-15/ [Accessed 15 Mar. 2018]. Fig 21:ArchDaily. Gallery of ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15 / ICD / ITKE University of Stuttgart - 25. [online] (2018). Available at: https://www. archdaily.com/770516/icd-itke-research-pavilion-2014-15-icd-itke-university-of-stuttgart/55acef82e58ece12db00024e-icd-itke-research-pavilion2014-15-icd-itke-university-of-stuttgart-various-fiber-layers-robotically-placed-in-icd-itke-research-pavilion-2014-15 [Accessed 15 Mar. 2018]. Fig 22:Arch2O.com. Underwood Pavilion | Gernot Riether & Andrew Wit. [online] (2017). Available at: https:// www.arch2o.com/underwood-pavilion-gernot-riether-andrew-wit/ [Accessed 14 Mar. 2018]. Fig 23:Matsysdesign.com.  P_Wall(2009) « MATSYS. [online] (2018). Available at: http:// matsysdesign.com/category/projects/p_wall2009/ [Accessed 15 Mar. 2018]. Fig 24 & 25:Divisare. Plasma Studio · Esker House. [online] (2018). Available at: https://divisare. com/projects/330820-plasma-studio-esker-house [Accessed 18 Mar. 2018]. Fih 26 & 27:ArchDaily. Esker house / Plasma Studio. [online] (2018). Available at: https://www.archdaily.com/11957/ esker-house-plasma-studio [Accessed 14 Mar. 2018].Fig 28: Matsysdesign.com. Seed (p _ball) « MATSYS. [online] (2018). Available at: http://matsysdesign.com/category/projects/seed-p_ball/ [Accessed 15 Mar. 2018]. Fig 29 & 30: Matsysdesign.com. P_Wall (2013) « MATSYS. [online] (2018). Available at: http:// matsysdesign.com/2013/09/02/p_wall-2013/ [Accessed 15 Mar. 2018]. Fig 31 & 32: Matsysdesign.com.  Weathering (P_Wall) « MATSYS. [online] (2018). Available at: http:// matsysdesign.com/category/projects/weathering-p_wall/ [Accessed 15 Mar. 2018].

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Ma_Ran_788329_Part A  

This is Ran Ma's Part A Journal Submission for Studio: Air, Semester One, 2018

Ma_Ran_788329_Part A  

This is Ran Ma's Part A Journal Submission for Studio: Air, Semester One, 2018

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