Page 1

July-September 2012, 56 pages

RNI No. MAHENG13114/13/1/2012-TC

Volume 1, Issue 2, .100/-

Cover Story :

- Forging Ahead‌

Skill Gap Analysis in Spinning Sector

40 Govt. Textile Parks under SITP

Right Education for the Right Career Mr. Ramesh Poddar

CIRCOT Implementation for Better Ginneries...


FIBER GINNER YARN SPINNER FABRIC WEAVER GARMENT RETAIL MANUFACTURER FASHION DESIGNER WHOLESALER WOVEN CHEMICALS FINISHING DYES ORGANIC TRIMMINGS EXPORT EMBLISHMENT IMPORT Reshaping textile industry...

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Editorial Thanks to all who whole-heartedly accepted our 1st issue of Textile Value Chain and gave us valuable feedback, suggestions & improvement scope. After introducing our 1st Textile Quarterly Magazine / Guide in India, we are proceeding ahead with our new issue. This magazine not only provides knowledge regarding the textile and fashion industry but also provides meaningful information to our readers. In the context of the Indian market, our industry has very few organised professional players. In this issue, we are sharing a milestone success story of Siyaram's, a journey from a family-owned business start-up to a professional organisation in just 3 decades. A journey from a 10 crores company to 1000 crores... In this issue, we share with you detailed research papers from CIRCOT in association with NAIP and CICR, on 'Cotton Value Chain', how following few suggestions given by the team, will reap huge benefits for the Ginners...! The Textile Committee shared Star Rating of Ginner's and its importance for an acceptance in international market and a doctorate shares with us the functional and technical aspects of apparel. An article from a consultant company also talks about technical textiles which have a huge scope in India but it is still in a nascent stage. After giving a brief Skill Gap Analysis of the industry in the last issue, this time we are continuing in detail with the Spinning sector. We also talk about fashion and textile education and the different career options and how French King Louis XIV developed fashion in the 17th century so people would not rebel against him. We also have an Overview on Government policy about Integrated Textile Parks, 12th Plan for the development of Industry Contributors and 40 parks details in brief. We are reaching out to all the contributors of textiles like Manufacturers, Wholesalers, Educational Institutes, Associated Professionals, Consultants, Government, Industry Associations, and many more to associate with us. Come join us for our Vision: “Reduce the GAP amongst all the Textile Contributors...� 'Textile Value Chain' is your platform where you can share 'The Truth', ' The Real Picture' (not just being politically correct) and we will share your ideas and view points and try to make our industry more organized, professional and internationally popular with better professionals!! A Better Industry to have more FDI's, a Better Industry for people to look upon us and make them join and be part of this industry...!!! Best Regards, Jigna Shah Editor & Publisher All rights reserved Worldwide; Reproduction of any of the content from this issue is prohibited without explicit written permission of the publisher. Every effort has been made to ensure and present factual and accurate information. The views expressed in the articles published in this magazine are that of the respective authors and not necessarily that of the publisher. Textile Value chain is not responsible for any unlikely errors that might occur or any steps taken based in the information provided herewith. Copyright 2012 by Textile Value Chain.

Editor & Publisher Jigna Shah Chief - in - Editor Rajul Shah Technical Advisory Board Dr. Ela Dedhia, Associate Professor Nirmala Niketan College, Mumbai Mr. B.V. Doctor, HOD Knitting Dept, SASMIRA, Mumbai Advertisement & Marketing Md. Tanweer Graphic Designer Vaibhav Gosar Manoj Kumar Authors Dr. R.P. Nachane Mr. S. Ulganathan Dr. K.R.K. Iyer Ms. Bhavna Rawat Mr. N.S. Kazi Mr. Shivram Krishnan Mr. Kalyan Roy Ms. Sarita Raut Ms. Parinita Devadiga Ms. Sarah Nizam Registered Office : Innovative Media & Information Co. 189/5263, Sanmati, Pantnagar, Ghatkopar (East), Mumbai - 400075. Maharashtra, INDIA. Tel / Fax: +91-22-21029342 Cell: +91-9769442239 Email: info@textilevaluechain.com Web: www.textilevaluechain.com Owner, Publisher, Printer and Editor Ms. Jigna Shah printed & processed by her at, Impression Graphics, Gala no.13, Shivai Industrial Estate, behind McDonald, Andheri Kurla Road, Sakinaka, Andheri (E), Mumbai-72, Maharashtra, India.


ADVT.


Textile Value Chain

In

This

Issue...

Cover Story : Siyaram Silk Mills Limited

04

Fibre : Cotton Value Chain: CIRCOT Star Rating- A Figure of Merit for Ginneries Bamboo- An Eco Fibre

08 11 16

Yarn : Ratan Glitters Industries Limited

18

Fabric : Cloth Production in India Life Cycle Analysis of Textiles

20 23

Garment : Quality Tools in Garment Manufacturing Apparel Aspects

25 28

Fashion : King Louis XIV's- A Fashion Developer

18

Technical Textiles

35

SME Corner : Wholesalers view

39

Skill Gap Analysis- Spinning Sector

40

Career Opportunities : People in textile and fashion : 타 Sarah Nizam 타 Rajul Shah International Colleges for Textile & Fashion

44 45 47

College focus : VJTI

48

Textiles Trade Shows

50

Government Policy- SITP

52

Corporate Fun

56


Textile Value Chain

Siyaram Silk Mills is a gigantic name in the textile market today. What is the history behind it and how has the journey been so far? Incorporated in 1978, Siyaram Silk Mills Limited is the Flagship Company of the Siyaram Poddar Group. Initially, the company started with trading activities in fabrics and in 1981 started manufacturing activities at Tarapur with 66 indigenous looms. Over a period of time, we have modernized and upgraded the machineries gradually in stages by inducting modern technology machines. Siyaram's today is the largest producer of blended suiting and shirting in India, producing 40 million metres annually. Siyaram's has been in the business of fashion for almost 3 decades now. In this span of time, Siyaram and other brands under the group have become house hold names. It may be one of the very few brands in the country which has an urban and rural brand acceptance and penetration.

Today Siyaram's has more than 1000 direct employees and 5000 indirect employees. Please highlight on the core team who started the entire Siyaram Silk Mills and brought it to a place this far. Siyaram Silk Mills was started by Shri Dharaprasadji Poddar and Shri Ram Prasadji Poddar. In 1980-81 Shri Rameshji Poddar joined Siyaram's when the turnover was less than Rs. 10 crores. He worked relentlessly & acquired many skills of business under the expert guidance of Shri Ramprasadji Poddar. He took full charge of the business in 1982. Since then, there has been no looking back for Siyaram's. Over the years, Siyaram's has scaled new heights and reached a turnover of Rs. 1000 crores. Starting with merely 4 employees, today Siyaram Silk Mills under the astute leadership of Shri Rameshji Poddar has not only expanded its presence in India but also reached out to global markets. How much is the monthly production at Siyaram Silk Mills? For the same, please specify the production quantity, the manufacturing facilities as well as the machinery. Today, Siyaram’s produces more than 60 million metres of fabric per annum. It has state-of-the-art, world-class fully automated weaving and processing machines at its factories in Tarapur and Silvassa.

ADVT.

Could you please highlight the various brands under the Siyaram umbrella? In the fabric space, we have successful brands like Siyaram's, J.Hampstead and Mistair. In the readymade space, we once again have established brands like Oxemberg, MSD and we have also recently introduced J.Hampstead in the Premium Ready-to-wear space as well. Siyaram Home Furnishing is a relatively new business that we have introduced some time back. This segment also has a huge potential and we definitely see ourselves as a prominent player in the time to come. We are also catering to the hospitality & corporate business sectors through one of our brands Unicode and the school uniform business which has grown in recent times gets handled through our brand, Little Champs.

Siyaram’s Showroom

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July - September 2012


Textile Value Chain Siyaram's also has one of the best facilities in Daman to produce garments. Besides this we also have a strong and dedicated R&D team at our Design Studio. What are the core beliefs and the vision of the company? Siyaram’s is founded on the principles of mutual respect and appreciation for human capital. The vision of the company is 'To grow forever by consistently achieving customer delight and being the most preferred partner to every stakeholder'. It has been our philosophy to provide its customer valuefor-money products, world-class quality and the latest in international style and design. We have stayed contemporary with a vision well-focused on the future. Siyaram’s journey started with fabrics but has grown extensively in ready-made sector as well. Your thoughts on the same. Initially, we were engaged in the trading of suitings and shirtings only. Over a period, we expanded, diversified and integrated our facilities substantially and currently we are the market leader of man-made fibre (MMF) fabric segment. We produce 60 million metres of fabric per annum. Our processing units are also one of its kinds in India and they can process diverse fibres such as wool, cotton and polyester blends, all under one roof. In fabric, we have different brands for different segments of the market like Siyaram's, Mistair, J Hampstead, etc. Siyaram's is a very popular brand and is present in around 65,000 odd retail outlets across the country. Keeping this in mind, we thought of leveraging on this and hence we are extending the brand to our ready-mades known as Oxemberg & MSD. They are basically a brand extension from fabric to garment.

What is the driving force behind Siyaram's success - in both the fabric as well as readymade sectors? One of the core factors which have influenced the growth of Siyaram's has been the ability and the quick turnaround time to launch innovative and fashion end products. We have continuously re-invented to create excitement both for trade and for consumers. Our ability to spot international trends and the infrastructure to develop and launch great designs in India and overseas is something that is a huge driving factor for us, always. How is the distribution network for Siyaram's? Today, Siyaram has more than 65,000 retailers selling Siyaram's and its other brands. Siyaram today is a national player operating in metros and Tier I /II towns. We are happy to be a part of their business and are constantly striving to make their business more profitable with us. In any textile company the fabric used is very important. Could you throw some light on the fabric you manufacture? Are they natural or synthetic or both? Fabric is the core product which can be sold as is or used to convert into garments. Hence the feel, fall and texture of the fabric are extremely important characters as they have to be appealing to the end user. The texture of the fabric is the outcome of the yarns used for production as well as the value addition done through processing the fabric into various finishes. Siyaram's is a market leader in blended suitings pioneered to cater to the ever-changing trends in the

ADVT.

Siyaram is also seen in home furnishings - what are your future plans to promote this vertically? The home furnishing segment is a fast growing

segment. It is largely dominated by unorganized, local and imported fabrics. There are barely few organized players operating on a national level in this space. Siyaram Home Furnishing is modern luxury at affordable prices and with the appeal, equity and the penetration that Siyaram brand has in all markets across India, we hope to piggy-ride on this and grow the business.

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Textile Value Chain fashion world. We use both natural as well as synthetic yarns to manufacture our fabrics. However, now we have ventured into 100% natural fabrics like cottons and linens through our recently launched new brands Zenesis, Moretti and Royale Linen as there is a huge demand for natural fabrics. Do you have in-house yarn production at Siyaram's? What are the types of fibres getting manufactured at your end? We are not into producing yarns, however we are in the business of value-added dyed & fancy yarns with expertise in the manufacturing of wide range of cottons and synthetic yarns catering to the fashion fabric manufacturers across India. We see a certain trend with hiring A-list celebrities as brand ambassadors for the textile brands. Any specific reason for Siyaram's to have different brand endorsers for the various brands? The trend was started by Siyaram's. In the late 90's, Siyaram's was quick to identify the importance of having the right celebrity for the brand. Soon thereafter, Siyaram's has been associated with some of the biggest names in fashion, sports and bollywood. Be it Manish Malhotra, Boris Becker, Leander Paes, Mahesh Bhupati, Dhoni or Vijender Singh, Lara Dutta, Bipasha, Priyanka Chopra, Neil Nitin Mukesh or Hrithik. We have them all. More important we have not just roped in celebrities, we have used them tactically to the advantage of the brand in different markets. This has helped the brand to get out of the clutter and carve a space for itself. Today being the trendsetters that we are and also the larger portfolio that we have, we have strategically identified the right celebrity with the brand and have used them effectively.

Networking in the textile industry is an integral part of the business. What is your take on building relations with the traders? Like in every business, the role of a retailer is very crucial. A retailer is a bridge between the wholesaler, the supplier and the mill. He is an important marketing intermediary who by his timely communication informs the manufacturers/ distributors/ dealers regarding which product is acceptable in the market as they know the pulse of the market. Due to this information the wholesaler also confidently distributes his products even in the remotest part of the country. I believe that the real India lies in the rural parts of our country. We have always strived to develop the best of relations with these retailers, by encouraging them and supplying

ADVT.

What is the road ahead with regards to the value added products vertically? Going forward, value added products are going to be a large part of our business. Through our focused

R&D, we are constantly exciting our trade and consumers with new products which the consumers have seen or experienced in global markets but have not been able to get it in the Indian markets. We have recently launched Royal Linen Collection with Manish Malhotra. The collection is 100% pure linen and is one of the finest linen fabrics in the world. Moretti is another brand that we have launched which is into premium cotton shirting fabrics. Today's consumers are all about individual identity and that reflects in their clothing as well.

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Textile Value Chain the most fashionable goods at best rates. We are also proud that with our growth, our channel partners have also grown. This has been the underlying philosophy of Siyaram's. Did the 2012 Budget put any repercussions on the textile industry? We wholeheartedly compliment the Government for continuation of exempted route for clearance of textiles under Notification No.30/2004-CE. Although the excise duty on branded ready-made garments and made-ups has not been abolished, its impact is reduced from 4.5% to 3.6% which is also a welcome step. The Hon'ble Finance Minister announced in his Budget Speech that automatic shuttle-less looms are exempt from basic customs duty of 5% which is great. However, in the present Budget, duty on cotton stream of production has been increased to 6% from 5%, but that on manmade stream from 10% to 12%. Thus, the difference in duty has widened, at a time when the man-made textile industry is facing rough weather. Government should therefore fix a uniform rate of 6% for both the streams of production. Way forward 2012- 2013, future investments and expansions plans, if any? Siyaram’s aims to become a Rs. 1500 crores company in the next 2 years and would be investing close to Rs. 160 crores in expanding the manufacturing capacities of the business.

Could you explain the garments in detail specifying topics like export, domestic etc.? The Indian consumers are converting from stitched apparel to ready-to-wear clothing range. Accordingly, those companies which are engaged in business of manufacturing and distribution of quality fabrics to garment industry have a promising future. Indian companies are now eyeing the huge opportunity in partnering with luxury brands wishing to enter India. Retailers and private equity firms on the other hand are ready to make huge investments in promising growth of apparel brand. Meanwhile brands are also buying stakes into retail companies to grasp a wider market. Textile companies are strengthening front and back-end operations through mergers and acquisitions in the textile industry. Manufacturing is a thrust area for the Indian government, as Indian industry and the government see foreign companies more as partners in building domestic manufacturing capabilities rather than a threat to Indian business. Following this through, the central governments as well as various states are executing various schemes such as integrated textile and apparel parks. Thus, India's garment business is poised to fuel the country's textile segment as it provides the highest per unit realization and has high value added content. Thus we can see that the textile industry has an important role to play along with being one of the key growth engines of the economy.

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What are your expectations from the overseas market? The overseas market is growing tremendously. Thanks to the many Indians who are settled abroad. There is a great acceptance for Siyaram fabrics and its other brands. Indian consumers abroad are connected to their roots in India. Siyaram through

their positioning of “Come Home to Siyaram's� has been able to create a strong space in the minds of global Indian consumers and this has been accelerating the growth pace of brands like Siyaram's and Oxemberg in the global markets. We are catering to markets in Middle east, USA and Europe as well.

July - September 2012

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FIBRE Cotton Value Chain Dr. R. P. Nachane Principal Scientist, NAIP Project on “Cotton Value Chain (CVC)” CIRCOT, Mumbai 1. INTRODUCTION The Indian Textile Industry uses about 62% cotton as its raw material, unlike the global textile industry that has a 40:60 mix of cotton and man-made fibres. There has been a phenomenal increase in cotton production in India in recent years. In the conventional value chain there are a few missing as well as weak links. Ginning is considered to be one of the weakest links characterized by excessive use of energy, presence of contaminants and trash and

Textile Value Chain lack of facilities for quality assessment of individual bales. Although spinning sector is performing better with modern facilities, weaving/knitting sector still needs to improve in quality and product up gradation to meet the international standards. Further, processing such as preparatory chemical treatments of yarns and fabrics, eco-friendliness, energy use efficiency, and its treatment are factors that need immediate attention. In the handloom sector, workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and environment is also vitiated with chemical effluents in rural areas. In this context, a World Bank funded project entitled, “A Value Chain for Cotton Fibre, Seed and Stalk: An Innovation For Higher Economic Returns to Farmers and Allied Stake Holders” was sanctioned by National Agricultural Innovation Project (NAIP) under Component 2 in consortium mode with Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology (CIRCOT), Mumbai as lead center and Central Institute for Cotton Research (CICR), Nagpur, Super Spinning Mill Ltd., Coimbatore as consortium partners with the following objectives. Ÿ To grow established cotton genotypes in the adopted villages with integrated production technology practices Ÿ To reduce the level of contaminants in cotton by adopting appropriate onfarm and off-farm management practices and to label cotton bales with fibre attributes after appropriate ginning Ÿ To prepare yarn, fabrics and garments in the modern mill, market and manufacture eco-friendly

textiles in handloom sector by employing CIRCOT technology for bio-scouring and natural dyes Ÿ To ensure additional income to farmers and alternate raw material to the industry by establishing cotton stalks

supply scheme to board industries/ briquetting Ÿ To demonstrate innovative scientific processing of cotton seed for oil extraction and value addition to its by-

products The present work, addresses some of the above mentioned weak/missing links to increase the efficiency and economic competitiveness of cotton cultivation, processing and value addition. Best management practices encompassing INM and IPM modules were adopted to raise crop in three locations, namely, Nagpur, Coimbatore and Sirsa. Harvesting of contaminant free cotton was carried out by utilizing appropriate picking methods for seed cotton, on farm storage and transportation. The seed cotton was ginned and individual bales were tagged for fibre attributes and were spun. Cotton plant stalks were collected, chipped and transported to board industry for making particle boards. Edible oyster mushroom crop was raised on anaerobically pre-treated cotton stalks.

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COTTON VALUE CHAIN

Textile Value Chain

2. COTTON PRODUCTION: It is felt that an “Integrated Cultivation� approach by bringing together small holding farmers and ensuring quality inputs at competitive price would not only bring down the cost of cultivation but also result in cotton with low levels of contaminants. Similarly, drip irrigation, multi-tier cropping systems including vegetables and pulses and poly-mulching technology at the small farm level have clearly shown significant economic gains for the farmer in terms of improved seed cotton yield (2 to 3 times the conventional yield) could be achieved. Such technologies need to be demonstrated at the farmers' fields to convince growers for further large scale adoption. CICR with its expertise on production technologies executed this job in the current project and CIRCOT did the post harvest on-farm and off-farm management to produce clean seed cotton. 3. POST HARVEST MANAGEMENT Indian cottons are hand picked and ought to have been the cleanest; actually it is not so, due to improper handling of seed cotton, poor on-farm and off-farm management and contamination during storage and transport. It can improve if practices like proper on-farm storage of seed cotton, avoidance of any other fibre material which can work as contaminant for use during storage can be implemented. Also grading of kapas in terms of moisture and fibre attributes are issues that deserve special attention. In this project, cotton picking was carried out under the supervision of CIRCOT. Farmers were trained in the use of simple practices such as use of head gear (scarf ), use of cotton cloth bags for collecting kapas in the field, emptying these bags only on the thick plastic sheets away from the edges filling kapas in big cotton cloth bags, etc. After CIRCOT worked with farmers in Coimbatore, Nagpur and Sirsa it resulted in reduced contamination by 3.5g in 1200kg lint. 4. GINNING AND QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF BALES Ginning is one of the most crucial links in the value chain that decides the lint quality. CIRCOT with its expertise in ginning and quality characterization had provided this crucial input to the present project. CIRCOT in selected ginning factories at Coimbatore, Nagpur and Sirsa, accompanied pre-cleaning and post-cleaning with ginning. This reduced trash and contamination in the lint (~1%). 5. PRODUCTION FROM RAW MATERIAL TO MARKETING 5.1 Yarn production Bales were segregated according to the fibre parameters like, MIC, 2.5% Span length, Uniformity etc. Different groups of bales were made according to the MIC value. Accordingly 30s & 80s count yarn was spun and converted in to the fabric. The yarn made from the segregated

July - September 2012

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COTTON VALUE CHAIN bales was tested for its physical & mechanical properties. 5.2 Bio-Scouring of Yarn and fabric making The spinning industry in the country is one of the most modern and vibrant links in the value chain. Equally export worthy are the knitted fabrics and garment produced from the country, albeit their low unit value realization. What is bothering is the “not so strong� finishing link, particularly, with its chemical utilization and discharge of effluents. The preparatory processes in the chemical chain such as scouring and bleaching are energy intensive and add to the pollution load. CIRCOT's bio-scouring technology would bring in the much desired benefits in terms of saving in energy and reduction in effluent load. Also application of natural dye in place of eco-unfriendly synthetic dyes would also bring in not only environmental benefit but also provide the right kind of raw material to the handloom sector (employment to personnel below poverty line). 6. UTILIZATION OF COTTON PLANT STALKS After harvesting of kapas, cotton stalks left in the fields of the farmers associated with the project was collected and chipped under CIRCOT's supervision. The chipped stalks were transported to the particle board making factory for board making. This results in an additional income for the farmers. 7. UTILIZATION OF COTTON SEED Cottonseed is not grown exclusively for oil but is available as a by-product of cotton and was once considered to be a feed for animals. Earlier, cottonseed was being processed to recover oil and the cake, what remained after oil extraction was used as animal feed. During the last few decades, cottonseed is being processed scientifically to get oil, meal, hulls and linters. 7.1 Delinting of seeds & separation to Hull and Kernel and Oil extraction Crushing ginned seeds not only leads to loss of linter which is a good industrial raw material but also oil extracted is about 10-12% of seed weight. If delinting is done linters of about 3-5% of seed weight becomes available for industrial application. If hulls and kernel are separated from delinted seed then hull can be use as a part of cattle feed and when kernel is crushed to extract oil we get 4-6 % extra oil as compared to that obtained by crushing of ginned

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Textile Value Chain seeds. Thus we are getting more oil and more industrial material and kernel cake can be used for cattle feed or for extracting edible protein. 7.2 Enzymatic treatment and Delinting When batches of cottonseeds were treated with microbial consortium and passed through delinting machine, the results clearly indicated lower lint content and trash in the treated lot as compared to the control (untreated batch). This is due to the softening of the cell wall structure making the fibres extracted easily and hence less energy is consumed. 7.3 Enzymatic pre-treatment of kernels and oil extraction It was observed that when kernels were pre-treated using 0.1% cellulose and 0.2% papain, it gave a slightly higher yield of oil than the control (untreated kernel). Trials were undertaken for the extraction of oil from enzymatically pre-treated kernel however they have not been satisfactory. Few more trials are required to come to a conclusion about enhancement of oil extraction by using enzymatic treatment to the cotton seed kernel. 7.4 Bio-enrichment of Hulls & cattle feed trial The delinted seeds were processed to separate hull and kernel. CIRCOT's microbial consortium was used to enrich cottonseed hulls for protein with increased digestibility by solid state fermentation. The feed efficacy of bio-enriched hulls as cattle feed was evaluated by undertaking feeding trials on cross-bread cows at National Dairy Development Board (NDDB), Anand. There haven't been conclusive results. CONCLUSION By employing CIRCOT technology industry can benefit at all levels. If appropriate on-farm and offfarm management practices are used, trash and contamination at every level can be reduced. This will enhance the quality of the raw material and thus the end product. By value addition to by-products there can be less wastage, more employment and money and eco-friendly textiles can be prepared. For the complete article with in-depth comparison and analysis, please visit our website: www.textilevaluechain.com and click on Cotton Value Chain.

July - September 2012


COTTON GINNING G-A STAR RATIN MERIT FIGURE OF RIES FOR GINNE Mr. S.Ulaganathan, Director (EPQA) & Dr. K.R.K.Iyer, Consultant, Textiles Committee, Mumbai

COTTON SCENARIO IN INDIA Amongst all the cotton growing countries of the world, India ranks number one in area under cotton cultivation spreading out to over 10 million hectares. Although only second in cotton production, India has several distinctions to its credit. India is the only country in the world that grows on a commercial scale all four cultivated species of cotton viz. Gossypium Arboreum, Gossypium Herbacium, Gossypium Hirsutum and Gossypium Barbedense. Today, there are hundreds of improved varieties and hybrids belonging to the above four species being grown in different parts of the country. India is also the first to cultivate hybrid cotton on a commercial scale and can take pride in being the only country that grows the complete range of staples from short and coarse un-spinnable Assam Comillas to the extra long superfine cotton 'Suvin', which in fibre quality matches, with Giza 45 of Egypt and spins 120s count. The ginning outturn of cotton also presents a wide spectrum of variation from 24% to 42%.

In crop duration, there are varieties in India that complete their life cycle in about 145 days while some others take as long as 270 days. The period of growth of cotton is also widely variable from region to region and is planted and processed in one part of the country or another throughout the year.

July - September 2012

Textile Value Chain The cotton production in the country rose from 23 lakh bales during 1947-48 to 295 lakh bales during 2009-10. The cotton production in 2010-11 is estimated to be 325 lakh bales. From being an importer of cotton during pre-independence years, India has not only become self-sufficient but has turned into an exporter of cotton. India is the second largest producer of cotton yarn contributing nearly 20% to global cotton yarn trade . PROBLEMS IN COTTON CULTIVATION Though India today is the second largest producer of cotton in the world, in productivity it is placed below most of the major cotton growing countries. Excessive reliance on rain, inadequate availability of quality seeds, high incidence of bollworm and sucking pests, ineffective transfer of technology to farms, fragmented land holding and illiteracy of farmers have been the main factors contributing to low productivity. Though the evolution of new and high yielding varieties and hybrids through breeding research has helped in improving productivity, it has led to mixing of varieties at the farm, market yards and ginneries impairing the consistency of cotton quality. GINNING SCENARIO IN INDIA The purpose of ginning is to separate cotton fibres from the seeds. Ginning process is the most important mechanical treatment that cotton undergoes before it is converted into yarns and fabrics. Any damage caused to the quality of fibres during ginning cannot be rectified later in the spinning or subsequent processes. At the same time, any quality improvement at raw material stage goes a long way in the process improvement of the entire supply chain as well as in the overall quality improvement of the final product. Till recently, the ginning industry in India presented a dismal picture. In the years before 2000, Indian ginneries were in a primitive condition where the ginning and bale press machines were manufactured between 1895 and 1920 and were running with poor standard of efficiency. Many factories performed only ginning operations and their installed capacity as low as 6-12 double roller gins. PROBLEMS IN COTTON GINNING Over the years, comparisons have often been made

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COTTON GINNING

Textile Value Chain

between ginning practices in India and abroad and the differences observed in the quality of ginned lint, particularly in terms of trash content and presence of contaminants. In countries like USA, Australia, Uzbekistan etc, the seed cotton which is machine picked and which arrives at the ginning factories with trash content in excess of 25%, leaves the ginning factories in the form of pressed bales with less than 2% trash. Even in African countries like Uganda, Tanzania, Egypt, etc where the cotton is hand-picked like in India, trash content in bales is comparable with that of US cotton because of good house keeping and the use of pre- and post-cleaning machines in their ginning system. In India, the hand-picked seed cotton, which arrives in ginning factories with substantially less trash than the machine-picked American or Australian cotton, leaves the factory with higher trash than in these countries. Excessive quantities of foreign matter due to improper picking and ginning practices had earned notoriety for the Indian cotton as the most unclean cotton in the world. Ginning factories contribution to contamination is quite significant. Modernization through technology upgrade and infrastructure improvement along with good work practices was the answer to the problems in cotton cultivation and ginning. GOV’T. INITIATIVES – TMC & TUFS CIRCOT had conducted the first ever survey on the status of the ginning industry in India and had published its report as early as in 1958. In later years, CIRCOT carried out surveys of ginning industry in some states in collaboration with ATIRA and SITRA. All such surveys had revealed the deplorable state of the Indian ginning industry and had underscored the urgent need for its modernization. Based on the results of the above surveys and recognizing the importance of cotton crop, Govt. of India launched the Technology Mission on Cotton (TMC) in February 2000. The focus of TMC was on cotton research, transfer of technology to farms and modernization of market yards and ginneries. The TMC had four component Mini Missions as follows:

Mini Mission Mini Mission I

Trust Area

Cotton research and technology Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR) generation

Mini Mission II Transfer of technology Mini Mission III

Development of market infrastructure

Modernization / Up gradation of Mini Mission IV ginning and pressing factories The target for modernization of ginneries under TMC was 1000 and by the time the scheme came to a close in December, 2010 about 850 Ginning and Pressing (G & P) units were modernized or newly set up. Under TMC, modernized or newly set up factories conforming to TMC norms were given financial support in the form of one-time subsidy as follows: 1. 25% of the costs for general items of machinery and civil infrastructure subject to a max of Rs. 20 lakhs in case of a large factory and Rs. 15 lakhs in case of a small factory. 2. 25% of the costs for installing new automatic bale press subject to a max of Rs. 7 lakhs. 3. 25% of the costs for purchasing HVI/ MVI

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Financial outlay(Rs)

Nodal agency

Dept of Agriculture and Co-op, Min. of Agriculture

700 Crores

Ministry of Textiles 498 Crores Ministry of Textiles machine for fibre quality testing subject to a max of Rs. 4 lakhs. Almost simultaneous with TMC, the Ministry of Textiles launched another initiative called Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme (TUFS) under which interest subsidy of 5% is admissible to textile manufacturing units including G and P factories for modernization as well as for the setting up of new units. This scheme is continuing even today and a few hundred ginneries have so far availed of interest subsidy benefit. MODERNIZATION UNDER TMC The various components of modernization under TMC are broadly grouped under four categories:

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COTTON GINNING a) b) c) d) e) f)

Ginning machine Pre-cleaner Lint cleaner Kapas conveyor Seed conveyor Weigh bridge

a) b) c)

Kapas platform Lint halls (pala halls) Seed storage space

a) b) c) d) e)

Quality awareness boards Headgear/ uniform Training of gin fitters Disposal of rubbish Gummed boards

a) b) c) d)

HVI/ MVI Generator Laboratory model gin GP balance

Textile Value Chain I) Essential machines g) Lint conveyor system h) Bale press I) Humidifiers/ Moisturizers j) Fire fighting system k) Underground wiring ii) Essential infrastructure d) Bale storage space e) CC road f) Boundary wall/ fencing iii) Essential conditions f) Variety-wise/ grade-wise heaping g) Covering of cotton as it arrives h) Bale packaging I) Gin / press fitters, 2 in each shift iv) Desirable machines e) Moisture meter f) Workshop machines g) Roller grooving machine h) Cotton pod opener

R AT I N G O F G I N N I N G & P R E S S I N G FACTORIES As the effects of modernization started becoming visible in cotton quality in the early years of TMC, the user mills were eager to know more about the technical merits of modernized G and P factories and wanted to identify the superior ones among the modernized units. The elite ginning factories expected some kind of recognition for the quality of equipment, civil infrastructure and management practices as well as process conditions adopted by them to deliver clean cotton bales. Rating of the G and P factories was the only answer to the needs of the textile industry in general and of G and P factories in particular. Accordingly, a methodology for star rating of modernized ginneries was developed by TMC and this was bequeathed to the Textiles Committee (TC) for implementation in February 2009. Under the rating methodology, fine-tuned by TC, star ratings are awarded to ginneries on the basis of quality of infrastructure set up in the factory, management practices and the quality of ginned cotton. The star rating scheme undertaken by TC is of a unique kind in so far as rating ginneries is not practiced anywhere else in the world.

July - September 2012

WHAT IS RATING? Rating is the process of placing modernized G and P units into classes based on the quality of infrastructure, comprising (i) machinery, (ii) civil structural items and (iii) the management practices and (iv) the contamination level of ginned cotton. Since the quality of cotton processed in a ginnery will greatly depend on the excellence of its infrastructure, the rating assigned to a unit will be a performance indicator that will be of concern and interest to both the cotton trade and textile mills alike. OBJECTIVES OF RATING Star rating of ginneries intends to achieve objectives like (i) accord recognition to the quality of infrastructure in ginneries, encourage modernization of more ginning units (ii) promote quality culture among ginners through good management practices (iii) improve the quality of baled cotton (iv) create a brand for clean cotton (v) justify a higher price tag for quality cotton and (vi) indirectly promote better price realization by farmers. RATING METHODOLOGY The star rating scheme specifies various conditions such as (i) minimum eligibility criteria (ii) essential

13


COTTON GINNING parameters, (iii) minimum marks for each rating (iv) additional fulfilling requirements for 4 star and 5 star ratings and (v) analysis of contamination level in ginned cotton. G and P factories seeking star rating have to fulfill the minimum eligibility requirements. As per the rules of rating scheme, an on-site assessment will be carried out by a team of experts. During on-site assessment, 21 infrastructural components comprising machinery and civil structures are assigned marks ranging from 1 to 5 depending on their technical merits. Weight representing the degree of importance in controlling trash and contamination has also been assigned to each of these 21 components. The mark assigned multiplied by the weight factor would give the weight mark for each component. Similar marking scheme is also prescribed for the 13 management parameters including contamination level in ginned cotton. A maximum of 200 marks are assigned for infrastructural parameters and a maximum of 175 marks are assigned for management parameters. Rating is awarded in five classes, viz. 'TC-Single Star' to 'TC-Five Star,' based on Ÿ Percentage of marks scored in infrastructural parameters Ÿ Percentage of marks scored in management parameters Ÿ Fulfillment of criteria for essential parameters Ÿ Fulfillment of criteria for additional fulfilling requirements (for 4 Star and 5 Star only). RATING LOGO & CERTIFICATE TC has developed a logo for rating through NID, Ahmedabad. The logo will be registered as a trade mark under Trade Marks Act and will be promoted as a brand for clean cotton. G and P factories, on successful completion of assessment, will be awarded a 'Certificate of Rating'. Information on the rating assigned to G and P factories will also be placed on the TC's website for the information of textile mills and cotton trade. The factories that do not qualify for any rating as per the rating criteria will be given 'Provisional Rated Status' for one year. The provisional rated factories are expected to make necessary improvements and seek reassessment for rating within one year.

14

Textile Value Chain VALIDITY AND STATUS OF RATING Rating once assigned to a G and P factory is valid for a period of three years with compulsory annual visits from assessment teams. The response from the G and P factories to the star-rating scheme is overwhelming. The user industries, spinning mills, have also welcomed the initiatives of the Govt. of India and are look forward to reaping the benefits of the rating scheme. So far, 510 applications have been received for assessment till 22.02.2011. The assessment status of G and P factories is as follows: Assessment Status No. of applications received till 31.12.2011 673 No. of Factories rated

479

Rating Status (Assessed during last cotton season) “Five-Star” rated factories

5

“Four-Star” rated factories

22

“Three-Star” rated factories

63

“Two-Star” rated factories

198

“Single-Star” rated factories

52

Total no. of units rated

340

No. of units under Provisional Rated Status 139

TOTAL 479

BENEFITS FROM RATING The star rating scheme is set to bring benefit to different sections of stake holders in cotton production and utilization. Some of the benefits are discussed below. (I) Benefit to Mills The information on website about star ratings of Ginning and Pressing units will help mills in selecting the appropriate ginnery while sourcing their cotton. The mills which are inclined to undertake their own ginning can choose the factories of desired rating. (ii) Benefit to the Ginneries For the ginner who is also a cotton trader, the rating will serve as an effective marketing tool. Higher premium could be demanded for cotton processed in ginneries with superior star rating. A high star rating will indeed boost the credibility of the factory both in domestic and overseas markets. A ginner carrying out job work can demand higher rates depending on the

July - September 2012


COTTON GINNING

Textile Value Chain

rating secured by the factory. The rating will help the factories to know their present quality status and examine whether scope exists for further improvement in the infrastructure. The rating will also help G and P factories in securing working capital and loans from financial institutions. (iii) Benefit to Cotton Traders Since the quality of baled cotton is bound to depend on the star rating of the factory, traders will find it easy to choose the ginnery for processing cotton to the level of quality demanded by each mill. (iv) Benefit to Government of India Modernization of ginneries and the resulting quality upgrade of Indian cotton have favoured unprecedented rise in cotton exports (more than tenfold in a decade). Periodic assessment and rating will generate a spirit of competition amongst the G and P factories whereby the Govt's objective of sustained

improvement in ginning infrastructure in the country may be fully realized. LOOKING FORWARD The rating scheme discussed above is the first of its kind ever used for classifying ginneries not only in India but the world over. The day is not far when buyers of cotton bales in India and abroad would start specifying the star rating of the ginnery in which they would like their cotton to be ginned. Being processed in a star rated ginnery will enhance the brand value of cotton bales and promote their sale in domestic and overseas markets. The quality upgrade made at the raw material stage adds new dimension to the overall improvement of the quality at various stages in the entire supply chain of the cotton industry. Textiles Committee could then take pride in having refurbished the image of the Indian cotton.

Cotton Bales: Manufacturer & Exporter of Raw Cotton Bales, Asha Cotton Industries. Our Cotton Ginning Pressing Factory Located at Mahuva, Gujarat, India.

Office Address : Asha Cotton Industries,Vasi Talao Gate, Mahuva 364290 Dist. Bhavnagar, Gujarat, INDIA. Factory Address : Asha Cotton Industries, Mahuva-Bhavnagar Road, Vadli-Mahuva 364 290 Dist. Bhavnagar, Gujarat, INDIA. Tel : +91-2844-223258, +91-2844-247600, +91-2844-224220 | Fax : +91-2844-223258 E-mail : info@cottonasha.com | Website : www.cottonasha.com, www.cotton-asha.com 15 July - September 2012

ADVT.

Asha Cotton Industries is TMC (Technical Mission on Cotton, Approved by Textile ministry of India- Govt. of. India) approved Ginning Pressing Company. The Company is founded by our Chairmen Dr.B.T.Valia in 1998; we engaged in manufacturing and export of best quality cotton bales, cotton seeds, cotton cake, Peanuts and Sesame Seeds in all principal word market and to the end users in the major word market. We are professionally managed company having large network and infrastructure in home as well as abroad, company is equipped with state-of-art infrastructure backed by large and fully automatic plant for cotton to cotton bales.


ECO FIBRE

Textile Value Chain

BAMBOO A GREEN FIBRE

Bhawana Rawat, Assistant Professor, NIFT, Mumbai Bamboo fibre is a cellulose fibre which is extracted from naturally grown bamboo and is the fifth-largest natural fibre after cotton, linen, wool and silk. Bamboo fibre not only has good air permeability, water absorption, strong wear-resistance and good dyeing and other features, but also has natural antibacterial, antimicrobial, mites, anti-odor and anti-ultraviolet. Bamboo fibre is a natural, environment friendly green fibre. HISTORY OF BAMBOO FIBRE The use of bamboo goes back a long time. In fact, bamboo has been considered to be a symbol of good fortune in Asian cultures for over 4,000 years. Historically in Asia, bamboo was used for the handmade production of paper. Bamboo has traditionally been used in China to make musical instruments, drinking cups, buckets, fishing rods, walls and structural posts, wicker furniture, rafts, carpets and even phonograph needles. Many of these bamboo components are still being used today.

EXTRACTION OF BAMBOO FIBRE Two types of processing are done to obtain bamboo fibres- Mechanical Processing and Chemical Processing. In both the processes, the raw bamboo has to be split to get bamboo strips. After that, bamboo fibre is extracted either through chemical or mechanical processing. 타Chemical Processing: It is basically a hydrolysis alkalization process. The crushed bamboo is "cooked" with the help of Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) which is also known as caustic soda or lye into a form of regenerated cellulose fibre. Hydrolysis alkalization is then done through carbon disulfide combined with multi-phase bleaching. Although chemical processing is not environmental friendly but it is preferred by many manufacturers as it is a less time consuming process. 타Mechanical Processing: In this method, the crushed bamboo is treated with biological enzymes. This breaks the bamboo into a mushy mass and individual fibres are then combed out. Although expensive, this process is eco-friendly. BAMBOO PRODUCTION FLOW CHART ---bamboo tree ---cutting into bamboo sheet ---(hydrolyzing --- stewing --- bleaching) ---pulp ---(saturate) ---cellulose ---(dissolving---spinning---cutting) ---after treatment (washing---oil adding---drying) ---bamboo fibre ---packing

Bamboo Production Flow

Bamboo

16

Bamboo sheets

Refined Bamboo pulp

Bamboo Cellulose

July - September 2012


ECO FIBRE

Textile Value Chain

PROPERTIES OF BAMBOO FIBRE 1. Strong durability, stability & tenacity 2. Round and smooth surface 3. Anti-bacterial 4.Excellent wet permeability, moisture vapour transmission property 5.Softer than cotton 6. Moisture absorbency is twice than that of cotton with extraordinary soil release value 7. Anti-ultraviolet 8. Products of bamboo fibre are eco-friendly and bio-degradable. Use of bamboo as plant Use of bamboo as material Ornamental horticulture Ecology Stabilize of the soil Uses on marginal land Hedges and screens Minimal land use Agro-forestry Natural stands Plantations Mixed agro-forestry systemsa

Local industries Artisanat Furniture A variety of utensils Houses Wood and paper industries Strand boards Medium density fiberboard Laminated lumber Paper and rayon Parquet Nutritional industries Young shoots for human consumption Mixed agro-forestry systems Fodder Chemical industries Biochemical products Pharmaceutical industry Energy Charcoal Pyrolysis Gasification

Various uses of bamboo [Gielis 2002] END USE OF BAMBOO FIBRE Currently the main uses of bamboo products are: 1. Bedding series: Mattresses, pillows, bedspreads, sheets, etc. 2.Fashion series: Knitting, weaving high-grade fabrics, underwear, vest, socks, towels and other clothing. Its anti-ultraviolet nature is suitable to make summer clothing more suitable for elderly, infants and pregnant women.

July - September 2012

Bamboo fibre

3. Medical and Mine protection: Use as absorption fibre, conductive and anti-static radiation function. More suitable for protective clothing for on-site work clothes in medical, mining, oil and gas operations. 4. Military Space: Bamboo viscose fibre is used in missile, rocket launchers and other operator protective clothing. 5. Transportation and Tourism: Bamboo viscose fibre is suitable for cars, boats, transport aircraft seat fabrics and interior products, also suitable for hotels, halls and other decorative items. FUTURE SCOPE OF BAMBOO FIBRE Bamboo fabric is not only popular for its softness and versatility, but also for its environmental friendly quality. Bamboo fibre requires very less chemical and water for production and processing. The pulp is bleached without using chlorine. This is more environmental friendly than the way other textiles are made. The bamboo pulp is also very easy to dye and it takes less water and harsh chemicals than conventional dyeing methods. There are also great environmental values to bamboo fabric. From being a completely renewable resource to being easy to process, bamboo fabric is an ecologically friendly choice for the future. It's cool in summer, warm in winter, is antibacterial and is as soft and luxurious as cashmere. And best of all, it's sustainable. References: Ÿhttp://www.bambooindustry.com Ÿhttp://www.bambooandtikis.com/bamboohistory Ÿh t t p : / / w w w. t e o n l i n e . c o m / k n o w l e d g e centre/bamboo-fibre.html Ÿhttp://www.abtexintl.net Ÿhttp://resources.alibaba.com Ÿhttp://www.bamboogrove.com

17


YARN Ratan Glitter Industries Limited Ratan Glitter Industries Limited is a 35 year old organization managed by a highly experienced team. We are the pioneer in the metallic yarn industry in India, having been one of the first companies to export metallic yarns. We have one of the world's latest Metalizing Plant that metalizes Pure Silver on Polyester Film. Our Specialized Pure Silver Metalized Yarn can be used to weave with materials such as Denim Fabric, Cotton Fabric, Pure Silk Fabric & Woolen Fabrics etc. It can be washed with Heavy Detergent Caustic Soda

Textile Value Chain and other processing chemicals used for Dyeing, Finishing of linen, Cotton, Pure Silk, Denim and Woolen Fabrics. The Pure Silver Metallic Yarn can also be used for different types of Embroidery and special effects. The threads come in different structure, thickness, colors and a combination of materials allowing Designers and Embroidery specialists to create an unique and outstanding look to the Fabric. The Pure Silver yarn effectively enhances the details and embellishes your products giving it added glamour and zing. Some of the leading Indian mills and some companies' overseas already use our products. Quality assured since we use the latest Japanese Technology thus ensuring the best quality, color and pin hole free products. The products are capable of running on high speed weaving, knitting and embroidery machines. It can also be used in hand embroidery.

METALLIC YARN Along with Pure Silver Metallic Yarn, we also produced ST and Zebra Type Yarns in fluorescent, rainbow and several other colours. These are highly used in computerized embroidery machines, circular knitting and weaving machines.

SPECIALIZED PURE SILVER METALLIC YARN For the first time in India, 3 different Types of Pure Silver Metallic Yarn has been Developed to be used in weaving with the following materials :

Denim Pure Silk Linen and Cotton with Lurex Metallic Yarn with Lurex Metallic Yarn with Lurex Metallic Yarn The Pure Silver coating, effectively enhances the These yarns can be industrially washed using details and embellishes the final products giving to chlorine, bleaching agents, heavy duty detergents glamour and zing. All of them are available in various containing chlorine or peroxide as used in industrial colours and the finished material can be dyed in any washing. This yarn is suitable for suitable for sewing color without affecting the metallic yarn. and weaving. 18

July - September 2012


Ratan Glitter Industries Limited METALLIC YARN Along with Pure Silver Metallic Yarn, we also produce ST and Zebra Type Yarns in fluorescent, rainbow and several other colours. These are highly used in computerized embroidery machines, circular knitting and weaving machines.

PURE SILVER M TYPE YARN Pure Silver M Type Metallic Yarn produced in 12 micron and 24 micron in different cuts of 1/69, 1/85, 1/100. These are capable of running on high speed weaving, knitting and circular knitting machines. Also, it is used for making ST Yarn in Cotton, Polyester and Viscose.

PURE SILVER ST YARN Polyester Metallized Pure Silver Yarn are highly used on Schiffli embroidery machines, computerized embroidery machines and in hand embroideries. It is widely used for tapestry and made-ups.

PURE SILVER MX YARN Pure Silver MX Type Metallic Yarn produced in 12 micron and 24 micron in different cuts of 1/69, 1/85, 1/100. The core yarn is in Polyester or Nylon. These yarns are capable of running on high speed weaving, knitting and circular knitting machines.

Pure Silver fabrics made from Pure Silver Metallic Yarn are highly used in clothes and for decorative purpose in: Gift Articles, Home Furnishings & accessories such as hand bags and various other products.

Gala Woodwork compound, opp. B.D.D. Chawl No. 114, Worli, Mumbai-400013, India. Tel: (+91-22) 24966002/4/6; Fax: (+91-22) 24962002; email: ratanglitter@gmail.com website: www.ratanglitter.com contact person: Mr. Mahendra Yadav : +91 9004661657

ADVT.

PURE SILVER FABRICS


Textile Value Chain

FABRIC on Cloth Producti in India sis A Sector Analy Prof. N.S. Kazi, MA (Economics), Former Sasmira Co-ordinator of Merchandising Programme

INTRODUCTION Textile industry is one of the oldest & largest industries in India. Apart from providing one of the basic necessities of life, the industry also plays a pivotal role through its contribution to industrial output, employment generation & export earnings. It contributes about 14% to industrial production, 4%

Items Spindles Rotors Looms (organised Sector) Power Room Man-Made Fibre Man-Made Filament

Units Million Nos. Lakh No. Lakh No. Lakh No. Million kg Million kg

to GDP and 17% to export earnings. It provides direct employment to over 35 million people, the second largest provider of employment after agriculture. Thus, the growth & all-round development of this industry has a direct bearing on the improvement of the economy of the nation. The Indian textile industry is extremely varied with the hand spun & hand woven sectors at one end of the spectrum & the capital intensive sophisticated mill sector at the other. The industry consists of organised as well as unorganised sectors like power loom, handloom, and hosiery. This provides the industry with the capacity to provide a large variety of products suitable to the different segments of the market both within the country & outside the country. INSTALLED CAPACITY The installed capacity in terms of spindles, looms and fibre and filament production can be seen as below: 2001-02 2010-11 CAGR % 38.33 38.33 1.3 4.8 7.07 4.4 1.41 0.57 -9.57 16.66 22.61 3.45 1090 1763.1 5.49 1135 2188.2 7.57

As seen in the table, the number of spindles increased from 38.33 million in 2001-02 to 43.06 million in 201011. The CAGR is 1.3%. The number of rotors increased from 4.8 lakh to 7.09 lakh. The number of looms in the organised sector decreased from 1.41 lakh in 2001-02 to 0.57 lakh in 2010-11. This may be due to the closure of number of composite mills in the country. However, the number of looms in the unorganised sector increased from 16.66 lakh to 22.61 lakh during the same period. The installed capacity for man-made fibre has increased from 1090 million kg in 2001-02 to 1763.1 million kg in 2010-11. The CAGR is 5.49% and the installed capacity for man-made filament has gone up from 1135 million kg to 2188.2 million kg with 7.57% CAGR. NUMBER OF SPINNING & WEAVING MILLS The number of spinning & weaving mills during the last one decade can be seen as below:

Description Spinning Unit (Non Small Scale Industry) Composite Units Exclusive Weaving Units (Non Small Scale Industry) Spinning Units (Small Scale Industry) Power Loom (Lakhs) Hand Loom (Lakhs)

2001-02 1579 281 207 1046 16.66 38.91

2010-11 1713 183 183 1299 22.61 23.77

CAGR % 0.64 -4.66 -1.36 2.44 3.45 -5.33

It can be seen from the above that the number of spinning units both (non SSI) as well as SSI show increasing trends. Composite mill numbers have declined from 281 in 2001-02 & 183 in 2010-11, a decline by 4.66%. The numbers of powerlooms have gone up from 16.66 lakh & 22.61 lakh with CAGR of 3.45% while in case of handlooms the numbers have declined from 38.91 lakh in 2001-02 & 23.77 lakh in 2010-11, a decline by 5.33%.

20

July - September 2012


PRODUCTION ANALYSIS

Textile Value Chain

Thus, the organised mill sector shows a declining trend while the unorganised powerloom sector shows an increasing trend. TRENDS IN FIBRE & YARN PRODUCTION* It can be seen from the below analysis, that there is all-round improvement in the production of man-made fibres as well as yarn. Description 2001-02 2010-11 CAGR % Man-Made Fibres 5.38 834 1268 Man-Made Filament Yarn 1522 5.90 962 Total Spun Yarn 3101 4193 3.84 3079 (a) Cotton 2212 4.22 889 1114 (b) Blended and Non-cotton 2.86 SECTOR-WISE CLOTH PRODUCTION* The sector-wise cloth production over the period can be seen from the following table: Sector 2001-02 2009-10 Mill Sector 1546 2016 6806 Hand Loom 7585 Power Loom 36997 25192 13702 Hosiery 7067 Khadi & Wool & Silk 714 812 41390 60333 Total Cloth Production It can be seen that the total cloth production registered an increase of 4.51% during 2001-02 to 2009-10. The highest growth rate is in the hosiery sector (8.63%) followed by powerloom sector (4.92%), mill sector (3.37%) & khadi & wool & silk (3.22%). Handloom sector witnessed a marginal decline in the cloth production from 7,585 million sq. mtr. in 2001 to 6,806 million sq. mtr. in 2010. SECTORAL COMPOSITION IN CLOTH PRODUCTION The composition can be seen as below:

Contribution (%)

It can be seen that the organised sector (mill Sector) contributes only 3.34% of fabric production & the remaining 96.66% fabric is being produced by the unorganised sector. Powerloom sector contributes maximum fabric production at 61.32%,

July - September 2012

In Million kgs

CAGR % 3.37 -1.35 4.92 8.63 3.22 4.51 In Million Sq. Mtr.

followed by hosiery sector at 22.71% and handloom sector at 11.28%. COTTON/ BLENDED/ NON-COTTON CLOTH PRODUCTION* The production can be seen as below:

Fibre Cotton Blended Non-cotton Total

2004-05 20655 (46.23) 6032 (13.49) 17998 (40.28) 44685 (100)

2010-11 31742 (51.43) 8278 (13.41) 21710 (35.16) 61730 (100)

(*In Million Sq. Mtr. Figures in brackets represent percentage to total)

It can be seen that the total cloth production which was 44,685 million sq mtr. in 2004-05 increased to 61730 million sq mtr. in 2010-11. Cotton cloth production which was 20,655 million increased to 31742 million sq mtr. Its percentage share increased from 46.23 to 51.43%. Blended cloth production increased from 6032 million sq mtr. to 8278 million sq mtr. Its percentage share has remained at 13%. In the case of non cotton cloth production, it has increased from 17998 million sq. mtr. to 21710 million sq. mtr. but its percentage share has decreased from 40.28 to 35.16.

21


PRODUCTION ANALYSIS

Textile Value Chain However the share of non cotton has declined from 58% to 53% & that of cotton has increased from 26% to 31%. CLOTH PRODUCTION BY HANDLOOM SECTOR* The cloth production can be seen as below:

CLOTH PRODUCTION BY MILL SECTOR* The cloth production by mill sector & the composition of cotton, blended & non cotton cloth can be seen as below. Fibre 2004-05 2010-11 Cotton 1604 (72.75) 1072 (70.25) Blended 243 (15.93) 526 (23.85) Non-cotton 211 (13.82) 75 (3.40) Total 2205 (100) 1526 (100)

Fibre Cotton Blended Non-cotton Total

(*In Million Sq. Mtr. Figures in brackets represent percentage to total)

It can be seen that cotton cloth production by mill sector has increased from 1,072 to 1,605. Its share has increased from 70.25% to 72.75%. In the case of blended cloth, the production increased from 243 million sq. mtr. to 526 million sq. mtr., its share has gone up from 15.93% to 23.85%. However, non cotton cloth production by mill sector has decreased from 211 to 75 million sq. mtr. and its percentage share has come down from 13.82% to 3.40%. CLOTH PRODUCTION BY POWERLOOM SECTOR* The cloth production can be seen as below:

Fibre Cotton Blended Non-cotton Total

2004-05 7361 (25.98) 4526 (15.97) 16438 (58.05) 28325 (100)

It can be seen from the table that handloom sector produces cotton cloth 86.61% while the share of noncotton cloth is 11.34% & that of blended cloth only 2.05%. CLOTH PRODUCTION BY HOSIER Y SECTOR* The cloth production can be seen as below:

Fibre Cotton Blended Non-cotton Total

2010-11 11852 (31.25) 5853 (15.43) 20224 (53.32) 37929 (100)

2004-05 7430 (81.54) 1117 (12.26) 565 (6.20) 9112 (100)

2010-11 12270 (83.78) 1756 (11.99) 620 (4.23) 14646 (100)

(*In Million Sq. Mtr. Figures in brackets represent percentage to total)

It can be seen from the table that hosiery sector mainly produces cotton cloth accounting for 83.78% followed blended cloth (11.99%) & NC cloth (4.23%). FIBRE-WISE / SECTOR-WISE COMPARISON A comparison of difference sectors in fibre-wise cloth production over the period can be seen as below in percentage terms.

It can be seen from the above that powerloom sector produces maximum non-cotton cloth accounting for 53.32% in production. It is followed by cotton cloth (31.25%) & Blended cloth (15.43%).

Mill

2010-11 6016 (86.61) 143 (2.05) 790 (11.34) 6949 (100)

(*In Million Sq. Mtr. Figures in brackets represent percentage to total)

(*In Million Sq. Mtr. Figures in brackets represent percentage to total)

Fibre

2004-05 4792 (83.75) 146 (2.55) 784 (13.70) 5722 (100)

Power Loom

Hand Loom

Hosiery

2004-05

2010-11

2004-05

2010-11

2004-05

2010-11

2004-05

2010-11

Cotton

70.25

72.75

25.98

31.25

83.75

86.61

81.54

83.7800

Blended

5.93

23.85

15.97

15.43

2.55

2.05

12.26

11.99

Non-Cotton

13.82

3.40

58.05

53.32

13.70

11.34

6.20

4.23

Total

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

It can be seen that mill, handloom and hosiery sectors mainly produce cotton cloth while powerloom sector mainly produces non-cotton cloth. In all the four sectors, there is an increasing trend of cotton cloth production and decreasing trend of non-cotton cloth production. It indicates that the production of cloth by different sectors have greater similarities than differences even though the end product made from the cloth may differ widely. Thus, the cloth production trend of de-centralised sector reflects the production pattern of the organised sector. Reference : Textile Committee

22

July - September 2012


LIFE CYCLE

Textile Value Chain

LIFE CYCLE F ANALYSIS O TEXTILES C.N.Sivaramakrishnan, Bsc Tech, C Col FSDC (Chartered Colourist)

Environmental issues are increasingly playing an important role in the textile industry, both from the point of view of govt regulations and consumer expectations. All products and services have certain life cycles. A life cycle refers to the period from the product's raw material phase through to finished product's first launch into the market until its final withdrawal. Although textile sector is one of the biggest consumer intensive sector, recycling and reclamation practices are not given much importance. Hence, Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) needs to be carried out. LCA explains in detail the waste potential, energy usage and environmental effects of each stage to address Green House Gas Emissions (GHG). The textile industry needs to review ways of achieving more sustainable materials and technologies as well as improving recycling. The LCA is a study with system expansion methodology, where the use stage is excluded thus providing a reliable measurement of a number of parameters related to production of harmful substances on textiles. It was developed and harmonized in the 1990s. This method is used for assessing the environmental impacts of a product from “cradle-to-grave”. A life-cycle assessment (LCA, also known as life-cycle analysis, eco-balance and cradle-tograve analysis) is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from cradle-to-grave (i.e. from raw material extraction through material processing, manufacturing, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recycling). It allows comparison of all bio geophysical effects of products and services and informing a design process to lessen negative impacts. The procedures of life cycle assessment (LCA) are part of the ISO 14000 environmental management standards: in ISO 14040:2006 and 14044:2006. (ISO

July - September 2012

14044 replaced earlier versions of ISO 14041 to ISO 14043.) LCA can help avoid a narrow outlook on environmental concerns by: Ÿ Compiling an inventory of relevant energy and material inputs and environmental releases Ÿ Evaluating the potential impacts associated with identified inputs and releases Ÿ Interpreting the results to help you make a more informed decision The goal of LCA is to compare the full range of environmental effects assignable to products and services in order to improve processes, support policy and provide a sound basis for informed decisions. There are two main types of LCA: ŸAttributional LCAs seek to establish the burdens associated with the production and use of a product, or with a specific service or process, at a point in time (typically the recent past). Ÿ Consequential LCAs seek to identify the environmental consequences of a decision or a proposed change in a system under study (oriented to the future), which means that market and economic implications of a decision may have to be taken into account. Ÿ Social LCAs is under development as a different approach to life cycle thinking intended to assess social implications or potential impacts. Social LCA should be considered as an approach that is complementary to environmental LCA. LCA Calculator: There are dedicated LCA software packages available. Software is important given the complexity of LCA studies. It is equally important to determine the software required and due to different legal frameworks in the European Union & in the US, some software features that can be used in EU may not function in other countries. LCA can evaluate the system-wide effects of product and process design options. Software development will streamline and reduce the cost of life cycle assessments in the textile industry. TEXTILE LCA DIAGRAM The following flow chart highlights that at every step from raw material to end use there is wastage and huge energy consumption. This chart represents synthetic textiles. However natural textiles doesn't vary much as only the 1st two highlighted in blue are replaced by (i) Farming & Harvesting (ii) Ginning & spinning + Knitting & weaving.

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LIFE CYCLE

Textile Value Chain Synthetic Textile LCA Diagram Courtesy: www.bsr.org

ENERGY, WASTAGE AND CONTAMINANTS To understand the environmental impact of textiles we need to examine their complete life-cycle which includes growing and processing the fibre, manufacturing the yarn and the fabric, dyeing and finishing and making the final product, maintaining the product during use and disposal or recycling. The main wastes from the dyeing process are contaminated water from dyeing, rinsing and washing baths and from dyeing chemicals. Energy is consumed when heating the dye baths and running pumps and other parts of the dyeing machinery e.g. Cold-pad batch dyeing for cotton for example impacts less on the environment than traditional methods. Cold-pad batch process uses 35% less energy, 50% water and requires fewer chemicals and produces fewer effluents. REMEDIAL METHODS By adopting cleaner production technologies & recycling techniques, energy savings can be achieved which will have direct impact on LCA. The following are some of the examples: Solar tracking mirrors on the roof to reflect light to the work floor below, exhaust fans that remove all the stale air out of the building, insulation window glazing, sunscreens of recycled materials, energy efficient lighting systems, radiant heating systems, 100% recycled polyester PET carpets, 100% recycled plastic restroom counter tops. Another example is replacing chlorinated solvents with ecofriendly solvents in scouring and stain removing formulations, resulting safer and environmentally friendly manufacturing processes. Textile processing can be automated using auto dosing systems at various stages there by minimizing chemical consumption and waste and making extensive use of process of heat recovery wherever possible. Heating, ventilation and

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air conditioning systems can be managed by computer programmed to adjust temperatures during shut downs, resulting in significant reduction in electric and gas consumption. The total environmental impact using LCA of the final consumer product as an ecological evaluation tool rests on three key elements: Sound science, life cycle assessment and product durability. Environmental considerations should begin at an early stage with the application of sound science and product development. Innovative techniques lead to controlling material content while maximizing product durability and value to the end user. This often results in improved environmental carbon foot print. The second stage is collecting ecological data on all stages of life cycle of the product beginning with the raw material through the final disposal. LCA methodology takes in to account all relevant aspects of the ecological foot print including resource and energy consumption, emission to air, water and land, health and eco systems and more. This is particularly important when comparing different product options or process changes side by side. It is also seen that recycled and renewable based materials will have a positive impact on the life cycle of textile fabrics, not compromising on quality and to provide durability. LCA is still evolving as a methodology. However, the principles behind LCA thinking are being adopted rapidly by manufacturers and service organizations alike as a way of opening new perspectives and expanding the debate over environmentally sound products and processes. The goal of LCA is not to arrive at the answer but to provide important inputs to a broader strategic planning process. Reference : “Colourage” Issue Jan – 2012

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Textile Value Chain

GARMENT QUALITY COSTS ESSENTIAL QUALITY TOOLS IN GARMENT MANUFACTURING Kalyan Roy, Assistant Professor, Textile Engineering Department, Punjab Technical University-Giani Zail Singh Campus, Bathinda, Punjab.

Quality Costs system is an extremely vital tool for quality management in a garment manufacturing unit since it establishes a systematic approach to pinpoint the failures in quality in monetary terms and, therefore, suitable corrective measures can be adopted to reduce failures and total cost. Obviously, enhancements in quality and customer satisfaction are the outcomes, besides, the accurate measurement of the efficacy of the Quality Control Department. INTRODUCTION Today it is universally accepted that 'Quality' is an embodiment of design and properties of a product or service or both which guarantees customer satisfaction. In the present business scenario of barrier–free global markets, elements of excellence are a necessity for any product or service those will ensure properties, services and prices. The concept of total quality management, which encompasses almost all activities of an organization, has become part and parcel of any business and garment manufacturing is no exception to it. With the advent of modern information technology customers are well aware about the design, quality and price aspects of garments. It is no wonder that only those organizations in garment business are surviving and flourishing who can satisfy their customers with these features. In this era of competitive business, price is a major issue for a mass-manufactured product like garment and in this issue 'Quality Cost' goes hand-in-hand with satisfactory product and service cost. One of the major obstacles to the establishment of stronger quality programme in earlier days was the wrong notion that the achievement of better quality required much higher costs. REASONS FOR APPLYING QUALITY COSTS CONCEPT Unsatisfactory quality means unsatisfactory

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resource utilization. This involves wastes of material, labour, equipment time and consequently higher costs. In contrast, satisfactory quality means satisfactory resource utilization and consequently lower costs. A major reason for this mistaken concept about cost was unavailability of relevant data. Today, the scenario has changed and any scientific accounting procedure recognizes that cost of quality is measurable. In fact, quality cost is the basis through which investments in quality programmes can be evaluated in terms of cost of improvement, profit enhancement and price reduction for an organization. Quality Costs – meaning, scope and segmentation Quality costs in garment manufacturing encompass two principal areas: i) The cost of control and ii) The cost of failure of control. The first includes those costs associated with the definition, creation and the control of quality as well as the evaluation and feedback of conformance with quality, reliability and safety requirements. The second includes those costs associated with the consequences of failure to meet requirements both within the factory and in the hands of customers. Both can be measured in two segments has shown in the flow chart.

PREVENTION COST COSTS OF CONTROL APPRAISAL COST COSTS OF FAILURE OF CONTROL

INTERNAL FAILURE COST EXTERNAL FAILURE COST

Fig. 1: Segments of quality costs

REDUCTION OF QUALITY COSTS By universal experience, in a garment manufacturing unit, a typical ratio in the break-up of the Quality Costs may be given as:Segment of Quality Costs % of Quality Costs Internal & External Failure Costs 65% Appraisal Costs 30% Prevention Costs 5% This break-up suggests that the largest portion of the quality rupees is spent in the wrong way because of failures of products. Another big sum is spent on appraisal to screen the bad products from the good

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QUALITY TOOLS and very little is spent on the real defect prevention system. Also, the failure costs being the largest component, its reduction brings largest returns and should be tackled in the first instant. An effective way of attacking failure costs is through an increase in Prevention and Appraisal Costs. Ÿ Appraisal Costs should be next to come under attack. An analysis of quality assurance operations is often shown opportunities for reducing expenditure without compromising effectiveness. For example, by adopting an effective statistical sampling technique, inspection of 100% products may be eliminated, thereby, saving costs. Ÿ Reduction of Prevention Costs comes last and it should be borne in mind that even if this cost increases by a certain amount, it is accompanied by much higher reduction in Failure and Appraisal Costs. It is pertinent to mention at this stage that design department in a garment manufacturing company plays a paramount role in lowering the total costs. Accurate design saves cost not only at the design stage itself but, throughout production and testing of products it becomes easier to make 'right first time’. A flow chart to indicate the process of Quality Costs reduction programme may be given as:IDENTIFY HIGHEST QUALITY COSTS AREA

SPECIFY IN THE COMPANY

ANALYSE CAUSE

DEVELOP COST REDUCTION PROGRAMMEME WITH DEPARTMENT CONCERNED

ENSURE CHANGES ARE IMPLEMENTED

MONITOR COST REDUCTION ACHIEVED

SELECT ANOTHER AREA OF IMPROVEMENT Fig. 2: Quality Costs reduction programme

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Textile Value Chain DEFINITIONS OF QUALITY COSTS ITEMS Definitions of some principal items under the segments of Quality Costs are as below:1. Costs of Prevention a) Quality Planning Quality planning represents costs involved with the time that all personnel spend in planning the details of quality system. b) Process control Process control represents costs associated with time that all personnel spend studying and analyzing the manufacturing process (including vendors) for enhancing productivity, safety, maintenance, etc. c) Quality training and workforce development Quality training represents the cost of developing and conducting training programmes throughout the company. d) Product design verification This represents the cost of evaluating preproduction products for verification of quality, reliability and safety aspects of design. e) System developments and management This represents the overall quality systems engineering and management and support for quality system development. f ) Other Prevention costs These represent administrative costs involving quality and reliability such as salaries and travel expenses. 2. Costs of Appraisal a) Tests and inspection of purchased materials It represents the costs associated with the time that the inspection and testing personnel spend in evaluating the quality of purchased materials. b) Laboratory and other measurement services This represents the cost of lab measurement services, instrument calibration and repair and process monitoring. c) Inspection Inspection represents the costs involved with the time that the inspection personnel spend evaluating the quality of products in the plant and cost of supervisory and clerical personnel. d) Testing Testing represents the cost of the time that the testing personnel spend evaluating the performance of the product in the plant along with the cost of supervisory and clerical personnel. e) Checking labour It is the cost associated with the time the operators spend checking quality of own work as required by the

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QUALITY TOOLS quality plan, sorting out rejected lots, etc. f ) Quality Audit It is the cost involved with time that personnel spend in performing audit. 3. Costs of Internal Failures a) Scrap Scrap represents the losses incurred in the course of obtaining the required level of quality. b) Rework It is the extra payments made to operators to achieve the required level of quality. c) Material Procurement costs It represents those additional costs incurred by the material procurement personnel in handling both rejects and complaints on purchased materials. 4. Costs of External Failures a) Warranty Charges Costs of concessions made to customers due to substandard products and services being accepted by the customers as it includes loss in income due to downgrading products for sale as seconds. b) Product service It represents all product service costs directly attributable to correcting defects/ imperfections or special testing. c) Product liability It is the quality related costs incurred as a result of liability judgments due to quality failures. d) Product recall It is the cost incurred as a result of recall of products or components of products.

Textile Value Chain can be determined how much cost is involved in achieving certain level of quality. Finally, it will help to budget realistically to achieve a desired quality level. CONCLUSIONS As delineated in the above paragraphs, in garment manufacturing, Quality Costing is an extremely important tool in managing quality and business strategy planning by quantifying all quality related activities in monetary terms. The Indian garment manufacturers will be benefited by utilizing this concept to improve upon their quality related performances in today's highly competitive business scenario. REFERENCES 1. Anon., 'Quality System for Garment Manufacturing', www.ellisdev.co.uk, 2004 2. R M Liang and J Webster, 'Stitches and Seams', The Textile Institute, Manchester, 1998 3. Anon., Course Material of 'Workshop on Quality Costing', The Associated Chamber of Commerce and Industry of India, New Delhi, 1997 P V Mehta, 'Quality Management: An Overview' in Testing and Quality Management', editor: V K Kothari, IAFL Publications, New Delhi, 1999, p-34.

BENEFITS OF QUALITY COSTING As it is mentioned earlier, the analysis of Quality Costs shows the highest percentage of expenditure is incurred in Failure Costs followed by Appraisal Costs and very little Preventive Costs before the establishment of the Quality Costs system in a garment manufacturing company. After a certain period of Quality Costs system is brought into operation, if the investment is increased in Preventive Costs, then the Failure and Appraisal Costs come down not only in terms of percentage but also in absolute money terms of total cost. This indicates a direct economic benefit to the company. Besides, there are a few more advantages. By showing how much poor quality actually costs, senior management can be enlisted in quality improvement efforts. Also, the performance of the Quality Control department can be evaluated in financial terms and it

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APPAREL ASPECTS

Functional and cts in Aesthetic Aspe Apparel Dr Ela Manoj Dedhia, Associate Professor, Nirmala Niketan College of Home Science elamanojdedhia@yahoo.com

Apparel quality has two dimensions: Physical aspects or what the garment is; and Performance aspects or what the garment does. The physical aspects of a garment determine its performance. Therefore, consumers purchase garments with specific physical aspects that they believe will fulfill their performance expectations. PHYSICAL ASPECTS Garment's physical aspects provide a tangible form and composition. Physical aspects include the garment's design, materials, construction and finish. Design provides the plan for the garment style. For example, is the shirt loose or fitted? Materials include the fabric and other components that are used to produce the garment. For instance, is the shirt made of cotton or blended fabric? Construction refers to the methods used to assemble the garment. For example, which types of stitches are mostly used? Finishes involve any garment's wet processes, for instance, does the shirt have a wrinkle free or a durable press finish? Garment physical aspects are intrinsic attributes; they cannot be altered without changing the product itself. PERFORMANCE ASPECTS A garment's performance aspects determine the standards it meets and how the consumer benefits through it. Performance aspects include the garment's aesthetic and functional performances. Aesthetic performance refers to attractiveness. Do the design, material, and construction of the garment fulfill the appearance expectations? Do the elements of the garment reflect good design principles? Does the garment possess classic or current fashion trends desired by consumers? And does its appearance fulfill the wearer's emotional needs, such as wanting to

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Textile Value Chain impress or be accepted by others? These questions are important to ask while evaluating ready-to-wear garments because design impacts the visual appeal of clothing and thereby consumer's acceptance for it. Functional performance includes performance aspects other than appearance, namely the garments utility and durability. Utility refers to the usefulness. For example, does the shirt fit? Does it function properly for intended use? Durability or serviceability refers to how well the garment retains its structure and appearance after wear and care. Does it resist shrinkage? Does the seam remain intact? Aesthetic and functional performance occasionally overlaps. For example, fit may be an aesthetic feature (i.e attractive fit versus unattractive fit) or it might also be a functional feature (i.e comfortable fit versus uncomfortable fit) (Brown, 1998). FABRIC: A QUALITY INDICATOR According to Das, 2008, the demand on the properties, appearance and durability of the materials and components in the apparel sector has increased significantly to meet the changing requirements of the consumers. A common concern in apparel performance characterization is dimensional stability, colourfastness, durability, pilling and fabric composition. Fabric is the textile material from which apparel manufacturers produces ready-to-wear garments. The performance of the fabric does not necessarily predict the performance of the finished garment, but the two are strongly related. The right fabric is required for the garment to meet aesthetic and functional performance expectations. Manufacturers establish the required aesthetic and functional performance standards for fabric based on many factors. These factors include the design of the garment, fashion trends, consumer preferences, cost limitations, and the target market profile chosen by the company. 타 AESTHETIC PERFORMANCE OF FABRIC

The aesthetic performance or attractiveness of fabric refers to the appearance of the fabric as it complements the appearance of the garment. However, fabric must be considered in concert with the design. Material and construction interact to produce the total aesthetic effect of the garment. Fabric aesthetics include colour, pattern, colour

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APPAREL ASPECTS consistency, lustre, opacity and hand. All these elements of the aesthetic performance of the raw material are difficult to describe because of their subjective nature; they do not lend themselves to objective measurement. Colour and Pattern Colour is perhaps the single most important feature in initially attracting consumer to garments. However, the 'beauty' or 'goodness' of the colour or pattern is subjective as there are no laboratory tests for evaluating the 'quality' of colours or choosing the 'best' design for the patterned fabric. The aesthetic evaluation of colour and pattern depends on fashion trends, personal preferences, and an awareness of design elements and principles. Hand Hand is a broad term for the kinaesthetic or movement aspects of a fabric. Hand refers not to the comfort but to the emotional sensations resulting from touching, moving, or squeezing the fabric with the human hand. Hand encompasses the following aspects of the fabric: (1) Drape ability/flexibility (2) Compressibility (3) Extensibility (4) Resilience (5) Density (6) Texture and (7) Thermal character. 타 FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE OF FABRIC

The functional performance of a fabric refers to its utility and durability as its component of the garment. Utility includes the influence of the fabric on these garment characteristics: (1) Shape retention (2) Appearance retention (3) Comfort (4) Ease of care and (5) Safety. Durability refers to the serviceability of the fabric regarding these characteristics of the garment: (1) Strength (2) Abrasion resistance and (3) Resistance to degradation by chemicals and other elements of the environment. As for aesthetic performance, the functional performance of the garment is not determined fully by the fabric. The design, materials, construction and the finish of a garment interact to determine utility and durability. Dimensional Stability One of the most important performance characteristics of the garment is dimensional stability, the ability of the garment to maintain its original shape and size. Dimensional stability affects the

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Textile Value Chain function of the garment in terms of appearance retention and fit. It also affects comfort, elongation and shrinkage. Colourfastness Colourfastness is the ability of the fabric to retain its colour. Colourfastness refers to colour retention in reaction to laundering (bleach, water, detergent, heat), light, dry-cleaning solvents, sea and pool water, perspiration and other chemicals. Colourfastness is a relative term; no garment is completely colourfast. Lack of colour may be expressed in a variety of ways such as (1) Fading (2) Frosting (3) Crocking (4) Bleeding and (5) Yellowing. Pill Resistance Snagging and pilling detract from a garments appearance and its usefulness. Snags are pulls in fabrics made when the yarns catch on sharp objects. Pills are fuzz balls, or balls of tangled fibres that form on the surface and are held there by one or more fibres. Pills may form all over a garment, but are likely to be most noticeable where garment receives abrasion for example, in the underarm area, inside collars and on sleeves and cuffs. Ease of Care For many consumers, ease of care of a fabric is an important utility feature because of its effect on the care of the garment. All the fabrics used in the garment should have same laundering or dry-cleaning ability so the finished garment retains its appearance and ability to function after refurbishing. Ease of care also refers to the garment's tendency to resist soiling and wrinkling. Abrasion Resistance/ durability Abrasion resistance refers to the amount of rubbing action a fabric can withstand without being destroyed. One type of abrasion is caused by laundering or refurbishing process. This produces an overall loss of fibres, as seen when emptying the lint filters on washing machines, thus slightly weakening the garment during every refurbishing cycle. More severe abrasion in refurbishing occurs on many folded edges of the garment, including hems, cuffs, collars, and many squared or pointed edges. This is why holes often form first at these locations. The second type of

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APPAREL ASPECTS abrasion happens in the normal wearing process. Each time the cloth is rubbed against a hard surface, a small loss of fibre occurs in this limited area of garment. Fabric must withstand degradation from the environment. To be considered durable, a garment is made of fabric with the following characteristics: (1) Chemical resistance (2) Laundering ability (3) Dry-cleaning ability (4) Insect resistance (5) Mild dew resistance & (6) Sunlight resistance (Brown, 1998). Fabric assessment is the method by which the fabric is tested for its properties and qualities. Knowledge of fabric properties and their behaviour in the processes of transforming into article of clothing is valuable information for garment manufacturers, which was unavailable till now. Recently, techniques have been developed to measure the mechanical properties of fabric and use these measures quantitatively to predict performance in both garment manufacture and appearance of garments. Ten shirting fabrics were tested using an objective measurement of fabric mechanical properties. It was found out that all fabric samples except one were expected to pose problems in garment manufacturing as the formability value of all nine fabrics were less than the limit (Sudhakar, Gowda and Kannam,2007). In the ready-made market, many companies are producing their products and for a common man it becomes very difficult to choose any particular brand out of available lots under identical conditions. It is quite natural that different garments may have different behaviour in terms of properties under name of different companies. Apart from functional criteria's, fabric type plays an important role in readymade garments formation as discussed in research done by Tarafder et al in 2007 on 'Comparative study on physical testing of readymade shirts for quality standards'. For their study, 15 readymade shirts had been considered for investigation. All the shirts were of polyester /cotton (80x20). Ten were of branded quality, 4 were non-branded and one tailor-made. The results of the study indicated that there were wide variations observed in fabric specifications for a common variety of shirting fabric, like thread density, linear density, area density and crimp %. Average

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Textile Value Chain fabric crease recovery was observed to be fairly good but between items, variation was too high. High pill resistance was shown by all the fabrics. Hydral shrinkage (%) for most of the items was quite satisfactory (Tarafder, Banerjee, et al, 2007). It is extremely important to study consumer preferences as there is severe competition among shirt industry to capture the market share because of number of players ranging from brands to huge unbranded segment. The manufacturers and retailers of shirts need to meet the rising expectations of the consumers. It was imperative to understand consumer preferences related to each characteristic under intrinsic (quality) and extrinsic (appearance) cues for selection of a shirt due to dynamic changes in men's clothing in terms of colour, design, style and so on. The study indicates that quality and appearance cues are critical elements in consumer's preferences for shirts. It is clearly evident that irrespective of the segment of shirts i.e casual, formal or occasional, consumers based their preferences both on quality and appearance cues. Other noticeable fact emerged was that similar preference pattern was noticed in both branded and unbranded categories of shirts. Also noticeable was that durability under quality cue and size and fit under appearance cues were considered as most significant dimensions by consumers as preference in all segments of shirts. Therefore, consumer's preferences reports would be of immense value to the clothing industry (Dedhia E & Gupta M, 2009). References: ŸBrown Rice, J. (1998). Ready to Wear Apparel Analysis.

2nd ed, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 162-170,193-195. Ÿ Das, S. (2008). Apparels for exports: Importance of

quality characterization. Indian Textile Journal, 45. ŸDedhia E & Gupta M, (Sep - Oct 2009), Consumer

preferences based on quality and appearance cues, Journal of Textile Association, Volume 70, No. 3 Ÿ Sudhakar, J.P., Gowda, N and Kannan, S. (2007). Assessing properties of shirting fabrics by using FAST', The Indian Textile Journal, Iss. Oct, 146. ŸTarafdar, N., Karmakar, R., Mondal, M. (2007). The effect of stitch density on seam performance of garments stitched from plain and twill fabrics. Man Made Textiles in India, Vol. L, No.8, 298, 301.

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Fashion 's King Louis XIV eloper A Fashion Dev

Charushila Garat, Lecturer, Govt. Residential Woman's Polytechnic, Yavatmal

Sarita Raut, Lecturer, Sasmira's Institute of Man Made Textiles, Mumbai INTRODUCTION More than just a designer whim, fashion is a reflection of the social, political, economic and artistic forces. The changing times that evolve from these forces, enlighten us of the historical events as poignantly as textbooks, journals or periodicals. In the 17th century, people belonged to two main classes: the wealthy landowners and the poor labourers or farmers. Since wealth was concentrated in the landowning class, these people were the only ones who could afford to wear fashionable clothes. Royalty, at the top of both the social and economic ladders, set trends while other members of the aristocracy followed their example to gain approval. From history, we find out one legend aristocrat and a fashion developer, LOUIS XIV, born at St. Germainen-Laye on September 16th 1638. He became King of France when he succeeded his father Louis XIII in 1643. During the King's minority, the discontented nobles encouraged by Spain, sought to shake off the authority of the Crown, and the civil war of the Fronde arose. The Fronde was not a singular attack, as the French Wars of Religion had only just ended in 1598. The French wars had lasted for thirty years and been predominantly a civil war. They had shaken the king's appearance of strength, especially to the rest of Europe. Due to this instability in which the monarchy was embroiled in, Louis XIV turned to fashion and its historic significance to control the nobility and express his power. KING LOUIS XIV'S CONTRIBUTION IN FASHION DEVELOPMENT Louis XIV increased and emphasized fashion's importance by making it a part of social decree and

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Textile Value Chain increasing rather than belittling its cost. It has been debated whether or not Louis stressed fashion to the extent he did in order to throw the nobles into debt, to distract them from scheming or for an entirely different motive. However, the general consensus places his motivations atleast partly on an attempt to send as many nobles as possible into debt. It has also been argued that Louis had to pay for any debt his nobles acquired and therefore would not want to encourage it. Despite these disagreements, it is evident that Louis was attempting to control the nobility and fashion had a hand in it. Unlike many courts in Europe in past and present, Louis required a different code of dress for each formal event. In most countries, one code was set for all occasions in order to keep clothing inexpensive, whereas Louis's system sent many into bankruptcy. One such festivity, which was extremely expensive, was the Carrousel, where various groups of nobles came clad in the most splendid costumes they could design. If bankruptcy was Louis's intent, he used fashion in events like these to cause it. Debt led to constraints and Louis named the terms of

King Louis XIV these limitations, thereby making him the most important and most powerful. Louis would stage expensive festivals; elaborate balls followed by exquisite parties and require

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Fashion luxurious attire at each one. The nobility wanted to remain within the higher circles, which were quickly congealing at the court of Versailles, because it was “believed that mere physical proximity to the monarch…would elevate them to a higher social level” and the king spent almost all of his time at court. It was thus necessary to attend all the events and spend outrageous amounts of money on new clothing. Eventually it was almost certain the nobles would fall into debt and should they want to remain within the court they would be required to ask for a loan from the king. The king would only grant them loan or even hear their request for the loan if they had been spending the proper amount of time at court. This endless cycle kept the nobles trapped in Versailles and focused on wearing the proper and most fashionable clothing, which led them to be both too poor and too preoccupied to revolt against the monarch.

Man of quality at the court of Louis XIV. Engraving by Jean de St. Jean, 1693. (Courtesy of Victoria & Albert Museum, London.)

In order to generate competition among his nobles, King Louis made his dressing and undressing in the morning and evening the most important times of the day. Only the most powerful and 'worthy' courtiers were present. It was only at this time they could speak with him. Nobles thus started competing with each other to become one of these select few. King Louis designed a blue silk jacket, the justaucorps á brevet, embroidered in silver and gold, which only his most favored courtiers were permitted to wear, after they had been granted permission by the king.[8] Only fifty nobles at a time were approved to wear this highly fashionable piece of clothing. Louis also extended fashion down to the middle class to

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Textile Value Chain increase his power. Any person who was reasonably well dressed was allowed to enter the Versailles gardens. Instead of isolating anyone who was anything less than a noble, Louis extended the exciting prospect of not only being in the king's gardens but perhaps even seeing the king to what middle class there was. This stressed Louis's power because it made it clear that the middle class was willing to save their money just to be in his gardens and, thus, obviously admired him. While in the gardens, they might also see such events like the carrousel, which would dazzle and impress them. The image this gave of the king was that he was very powerful and very rich. Louis continued to accentuate fashion's importance through more legal means. He created the grand maitre de la garderobe du roi, “the only new office which he created in his own household.” The office was dedicated to the king's clothing alone, which were stored across three rooms. In 1668 Louis even passed an decree that required his courtiers to remain fashionable. Louis XIV made fashion important to such an extent that the nobles and even the middle class would be more preoccupied with it than gaining more power or questioning his rule, thus waylaying another attack similar to the Fronds. Louis chose boisterous fashion to express his power both to his nobles and the rest of the world because it made him appear strong. The proper dress alone was supposed “to encourage loyalty, satisfy vanity, [and] impress the outside world.” With this notion already in place, Louis made sure both himself and his courtiers wore expensive cloths. His choice of such extravagance and bright colors has three particularly strong reasons. Firstly, Louis chose to dress in bright colors instead of sober blacks because although black cloth was extremely expensive and represented sobriety and piety, Louis was neither particularly restrained nor conservative in terms of religion until later in his reign. He held large parties, gambled and ate extravagant amounts of food. It was for this reason that he chose color to express his powerful reign rather than black. E.g. he used the design of red heels to both draw attention to the feet and as a symbol for “the elevation of his court above the rest of humanity.” The red heel eventually became one of the most popular and widespread trends in Europe. Even William III of Orange, who was Louis's most devoted enemies, after Louis attacked the Dutch Republic, wore red heels.

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Fashion It was not long before the fashions of France began to appear all across Europe. Although it was not fashion that made France powerful, fashion did make France appear powerful, especially in terms of its court, which expressed its power to the outside world by appearing magnificent. The court in France was the grandest in Europe, Parisian tailors were considered the best and dolls wearing the latest style extended French fashions even to hostile and distance capitals such as London and Russia. Fashion provided a sense of national identity and patriotism to the wearer. Accepting another country's fashion was, to an extent, accepting that national identity and wearing French clothes while in England or Germany or somewhere else outside of France showed respect to France. Fashionable and expensive clothing was already a sign of power and the spread of French fashion across Europe and the pride nobles took in wearing it both in and out of France, was Louis's way of proving France and its monarch were powerful. Fashion was also important for a more practical reason; the employment of the lower class. Louis XIV banned foreign cloth, lace, and trimmings, which meant fabrics had to be made in France by the French. This led to an increase in velvet and silk in France, while in other countries like England, wool became more popular. Of the possible accessories and cloth, lace was among the most difficult and time consuming to make; a narrow strip of lace alone could take months. The rest of the outfit was just as expensive and time consuming. A court gown alone was put together by three people, the tailor, couturier and marchand de modes. It took several days per gown. French fashion employed roughly “a third of wage-earners in Paris. It employed 969,863 individuals compared to only 38,000 in the iron and steel industry.” Periods of court morning were said to be so drawn out and to encompass so many people that those making clothing, which were a substantial amount of the population, struggled to survive because no new, expensive clothing was bought for the duration. Clothing also, to an extent, aided in the circulation of wealth. Although it was certainly not his main motivation or even necessarily something Louis often kept in mind, the extravagant fashion did keep many people employed and the greater employment rate empowered France

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Textile Value Chain HISTORIC IMPORTANCE OF FASHION Louis XIV chose fashion because it had historically been important, often because of its expense and impracticality. Although not all clothing was uncomfortable, as some of it was designed specifically to be comfortable, much of it was painful or difficult to wear. Shoes were narrow, sitting down in some gowns could be a major feat, most hats were either ridiculously wide or tall, and the lace, ribbons, feathers, and mountains of cloth that accompanied every fashionable outfit could make avoiding collisions and, especially, dining a near impossibility. For certain occasions noble women were required to wear the grand habit de cour, a type of dress with a long train. The longer the train, the more elite the wearer and the more difficult the train was to manage. Despite the fact that the dress was impractical in the case of both the train and the sleeves, which required the wearer to have bare shoulders in all sorts of weather, it was the height of fashion. Similarly, the higher ranking ladies wore the tightest and most restrictive of corsets. The extremes of these outfits meant that to appear elegant, nobles had to put hours and hours of time into practicing such simple things as walking and sitting. Were a lady to drop her fan or handkerchief, though it would not have been appropriate for her to pick it up anyway, she would actually be unable to pick it up and would have “relied on a servant or gentleman to pick it up.” This emphasized both her delicacy, which meant she never had to work for herself, and that she had enough money and power for someone to do her work for her.

33


Fashion

Textile Value Chain

CONCLUSION It was believed across France and the world that expensive, impractical, spotless and often uncomfortable clothing was the absolute symbol of status. It had been believed for centuries and would continue to be so even after Louis XIV died. Louis, who took an unstable throne in a divided country, used many techniques to unite France and make it stronger. He chose fashion to control nobles by using it to consume their time and money and give them something to flaunt and be proud of. He was a great References :

admirer of fashion and knew how it could make the body appear elegant and powerful, both symbolically and physically. Through his propaganda and competition, Louis proved France was a strong country with a strong monarchy both to his courtiers and the rest of the European monarchies. The outcome of King Louis's fashion development in the 17th century is, 'France is the center of fashion' and till 21st century it is to be continued. So King Louis XIV's contribution in the fashion development is the mile stone for the fashion industry.

ŸFashion – from concept to consumer. Author- Gini Stephens Frings. ŸThe Grandeur of Louis XIV on Film | Fiction and Film for French http://h-france.net/fffh/classics/the-grandeur-of-louis-

xiv-on-film/ ŸLouis XIV's Use of Fashion to Control and Express Power http://europe1600s.wikispaces.com/Louis+XIV's+Use+of+Fashion+to+Cont ŸThe State Hermitage Museum: Exhibitions http://www.hermitagemuseum.org/html_En/04/2012/hm4_2_330.html ŸLouis XIV and the French Influence http://library.thinkquest.org/21702/h6.html ŸLouis XIII of France - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_XIII_of_France ŸHow Louis XIV of France Came to Build His Opulent Versaille.. http://voices.yahoo.com/how-louis-xiv-france-camebuild-his-... - United States ŸCreating French Culture (Library of Congress Exhibition) http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/bnf/bnf0005.html Ÿ18th-Century France: The Rococo and Watteau http://www.nga.gov/collection/gallery/gg54/gg54-over1.html

Patel Lifestyle Ltd. Manufacturer / Exporters / Wholesale Suppliers

101, Sharda Mall, Ring Road, Surat, Gujarat India. 34

Mobile: +91-96642 56308

July - September 2012

ADVT.

We deals in embroidery threads, viscose rayon embroidery thread, trilobal polyester embroidery thread, zari threads, silk threads, cotton embroidery thread, rayon embroidery thread, fancy zari silk thread, textile fabrics, embroidery dress materials, embroidered ghagra choli, embroidered sarees, embroidered kurtis etc.


Textile Value Chain

Technical Textiles Parinita Devadiga, Manager Marketing, Suvin Advisors Pvt. Ltd. INTRODUCTION Technical textiles are 'advanced materials' for which the technical performance and physical properties are more important than features such as colour, pattern and price. This industry encompasses a vast array of materials, manufacturing processes and end use markets. Its growth and evolution is driven by the combination of sector lead by R&D and collaboration with other industries.

Technical textiles are used individually or as a component/part of another product. They can be used individually to satisfy specific functions, as a component or part of another product, to enhance the strength, performance or other functional properties of that product. They are also used as accessories in processes to manufacture other products. Other terms used for technical textiles are Industrial textiles, Functional textiles, Performance textiles, Engineering textiles, Hi-tech textiles etc. Their wide range of applications, lack of competition and growing consumer and industrial demands make it a big opportunity area and an attractive option to invest in. Add to this, the factors conducive for the growth of manufacturing and consumption of technical textiles are also available within the country. Though India is the 2nd largest textile economy in the world after China; its contribution in the global technical textile industry is only 9% to the total consumption.

TECHNICAL TEXTILE: MATERIAL, PROCESS, PRODUCT Below is the chart showing the raw material and process required to produce different products of technical textiles:

PES: polyester, PA: polyamide, PAN: polycarbonate Source: Handbook of Technical Textiles

July - September 2012

35


TECHNICAL TEXTILES

Textile Value Chain

TECHNICAL TEXTILE SECTORS Depending on the product characteristics, functional requirements and end-use applications, the highly diversified range of technical textile products have been grouped into 12 sectors:-

36

Comprises of woven, non-woven and knitted fabrics applied for agriculture, horticulture, for covering, livestock protection, shading, weed and insect control, and extension of the growing season. Potential lies in the need to feed the huge growing population.

Comprises of technical textile products that have usage in construction & architectural industry. Products like reinforced fibres for concrete protection, scaffolding nets etc. are part of this sector. Growth of infrastructure & construction industry provides the huge potential for the buildtech sector.

Growing at slower pace. There is limited further opportunity for increased textile usage per garment. Demand for garments themselves is also forecast to continue to grow at a slower rate than real incomes.

Comprises of geosynthetic products used to improve the geotechnical properties of roads, bridges, slopes, banks etc. and their major applications are separation, filtration, reinforcement and transmission. Potential is huge due to ongoing infrastructure development in our country.

Ranks as the fourth largest in both volume and value terms with lowest growth rates. This reflects low forecasts for final demand for household goods, limited opportunities for further textile penetration and a steady switch from woven to lighter and lower priced non-woven components.

Third largest application area in both volume and value terms. Growth rates remain above average as further opportunities are taken to introduce textile products into industrial processes, especially in developing countries.

Embraces all those textile materials used in health and hygiene applications in both consumer and medical markets. Nonwovens account for a high proportion of the sector overall in terms of tonnes of fibre used.

Includes textiles used in automotives for a wide variety of purposes. Considering the amount of existing vehicles worldwide, automotive industry represents a high potential market for the textile industry.

Close to being the smallest in both value and volume terms. In view of the increased interest worldwide in environmental and ecological issues, Oekotech has shown by far the fastest growth rates of between 6% and 7% per annum in 2010.

Largest sector in tonnage terms. The market growth of Packtech is at par with other products and grabs a market share of about 15%. It includes all textiles used for the temporary containment, carriage, storage and protection of industrial, agricultural and other goods.

Includes textiles used as protective clothing. Health and safety at work requires protective textiles for certain jobs and the range of hazards and the means of combating them continue to grow and become ever more complex.

One of the smallest areas in volume terms, but due to its high unit values and use of expensive fibres and coatings is the second largest in value terms. These high-functional and smart textiles are increasingly adding value to the sports and leisure industry.

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TECHNICAL TEXTILES MARKET OF TECHNICAL TEXTILES The trend in the various sectors in the textile industry in many industrialized countries indicate that the use of conventional textiles has reached a static level and its manufacture has become highly competitive, often unviable and many companies are switching over to value-added technical textiles with capability to meet functional demands for precision applications. As use of technical textiles is dictated by need, its pricing normally offers good margins. There is a steady growth of both consumption and production of technical textiles throughout the world. Sector-wise higher growth rates are for Indutech, Buildtech, Medtech, Geotech, Packtech and Agrotech. G lo b a l

I n d ia

Se g m e n t

% s h are

Se g m e n t

% s h are

M ob il te ch

24

P ac k te c h

35

I nd ut ec h

16

C l oth te ch

17

S p or te c h

15

H o m e tec h

12

O th er s

45

O th er s

36

T o ta l

1 00

T o ta l

10 0

Globally, the consumption of the technical textiles is estimated to be around US$ 139 billion in 2012. At present, USA is the market leader in technical textiles. The Indian Technical Textiles market has grown from Rs. 43,000 crores in 2007-08 to Rs. 63,000 crores in 2010-11 registering a CAGR of ~11%. The technical textiles segment in India has the potential to attract investment and create additional employment opportunities in coming years. Investments of US$ 1.1 billion are expected by 2012 and employment is expected to increase to 1.2 million by 2012. It is forecasted to grow to Rs. 158,000 crores by 2016-17 with a projected growth percentage of 20% growth per annum to be achieved. There are over 3000 units manufacturing technical textiles in India, mostly in small-scale sector. About two-thirds of the production is of commodity products whereas only one-third is high-end. The consumption of technical textiles is mainly concentrated in developed countries. In many developed countries technical textiles account for over 35% of the textile industry's output as against 19 % for China and 5 % for India. The technical textile industry in the developed world is maturing and the growth in

July - September 2012

Textile Value Chain

developed economies is expected to be moderate. In contrast, China, India and other countries in Asia, America and Eastern Europe are expected to experience healthy growth in the near future. The growth in Asia is expected to be 6.5% while it would be merely 2.2% in developed countries. India's consumption level is different than global level. The top three segments in the world vis-à -vis India are shown in the adjacent table. India is limited to commodity products with very little presence in high tech segments. There is a general perception that technical textiles are predominantly produced in large scale sectors but it is true only to a limited extent. Technical textiles have been slowly but steadily gaining ground due to one or more of the reasons such as (i) Functional requirement (ii) Logistical convenience iii) Health and safety (iv) Customization (v) Cost effectiveness (vi) User friendliness (vii) Durability and high strength (viii) Eco friendliness (xi) Light weight (x) Versatility The accelerated growth of the Indian economy has also been impacting favourably on the growth of the technical textiles. With increase in investments in industry sectors, higher consumption and growing exports, the industrial sector is poised for a considerable growth. This will ultimately lead to increased demand of technical textiles products. Industry segment contributes to nearly 28% of the overall GDP and has seen excellent growth in past. The income of Indian consumer is also growing very fast. This rise will enable them to make more discretionary expense on technical textile products viz. Hometech, Clothtech, Mobiltech, Sportech and Meditech. Per capita income of Indian consumer has increased from Rs. 46,492 in the year 2009-10 to 60,972 in the year 2011-12 at a CAGR of 15%. The fast growing middle class of 160 million with higher discretionary income is expected to increase to 267 million in 5 years. Significantly over 50 % of the population is below 25 years – the vibrant segment for any market.

37


TECHNICAL TEXTILES GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES Govt has taken initiatives to encourage growth of by providing interest subsidy and capital subsidy on the plant and equipments under TUFS. In order to provide infrastructure support at one place for thrust areas of technical textiles, the govt has already set up eight Centres of Excellence. These centres must be equipped with internationally accredited testing labs, training facilities for technicians from the industry, ITenabled information centre and other requisite support to the technical textile entrepreneurs. The eight Centres of Excellence are Bombay Textile Research Association (BTRA) in association with IIT, Mumbai for Geotech; Silk & Art Silk Manufacturing Industry Research Association (SASMIRA) for Agrotech; Northern India Textile Research Association (NITRA) for Protech and Southern India Textile Research Association (SITRA) for Medtech, both in association with IIT, Delhi; DKTE Textile & Engineering Institute for non-wovens, PSG College of Technology for industrial textiles, Ahmedabad Textile Industry's Research Association for composites and Wool Research Association for Sporttech. Ministry of Textiles has also launched the Technology Mission on Technical Textiles (TMTT). CONSTRAINTS FOR ENTREPRENEURS In order to promote the production of technical textiles, the first and foremost need would be to attract entrepreneurs in the field of technical textiles. Entrepreneurs have so far kept away from the technical textiles in view of the deterrents such as below: Ÿ Complex marketing aspects Ÿ Huge capital cost in case of high-end technical products Ÿ Requirement of huge working capital Ÿ No experiance for marketing tie-up Ÿ Requirement of huge working capital ŸRequirement of specific raw materials, machinery and equipment Ÿ Absence of existing norms and mandatory requirements of technical textiles for specific end applications. SUMMARY India is definitely the next destination hub for technical textiles - manufacturing & consumption which is still untapped. With the growing economy, wide range of applications, lack of competition and growing consumer and industrial demands, technical

38

Textile Value Chain textiles come out as a big opportunity area and an attractive option to invest in. There is a huge potential in India which is still untapped. A lot needs to be done at the Govt level, industry level and by financial and educational organizations to expedite the growth of this industry. Some of the steps that are recommended to the Govt to foster the growth of technical textiles are: Ÿ Increase awareness among consumers about technical textile products and their advantages such as better hygiene; cost effectiveness, protective usage etc. Ÿ Introduce technical textile specific courses and specializations in the curriculum of various technical streams like textile, mechanical, and chemical engineering courses. This will result in the increased availability of skilled manpower for technical textiles. Ÿ Frame rules for mandatory usage of technical textiles, such as fire-retardant fabric in cinema halls etc., seat belts and airbags in cars, to create urgency among both manufacturers and consumers to make use of these products. Ÿ Provide subsidies to poor consumers e.g., farmers to buy Agrotech products. Ÿ Establish guidelines and standards for the usage and manufacturing of products where the need to follow standards is necessary for correct usage. Along with the encouragement from the Govt, the Indian Industrialists also have a large role to play to foster the growth of this industry. Some of the recommendations to the industry are (i) Strive for joint ventures and strategic alliances with international companies for transfer of technology and expertise in this sector (ii) Understand customer needs and cater to the fast growing domestic demand (iii) Invest in R & D, marketing and large scale projects to gain advantages of economies of scale (iv) Thrust upon supply chain effectiveness Thus it can be summarized that there is a very huge potential in India to become not only a large market but also a manufacturing hub for technical textiles provided there are efforts on part of Govt, industry, academic and research organizations to ensure that the future of the Indian technical textile industry is smooth and fruitful. References: 1)Suvin Book of Knowledge 2)Handbook of Technical Textiles, Woodhead Publishing 3)Reports - David Rigby Associates 4)SASMIRA Texsummit 2007 report

July - September 2012


Textile Value Chain

SME CORNER Overhauling the Traditional Wholesaler -Jigna Shah, Editor, Textile Value Chain Wholesalers are one of the most important value chain contributors in India. A wholesaler is a middle man between the retailer and the manufacturer. These middle-men act as managers in the entire textile value chain. They grasp market information from retail market and provide valuable information to the manufacturers and build unique product information and provide it to retailers from the manufacturers. Wholesalers have a different picture in India than in developed countries. In India, we have different clusters who present things differently with little or no synchronization in a de-centralized and unorganized market. Let's look at a small picture of an Indian wholesaler: older people handling ancestor's business since years, fixed customers, old shops, monotonous business and the people handling the business lack computer skills and vision for future expansion. How do you like this picture?? This picture encompasses most of the wholesale market, Eg. Chandni Chowk in Delhi, Mulji Jetha Market (M.J. Market) in Mumbai (which is the largest textile market in Asia). Here, hardly any young and dynamic people are involved in this business. If this is the picture, is this industry really growing? Why isn't the younger generation being involved in this business? Is all the excitement and challenge lost? Think about it..!!! Very few people had visualized this picture a decade ago and have worked on it. It is surprising to know that wholesalers from small towns (2-tier and 3-tier cities) thought about it and have managed to completely change the picture by taking retail and international approach. Eg. Jalan Group's Jalan Wholesale Bazaar, Varanasi. Recently Metro Cash and Carry was opened in Bhandup, Mumbai. But this idea needs to be increased manifolds for a competitive structure. Recently, in a wholesaler's meeting, wholesalers shared their views regarding how their market can be improved through change in facilities and approach so they can become more professional, international and July - September 2012

be upgraded as retailers. Their views are summarized as below: ŸSpace: Wholesalers should have bigger space than retail, as they need to carry more stock. Generally in western world, wholesale shops are situated away from city because they get huge spaces at cheaper rates and rents as compared to city areas. They expect and cater only to retailers as buyers who purchase huge quantities. Eg. Costco in USA. ŸStock Display: Need to display full stock and keep adequate stock. Update and Monitor the stock with ERP system. ŸSelf Service: Stock should be placed such that the customers can pickup conveniently. ŸHome Delivery: Hassle-free, convenient delivery for large items. ŸNeed to move out from market and meet customers for their wants and feedback. ŸRequire variety and innovative ways in their display and marketing approach. ŸValue added gifts, food, and entertainment to attract customers. ŸPreviously wholesalers had no targets, but today's market where FDI is opened; international players are looking upon India as world market. Wholesalers need to change their mind-set. They need to set targets as Yearly/ Quarterly/ Monthly/ Daily. ŸProper planning for procurement and marketing. ŸRegular staff training and meetings to achieve competent staff. Hire competent, talented, taskoriented people rather than non-competent relatives and friends. Have a professional approach for same and have perks for best salesman of the month/ year.

Wholesale business is risky but has a huge scope as wholesalers have the world open to explore as a market as compared to retailers (with minimal open market scope). As someone had aptly said 'Big risk Big Gain… No risk no gain…!!!' References: Seminar in Infashion 2012 Trade Exhibition. Picture: http://indianbazaars.blogspot.in/2010/04/ mulji-jetha-market-textile-bazaar-in.html

39


Textile Value Chain

SKILL GAP ANALYSIS STATE

NON SSI

SSI

TOTAL

Tamilnadu

868

976

1844

Maharashtra

126

17

868

Haryana

66

72

138

Andra Pradesh

108

20

128

Punjab

79

30

109

Uttar Pradesh

53

42

95

Gujarat

37

22

59

Rajashtan

47

8

55

Karnataka

47

6

53

Madhya Pradesh

42

8

50

Kerela

30

5

35

West Bengal

21

0

21

Himachal Pradesh

18

2

20

Orissa

16

1

17

Others

39

10

49

SKILL GAPS & NTS REQUIREME IN SPINNING -ICRA Management Consulting Services Limited (IMaCS), www.nsdcindia.org 1. INTRODUCTION Spinning is the process of converting cotton or man-made fibres into yarn to be used for weaving and knitting. Largely, due to deregulation beginning in the mid-1980s, spinning is the most consolidated and technically efficient sector in India's textile industry. Although the spinning sector now includes a number of technologically advanced spinning mills, the average plant size and level of modernization remain low by international standards. 2. SPINNING MILLS At end of March 2008, India had around 2,816 spinning mills including 1,219 in the small-scale industries (SSI) sector. These mills had an installed capacity of 34.41 million spindles (including 4.17 million in the SSI sector), and a workforce of 0.625 million (including 0.05 million in the SSI sector).Tamil Nadu (TN) has the highest number of spinning units and accounts for 65% of the total number of spinning units in the country.

Blow Room

Carding

Drawing

achieving the desired level quality, mixing of two or more types of cotton is carried out in the blow room. The loose cotton passed through the blow room machinery is converted into regular sheets called laps. Carding: The material received from blow room is processed on the carding machines which produce a

Roving

3. PRODUCTION PROCESSES INVOLVED IN SPINNING Common industrial spinning techniques include ring spinning, open-end (rotor) spinning, and air-jet spinning. The process description of a typical ring spinning process is depicted below. 3.1 PRODUCTION PROCESSES IN SPINNING Blow room operations: The blow room machinery performs the function of opening pressed bales of cotton and cleaning the cotton of impurities. Trash and foreign matter is extracted from the cotton with the least amount of lint loss. Blow room line consists of opening, cleaning, mixing and lap making machine. In order to produce uniform quality of yarn and also to reduce the cotton cost of yarn while

40

Source: Ministry of Textiles, IMaCS Analysis

Spinning

Winding

Finishing

thin sheet of uniform thickness that is then condensed to form a thick, continuous, untwisted strand called sliver. This process also removes the remaining impurities from the cotton. Drawing: The fibres in the carded sliver are placed in a haphazard fashion and lack uniformity. The carded slivers are processed on the drawing frame; they are made uniform in thickness by the doubling process. The fibres get drawn parallel to the axis of the sliver by the drafting process. Roving: Slivers are to be thinned out to the level required for the yarn to be spun. This process of attenuating the slivers is done in several steps on speed frames. While converting slivers into roving, a small

July - September 2012


SKILL GAPS ANALYSIS amount of twist is also inserted so that the roving can withstand the winding and the unwinding operations. Spinning: The roving bobbins are taken to the ring frames where it is drafted (extended) to the extent of desired level (i.e. count). The spindle along with the ring traveler mounted on a ring, imparts the requisite amount of twist into the yarn. The yarn is wound on bobbins and taken to post spinning operations. Winding: The yarn is wound over paper cones to make final packages after passing through electronic yarn cleaners for removal of any defects. The ends are 'spliced' to produce knot-less yarns.

Textile Value Chain Finishing: Further operations on the yarn, such as Bleaching, Dyeing, and Packaging will depend on the intended usage of the yarn. 4. SKILL REQUIREMENTS AND SKILL GAPS The diversification, impact of globalization, market forces and more recently the recession has led businesses to move toward a strategy of differentiation. This requires a new set of skills and technical capabilities in-house to remain competitive in both domestic and international markets. In the chart below, we can see the functions, levels and skill requirements and gaps in the spinning process.

Function : PROCUREMENT Level : 1 Purchase Management Skill Ÿ Knowledge of various types of cotton in terms of pile length and suitability for the desired type of yarns Required Ÿ Knowledge of types of cotton defects – while handling, processing or other factors Ÿ Awareness of the latest trends in the market and ability to anticipate their impact on procurement Ÿ Negotiation and communication skills for negotiating with cotton traders Skill Gap Ÿ Lack of English language and adequate knowledge to source from international destinations -Awareness of the latest price trends and source destinations is limited to the domestic market Ÿ In-depth knowledge of the various types of cotton and quality parameters

Level : 2 Purchase Associate / Executive Skill Ÿ Ability to calculate the amount of cotton required based on the desired “count” (quality) of the final Required yarn Ÿ Knowledge of various types of cotton defects and other quality parameters Ÿ Liaison with the cotton traders to ensure timely delivery of cotton Skill Gap Ÿ Insufficient knowledge of various types of cotton defects and other quality parameters

Function : MAINTENANCE Level : 1 Maintenance Manager Ÿ Knowledge of current machine tools and maintenance requirements of various textile machines and Skill Required ensure availability of the spare parts in a spinning unit Ÿ Communication skills to liaison with machine manufacturers to understand the maintenance requirements of various machines Ÿ Plan & supervise maintenance of machines to ensure minimal machine downtime. This is crucial for spinning units which are very technology intensive

Skill Gap Ÿ Inadequate knowledge of current machinery, maintenance requirements and technicalities

Level : 2 Maintenance Operators (Fitters) Skill Ÿ Ability to carry out routine maintenance operations such as greasing Required Ÿ Ensure that minor issues are taken care of in a prompt manner and escalate major issues Skill Gap Ÿ Fitters from Industrial Training Institutes (ITI) have limited knowledge of maintenance of spinning machinery. The ITI do not provide training specific to the textile machines

July - September 2012

41


SKILL GAPS ANALYSIS

Textile Value Chain

Function : PRODUCTION Level : 1 Production Manager / Shift In charge Skill ŸAbility to oversee plant operations and technical competence in all aspects Required ŸProblem solving skills, good communication skills to manage shop floor workers who are mostly minimally educated ŸProcess improvement skills to improve profitability- waste control, finding solutions to maintenance and engineering related problems as most of the units do not have a dedicated R&D for process improvement Skill Gap ŸInadequate cross-functional knowledge of maintenance, machines and tools ŸInsufficient soft skills to manage shop floor people ŸAwareness of modern production methods and machines is limited

Level : 2 Supervisor Skill ŸIn-depth knowledge of production process and spinning machines Required ŸMan-management skills to manage shop floor workers who are mostly minimally educated and ability to train operators to man the spinning machines ŸAwareness of quality requirements of the yarn across various stages of production ŸMonitor cleaning and maintenance schedule of the spinning machinery Skill Gap ŸLack of man-management skills to manage shop floor personnel ŸThe supervisors typically have work experience in particular processes of the spinning mill as operator and do not have a formal training/education of other processes ŸAwareness of modern spinning machines is limited

Level : 3 Operator Skill ŸOperating knowledge of the spinning machines and ability to work on different machines. E.g. a spinning Required operator should be able to work on carding, roving and spinning machines ŸMonitor spinning operation as regards to the availability of sliver/bundles/lap as input to respective stages of the spindling operation ŸShould be able to read gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly and ensure that machine stoppage time in minimal ŸDiscipline at shop floor, punctuality and regular attendance at workplace ŸAdherence to cleaning and machine maintenance schedule. Understanding of support to be provided for maintenance of various textile machines ŸAbility to comply with quality norms Skill Gap ŸKnowledge/ Skill confined to single or few machines ŸLack of knowledge of compliance to quality ŸInadequate ability to multitask between different types of machines

Function : QUALITY Level : 1 Quality Control Supervisor / Manager Skill ŸUnderstand the quality requirements of the yarn in terms of “count”, breakage during weaving etc and the Required quality parameters across the various stages of assembly line ŸKnowledge of types of cotton defects – while handling, processing or other factors Skill Gap ŸInadequate ability to translate buyer requirements to quality parameters ŸIgnorance of cause-effect relationships for various defects like breakage of threads, etc

Level : 2 Quality Control Executive Skill ŸUnderstanding of quality parameters and ensure that they are adhered to by diligently checking the Required product. If not followed severely affects the fabric manufacturers ŸAct promptly and liaison with production to minimize the quality issues Skill Gap ŸInadequate understanding of quality parameters.

42

July - September 2012


SKILL GAPS ANALYSIS

Textile Value Chain

Function : SALES Level : 1 Sales Manager Skill ŸDetailed product knowledge in terms of type of fibre and other technical parameters Required ŸGood negotiation skills are a must as the yarn market is very cost sensitive. Minor quality issues tend to result in high discounts ŸGood communication skills to interact with the team as well as with the important clients. Knowledge of English is important in case of international clients Skill Gap ŸNegotiation and communication skills. Also, South-based spinning mills require people with knowledge of Hindi which are difficult to find

Level : 2 Sales Executives Skill ŸAwareness of competitor actions and provide feedback to the management Required ŸUnderstanding of customer requirements in terms of quality of yarn ŸGood communication skills to interact with the team and important clients Skill Gap ŸNegotiation and communication skills. Also, South-based spinning mills require people with knowledge of Hindi which are difficult to find

5. DISTRIBUTION OF RESOURCES To further analyze the skill requirements and gaps in the spinning sector we need to also look at distribution of the human resources in the key spinning areas and the education levels of these resources. 5.1 Distribution of human resource by education level

Sub Segment

Engineer

Spinning unit

5% - 7%

Diploma or ITI and other equivalent vocational certificate by course/ other agencies certificates 8% - 10%

10% - 12%

Other graduates 2% - 3%

12th/10th std/ minimally CA/ MBA / etc. educated 1% - 2%

70% - 80%

5.2 Functional distribution of human resource across key sectors

Functions Department

Procurement

Productions

Sales

Quality

Engineer Maintenance

Support Functions

Spinning unit

1% - 2%

75% - 85%

2% - 3%

4% - 5%

4% - 5%

10% - 20%

CONCLUSION Widening skill gap and high attrition rates is probably compelling the textile industry to find ways and means to address these issues to sustain in business. Given the current environment, there is greater emphasis to deal with these skills issues from within industry alongside an established education sector. There is an urgent need to find colleges and or training providers that can deliver relevant training and technical skills, and improving in-house training, through the development of in-house coaches. Whilst at graduate level, there is a high level of concern at the lack of relevant design and technical skills for current business and commercial needs. The above skill sets and specific focus areas outlined earlier will be the major drivers of human resource requirement in the Textile and Clothing industry. Skill building in these areas would be the key to industry competitiveness going forward and it emphasizes how vital it is that the right skills are accessed to optimize the growth areas where they exist and to remain competitive internationally.

July - September 2012

43


Textile Value Chain

CAREER TIES OPPORTUNI PEOPLE IN FASHION AND TEXTILES What can you expect from a career in the fashion and textiles industry? How do you get the foot in the door? what skills do you need to achieve your goals ? Find out more about roles in fashion and textiles from real people work in the industry. They tell us how to equip yourselves for a bright future in the industry.

Sarah Nizam, Freelancer Designer/Fashion Columnist, Ex Lecturer of Sasmira for Fashion Designing Dept. , Masters from NIFT, Chennai.

A brief visit to any of the fashion colleges would make any fashion industry insider feel, “Oh Dear, I wish things were as rosy as you imagine they are”. My stint as a lecturer made me realize how far the students were from the REALITY. A few ice breakers like “What do you see yourself doing five years down the line?” or “Why fashion designing?” only further added weightage to the conclusion that, “The students of fashion are indeed very naive.” One answer that my mind refuses to forget was, “Ma'm, I have a passion for fashion.” Those were heavy words coming from a first year student of fashion and however mindlessly they were uttered these words pretty much defined the very spirit of the fashion Industry. This being my first article I would like to shed some light on how far from reality we as students are and the wakeup call that we all get when we start seeking employment in the Industry. Hopefully this article will also enable a lucid and planned approach towards selecting fashion designing as a career and much more. Initially we all start with the dream of owning a super successful fantastic looking boutique at a fabulous, high profile locale of Mumbai, generating loads of profits and hitting the headlines of Fashions magazines for our innovative designs and money making business. All this, right after completing our so-called degrees and diplomas. If only it was this easy to achieve our goals and fulfill our dreams.

44

Firstly, as students we should understand that the fashion world is not only about glamorous models and celebrities strutting our outfits. It is also not only about meeting up with high-end clientele and catering to their needs alone. It is not only about giving saucy interviews to the paparazzi and keeping in touch with the top notch elites. If at all you have been thinking about all these things happening to you then sorry to break it to you but you need to come out of your dreamland as soon as possible. As an aspirant you firstly need to introspect. You will have to analyze yourself. Understand and accept your strengths and weaknesses. Many a times in life we run after things which are just not meant for us. We have the example of our own master blaster Sachin Tendulkar who went to a cricket camp to become a fast bowler but was rejected. He did not give up at that. He went in to that camp again but as a batsman this time and the rest is history. Similarly, an aspirant may be a good stylist but not a good business person. The fashion industry consists of various categories which help in the smooth working of the businesses like merchandising, buying, planning, design team, garment manufacturing etc. All one has to do is realize ones abilities and strengths and accordingly work towards achieving ones target or goal.

Expect the unexpected. Yes, because this attitude shall take one a long way. Be open to experiences as everything shall help one learn the finer nuances of the fashion industry. Be prepared to take yourself to places one would not visit on an ordinary day; the busy bylanes of Dharavi to meet up with a job-worker or the dusty and narrow lanes of Jogeshwari, handloom societies down in Erode, Tamil Nadu where one can witness the dying art or the factories in Vapi, updated with the latest machineries. Every place one visits and every person one meets teaches you something. All said and done, advice to students would be to break things down as to what are the various specializations in the industry. Then zeroing down on the most appropriate one where you think you can see yourself as a capable contributor. Join courses which you think would be able enough to boost your abilities and help you in achieving what you have planned for.

July - September 2012


CAREER OPPORTUNITIES EDUCATION AKE ABROAD - M N IO S YOUR PAS R E YOUR CARE

Rajul J. Shah MFA in Fashion Design, Academy of Art University, CA, USA Worked in USA as Technical Designer

When most people think about a fashion career, they picture a designer sketching an idea for a new dress, or a model walking down a runway to show off the latest design. While the fashion industry is incomplete without designers or models, there are also a number of other fashion careers that people might forget about. In fact, many of the fashion professionals who go unnoticed are the patternmakers, seamstresses, material sourcers, amongst many others. The designs that one sees on a regular basis are actually the product of a process that involves a number of different individuals with a variety of different skills. One should know a little more about the fashion industry in order to understand the careers one can pursue. The fashion industry is attracting more probable employees than ever now. Thanks to Bollywood and Hollywood fashionistas, red carpet events and the explosion of media's interests in fashion. It's an industry that's in high demand. However, it's also a notoriously difficult industry to break into, so you have to make yourself stand out to be successful. For that, one has to have a stellar education and internships (even if you are just doing swatch libraries !!!) before stepping in the real world. Obviously, going to colleges for formal training won't guarantee your

July - September 2012

Textile Value Chain

“Fashion is not necessarily about labels. It's not about brands. It's about something else that comes from within you.” -Ralph Lauren dream job in fashion but education brings out the talent and sharpens the skills which are acquired through professional training and internships. The fashion industry is typically split into four main fields: design, manufacturing, marketing/ promotion, and retail sales. Careers include, modeling, photography, sales personnel, stylist, apparel, technical and accessory designing, pattern making, marketing, retail management, buyer, seamstress (tailor), visual merchandisers, journalist and many more. In this article, we will be covering fashion and textile colleges in US and UK only, though one can study in many other places like Italy and France where knowledge of the Italian and French languages is helpful to go about. When one is trying to pick a college, one should not just stop at the top 10 or top 20 colleges. Besides college rankings, one needs to consider their own needs, career goals and optimal learning environment with opportunities. The points below should help: Ÿ Courses: Colleges offer Associate degrees, certificate programs, undergraduate and graduate programs in various directions from trading, marketing, journalism, designing in basically everything (textile, apparel, accessory with further majors)– sky is the limit – study the programs and make your pick wisely). One should also make sure that the college is accredited. Ÿ Location: Location is important when one is considering where to pursue their degree, but not necessarily because the college is in 'the fashion capital'. Other metropolitan areas may offer local fashion industry opportunities, or have connections with the fashion world that enable you to meet top designers and apply for entry-level jobs and internships. Ÿ Admission: Most basic requirements are multi –faceted portfolio (slide or CD format or as per college), TOEFL score, resume, recommendation letter from teacher or employer, official transcripts (attested mark sheets and/or degree), statement of intent, affidavit of support (for financial reasons), etc. More details would be available on the college websites.

45


CAREER OPPORTUNITIES 타 Cost: Generally fees vary from $ 15,000 to $

40,000/ yr on college tuition fees alone, depending on the course. Supplies, living and food are extra expenses which one should account for. If one cannot afford the program outright, a good set of financial aid offerings may still make it possible to attend. Properly accredited institutions will enable you to take advantage of a wider range of financial aid options. However, financial aid is not available in private colleges. Studying abroad is a challenge at first but then a delight. The teaching methods are very practical based than theory. Creativity is not bound and has no limits here since one can be very creative as one is not 'told' what to do, the way we are told in the Indian system. Classes have people of varied age groups, backgrounds and countries giving one an exciting holistic learning experience. The classes are smaller so the teachers can actually impart every individual his/her guidance and attention. Often classes do not fill a student's entire day or week. In the free time, one can attend free classes on the campuses such that if one is lacking in some skills or wants to acquire new skills they can do so. One can also do on campus jobs to help them

46

Textile Value Chain financially and learn the western way of working. There are also many campus events where one can participate which help in embracing the new life effortlessly. Fashion and Textile jobs will continue to flourish as it is a growing field due to the consistent need for qualified professionals. Competition is fierce and will only intensify. Those who want to stand out must satisfy higher educational degrees and should possess originality, innovativeness and persistence. In all, a fashion or textile career isn't for the faint of hearted. People in this field need to thrive in high-pressure environments. Those entering this occupation should be willing to work in a team, should be detail oriented with great organizational skills, work late unpredictable hours and work well under the demands of deadlines. They should also be able to handle criticism. Critics in this field can be brutal. Successful people know how to learn from a critique while maintaining their individual style. At the same time, it needs creativity, blend of fashion sense and business expertise, strategy and marketing know-how which are an integral part of this industry.

July - September 2012


CAREER OPPORTUNITIES

Textile Value Chain

International Colleges for Textiles & Fashion College East Coast Pratt Institute, Brooklyn Parsons New School for Design, New York City

Website Top Colleges in U.S.A. www.pratt.edu/academics/art_design/

Fashion Institute of Technology ( FIT), New York City

www.newschool.edu/parsons/academics.aspx www.fitnyc.edu/

Rhode Island School of Design, Providence

www.risd.edu/

Massachusetts College of Art and Design, Boston

www.massart.edu/

Maryland Institute College of Art,(MICA) Baltimore,

www.mica.edu/Programs_of_Study.html

Syracuse College, New York

vpa.syr.edu/art-design

West Coast Academy of Art University( AAU), San Francisco

Top Colleges in U.S.A. www.academyart.edu/fashion-school/index.html

California College of the Arts (CCA), San Francisco and Oakland

www.cca.edu/academics

Fashion Institute of Design and Merchandising (FIDM), Los Angeles, San Francisco, San Diego & Irvine

www.fidm.edu/

Otis College of Art and Design, Los Angeles

www.otis.edu/

University of California, Davis( UC Davis)

www.ucdavis.edu/

Midwest

Top Colleges in U.S.A.

Kent State University, Ohio

www.kent.edu/artscollege/fashion/

Cleveland Institute of Art, Ohio

www.cia.edu/

University of Cincinnati, Ohio

www.artsci.uc.edu/

School of the Art Institute of Chicago (SAIC)

www.saic.edu/

Savannah College of Art and Design in Savannah

www.scad.edu/programs/fashion/index.cfm

Colleges in London, U.K. School of Fashion and design (SFD)

www.sfdlondon.com/

Central Saint Martins College of art and design

www.csm.arts.ac.uk/

University of Westminster

www.westminsterfashion.com/

Royal College of Art, London

www.rca.ac.uk/

London College of Fashion

www.fashion.arts.ac.uk/

Kingston University

www.kingston.ac.uk/

Colleges in Paris, France ESMOD International Fashion University Group, +21 schools in 14 countries

www.esmod.com/en/index.html

The Institut Francais de la Mode (IFM), Paris

www.ifm-paris.com

Ecole de la Chambre Syndicale de la Couture Parisienne,

www.modeaparis.com/en

Studio Bercot

www.studio-bercot.com/pages-en/sb_en.html

Colleges in Italy Istituto Marangoni – Milan, Paris and London campuses

www.istitutomarangoni.com/home/eng

Polimoda,Florence

www.polimoda.com/en/home

Koefia (International Academy of Haute Couture and Art of Costume, Milan

www.koefia.com/

July - September 2012

47


Textile Value Chain

VEERMATA JIJABAI TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE (VJTI) COMPLETES 125 GLORIOUS YEARS HISTORY A great institution is born in the minds of great men. A magnificent college in the name of Victoria Jubilee Technical Institute was born in the city of Bombay in 1887 and it was due to the culmination of ideas of great men like Lord Reay, Nowrosjee Wadia, Pherozshah Mehta, M.C. Murzban, Harkishandas Nurrotumdas and M.G. Ranade. The leader behind the scheme of establishing this Institute for training in Industrial Arts and Science (as it was being called in that era) was, beyond doubt, Lord Reay. Being the governor of the Bombay Presidency, he was in a position to bring together people from various fields (along with their resources) and give effect to this grand idea. Dinshaw Maneckji Petit, a distinguished prominent businessman of the city of Bombay, helped in the scheme of things with his magnanimous grant of the Building at Byculla. When he learnt of the difficulty experienced by the VJTI committee in obtaining a suitable building, he decided to donate the Elphinstone College building at Byculla. These buildings were quite suitable for a Technological Institute, having a fairly large Campus and being located in the midst of the Mechanical and Textile Industries at that time. The classes began on 1st September 1888 and a formal inauguration of the institute took place on 10th April 1889.

CURRENT STATUS Established in 1887, the Institute was renamed Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute in 1996. VJTI enjoys the pride and status of a premier technological institute among engineering colleges in the country. VJTI is a fully State Government grantin- aid autonomous Institute. It is affiliated to the Mumbai University and approved by the AICTE. Institute also has obtained the accreditation of National Board of Accreditation (NBA) for its UG and PG courses. The Diploma is affiliated to the MSBTE. The Institute was granted financial and academic autonomy from June 21, 2004. The college is located at a very prime location in the central part of the Mumbai city in 'Matunga'. It has only one campus and is spread across a sprawling area of 16.4 acres. All the departments are wellequipped with class rooms, seminar rooms, departmental library, and computer laboratories apart from the various laboratories. The common facilities for all the students include the Institute's library, elibrary, central computing facilities, Gymkhana, Auditorium, play ground, canteen and distance education centers. All the departments are well equipped with modern teaching aids such as LCD projection facilities and internet. DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILES The department of Textile Manufactures was started as the Ripon Textile School in the early days of the institute. The department is currently located in the northern light steel trussed roof building. It has a variety of modern spinning and weaving machines and laboratory equipment. The department carries out industry consultancy projects and is recognized by the Government of India as an official testing facility. In-plant training is an integral part of the learning process at the diploma and B. Tech levels. Courses are available in: 타 Licentiate in Textile Manufacturers

VEERMATA JIJABAI TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE (VJTI)

48

타 Diploma in Textile Design

July - September 2012


VJTI

Textile Value Chain

Ÿ B.Tech degree in Textile Ÿ M.Tech degree in textile Technology

Laboratories and testing facilities are available in areas of: Ÿ Spinning Ÿ Weaving Ÿ Chute Feed Systems Ÿ Screen Printing Ÿ Exposure Rooms Ÿ Evenness Analysis Ÿ Yarn Testing Ÿ Geo-Textiles

RANKING VJTI is ranked #22 by India Today in the Best Engineering colleges, 2012 and #32 by Outlook India in Top Engineering Colleges of 2012. STAR NEWS honoured VJTI as outstanding engineering institute (West) during National B- school Awards on 12th February 2011 in Recognition of Leadership, Development, Innovation, Modern and Industry

Related Curriculum in Engineering & Technology. ABP news has also declared VJTI as Best Institute in Western Region. It has also been ranked as Top Engineering College of Super Excellence in India and placed at rank 13 by Competition Success Review on July 19, 2011. In rankings limited to private colleges it was ranked #7 by Mint in the Top 50 Private Engineering Colleges of 2009. TEQIP (I) ranked VJTI as number 1 in the country in academic excellence. FUTURE Under the World Bank Technical Education Quality Programme (TEQIP), the institute has several projects underway to establish itself as a world class technology institute. New laboratories have been created and centers of excellence have been set up. VJTI has upgraded the library facilities with a smart library card and E-library facility. Their vision of establishing global leadership in the field of Technology and developing competent human resources for providing service to society is not very far.

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49

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Textile Value Chain

TEXTILE TRADESHOW

50

Tradeshow from 15th July 2012 - 15th Oct 2012

Exhibition Name Date Venue Organizer Name Contact Details Exhibition Profile

India International Garment Fair 2012 16 July 2012 - 18 July 2012 Pragati Maidan, New Delhi, India Apparel Export Promotion Council www.indiaapparelfair.com Manufacturer and exporter of Casual wear & city wear, high fashion & occasional wear, lingerie & under wear, athletic, sports & outerwear, formal business wear, children wear.

Exhibition Name Date Venue Organizer Name Contact Details Exhibition Profile

Fashionista 2012 20th July 2012- 22 July 2012 Hotel The Grand Thakar, Jawahar Road, Rajkot Fashionista www.fashionistaindia.com Manufacturer and Traders of Fashion Garments and Accessories

Exhibition Name Date Venue Organizer Name Contact Details Exhibition Profile

KNIT SHOW 2012 12th August 2012 – 14th August 2012 VELAN HOTEL FAIR GROUND, TIRUPUR Knit show www.knitshow.in Manufacturer , Traders, exporters of Garment accessory, fabric, machinery

Exhibition Name Date Venue Organizer Name Contact Details Exhibition Profile

Indigo International Denim Industry Growth Opportunity 2012 30th August 2012 -31st August 2012 Expocenter, Noida Denim Club India www.denimclubindia.org Denim mills, denim manufacturer and suppliers of accessories, embellishments, service provider, vendors of CAD/CAM, ERP Solution provider

Exhibition Name Date Venue Organizer Name Contact Details Exhibition Profile

India International Yarn Exhibition – Yarnex 2012 31st August, 2012 To 2nd September, 2012 India Knit Fair Complex, Tirupur, India Yarnex www.yarnex.in Manufacturer ,traders of fibres , yarns, services: CAD/Cam, chemicals, auxiliaries July - September 2012


TEXTILE TRADESHOW

Textile Value Chain

Tradeshow from 15th July 2012 – 15th Oct 2012 Exhibition Name Date Venue Organizer Name Contact Details Exhibition Profile

Technotex India 2012 27th Sep 2012- 29th Sep 2012 MMRDA Ground, Bandra (E), Mumbai, India FICCI www.technotexindia.in Technical textile manufacturer, traders

Exhibition Name Date Venue Organizer Name Contact Details Exhibition Profile

India International Yarn & Fabric Show 2012 11th Oct 2012 ~ 13th October 2012 Chennai Trade Centre, Chennai – India Conference & Exhibition Management Services Ltd. http://www.yarnandfabric.org Manufacturer of fabrics, yarns and fibre, Accessories

Exhibition Name Date Venue Organizer Name Contact Details Exhibition Profile

Dye+Chem India 2012 International Expo 11th October, 2012 To 13th October, 2012 Chennai Trade Centre, Chennai - India Conference & Exhibition Management Services Ltd. http://www.dyechemonline.org Manufacturer, traders of dyestuff, pigment, auxiliaries, dye intermediate

Show report of Garfab TX 2012, Surat Vardaan Events Pvt Ltd organised Garfab-TX Surat, which is one of the top knitting and apparel sector trade shows in India. The show served as a convenient platform for leading industry professionals to interact and exchange the latest information from this sector. Exhibitors showcased a diverse range of fabrics, apparel items, leather products, knitting machines, looms, weaving tools, printing equipments and other related accessories. Among the products on display were threads, needles, fibre, yarn, fabrics; embroidery, weaving, apparel and finishing technology, accessories, texturizing, dyeing, processing, printing, chemical laboratory equipments, trimming, embellishment, and many more items. Highlights of the show were: The chief highlights of the Garfab-TX Surat show were: Ÿ The launch of the textile machinery segment Ÿ Live demonstration sessions of machineries Ÿ Excellent business networking opportunities and Ÿ Latest technological advancements from the apparel and knitting sector. Sources: http://www.biztradeshows.com/vardaan-events/#past http://www.biztradeshows.com/garfab-surat/

July - September 2012

51


GOVERNMENT POLICY INTEGRATED TEXTILES PARKS IN 12TH PLAN The Indian textile industry has its inherent advantages; but infrastructure bottleneck is one of the prime areas of concern. In July 2005, the Scheme for Integrated Textile Park (SITP) was approved to provide world-class infrastructure facilities for setting up their textile units of international standards at potential growth centers. The SITP seeks green field investments in the textiles sector on a public private partnership basis with the objective of setting up world class infrastructure for the textile industry. As per the target, forty (61) Textile Park projects have been sanctioned. Taking into consideration the response to the scheme in the quota free regime, the Govt of India has decided to continue the SITP in the 12th Five Year Plan. This will facilitate additional investments, employment generation and increase in textile production. Industry Associations / Groups of Entrepreneurs would be the main promoters of the Textiles Park by forming a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) for implementation/ management of the project. Ministry of Textiles has engaged eight (7) Project Management Consultants (PMCs) who will help the promoters inform SPV for preparation of Detailed Project Reports, etc., for which Ministry of Textiles will pay fee to the PMCs. Detailed guidelines of the scheme, inter alia including the objective, salient features, level of assistance, role of SPV, PMC, State Govt. etc. and list of the empanelled PMCs can be obtained from: The SITP Cell, Ministry of Textiles, Room No. 515-C, Udyog Bhawan, New Delhi-11, Tel: 011 – 23061874. OBJECTIVES OF THE SCHEME: The SITP was launched by merging two schemes, namely, Apparel Parks for Exports Scheme (APES) and the Textiles Centre Infrastructure Development Scheme (TCIDS). The scheme would facilitate textile units to meet international environmental and social standards. This scheme envisages engaging of a panel of professional agencies for project identification and execution. Each Integrated Textile Park (ITP) would normally have 50 units. The number of entrepreneurs and the resultant investments in each ITP could vary from project to project. However, aggregate investment in land, factory buildings, plant &

52

Textile Value Chain machinery by the entrepreneurs in a Park shall be at least twice the cost of common infrastructure proposed for the Park. The ITPs may also be set up in the Special Economic Zones (SEZs), in which case the special provisions of SEZs would be applicable for them. In case it is desired for setup outside SEZs, proposal may be pursued with the Ministry of Commerce & Industry to declare the ITP as SEZ. SCOPE OF THE SCHEME: The scheme targets industrial locations with high growth potential, which require strategic interventions by way of providing top-notch infrastructure support. The project cost will cover common infrastructure and buildings for production/support activities (including textile engineering, accessories, packaging), depending on the needs of the ITP. There will be flexibility in setting up ITPs to suit the local requirements and it will have the following components: Group A - Land Group B - Common Infrastructure like compound wall, roads, drainage, water supply and electricity supply including captive power plant, effluent treatment, telecommunication lines etc. Group C - Buildings for common facilities like testing laboratory (including equipments), design center (including equipments), training center (including equipments), trade center/ display center, warehousing facility / raw material depot, one packaging unit, crèche, canteen, workers' hostel, offices of service providers, labour rest and recreation facilities, marketing support system (backward / forward linkages) etc. Group D - Factory buildings for production purposes Group E - Plant & machinery The items covered under each of the above Groups are illustrative only and every ITP may be developed to suit the specific production and business requirements of members of ITP. The Project Scrutiny Committee (PSC) will recommend on merit the inclusion or otherwise of a component in the project cost on case to case basis. The total Project Cost for the purpose of this Scheme includes the cost on account of components of ITP, as listed under Groups A, B, C and D above, provided the ownership of the factory buildings vests with the SPV. However, the SPV will have the option of seeking financial support from Govt. of India for components under Groups B and C only, if factory buildings are individually owned.

July - September 2012


July - September 2012

Hindupur Vyapar Apparel Park Limited

Pochampally Handloom Park Ltd

Brandix India Apparel City Private Ltd

MAS Fabric Park India Ltd

2

3

4

5

Sayana Textile Park Ltd

Surat Super Yarn Limited

RJD Integrated Textile Park ltd.

10

11

12

Latur Integrated Textile Park

Purna Global Textiles Park Ltd

20

21

(9) Maharashtra T otal

Islampur Integrated Textile Park

19

Hingoli, MH

Latur

Sangli,MH

945.86

91.80

102.61

102.08

200.79

103.12

Bhawandi

72.25

108.52

58.19

288.90

36.72

40.00

40.00

40.00

40.00

28.90

40.00

23.28

40.00

280.00

780.71 106.50

40.00

40.00

40.00

40.00

40.00

40.00

40.00

106.50

104.76

116.77

114.77

105.63

103.53

128.75

156.80

583.39

40.00

182.47

22.02

40.00

40.00

4.00

12.00

8.67

34.83

20.95

36.00

248.00

36.00

36.00

36.00

36.00

24.00

40.00

40.00

101.60

12.00

40.00 40.00

13.60

24.00

12.00

13.60

40.00

23.20

254.70

134.42

34.00

102.27

58.00

Ichalkaranji, MH

Dhule,MH

Baramati, MH

Asmeeta Infrastructure Pvt Ltd

Baramati Hi Tech Textile Park Ltd

15

Ichalkaranji, MH

18

Pride india cooperative Textile park Ltd

14

Ichalkaranji, MH

Surat

Surat, GJ

Surat, GJ

Kheda, GJ

Surat, GJ

Kutch, GJ

Surat, GJ

Nellore, AP

Vishakhapatnam AP

Pochampally, AP

Ananthpur, AP

Mahboob Nagar, AP

Location

Shri Dhairyashil Mane Textile Park Co-op 16 Society Ltd 17 Deesan Infrastructure Pvt Ltd

Metro Hi-Tech Cooperative Park Ltd

13

(7) Gujrat T otal

Vraj Integrated Textile Park Ltd

8

7

9

Gujarat Eco Textile Park Ltd

Mundra SEZ Textile & Apparel Park Ltd Fairdeal Textile Park Pvt Ltd

6

Hyderabad Hi-tech Weaving Park

1

(5) Andhra P radesh T otal

Project N ame

Sr. No.

188

41

20

12

65

50

167

22

85

86

774

579

27

50

21

53

11

33

62

16

317.62

54.70

50.00

34.50

72.68

105.74

65.00

60.00

26.68

99.10

499.83

55.94

43.29

56.80

69.82

53.63

116.24

104.11

1737.32

581.68

2191.61

205.00

257.42

334.28

673.23

721.68

376.55

250.00

203.00

335.00

3224.51

352.69

230.56

298.61

550.00

312.65

775.00

705.00

7383.52

1982.00

4878.03

50.00

265.49

208.00

15000

90000

3000

22000

2500

2500.00

7000.00

40.00

340.00

370.00

33144

1100

10000

10000

7634

4410

3300

5500

1500

5000

28652

4270

1000

3155

6250

2900

3077

8000

18616

550

0

0

11451

6615

5000

6000

2500

5000

51438

6405

2000

4733

12500

4300

4500

17000

6163.45

200.00

617.40

904.00

1045.52

2134.53

370.0 0

380.00

300.00

212.00

6626.54

597.54

1250.00

1312.00

617.00

1200.00

800.00

850.00

109000 132500 10250.00

31000

60000

5000

10500

2500

(Rs crores) Direct Indirect Rs Crores

Acres 60.24

Estimated Estimated Emplolyment in Annual Investment the Production in the Park Park

Land Area

400 Looms 3700 Garmenting 73.10 Machines 2 Units 6 uni ed clusters with 2000 22.30 Looms 17 1000.00

29

GOI's Grant Estimated GOI Grant No o f (40% o f Released up to Project project c ost Entrepreneurs/ Cost 29.02.2012 ( Rs. limited t o Units i n the Park Crore) (Rs c rore) Rs.40 c rore)

GOVERNMENT POLICY Textile Value Chain

INTEGRATED TEXTILES PARKS: 12th PLAN

53


54

Palladam Hi-Tech Weaving park

e Great Indian Linen & Textile Infrastructure Company SIMA Textile Processing Centre

Project Name

Madurai Integrated Textile Park Ltd

Vaigai Hi-Tech Weaving Park

Kanchipuram AACM Handloom Silk Park

27

28

29

Kishangarh Hi-Tech Textile Park Limited

Next Gen Textile Park Pvt Ltd

Jaipur Integrated Texcraft Park Pvt Ltd

Bharat Fabtex & Corporate Park Pvt Ltd

31

32

33

34

Rhythm Textile & Apparel Park Ltd

Ludhiana Integrated Textile Park Ltd

36

37

Doddabalapur Integerated Textile Park

CLC Textiile Park Pvt Ltd

39

40

eni

Chhindwara, MP

Doddabalapur, Karnataka

Kolkata, WB

Ludhiana, PB

Nawanshehar, PB

Barnala, PB

Pali

Jaipur, RJ

Pali, RJ

Kishangarh, RJ

Kishangarh, RJ

Kanchipuram

Vaigai,

Madurai, TN

Karur, TN

Komarapalayam, TN

Palladam, TN

Cuddalore, TN

Perundurai, TN

Location

Reference : Ministry of Textiles : www.texmin.nic.in

Total ( 40)

EIGMEF Apparel Park Limited

38

(3) Punjab

Lotus Integrated Tex Park

35

(5) Rajasthan Total

Jaipur Texweaving Park Limited

30

(8) Tamil Nadu Total

Karur Integrated Textile Park

26

25 Komarapalayam Hi-Tech Weaving Park Ltd.

24

23

22

Sr. No.

1384.74

110.35

351.91 4485.95

38.26

32.09

40.00

120.00

40.00

40.00

180.14 40.00

40.00

21.41

40.00

40.00

38.72

248.55

33.53

24.00

34.92

40.00

13.93

22.17

40.00

40.00

95.65

80.25

130.50

351.91

116.19

125.46

465.39 110.26

103.08

53.53

101.40

110.57

96.81

706.78

86.96

65.13

87.30

116.10

34.82

55.42

111.60

149.45

825.22

66.04

11.48

30.56

24.00

84.00

24.00

24.00

103.53 36.00

4.00

16.29

24.00

36.00

23.24

132.58

0.00

2.44

31.43

40.00

12.54

22.17

12.00

12.00

1893

165

20

72

73

77

55

14

188 8

27

20

53

37

51

439

115

90

15

42

57

90

10

20

Estimated GOI's Grant No of GOI Grant Project (40% of project Released up to Entrepreneurs/ cost limited to 29.02.2012 (Rs. Units in the Cost Park Crore) (Rs crore) Rs.40 crore)

4010.64

108.35

47.47

48.00

12.88

175.66

57.16

18.50

377.92 100.00

120.00

23.42

100.00

40.00

94.50

793.94

75.00

40.64

110.00

104

30.60

65.00

247.70

121.00

Acres

Land Area

18425.4

594.46

301.73

132.73

160.00

1404.55

217.00

339.84

1545.36 847.71

416.54

45.92

416.18

416.72

250.00

2081.89

119.86

145.22

409.76

227

33000

1000

2000

30000

26950

10000

14000

35800 2950

0

8800

10000

8000

9000

35500

0

0

4000

4000

1500

3500

15000

7500

282576 333812

14000

2000

2000

10000

23400

10000

11000

30300 2400

9450

4400

9450

4000

3000

44080

18000

6080

3000

3000

1500

2500

161.34 125.66

5000

5000

475.00

418.05

33963.5

1250.00

400.00

350.00

500.00

2590.00

500.00

350.00

3411.51 1740.00

921.51

90.00

1050.00

800.00

550.00

3672.00

118.00

361.00

900.00

623.00

350.00

300.00

500.00

520.00

Estimated Estimated Annual Investment Emplolyment in Production in the Park the (Rs crores) Direct Indirect Rs Crores

GOVERNMENT POLICY Textile Value Chain

July - September 2012


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CORPORATE FUN

56

Do your little bit of good where you are, it is those little bits of good put together that overwhelm the world. “ - Desmond Tutu

July - September 2012


Bombay Rayon Fashions Limited About Us BRFL is a vertically integrated textile company, engaged in the manufacture of a wide range of fabrics and garments from state of the art production facilities. Apart from being the largest Shirt manufacturer in India, we have successfully evolved into a multi-fiber manufacturing company producing fabrics such as Cotton, Polyester, Tencel, Modal, Lycra, Wool and various blends. Our yarn dyed fabric, printing techniques, finishing, processing, weaving, stitching are a mark of excellence making every piece of fabric perfect. With fabric manufacturing facilities of 100 million meters per annum, garment manufacturing facilities of 60 million pieces per annum, being expanded to 90 million pieces per annum and a strong employee base of around 38,000; BRFL is today one of the most sought after brands in the Indian as well as International fashion markets. Clothing is one of the strongest human desires. A desire to be different. A desire to look beautiful. A desire to be comfortable. A desire to make a statement. A desire that is fulfilled by that perfect piece of fabric called 'BRFL'. Woven with passion, our fabrics speak a story of novelty. BRFL has grown phenomenally and the reason has been our customers. Inspired towards betterment, we now possess the entire knowhow and technology for yarn dyeing, fabric weaving, processing and garment manufacturing. BRFL is one of India's most dynamic and professionally managed textile groups.No wonder, we are well renowned in the fashion export industry worldwide.

Products

RETAIL

FABRIC

Guru, a renowned apparel brand in Italy has been a subsidiary of BRFL since 2008. Guru has stores in 18 countries around the World, including Italy, Spain, France, Germany, Holland, Belgium, Luxemburg, Greece, England, Portugal, the Middle East, Turkey, Russia, Ukraine, Austria, Switzerland, the Canary Islands, Scandinavia, China and India.

Every thread woven at Bombay Rayon Fashions Limitedis a part of an incredible range of fabrics that BRFL has to offer. Each fabric has one inherent quality Comfort. Our promise to manufacture the finest fabrics inspires us to put in that extra effort to create magic. We showcase an enormous range of fabrics and size offerings available in various colours to suit every occasion and every budget.

APPAREL Comfortable, durable and stylish are the inherent qualities of the range of apparels available. Admiration is guaranteed with BRFL apparels.

YARN In 2010 Bombay Rayon Fashions Ltd. completed its vertical integration in the textile industry with the acquisition of a yarn manufacturing company of great repute, STI India Ltd, thus making BRFL one of the privileged few to have the capability of producing everything from yarn to garment.

TRIMS With an initial goal to maintain quality and consistency in button manufacturing, BRFL has set up an in -house state of the art button manufacturing unit, the Trims Division is today the largest and most sophisticated Button Industry in India.

(The Company was originally incorporated as Mudra Fabrics Private Limited on May 21, 1992. Name of the Company was changed to Mudra Fabrics Limited w.e.f. October 13, 1992. Name of the Company

Registered Office: D-1st Floor, Oberoi Garden Estates, Chandivali Farms Road, Chandivali, Andheri (East), Mumbai - 400 072 Tel: +91-22-39858800 Fax: +91-22-28476992 Email: chandresh.dedhia@bombayrayon.com

Web: www.bombayrayon.com

ADVT.

was further changed to Bombay Rayon Fashions Limited w.e.f. September 30, 2004)


ADVT.

July- Sep 2014, Volume 1. Issue 2  

textile magazine

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