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16 

4"1ก93ก<4ก ก 3%/5=%ก =/&1ก ก  ก= ก : %ก94>?=@4  %%%ก =2

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;ภ  E1ภภ ภ3%/0j?0  %%%ภ=2. (2549). 1/A0ภ /ภ5=D0ภ ภD; ภ ภ 2549. 92=3%/ภ ภ  %%%ภ=2   ?. E1ภภ ภ3%/0j?0  %%%ภ=2. (2550). 1ภ ภ 1  7&1C/ภภ 2 1 3%/ภภ4:ภ<41 ภ ภ ภ ภ 2548. 92=3%/ภ ภ  %%%ภ=2   ?. /4 4 3%/ =2 ?9ภ4. (2544). 18%ภmÂ&#x192;32 042 ภ>?;?". E10 023:15Â&#x2021;%1ภ=2  % ภ51 0 . 07> 01 2. (2548). 18%ภ 1 5=%ภ=/&1=@4&ภ>?  12ภ3%/89"8?1">?0 1/12. =/ภ>?  %5ภ =@42 ภ51 0 . D??0>?. (2547). 0/?>>4 ??0>? 0. .2547.   0  %Â&#x192;1 Aภ ภ51 0 . Aภ1=/ภ ภภ5 ภ   ภ ภ   % EE%5 3%/ &:0jภ ภD4/ภ14%:1. (2551).  ?1 ?ภ/?4 .1  2 ภA1ภ ภ:11 27-30 ภภf 2551.  % EE%5 ? .ภAภ/3%/:1 ภภ5 ภ Aภ1=/ภ ภภ5 ภ. (2551). 38ภA1:1 ภ ภ;C5 ภ /:1 0. .2551 # 2555.   3% 0. 24.1 Aภ ภ51 0 . 12f  z. (2550). ภ44 8%E1ภภ ภ =/ ภ 42 C  EE%0/ ภ%"0/.  025 4245 ภ =@4 &??/3%/  ภ =@4 % C EE%0/ ภ%" 0/ ภ51 0 . Gordon, Rick. (1998). A curriculum for authentic learning. The education digest.

Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 2: December 2009


ภ ภ    1   2  2552 " 21 # 42 %& ISSN 1906 - 6864

Development of Cooperative Education in Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Issues in the Context of Thailand Sakchai Pinpetch1 and Tom Baum2

Abstract This paper focuses on the development of cooperative education, particularly in the tourism and hospitality industry. The presentation seeks to explore the application of tourism and hospitality education in developing countries by interpreting the key issues within the context of Thailand. The significant arguments from a Thai perspective in terms of both the key educational institutes which provide education development, and the cooperation between the tourism and hospitality sector which provides practical experience for the students, are taken into consideration in the analysis. Future research on this topic will also be outlined. Keywords: cooperative education, tourism and hospitality industry, Thailand Introduction The tourism and hospitality industry has become a vital element in external revenue generation for Thailand over the past decade, and its continued growth is strongly predicted, particularly in the hotel sector. The Thai hotel industry has been growing alongside tourism expansion over the past ten years. The statistics from 1992 - 2002 (TAT, 2003) show an increase in the number of rooms from approximately 130,000 to nearly 1 2

Walailak University, Thailand The University of Strathclyde in Glasgow, Scotland, UK


22

Development of Cooperative Education in Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Issues in the Context of Thailand

240,000, and the number of guest arrivals, both local and foreign, up from 15.5 millions to more than 40 millions. In many countries, the growth of tourism industry is seriously limited by the lack of adequately trained personnel (Baum, 1993), and Thailand is no exception. Universities and other educational institutes offering tourism and hospitality programmes cannot produce sufficient qualified graduates whether in terms of quantity and quality, to meet the needs of the industry and the countryWs Tourism Plan targets, especially in relation to quality tourism (Chaisawat, 1997). In order for the Thai tourism and hospitality industry to develop appropriate management capabilities, there needs to be a serious re-appraisal of the terms frequently used interchangeably: development and cooperative education. In this paper, the underpinning meaning of these terms will be explored in the context of tourism and hospitality in Thailand. Aims of the Study The aims of this study are firstly to explain the background of tourism and hospitality industry as well as some of the associated problems of employment in Thailand, which will be reviewed as a context of the main part of this paper. Secondly, the existing cooperative education system practice in some of the educational institutions in Thailand, particularly the draft model of cooperative education at Walailak University, will be an issue to be discussed. And lastly, the findings from a primary research on cooperative education in tourism and hospitality industry in Thailand, which involves three partners: hotels and resorts, educational institutions, and the students themselves, will also be considered in the discussion. In relation to the study, there are three stakeholder groups in Thailand, i.e. six hotels and resorts located mainly on Koh Samui Island, six educational institutions that launched tourism and hospitality courses, and lastly two focus group students and an individual student who are joining the cooperative education programme. These stakeholders have ภ ภ    1   2  2552


Sakchai Pinpetch and Tom Baum 23

been interviewed for this preliminary study. A summary of the transcriptions from the interviews will be discussed in the findings and discussion sections of this paper. Literature Review There exists an extensive literature relating to cooperative education in various countries. However, not much is related to Thailand, as cooperative education system is still relatively new to the country. As a consequence, the primary research reported here is based on a preliminary study of various stakeholders involved in cooperative education in tourism and hospitality in Thailand, which is the main focus of this paper. In the new millennium, the education and skills needed to promote success in the workplaces are changing rapidly. Cooperative education continues to be recognised as an effective means of support while providing students with valuable hands-on learning opportunities. It is an instructional method that links classroom instruction and work by providing practical experience that is relevant to the students' career goals (Kerka, 1989; Ryder, Wilson and Associates, 1987; and CAFCE, 2004). It is also added by Kerka (1989) and CAFCE (2004) that cooperative education is the bridge between the employer, the student and the academic institution. It appears to offer benefits to all parties involved. The employer benefits from the academic worldWs latest theories and fresh ideas, the educational institute gets practical input from the professional community, and the students receive hands-on experience in their chosen field of study. Clearly, this is the core of cooperative education. The students are put "in touch with the realities being studied" by integrating academic study and work into a single unified curriculum model that is based on sound learning theory (Wilson, Stull and Vinsonhaler, 1996; Ryder, Wilson and Associates, 1987). It is where the educational institutes join with the industry in a working relationship, through which professional development can also be nurtured for the industry employees. The distinguishing feature of a cooperative education

Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 2: December 2009


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Development of Cooperative Education in Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Issues in the Context of Thailand

partnership is that all partners contribute to the development, design and delivery of academic courses in the workplace (Breen, 2001). The students can be trained and used for a wide range of assignments including standard duties and procedures as well as other specific projects. The employers will have a continuous access to diversely talented and highly motivated students. The students can meet their short-term human resources needs by working on assigned projects and giving the employers opportunities to assess student performance for long term recruitment needs (CAFCE 2004). Furthermore, it also enhances the students' working skills through direct experience and the curricula can be updated in line with the recommendations of entrepreneurs (National Education Act, 2.1.1, 1999). Tourism and Hospitality Industry in Thailand The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific (United Nations, 2001), notes that the tourism and hospitality industry in Thailand survived the economic crisis of 1997 remarkably well and reported a record number of tourist arrivals and increased earnings from tourism. However, the continued growth in international tourist arrivals has created challenges for human resources development in terms of education and training, skills requirements and opportunities for job advancement. Notwithstanding, this growth in international tourist arrivals has been slightly slow due to the Tsunami disaster on December 26, 2004. Six southern provinces along the Andaman coastline have been severely devastated (UNDP, 2005), and since then, tourists have been few and far in between (McGeown, 2005). A twenty seven per cent drop in tourist arrivals in Thailand was estimated in January 2005 over the same period last year (Cruey, 2005). To keep Thailand on the list of destinations to discover, Mr. Pattanapong Aikwanich, President of the Phuket Tourist Association, eloquently states that: "The tsunami destroyed the image of some of the tourist destinations, but it cannot change our hospitality, food, smiles and culture" (Aikwanich, 2005). ภ ภ    1   2  2552


Sakchai Pinpetch and Tom Baum 25

To support this line of reasoning, Thailand's speedy recovery strategies have impressed the world. They witnessed images of Thai soldiers and volunteers helping families reunite, recovering damaged property, and even helping them rebuild homes. It was a true testimony of the hospitable spirit of all Thai people (Siriwan, 2005). As for nature, the news is good. According to the Bangkok Post, corals escaped unscathed as reported by a special team of scientists and volunteers from local universities and institutions (Gregory, 2005). Thailand cannot afford not to recover; it is addicted to beach dollars and surf euros. The Thai government will do whatever necessary to rebuild and regain its share of market. Whether that takes six weeks or six months remains to be seen (Cruey, 2005). In general, the demand for labour in the tourism and hospitality sector was expected to increase by 56 per cent per year, with the greatest demand in the accommodation and restaurant business. At the same time, just over half of the people working in the tourism and hospitality industry were educated at high school level. Many of these people had only few opportunities for training to develop their technical skills, management and language capability. BaumWs (2002) thesis points to the significant gap faced by these employees in technical, interpersonal and cultural skills required for working in the international hotel sector, compared with their counterparts in the industry in, for example, Europe or Australia. There is a general acceptance that the tourism and hospitality industry has become very important for the Thai economy. It accounted for 4.8 per cent of GDP in 1999 and tourism has been projected to grow by an average of 6.5 per cent a year from 1999 to 2010. Tourism accounted for about 11 per cent of total employment in 1999. In order to gain reliable data about the economic impact of tourism, the Thai government has approved a budget to develop tourism satellite accounts (TSA). The Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT) has been working closely with WTO and WTTC since 1997 to develop a TSA. Once it is developed, TSA will be used to propose a national tourism policy. The National

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Development of Cooperative Education in Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Issues in the Context of Thailand

Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB) and National Statistical Office have also been working on the TSA project. Thailand recognizes that management of tourism resources should involve people at all levels in the industry. All stakeholders have a role in monitoring the impact of tourism, assessing the environment, collecting data and balancing carrying capacity with touristsW demand. Strong emphasis is given to ecological and cultural sensitivity, conserving biodiversity, finding alternative energy sources and management of waste disposal. The government plays a major role through linkages between policy and community participation, as well as developing national laws and regulations. United Nations (2001) also reports that in Thailand, infrastructure development and investment policies are designed to encourage the private sector to accelerate tourism investment and spread development to rural areas. A committee in each province prepares tourism investment plans to inform investors. It is expected that these will be part of each provinceWs economic strategic plan to cover agriculture, industry and services. However, systematic criteria and comparative data are still needed. A communication network makes tourism development more convenient, including plans for road, railway and airline networks to neighboring countries. Thailand has received a tourism development and promotion loan from the Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund of Japan (OECF), which targets eight provinces in the North, North-East and South for phase two. Several ministries have projects under the loan, plus TAT and private consultants to provide management and coordination. Overall, Thailand places few impediments relating to visas upon international tourists, especially from major markets. Facilitation of travel in the form of visa exemptions or visa on arrival applies to about 158 countries. Immigration procedures have been facilitated for tourists at 30 permanent checkpoints, and other checkpoints can be opened on request. Slow immigration procedures when the inflow of tourists becomes congested, particularly ภ ภ    1   2  2552


Sakchai Pinpetch and Tom Baum 27

at the main international airport, is seen as one obstacle. Thailand is active in sub-regional cooperation by promoting tourism in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), which is important for the overall development of all countries in the Working Group on the GMS Tourism Sector. TAT serves as coordinator for tourism projects through the Agency for Coordinating Mekong Tourism Activities (AMTA). Coordination under AMTA has involved sub-regional marketing activities and cooperation in human resources development. TAT has taken a new initiative by developing the Focus Group as a tool for adjusting tourism plans. The Focus Group seeks to establish cooperation among airlines and entrepreneurs to help evaluate and adjust the tourism plan through participatory management that would create benefits for the whole industry. The Thai government has taken another major initiative to provide a budget that allows TAT to develop TSA within a period of 5 years in order to propose a national tourism policy. Problems of Employment in Thailand There is a large diversity of problems and trends in employment faced by developing countries in the region, depending on the level of development of their economies, including productive and technological bases, demographic and social characteristics, and labour markets and institutions (ESCAP, 1997). The emerging newly industrialising countries, such as Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand, show a good deal of diversity. In Thailand, open unemployment is low (less than 4 per cent), but more than half the labour force is still dependent on agriculture, with underemployment a continuing problem ("Follow-up to the World Summit for Social Development, priority theme: productive employment and sustainable livelihoods, report of the Secretary-Generalf [E/CN.5/1997/3] in ESCAP, 1997). At the same time, there are shortages of semi-skilled and skilled workers in the country.

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Development of Cooperative Education in Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Issues in the Context of Thailand

Over the past four decades Thailand has achieved above-average growth rates by worldwide and regional standards. Between 1986 and 1995 the real gross domestic product (GDP) grew annually by an average of 9.8 %. Although growth was uneven socially, sectorally and regionally, the achievements of this period are impressive, not least in terms of poverty reduction. The Asian crisis of 1997 hit Thailand particularly and dramatically. Economic performance declined in 1998 by 10.4%; per capita GDP fell by 40% against 1996 to 1,834 US$. Within a very short space of time an additional three million people fell below the poverty line (Hagemann, 2002). The current situation in Thailand raises a number of major issues. Firstly, based on economic analysis and projections, the new economic imperatives of Thailand require the urgent need for trained skilled middle-level workers for the workplaces. A change in the nature and structure of its education system, particularly cooperative education, is also an issue facing all the industries in the country, one of which is tourism and hospitality. Cooperative Education in Thailand Over the past years there has been dramatic growth in the number of institutions of higher education, making cooperative education available for participation by the students and employers in many countries (Ryder et.al, 1987), including Thailand. The growth of tourism and hospitality industry in Thailand and the region has resulted in high demand for qualified personnel to serve both the private and government sectors operating in this industry. In general, Thailand's policy is to become the regional centre of education and training for the tourism and hospitality industry (Dhurakij Pundit University, 2005). However, the processes of curriculum development are inflexible and graduates have not gained experience in the workplace (Hagemann 2002). Therefore, further in-house training and cooperative education systems are needed for them to work effectively within the industry.

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Sakchai Pinpetch and Tom Baum 29

Most colleges and universities in Thailand operate a semester system. Only a few operate a trimester system with three terms of approximately sixteen weeks each per year, which is in harmony with the cooperative education system. Basically, there are two pilot universities in Thailand that have recently been established, namely, Suranaree University of Technology (SUT) and Walailak University (WU). At both SUT and WU, Professor Wichit Srisa-an is a Foundation Rector who has introduced the cooperative education to Thailand (Srisa-an, 2002). This has arisen in large part because of the problems encountered with the instating of new programmes in more established universities. These new universities are free to develop their own curricula, are unencumbered by existing faculty, and are able to establish a more independent but mutually beneficial relationship with the state as they receive both state and private funds. SUT and WU place special emphasis on cooperative education, which combines theoretical classroom learning with practical work experience in partnership with business enterprises (Na-Lampang, 2003). For the above reason, there is a remarkable degree of uniformity in cooperative offerings in universities and other educational institutions across the country, with three work or study terms per year, i.e. January to April, May to August, and September to December. This is illustrated in a draft curriculum model of Hospitality and Tourism Management course of the Hospitality and Tourism Department, School of Management at Walailak University, Thailand, of which an in-depth detail will be later discussed as the main part of this research. By alternating work terms with study terms, students are able to test and practice theoretical knowledge gained in the classroom. It allows the students to develop skills, explore career options and network with potential employers (CAFCE, 2004). In most programmes, satisfactory completion of cooperative work experience is a condition for graduation. Findings and Discussion To succeed in the cooperative education system does not depend on luck, but on collaboration of the three partners, namely hotels and resorts, educational institutes, and Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 2: December 2009


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Development of Cooperative Education in Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Issues in the Context of Thailand

students. The three respondent partners have been interviewed in order to obtain more correlated literature for the paper. This primary research could help explore further knowledge and experience not only for the author, but also future researches by others. The author has interviewed six hotels and resorts mainly on Koh Samui Island, six educational institutes, two focus group students, and an individual student who survived the Tsunami in the South of Thailand. Hotels and Resorts Koh Samui Island is located on the secure coastline of the Gulf of Thailand in the southern part of the Kingdom, which was not prejudiced by the Tsunami. The author interviewed five human resources and personnel managers in Koh Samui. Most of them have a very clear vision of internship, but not exactly clear about the cooperative education programme. Nevertheless, after the interview they fully understood and became strongly supportive of the programme. Many employers are being faced with the same extensive problem, that is, the scarcity of qualified staff rather than the quantity, which often leads to a critical circumstance of a so-called war of stealing of staff among themselves. Fortunately, they have created a monthly human resources and personnel managers meeting in Koh Samui to put an end to the staff pinching practice and form an alliance neighbourhood. They have all agreed with the concept of #Co-Op-For-All) (Keawkaeo, 2004) of the authorWs present educational institute, Walailak University. The philosophy behind this concept is that everyone who is part of the industry should also be part and become involved in this specific programme. An informal agreement has been reached that department heads of the member resorts on Koh Samui Island will be selected as volunteer co-lecturers in various departments such as housekeeping, front office, food and beverage and so on. The selected individuals will also be the host of each department or subject and will work closely with lecturers of Walailak University on each academic line. They will help each other to prepare the entire course syllabus including knowledge update and necessary ภ ภ    1   2  2552


Sakchai Pinpetch and Tom Baum 31

materials for the class at the same time as exchanging their experience, which will benefit all their partners. In summary, the students will have an opportunity to experience both worlds, i.e. academic world and reality at work from twofold lecturers. Students With limited time, only one individual student of Rajaphat University in Chiang Rai had been interviewed. Not much could be obtained as he was still under the shock and fear as a result of the flooding of water. He fortunately survived the Tsunami while some of his colleagues from other educational institutes were victims of the disaster. Referring to the two focus groups, they are third and fourth year students at the authorWs current educational institute, i.e. Walailak University. They have just finished their cooperative education programme in tourism and hospitality industry at hotels and resorts, convention and exhibition centre, travel agency and airlines. Two groups of five students each were placed on stage for a review and evaluation session. A lecturer and the author acted as moderators while other junior, first year students joined in as observers in a preparation for their own future cooperative education programme. The results that came out from both groups are: â&#x20AC;˘ Firstly, most of them faced the same problem of language since they are not well prepared due importantly to the fact that the course at the university is taught only in Thai. â&#x20AC;˘ Secondly, some of them were not well informed of what their jobs were to involve at the placement location. â&#x20AC;˘ Thirdly, their jobs during the cooperative education period were not always related to the knowledge acquired during the classes. On the other hand, all of them gained new experience in terms of adaptability, punctuality, responsiveness, and time management, since some of them had been placed in a big city Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 2: December 2009


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Development of Cooperative Education in Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Issues in the Context of Thailand

environment completely different from their own lifestyle. They attested that they would not be able to obtain such experience during their academic learning at the university. In conclusion, they highly recommended that their juniors join this programme, even though some of them might feel having encountered some contradictory experiences. Educational Institutes Six educational institutes, three in the capital city of Bangkok, namely Rangsit University, Sripathum University and Dusit Thani College; two in Chiang Rai province in the north namely Mae Pha Luang University and Rajaphat Chiang Rai University; and the last one, Walailak University in the southern province of Nakhonsithammarat where the author is currently working as a lecturer, have all been interviewed and the findings have been used in the main discussion section of this research. The author had met with those responsible for cooperative education department in the mentioned universities and college. Most of these institutes are in the process of transforming the current internship model to cooperative education, in conforming to the National Policy announced by the Ministry of Education (National Education Act, 2.1.1, 1999). Only two of the six educational institutes have now established their own cooperative education programm department, i.e. Walailak University and Mae Pha Luang University. At Mae Pha Luang University, with the department having just commenced, the respondent could not provide a clear explanation of the programme adopted. Nevertheless, the findings from this university indicate that they are the first and the only one that has employed experienced personnel directly from the industry to act as head of the entitled cooperative education department, without direct academic experience. Walailak University has established the programme since its opening day and it will be used by the author in the main discussion of this research. The other three institutes still remain with their present, established department name and set up. ภ ภ    1   2  2552


Sakchai Pinpetch and Tom Baum 33

In the northeastern part of Thailand, Suranaree University of Technology, the first autonomous university of Thailand established in 1993 (Wannaruk, 2002), has not yet been included in this preliminary study due to time constraint. They will, however, be added in further research as they are considered the most successful and the one using the best practice for cooperative education in Thailand. Walailak University The university is located on an appropriated public land totalling 5,514 acres at Thasala District in the southern province of Nakhonsithammarat. Of this total, 3,600 acres were earmarked for the main building and 1,440 acres were distributed among the displaced local inhabitants on the basis of 2 acres per each household, in a newly created "Walailak Demonstration Community" adjacent to the campus. The universityWs missions are Good Governance; Learning Organisation; Community Orientation; and Service of Excellence. Walailak University strives to generate new knowledge through researches to achieve academic excellence and to produce intellectually and ethically competent graduates who are able to contribute positively for progress and development of society and mankind. Its compound of eight institutes offers a total of twenty one undergraduate, nine master and five doctoral degree programmes under a trimester and cooperative education set up as their sustainable strength. At the start of this preliminary study, the author had interviewed three staff members of the Cooperative Education Department of Walailak University, namely Director, Head of Department and Coordinator-tourism and hospitality sector. Director: Most findings are related to core policies as perceived and coordinated by both the University Rector and the Director himself and which can be summarised as follows: 1. Division of 8 credits under cooperative education subject into 1 credit for academic learning in the university and 7 credits for practical learning within the Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 2: December 2009


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Development of Cooperative Education in Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Issues in the Context of Thailand

2.

3.

4.

5.

industry. The purpose is to prepare the students to be ready and well equipped once they get out into the reality of the industry itself. Changing the status of replacement subject for cooperative education from optional to compulsory, except for students who are really not qualified for the cooperative education programme. More concentration on community relations by guiding the students to initiate cooperative education activities with the local community such as agriculture, farming, fishing and so on. The Rector has made it a point of emphasis that all the subjects should be taught in all the three trimester terms, in order to provide an opportunity for other students to join this programme the whole year round. Obviously, the acceptance will depend on the readiness of the joining students themselves. The current questionnaire for the students should be improved, as the data obtained is not objectively relevant for the research.

Head of Department: Findings from the Head of Department contain more in-depth examination at the operational level. 1. Some universities provide only qualified cooperative education students to the industry in order to build up the reputation of their institutes, while the rest of the students still participate in a normal internship programme. At Walailak University, all students are encouraged to join the cooperative education programme. 2. Some people in the industry themselves are still not familiar with and do not properly understand the concept of cooperative education. Therefore, the students may encounter some problems when they are sent out to the industry. 3. An alliance between the institution and the industry should be created in the form of a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU). 4. The industry should be regularly provided with cooperative education students so as to build up the consistency of the programme, its concept and understanding. ภ ภ    1   2  2552


Sakchai Pinpetch and Tom Baum 35

5. The students must be given a clear picture of the difference between cooperative education and internship programme, as most students are still somehow confused about the set up and the function of the programme of cooperative education. 6. A career road map should be taught to the students while they are still at junior level in order to guide them in learning and using their own judgment to build their individual future plan. Coordinator-tourism and hospitality sector: In-depth findings for the cooperative education programme, particularly for hotels and resorts on Koh Samui Island, are shown here below. 1. At the monthly human resources meeting, HR and personnel managers of resorts in Koh Samui should be presented with the cooperative education programme, which is still very new to them. 2. A first group of students will be provided for resorts on Koh Samui. However, due to the different educational curriculum, a short course should be arranged for them in order to develop the same knowledge background before starting with the programme. 3. Some resorts require TOEIC or TOEFL test, which becomes a major problem to the students as the current curriculum is being taught only in Thai. Therefore, the students will most likely miss the opportunity to join those resorts. 4. The students lack an industrial experience as the campus is located far from town; therefore, they need help in term of getting prepared to be in the new environment. 5. Useful preparation courses should be set up for the students such as language, problem solving, and so on.

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Development of Cooperative Education in Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Issues in the Context of Thailand

Draft of new model for Cooperative Education of Hospitality and Tourism programme, School of Management, Walailak University, Thailand The current curriculum of cooperative education for Hospitality and Tourism programme still allows only one term for the students to gain experience from the industry, which is far from enough for their future career. Therefore, the new curriculum should be designed as an analogue to the needs of the industry. Some subjects should be integrated into the new curriculum in order to reduce the time spent at the university. In other words, the learning period at the university should be reduced to three years, plus one year out in the industry, making it a total of the regular four years in the traditional curriculum. This means that the cooperative education term should be added as part of the curriculum. Draft of the new model of Cooperative Education of Hospitality and Tourism programme, School of Management at Walailak University, should be piloted and launched. In the draft model of Hospitality and Tourism programme, which is under the process of obtaining approval by the UniversityWs Board Committee, the students would, in a trimester, alternate approximately four months or sixteen weeks of academic coursework, with an equal amount of time in the industry. This cycle would then be repeated four times (Kerka,1999), i.e. during the second term of the second year, first and third terms of the third year, and second term of the fourth year, up to graduation as shown in figure 1. Most of other schoolsW cooperative education models at Walailak University will still retain the one or two trimester term, which has been in practice since opening.

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Sakchai Pinpetch and Tom Baum 37

Trimester 1

Trimester 2

Trimester 3

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4

Figure 1: Source:

General Education

Major and Management

Major Elective Courses

Co-Op Work Placements

The draft of B.B.A. (Hospitality and Tourism Management) degree a Walailak University, Thailand Hospitality and Tourism Department, School of Management, Walailak University (2004)

Students joining the new model would benefit from the practical experience already gained during the second school term of their second year. This means that if any student is not happy or comfortable with the experience acquired during the cooperative education programme, he can already decide whether to remain in such programme at the start of the normal third term of the second year, or he can ask to be transferred to another programme that may be more fitting to his goals or personality. Unlike the model of doing one term of cooperative education in the second term of the fourth year, the student will not be able to request any change at that time as it will be too late. Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 2: December 2009


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Development of Cooperative Education in Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Issues in the Context of Thailand

Moreover, the students can have a career experience starting from rank and file jobs during the first term of cooperative education, and gradually develop further step by step to the higher levels on the second, third and fourth terms respectively. Through this process, the students should be able to build up an in-depth knowledge of the industry at the same time as experiencing reality in the workplace, so that they can become more proficient in getting ready as qualified manpower to meet the needs of the industry when they graduate. Conclusion Through a multilateral collaboration and support, cooperative education for tourism and hospitality industry in Thailand would definitely become more comprehensive and accessible for participation by more conglomerate student populations. From the findings, one of the problems of cooperative education is the unclear vision of the industry about this programme. This leads to the problem of finding a sufficient number of suitable placement locations for the students, which is becoming more difficult. Furthermore, when a university or other relevant educational institute gets into a cooperative partnership with the tourism and hospitality industry, they should seriously interact with each other to ensure the success of their association. The innovative model of cooperative education programme, such as the draft of new model for Cooperative Education of Hospitality and Tourism programme, School of Management at Walailak University, should help explore ways to promote and facilitate integration of tourism and hospitality experience into the academic framework. More collaborative efforts between the industry professionals and teaching faculty should be constantly encouraged. The challenges and opportunities in the tourism and hospitality industry in Thailand are substantial. The essence of higher education combined with the right balance of academic study and practical field experience, is becoming increasingly apparent. It will have a great impact on the curriculum of many colleges and universities. Therefore, cooperative ภ ภ    1   2  2552


Sakchai Pinpetch and Tom Baum 39

education programme should be offered in as many institutions as possible, and more and more students should be exposed to practical situations through other possible arrangements with the industry. Recommendation A final note which may be helpful for the future development of cooperative education in the tourism and hospitality industry in Thailand, is possible use of a "Modular Systemf, a tool which should help shape this type of education in a more efficient manner. The "Modular System" established in some countries, such as The Netherlands, should be put as one of the future research agenda items, especially by those in the academic circles in Thailand. Bibliography Aikwani, P. (2005). Thailand Tourism on the Comeback in Trail, in wild Asia. in Gregory, R. (2005). http://wildasia.net/main/article.cfm?articleID=191.[29 Aril 2005]. Baum, T. (1993). Human Resource Issues in International Tourism. Edited, ButterworthHeinemann Ltd. Oxford, UK, p.22. Baum, T. (2002). Skills in The Tourism and Hospitality Sector: A Review of the Debates. Proceeding of the Tourism State of The Art II 2004 Conference. June 27-30, 2004, The University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK. Baum, T. (2004). The Social and Cultural Construction of Skills in Hospitality Work. Paper to ESRC Seminar Day Skills and Training in Service Work. University of Warwick, April 2004. Breen, H. (2001). Cooperative Education Partnership: An Examination of Reciprocal Relationships between Universities and Tourism and Hospitality Industry Organizations in providing Professional Development Education for their Employees. A thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Business, School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, Australia. Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 2: December 2009


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Development of Cooperative Education in Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Issues in the Context of Thailand

CAFCE, (2004). MLA Letter, March 8, 2004 in Co-Operative Education Week, March 22-26, 2004, Canadian Association for Co-operative Education. http://www.cafce.ca/e/member-main.htm. [22 March 2004]. Chaisawat, M. (1997). Baccalaureate and Graduate Degrees in Tourism and Hospitality Studies in Thailand: The current Situation, Problems and Future Development. Proceeding of the APTA ' 97 Annual Conference, August 15-19, 1997. Taipei Taiwan, R.O.C. Coll, R., K. Pinyonatthagarn, D. and Pramoolsook, I. (2003). The Internationalization of Cooperative Education: A Thailand Perspective. Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 2003, 4(2), 1-6, Revised 29 January 2003; accepted 3 April 2003. Cruey, G. (2005). Tsunami Recovery: Tourism in Asia Starts Back, in About. http://goasia.about.com/od/thailand/a/tsunamirecovery.htm [29 Aril 2005]. Dhurakijpundit University, (2005). Bachelor of Arts in Hospitality and Tourism Management: Overview, International College. Dhurakij Pundit University, Thailand. http://www.dpu.ac.th/admisson/hospitality_course.htm [3 May 2005]. Duncan, K.B., Reed, J.V. and Vallance, P.J. (1979). Cooperative Education Today. Neer Publishing Company Ltd., Windsor, UK. ESCAP, (1997). The Social Development Situation and Prospects of Asia and the Pacific into the Twenty-first Century: Summary, Social Policy Section, Social Development Division. Meeting Paper no.1, part 2 of 4, 1997-1998, United Nations. http://www.un.org/Depts/escap/sps/paper1b.htm. [6 October 2004]. Gregory, R. (2005). Thailand Tourism on the Comeback Trail, in wild Asia. http://wildasia.net/main/article.cfm?articleID=191. [29 Aril 2005]. Hagemann, J. (2002). Cooperative Human Resource Development in Thailand, in Deutsche Stiftung fĂźr Internationale Entwicklung, Netherlands. http://www.dse.de/zgb/personalentw_thailand_e.htm. [5 October 2004].

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International Labor Organization (2001). Report for Discussion at the Triparite Meeting on the Human Resources Development, Employment and Globalization in the Hotel, Catering and Tourism Sector. International Labour Office, Geneva. Jones, P. (2004). Hospitality Higher Education- ItWs all overqno, it is not!. The Hospitality Review , Vol. 6, No.1, January, 2004. Keawkaeo, E. (2004). The Preliminary Interview, Cooperative Education Department, Walailak University, Thailand. http://coop.wu.ac.th/modules.php?name=About_Us. Kerka, S. (1989). Cooperative Education: Characteristics and Effectiveness. ERICK Digest No. 91. Kerka, S. (1999). New Directions for Cooperative Education. ERICK Digest No. 209. McGeown, K. (2005). Thailand's Tsunami-Hit Tourism in BBC NEWS/ World/Asia-Pacific. http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/print/news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/worq[29 April 2005]. Na-Lampang. (2003). Inventory of Good Practices and Innovations in Asian Universities. Paper prepared for the international seminar series: Sustainability, Education and the Management of Change in the Tropics (SEMCIT), by the Asia Regional Advisory Team to the seminar series. August 2003. National Education Act, 2.1.1. (1999). Strategic Action Plan of the Ministry of Education, Thailand: Strengthening access to education for all; establish an efficient system of quality education; raising educational standard to enhance ThailandWs competitiveness in the international arena. Present to officials of the Ministry of Education, Thailand at the Bangkok International Trade and Exhibition Center (BITEC). March 18, 2004. Office of The National Education Commission (2000). Education in Thailand 2000/2001. Office of the National Education Commission, Bangkok, Thailand. Ryder, K.G. Wilson, J.W. and Associates. (1987). Cooperative Education in a New Era. Jossey-Bass Publishers, London, UK.

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Siriwan, J. (2005). New Strategy for the Recovery of Tourism after Tsunami. Tourism Authority of Thailand-Thai Airways, Friday, March 11, 2005. http://www.traveldailynews.com. Srisa-An, V.(2002). Global Education for Asia in the Twenty-First Century. Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 2002, 3(1), 1-4, Revised 31 January 2002. TAT (2000). The Project of Labour Survey in Tourism Industry Year 2000. TAT. Ministry of Education: The Analysis of the Working Group, Thailand TAT (2003). Statistical Report 2002. Tourism Authority of Thailand. Thailand Overview. (2004. Kasikorn Research Center, Co.ltd., Kasikornbank, Thailand. http://www.thailandchina.com/en/welcome_thaiover_general.html?language=EN. [5 October 2004]. UNDP (2005). UNDP Tsunami Recovery Project. United Nations Development Programme. http://www.undp.or.th/tsunami/tsunami.htm. [29 April 2005]. United Nations. (2001). Plan of Action for Sustainable Tourism Development in The Asian And Pacific Region (1999-2005): A Progress Report, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and The Pacific, United Nations, New York. Wannaruk, A. (2002). Communication Strategies in an EST Context, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakornratchasima, Thailand. Wilson, J. W. (1989). "What Students Gain from Cooperative Education." In Cooperative Education in a New Era. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1987. Wilson, J. W. "Assessing Outcomes of Cooperative Education." Journal of Cooperative Education 25, no. 2 (Winter 1989): 38-45. Wilson, J.W. Stull, W.A. and Vinsonhaler, J. (1996). Rethinking Cooperative Education. Journal of Cooperative Education 31, nos. 2-3 (Winter-Spring 1996): 154-165. (EJ 524 112), in Kerka, S.(1989). New Directions for Cooperative Education. ERICK Digest No.209.

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http://gotoknow.org/blog/adminwu/168982 http://gotoknow.org/blog/learn-to-fly/185023 T 4 A;"'3  8" K4 8 1ภ ;ภ@J4ภ ภภ19/:C 7C 3ภ~Â&#x20AC; ภ'"4;4ภ"4 0&1Dภ"4 <@K 1 4=>>? ;"28";;ภ@J 4"ภ ภ 0&1Bภ ภ B1ภภ ภภ '" 0&ภ&8" ภ1ภ4' K I 

ภภAภ1ภ0&ภ&8"ภA4ภ ภ2C4 /3 <=>>? 7 &ภภภ 8"0& 8 @C B41:'3  8";ภ A4ภ ภT 4D 8"67 8C;728"6744 "4 ภD '3  8"  @  ภA    4ภ  ภC  4   1  M @ A   8 "   ภภK B  ภ ภ   '"  C  94ภ  9 ภ " 7 0&1  M@ภA    4 "ภ ภ'4Bภ ภ'47C 30'E4 3CC4    4ภภ12 B ภ ภ  '"C  ภ ภ 0&1 B7 7;ภD28" ;"0&128"'8" T 4 B402ภ  ภ0&ภ&8";9ภ7C 7   B3C '407C&1Bภ ภT 404 "C4/;02M8 0 CKA0&1 0C4ภ8"  4 4"'"Aภ'428"'"C ภภ 0&ภ&8";K4K C;/C28" A" 2/ 4ภ ภ;M@ '4Bภ ภ974  4C42&;"C 0&ภ&8"; 41E " C/ C  07CC4 ภE7 2&ภภC 0&ภ&;K4K@ 1 1 "B 4 ภM@;ภA4ภ ภ'4Bภ ภ '"C ภภ "; 1 4 +#

2&ภภ1/3 /467ภ;K4K  B41: "'3  8" D= 0C4 AE;ภA4ภ ภ A 8 = Dภ0C4= 8" 8C;7 28"67 A;"ภภ8"C ภT 4A 8Cภ"4 8"; C 07C&1 BA ;/"; ภ6740&10&ภ&8";9ภ7C  ภภK ภภ  1: 0 2M8  'K     @C  B  ภ ภC  ;>C  ภA4ภ ภ;1 @" BC  0&1 Bภ ภ4C 7"4C4 ภ ภ    1   2  2552


ภ/ 0ภ"' 0&1234 ภ5 3' 65

@J;"ภ"4 '";0&1 C ภB1ภภ 0&1"ภภ   @: ภB1ภภ @A ;/";ภ@J4;7 K4KM&4ภAภภ  ภภ1ภ "ภภ AAR (After Action Review) @C28"'" C ภภ  B B 4=&ภC 42&7C A E;ภ  ภ  ภ2C  ภ1ภ  ภ 8" 9   0 9"   1"  4  'C   C    "ภ ภ1C4Bภ ภ0&1C4 ภ'"4;7 /  Oภ*ภภ!*K) 4

;/"  ;ภภภ 0&ภ&8" /C < @/C@? @  /C  ;ภ0&ภ&  8"  1C  4B  ภ ภ   ภ  8C 0 &ภ&    8" ; "  ภ  1 M@ ภ4' K ภ))ภ! ภ ''@13L ภภ1ภ 28"/C 7: .&& 779  L Aภ/@& 7:  &&&ภL: 3L3M@L 77M  94@&  @  : 3 L   7    J 9/ 3 L & ' 7 3 L ภ  '4  &  &  & ภL: 3 ภC    3 3ภC47&3&ภ94ภภ ภ0&1@J/@  & & &ภL: A  ภ4L1ภ ภภ3  ภ 0&1  & & &ภL:   3  41 L;ภAภ ภ   1@: 23'. (2548). ภภ 8:" Knowledge Management. Aภ@ @:;  ภ34 @ , 89 " L: @/. (2548). ภภ 8"1 . '"B 4 "ภhttp://www.kmi.or.th/kmiarticles/prof-vicharn-panich/65-0001-intro-to-km.html. "  23 @U ภ 2552 Aภ4L1ภ ภภ3 ภ. (2551). 02ภA4C4 ภ ภ ;B3 ภ1C4 @. . 2551-2555.   0&@K :7K4 Aภ ภ34 @ , 102 ". . Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 2: December 2009


ก ก     1   2  2552 " 67 % 86 '( ISSN 1906 % 6864

ก  ก กก ก ก !"! ' (/ 00/121

"   ก1ก33 4' 5 671กก ก (80 ก 9ก'1 3   3 :0  ;12  <  1) >  >  ' ก ? 3     ก ก ;ก  ก @ ก ก  2551 2) ก ;7A2@ก>1ก ก (1: ก   380B9<(1 ก ก  C'; 3) :9<ก>1ก ก (1: ก @(80 ก  9ก'13 ก'08 E    4?" : ก 0 '  "   @"?C '   4  Aก  ก  >   44 C8 1 ;;'@กกF  ("  ? ' 3G 1 C38     1  : 1 ก <. . 2552 1 @ก;@A"C 9 B27 (" 9 B2C'I C';'I ;2(" ?'"8' 81 3J 8"';C';8CกC1 : 4'ก<8: ก (80 ก 9ก'13 : ก  'ก?3 ก ก  > 21 C81 'ก?3 334 'ก?3 >ก ก  ("8 ก ก  16,265   > :;กก (8  3,054 C81 : ก    ก  ' ก? 3  ก ก ; >F"3'ก?3 ก 0 8@/8ก>Aก ก L A'กC'; 8 กก>A1 (ก881ก ก ก M3ก ก  8@/8 "'; 63.64 กก>0B 3(1ก ก  A8 ก'3"1 กก8 2.00 Lก ก  AG  4 8" 3Jกก'ก?3ก ก 8@/8"'; 68.18 ก ก>781A C4ก>181A C38 N/"ก"1(8 :;กก "0B  (1ก ก  8@/8F8?8@; ก 0(4.14) 1

ก     ก  


68 ก33 4' 5 671กก ก (80 ก 9ก'13 1'1      8  "  :8  3 C38  ก ก     (   "    0  C7" ก 0<'ก?3ก ก (14?": ก ?8@; ก 0 ("C;ก ก :"9J3"1ก< >'ก?3 >ก ก (171กก ก  9J 3"  1C 1@ก"  1  (8  :;กก1  C';9 J '(G  3 ก('89 (1:;กก ก ก ก ก '1 01C';08 3J11 A8 B2 3"148ก ก8: 1;  6LB2 : ก   >'ก?3ก ก  >ก ก ก ก C';:;กก < ( G81381C';L3"C@กก ก    ' 77'A 1' /0 % % & : ก ก  'กก'ก?3ก ก  ก;ก0B9<ก ก  (8 0 ก 9ก'13 " !% ก ก  (Cooperative Education) L;กก ก    8 ก ;81  ': ก ก:;กก C'; ก ก L4?" "4';7A2 7L ;ก ก   081 " ก ?"  ก;กB2  "  กกM 3 1 1 @ :;กก  : 1 ก? Bก@ก ก ก ก ก > 1<  A8 @" B _ 3  :?"A3ก >1ก8>Fก ก C';<` ก ;  <2กAA< L 3"1ก(1:;กก  : 1LC 1>/  >@"3ก ก  :A 71 C';;0 ก 32   ?" 1 5 a ?8 ก M  3 1  1 (  3    ;"  , 2552) >   ก 1 B;ก กก0 ก  "3;ก: 1 >/(1ก ก 1ก'8  1 7 ; 81 กก ก ;ก ก 81381C';1<@"B_3  <"  ก9<C'; 0B'ก B;313  3"1ก(1:;กก 7ก>C4ก >181 ก ก @: ก  ;81 <. . 2551 % 2555 < 08181 C';   0  ก  ก ก ;ก  ก C'; 08 1 (4'@"  ก >  ?8 ก M  3 7ก>  @"    (8  <  < ` 0  ก L  12 ก >   / @ก8 1  C';4' ก   ก<`ก ก @"'04'3 C4ก>1 ก> " (>ก1B;ก ก ก0 ก , 2551) ก ก     1   2  2552


' (/ 00/12 69

1; B <. . 2551 >ภ1B;ภ ภภ0 ภ0@"(8 <  ภ< ` 0  ภ " ภ>  C';   :9<C';  ภ9<@ภ>   1 "  ภ  ภ(1  (8  0  ภ<  ภ< ` 0  ภ :   A ภC'; :;ภภ 7"@(3<G (1C38';(8 (80 ภ9ภ'13 L  1 @ 9   (8  <  ภ< ` 0  ภ   A ภ@  (8  ภ '    : ภ 44 C81 7C813 A: ภ 1G 1.  ' 77'A 1'/0

19.  '13

2.  'A9M03

20.  '07(  A

3.  '  7`

21.  'A9a<;

4. :B_3<` 32

22.  '3B_3

5.  'A9M <3

23.  'k322

6.  'A3

24.  ' A/

7.  'ภB_3

25.  'k32'02

8.  '  0

26.  'ภ01 <0B9? 

9.  ' AA 10.  'k2 21ภŕ¸

27. : 77'C817 28.  ' 77'<; ภ'"<; 29.  'A9M ''1ภB2 (@<; A?: 92)

11. :B_3 ภ0m9B2 12.  'ภ" 

30.  '0ภB_32

13. 0m'1ภB2  '

31.  ' 32

14.  ' >C1

32.  'A9M<; 0

15. : 77' 0 

33.  'A9M0 

16.  'A9M ŕ¸

34.  'ภ01 <

17.  ' 0 

35.  ' 2A

18.  'ภŕ¸

36.  ' 77'  Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 2: December 2009


70 ก33 4' 5 671กก ก (80 ก 9ก'13 37.  '03

41.  'A92

38.  '2 ก01 <

42.  'A<5ก 2

39. : 77' -/0n 40.  ' 77'A 1'0B9? 

43. : 77'N//9`  2 44. : 77'<; ก'""0B  'ก;1

1G < : 1(" ?':9< ก9< C'; <" @กก ก ; ก ก  3ก ก  C';:;กก G1@8(1  ': Aก@ (8C';9< (1(8 <> ?8กก>C 1C';C4ก>1ก ก ก ;ก ก  (80 ก 9ก'13 10@"  '   :   A ก @  (8   >  ก ก      171ก   C 8  <  < ` ก  ก ก ;ก  ก    3  ก ก  C';:;กก(1  (8  0  ก  9ก'13 ;ก"71ก8 3 71ก  1) ก33 4' 5 671ก ก ก (1(80 ก 9ก'13 2) ก>(" ?':;กก กกกก ก 8 ก:  Aก@(80 ก9ก'13 C'; 3) ก;2:9< <" @กก ก ;ก ก  3ก ก C'; :;กก(1(80 ก 9ก'13 <`?C C 1C';C4ก >   1ก  ก ก ;ก  ก (1  (8   <  @" " ("  ? '   ;>  @A"  L  ;7A238ก<`กก ก ;ก ก (1; 38  * +,- .ก*  1. >>'ก?3 ก ก ;ก ก @ก ก  2551 2. ก ;7A2@ก>1ก ก (1: ก   380B9<(1ก ก  3. ก :9<ก>1ก ก (1: ก @(80 ก  9ก'13

ก ก     1   2  2552


' (/ 00/12 71

ก"0!*1!ก*  กG1GLก< ก 4' 5 6(171กก ก (1(8 0  ก 9ก'13 7>  กC  C'; 5 a   ก  ("  1ก  ก   (1 32 .3 ;" (2552) 8 ก  ก ก   7 กC 1G  *0,2! Lก ก ก;ก> ก'ก?3ก  ก (1 : ก (80 ก 9ก'13  * 0, L  ก ก : 1 0 B9<(1 B _3 3 3J AกC'; 3JAA<313  3"1ก(13'C11 "ก*  1. ";Aก กG1G@A"ก 9 B24?": ก 0'  "  @"?C''ก?3ก ก (1(89ก'13 G1  44 : 2. ";;'@ก > LกกF(" ?'7ก 9 B20' ก("1 @A811 : 1ก <. . 2552 3. "ก>ก ก04' ก1ก 3JC';ก;ก0B9< ก>1ก ก ;0<;8(1: ก  ;ก" 3Jก ก  'ก?3C';กก 3Jก (1B2 C';ก;ก0B9< ก>1ก ก <;8(1: ก  -"3"*3%!!ก*  กG1GLกA10B9<C';A1 B?8ก 7@A"ก 9 B2A1' ก (" 9 B2;ก">: G1'IC';'I C 9 B2:?กกC3 3JC';ก;ก0B9<ก>1ก ก (1  ก ก   '1ก "11 FC'" ">1  @"4?" 10B0`3 74?" 10B0`;ก" ;71กC 8 ก ก (80 ก 9ก'13C';48 ;A0 B;ก ก (80 ก 9ก'13  "C'" (" 9 B2;ก"  1) >: กก:9<  (1: ก  4?"@" 9 B21ก k 1;ก"3>C81 4?":?ก 9 B2 >'ก?3ก ก  >ก ก  >:;กก 2) >: กก4' 5 6กก;ก ก  ;  3 "  "'ก?3 "ก ก  C';":;กก 7C81L 5 ; (; 1  : 1" 0 ; 2  : 1" Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 2: December 2009


72 ก33 4' 5 671กก ก (80 ก 9ก'13 ; 3  : 1ก'1 ; 4  : 1 ก C';; 5  : 1 ก 0) 3) >: กก 3Jก'ก?3 3J": C'; 3J"Aก 4) >: กก0B9<ก ก  0B 3 < 1;12(1ก ก  C';("01(1ก ก  5) >  : ก  ก  ก@" ก   0  C7" ก  ' ก ? 3 ก  ก @3  <. . 2552-2555 (14?": ก  C'; 6) >: 'I <: : 1N/C'; ("C; ;2(" ?'7@A"8:3  8' 81 3J 8CกC1 : C';8"'; กกF (" ?'4?"@A" 3 C  C ก กC';1 ก("1 ก ก CL 1กC';C 8L 1ก  ก*  กG1G "C81;F<04'ก@"'"1ก3:0;12<> >'ก?3 ก ก ;ก ก @ก ก  2551 ก ;7A2@ก>1 ก  ก (1: ก    38 0 B9<(1 ก ก  C'; ก :9<ก>    1 ก ก (1: ก @(80 ก 9ก'13  1 "04'กL ;F    "  ก  ' ก ? 3 ก  ก ( G  @: ก  "   >  F  กก   ' ก ? 3 ก  ก ( G  @: ก  "  ก>    ก  ' ก ? 3 ก  ก  " 3Jก'ก?3ก ก  "0B9<(1ก ก  ":9<(1ก ก  "0B 3 < 1;12C';("01(1ก ก  " 3J"กก (1: ก  "ก0;ก ก ( G@3 1G 1. 2!ก  ก 6 กก1! +!ก 4'ก   <8  4?" @ "  9 B2 8  @/8  L  4?"    : ก  >   22  L"'; 50 'LB2 4A > 21  L"'; 47.73 C'; "" ?C'4A71ก > 1  L"'; 2.27 : ก 9ก'13 G1  44 C81 ก'ก?3ก ก  > 23 C81 L"'; 52.27 'ก?3ก ก  G1  334 'ก?3 >ก ก   ("8 71กก ก  16,265  :;กก(8 3,054 C81 131  1

ก ก     1   2  2552


' (/ 00/12 73

 38 1 C1:;ภ@" 'ภ?3ภ ภ >ภภภ ภ >:;ภภ ภภ (1: ภ@(80 ภ 9ภ'13 ภ ภ  %!*! %!*! %!*! +! 38

ภ   ภ  ŕ¸

6   ! ภ ภ ,-ภ"ภ ภ!"! 1  ' 77'A 1'  61 4,654 509 /0 2  '  7`  1 3 :B_3<` 32 4  'A9M <3 5  'A9M03 6  'A3 7  'ภB_3 8  '  0 9  ' AA 10  'k2 21ภŕ¸

8  8  8  8   

8  

2 29 4

30 1,921 -

3 409 8

11 :B_3 ภ0m9B2 12  'ภ"  13 0m'1ภB2  ' 14  ' >C1 15 : 77' 0 

8  

8   

6 54 8

1,006 2,135 -

130 99 -



9 29

481 1,327

107 357

 'A9M ภ ' 77'A 1' 17 0B9? 

16



Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 2: December 2009



  ภภ 9 1/52

  ภภ 91/52

  ภภ 91/52

-


74 ก33 4' 5 671กก ก (80 ก 9ก'13  38 1 C1:;ก@" 'ก?3ก ก  >ก ก ก ก  >:;กก ก ก  (1: ก @(80 ก  9ก'13 (38) ก ก  %!*! %!*! %!*! +! 38

กก  ก 6 ! กก ,-ก"ก ก !"! 18  ' 0   1 5 5 19  'กก

8  20  '03

8  21  '2 ก01 <  2 8 38 : 77' -/0n  3 281 22 23

24 25 26 27 28

 '13

 '07(  A  ' 77'<; ก'"<;  'A9a''1กB2 (@<; A?: 92)  'A9M<;  '3B_3

29  'k322 30  ' A/ 31  'k32'02 32  'ก01 <0B9?  33 : 77'C817



-



60

947

50

  ก ก  9 1/52 <; ก ก  ก ก  51  8G

8  

6

160

55

-



9

1 ,030

34

-

8  

4

-

-

-

8 

8  

8 

8 

1 -

8 -

1 -

ก ก     1   2  2552

  ก ก  9 1/52

-


' (/ 00/12 75

 38 1 C1:;ก@" 'ก?3ก ก  >ก ก ก ก  >:;กก ก ก  (1: ก @(80 ก  9ก'13 (38) ก ก  %!*! %!*! %!*! +! 38

ก   ก   ก

6   ! ก  ก  ,-ก"ก ก !"! 34  '0กB_32  24 1,969 760 35  ' 32

8  36 : 77'<; ก'" 8  "0B 'ก;1 37  'A9a<; 0

8  38  'A9M0   6 58 18 39  'ก01 <  4 489 180 40  ' 2A 41  ' 77'  42  'A3292 43  'A<5ก 2

8  

8  

7 4

35 2

10 -

44 : 77'N//9`  2

8  * 334 16,265 3,054  30: 1G(>4'ก"": ก  8"ก ก  C';:;กก;>@1871ก  2 C';71ก  3 4'ก   <8    : ก     ก  ก  >   23 C8 1 C'; 8  ก   ก ก  > 21 C81 : ก (80 ก 9ก'13  กก ก;ก  ก    ':  0 B 3  L : 3"  C C38 กก ก  7> 1: 1ก> 13 3J0B9<ก ก C';ก; 4'ก ก   Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 2: December 2009



-

ก ก  2 B; 8G

  ก ก  91/52

-


76 ก33 4' 5 671กก ก (80 ก 9ก'13 ; >Fกก ก ก M31ก81381C'; ก< >'ก?3 : ก   :L3"C " 1G  'A9a''1กB2  'A9a 0     '   77'  A 1' / 0   '   77' 0  B9?   '   1  3  '  ก0 1  <  '  0  ก   B _ 3  '    0  '  ก"   >    : ก    >  ' ก ? 3  >   ก ก C'; > :;กก ก  0    '  77' A 1'/ 0 8   '  k32'0L: 3"1กL3"C(1ก;ก ก "ก ก A3 A10(9<<3"1ก317(1; 1กL: ก  ?2ก'1ก ก  A3A10(9< C';3"1ก "ก0"1; Bก9J81381 2. 2!* %<1!ก  ก 6 กก  38 2 C1 F(14?": ก 38 >F@ก'ก?3ก ก  (1(80 ก 9ก'13 (5 ;) * %<1!ก  ก 6 กก

Mean

SD.

1. "'ก?3

4.23

0.75

2. "ก ก 

3.95

1.09

3. ":;กก

3.91

0.97

ก31  2 <8" 3Jก'ก?3(1: ก ;; >F "ก'ก?3 ก 0 1'1 "ก ก C';":;กก3 '> 7@"304'8ก>ก'ก?3ก ก ;<N/" 07  ก01 'ก?3 "ก< Aก ก C';> ก48 B;ก ก: ก C'; "   FA(19: ก C'" 1>ก "' 8"ก ก <81 ก ก  8 @/8 8 ' กA ก ก 7@" 30 4 '8 ; >  @" A" ก8  ก ก  <;8  @  '1Aก ก  8 :'1A p 13ก"1?8 " ;3"1'1Aก ก  <1A ก ก 3"1กFk 1'"1ก4'1(1<A 1'A (2551) ก ก 3"1กF78AกLA 0G1 >@"31ก ก A"ก8

ก ก     1   2  2552


' (/ 00/12 77

3. 2!ก%!!ก  ก 6  38 3 C1 F(14?": ก 38 3Jก'ก?3ก ก  @(80 ก 9ก'13 C!ก  ก 6

3

D3

1. กก>>B2

16

6

2. กก>0B 3(1ก ก 

14

8

3. กก>A1 (ก8 ก ก 

10

12

4. กก>Aก ก LA1

9

13

ก31  3 <8: ก (80 ก 9ก'138@/8 ก ก>>B2 38>ก ก  กM3ก ก 7@"304'8> 8  ; LB2 1  38ก ก ก ก  10  C'; กก> 0B 3G13" A8 ก' กก8 2.00 ( G  3"1Lก ก AG  4 C'; 8 A 3ก"1 8@/8 8 กก>A1 (ก8กM31ก ก 7@"304'8

8    >  L  <  1C8  : ก   ก J    ก ก C';3   <"  "   0'ก9<@"กก ก ก8ก M3ก ก กF<1<C'" 8@/8Aก ก  LA'ก 7@"304'8<L; 1 @"กก ก C'; 8IกG F (1ก ก  4. 2!C!ก  ก 6  38 4 C1 F(14?": ก 38 3Jก'ก?3ก ก (1 (80 ก 9ก'13 ( 5 ; ) C!ก  ก 6 กก 1. ก>1L 3 > ก1 B;ก กก0 ก ก> 2. 9;1@"2

Mean

SD.

4.36

0.79

4.14

1.13

3.  ?" ("@'กกL81

4.05

0.90

Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 2: December 2009


78 ก33 4' 5 671กก ก (80 ก 9ก'13 ก31  4 <8  : ก   (8  0  ก 9ก'138  @/8 @" >/กก>ก'ก?3@"'"1ก("ก>(1>ก1B;ก ก ก0 ก  ก 0 7@"304'8<'ก'1กก 4<'@ก3;  0B 9< 1'1 ;@"  >  /ก ก 9;1@" ก 2 4?" C';   ?"  ("@'กกL81 3 '> 7@"304'8B2 L8>/38ก ; 0B9<ก ก  > ?" ("@'กกG?8;" 07: ก  8@/8F80' ก("1กก'ก?3ก ก   ?" ("@'กก L81 80'  8ก("1กก'ก?3ก ก 1 8  >L ;3"1("@ 'กก(1ก ก  5.2!E F! กก  38 5 C1 F(14?": ก 380B9<(1ก ก ก ก  (1(80 ก 9ก'13 ( 5 ; ) E F! กก กก

Mean

SD.

1. ก 0B 

4.45

0.74

2.  @@ก >1

4.45

0.67

3.  4AC'; "1@

4.45

0.74

4.  ;

4.45

0.74

5.   0 2 <2

4.41

0.73

6. ก13C';0'ก9<

4.41

0.73

7. ก3138ก1ก

4.41

0.73

8.   ; ก3>C811

4.14

0.64

ก31  5 <8: ก (80 ก 9ก'138@/8F8 ก ก  0B   @@ก >1  4AC'; "1@C'; ; ก 0 1'1 F8ก ก   0  <2 ก13C';0'ก9<  ก 3138  ก 1 ก "  8    ; ก  3>  C8 1 18  @/8  F  8  :;กก  1  8 3 1ก   ?"    :(1 ก ก  C38 : 1 C " 8  ก ก     1   2  2552


' (/ 00/12 79

:;ภภ;  1  831ภ ภ9<(1ภภ C3813"1ภ@"ภภ " ;ภB2" p A8 ภ>1(112ภ L3" 6. 2! +! F! ภภ  38 6

C1;7A2 ภภ "ภภ ภ

,-G!. !38 ภภD2 "ภภภ 1. "0B  2. "  <2;810'C'; 4A 3. "ภ;2A13'( ภ C';ภ@A"  77' 4. " ภ; 1 ?@" AA<

Mean 4.14 4.14

SD. 0.99 0.99

4.14

0.99

4.09

0.97

ภ31  6 <8: ภ(80 ภ9ภ'138@/8F8  ภภ "   ;7A2 "  0 B     "    <  2  ;8  10  'C';  4A C';"ภ;2A13'( ภ C';ภ@A" 77' ภ0 8 ภ; 1 ?"@AA<8@/8F8ภภ1(ภ3  <" "AA<ภ8ภM3ภ ภ 7. 2!E "  F 38 ,- .0 -2*, ",! ภภ  38 7 C1 F(14?": ภ380B 3 < 1;12(1ภภ ภ ภ@(80 ภ9ภ'13 E "   38F ,- .! ภภ ภภ

Mean

SD.

1. ภ?1"  "F

3.75

1.50

2. ภ8" :8 3

3.50

2.12

3. ภ@qn?"

3.50

0.71

4. ภ31G @ >1

2.73

1.27

Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 2: December 2009


80 ก33 4' 5 671กก ก (80 ก 9ก'13  38 7 C1 F(14?": ก 380B 3 < 1;12(1ก ก  ก ก @(80 ก 9ก'13 (38) E "   38F ,- .! กก กก

Mean

SD.

5. ก<กa;

2.67

1.37

6.  k32 03

2.40

1.14

7.  4A@1

2.27

1.01

8.  ( 

1.73

0.90

ก31  7 <8: ก 9ก'138@/8F8ก ก  : ?"1 "F ก 0 1'1  ก8" :8 3 ก@qn?" ก3G1@ >1 ก< กa;  k3203  4A@1 3 '> 8" ( 8 @/8F8ก ก (  C'; 88( >1 3"1<กN/@  >1;( ':  >1@ 8    38 8

C1 F(14?": ก 38("01(1ก ก ก ก  @(80 ก 9ก'13 ( 5 ; ) 2*, ",! กก

Mean

SD.

1.  A @31

1.00

-

2. ก ;9 1ก5

1.61

0.92

3. ก ;ก

1.88

0.35

4. ก ;" <32

1.88

0.35

5.  ("@;ก ก 

2.00

0.71

6. ก3 3"Aก

2.50

0.71

7. ก ?"< 3

3.00

1.00

8.  ';

4.50

0.71

ก ก     1   2  2552


' (/ 00/12 81

ก31  8 <8: ก (80 ก 9ก'13F8ก ก    A    @31"    0   1   0 1 ก  0  1'1     0 1  ก ; 9 1ก5 ก ;ก ก ;" <32  ("@;ก ก  ก3 3 "Aก ก ?"< 3 3 '> 8@/8F8ก ก   ';?8 @; ก 0 8. 2!C!2!ก" ก  38 9 C1 F(14?": ก 38 3J"กก : ก -ก881ก ก M3ก ก  C!2!ก" ก +!ก3 3 D3 %  !*!   2   %  !*! ก! ! กก,I"  กก 1. 7A 15 68.18 7 2. ก3 'ก?3'"1ก 3J 17 77.27 5 กก ก  3. J(" ?'(8:;กก 10 45.45 12 4. ;C';("1 A 15 68.18 7

D3  2 -

31.82 22.73 54.55 31.82

ก31  9 <8: ก (80 ก 9ก'13  ก'ก?3 ก ก 8@/8 7A ก3 ก'ก?33 3J(1>ก1 B;ก กก0 ก  C38 8 @ก'"1ก;81 ก3 ก"1J(" ?' :;กกกก 8 ก"1(8:;กก C38ก 8 ก3 ก"1 J(" ?':;กก(8; กก8 8 ก ก;0' ?C'4A 81A

Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 2: December 2009


82 ก33 4' 5 671กก ก (80 ก 9ก'13

 38 10 C1 F(14?": ก 38 3J"กก : ก -(B;81ก ก กM3ก ก  C!2!ก" ก +!ก3 3 D3 D3 %!*!  2 %!*!  2 E- ! กกก,I"  กก 1.   8  1ก'1? C '<  3  3 4'C'; 11 50.00 11 50.00 Cก"N/ 2. ก; 4';81M3ก ก  22 100.00 3. ก 17B2 22 100.00 ก31  10 <8: ก (80 ก 9ก'13 8  8ก ;81ก 81ก'1?C'<33 4'C';Cก"N/ก 8 81ก'1<?C' ("'; 50.00) 7@"304'8:": ก  B;381 p 4AกFLก<1<C';

8G'11; Bกก3G181ก'1 : ก  0กC81 ก; 4';81 M31(1ก ก ก ก C'; ก 7B2 81" 1 : 1 2 G138 9ก ก   38 11 C1 F(14?": ก 38 3J"กก : ก -'1กก ก M3ก ก C'" C!2!ก" ก +!ก3 3 D3 D3 %  !*!   2   %  !*!   2   ก! กก,I"   กก0 2* 1. ก ก'08 8 6 27.27 16 72.73 2. ก  ก4C<8 6 27.27 16 72.73 3. ก >CrE (" ?' 22 100.00 ก31  11 <8: ก (80 ก 9ก'138@/8 8 ก  ก'08 8C'; 8 ก  ก4C<8 ?"(1ก ก  C38 0ก: ก  ก  >CrE (1ก ก  0ก

ก ก     1   2  2552


' (/ 00/12 83

9. 2!ก ! " !!-"" กก1!! 4'ก<8: ก (80 ก 9ก'138@/8@"ก 0ก>ก'ก?3ก ก @: ก ?8@; ก 0( 4.41) 7@" 30 4 '8  ก  ก L  ก>    ก  ' ก ? 3    "  1;7A2 @ "  ก  ก  : ก  3ก ก C';:;กก " ,0 -2 !0!ก4'ก<8 : ก (80 ก 9ก'138@/8;  >F"'ก?3ก ก  ก 0 : ก (8 ก ก  G1  23 C8 1   ' ก ? 3  G 1   334 ' ก ? 3    ก ก ("  8  ก  ก  16,265  C';  :;กก   ("  8    (8   G 1 G  3,054 C8 1 ก"  1J("  ? '   (8   :;กก@ 81LN/>: ก   8 :((8 "1 ก :;กก'C81  >//ก ก ("M31ก ก @G(ก'ก //C';:;กก@ 8กF C"7" ; 8("8 7@"304'8 ก ก  M3ก ก C'"3"19; ก( G A8 3"1<'G1@"กก ก C38'; 3"1 ก ; 4' G1:;กก B2 C';<ก1<'G1 กกG:;กก 1<กN/ kk"@ก'89  : ก   ก'ก?3ก ก  8@/8<N/"ก ก 'กAก ก "1 ก  8; >@"31 A"ก8ก ก  ก ก ' A 3"1'A@  1  4 C';:"'ก Aก ก C'"; >@" 8 :A p "ก<;3"1กM3ก ก  1 9ก ก  : ก   (8  0  ก 9ก'138  @/8  F  8   ก ก (  A @31 ( ก ; 19 1ก5 ก ; <32?8@; ก 4'ก 1<8: ก (80 ก 9ก'13F88(1B2 38 ก ก ก ก   ;  8(1B2 1 38ก ก ก ก  10  "กก: ก (80 ก 9ก'13<8 : ก   ก 'ก ?3ก  ก ;  3J(1> ก1B;ก กก0 ก C';   ก ก   8 กก> 3Jกกก>1ก ก ( G@ : ก <  ก8  @"  ก  ก4' 3  B _ 3   0 B 9<C';  0 B   3  < 1 ;12 ( 1 Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 2: December 2009


84 ก33 4' 5 671กก ก (80 ก 9ก'13 :;กกC38<N/1 3J1(": ก  8 : > "A8B2  3"148ก ก  ก ก  0ก : ก 8@/8 8 ก  ก'08 8 8 ก  ก C38; ก >CrE (1ก ก ก ก  0ก7@"304' 8ก >CrE ;L;7A238ก; 4'ก ก  C7" ก'ก?3ก ก  ( G@: ก  8@/8@"ก0@ก'ก?3ก ก 7@"304'8; >@" ก;7A28 ก G1 qn: ก  ก ก C';:;กก C38: ก  1C811 8C8@: 1  1(19J1ก0"1; B : ก 'C81 1L8113:0;12(19J 3"1ก< 'ก?3ก ก C';3"1ก@"ก ก  '  ก   A ก  ก < ( G C 1@ก"  1  (8  :;กก " 1" 2 !0!- 38D2กก*  1. 2! +!ก 1.1  กก ก  2 G138 <I7ก@"ก ก  "qsกM31 1 ก( G <Lก< ก ;C'; 1'ก@ก "1 >(1ก ก  1.2 : ก 8@/8Aก ก LA'ก C';3"1<กN/  ก ก  8'ก7@"304'8; >@"A"ก8ก ก  1G 1": ก  "1C1ก;30" "ก@" ?"กก ก 3G1C38Cก <@"ก ก  "("@: 1;7A2 

"กก ก  1.3 :"  : ก   3G 1 8  1    4  A  1ก  ก ; >  @" ก>1"ก ก ; >FC';<Lก'N/ 1.4 : ก   A17 C4>1"ก ก C'; ก;(" ?'(8@"ก0' ก("1 "?" ;A8'N/@ก>1'ก?3 ก ก @: ก  " 2. 2!  C 2.1 9J3"1ก< >'ก?3ก ก @: ก C';3"1ก@"   ก ก ก  ก  ก( G  @"   A8  '  "  ก"  1J("  ? '   (8   :;กก1  G11; B8@A"8 2.2 9J01กaกB_2 (G3ก'ก?3C'; 3J'ก?3 ก  ก  7I 7ก@": ก L 4?" ก> 1  1ก: ก C38' ;C81  ก ก     1   2  2552


' (/ 00/12 85

ก9< 8 8ก A8 : ก 9Jก: ก 9กA : ก ;Iก : ก ;I  08@"C'"3"1?C'81@ก'"A<ก>กก>1@" '"1ก 3J  "1 " C38 8   3J 3"1;ก" 3J 3"1 > C'; 3J  > ; >@": ก 'ก'1"ก 8'ก?3ก ก  2.3  <. . 2552-2555 3 C4< ` ก  ก  9 J     ก  : ก  ; >Fกกก ก C';@"ก0"1; B81 381<LC 1>: ก  p 3. 2! +!,-ก"ก 3.1 ก'89 @"ก:;กก ก ก ก ก GL1 C';'"1ก1(13  1: (2550) 7:;กก8@/8 F8'89  C389J กก>กaกB_2ก'89  "'(G3 >@" :;กกก 38ก>ก1ก('89  9Jก> >181A >ก ก C38'; A8:"ก ก  1 ;'89  "L >1 8@ 3.2 กกก'89 C'"  8'@"ก:;กก<L ก?1@@"ก:;กก@"ก ก  ก( G A8 ก ก  1:;กก ; "8'L>1 8@ 3.3   4?" C   (8  :;กก@; 3  38  ก    (8   381; <LC 1'ก@"กก ก M31ก@381; 4. 2!! กก 4.1 กB ก ก 3"1M31ก1381; ;3"1<กN/" k8ก ก C';"8@A"883(1ก ก  :" 81 4A(" ?C'1k8 ก ก C';8@A"8@"กก ก ก'08 G ; :'N/18@A"8@ก<>ก@ 381; (1ก ก  " 4.2 ก'ก:;กก7ก ก G :;กก1C81

8ก ก  'ก:;กกG C38;'กก ก  ?89@3"1 ((1  3  8G A8 3"1 0'ก9< 9  L3"  1 >@"ก ก  6@:;กก 31 ก ?"  :(13 9J ("ก>G13"81A8 กB  ก ก 'ก :;กก@3"1'>ก8'1 C38 @A8ก>3 1 ((1:;กก Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 2: December 2009


86 ก33 4' 5 671กก ก (80 ก 9ก'13

2 !0!- % "ก*  JD, 1. กG138   >ก>(80 ก 9@" G1 9 9 C';>4'ก   " ? Bกก ; > @" : 1 N/ 0 C';N   814'38   >F@ก'ก?3ก ก  2. กG138  ก>ก 3JC38';"" 3J": "B2 ; >@" ">3 '"1กก>1(1>ก1B;ก ก ก0 ก  C';C 1Cก" (N/"B2 3.  ก ก 1C 1ก'ก?3ก ก @;B_3 ก  7 ก : 1 3J  ; กก ก ;B_3 ก  ก 2 A'' 1'A. (2551). 1ก1 F38ก 1ก ก . ก ก  , 1(1): " 87. <A 1'A. (2551). 1ก1N 18  C';0G1 >F@ก ก ก Cก ก @: ก  .   ก ก  , 1(1) " 19. 3  1:. (2550). 1ก1  ;กกก ก @ 0 1(1 4?";กก .  'ก"  ก01 < . 3 ;" C';B;. (2552). ; ';A0qsก ก ก .   ก ก   A . 0  C" 08. (2551). ก ก : ?Cกก ก <  1 1  Jก.   ก ก  , 1(1): " 11.   ก ก  . (2552). 3JC';ก;ก0B9<ก>1ก ก .   ก ก   A . >ก1B;ก กก0 ก . (2551). C4ก>181 ก ก @ : ก  ;81 2551-2555.   C' <G 23G1 >ก ก01 < .

ก ก     1   2  2552


ก ก     1   2  2552 " 87 % 106 () ISSN 1906 % 6864

ก ก ก   ก /  011

  (ก"  /2ก3(24  5 6)0ก ก ก 2 ก ก 782ก ก   1 "02ก9: 3(2 ก 2;ก 500 /  << =;)   ก ก ก5 ( 0 ก >7  ( ?  0 "  /@ 0A0กก  ก   0ก  ก0<ก BC <ก ;" 8 7 0  D <;ก= E( ก>/  3(25  0 ก ก /@03/7ก ก  2547 3(270ก ก  F/0ก ก G73ก;ก ก  2549 1 0HG  (ก"  "70ก ก ก ก  F/0 5 979  (  (  ก"  , 2553) A  (  ?   A;ก= E  ก5    0A0กก  ก  ;"   2  M = ก 0 ) @  A;<" G  3)4 0 กก  ก" 8D>"ก7/@03(28")0  (? 5;" 12กก0ก ก  ก ก  3(2(H6GG7;0 >" )";กกก ก )0 12กก 9: 3(2ก ก  /(5H 8Aก  AกG ก  2</ 70 1G ก ;" กก ก 2ก ก  83 0;ก =Eกก ก 2ก ก )0  (ก"  ;"  )" 3)403(2 8ก( ก56;ก=E กM=)09N/;" G9M= 3(2 13)70);/(300

"  : ก ก   (ก"  ก=Eก ก  3;กก ก  1

   ก


88 ภ=Eภ ภ)0  (ภ"   ;H  G   M=3("  )0 0  3(2)0A(ภ"  ภ(  3(0;"  /7  0P A=2700ภ23A(ภME: Q 070D(/7ภ5</)02<< 3(2ภ=E 2 )02 /7  0 P  A(ภ5   2 @  ภ= E2 / 3D= E    Rภ3(20 370</  10 (=. .2550-2554) T  56ภ=E Q 08T  ภภG ภ 7ภ)"070 ภA1G ภ Mภ (ภ56 4 " "3ภ7 "ภ ภ ภ 5G5G0 (E 3(2ภภ <ภ>7 0 Q  0Mภ" ภ/ /R)0<ภ <<= 3(2 /" 0ภ)0 /(300 ==E300 >" (Knowledge Workers)  G9M==0=;ภ=E 2 3(2 "0)  1;ภ3)70) 18Mภ(ภ)01G ภ Gภ370 (  ภ ภ , 2552: 1) AD(  "ภภ5Mภ)01G ภ )"0/" @0 4 " ภD(/9N/   >"  1 3(2  ภ2;<<= /(  G9  3(28D>"  "ภ)ภ( 00 870 5;"89N/  G9M= 3(2=" )">7/(300 70 ภ4/ 9N/ 54ภ ภ3(2 G70)">7/(300@ ;HG ภ 3)70)>0 A/(300/"0ภ9N/  G9M= 3(2 G9(ภ92 = 020:)0"0   " >"  1 " 9: "0 "G9  3(2"ภ=E /0 5;"1G ภ/"0ภภ @2A<:/7ภภ;" 18 9N/ = 020:)0"0 <7ภBbภ2ภ9:<<= ภ ภ>03(2Bbภ022 @  ;12ภภ 3(2H  G   "  ภ= E ภ  ภ ภ2ภ  ภ (Cooperative Education) Q 0ภ5(08 ;ภ"0)0 ภ) @ )01G ภ  ภ  ภ (Cooperative Education) 8   = :  6 6 /  /: .  /  " Q 08G(3ภ52ภ ภ)" ;<";2    ( AA(G   =. . 2536 (  ภ ภ  2552 : 5) Q 0 lภ ภm 82ภ ภ ;" ภภ;1 ภ(ภภ 2ภ9:/0ภภF/00 9 12ภภ70 2" 7 ภ12ภภ 3(2 GภBC ภ)"0 82ภ ภ D  DภภภF /0 (Work Integrated Learning) (  ภ ภ , 2552: 7) 0@ ภ ภ  08ภภ ภ >9ภ270ภ 50ภภ A 1 ภ  1G ภ7 ภ12ภภ;ภ50ภ ภ ภ ภ    1   2  2552


/  01 89

=    ;"  ก ก    2ก9: ก  5  0 0 Q  0  3   ( ก  5   6 2 2ก  1) ก/2 ก 1 0  5   6 )0ก/   ="  "  ก2ก< = (Career Development) 3(2ก)">72ก 50)09N/ (Employability) ก754ก ก  3(2 2) ก=EG9M=9N//  /"0ก)0/(300 (/ ", 2552 : 5) 3(2 ;HG 51G ก  @0)0R3(2ก< ก2กก ก  = ก) @8(5 A=27001G ก ก< Q 0/"0D<6กH/70 P   ก)"03(270D(ก2 ก0 3(2=E กM=)01   ก3)70))0 1  G  ก  @ 0 )0 R 3(2ก<;ก   ก ก  M=( ก 9: 3 (2<    0)0 1G ก ก<  ก1G ก )0R กก1 

7  0 2 93D7      G     ก  1  G  ก )0 R  @ 0  ก   2    ก /(  )"  ก ;1  G  ก ก<7  ;67  8  D>"   D(ก   A(  /5  ก7  1  G  ก )0 R  0 @  ก2ก  ก  ก)0 1  G  ก ก<  0 5  8    2/"  0  ก ก ;"   1 "  0  ก M= )0ก ก  2D(/;"89N/;" G9 /    1;ก3)70)3(28 /" 0ก )0/(300 " กก ก 2ก ก  08 0(ก 0 1G ก ก<;"  5 6 Q  024 "7;H G 1G ก ก< 5 38 370 ก ก 2 ก ก  (5ก0()กMก ก , 2552: 22) ก51G ก ก< @0  69 370 (5ก092ก กG ก , 2552) 8"(2 55.07  (  ก"   8  0 ;1  G ก    ก ก ก 2 ก ก  = G70;"9N/)0  (ก"  G9 / A7 3(2  กM= =" 23)70);/(0 " ก ก ก# ก ก   ก  (ก"  81ก ก <@5"Gก  G70D(/9N/   G 9 M=>7 / (300 A"  ก  ก  ก   G 9 M=3(2      /(  "02ก9:ก 50;"กก ก  =;" 1>"3(2F/0 "70  2 M=3ก70:ก 9N/)0  (? )" 50  (ก"   0/2ก3(2(404 56)0กก ก 2ก ก  A "/@0A0กก ก ) @;ก ก  2547 3(2;ก  (? " กG0(ก>/ Gก(ก>/;266/ ;" 3Dกก ก ) @ @0@  (? G70=Eก Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 2: December 2009


90 ก=Eก ก )0  (ก"  5    0ก  ก ก 2ก  ก ;"  8  / ( ก ก3(2ก9N: /R ก ก   @0 A "G9M=)0ก ก ก ก  กก7 9 A  /1G20:)0กก ก ก ก  0@ (  (ก" , ...: 1) 1) =8กก>"3(2"0 12 0<<=3ก7ก ก )0  ( ก" ;"("0ก /"0ก)0/(300 2) =  " 0 =  M=27  0  ( ก"   3(212กก =" ก30 =" 3(2G)0  (? 2D(/9N/ =0 /"0ก )012กก;" ก G 3) =  3(ก(  3(2= E  <  >" 3(2 AA(  27  0  (  ก"  ก12กก =8ก"0 12;ก3)70))02  (  ก"   " 7 0  ก ก  F  / 0  0 12กก; ก ก  2549 83ก A 926<8925703(2 "5กA0กก ก  70/70 1 0HG A 5ก ก ก ก ก92/70 P )"7 A0ก ก ก  ก) @8(5 03DM>   1 340

350 299

300

294

250 200 150 100 50

จํานวนนักศึกษาสหกิจศึกษา 42

0 2549

2550

2551

2552

%&'( )* 1 305ก ก ก ก   (ก"  ก ก 2549 - 2552  : A0กก ก   (ก" , 2553.

ก ก     1   2  2552


/  01 91

ก(, ก ก    ก  (ก"  "2ก ก 82 M (Semester) A Mก ก ก ก  22( 7ก 1 Mก ก ก/  16 :;M/" M( A(ก>/ก ก  (ก 92 0@ (  (ก" , ...: 1) 1) 8(ก>/3D ) )0 Gก92 A8 / ก(ก3Dก)0ก ก  2) กMก ก ก ก 2 ";M()0  3 3(2M/"  M()0  4 @0@ Mก ก  ก ก 2/"0 F/0ก ก  23/ก/70ก

;3/7(2)< 3) <ก ก  7 7ก 6 7ก/ 4) ก5;"ก ก ก ก 2/"0 F/070" 1 Mก ก   16 : ;HG  (ก"  923(2)< x(ก>/ก ก  0@ (  (ก" , ...: 22-28)  -)*./0 ก(, ก ก   ก 1# 23ก - )<กก - )<ก5ก0(4ก ก: - )<กก =ก G : - )<กกG/ก - )<กกA03 3(2ก 70  - )<ก0 - )<ก/( - )<กGก2702 - )< =/:Gก - )<D>"2กก - )<กก"(ก

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Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 2: December 2009


92 ก=Eก ก )0  (ก"   -)*./0 ก(, ก ก   ก (/7) 1#-) 1#. 6 ,4 - )<  R /:ก0 - )<  R /:Gก - )< z {  R /: - )<  R /:2702 1#3 ,4 - )<M 0กz =กGก - )<M  =ก - )<M 6GC - )<M  - )<M 0กz 3(2ก3( - )< ก 

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94 ก=Eก ก )0  (ก"  3) กก(ก012กก 0A0กก ก  <3(2(2)" >( กก ก ก ก )012กก;"92ก(ก012กก(70" ก72ก <12กก;"ก ก (ก 4) ก ก ก ก ก  AA0กก ก 2ก5   ก ก ก ก  ;3/7(2Mก ก (70"2 9 4  ก7 ก ก 2ก  F/0ก ก  Aก ก /"0กก; 0ก ก  =" @03;/ D(ก ก  Q 0ก ก /"0)ก5ก 23(22 (D( =5 8(กR3 ;  5) ก(ก /537003(212กก 0A0กก ก 2/ 2ก <12กก ก ก ;3/7(2Mก ก  =" @0 (2 0 )/70 P )012กก =8)" >(;"ก ก (ก12กก 2  F/0ก ก  Aก ก   (ก12กก " 2 370 / (5 ; 6) ก(กก ก A92/12กก ก5ก; 2 (ก 92 0@ 6.1) ;ก9   12กก ;"  (  ?   (  ก ก ก ;" 0A0กก ก 220 3(25 2ก3ก79:3/7(292  "  (กก ก  F/0 9 12กก/70 P A=9กก M 9: 2/- 7/ 2/ก ก  ก 23(2 1)0ก ก  ?(? 6.2) ;ก9 12กก/"0ก(กก ก 0 A0กก ก  220 3(25   2ก;ก     ( ก  12กก3(2 ก ก  ;ก(กก ก  Q 025ก   (? 70ก ก  0 12กก=ก(ก 7) ก/  =" )0ก ก ก7 F/0 AA0กก ก  ก  /  =" 3ก7ก ก  =;" >"  )"; 3(2=E ก 2;"/70 P

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9) กF/0 12กก)0ก ก ก ก  Aก5;"ก ก  F/08( 1 Mก ก  16 : 10) ก 0ก ก A:  ก  Q 0A0กก ก ก5;"  ก  0ก ก  2 @ 0 /7 Mก ก  Aก  0? @ 0  12 0? 2 9:  2-3 3(2@0  2 2 9:  6-8 @0@ 9: ก ก 2   0? 9 12กก =// 3(2 )"4กกกF/0)0 ก ก  ก=ก0=(@0 3(2"0)070 ก ก  F/0 11) ก0/ 3(2700/A00ก ก  ก ก ก ก 2/"0 0/ 3(2700/A00ก ก /7A0กก ก  (0@GกF/0 1 : =;":  ก /2 0 Q 000ก(72/"0D7ก/ก =ก0=(@02 9:  14 )0กF/0 12) ก ก ก  A0กก ก 2ก5 3(2(;"ก ก   ก (  กกF  / 0 ก  ก ;3/7 ( 2Mก ก )"  7  ก ก  ก  =53(217 2ก9:)0/;270กF/0ก ก  A;" ก 3(ก(     4  27  0 ก ก  :    ก ก  ก  3(2D>" 3  12กก @0ก ก  Gก2/"0  กก ก  =D3=7D(0 กF/0ก ก )0ก ก ;3/7(2Mก ก  13) ก2 D(ก ก  8ก2 D(กก(G7 G( ก)"0กก  F/0ก ก )0ก ก  "3ก7 12กก :  ก  3(2A0กก  ก  A2   ก 1) ก)" 7  ก ก  A0กก  ก ก5 @ 0ก73(2( 0 กF/0ก ก )0ก ก  2) กF/0ก ก )0ก ก  3) ก 0 ก ก ก ก  4) 0กF/0)0ก ก ก ก  3(2 5) ก)"7 =5กF/0ก ก  3(2ก  ก;ก ก ก  Aก 2 D(2;"233 "/ก   66(ก 9: S (Satisfactory-=;/D7) 3(2 U (Unsatisfactory- 7=;/ 7D7) ก)" >()"0/" 5กกกก ก 2ก ก  )0  ( ก"  4 "7A0กกก ก  ";" ก2ก50ก ก ;"  / ก9N:3(2 /Rก ก  3 "720 71" >9:; Gก)" Q 0A0กก ก ? 2/"0 ก=Eก5ก;"1"/ ก9N: /Rก ก /7  0@ ก2ก53 0ก=EA0กก ก @  ก2:M=3(" Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 2: December 2009


96 ก=Eก ก )0  (ก"  M; 3(2Mก)0A0กก ก  =;<"8)" >(;ก=Eก5ก;"ก 2 M=>0G ก .# 4'%'<%#'ก7ก ก ก    ก ก5(กก)0ก<0ก(G : ;<";ก 3(2=Eก50 A0กก  ก )0  (  ก"  @  ก  2:  1ก9: 3(2 M=3(" @0M; 3(2Mก 70D(/7 ก50A0กก ก ?  08  058 Q 0ก2:;00ก(722:HM; 8G3)40 (Strength) 3(2 G7 (Weaknesses) 7HMก2 5ก2:H 8Aก (Opportunities) 3(2G (Treats) Q 0D(  "กก2:? 2 15 8H;กก5 3 0;ก=Eก50A0กก ก  )0  (ก" /7  ก2:1ก9: 3(2M=3(" ?  1G824/70 P "0@ 1. 3  %>  (Strength)  ( ก"   G 3)4 0  8 2A<: /7  ก50A0กก ก  0@ -  (ก"  ก"  8D>"ก7/@03(28")0 Q 0ก"

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ก ก  5;"ก50ก ก กกก 77 )0 GกBC ก)"0M;  ( -  (  ก"   "   (  ก;"  8  1  3 7 )7   )0  )7   ก ก  ก(G7  2 )0)7G ก Mก(0/ 5;" 1)7;ก 7 =Eก50ก ก )03/7(217 ก -  ( ก"   M=(ก 9:   ;" ก81G  ก  ก<  7 G700ก5  3(2 "ก  @0 0"<0 3(2G9M=9N/ 2. 3     (Weaknesses) 8HM;  (? 8G/7ก 50A0กก ก )0  (ก"  0@ - ก ก   /"0กก54ก ก ;"4 G Q 0 5;"ก ก    7ก(0 2<ก ก  5 6 7ก/ 3(2/"0;<"(;กF/0ก ก  1 0 1 Mก ก  A 7 1(0 2< ";Mก ก @ 5;"ก ก /"0 ((0 2< P 3 ;Mz>" - 9: 3 (2 ก ก ) >"  )"  ;  1> ก /"  0ก  ก  ก  ก  092    < Bb ก 2ก9:  < < = /Bb ก 03ก7  ก ก >7 3 ("  )"  ;7   <  0 ก(7    กก ก   000;"ก ก Bbก0<7 3/7 7)"7 A0กก ก  - )R)"  > ( ก  ก  ก  ก  5    ;<" ; ก    กA0ก ก ก 70 2 M= - )ก/ / 3(22  D( ก ก ก  ก  (0 ก5 4 ก ก  กกM2ก "0 5 3(2 = 0=;)00:กD>";<"9N/ 3. 7ก (Opportunities) 8HMก  (? A0กก ก   15 ;<"2A<: 7<7;ก50ก ก ;"(G/1G20: 0@ - 5   ก 092ก กกG  ก  (ก.)   A  G  ( ก > /  ก ก  3(2 ก 53D5070 ก ก ;1G ก  =. . 25512555 (5ก092ก กกG ก , 2551: 49) 70< -   ก ก  80:ก  "กGก5ก092ก ก กG ก  ;ก 5" 70 ก ก ;"/70 P    "0 >"  )"; กกก ก 3ก713(270/70 P 8M ก)"0 ก=E(ก>/3(2 กBbก กกก50ก ก  3ก7D>"ก)"070/70  5 /Rก 5    0ก  ก  )0 @ 0 12กก3(21  ก ก  ?(? 5  ;" D>"     Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 2: December 2009


98 ก=Eก ก )0  (ก"  9: 3(2G  (ก   ก  )"  0ก  ก  ก )0  (  ก"   3(2 1G ก /70 P "ก 3(2  >"  )";กกกก ก 2 ก ก  ก) @ 3(20 15 >" =Eก50ก ก ;1)0/ ;"8 / ก9N: /R ก) @ - H>0;D>"2กก;ก)"7 A0กก ก  A ก{ 0 ;ก) 2A<: 0M 3ก712กก ก ก ก ก  F/0 Q 0("0ก 4 3(2 /"0ก)0D>"2กกMGก 7 ก(7M  8 30> 0;  3ก  2> 0;;" 12กก= 9)" 7  A0กก  ก  ( /  01 3(2 A=€ 0, 2551: 31) - D>"  2กกMG  ก     4  7   ก ก   D7  กF  / 0 ; 12กก0  ก7  ก ก   7 " D7 กF  /0 ? ; 0 1) ก3ก" )H6  =2" 2) ก)";1ก9:ก 50 3(2 3)   ;ก 503(2 1 >"0 "4 (/  01 3(2 A=€ 0, 2551: 25) 4. 3 /  (Treats) 8HMก 8G D(ก2 /7 ก5A0กก ก  Q 0 5;"ก50 7(G/1G20: ก5 " 0@ - 12กก7 ;67 ) >"  )" ;ก ก (กก3(2ก2ก ก  ก  5  ;" 7  4  2A<: ; ก   ก ก ก  ก  F  / 0  ( /   01 3(2 A=€ 0, 2551: 23) A 078M2)012กก - )ก< A0 3(2202702Aก2F/ก;0 ก) 2A<: 0M กกก ก ก ก  0ก"" 2F/ ก  )0ก =ก 20 7 " 0Aก;"12กก "ก(7 M ;00ก(7 2กก)@/3(2ก)(7M  3|: 3(2(2  12กก2/"0กก ก 5;"12กก>" ก7ก) 2A<:ก 0@0 5 7 "  G70ก ก - 1G ก  @0)0R3(2ก< กx(ก>/  <ก ก  = ก) @  5  ;" 5   ก ก ก  ก    2) F  / 0  9 12กก ก3)70) =;" "12กก  <0/ ก ก /"0ก กก)" >(  "กก2:M=3(" @0M;3(2Mก)0A0กก ก   (ก" )"0/"3(" A0กก ก  0 ")" >(กก  /"0ก 3(2 0)012กก 9: 3(2ก ก /7ก)"7 ก ก     1   2  2552


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100 ก=Eก ก )0  (ก"  2.1.2)   ก    /   ="  3ก7  ก ก ;  0)0 >" 0<ก  3(29;<<= ก 2 58;กF/0 <7 ก;<" A3ก  =/: ก=EG(กM= 3(2ก0/;" 2 กก 50 2.1.3) 5    ก  5   0   />7   ="  )"  > ( 5  7 0 /   ก ก 3ก7 12กก(70" =12กก2 "/ )" >(;"70 ก)"0 <7 =ก)/=@  "  2.2) ก ก ก ก  2.2.1) 8 D>"    3(2 G EM2;ก 5 0   ;BC>" ก2/  "  ;0  "   2.2.2) ก/  =" ;ก >";0 กก703(2 (ก 920 2 F/ 1 4 1) ,ก.ก)*กก  ก(, 1.1) G<ก ก >7; Gก(ก>/ 1.2) กG0(ก>/;" 3Dกก ก  A >3ก(ก>/;" ("0กก9N: /Rก ก  3(2("0กกก"กก )03/7 (21 <7  กก5 ;"  ก  ก 8   < (  ก  5  7  ก / >7 27  0 6-9 7  ก/ Aก5 ;"  3 Dก ;<@   3 3(2<@    4   22(;กF  /

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Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 2: December 2009


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Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 2: December 2009


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Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 2: December 2009


122

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Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 2: December 2009


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Thai Journal of Cooperative Education Vol. 1 No. 2: December 20099

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