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ก ก     1   1  2552 "# ISSN 1906 - 6864

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Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 1: June 20099


18 ภ ภ: ;0ภภ ภ9335 5  ?ภ 45&5bo"50%76ภภ 1 45ภ6<4>%ภ7 ภ3  5B@6"5 ภ ภ3780%7ภB0 5ภ0ภ" &`\ 7. 7ภภ5015   3 &"  2 0%7  ;"  ภC9&5  6 ภภ &"Z657A35ภ9 2"ภภ3"3"  5ภ>%5<5<ภ @7A<8617ภภ@Bภ ภ 53ภB6ภ 2ภ3"35 98 5`\\&56ภภ 0%7ภ76"2"ภภ9E15615 3321 n %147@94? &5ภ9E61  8. ภZ65&56ภภ2`ภ&6ภ"5&5 "Z6 5 ;1 977ภภ27  1 4 061 ภ0%ภ%  6 ภภ2" Z6 52 7ภภ61  57 9  ภ& 4   5 4       ภ 5 3750%7 666ภภ2" ภC99592ภZ656157 ภ 3  ภภ  ภ ,  ภ . (2544). #   ภ   $% %&'( 9 . .2545-2549. ++,-./ ภ+ & .   +/ /. (2545). 0+- 1ภ2&3. +4ภ5/&3 3 ภ+ & .

&6 63'+ ', /&3 3. (7 ภ3 2545 - ภ+, 85 2546). 3 ภ- :  # ภ-  ภ;0<% 0+- 1ภ 0 6ภ ภ 1ภ = <% 0+- 1ภ + &'( 1. /&3 3, &%/. (2545). :ภ  5 ?//@0= ภ % +   ภ 1ภ%%ภ 1ภ= <% 0+- 1ภA  &%//&3 3, 6 <+ 3 2545. Kane, Stephen M. and Wilson, Katherine B. (1981). The Administration of a Cooperative Education Program. Journal of Chemical Education. 58 (6): 499. National Commission for Cooperative Education . What Guidance Counselors Want to Know About Co-op Education. National Commission for Cooperative Education. (2003). The Best of CO-OP a Guide to the Best Co-op Colleges & Coporation. ed. 2002-2003 Wilson W., James. (2002). Creating and Initiating a Cooperative Education Program. The World Association for Cooperative Education, Massachusetts Inc. World Association for Cooperative Education, Inc. (2003). A Global Alliance of Business, Education and Government to Advance and Promote Work-Integrated Education 2002/2003 Membership Information. ภ ภ    1   1  2552


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Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 1: June 20099


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Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 1: June 20099


30 F 927'5<23?@8กก ก 7ก ก 8 ก   7  3 72("C'F927'5<23?@8กก ก 7ก ก  8 ก   (=C"8"(" C' 3 ก ก ก ก ) # 23&   5 #ก MEAN S.D.  * 1 39 ก ก ก 39ก ก  ?8"ก 0B 4.47 0.37 42 ก4("ก  ?27'538 ก( < 2 15 ก430"8"7ก9ก ก   5ก  4.46 0.72 M42>92ก'2 3 4 ก6A=C"52ก ก 85 4.40 0.68 3J57'55D31 4 14 ก ?8"3J6ก3("8845236 4.37 0.77 7'5ก5ก(2ก ก  5 13 กA  ก ก ก A" (2 4.37 0.97 3J6 ก3 #  * 1 2 3 4 5

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9'0ก=9 K 238"ก ก  "0ก8192'2ก'9" 055ก ก  "8" ก ก  "0ก=98192D3hC" Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 1: June 20099


32 F 927'5<23?@8กก ก 7ก ก 8 ก   ก  4 Dก  !ก"$@&043#$ %ก&#ก ก'90ก2  ก  A0'<2ก ก ก ก 85กก A "  "   ( 27=ก 3 3'  jq ก K  2 "   8" C 7 ' ก ก ก  ก ก  ก 492 H 23<2=C"5กก857=กjk>225 A=C"C7'ก ก ก ก 2 ( <C9ก((25กก7'53("88 ก  ก ก0  28 =C"     2 3@  (20 ก 2    ก 7'5=C"     5กกAก'9ก =C" "F927'5F<23?@(2 ก ก 7ก ก  "2< 7  4 72("C'F927'5<23?@8กก ก 7ก ก  8 ก   (=C"8"(" C' 3 0ก2  ก =C"  5กก) #  * 1

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%ก&#ก6# #  $ก !ก"5 39' 4.26 ?8"2@9 40ก2  ก ก@2ก8"5กก>ก ก 921 7'55กก ก ก C97'"ก@'@2@5>16กก ก 19ก ก

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$ก !ก"#I#A539' 4.30 7'5ก 7D3&$3ก ก !ก" &&ก'E#7 6$  ก 39' 4.29 < 0ก2  ก 492 @0"2ก9 ก ก >กกก ก  1ก@5AF?3:  ?8"ก ก ?ก  " 7'5กก"239>8"=C"5285 492 H D8ก@2AF923?@(2ก ก  9ก430" Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 1: June 20099


34 F 927'5<23?@8กก ก 7ก ก 8 ก   8"7ก9ก ก  0ก2  ก ก@@"9AF92 055 ?8"ก ก  30"C2ก9 5 M42285กก 9   2& กก !ก"## $ก !ก" 5 ก "7ก9 ก ก !ก"' &ก $ก73& ก  ก !ก"$3  39' 2.36 ก ก !ก"'  F$&7$ ก  ก !ก"39' 2.42 AF<2 ?3:ก?ก'9< 9ก %ก&#ก7 &4 'กก %# ก !ก" 39' 2.64 ก %ก&#ก' $  # DH07AIJ139' 3.03 0ก2  ก @9 ก ก ก 4"2 2 M42 ก'กก ก A F<2 ='495 ID0ก ?285กกก@ " 7'5ก  992 20B='4DJL685กก 0ก2  ก =C"5กกก@ 29AF<2ก ก 19ก 7'5("ก ก Iกกก& !ก" ( ก&.) 6 ก &  &$ก %#A 1 A 2   ' &$AR43&39' 3.28 0ก2   ก 85กก@  ก  9492(2D3E

0ก ก<452360 ก 'กก7'573กกกก ก 7 ก ก 85 ก  K 209 ก ก 98:9'กก8กก ก  7ก ก  08"4/ก ก (2 ก  <287'54925 "=>'ก 79232(2ก ?28110(247'5 ?8" ก  กก ก  7ก ก 3("7(@2 21ก2( < >733'"ก 58"ก ก ก 7ก ก 0( <85 ก  005 >ก8ก "2 42 ก110 ก( <7'5A5>16>42กก0B5 5กก ก 7ก ก  <287'54925  ก 5 กC" 81<7CJกกกM42285กก92A5 >ก ก Aก'992"2ก'9 3 ก'9 281< กก'9 2ก@5  M42285กก>4?7922 5กก A0ก2 3 2 >GกM42 13'"2ก2365ก(2>32"2236ก8 5กก

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01 23'1 35

=C"=1>32กก ก  1 7'5ก D3E>8ก  ก ก 1AF9292ก 8กก ก 7ก ก  749 3@9ก ก ก  9G834'2ก?@ก ก 7'5ก ก ก  9 ก ? 2 ก7'54" 2ก? @ ก ก @  A F  < 23? @ (2ก  ก ก 7ก ก กก9F H 6 2ก ก 8 ก 3@3'"2ก9 ก  >92182ก ก 7'5ก =C" ก  5 2Iก7'5=C"52ก ก 5 ' 3J57'5D31AF 925ก ก 8 ก 92ก  749ก  9กก?G8 34'2?@ก ก 7'5ก ก ก  9ก ?2ก7'54"2ก?@ก ก @  AF<28"5ก ก 7'5 95 ID0 9 3 ก'9492ก ก  ("9>32กก ก @95กJ6กก ก  ?8"ก0B42 4("กก ?227'538842ก( <AF 928"5ก ก 5 ID07'5709' 749ก ก ก  9ก ?2ก 4"2ก?@ก ก @ 7'5 9G834'2?@ก ก AF<2K 2 ?8"5ก ก '5 ID0'292ก 0ก2  ก =C"5กก85ก ก @9 ก ก  3?3:7'5A5>16495กก  ก >ก ก  1 7'5ก6   ก 53J57'5D31AF? 3: 925 ก ก 8"5 ID0 749ก ก ก  9ก ?2ก7'54"2ก?@ก ก  @  7'5ก  ก ก  9 G 834' 2? @ ก ก A F   <2 ? 8" 5ก ก  953?@ 23& &กก 1.  E '3 ก =709 7 3  ก  ก  ก  ก ก 7ก  ก 8 5 ก  5 ID07'55ก (2 ก   7'53'"2 ก34"2ก722(25 00B23   Eก 8":922922 2. E'>ก5 2 ก Iก ก5 27227'5ก23 7'592  ก  ("  2 3 ก 520  ก?  >7'54ก  1  8ก    ก ก  >ก8" I5>16"D 7'572C288'ก J5 H 7ก95กก Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 1: June 20099


36 F 927'5<23?@8กก ก 7ก ก 8 ก   998ก0Bก?'23(25 >ก ก ก ก ("M42 <2    2 กr7227'5กr5  49  2 H   ก  ("  28"  2  กM  4 2  8'ก J5ก ก  "925 3.   54"  2ก?  =C"    7'53J6 =C"   =  18  2ก  ก  9210" <2510I68"3J6 ก("2 "  245236 3?3: ก5กก ก  7'5D0(228" (2 ก38 5M482 ก ก 925 ID0"34@8 4.  ก 54"2ก 2ก ก ก ก >3J65? D3192?  0"  <2 8"=C"52ก ก 85 3J57'5D31   <28"=C"5 '=1ก ก >42 D84">ก ก  (2 ' 1  <2?("C'  "กก ก 81"8ก2'กC47'5 ก5กก0Aก4ก?'23 3JD0924927'5A5 5.  ก 4"2430"8"7ก9ก ก  5ก M42> 92ก'2(28'ก J5(2ก517'5กjqก8"  2(<48 ก32 ก3 'ก2 7'57M44 ' I8ก ?2 ก(  2 ก81" 3>>'  0I6 4'  3C" 21ก0< E7'5 110 ?A?กM42 6.  ก 3กก7ก3567'527=ก 7'5ก ?28"7ก9ก ก 4<2749ก ก 7ก 4'0B5ก7577'58" 3? ก  08"ก ก  ก3G14ก2834 1ก9?@ก ก  4'  34 49ก7'5ก5ก110834 7. 5กก38"927'50B='4DJL60ก0 242 2 3>>' 0" <2ก0B39ก=C" 23JB8ก ก 8ก ?ก7'50B8("2492 H ก("29ก 8. 5กก   ("  9  >32กก  ก 3ก?  7>7'5 =C"=1 <20ก20'<2 (Supervisor) 1 >ก27=7'54?792 2?ก ก  >'ก J52 9217'5กE 2 0"23("8ก9M42  <2ก43ก""7'5 2 9ก592 ก 7'55กก925 ก ก     1   1  2552


01 23'1 37

9. ก ก 7'55กก3ก?8"ก ก  ("9>32ก ก ก  ">กC"7'5"25กJ6924@ 0" <2("C'  "ก กM427'5 ?A0I6 21ก >CJก737'53C"" h r  ก กก ก ("ก5กJ6  "ก5กก >ก 8"3"3"048'ก J5(2>322 0ก 21ก K 2 3'"2ก 45236(2'กC4 0" <2กG2ก0I6>6กก ก  7'5=C"7 ก5กก9ก=C" 23JB ก("2 7'5@<กM42 ='22ก'92? 81"A("C'?ก0B5กก "" 10.  ก กก ก >9ก5กก8C7  H 8'ก J5 Work Integrated Learning 04กกก ก 8'ก J5ก ก   19 398ก ?'กC47'5ก5'กC4 ก27'50B5 กก กjqก0ก289(25กก7'53'ก(2 ' A4" 11.     8"  ก 7'ก'  7'59  > 3 'ก59  2 ก 7'5 5กก 0A=C"821 ก ?9ก  <2ก25ก 236ก 12. ก04 2D5ก2 ?7'5h I='8ก ?2'2ก ?@ก ก (2ก ก  ("9>32กก ก 8(1492 H  ก ก ก   ก 8'กC4ก4 &ก &3 &

3J5กกก ก , ?ก2. (4'3, 2546). 5ก 3J5กก92ก 0Bก ก 8 ก  2 ='ก3'ก ก ?92 9  3. 3J5กกก ก , ?ก2. (0h D3, 2547). 5ก 3J5กก92ก 0Bก ก 8 ก  2 ='ก3'ก ก ?92 9  4. 3J5กกก ก , ?ก2. (4'3, 2547). 5ก 3J5กก92ก 0Bก ก 8 ก  2 ='ก3'ก ก ?92 9  5. Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 1: June 20099


38 F 927'5<23?@8ภภ ภ7ภ ภ8 ภ  2 ', ?ภ'. (, 2546). 2ภ ภC2ภ ภ7'5 =C"5ภภ('@ภJ 5 Eภ. 2 6 2 6>I 01 23'1 . 5'0hภ6. (2541). 57'5ภ' ภภ5ภ3JD0 ภ81Jภ. 97'50B, ?ภ4E  ภ, 2 ' ภ2 03.  3>>',  '. (2546). 2ภ445='ภ?ภ(2  ภ?92>32ภ0Bภ ภ8 ภ 9  1. ,  '. (2547). 3C9 ภ ภ  '. >ภ6 ภ2 03. Axel Gohringer. (2002). University of Cooperative Education Karlaruhe: The Dual System of Higher Education in Germany. Asia Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, p.53-58. Lee C. M., Miller W.F., Hancock M.C., Rowen H.S. (2000). The Sillicon Vally Edge: A Hobitat for Innovation and Entrepreneurship. Stanford. Stanford University Press CA. Ryder Wilson, et al. (1987). Cooperative Education in a New Era. Jossey-Bass London. Sarvary, M. (1999). Knowledge Management and Competition in the Consulting Industry. California Management Review, 41.

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ภ ภ    1   1  2552 " 39 % 55 &' ISSN 1906 - 6864

Managing SUT Cooperative Education: Can it be the Best Practice in Thailand? Guntima Sirijeerachai1

Abstract Cooperative Education (Co-op) was first introduced in Thailand at Suranaree University of Technology (SUT), the first public autonomous university of the country, in 1993. The Cooperative Education and Career Development Project (CECDP), the universityQs central department, has been established in order to organize the Co-op program. The trimester system has been used instead of the semester system which is commonly used by most universities in Thailand; therefore, the students can work in the third and fourth academic year and graduate in 4 years. Each year, 1000 students of 27 fields of study are sent to work as temporary employees in workplaces countrywide. At present, the concept of Co-op has been proved its success among the three involved parties, the workplaces, SUT and students in terms of enhancing the graduateQs competency. Consequently, the philosophy of Co-op has been embraced by many universities both public and private ones. They developed their own Co-op program in the semester system as the pilot projects. These projects have been subsidized by the Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education. Even though SUT has exercised the Co-op program for more than 10 years, it is found that the Co-op concept is not clarified nationwide. The Co-op concept clarification in all three parties i.e. students, university and workplaces is found to be the key factor to run the co-op program successfully. This paper discusses benefits and problems emerging from three involved parties in managing the Co-op program at SUT. Keywords: Cooperative Education, Best Practice of Cooperative Education, Cooperative Education in Suranaree University of Technology, Cooperative Education management 1

The Center for Cooperative Education and Career Development, Suranaree University of Technology


40 Managing SUT Cooperative Education: Can it be the Best Practice in Thailand? Development of Cooperative Education at SUT Suranaree University of Technology (SUT) is in Nakhon Ratchasima province, in the North-east of Thailand. Its founding date is on 27 July 1990. Between July 1990 and May 1993, SUT developed its site and started the student admission in May 1993. SUT produces mostly graduates in science and technology. There are 5 institutes in SUT i.e. Engineering, Agricultural Technology, Science, Social Technology and Medicine (Public Health). SUT is ThailandQs first public autonomous university and also the first university that implemented cooperative education (co-op) which accepted worldwide, as a part of its undergraduate curriculum in 1993. To facilitate the placement of the co-op work term, the trimester is therefore used. In 1993, SUT started to develop the co-op education concept and management by inviting the private sectors, the Federation of Thai Industries (FTI), the Thai Chamber of Commerce (TCC), and all deans and lecturers for brainstorming. The cooperative education has to be better than the former summer training and leads to continually promote academic collaboration between the university and the private/public organizations for the mutual benefit of all parties involved. The development process of the Cooperative Education at SUT is shown in Table 1. SUT has continually developed the co-op program from an elective course to become compulsory which caused an increase in numbers of co-op students in 1999. The academic qualification of the participating students depends on each School. The selection is based on the following criteria : 1. The student must have a GPAX no less than 2.00. 2. The student must pass all basic prerequisite courses to the cooperative education program set by the School. 3. The student must possess a good character and a good student behavior record. 4. The student must demonstrate maturity and a potential for self-development.

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Guntima Sirijeerachai 41

Table 1 Development of Cooperative Education at SUT Year Process 1993 1. The cooperative education board was set up to develop the cooperative education concept and management. The board committee consists of the FTI, TCC, the representatives from some private sectors, and the university administrators i.e. the rectors, vice rectors, deans, and representative lecturers from the 5 institutes. The brainstormed ideas from the board meeting were further discussed by all SUT lecturers at a university workshop. 2. The cooperative education board visited the foreign universities i.e. Waterloo, Guelsh, and Dalhousie Universities. 3. The seminars and workshops were organized for brainstorming the concept of the cooperative education and to knowledge SUT people. 4. SUT and cooperative education project were publicized to some private sectors or workplaces. 1994 1. The Cooperative Education and Career Development Project (CECDP), the universityQs central department, which cooperates and facilitates all works and documentations between SUT and workplaces was established. 2. CECDP became a member of the World Association for Cooperative Education or WACE. 1995 The first 123 students were sent to work as temporary employees in the companies and earned 6 credits. At first, the cooperative education is an elective. The students in Engineering and Agricultural Technology Institutes were chosen based on their academic and behavior records. 1996 1. The cooperative education was become compulsory for all undergraduate curricula. 2. Students who fulfilled and passed the cooperative education were entitled to receive the certificate from the FTI and SUT. 2000 The first national seminar on eWork-integrated Learning Managementg was held at SUT. 2001 The 12th international World Conference on Cooperative Education was held at SUT. Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 1: June 2009


42 Managing SUT Cooperative Education: Can it be the Best Practice in Thailand? At the beginning of the co-op program, students were assigned to have 2 co-op workterms i.e. once in the third and once in the fourth year and earned 6 credits for each workterm. After their co-op workterm, if the students found their lack of competency, they could study the courses to fulfill the lack at the university. The co-op workterm was set to be alternated with the course work. The agreement was settled that students had to finish their last term at the university. However, the requirement of the Council of Engineer (COE) of Thailand stipulates that for the university using semester system, students have to study 3 hours per week for each 3-credit professional engineering course. In the trimester system, it has to be 4 hours per week to earn 4 credits for the same subject as in the semester system. This causes the credits registered at SUT to be higher than other universities. On the other hand, the number of credit registered is limited by the Commission of Higher Education. To diminish this problem, Engineering Institutes reduces the co-op education credit down to 9 and finally to 6 credits and only one co-op workterm is required. Most Schools have placed the co-op workterm in the first or the second term for 4th year students. To carry out the same policy, other Institutes such as Agricultural Technology, Medicine (Public Health), and Social Technology have to reduce the co-op credit to 6, and one co-op workterm is compulsory. However, for students who want more working experiences, SUT encourages them to have at most 3 co-op workterms in their curricula. The workterm periods are: 1st Trimester: April-August 2nd Trimester: September-December 3rd Trimester: December-April The formats of cooperative education program at SUT are: 1. It is compulsory for all students and all disciplines. 2. It is offered to students in the third term of their third year, or any term of their fourth year, depending on each School. 3. Participating students earn at least 5 credits for the program. 4. Participating students will be trained in a 12-week Pre-Cooperative Education course prior to the co-op term and earn 1 credit for the course. 5. Participating students are expected to work full-time for at least 16 weeks. ภ ภ    1   1  2552


Guntima Sirijeerachai 43

The main objective of the co-op program is that the students gain more experience which is better than the former common summer training program. It is therefore important to set up the SUT Cooperative Education Work Description for students as follow. 1. Students work as temporary employees. 2. The work assignment must be well-defined, involving clear cut responsibilities and beneficial to the employer. 3. The job title is eAssistant to the expertg in related fields or eAssistant to the engineer.g 4. Students must work full-time. 5. Duration of work is one trimester (16 weeks or 4 months). 6. Appropriate remuneration is provided by the employer. Presently, SUT has 20 disciplines in undergraduate curricular in 4 institutes as shown in Table 2. Students will be well-prepared prior to the co-op workterm. They have to study the Pre-cooperative Education course and earn one credit. The topics in this course are harmonious with their real-life and helpful in their future work such as techniques of companyQs selection, application letter and resume writing, personality improvement, technique job interview, quality-work management etc. Since SUT produces mostly graduates in science and technology, the additional courses such as safety and public health in the workplace have also been incorporated in the Pre-cooperative Education course.

Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 1: June 2009


44 Managing SUT Cooperative Education: Can it be the Best Practice in Thailand? Table 2 Undergraduate Programs Offering Cooperative Education: Institute Agricultural Technology

Engineering

Medicine (Public Health) Social Technology

Science

School 1. Crop Production Technology 2. Animal Production Technology 3. Food Technology 1. Agricultural Engineering 2. Civil Engineering 3. Chemical Engineering 4. Ceramic Engineering 5. Computer Engineering 6. Electrical Engineering 7. Environmental Engineering 8. Geotechnology 9. Industrial Engineering 10. Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering 11. Metallurgical Engineering 12. Polymer Engineering 13. Telecommunication Engineering 14. Transportation Engineering 15. Automotive Engineering 1. Environmental Health 2. Occupational Health and Safety 1. Information Technology - Information/communication - Information Study - Management Information System 2. Management Technology - Marketing - Entrepreneur - Logistics Sport Science

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Students are required to apply for their co-op jobs during the Pre-cooperative Education course. The matching between student and company depends on their interest. During the co-op workterm, lecturers in each school are required to visit their students at least once at worksites. They are required to give an advice to students as well if they need it. The lecturers are called co-op advisor (CA) and all lecturers are co-op advisors if they are in the undergraduate school. The Cooperative Education and Career Development Project (CECDP) is the central department that is responsible for searching qualified and suitable jobs for students, teaching the Pre-cooperative Education course, cooperating and organizing the company visits for CAs, and doing all administrative works. CECDP facilitates all co-op works between students, CAs and companies and fix all problems that occur during the co-op workterm. The emergency phone line for students is opened 7 days a week and 24 hours a day. CECDP has 10 staff members and service about 1000 students, 120 CAs and 400-500 companies a year. CECDP therefore acts as the facilitator. Student performance is evaluated by each School and job supervisor. Student will pass the co-op course if their total mark is higer than 60 %. The mark concludes of job supervisorQs and CAQs evaluations, technical report, and the presentation. After finishing their co-op workterm, students are therefore required to submit one technical report and give presentations concerning their works and their accomplishments to CAs and in front of other students. Furthermore, CAs in each school are required to interview students for detailed information about the company, the service from CECDP, studentsQs ability to apply their knowledge to work, etc. This information will be collected and evaluated for the co-op management and curricula improvement. The accomplishment of the SUT co-op program is the improvement in graduate competency. In 1999, the Commission of Higher Education, the Ministry of Education therefore encouraged other universities to implement the co-op program in their curricula. The co-op pilot projects were implemented under the co-operations of FTI, TCC, the private sectors and SUT. The SUT co-op prototype has been used and modified to the semester system. The problems came to the Engineering faculty since it was set that the engineering courses have to be taught in the semester term not in the summer at that Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 1: June 2009


46 Managing SUT Cooperative Education: Can it be the Best Practice in Thailand? time. To implement the co-op program, the engineering faculty has to restructure their curricula which cause difficulties. Engineering students who select the co-op program in some universities will graduate in 4 years and a half. The number of engineering students selecting the co-op program is therefore small compared to other faculties. Nowadays, COE has allowed the engineering faculty to teach the engineering professional courses in the summer term. This might help the universities conduct the co-op program smoothly, and engineering students can graduate in 4 years. Number of Co-op Students In 1995, the first 123 students were sent to work in workplaces mostly in Bangkok and BangkokQs perimeter. Up until now there are 5,927 students enrolling in the co-op program (as of February 2005). The number of students in each year is shown in Fig. 1. The number of students increased in each year except in 2002-2003 and is expected to be the highest in 2005. Fewer students were in 2002-2003 because student admission was less than the target and fewer students were qualified. However, over 95 % of total students were co-op students. The reason that students did not enroll in the co-op program was treat, they did not meet the co-op student qualifications, and they had a plan to study in graduate school. 1200

Number of Students

1000 800 600 400 200 0 1995

1997

1999

2001

2003

Year

Fig. 1 Numbers of students in each academic year. ภ ภ    1   1  2552

2005


Guntima Sirijeerachai 47

Number of Workplaces In each academic year, CECDP and each school will enlighten the concept of co-op education to workplaces and find qualified works for students. The workplaces are spread around the country. From 2001-2004, there were in average 256 workplaces located in each zone (shown in Fig. 2) such as: Bangkok and its perimeter: 130 workplaces or 50.8 % Central region of Thailand: 45 workplaces or 17.6 % Northeastern region of Thailand: 48 workplaces or 18.8 % Northern region of Thailand: 8 workplaces or 3.1 % Eastern region of Thailand: 23 workplaces or 8.9 % Southern region of Thailand: 1 workplace or 0.4 % And foreign countries: 1 workplace or 0.4 % Job offered from workplaces will be certified by the school before noticing to students. Both students and workplaces are free to select each other. The workplaces are free to select students from application letters, interviews or tests.

8.9

0.4

0.4

3.1

18.8

50.8

17.6 Bangkok and its perimeter Central division Northeastern division Northern division Eastern division Southern division Foreign country

Fig. 2 Numbers of workplace divided by zoning

Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 1: June 2009


48 Managing SUT Cooperative Education: Can it be the Best Practice in Thailand? Academic Accomplishment from Cooperative Education Student5s Points of View From the questionnaires asking about co-op students, points of view, 99 % of the students said that: 1. They gain professional experience related to their field of study in addition to classroom knowledge. 2. They learn to excel and work in a team as well as develop a sense of responsibility and self-confidence. 3. They improve their academic performance due to better understanding in the field after program participation. 4. They develop their communication skills. 5. They can choose a suitable career path as they realize their area of expertise and job-preference after program participation. 6. They can graduate with a high potential for work and have better opportunities to receive job offers prior to graduation. In Fig. 3, it shows that the studentsQ competencies have improved significantly compared between before and after the co-op program. In addition, the students who were not getting paid from the workplaces, agreed as well that the co-op program had improved their competencies. Students have been happy and have positive attitudes towards the co-op program. Their satisfactions are in the range of good to excellent. Moreover, students had a chance to evaluate the workplaces, school management, and the services from CECDP. During 2001-2004, their satisfactions were in good range. The co-op evaluation was conducted with graduates every year during the convocation ceremony. CECDP asks graduates about their opinion towards job hunting and the advantages of the co-op program in their work. The question of the advantage of the co-op program is opened, and the graduates can give more than one answer. A comparison was made between 2 academic years i.e. 2002 and 2003. The graduatesQ opinions are shown in Table 3. Graduates were satisfied with the co-op program that enhances their competencies. ภ ภ    1   1  2552


Guntima Sirijeerachai 49

5

4

3

2

1

0 Before

After

Before

After

Before

After

Before

After Ability to apply knowledge

2001

2002

2003

2004

Competency enhancement Oportunity to employment

Fig. 3 Comparison of studentQs benefits before and after the co-op program (Evaluation scale: 5 means excellent, 0 means poor) Table 3 GraduatesQ Opinion towards Advantages of the co-op program Topics % of students Year 2001 2002 Confidence improvement 58.9 50.7 Understanding how to work and the organization 58.5 48.0 Understanding their professions 52.6 40.9 Knowing and learning how to solve problems faster 41.7 25.5 Less requirement of on-the-job training 32.5 19.9 Others 2.8 1.2 Employer5s Points of View Job supervisors in workplaces are very important for conducting the co-op program. They have to understand the concept of co-op education very well. They will be the studentQs supervisors and their job is to control and evaluate studentQs work and competency. They work with students for 16 weeks. In the last two weeks, job supervisors are required to evaluate student competency and give comment back to the CECDP. Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 1: June 2009


50 Managing SUT Cooperative Education: Can it be the Best Practice in Thailand? By participating in the cooperative educational program, the employers can: 1. Establish academic collaboration and good relations with academic institutions. 2. Create a good image for the organization as a partner in promoting human resource development for the country. 3. Receive enthusiastic and academically-able students to work throughout the year. 4. Allow existing employees to concentrate on more important tasks. 5. Select prospective employees through the program without the need for job probation. During 1995-2001, the studentQs evaluation was 29 topics. Job supervisorQs satisfaction with studentQs work and competency was rank as unsatisfied, poor, fair, good, and excellent. 71 % of students were in good to excellent levels. Since 2002, studentks competency has been evaluated on 18 topics. The total score in each topic is evaluated, averaged, and then summed up to the total of 100 marks. It is found that 97 % students got high mark or between good to excellent level. However, there is 0.34 % of students who failed in the co-op program. Supervisors also give their opinions about the weaknesses and strengths of students. This information is then forwarded to the students for them to consider and improve themselves. Job supervisors are asked one more question if they are willing to accept these students to work in their organization. 70 % of supervisors are willing to accept the student as a new employee in the company in every year. Co-op Advisor5s (CA) Points of View From the 2004 meeting between co-op advisors in each school and the CECDP, it is found that 98.7 % of lecturers agree that the co-op program enhances studentQs competency. Especially, they found that the students show self development in terms of their confidence, systematic and analytical thinking, etc. While 1.3 % of CAs said that students finally work as employees in workplaces, so students do not need to have workintegrated learning via co-op. ภ ภ    1   1  2552


Guntima Sirijeerachai 51

CAs are also required to evaluate studentQs competency and workplaceQs preparer for the co-op program such as job description, supervisorQs qualification, quantity of work, etc. In CAQs opinion, average studentQs competency is in good level in every academic year. In each term, CECDP will collect and evaluate all important information and send it back to each undergraduate school for future co-op program accomplishment. Graduate5s Employment Around 6 months after graduating, CECDP asked the graduates about their employment. Comparison between graduates from other universities during 1998-2002, the data was collected by the Ministry of Education (MOE). It is found that there is no significant difference in SUT graduateQs employment to other universities as shown in Fig. 4, although SUT started to have graduates in 1996. However, in 1997-1998 The rate of employment was low due to economic crisis in Thailand. In 2003-2004, an average of 30.8 % of SUT graduates were asked to go back to work in their co-op workplaces, but only 9.7 % of them decided to go back. 80 70

% of Graduates

60 50

40 30

Working SUT Working MOE Graduate Study SUT Graduate Study MOE Others SUT Others MOE

20

10 0 1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

Year

Fig. 4 Comparison of graduateQs employment between SUT and other universities

Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 1: June 2009


52 Managing SUT Cooperative Education: Can it be the Best Practice in Thailand? Benefit to Workplaces Not only the students who have self-development and higher competency, workplaces also gain the valuable work done by co-op students. For example, Seagate Technology (Thailand) Ltd. has accepted co-op students from SUT since 1996. Seagate has offered 108 projects to co-op students mostly from SUT. At first Seagate just wanted to help the university with graduateQs competency important or human resource developments. However, those co-op outstanding projects were implemented in the company and Seagate found that US $ 100 K was saved. If workplaces set valuable works and let co-op students use their ability to finish those jobs, co-op students are therefore NOT a burden anymore, but m to be reliable assists as well. Workplaces also use the co-op program to select new employees. They can have a longer observation period on studentQs competency than the former system that includes only a job interview which is done in a short time. Benefit to SUT SUT hopes that graduateQ employment is a full of measure and the graduates will have accomplishment in their occupations. SUT realizes that the former 45-day summer training gives less benefit to all parties involved (student, workplace and University). The 1st and 2nd trimesters are set for co-op workterms. In the case that students found themselves that they are short on some competencies, they can study some courses or research on those knowledge topics before they graduate. For students whose curricula are not in accordance with the usual curriculum, they are allowed to have a co-op workterm in the 3rd trimester. It was found that the co-op workterm placement has an effect on the graduateQs employment. If the workplaces want to employ the co-op students to be employed in their companies, they might not be able to wait unless they really want that students to be employed there. The method of sending students to have their experiences in the co-op works increase graduateQs employment much more than the summer training. Students also show that they have much improvement in their competency after they come back from the co-op workterm, which is confirmed by the meeting results between CECDP and ภ ภ    1   1  2552


Guntima Sirijeerachai 53

CAs from 20 Schools in 2004. However, there is no research support on this topic. CAs also gain benefit from their workplace visits. They can promote good relations between the university and the workplaces. Not only enhancement in studentQs competency, CAs who do not have experienced in the industrial work can have changed in their workplace visits. Moreover, any comment and suggestion from supervisors helps the course and curriculum improvement. Clarification of the Concept of Cooperative Education: the Key Success Factor To have a successful co-op program, a clarification of the concept is needed co-op education of the involved parties i.e. student, CA and the workplaceQs staff. Although the co-op program was started to be known in 1995, this concept is limited only in the involved parties. Workplaces also do not understand the concept clearly. They still think that the co-op is the same as the summer training program. It just takes a longer time (16 weeks instead of 6 weeks). For 10 years of the co-op education, SUT has been facing the co-op clarification problem still. However, CECDP has managed and fixed this problem by making sure that the students understand the concept of co-op before they enter the workplaces. If they found that the people in workplace, especially their job supervisors do not understand this concept, it is their responsibility to make them understanding. The second way to fix this problem is during the visit of CAs at the workplaces. CAs are also responsible to make the workplace understand the co-op concept. However, this clarification should be recognized as soon as possible before CAQs visit. Because the CA visit is in the 5th % 12th week of the co-op workterm. It might be too late for the concept clarification and students might not be successfull in their co-op work. If students and CAs fail to make the co-op well understood, CECDP has to be in charge immediately. The clarification of the co-op education to a workplace is an important factor affecting the co-op success. If the workplaces do not understand the concept well, the job offered from workplaces will be lower than the studentQs competency e.g. photo copying, coffee serving, and labor work, etc. The workplaces also think that students are big burdens in the organization because they have to provide one supervisor to take care of Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 1: June 2009


54 Managing SUT Cooperative Education: Can it be the Best Practice in Thailand? one student and this is such a waste in their organization because they have to waste their time to instruct students to work. From this result, student will not get paid from the workplaces. 1.3 % of SUT lecturers do not agree with the co-op policy. They believe that students will finally find themselves working experiences after their graduation so students do not need to practice the co-op program. Moreover, lecturers also have to work a whole year due to the trimester system. So, they are tired with teaching loads and company visits. Some lecturers asked the SUT administrators to reconsider to change back to the semester system. Fortunately, most SUT lecturers agree that the co-op education is helpful in enhancing studentQs competencies. They agree to continue the co-op education in the undergraduate program and consider having young lecturers working in the workplaces as well. The clarification from both workplaceQs administration and universityQs administration is also an important factor. If the co-op program is placed as the policies in both places, both graps of staff will conduct the program well and they will finally find that the co-op program is helpful in their work. Conclusion Cooperative Education is an educational innovation in Thailand which systematically provides students with on-site work-based learning. It involves cooperation between the university and the private/public sectors, which allows students to combine classroom knowledge with industrial practice skills. The experience gained through cooperative education will contribute to the studentsQ self development in terms of systematic thinking, observation, decision making, analytical and evaluation skills. Such education will equip students with both theoretical and practical skills required to meet the demands of the industry and to pursue their individual careers. In addition, cooperative education seeks to continually promote academic collaboration between the university and the private/public organizations for the mutual benefit of all involved. Although the Ministry of Education has not clarified its policy about the co-op education in Thailand, SUT will continually conduct the co-op education because it has ภ ภ    1   1  2552


Guntima Sirijeerachai 55

been prove that the co-op education is better than the summer training program and it improves studentQs competencies and employments more. Acknowledgement The author would like to thank all lecturers or CAs in every School and all CECDP staff for their hard work to make the co-op education successful. Most gratitude is for students who are enthusiastic and work hard and their competency are acknowledged by the companies.

Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 1: June 2009


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Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 1: June 2009


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Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 1: June 2009


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Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 1: June 20099



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