Page 1

The Grotesque

Underground_ Detroit Katie Cressall

source:, user : gnackgnackgnack June_2 3009

The Gem Theatre


003 Underground_Detroit

Katie Cressall

025 What Once Made Us Now Destroys Us

Jarrett Fishman

067 Failed Initiatives

Nathan Johnson

117 Behind the Brand

Alivia Stalnaker

163 Eminent Domain in Detroit

Dorothy Schwankl

193 Tracing a Culture

Tadeusz Bazydlo

229 Detroit: The Grotesque. Otherwise.

Ayesha Sarfraz

255 In Response: Two Tales of Detroit

Matt Slingerland

267 Urban Forest

Kahyun Lee

299 Trapping, Lumbering, & Mining

Michael McBean

379 Great Lakes_Shoreline

Lauren Jennifer Barry

401 The Lake Effect

Sarah Petri

439 Ballast Water Invasion

Youngkuk Hwang




Underground_ Detroit Katie Cressall

source:, user : gnackgnackgnack June_2 3009


UNDERGROUND_ water/sewer

The Lake Huron plant, dedicated in 1973, was the realization of a dream dating back to Gardner Williams, a civil engineer employed by the Detroit Board of Water Commissioners. He is credited with originating the idea of tapping into Lake Huron in 1895. With a population of nearly two million in the 1950s, urban planners looked at a bright future with nothing but continued, unlimited expansion for the City of Detroit. It made sense to establish a second water intake to serve the northern service area and to supplement the Department’s intake in the Detroit River. Lake Huron was the perfect choice.

Planning began in 1962. Everything about this new plant would be huge, all the better to serve the sprawling megalopolis destined for Detroit’s future. A massive 16-foot diameter intake tunnel, more than 200 feet below the lake bed would draw up to 1.2 billion gallons of raw water per day from the lake, and would be able to withstand a direct hit from a nuclear warhead. There are inherent dangers associated with any tunneling or mining project. Most of Michigan sits atop a layer of Antrim shale, named for Antrim County near Grand Traverse Bay. The formation is known to contain pockets of natural gases such as methane, and hydrogen sulfide.


After the tunnel explosion, Barry Brown, then executive director of the Michigan Department of Labor said, “It is hard in this state to dig a hole very deep without running into gas. There will always be the danger of explosion in this kind of tunnel operation.� But that was after the fact. Before the explosion, those who worked in the tunnel considered the money good, and the risks manageable. In fact, most of those who worked in the tunnel were less worried about an explosion than they were of flooding from drilling taking place at the intake, five miles out in Lake Huron, and 45 feet down on the lake bottom. At the lake end of the tunnel, a watertight enclosure, known as a cofferdam, was used to protect workers building the intake. Actually, seven cofferdams in a circle were used. One cofferdam collapsed in the summer of 1969. Storms destroyed several cofferdams in 1970, and again in 1971. source: Port Huron Times Herald



Top: photos user : Mr. Magoo ICU June 6_1996 Right : Packard Plant Sewer user : SetecX Oct 8_2008


On the drilling platform, crew members felt a hot blast of air shoot from the hole accompanied by “a sound like a jet taking off,” according to one of the drillers. A crew member was knocked back into the water. Storm flows to be temporarily stored. According to studies conducted by Professor J.A. Nichols - head of the University of Michigan’s Gas Dynamics Laboratory - the explosion produced a “detonation wave” with a 4,000 mileper-hour velocity, and a force of 15,000 pounds per square foot.


UNDERGROUND_ water/sewer Aging water pipes in Detroit leak more than 35 billion gallons of water each year, costing city residents more than $23 million each year. In response to this and other problems of the city’s aging water infrastructure, the Detroit Water and Sewerage Department (DWSD) has proposed a capital improvement program for water and sewage system projects that will total $4.3 billion over the next five years. DWSD currently operates and maintains seven CSO facilities. Four of these (7-Mile, PuritanFenkell, Hubbell-Southfield, and Conner Creek) are retention basins, which allow heavy storm flows to be temporarily stored. The basins are designed to release and direct stored contents to the Wastewater Treatment Right : View of state veli t sdfag afgafa asdgas

Top: Areas of Wayne, Oakland, and Macomb counties that have combined and separate sewer systems. Bottom: Historical and projected effects of Detroit Water and Sewerage Department’s and customers’ efforts to reduce and treat CSOs.

Plant after a storm event has subsided, and the plant can more readily accommodate the flow. In the event of prolonged storm events, basins are designed to release a portion of their contents into either the Rouge or Detroit River after being adequately screened and disinfected. During construction of the Conner Creek facility, DWSD was awarded the Environmental Management Association’s Environmental Achievement Award for 2003 for its efforts to minimize the environmental impact on the Detroit River by dredging of Conner Creek. That effort resulted in the removal of more than 146,000 cubic yards of contaminated soil from the creek.



UNDERGROUND_ steam Rather than some combination of boilers, furnaces, chillers, and air conditioners in each individual building; district energy technology uses steam, hot water or chilled water from one or more central plants. This often results in lower life-cycle costs and design flexibility.

of up to 550,000 pounds per hour. The electricity is sold to the Detroit Edison Electric Company and the thermal energy is delivered to Detroit Thermal, LLC. storm flows to be temporarily stored.

Steam pipes can be found in brick tunnels which cover about 3 miles of piping around the downtown area, starting from Congress to Cobo Hall, and from Cobo to Cass and back to Woodward and Farmer areas; these tunnels are 80 to 90 feet below the surface, constructed around The steam is used to generate up to 68 megawatts 1928. Cross-sections of the tunnels are hemiof electricity and supply export steam at a peak rate sphericle. The complete steam system measures 38 miles. The facility is permitted to receive up to 4,000 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) per day. The MSW is processed as RDF, which is then burned in the furnaces, producing 720,000 pounds of steam per hour.

Left : steam tunnels source: Detroit Thermal

source: user: nicksnottoshabby taken: Dec 29_2009



source: user clockwise from left: seekoh taken Nov 23_2007, grafixation taken Feb 7_2007, and Graham Meyer taken Oct 27_2006.

map of steam pipe sytem source:


UNDERGROUND_ salt This gigantic salt mine, 1,200 feet beneath the surface, spreads out over more than 1,400 acres with 50 miles of roads. It lies underneath Dearborn’s Rouge complex , much of Melvindale and the north end of Allen Park. The mine shaft opening is in Detroit. The International Salt Mine Company operated the mines until 1983, when falling salt prices brought a halt to production In Michigan, a huge sea covering the region evaporated more than 400 million years ago, forming salt deposits which were gradually buried by glacial activity. This salt bed spreads over 170,000 square miles under Michigan, Ontario, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York and West Virginia. Some estimates suggest that there is enough salt in the Metro Detroit underground to last 70 million years. Salt mining in Detroit began in 1896 with the sinking of an 1,100 foot shaft, but the investors went broke. Flooding and natural gas killed six men died during the original construction, although there have been no deaths in the mines since. The Detroit Salt Co. acquired the mineral rights and operated the shaft until 1907 when International Salt took over and drilled down to 1,200 feet. During the early days of Detroit Salt, the product was used mainly for homemade

ice cream and cattle licks, but later the usage changed to industrial purposes and for ice and snow control for Michigan roads. The Detroit mine used the room-and-pillar method of removing salt from the ground. In room-and-pillar mining, shafts are sunk into the ground, and miners break up the rock salt with drills after detonation engineers had blasted a section. Each blast brought down 800 to 900 tons of rock salt. The miners removed chucks of salt, creating huge rooms separated by pillars of salt. The room-and-pillar method requires that about half of the salt be left behind as pillars for support. In 1985 Crystal Mines Inc., a subsidiary of Wayne Disposal Co., purchased the mine. Owner Walter Tomyn reopened the facility for public tours, while seeking state permits to bury hazardous materials there. It offered, he claimed, safe storage for toxic refuse because the impermeable salt linings lie 600 feet below vulnerable ground water. But in 1989 the state released a report contending that old wells dug near the Detroit salt mine might be pathways for water that could place the mines in danger of collapse. Today the salt from the mines is used to deice roads.

right: Photo salt extraction courtesy of Detriot News source: The ghostly salt city beneath Detroit By Patricia Zacharias / The Detroit News






UNDERGROUND_ cave BEAR CAVE_Buchanan MI. Bear Cave is the only cavern in the Great Lakes area. Formed in rare “tufa rock” (a secondary limestone) this particular bed is estimated by geologists to be at least 25,000 years old, and rests on a glacial drift deposited during the last ice age 50,000 years ago. Beautiful stalactites, flowstone, petrified leaves, and strange shapes, all delicately colored by the metal oxides of native ores, are present throughout the cave. In 1875, the “goods” from an Ohio bank robbery were hidden in the cave. Inspired by this event, Bear Cave was featured in the 1903 movie The Great Train Robbery -- now considered a silent film classic, and the forerunner of the thriller movies of today. Outside, the area surrounding Bear Cave is rich in wooded hills, wildflowers, deep ravines, and of course, the magnificent St. Joseph River.

left: bear cave near entrance source image: source text:


The dissolution of calcite from limestone by slightly acidic ground-water results in the gradual widening of cracks and joints that may ultimately develop into a series of openings, or caves. Most caves develop below the water table. After the caves are elevated above the water table or when the water table drops, the water drains out and the caves become filled with air. The groundwater that percolates through the cracks in the cave contains calcium and bicarbonate from the dissolution of limestone. As the water drips from the cave’s ceiling, CO2 gas is released and a small amount of calcite crystal-

lizes where the drop is attached to the ceiling. More CO2 is lost from the water when the drop hits the floor, causing more calcite to precipitate. By this process, stalactites and stalagmites form. Stalactites look like icicles that hang from cave ceilings; stalagmites are cone-shaped masses that build up on cave floors underneath dripping stalactites. A column results when stalactites and stalagmites grow long enough to join into one structure. A more general term for a deposit of calcite precipitated by dripping water is dripstone, and as a group, the varieties of dripstone found in caverns are called speleothems. Ribbony,

sheetlike calcite deposits that are deposited by a thin film of water running over cave surfaces are called flowstone.Karst topography is an irregular land surface dotted with numerous sinkholes and depressions related to underlying above: bear cave near entrance source image: source text: cliff notes online

47 feet - Lake Huron 22

90 feet - Steam Line 230 feet - Sewer Line

600 feet - Ground Water Line

1200 feet - Salt Mines


UNDERGROUND_ relationships The systems underground Detroit vary in depth but work in a grand scale. The subterranean worlds are unseen by people who live their lives on the surface. These systems reach across the state, as is the case with the salt mines, or 3 miles under downtown Detroit, like the old sewer line. Systems interact, as when steam pipes are located in the old brick sewer tunnels which cover about 3 miles of piping around the downtown area, starting from Congress to Cobo Hall, and from Cobo to Cass and back to Woodward and Farmer areas; these tunnels are 80 to 90 feet below the surface, constructed around 1928. The older tunnels have a 7 feet head room in some areas, and barely 5 feet head room in other areas, Woodward southeast and north east. The underground systems are an important part of the fabric of Detroit, creating topography in a flat terrain. They are unfamiliar worlds of industry and nature.

left: section diagram of underground systems



What Once Made Us Now Destroys Us fallen empires of the auto industry Jarrett Fishman

Left : 1, Fisher Body 21, Detroit , once a staple in auto production.


Michigan began as a promising landscape for industrial greatness. Given its abundance in bodies of water, Michigan was an accessible and fundamental land for trade, an essential element in development of North American industrialization.

Michigan is a direct home to four of the five

as Sault Sainte-Marie. Shortly after, Saint

Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain,

Great Lakes, Erie, Huron, Michigan, and

Ignace (1671) and Marquette (1675) were also

that a permanent community there would

Superior. In addition to these Great Lakes,

founded, and are now “the three oldest cities

strengthen French control over the upper

Michigan is said to have 64,980 inland lakes

in Michigan.”

Great Lakes and repel British aspirations.”

and ponds. Given its abundance in bodies

In the 18th century, French exploration

This location, dubbed Fort Pontchartrain,

of water, it became an easily accessible and

continued, and Michigan’s industry truly

became the dominant center of a booming

fundamental land for trade, a necessary

began. While traveling a strait between Lake

Fur Trade. The French also expanded with

grounds to expand industry in North

Erie and Lake St. Clair (the Detroit River),

“Fort Michilimackinac at the Straits of

America. In 1668, French explorer Jacques

explorer, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, set

Mackinac to better control their lucrative

Marquette and his men claimed land in the

eyes on a potential French colony. “Cadillac

fur-trading empire.”2

Upper Peninsula, establishing the city known

had convinced King Louis XIV’s chief minister,



Right : View of utate velit esse molestie conseqvel illum dolore eu feugiat nulla facilisis autate velit esse molestie stiesties. 3


In 1825, the Erie Canal became the shipping trade. It reinvented industry and indirectly enabled Michigan’s statehood.




Getting Stronger Right : View of utate veli t sdfag afgafa asdgas


Right : View of utate veli t sdfag afgafa asdgas


By the 19th century, Michigan’s “population

Finally, after many years of French and

grew slowly until the opening of the Erie Canal

British reign, Michigan had finally broken

in 1825. It was the first transportation system

its foreign ties, officially becoming a part of

between the Eastern Seaboard (New York

The United States. This new state “led the

City) and the Western Interior (Great Lakes)

nation in lumber production from the 1850s

of the United States that did not require

through the 1880s. The lumber harvested

portage and cut transport costs by about

in Michigan was shipped to the rapidly

95%. This brought a large influx of settlers to

developing prairie states, Chicago, the

Michigan. By the 1830s, Michigan had 80,000

eastern states, and all the way to Europe.

residents, more than enough to qualify for

Communities and the state rapidly set up

statehood. Developers rushed to the state.”

systems for public education, including


the founding of the University of Michigan, and Ypsilanti Normal College (now Eastern Michigan State University), for the training of teachers. Michigan State University in Lansing was founded as a land-grant college. In the early 1900s, Michigan was the first state to offer a four-year curriculum in a normal college.� Michigan’s industry had now officially proven its worth and begun to demonstrate its success and achievements through strong community development.2


Carrying its success into the 20th century,

land, and land was there to service this

Michigan, with aide of Henry Ford, began

new, promising industry. Factories began

to pioneer in transportation, birthing the

defining cities through population and land

automotive industry. In a world based on

use, creating city centers, places where

trade reliant upon railroads and water transit,

industry would invite masses to reside

this innovative mode of transportation

and work within a shared environment.

seemed to be the greatest thing society

In Michigan, Detroit, Flint, Hamtramck,

could fatham. The automobile reinvented

Pontiac, River Rouge, and Highland Park

industry on a massive scale. This car, would

are some initial cities to fit this motif. This

directly influence the american landscape.

trend of auto-industry-dependent city

Cars required factories, factories required

centers began to sweep the nation.


Left to right : 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, & 13. Various new city center s within the metropolitan Detroit area.


Clockwise from top left : 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, & 20.


“Ford Auto Plant Boosts Population of Highland Park 1,000 Percent.”21


The Beginning Right : View of utate veli t sdfag afgafa asdgas

Prior to 1900, Michigan population was

4,120 residents by 1910.24 May 16th, 1920,

nothing worthy of mention. However, new

New York Times headlines read, “DETROIT

auto factories brought swarms to the cities.


In 1900, both Highland Park and Hamtramck

Boosts Population of Highland Park 1,000

Village had no more than 500 residents.

Percent.” Hamtramck and Highland Park


But when Ford and General Motors moved

led census growth, increasing 1910-1920

into town, populations skyrocketed. 1910,

populations by 1,286 and 1,031%.21 Detroit,

Hamtramck, Dodge Main Plant opened,

the auto capital, nearly doubled population

immediately launching the population to

from 285,704-465,766 residents by 1910,

3,600. 1909, Highland Park’s Ford Plant

and again by 1920, reaching 993,678. Flint,

opened its doors, raising the population to

the birthplace of GM, jumped from 13,103-



Right : View of utate veli t sdfag afgafa asdgas



38,550 residents from 1900-1910. 1920, their population hit 91.559. By 1930, Flint had 156,492 people.27 Hamtramck and Highland Park achieved peak population at 56,268 and 52,959. Detroit continued growth as well, with 1,568,662 residents.24 Similar to Michigan, auto industry based growth was seen in Trenton, NJ. Over these 30 years, the population went from 73,307123,356 residents, strictly dependent on this promising industry.28

The glory days of a new reign can last only so long before a hierarchy, just or unjust, is established. People will revolt! 38




Misguided Hope Right : View of utate veli t sdfag afgafa asdgas



“In the late 1930s, the auto workers in

the labor movement remained politically

Southeast Michigan organized, through

subordinated to the Democratic Party

militant struggle, the United Auto Workers

in the 1930s and 1940s. In the long run,

union—in the face of bitter opposition by the

this would prove fatal. For a time, the

auto corporations and Henry Ford. Socialist

enormous expansion of US industry—

workers led and inspired many of these

beginning in World War II and lasting until

struggles. The UAW did not seek to organize

the late 1960s—allowed for a certain class

this or that trade within a plant, but rather

compromise between industry and the

the entire workforce. The bureaucrats who

unions. Through sharp struggles, a section

came to run the unions, however, supported

of auto workers, were able to win relatively

by the Communist Party USA, ensured that

high wages with good benefits for life. In the


1950s, when Detroit dominated world auto production, workers realized a standard of living unheard of for industrial workers. This was the high point for cities like Highland Park, Flint, Pontiac, and Detroit.� The auto workers found this to be an opportune time to put their wealth to use, and to capitalize on a new infrastructure. This relocation was the first step in the fall of our empircial auto industry and the beginning of racial tensions.32





Eisenhower’s interstate system sent thoroughfares through working class neighborhoods. Highways enabled horizontal expansion of cities, with new suburbs built by shifting tax revenues away from established cities and towns.32

“By custom, these suburbs prevented the relocation of black workers. Many white workers moved out, but continued to commute back to work in Highland Park and Detroit.”32




Davison Freeway


Packard Plant

Detroit’s first highway, 1944

Sweeping the nation, 1958

Detroit, Shut down 1956

“The auto executives, chastened by the

scattered to counties surrounding Detroit,

capitalism, into an instrument for imposing

militancy of the autoworkers that they

Saint Clair, Macomb, Oakland, Livingston,

concessions on the workers. The UAW

believed arose from the enormous centrally-

Washtenaw, and Monroe. After the effects

endorsed parts relocation, and assisted

located factories, began to farm out

of auto relocation, these once flourishing

the Big Three in targeting the most militant

production, assembly, and parts manufacture

city centers began to collapse from within.

workers and factories for closure, many of

to areas distant from Detroit.” As plants

“UAW bureaucracy was transformed from

which were located in the central city. From

and production were dispersed across

an instrument for defending the interests

the late 1970s on, the UAW collaborated

the state, the people followed. Masses

of workers within the framework of

in eliminating benefits at the Big Three in


1 95 0




Rethinking Efficiency

Knocking Down Doors

1971, Robots begin to replace workers

Delphi East, Flint. Closed in 1984

order to “save jobs.” The disastrous results

a peak population of 196,940, a 20.5% gain

of this could not be clearer in places like

since 1950, would again fall victim to the

Highland Park, Flint, and Detroit. Industry

auto industry through job cuts. However for

soon followed residents.” By 1970, Highland

Detroit, the relocation of the auto industry

Park and Hamtramck were quickly losing

and plant shutdowns created a much different

the population that the Highway system had

effect, one that established racial conflict and

left to rot in 1940. Flint, after struggling

social issues that would plague the city and

and making a fierce comeback in 1960 with

inhibit its redevelopment for years to come.32



1967 Detroit Race Riots left 43 dead, 462 injured, shot by police and National Guard for alleged looting, sniping, and 41 curfew violations. 46




The Finishing Touch Right : View of utate veli t sdfag afgafa asdgas


Right : View of utate veli t sdfag afgafa asdgas


In 1943, months after Pearl Harbor, blacks

other vehicles in Detroit, a center of the

migrated north for work in Detroit building

“Arsenal of Democracy”) due to race, creed,

defenses for war. Of the new 350,000

color, or national origin.” Detroit, 1943, civil

residents of Detroit, 50,000 were black.

unrest broke out between races. Started on

Initially, migrations began with the 1941

rumors alone, the whites took advantage

establishment of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Fair

to act on building and underlying tension

Employment Practices Committee (FEPC).

of Southern Black families joining their

This employed a no discrimination policy

community. Mobs quickly assembled and

in employment of workers for defense

the violence escalated.44 White groups were

industries (such as themass production of

ruthless and authorities were biased. This

military hardware, airplanes, tanks, and

event set precedent for a long period


of racism and inequality within the city, something that would become a direct cause to Detroit’s demise. As inequalities continued into the 1960’s, treatment of blacks worsened, civil unrest grew even greater. Police attempted to arrest an entire party of blacks merely celebrating the return of two friends from Vietnam. Emotions turned from confusion to anger, and once again, chaos errupted. This time, the impact on the city would be fatal.40


Clockwise from top left : 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, & 52.


“Police opened fire. The object turned out to be a piece of meat wrapped in shiny paper.�40




Once a Place to Live

Too Bad to Be True?

The Ruins of Detroit

Riot arson left 388 families homeless

A typical image of what the city became

Riots left the city in a postwar condition

Not only did violence and chaos of the riot

however, was the city. Detroit’s losses went a

investment dollars, tourism dollars, and

in 1967 take 43 lives, “2,509 stores looted or

hell of a lot deeper than the immediate toll of

plain damn money. The money was carried

burned, 388 families homeless or displaced

lives and buildings. The riot put Detroit on the

out in the pockets of the businesses and the

and 412 buildings burned or damaged enough

fast track to economic desolation, mugging

white people who fled as fast as they could.

to be demolished. Dollar losses from arson

the city and making off with incalculable value

The white exodus from Detroit had been

and looting ranged from $40 million to

in jobs, earnings taxes, corporate taxes, retail

prodigiously steady prior to the rebellion,

$80 million. “ This was money that the city

dollars, sales taxes, mortgages, interest,

totally twenty-two thousand in 1966, but

certainly did not have. “The heaviest casualty,

property taxes, development dollars,

afterwards it was frantic. In 1967, with less



The Final Straw

Nothing Left

Residents lost all faith in the city

Shambles of a former business

than half the year remaining after the summer

auto industry followed.40 A city designed to

explosion—the outward population migration

grow in rings began to decay along the same

reached sixty-seven thousand. In 1968 the

path, with cities like Flint, Hamtramck, and

figure hit eighty-thousand, followed by forty-

Highland Park in its wake. The auto industry

six thousand in 1969,� said Coleman Young.

and everything reliant upon it would become

All hope for the city had been lost. The loss

the same pile of bricks and ruins that its

of business and the drain in population left

source of life had become. Detroit was just a

the city on its own. Without its people, the

piece of a much greater system.


Here Lies Detroit Right : View of utate veli t sdfag afgafa asdgas


Right : View of utate veli t sdfag afgafa asdgas


As years passed after the riots, the remaining

workers. Essential services stopped,

auto industry in Flint, Hamtramck, Highland

including fire and police protection.” As a

Park, and Detroit have continued to decay.

result, residents that were unable to flee

Those to avoid demolition faced eternal

with the masses were put in grave danger.

abandonment. “For Highland Park, the last

They too, like the fallen industry would

devastating departure was Chrysler, which

stand alone to face disaster, without any

moved its corporate offices out of the city in

aide. In the case of a Highland Park family,

1992. Its tax base gone, Highland Park began

a fire “killed three young children and their

to crumble. In 2002, the city went bankrupt,

aunt on October 22, 2005. Residents say the

unable to meet payroll for its existing city

fire and police departments do not provide

workers or pension contributions to retired

adequate service, and there are no safety


or fire inspections. The fire at the Dale home was compounded by the fact that the nearby fire hydrant lacked sufficient water pressure to extinguish the flames.�40 This case is representative of what our fallen cities have to look forward to. Hope is scarce and solutions seem non-existent. The city is in ruins and the best we can do is search for splendor in its abyss, find a greatness in its emptiness, and learn from the trageic mistakes of our predecessors.


Above (left to right): A symbolic fall of the General Motor s Empire, Flint , Michigan. 60, 61, & 62. Right : Flint’s consolidation campaign slogan, 63.











Perhaps this vacancy belonging to the grotesque can be something of elegance, a spectacle within shambles of Detroit?


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Failed Initiatives. Recovered Responses. Abandoned Infrastructure | Free Enterprise | Urban Demise | Michigan Advantage Nathan Johnson

Left : View of Woodward Ave. Detroit , MI, 1930s



Internal Improvements To many Americans who looked at a map in

into the highly controversial business of

In Mason’s final address as governor, he

1837, the year Michigan became a state, the

what was then commonly called “internal

said, “[T]he error, if error there is, was the

“land between the lakes” seemed destined for

improvements.” Mason and his allies were so

emanation of that false spirit of the age, which

obscurity. Why should settlers heading west

confident state projects would flourish that

forced states, as well as individuals, to over-

make a right turn to the north and put down

they risked millions in tax dollars and put the

action and extended projects. If Michigan

roots in a territory known for long winters

state deeply into debt to make it all happen.

has over-tasked her energies and resources,


and nasty swamps? At age 26, Michigan’s

she stands not alone, but has fallen into that

first governor and “Boy Wonder,” Stevens T.

Stevens T. Mason said that the “Internal

fatal policy, which has involved in almost

Mason, was determined to get the state off

improvements shall be encouraged by the

unparalleled embarrassments so many of her

to a fast start. To him, that meant an activist

government of this state; and it shall be the

sister states. Now, however, the period has

government, which would build and own

duty of the legislature, as soon as may be, to

arrived, when a corrective should be applied

railroads and canals to promote economic

make provisions by law for ascertaining the

to the dangers which seem to surround her.”

growth. With his encouragement, Michigan’s

proper object of improvement, in relation to

first constitution required the state to get

[roads], Canals, and navigable waters...”


A “false spirit of the age” Mason said, may have moved states into the “fatal policy” of funding state projects. Michigan had too many railroads and canals and too few people to pay for them. 3

Above: Michigan’s fir st Governor Stevens T. Mason 4


Above Left : 1850 Map of Michgan’s Railroads Images from Top Left to Bottom Right : Collection of photos of Michigan’s Railroads in the 19th Centur y






â&#x20AC;&#x153;[T]he error, if error there is, was the emanation of that false spirit of the age, which forced states, as well as individuals, to over-action and extended projectsâ&#x20AC;? 12 Stevens T. Mason

Left : View of Michigan Central Tracks, 1906


Abandoned Infrastructure


Clinton-Kalamazoo Canal Among the first projects was a canal that was

digging, the unfinished canal had cost the

to begin in Clinton Township near Detroit

state over $350,000, and earned only $90.32 in

and move 216 miles west to Kalamazoo. This

tolls. State officials then abandoned the canal

Clinton-Kalamazoo Canal began with high

and focused on the railroads but ended up

hopes and much fanfare. Governor Mason

losing even more money. 13

broke ground in Mt. Clemens in 1838 to celebrate the digging of the canal. Bands, parades, speeches, and a 13-gun salute commemorated the occasion. Then came one of the worst engineering fiascoes of Michigan history: The canal was built only twenty feet wide and four feet deepâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;too shallow for heavy freight and too narrow for easy passing. After five years, and only sixteen miles of


Above from Left to Right : View of ruins of Clinton-Kalamazoo Canal in Shelby Township, MI



Michigan Central The Michigan Central was to go from Detroit west through Ann Arbor, Jackson, and Kalamazoo and on to St. Joseph on Lake Michigan. Poor construction and management drained most of its revenues each year. The Centralâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s thin strap iron rails were too fragile to carry heavy loads. Rather than switch to a better quality rail, the state chose to run regular heavy shipments over the inferior tracks and repair them frequently. The Central didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t make it past Kalamazoo and did not earn enough to pay for needed repairs and new rails to go further west. 18

Above: Image of Michigan Central Railraod, 1864


Opposite [clockwise from Top Left]: Collection of images of Michigan Central Railroad and Michigan Central Station




Michigan Southern Around 1838 the state of Michigan started to build the Southern Railroad, running from Monroe on Lake Erie west to New Buffalo on Lake Michigan. The first section, from Monroe west to Petersburg, opened in 1839. Extensions opened in 1840 to Adrian and 1843 to Hillsdale. The Michigan Southern, was a stunning failure. In eight years of state management, tracks were only laid from Monroe to Hillsdale (halfway to its intended destination), at a cost of more than $1.2 million, with few customers to generate more than a trickle of revenue. 24

Above: Image of Michigan Southern Railraod Poster Opposite [clockwise from Top Left]: Collection of images of Michigan Southern Railroad and Michigan Southern Poster





Michigan Northern A third railway, the Northern railroad, was intended to run from Port Huron to Lake Michigan. It was graded beyond Lapeer, and its bed was converted into a wagon-road, at the expense of a large amount of internal improvement lands, which paid a great price for a very little work. The state spent $70,000 surveying the Michigan Northern Railroad, before abandoning it. 31


“of its failed experiments...all of the state’s railroads, canals, and other “internal improvements” were either abandoned entirely or sold to private enterprise...” 32



â&#x20AC;&#x153;Failure is simply the opportunity to begin again, this time more intelligently.â&#x20AC;? 34 Henry Ford

Left : Ford Motor Company River Rouge Assembly, Detroit , MI, 1947


Free Enterprise


Automobile Industry Henry Ford introduced the Model T. Earlier

of the basic techniques of the assembly line

models were produced at a rate of only a few

and mass production. Ford introduced the

a day at a rented factory on Mack Avenue in

world’s first moving assembly line that year,

Detroit, Michigan, with groups of two or three

which reduced chassis assembly time from

men working on each car from components

12½ hours in October to 2 hours 40 minutes

made to order by other companies (what

(and ultimately 1 hour 33 minutes), and

would come to be called an “assembled car”).

boosted annual output to 202,667 units that

In its first full year of production, 1909, about

year. After a Ford ad promised profit-sharing

18,000 Model Ts were built. As demand for the

if sales hit 300,000 between August 1914 and

car grew, the company moved production to

August 1915, sales in 1914 reached 308,162,

the much larger Highland Park Plant, and in

and 501,462 in 1915; by 1920, production

1911, the first year of operation there, 69,762

would exceed one million a year. 35

Model Ts were produced, with 170,211 in 1912. By 1913, the company had developed all


Above: Henr y Ford with a V-8 Engine


Right : Ford Motor Company Highland Park Assembly Line Model T days, Detroit , MI, 1947



Above [clockwise from Top Left]: Collection of photos from various Ford Motor Company assembly lines. Detroit , MI, 1947

38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45




Government Infrastructure Michigan has long been known as a pioneer

posted numbers on its state trunk lines, the

in many aspects of roads and highways.

state legislature passed the â&#x20AC;&#x153;State Trunk

Many of todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s commonplace road features

Line Actâ&#x20AC;? in 1913 authorizing the designation

were originally conceived of or perfected

of a state highway network totalling almost

in Michigan. Some of these innovations

3,000 miles of roadway. The act stipulated

and improvements had their genesis in the

the newly-created State Highway Department

burgeoning automobile industry, which

would design, build and maintain highway

blossomed in Michigan in the late-19th and

bridges 30 feet in length or longer, if the

early-20th centuries. Because of all the new

county or local government improved three

motorized vehicles on the road, certain

miles of adjacent road. This was the beginning

improvements were borne of necessity.

of what would later turn into an over 9,000-

Later, Michigan remained at the forefront of

mile system of roads, highways and freeways

highway-related improvements and today

crisscrossing the state and reaching from

continues in that role. Even before Michigan

Copper Harbor to Luna Pier. 47

Left : Photo of traffic exiting the Ambassador Bridge, Detroit , MI



Mackinac Bridge The five-mile bridge, including approaches,

necessary for the superstructure and for the

and the world’s longest suspension bridge

caissons and cofferdams of the foundation,

between cable anchorages, had been

were prepared. The bridge was officially

designed by the great engineer Dr. David

begun amid proper ceremonies on May 7 & 8,

B. Steinman. Merritt-Chapman & Scott

1954, at St. Ignace and Mackinaw City.

Corporation’s $25,735,600 agreement to build all the foundations led to the mobilization

The bridge opened to traffic on November

of the largest bridge construction fleet

1, 1957 according to schedule, despite the

ever assembled. The American Bridge

many hazards of marine construction over the

Division of United States Steel Corporation,

turbulent Straits of Mackinac. Fare revenues

awarded a $44,532,900 contract to build this

are now used to operate and maintain the

superstructure, began its work of planning

Bridge and repay the State of Michigan for

and assembly. In U.S. Steel’s mills the various

monies advanced to the Authority since the

shapes, plates, bars, wire and cables of steel

facility opened to traffic in 1957. 48


Above: Mackinac Bridge. Mackinaw City, MI, 1960â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s



Above [clockwise from Top Left]: Collection of photos of the construction of the Mackinac Bridge. Mackinaw City, MI, 1950s

50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56



Blue Water Bridge In 1935, the Michigan Legislature passed a law

breaking ceremony was held on June 23, 1937

(Act 147, Public Acts of 1935 ) creating a State

in the City of Port Huron and the Blue Water

Bridge Commission to finance the design

Bridge opened to traffic on October 10, 1938.57

and erection of the main bridge structure of the Blue Water Bridge. The law permitted the commission to sell bonds that would be repaid by the revenue from the tolls collected within 30 years. This legislation assumed that Michigan and Ontario would each build their own approaches to the bridge, and customs, immigration and toll facilities. The design of the structure by the consultant firms began in August 1936. The ground Above: Blue Water Bridge Construction. Por t Huron, MI, 1937-38


Opposite [clockwise from Top Left]: Collection of photos of the construction of the Blue Water Bridge. Por t Huron, MI, 1937-38

60, 61, 62, 63



Interstates Michigan has long been known as a pioneer

posted numbers on its state trunk lines, the

in many aspects of roads and highways.

state legislature passed the â&#x20AC;&#x153;State Trunk

Many of todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s commonplace road features

Line Actâ&#x20AC;? in 1913 authorizing the designation

were originally conceived of or perfected

of a state highway network totalling almost

in Michigan. Some of these innovations

3,000 miles of roadway. The act stipulated

and improvements had their genesis in the

the newly-created State Highway Department

burgeoning automobile industry, which

would design, build and maintain highway

blossomed in Michigan in the late-19th and

bridges 30 feet in length or longer, if the

early-20th centuries. Because of all the new

county or local government improved three

motorized vehicles on the road, certain

miles of adjacent road. This was the beginning

improvements were borne of necessity.

of what would later turn into an over 9,000-

Later, Michigan remained at the forefront of

mile system of roads, highways and freeways

highway-related improvements and today

crisscrossing the state and reaching from

continues in that role. Even before Michigan

Copper Harbor to Luna Pier. 64


Top: Traffic at Grand Boulevard. Detroit , MI, 1937-38


Above: Traffic on John C. Lodge Freeway. Detroit , MI, 1950s Right : Traffic on Woodward Ave. Detroit , MI, 1956





â&#x20AC;&#x153;This city didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t grow up like Boston or New York. Detroit never flourished in the era of mass transit. It came of age in the era of the car. 70 Mike Smith, 1943

Left : Traffic Jam at Miller Road. Dearborn, MI, 1940s


Urban Demise


Urban Sprawl The decline of Detroit is often explained

emerging right after the moment the car

same time. Detroit’s population halved within

by the fall of the Fordist economy in the

industry started to boom.

50 years, changing the city from a vibrant

city after the global shift to Post-Fordism.

metropolis into an urban vacuum. 71

In this theory the disappearance of mainly

The real reason for Detroit’s immense

the car industry is directly connected to

population flows seems not to be the car

the vacancy problems that Detroit is facing

industry, but the car itself. The rise of the

nowadays. Indeed, during the last decades

suburb has contributed to the fall of the

the fall of the automobile industry has taken

inner city. The figure shown on the next

away the economic motor of the city. This

page provides startling information about

perception about the problems that Detroit

the relation between the construction of

currently faces is not the complete truth.

express ways and the condition of the inner

This is explained in the figure above made by

city. In fact Detroit is drained by the mass

CNN’s Time. Detroit is shrinking for already 50

introduction of the car, and has become

years now. Actually, the Detroit exodus began

dependent on the construction of them at the Above: Traffic Jam at Miller Road. Dearborn, MI, 1940s



Above: Road construction on Grand Boulevard. Detroit , MI, 1930s


Top Right : Road construction on Davidson Freeway. Detroit , MI, 1940s


Bottom Right : Road construction on John C. Lodge Expressway. Detroit , MI, 1940s



How the map was created

TIME Graphic by Andrea Ford and Lon Tweeten

Vacancy rates for each census tract were

Sources: US Census Bureau; US Postal

calculated using all residential and business

Service; Department of Housing and Urban

addresses unoccupied for 90 days or more,

Development; Wayne State University Center for

as well as addresses in buildings that are

Urban Studies

considered abandoned or under construction and not ready to be occupied


Above & Opposite: Sky High Vacancy Graphics from



Detroit is one of the most spectacular

Detroit’s painful decline began in the 1950s,

examples of boom and bust in the United

with the population cut nearly in half in 50

States - once opulent and then blighted - this

years with the loss of almost one million

capital of the Rust Belt is one of the nation’s

residents who moved to the suburbs.

fastest shrinking cities and prime example

Urban decay followed along with crime

of the phenomenon of “white flight” and,

and racial tensions. Vandalism and arson

subsequently, sprawl. Large numbers of

became common place in the deserted

buildings and homes have been abandoned

neighborhoods, especially on “Devil’s Night”

and many have been torn down or have fallen

before Halloween. 77

down and cleared away. Yet many vacant buildings remain in various states of decay.


Above: The histor y of developed land in southeast Michigan, 1905-1992 (USGS 2003). This image shows the general rate of urban land grow th in southeast Michigan through the twentieth centur y where the shaded areas represent area covered by â&#x20AC;&#x153;urban or built up landâ&#x20AC;? according to Ander son et al. (1976).






Welcome to the Michigan Advantage,

policy makers, industry players, the natural

Michigan is focusing on the development

where you’ll discover all the advantages

resource management community and our

of state and nationwide markets for such

of doing business in Michigan: innovative

engineering talent around the goal of creating

alternative energy sources as:

economic development tools, high-skilled

the next generation of power provision for

workforce, world-class universities,

businesses, consumers and vehicles through

beautiful communities and a 21st century

alternative energy.

• Bioenergy • Wind Generation - Wind Energy • Advanced Energy Storage - Advanced Batteries

infrastructure. The MEDC is also looking at creative incentive In Michigan, green is the new gold.

packages custom tailored to create the

The Michigan Economic Development

right environment and bring together the

Corporation (MEDC) is leading the charge

right players to advance the way the world is

in the development of new markets for


• Solar Cells - Solar Energy • Hydro-Electricty 82

alternative energy in Michigan and beyond. We are aligning scientists, universities,

Left : Michigan’s effor t s to transition it s automotive industrial capacity to renewable energy


shown with a Wind

Turbine on Lake Michigan. Photo from General Electric


Michigan Advantage


Mascoma Corporation Positioned to lead the movement to displace

way, ethanol acts as a means of storing solar

fossil fuels through the development of

power in liquid form. Cellulosic ethanol is

renewable fuels.

ethanol that is obtained from the non-edible


portion of plant material. Cellulosic ethanol Mascoma, which makes this gasoline

is identical in composition and performance

substitute from wood chips and other

to ethanol derived from corn or sugar cane.

materials, is spending more than $200 million

Cellulosic ethanol, however, has important

to build a factory in Kinross, Mich to be close

environmental, economic and sustainability

to the nation’s automotive heart, and to take

advantages over conventional sources due to

advantage of the state’s abundant natural

its source and method of production. 87

resources, the raw material for its biofuel. 86 Ethanol’s energy is derived from plants that in turn obtain their energy from the sun. In this Above: Wood chips are the main component of Mascoma’s biofuel. Top: Mascoma’s Logo




Evergreen Solar Solar panels are made by state of the art

company’s proprietary, low-cost String

manufacturing using proprietary, low-cost

Ribbon™ wafer technology. The project,

wafer technology. Everything is manufactured

pending final permit approval by the

— wafers, cells and panels — all under one

Michigan Department of Environmental

roof for ultimate quality control, which makes

Quality, is expected to generate

it among the highest quality products in the

approximately $55.2 million in new capital

industry. Because of the unique way they’re

investment and up to 596 new Michigan

made, they are the most environmentally

jobs, including 101 directly by the company

friendly solar panels in the business.

over the next five years. MEGA approved a


state tax credit valued at $1.8 million over

Above: Solar Power installation at a farm. Galesburg, MI


Top: Evergreen Solar Logo


The Massachusetts-based manufacturer of

10 years to win the company’s expansion.

solar power panels has chosen Midland over

The city of Midland has approved a 12-year

a competing site in another state to establish

abatement worth $3.9 million to support

a new facility that will create string for the

the project. 91


A123 Systems The developer and manufacturer of

innovation creates sustainable job growth in

rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and

engineering, research and manufacturing,”

battery systems plans to invest over $600

said David Vieau, A123Systems’ president and

million in initial coating, cell manufacturing,

chief executive officer. “ With the support

and pack assembly. The planned project

of the state’s leadership and highly skilled

is expected to create over 5,000 new jobs.

workforce, we expect that our planned new

A123Systems is one of the state’s six Centers

facilities in Michigan will serve as a global

of Energy Excellence and has entered into a

product center, powering a new generation of

development and manufacturing agreement

cleaner, more fuel-efficient cars and trucks.”94

with Chrysler LLC to provide battery systems for the company’s ENVI product line. “Today is truly a milestone for A123Sytems, the state of Michigan and everyone interested in creating new markets where American Above: Batter y that A123 Systems manufactures. Top: A123 Systems Logo




General Electric General Electric today said it would hire some

The centre will house scientists and

1,100 workers at a research and production

engineers working on “next generation

center in Van Buren Township in western

manufacturing technologies” for GE’s

Wayne County -- an operation that will focus

renewable energy, aircraft engine, gas

heavily on renewable energy, especially wind

turbine and other high-technology

energy technology.

products. Specifically, GE says, they will focus on development of composites,

GE’s decision to invest $100 million in

machining, inspection, casting and coating

the operation represents a validation of

technologies. On the software side,

Michigan’s aggressive pursuit of green

the centre will focus on development,

technology industries and illustrates the

data architecture, networking, business

power of Michigan’s engineering workforce.

intelligence and program management. Experts will develop software for technologies such as smart grid. 97

Above: Wind Turbine being installed in Huron County, MI Top: General Electric Logo



112 1.

Photograph. Wayne State University : Vir tual

2010. <

Motor City. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://dlxs.lib.

photogalleries/histor ygaller y/r vm_trains/


10547-UND-1]10547_1>. 2.



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Free-Market Public Policy for Michigan. Mackinac


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Entrepreneurs Helped Make America Great .

ImageArchive/Por ter/Por terIndiana-LS-n-MS-RR-


Nor walk: Rhodes and Easton, 1998. Print .


Photograph. Detroit News. Detroit News, 21 May

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com/apps/histor y/index.php?id=168>

Free-Market Public Policy for Michigan. Mackinac

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19. Photograph. Son of the South. Son of the South.

central-railroad.htm>. 20. Photograph. Shiawassee County. 1 Oct . 2008. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://w w w. shiawasseehistor>. 21. Photograph. Wayne State University : Vir tual Motor City. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://dlxs.lib.


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Motor City. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://dlxs.

photogalleries/histor ygaller y/r vm_trains/




Photograph. Wayne State University : Vir tual

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16. Photograph. Shelby Histor y. Shelby Township

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americanhistor s/lithograph.

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26. Photograph. Root sWeb. Nor thwest Indiana

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Genealogical Society. Web. 21 Jan. 2010.

2010. < y_of_

<http://w w w.root sweb.ancestr


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36. Photograph. Personal Development Coach Blog. Moses Franics. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://blogs.>. 37. Photograph. Wayne State University : Vir tual

Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <

Motor City. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://dlxs.lib.


29. Photograph. SHIPS: SAIL & STEAM OLD SPICE and THE ROCK ISLAND LINE. E Morgan Kelley. Web.

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21 Jan. 2010. <

Motor City. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://dlxs.lib.


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case-connect .com/blog/2009/08/28/online-

31. Repor t of the Pioneer Society of the State of Michigan 5 (1884): 118. Print . 32. “An Economic Lesson From Michigan’s Early

Print . 43. Morse, Ralph. Shell of new car moving down assembly line. 1947. Photograph. LIFE Archives by Google, Detroit . 44. Photograph. Mlive. Michigan Live LLC, 10 Oct . 2008. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://w w w.mlive. com/business/index.ssf/2008/10/financial_ turmoil_weaker_sales.html>. 45. Photograph. Wayne State University : Vir tual Motor City. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://dlxs.]7660_5>. 46. Photograph. Wayne State University : Vir tual Motor City. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://dlxs.]28245_5>. 47. Michigan Highways. Christopher J. Besser t . Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://w w w. view. html>. 48. Mackinac Bridge. Mackinac Bridge


Authority. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://


w w y-of-the-

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Motor City. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://dlxs.lib.

Free-Market Public Policy for Michigan. Mackinac

Motor City. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://dlxs.

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w w> 33. Photograph. Wayne State University : Vir tual Motor City. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://dlxs.]7660>. 34. Think Exist . Think Exist . Web. 21 Jan. 2010.

41. Morse, Ralph. Cars moving down assembly line. 1947. Photograph. LIFE Archives by Google, Detroit . 42. Morse, Ralph. Assemble line of Ford plant is halted for the day of Henr y Ford’s funeral. 1947. Photograph. LIFE Archives by Google, Detroit .

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114 Bridge Authority. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://

w w



61. Photograph. Wayne State University : Vir tual

7668-UND-2]7668_2>. 69. NOT USED 70. Think Exist . Think Exist . Web. 21 Jan. 2010.

52. Photograph. Mackinac Bridge. Mackinac Bridge

Motor City. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://dlxs.lib.

<http://thinkexist .com/quotation/this-city-didn-

Authority. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://w w w.



album-31/>. 53. Photograph. Mackinac Bridge. Mackinac Bridge

62. Photograph. Blue Water Bridge Authority. Blue Water Bridge Authority. Web. 21

Authority. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://w w w.

Jan. 2010. <http://w w


album-31/>. 54. Photograph. Mackinac Bridge. Mackinac Bridge

Motor City. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://dlxs.lib.


Authority. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://w w w.>. 56. Photograph. Mackinac Bridge. Mackinac Bridge Authority. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://w w w.>. 57. State of Michigan. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://w w,1607,7151-9618_11070-22062--,00.html>.

64. Michigan Highways. Christopher J. Besser t . Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://w w w.michiganhighways. org/historical_over view.html>. 65. Photograph. Wayne State University : Vir tual

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10679-UND-1]10679_1>. 66. Old City Old City Pics, 25 July 2009.

after-1942/>. 75. Photograph. Wayne State University : Vir tual

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Woodward and 8 Mile Circa 1956>. 67. Photograph. The Mayor of Monmouth. The 2010. <http://themayorofmonmouth.blogspot .

Jan. 2010. <http://w w


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5 May 2009. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://w w w.

Mayor of Monmouth, 13 Mar. 2009. Web. 21 Jan.

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Motor City. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://dlxs.lib.

Blue Water Bridge Authority. Web. 21 bluewaterbridgeauthority/frames.html>.

7668-UND-1]7668_1>. 73. Photograph. Wayne State University : Vir tual

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58. Photograph. Blue Water Bridge Authority.


net/2009/10/how-the-car-drained-detroit/>. 72. Photograph. Wayne State University : Vir tual

Blue Water Bridge Authority. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://w w


2009. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://popupcity.

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Authority. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://w w w.

55. Photograph. Mackinac Bridge. Mackinac Bridge

html>. 71. The Pop-Up City. The Pop-Up City, 16 Oct .

windsors.html>. 68. Photograph. Wayne State University : Vir tual Motor City. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://dlxs.lib.

VMC-X-10482]10482>. 76. Detroit : Now a Ghost Town. Time Magazine. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://w w interactive/0,31813,1925735,00.html>. 77. Detroit . Demolition. Disneyland. Land+Living. Land+Living, 20 Feb. 2006. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://w w ar ticles/0000000995.aspx>. 78. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://

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88. Photograph. Detroit Free Press, 4 Jan. 2010. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://w w w.freep. com/ar ticle/20100104/NEWS06/1040371/1001/ News/Michigan-pioneers-gamble-on-solarenergy>. 89. Photograph. Evergreen Solar. Evergreen Solar. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://w w w.evergreensolar. com/app/en/home/>. 90. Evergreen Solar. Evergreen Solar. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://w w technology/>. 91. Michigan Advantage. State of Michigan. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://w w stories/detail.aspx?contentId=e25a4386-27084545-998a-b4bc4c3a7276>. 92. Photograph. Ear t2Tech. Ear t2Tech, 23 Sept . 2009. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://ear th2tech. com/2009/09/23/a123s-ipo-lookin-promisingpriced-above-range-ups-share-issue/>. 93. Photograph. A123 Systems. A123 Systems. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://w w>. 94. Michigan Advantage. State of Michigan. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://w w stories/detail.aspx?contentId=8fecd871-a9b945c3-9527-0907d9ce3cef>. 95. The Muskegon Chronicle., 6 Jan. 2008.

Boston Globe, 9 Nov. 2009. Web. 21 Jan. 2010.

Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <

<http://w w


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turbin.html>. 96. Photograph. General Electric. General Electric. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://w w>. 97. Michigan Advantage. State of Michigan. Web. 21 Jan. 2010. <http://w w




Behind the Brand Michigan Entrepreneurs. Missions. Moguls. Stewards. Alivia Stalnaker

Opposite: “On Armistice Day 1923, Hudson’s unveiled a giant [3700 square foot] American flag on the side of the store...The huge flag visited the U.S. Capitol Building in 1929 and the World’s Fair in 1939 before it was retired in 1949.” 1 This photograph was taken on June, 27, 1934. 2



Ben + Perry Feigenson Faygo Beverages, Inc.

Founding Location: Detroit

would manufacture a batch of drinks, then

Founded as Feigenson Brothers Bottle Works

close the production line and take their

Sold solely in Michigan until the 1950s

products around on a horse-drawn wagon

Purchased by National Beverage Co. in 1987

to sell them, as the beverages contained

Public Company (National Beverage Company)

no preservatives and were best consumed

2009 Sales: $590.28 Million

fresh. They charged three cents for one


soda, and a nickel for two. In the winter, “Trained as bakers, the Feigensons adapted

when beverage sales dropped, they also

the flavorings of some of their cake frostings

sold bread and fish to make ends meet. To

and...began to bottle strawberry, fruit

save money the brothers and their families

punch, and grape-flavored soft drinks...They

lived above the small bottling plant.”10

Opposite (Clockwise from upper left): Collection of 1960s images capturing Faygo’s Detroit factor y production. 3,4,5,6,7 Opposite (Lower right): Photograph of Susan For sy the, taken in the 1960s by her father, Bernard Floyd Thomas. 8



“George Washington may be the father of our country, but Faygo is the pop.”12

Above: In the 1950s, the Soupy Sales television comic frequently repeated this phrase during the Faygo-sponsored children’s program. 10 Opposite: Billboard adver tisement in downtown Detroit , taken in 2006 by Angie Schwendemann. 11



Above (Left to right): â&#x20AC;&#x153; Women inspector s at the Kellogg Company, 1934.â&#x20AC;?


Opposite: Head of Kellogg Foundation (Right) with Governor Harr y F. Kelly (Left). 14


W.K. Kellogg Kellogg Company Founding Location: Battle Creek Founded as Battle Creek Toasted Corn Flake Company Public Company 2009 Sales: $12.61 Billion15 Vision: “To be the food company of choice”16 Mission: “To drive sustainable growth through the power of our people and brands by better serving the needs of our consumers, customers, and communities”16



Clockwise from upper left : Collection of Kelloggâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cereal adver tisement s from the 1900s to the late 1920s. 17,18,19,20,21,22


“Our company began with only 44 employees in Battle Creek, Michigan, in 1906. Today we employ nearly 32,000 people, manufacture in 19 countries and sell our products in more than 180 countries around the world.”23 “[T]he shy and quiet Will worked at the Battle

One fateful night, he accidentally left the

business to supply patients with cereal after

Creek sanitarium of his older brother John

dough uncovered and found that by morning,

they went home. In 1896, the first full year of

Harvey (“J. H.”), performing odd jobs, a few

it had dried out. When he ran a rolling pin

sales outside the sanitarium, he sold 113,400

basic management functions, and some

over it, it “flaked up.” Instead of throwing

pounds and imitators were already nipping

personal chores for J. H., and never earning

the flakes away, he decided to put them in

at his heels...The New York ad campaign of

more than $3 a day. His most exciting tasks

bowls and serve them. The patients loved the

1907 was not Will’s only flash of marketing

included chasing down escaped patients.

crunchy stuff and demanded more! Suddenly,

genius. He pioneered in the use of coupons.

Sometimes Will assisted in food preparation.

a light went on in Will’s head. In addition to

He promoted innovations, from Rice Krispies

He helped develop a moist and tasty breakfast

corn, he experimented with oats and barley

to All Bran. He was the first to use electric

treat made from wheat dough pressed into

and found that flaked cereal made from them

billboards in New York City.”24

large sheets and cut into square servings.

were popular too. He started a mail order


Above (Left to right): â&#x20AC;&#x153;Detroit is one of five public school district s that will receive a W.K. Kellogg Foundation Woodrow Wilson Michigan Teaching Fellowship...â&#x20AC;? 25,26,27 Opposite (Left to right): Detroit International Academy student s (2010) 28,29


W.K. Kellogg Foundation Initial Gift: $66 Million30

feeding, clothing, sheltering and safeguarding

“As a shy, private man, [W.K. Kellogg] avoided

of children and youth, directly or indirectly,

the public eye and made every attempt to

without regard to sex, race, creed or

keep the Foundation from the “limelight”

nationality.…”32 Kellogg’s goal was “‘ help

as well.”31 He “defined its purpose as

children face the future with confidence, with

‘...administering funds for the promotion

health, and with a strong-rooted security in

of the welfare, comfort, health, education,

the trust of this country and its institutions.’”30




“It is my hope,” [Kellogg] said, “that the property that kind Providence has brought me may be helpful to others, and that I may be found a faithful steward.”39

Opposite (Clockwise from upper left): The W.K. Kellogg Foundation promotes a sustainable and environmentally friendly landscape through it’s community, educational, and entrepreneurial programs. 33,34,35,36,37,38

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Kellogg is targeting 15-20% reductions in energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, water use, and waste per metric tonne produced by 40 2015...â&#x20AC;? 130


Photograph of the Kellogg plantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s interior. 41



Henry Ford Ford Motor Company Founding Location: Detroit Initial capital: $28,00045 Public Company 2009 Sales: $112.05 Billion46 “Ford’s affordable Model T irrevocably altered American society. As more Americans owned cars, urbanization patterns changed. The United States saw the growth of suburbia, the creation of a national highway system, and a population entranced with the possibility of going anywhere anytime.”47

1903 Opposite: Henr y Ford with Model T in Buffalo, New York (1926) 42 Above (Upper to lower): Detroit’s Monroe Street in 1918. 43 World’s Second traffic light in 1922 at Congress Street and Woodward Avenue. 44


Above (Left to right): Henr y Fordâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s workshop in 1900. 48 Ford Rouge Plant in the 1940s. 49 Opposite (Left to right): Traffic cop on a busy Detroit street . 50 A family with their fir st car. 51


â&#x20AC;&#x153;I will build a car for the great multitude.â&#x20AC;?47


“In 1914, Ford began paying his employees five dollars a day, nearly doubling the wages offered by other manufacturers. He cut the workday from nine to eight hours in order to convert the factory to a three-shift workday. Ford’s mass-production techniques would eventually allow for the manufacture of a Model T every 24 seconds. His innovations made him an international celebrity.”47


Photograph of Edsel Ford, Mickey Rooney, and Henr y Ford in 1940. 52



Opposite: 1956 Ford Motor Company's Rouge Plant . 53

Opposite: “Recognized in 2004 by Guinness World Records as the largest green roof in the world, this green roof cover s 454,000 square feet ...atop Ford’s new truck assembly plant . The green roof is a par t of a comprehensive effor t to revitalize the historic Ford Rouge Centre complex as a model for 21st Centur y sustainable manufacturing and is a significant component of a site-wide 600-acre stormwater management system.” 54,55

1952 | Conserving Energy: “Ford establishes Resources for the Future, an independent research organization, to conduct economic analysis and social research on the links between conservation, development and the use of natural resources. This evolves into the work in the areas of environmental science and policy.”56


“Ford Foundation Announces $80 Million

“Many of the world’s poorest families rely

“In par tner ship with the W.K. Kellogg

Initiative to Improve Economic Stability

on natural resources—forest s, grasslands

Foundation, Ford commit s $7 million to

for U.S. Worker s and Their Families.” 57,58

and other natural asset s—for their basic

suppor t a public/private initiative to spur

livelihoods, yet they have limited right s

economic development in formerly industrial

over these resources. We believe that

stretches of Detroit's waterfront . Suppor t

promoting greater access among the

for cultural institutions and community

poor to natural resources is critical to

development in struggling neighborhoods

achieving two interrelated goals: reducing

is designed to help Detroit revitalize it s

global pover ty and sustaining the quality

economy.” 61,62

of our environment .”



Ford Foundation

Initial Gift: $25,00063

frontlines of social change worldwide. Our

“President of the Ford Motor Company and

goals for more than half a century have been

son of company founder Henry Ford, Edsel

to: Strengthen democratic values; Reduce

Ford created the Ford Foundation in 1936 at

poverty and injustice; Promote international

the age of 43 to ‘receive and administer funds

cooperation; Advance human achievement.”65

for scientific, educational and charitable purposes, all for the public welfare.’ An auto

“We support the development of natural

visionary in his own right, he also had deep

resource policies and programs that give

interest in the arts and humanities.”

poor communities more control over these


“The Ford Foundation supports visionary

resources and a stronger voice in decision

leaders and organizations working on the

making on land use and development.”59



Above (Left to right): Por trait of J.L. Hudson in 1882. 66 Busy Detroit street around Christmas time (1960s). 67 Opposite (Clockwise from upper left): Collection of 1960s photographs of the Christmas culture projected by the Hudsonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s flagship store in downtown Detroit . 68,69,70


Joseph L. Hudson J.L. Hudson Company Founding Location: Detroit Public Company (Macy’s) 2009 Sales: $23.57 Billion71 Purchased by Federated Department Stores in 2006 and renamed Macy’s “With splendid visions for the future, [Hudson] insisted on expanding, offering more and better merchandise and services.”1



By 1953, the 49-acre flagship store “employed up to 12,000 workers and welcomed 100,000 shoppers a day. It had its own telephone exchange (CApitol), and the nation’s third largest switchboard, exceeded only by the Pentagon and the Bell System itself.”72

“[But] competition from the chain of suburban malls built by the J. L. Hudson Company led to the decision to close the store in 1983.”73

Opposite: Located in Southfield, Michigan, the Hudson’s suburban anchor store at Nor thland Center opened in 1954. 74



Above (Clockwise from upper right): â&#x20AC;&#x153; The store that Kresge built has evolved into an empire of more than 1,500 stores and an Internet presence that reaches millions of customer s. The Kmar t name has become a symbol of Americana...â&#x20AC;? 75,76,77,78 Opposite: Sebastian S. Kresge and his wife in the 1950s. 79


S.S. Kresge S.S. Kresge Company

Founding Location: Detroit Initial Investment: $8,00080 Evolved from five-and-10-cent store Renamed Kmart Corporation in 1977 Purchased by Searâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Holding Corp. in 2005 Public Company (Searâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Holding Corp.) 2009 Sales: $44.08 Billion81



â&#x20AC;&#x153;In 2004, [the Foundation] took the visionar y step of constructing a new, sustainably designed headquar ter s and renovating a historic building on our existing three-acre site in Troy, Michigan.â&#x20AC;? 82,83


The Kresge Foundation

Initial Gift: $1.6 Million84

private, national foundation that seeks

communities.”85 Particularly, “we recognize

“Giving away money is not an easy job,”

to influence the quality of life for future

Detroit’s potential as a place of widespread

Sebastian once observed. “Money alone

generations...” The Foundation “awards

prosperity fostered by a robust economy;

cannot build character or transform evil

grants to small, mid-size, and large nonprofit

healthy, safe and stable neighborhoods; a

into good; it cannot restore the influence

organizations in six fields of interest: health,

region unified around a vibrant center city;

and vitality of the home; neither can it

the environment, community development,

and people throughout the area enjoying our

maintain the valleys and plains of peace.

arts and culture, education, and human

vast cultural and environmental resources.”86

Spent alone, it might as well stay in the

services. Working with our grantees, we

vaults… It cries for full partnership with

endeavor to improve the life circumstances

leaders of character and good will.”

and opportunities for poor, disadvantaged


“The Kresge Foundation is a $2.8 billion



and marginalized individuals, families, and


”On South Carolina’s remote Sea Islands, dedicated our ladyaofsmall, mercy community outreach services, johns island, south carolina

“ Techtown: Nextenergy (Left) and Techone (Right)” techtown: nextenergy (left) and techone (right), detroit, michigan

band of Roman Catholic nuns, lay staff and volunteer s is

in Detroit . “ The Kresge Foundation awarded TechTown

carr ying out critical community work , illustrat[ing] the powerful

a $1.5million grant—$500,000 in grow th capital

impact of ser ving the needy through a holistic approach that

to advance it s role as a business accelerator...” 89,90

simultaneously addresses the natural environment , built environment and social environment .” 87,88


“‘Over the long term, the new Environment Program aspires to have tangible effects on the policies and practices associated with climate change and environmental sustainability,’ says Lois R. DeBacker, senior program director and Environment Program team leader. ‘We are particularly interested in strategies that cut across sectors and disciplines.’”91


With a $6000 star t-up cost , “Nathan Faustyn,

“Nearby, a retro-themed hair salon that opened

“Not far away, Tor ya Blanchard, a former French

[above], helped star t a foreign movie house

just a year ago count s 1,500 client s.” 92 Photograph

teacher, recently opened the second location of Good

[known as the Bur ton Theatre]...” 92 Photograph

by Fabrizio Costantini for The New York Times. 94

Girls Go to Paris, a creperie.” 92 Photograph by Fabrizio

by Fabrizio Costantini for The New York Times.


Costantini for The New York Times. 95


Burton Theatre. Good Girls Go to Paris Crepes. Curl Up & Dye. “Despite the recession — and in some cases

”Experts say the zeal for entrepreneurship

because of it — small businesses are budding

these days in Detroit and elsewhere has

around Detroit in one of the more surprising

precedent: according to research by Dane

twists of the downturn. Some new businesses

Stangler, a senior analyst at the Kauffman

like the Burton are scratching by. Others

Foundation, a center for economic research

have already grown beyond the initial scope

in Kansas City, Mo., half the companies on the

of their business plans, juggling hundreds of

Fortune 500 list this year were founded

customers and expanding into new sites.”

in recession or bear markets.”92


â&#x20AC;&#x153;[T]his adventure in entrepreneurship was never completely about making money. It was also about creating a more 92 livable community.â&#x20AC;? 154


“A FRENCH AIR Tor ya Blanchard a former teacher, runs two crêper ies. “I just wanted to do something that I loved,” she said.” 92 Photograph by Fabrizio Costantini for The New York Times. 96

156 1.

Baulch, Vivian M. “How J.L. Hudson changed the


way we shop.” The Detroit News. 17 Mar. 2000.


Web. 22 Jan. 2010. < 2.

1969. Photograph. Wayne State Univer sity Vir tual

Univer sity Vir tual Motor City. Wayne State

Motor City. Wayne State University, 2003. Web.

University, 2003. Web. 24 Jan. 2010. <http://dlxs.

Store (56102_2). 1934. Photograph. Wayne

23 Jan. 2010. <

State Univer sity Vir tual Motor City. Wayne State


University, 2003. Web. 22 Jan. 2010. <http://dlxs.

1%5D55217_1>. Thomas, Bernard F. 1963. Photograph. Flickr.

Per sonal Finance and Investing - MSN Money.

Web. 27 Jan. 2010. <http://w w

2010. Web. 25 Jan. 2010. <http://moneycentral.

Faygo Beverage Company : Detroit (55217). 1969.


Photograph. Wayne State Univer sity Vir tual Motor

1023794@N24 >. 9.

“FIZZ - Stock Quote for National Beverage>. 16. “ Vision and Mission.” Kellogg Company. Web. 24 Jan. 2010. <http://w w

2010. <

Corp - MSN Money.” Per sonal Finance and


Investing - MSN Money. 2010. Web. 25 Jan. 2010.

Faygo Beverage Company : Detroit (55217_4).


english*. 11 Feb. 2008. Web. 22 Jan. 2010.

1969. Photograph. Wayne State Univer sity Vir tual

quote?symbol=FIZZ&w w=1>.

<http://carlaa27.blogspot .com/2008/02/3-us-

10. “Faygo Beverages Inc.” Funding Univer se. Web.

company.aspx?id=888>. 17. “3 US SUCCESS STORIES.” Web log post . I (love)

success-stories.html>. 18. Kellogg’s Toasted Corn Flakes:”Good Time Coming”

23 Jan. 2010. <

24 Jan. 2010. <http://w w w.fundinguniverse.



Ad. 1906. Photograph. Kellogg Histor y. Kellogg


Company-Histor y.html>.

Company. Web. 25 Jan. 2010. <http://w w w.

Faygo Beverage Company : Detroit (55217_5).

11. Schwendemann, Angie. Faygo Billboard.

kellogghistor y.html>. 19. Kellogg’s Toasted Corn Flakes:”Think You Can

1969. Photograph. Wayne State Univer sity Vir tual

2006. Photograph. Flickr. Web. 23 Jan.

Motor City. Wayne State Univer sity Vir tual Motor

2010. <http://w w

Carr y It?” Ad. 1907. Photograph. Kellogg Histor y.

City. Wayne State University, 2003. Web. 23


Kellogg Company. Web. 25 Jan. 2010. <http://

Jan. 2010. <



X-67000%5D67000>. 15. “K - Stock Quote for Kellogg Co - MSN Money.”


Motor City. Wayne State University, 2003. Web.


Kellogg-Inspectors-1934.htm>. 14. Kellogg, W.K. (67000). Photograph. Wayne State

apps/histor y/index.php?id=29>.

City. Wayne State University, 2003. Web. 23 Jan.


Faygo Beverage Company : Detroit (55217_1).

Flags; American; Large Flag; At J. L. Hudson



12. Kellogg Company (66998_1). Photograph. Wayne

w w w.kellogghistor y.html>. 20. Kellogg’s Pep:”Graceful Flashing Dive” Ad. 1926.


State Univer sity Vir tual Motor City. Wayne State


University, 2003. Web. 24 Jan. 2010. <http://dlxs.

Photograph. Kellogg Histor y. Kellogg Company.

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Inventor s. Web. 25 Jan. 2010. <http://inventors. about .com/od/fstar tinventors/a/Henr yFord. htm>. 48. Henr y Ford’s Workshop. 1900. Photograph. Images of Henr y Ford. Timeless Images. Web. 25 Jan. 2010. <http://w w y. ford.html>. 49. Ford Motor Co.; Plant s; Rouge (7660). 1945. Photograph. Wayne State Univer sity Vir tual Motor

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City. Wayne State. Web. 25 Jan. 2010. <http://

Initiative to Improve Economic Stability for U.S.

Workers and Their Families.” Ford Foundation:


Press Releases. Ford Foundation. Web. 22 Jan.

66. Por trait of J.L.Hudson. 1882. Photograph. Images

2010. <http://w w

of Henr y Ford. Timeless Images. Web. 23 Jan.


2010. <http://w w

50. Detroit Traffic Cop. 1920. Photograph. Images of Detroit. Timeless Images. Web. 25 Jan. 2010. <http://w w html>. 51. A Family’s Fir st Car. Photograph. Images of the Auto Industr y. Timeless Images. Web. 25 Jan. 2010. <http://w w automotive.html>. 52. Rooney, Mickey; Actor ; Groups; with Henr y Ford

58. Photograph. Ford Foundation: Press Releases. Ford Foundation. Web. 22 Jan. 2010.

Foundation. Web. 22 Jan. 2010. <http://w w w.>.

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<http://w w

Detroit News archives. The Detroit News. Web. 25


Jan. 2010. <

59. “A New Generation of Social Change.” Ford Foundation: About Us. Ford Foundation. Web. 22

index.php?project=Christmas Past&image=2>. 68. Christmas Past (Image 15). 1953. Photograph. The

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Detroit News archives. The Detroit News. Web. 25

and Edsel Ford (46436_1). 1945. Photograph.


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index.php?project=Christmas Past&image=15>.

159 69. Hudson, J. L. Company; Building; Woodward

26 Apr. 2008. Web. 25 Jan. 2010. <http://

Avenue (1614). 1961. Photograph. Wayne State

pleasantfamilyshopping.blogspot .com/2008/04/

Univer sity Vir tual Motor City. Wayne State. Web.

what s-frequency-kmar t .html>.

25 Jan. 2010. < image/image-idx?id=S-VMC-X-1614%5D1614>. 70. J.L. Hudson’s 12th Floor Xmas Deer. 1850. Photograph. Images of Henr y Ford. Timeless Images. Web. 23 Jan. 2010. <http://w w w.>. 71. “M - Stock Quote for Macy’s Inc - MSN Money.”

78. Kresge Store - corner of State + Woodward (77323). 1938. Photograph. Wayne State Univer sity Vir tual Motor City. Wayne State. Web. 25 Jan. 2010. < image/image-idx?id=S-VMC-X-77323%5D77323>. 79. Kresge, Sebastian S. : Owner of Kresge Store : & Wife (1456). 1959. Photograph. Wayne State

84. “ Who We Are.” The Kresge Foundation. The Kresge Foundation. Web. 24 Jan. 2010. <http://w w w.>. 85. “ What We Do.” The Kresge Foundation. The Kresge Foundation. Web. 24 Jan. 2010. <http://w w w.>. 86. “ What We Do: Detroit Program.” The Kresge Foundation. The Kresge Foundation. Web. 24 Jan. 2010. <http://w w detroit_program/>.

Per sonal Finance and Investing - MSN Money. Web.

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detail/stock_quote?symbol=M&w w=1>.


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Johns Island, South Carolina. Photograph. The


Kresge Foundation: 2007 Annual Repor t. The Kre

73. Hughes, Kay. “J.L. Hudson’s Depar tment Store.” Mar ygrove College. Web. 24 Jan. 2010. <http:// w w w.mar>. 74. Photograph. J. L. Hudson Co. Depar tment Store.

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index.php/annual_repor t/2007_annual_repor t/>. 90. Techtown: Nextenergy (left) and Techone (right),

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<http://w w w.kmar

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kmar t-histor y.htm>.

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Foundation: 2007 Annual Repor t. The Kresge

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Headquar ter s. Photograph. National Trust for

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Historic Preser vation: Kresge Foundation Suppor t

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Eminent Domain in Detroit The intersection of public good, planned obsolescence, and empty space. Dorothy Schwankl

Left : GM Assembly Line. 1


eminent domain: n. The right of a government to appropriate private property for public use, usually with compensation to the owner. 2

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Both the federal and state governments

Public utilities, such as gas and power

(including their respective agencies) have the

companies, may also condemn property in

power of eminent domain or condemnation.

Michigan. See, MCLA 486.252. Public utilities

In Michigan, cities and counties have also

must typically receive authorization from a

been delegated the authority or power of

state or federal board or commission before

eminent domain by statute. See, MCLA 213.21.

condemnation proceedings may begin. The

Of course, all entities exercising the power

Michigan Public Services Commission grants

must be acting on behalf of the public when

authority to power companies to commence

using the power of eminent domain.

condemnation proceedings.â&#x20AC;?3

Right : Posted sign in Hamtramck , Michigan. 4


Right : View of utate velit esse molestie conseqvel illum dolore eu feugiat nulla facilisis autate velit esse molestie stiesties. 3


Gray Panther leader Maggie Kuhn joined the Poletown

Protestor s park a bulldozer in front of GM Chairman

Catherine Patrick , who had lived in Poletown since

protest s following a letter writing campaign by

Roger Smith’s home in Bloomfield Township in 1981. 5

1937, insisted in December 1980, “I will not move from

resident s. 5

this house. My next stop if necessar y will be Mount Olivet (cemeter y).” 5

“In 1981, the Michigan Supreme Court decided one of the most controversial cases involving eminent domain. In that case, the city of Detroit had seized thousands of homes, businesses, and churches in an area called Poletown (named for the large Polish population in that area) so that General Motors could build a plant on the site. The city claimed that the ‘public use’ limitation was met by virtue of the fact that the new plant would ‘create jobs’ and increase the city’s tax base. Opponents contended that this wasn’t truly a ‘public use’ because the property owners’ property was simply being taken from them to be given to General Motors. The Michigan Supreme Court ruled in favor of the city.”6


A silent rebuke to GMâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Poletown plans. 5

Poletown resident s protest what they claim was refusal

Jethro Williams wait s out the dispute on his porch on

of the city to protect their Poletown neighborhoods

Hor ton Street in Poletown.

during the dispute. 5



The last Sunday ser vices at Immaculate Conception Church in Poletown on

May 10, 1981, drew a full house. Destruction of the church began shor tly after ward. 5

Immaculate Conception Church


Father Joseph Karasiewicz waves farewell as the wrecking ball attacks the last

Six shovels await the mayor s of Detroit and Hamtramck and GM brass for the

section of his Immaculate Conception Church in Poletown. Fr. Karasiewicz had opposed his cardinalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s decision to allow the church to be torn down. 5

Poletown plant groundbreaking ceremony as the remains of Dodge Main crumble in the background. 5

250 acres 4200 residents 600 businesses 16 churches $732,000 in tax revenue per year



1961 Do


M e g d

ow let



er I nt Right : Poletown area in 1961. 8


la P n i


e9 t a t



Wayne County predicted â&#x20AC;&#x153;thousands of jobs, tens of millions of dollars in tax revenue, a broader tax base, 9 and accelerated economic growth.â&#x20AC;?



Right : Poletown area in 1983 before plant construction began. 8

er t n I


e9 t a t




Above: Area Nor th of GM Assembly Plant , disconnected from Poletown by the highway and the plant . 10 Below: Residential street s directly nor th of the GM Assembly Plant today. 4



Right : Poletown area in 1997 with the GM Hamtramck Assembly Plant . 8

er I nt


e9 t a t



Today the average lifespan of a car is 12 years, 11 or 128,500 miles.

Right : Junked and crushed car s in Lethbridge Scrapyard. 12



There are 250,844,644 registered passenger 13 vehicles in the US.

Right : Chev y Trailblazer s drive into the shipping lot at the GM Moraine Assembly plant in Day ton, Ohio. 14



Above and right : Adver tisement images for the 1986 Buick Riviera, the fir st car produced at the GM Hamtramck Assembly Plant . 15



Right : Adver tisement for the 2010 Chev y Volt , the current car being produced at the GM Hamtramck Assembly Plant . 16



Planned Obsolescence The GM Hamtramck Assembly Plant was part of GMâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s multi-billion dollar investment program to modernize its automobile designs and plants in the early 1980s. Heralded as a state-of-the-art facility, the plant had a â&#x20AC;&#x153;modular paint system, electric (rather than hydraulic) robots, just-intime deliveries, and a plan for paperless operations.â&#x20AC;?18 The plant is currently being re-tooled and re-organized for the assembly of the plug-in hybrid, the Chevy Volt. How has the idea of planned obsolescence played out in state-of-the-art factories? How often do the places of production need to be re-tooled to create the newest object? What relation do the tools have to the building that contains them and, at a larger scale to the site, city, and region?

Left : General Motor s engine assembly line worker. 1



Public Good How has Detroit’s connection to the auto industry, both culturally and economically, linked the city’s prosperity to a dying U.S. industry? The bureaucrats that planned the development of the new GM plant in Hamtramck sought to fill the void left by the closing of the Dodge Main Plant 15 months earlier.7 Even though there was serious protest from the residents, the decision to trade a neighborhood for an assembly plant was made by officials acting on behalf of the residents, under the presumption of public good. What is the lifespan of decisions of “public good”? How can government agencies ensure that they are making decisions that are not just good for the present, but good for the future? What is the lifespan of an assembly plant? Was the Poletown decision a short-term or long-term device for the residents of Hamtramck and Detroit? What is the lifespan of a factory compared to that of a neighborhood? Who determines when the built environment is obsolete? Which environments are the easiest to alter? How has eminent domain become a necessary tool for conglomerating land into large enough tracts to incentivize redevelopment?

Left : Abandoned industrial building at Denton and Craig, just nor th of the GM Assembly Plant . 4



Empty Space What is the motivation to rebuild based on? Why has empty space become a sign of failure? How do these empty spaces differ from rural spaces where emptiness is considered picturesque and highly valued? Most of the abandoned lots in the area just north of the GM Hamtramck Assembly Plant are owned by the city and are maintained to some extent. The curb cuts for driveways and concrete stairs leading up to non-existent front porches serve as placeholders for the houses that used to occupy these lots. Is lowering density an indicator of failure or simply part of the evolution of a city?

Above, right : Abandoned concrete stair on Denton St . 4 Above: Lenawee County in Autumn. 17 Left : Abandoned warehouse at Denton and Craig, just nor th of the GM Assembly Plant . 4


190 1. “Automotive History” General Motors

7. Kelly, James with Seaman, Barrett.


assembly line workers. Folder “General

“The Last Days of Poletown.” March

Motors Corporation, Automobile

30, 1981.

Assembly.” Box 1, Jack Kausch papers.


13. Research and Innovative Technology




2. The American Heritage® Dictionary of


the English Language, Fourth Edition.

9. Sullum, Jacob. “Razing Objections:

(Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2009)

A court rediscovers property rights in

daveseven/2986837143/ October 30, 2008. Administration Bureau of Transportation Statistics. publications/national_transportation_ statistics/html/table_01_11.html 14. Associated Press. December 30, 2008

3. “Corporate Powers - Mich. Comp. Laws

the rubble of Poletown.” August 6, 2004.

Section 486.252”. http://law.onecle.





companies/mcl-486-252.html 4. Author’s photo. Hamtramck, Michigan. Taken January 24, 2010. 5. The Detroit News Archives. http://

10. Alice St. and Joseph Campau St., Hamtramck, Michigan, 48212. http:// 11. Solomon, Christopher. “Cars that

15. 16. Gosselin, Laura. “GM CEO Fritz Henderson Expects Loss on Chevy Volt.” April 14,

last a million miles” http://articles.







6. Hornberger, Jacob G. “The Bill of Rights: Eminent Domain” Posted April 6, 2005.



191 18. General Motors: The First 75 Years of Transportation Products. (Detroit: GM Photographic, 1983).

192 02


195 05



199 09


26 200

The 1950s introduced a new convenient and cheap way for families to enjoy watching films with the opening of Detroitâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s first and only drive-in movie theatre 1914

Bohemian National Home


The original Bohemian immigrants came to Detroit to escape Prussian oppression and economic hardship in their homeland. A dozen recent arrivals formed the first Detroit lodge, in 1874, under the auspices of the Bohemian Society of America. This national organization first organized in 1854 in St. Louis, Missouri. The original Detroit lodge bore the name of Karel Havilicek Barovsky, a Czech hero of the 1848 revolution against

the Hapsburg dynasty. In 1890, the Detroit Bohemian Turners Society built Detroitâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s first Bohemian hall at the corner of Erskine and St. Antoine,

on the near east side. A flag bearing procession of the various Bohemian organizations who would use the facility commemorated the opening. By

1910, however, the east side hall had become too small to accommodate the growing community. The original plans for a new west side hall, and the announcement of a fundraising drive to finance the project, appeared in the Detroit Times on August 19, 1910.


11 201


Bohemian National Home


The original Bohemian immigrants came to Detroit to escape Prussian oppression and economic hardship in their homeland. A dozen recent arrivals formed the first Detroit lodge, in 1874, under the auspices of the Bohemian Society of America. This national organization first organized in 1854 in St. Louis, Missouri. The original Detroit lodge bore the name of Karel Havilicek Barovsky, a Czech hero of the 1848 revolution against the Hapsburg dynasty. In 1890, the Detroit Bohemian Turners Society built Detroitâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s first Bohemian hall at the corner of Erskine and St. Antoine, on the near east side. A flag bearing procession of the various Bohemian organizations who would use the facility commemorated the opening. By 1910, however, the east side hall had become too small to accommodate the growing community. The original plans for a new west side hall, and the announcement of a fundraising drive to finance the project, appeared in the Detroit Times on August 19, 1910.

12 202


Majestic Theatre

Opened on April 1, 1915, the theater originally seated 1,651 people (at the time the largest theater in the world built for the purpose of showing movies). There is a myth that legendary magician Harry Houdini gave his last performance on stage here, on Halloween night 1926.



Hilberry Theatre

Opened on April 1, 1915, the theater originally seated 1,651 people (at the time the largest theater in the world built for the purpose of showing movies). There is a myth that legendary magician Harry Houdini gave his last performance on stage here, on Halloween night 1926.



Orchestra Hall

The first concert took place on October 23, 1919 and the hall remained the home of the Detroit Symphony Orchestra until 1939. Due to the financial difficulties of the Great Depression, the orchestra was compelled to leave Orchestra Hall and enter into a more economical arrangement to share the Masonic Temple Theatre



Due to the success of the 1920s automobile industry in Detroit, more people were moving to Detroit, as well as visiting, which created a demand for entertainment in the city. Within a span of ten year, 13 new theatres were created, thus bringing the grand total to 23, making the Detroit the theatre capital of the world.


15 1 205


Right : View of the Detroit Masonic Temple Theatre

16 206



Detroit Opera House




Filmore Theatre


Michigan Theatre

During the first few decades of the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

The Fillmore Detroit was constructed in 1925

Currently being utilized as a parking structure,

history, it featured artists such as jazz legends

as a movie house in the Renaissance Revival

in the 1960s a closed-circuit television

Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington, although

style of architecture. C. Howard Crane was

provided views of Red Wings ice hockey games

at one point the business at the Paramount

the original architect, and the building is still

for those who could not attend the actual

Theatre had decreased so substantially that

called the Francis Palms Building.

event in nearby Olympia Stadium, and in the

in desperation it was converted into a movie

1970s the theater was a nightclub and concert

theatre, specializing pornography.

venue for rock bands.


The Gem Theatre



Senate Theatre


The Gem Theatre




Detroit Film Theatre

Mainly a movie theater, it also presented some

The building was used as an adult movie

A prominent feature of the 1927 Detroit

young comedians and entertainers on their

house until it closed in 1978. Soon afterward,

Institute of Arts building is the 1200 seat

way to later stardom, including

developer Charles Forbes purchased the

auditorium, designed by Paul Philippe Cret as a

performances by Amos Jacobs, later known as

combined Gem/Century building, and began

venue for film, lectures and live performances.

Danny Thomas. The theater once had a small

a complete restoration of the Gem Theatre in

Robert Morton theater organ often

1990. The refurbished Gem opened in 1990.

played by Thelma Boomhower.

208 18


Fisher Theatre



United Artists




Redford Theatre


The theatre originally featured a lavish Aztec-

Until 1973, it was a first-run movie house

At its opening, the theatre was hailed as

themed interior in the Mayan Revival style, and

and office space. The United Artists Theatre,

“America’s Most Unique Suburban Playhouse”.

once had Mexican-Indian art and banana trees

designed in a Spanish-Gothic design, sat 2,070

The Redford Theatre, with its three story

and live macaws that its patrons could feed.

people, and after closing served from 1978

grand foyer, Japanese-inspired decor and full-

After the Depression, the theatre operated

to 1983 as the Detroit Symphony Orchestra’s

size stage, has been in continuous operation

209 19


Music Hall Center



Fox Theatre



Vanity Ballroom


During the Great Depression, the cash-

The Fox was the first movie theater in the world

The ballroom was a major venue for bands of



to be constructed with built-in equipment

the 1930s and 1940s, such as those of Tommy

was unable to support their building, the

for sound films. The Fox Film Corporation’s

Dorsey, Jimmy Dorsey, Duke Ellington, Benny

Orchestra Hall. They played in a number of

patented sound-on-film system “Movietone”

Goodman, Red Nichols, Russ Morgan, Art

other locations, and in 1946 moved into Wilson

enabled the theater to present sound films

Mooney, Woody Herman, and Pee Wee Hunt.

Theatre, renaming it Detroit Music Hall

from the time of its opening

The Vanity billed itself as “Detroit’s most



beautiful dance rendezvous.”

20 20 210

The theatre building boom of the 1920s came to an all time halt in the 1930s when the Great Depression struck, riots broke out, and prohibition took its course. Theatres that could afford to stay open were converted to homeless shelters or pornographic film theatres 211 21


212 22


Alger Theatre

When the Alger Theater opened, it was a luxury theater, and included state-of-theart amenities such as premium sound and projection equipment, comfort seating, and air conditioning. It continued as a movie house for forty years. However, as the surrounding neighborhood suffered socioeconomic changes, attendance began dropping off

213 23


24 214 24

The 1940s theatre district was affected greatly by the advent of the television, World War Two, and the aftermath of the

Great Depression 30.

Right : A man watching television at the comf or t of his

215 25

216 26

The 1950s introduced a new convenient and cheap way for families to enjoy watching films with the opening of Detroitâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s first and only drive-in movie theatre 31.

217 2727

218 28



Belle Air Drive-In Theatre

The largest drive-in theatre in Detroit, The Bel-AIr is actually the only drive-in movie theatre the history of Detroit. The first 2 screen drive in. Capacity 2200 cars. The Bel Air was the #1 grossing drive in in the metro area, with the Algiers #2. The Bel Air was torn down and replaced with a shopping center. However the name lives on, as there is a 10-screen indoor theatre on the site


219 29



Left to Right : Belle Air Marquee displaying films and times, Area map of drive-in,




atre one, Attachable car speaker


30 220


Detroit Repertory Theatre

The theatre began as a touring company in 1957 and performed throughout Michigan, Indiana, Ohio and Pennsylvnania, before it established itself on Woodrow Wilson Avenue in Detroit in 1963. It survived the race riots of 1967 and was, for a time during the 1970s, the only fully professional non-profit theatre in Detroit. The theatre averages about 60,000 admissions each year.

221 31


32 222

During the 1960s,1970s, and 1980s, many theatres closed or were abandoned in Detroitâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s economic contraction

Total amount of closures and abandonments equaled an astonishing 12 out of 31 theatres

223 33

224 34



38. Right (Counter Clockwise) Chr ysler Imax Dome Theatre built in 2001, MGM Grand Casino built in 2007, Motor City Casino built in 2007, City Theatre built in 2004, Greek town Casino built in 2007



In the new millenium,Detroit saw 5 new theatres located within the newly built casinos, despite city financial problems.



36 226 1. 2. 3.





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33. 35. 36. 37. 38.

24. messages/6790/68501.jpg 25. 26.

39. 40. 41.




Detroit The Grotesque. Ayesha Sarfraz

Right : http://w w s/0,16641,20091005,00.html



Detroit Otherwise.


The Great Lakes Region of North America is attractive to tourists because of extensive shorelines, huge public forests, numerous parks, extensive commercial tourist facilities, interesting cities and good highways. Each year Ontario and neighbouring American states spend a total of more than 20 million on tourism publicity trying to capture a larger share of the 40 billion spent in the region annually by tourists.

The Great Lakes Region of North America is

economic recessions earlier in the century.

expansion. Some smaller cities which were

the site of an international battle for tourists.

Even in the urban agricultural belt, the

economically devastated by manufacturing

The region consists of all or part of eight

recent automobile industry decline has been

plant closures have adopted tourism

states and one province bordering the lakes.

mitigated somewhat by increased tourism

development as the principal thrust of their

The International Boundary runs through

revenues. This has resulted in a better

recovery plan. Best of American suburbia

four of the lakes. Approximately 65 million

appreciation of the economic importance

while Ann Arbor provides the nearby

people reside in the region. Tourism is the

of tourism and increased attention to

experience of a world renowned college town.

principal source of income in much of the

stimulating tourist flows. Cities such

Northern half of the region where declines

as Toronto and Detroit have recognized

in agriculture, mining, forestry, sawmilling

that tourism can be as important as

and manufacturing often produced serious

manufacturing and are encouraging



Detroit, a major metropolis in the U.S. state of Michigan has had a profound impact on the world. From the advent of the automotive assembly line, to the Motown sound, to modern techno rock acts, Detroit continues to shape both American and global cultures. The city has seen renovations of historical buildings and is bustling with new attractions that complement its world class museums and theatres.,_from_Robert_N._Dennis_




As Detroit’s reputation as the ‘Hollywood of the Heartland’ continues to grow, however, fans and historians cannot forget the Motor City was the location for some of filmdom’s most memorable and ground breaking movies long before filmmakers received whopping tax breaks to film here.


Institutions Theatres, Museums, Libraries. Museum of African American History/ Detroit

Historical Museum/Museum of Contemporary

for the Performing Arts/ Redford Theatre/

Institute of Art/ Detroit Science Centre/

Art/ Bagel Art Gallery/ City Theatre/ Little

Riverfront 4 Movies Theatre/ MGM Grand

Detroit Public Library/ Pewabic Pottery/

Gem Theatre/ Matrix Theatre/ Planet Ant/

Detroit Theatre/ Bonstelle Theatre/ Detroit

Hitsville, USA/ Fox Theatre/ Masonic Temple

Anna Scripps Whitcomb Conservatory/

Film Theatre/ Senate Theatre/ Hilberry

Theatre/ Detroit Opera House/ Filmore

Detroit Zoo/ Chrysler Museum/ DTE Energy

Theatre/ City Theatre/ Gem Theatre/ Century

Theatre/ Orchestra Hall/ Henry Ford Museum

Music Theatre/ The Palace of Auburn Hills/

Theatre/ Chrysler IMAX Dome Theatre/ Detroit

and Green Field Village/ Cranbrook Art

Fisher Theatre/ Bertâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Warehouse Theatre/

Repertory Theatre/ Bohemian National Home/

Museum/ Detroit Zoological Institute/ Detroit

Filmore Detroit/ Harpos Concert Theatre

Studio Theatre/ Boll Family YMCA Theatre/


Detroit Film Industry/ National Theatre (inactive)/ United Artistâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Theatre Building (inactive)/ Motorcity Casino/ Greektown Casino/ MGM Casino


Festivals St.Albertus Music Festival/ Mariachi

Marathon/ Thanksgiving Parade/ Winterblast/

Detroit Fashion Week/ Fash Bash - A Major

Performance in Mexican town/ Detroit Festival

North American International Auto Show/

Fashion Event/ Woodward Dream Cruise/

of the Arts/ Noel Night/ Ford International

Plymouth Ice Festival/ Detroit Music

Meadowbrook Music Festival/ Rochester Art

Jazz Festival/ Detroit’s Artist Market/

Awards/ Downriver Dream Cruise/ Motor

and Apples Festival/ Old Car Festival/ Urban

Detroit’s Electronic Music Festival/ Weekly

Muster/ Detroit River Days/ Windsor-Detroit

Organic Festival/ The Concert of Colours/

Summer Festival at Hart Plaza/ CoAmerica

International Freedom Festival/ Salute to

African World Festival/ Detroit Short Films

City Festival/ Daily in the Alley/ Jazzin’ on

America/ Tall Ships at the Dock of Detroit/


Jefferson/ Michigan State Fair/ Detroit Free

Meadowbrook Concourse D’Elegance/




Tiger’s Baseball Stadium (demolished)/

Palmer Park/ Clark Park/ Chandler Park Family

Red Wing’s Hockey Stadium/ Piston’s

Aqutic Centre/ Belle Isle Park/ Golf Course/

Basketball Stadium/ Lion’s Football Stadium/

The Belle Isle Conservatory/

Thunderfest/ Detroit Grand Prix/

The Detroit Yacht Club

Tour de Troit


Urban Installations


Community Art

The Heidelberg Project

The Heidelberg Project is an outdoor art project in Detroit. It was created in 1986 by artist Tyree Guyton and his grandfather Sam McKay.


Object Orange

A series of urban installations in a section of Northern Detroit using paint to advocate demolition as a positive change of force.



“We have old aerial satellite photos that indicate that this neighborhood has been blighted for years and years and years,” says Greg, one of the four organizers, who prefer to use only their first names. “It’s shocking that “We have old aerial satellite photos that indicate that this neighborhood has been blighted for years and years and years,” says Greg, one of the four organizers, who prefer to use only their first names. “It’s shocking that something hasn’t been done about it. Recently there was a move to clean up the city, but it was mostly the area around the Super Bowl.”


Power House The Power House designed by Design 99 serves two goals: 1. To develop a model home; the house as an architectural experiment, will work as a prototype example or model home for what is possible in the current atmosphere of cheap housing in the city. What does it take to create a truly affordable, secure, sustainable house for under $99,000? 2.The house as a social project; Because it is a house in transition, we will use the transformation to create a platform for communication between the members of the community. Every act that is made with the house is readily apparent to the neighbours and even without asking, many neighbours offer materials, ask to take materials, offer to help, ask for help and also help protect the house from thieves. The dialogue has already begun with just the few small moves already made. The Power House intends to be a stimulator and not an end in itself as a singular art object. The Power House is a broadcaster of potential ideas and a place to plug those ideas into. The Power House will be used as an interactive site by the neighbourhood and the makers. The Power House will become the symbol for creativity, new beginnings and social interactions within the neighbourhood.


252 1. Detroit. < Detroit> 2. Prof. Michael Chub. “Tourism, Patterns and Determinants in the Great Lakes

< story/20060515/orange-alert> 8. “The Heidelberg Project”.<http://www.>

org/> 15. Museum of Contemporary Art Detroit.<> 16. Detroi Opera House.<http://www.

Region: Populations, Resources,

9. “A Project by Design 99”. <http://www.

Roads and Perceptions”.<http://

17. Motown.<>


18. History Detroit 1701-2001.<http://www.

xu52g12005363k83/fulltext.pdf?page=1> 3. “The Detroit Film Centre”. <www.myspace. com/detroitfilm> 4. “The Wizard of Oz: An American Fairytale”. <> 5. Detroit. “Pure Michigan: Michigan’s Official Travel and Tourism

10. Awarded Projects 4. “Shrinking Cities”.<> 19. Elizabeth Evitt Dickinson.Welcome to


Detroit. “”. 3 Sept,


2009. <

11. “Sounds of the Cass Corridor”.<http://> 12. Assignment Detroit. “Time





6. The 10 Best Made-In-Detroit Movies>

13. Cory Doctorow. Artists Buying Cheap

pov/20090903/welcome-to-detroit> 20. Open City.<http://www.opencitydetroit. com/> 21. Project M is Coming to Detroit. “Red Pill”. 14 July, 2009. <http://www.yourdailyfix. net/vega/2009/07/project-m-is-coming-

Ever. “”.<http://filmschool.

Houses in Detroit. “BoingBoing”. 17

March, 2009. <http://www.boingboing.



Growth Corporation”. http://www.degc.



7. Stephen Zacks. Orange Alert. “”. 15 May, 2006.

14. Detroit Institute of Art.<http://www.dia.

to-detroit.html> 22. Recreation and Leisure. “Detroit Economic

23. Bruce Gilden. Detroit: The Troubled City.

253 “Magnum Photos”. 6 May, 2009.<http:// detroit_the_troubled_city.html> 24. TheDetroiter.Com. <http://www.>




IN RESPONSE Two Tales of Detroit Matthew Slingerland

Left Page: Vacant lot in Detroit



In the early 1890s, the national economy

gardens where they could raise their own

severely declined and began, what is now

food and sell their surplus.” This pilot

known as, The Panic of 1893. By 1894,

program was later referred to as “Pingree’s

one third of the male workforce became

Potato Patches.”

unemployed. This quickly became a moment

“In its first year, 3000 families applied for 975

of urgency in Detroit’s history and allowed for

gardens on 450 urban acres.” The city invested

creativity to answer the call. The progressive

$3600 into the program and produced $14,000

mayor of Detroit, Hazen Pingree, needed a

dollars worth of food in its first year. Because

way to feed the hungry and unemployed. With

of the city’s rich soil2, $30,998 worth of food

“6,000 acres of vacant lots throughout the

and 40,000 bushels of potato was produced in

city, Pingree established a pilot program to

the program’s second year.


provide poor families with small allotment Above: Image depicting the feelings

1 The Great Depression was not only a time of urgency for Detroit; it also became a time of repression.

of hysteria during

At the turn of the century, Henry Ford transformed Detroit into an empire of production. The inadequacy of Michigan’s

the Panics of 1837,

labor force and the higher cost demands drove Ford to search for cheap, abundant labor. “Ford was the first businessman

1857, 1873, 1893, and 1907.

to specifically target African American workers, sending recruiters to comb the South for industrious, cheap labor. Lured by promises of wealth, opportunity, and non-segregation, large groups of African Americans made the trek north.” After a time of prosperity, the Great Depression hit Detroit with force. In an attempt to push the, once much needed, minority labor force out of the city, “White-controlled trade unions” passed a deed restriction that prohibited them from owning or renting property in most of the city. This restriction pushed the minorities into a small enclave in East Detroit.


Top Left : Soil of the Mollisol order found

2 “Black Bottom” became the “colored” part of Detroit. Many believe it is named for this very reason, but in fact Black Bottom

in par t s of Michigan.

derives its nickname from the dark, rich soil in the area. “Actually, well-irrigated, good farming land near a river has long

Top Right : Photo

been called “bottom land” and “black bottom” because of its low elevation and rich black soil. In Detroit, before any African

of “Black Bottom” Detroit

Americans settled here, the French farmers in the area down by the river called it Black Bottom. In the twentieth century as Detroit became a big industrial city, there was certainly no farming by the river near the center of town, but the name just stuck.” Although it was predominantly African American, Black Bottom became a polyglot melting pot. Black Bottom was home to Mexican, Polish, Italian, and Black populations, with each culture adding its rich musical traditions into the mix.” Detroit’s music scene at this time quickly gained national recognition.


Above: Vintage poster s of musicians

3 “Major blues singers, big bands, and jazz artists, such as Duke Ellington, Billy Eckstine, Pearl Bailey, Ella Fitzgerald, and

who got their star t

Count Basie, regularly performed in the bars and clubs of the Paradise Valley entertainment district.” In the 1960s, the

in “Black Bottom”

construction of Interstate 75 and Lafayette Park, in an urban revitalization attempt, destroyed Black Bottom. With its short


life, Black Bottom left a lasting impression on music in Detroit and the rest of the world.


Detroit’s revolutionary idea of vacant-lot gardening returned during World War II. All of the nations resources fled to support the War. Another time of spontaneity sprang up and became known as the Victory Garden. Because of great advertising and inspirational propaganda, a poster3 campaign with clever slogans encouraged citizens to support the war by growing their own food. Gardening not only provided food, “it was also considered a civil “morale booster”, in that gardeners could feel empowered by their contribution of labor and rewarded by the produce grown. In 1943, Americans planted 20.5 million Victory Gardens, and the harvest accounted for nearly one-third of all vegetables consumed in the country that year.” In Michigan alone, a million patriots grew their own food. Above: Vintage “ Victor y Garden” poster s from the 20th centur y


Victory Gardens weren’t the only thing to

children around the United States. “During

grow out of the war effort4. Milkweed, which

1944 and 1945, more than 25 million pounds

is a plant that grows abundantly in Petoskey,

of wild-collected milkweed pods, enough

Michigan, contributed to the cause as well.

to fill 700 freight train cars, were collected

Before World War II, the United States

throughout North America. The floss

imported a plant with buoyant properties

comprises about 20 percent of the dry weight

named Kapok, which was used to make life

of a seedpod. It was all shipped to Petoskey

preservers. During the war in a time of crisis,

to be processed. The plant produced over two

when all trade was shut down, milkweed was

million pounds floss before the war ended,

discovered. It was an adequate replacement

baling it in cotton-sized bales that weighed a

and was soon collected by women and

scant 200 pounds.” Above: A lifejacket made of milkweed which was nicknamed “Mae West” after a favorite bousty centerfold Right Page: Image of milkweed


“A pound and a half of milkweed floss would keep a 150 pound sailor afloat for ten hours.”


Today, guerilla gardening is used to support

“seed grenade” was first used by Liz Christy in

a new kind of cause. Filled by more and more

1973 when she started the “Green Guerillas.” The

abandoned space, the shrinking city of Detroit

first seed grenades were made from condoms

becomes the perfect laboratory for creative

filled with local wildflower seeds, water and

rehabilitation. “Seed bombing, also known

fertilizer. The seed grenades were tossed over

as “Seed Grenades” is a technique of

fences onto empty lots in New York City in order

introducing vegetation to arid soils or

to make the neighborhoods look better.” It was

otherwise inhospitable terrains. The term

the start of the Guerrilla Gardening movement.

4 Although the most well known, Motown records was not the only thing to grow out of the Black Bottom effort. Detroit has been an “important musical center” for Gospel, Jazz, and of course Rock ‘n Roll. Detroit’s suburbs were home to one of the first important hardcore punk scenes that swept underground America in the early 1980s. Most recently, Detroit has been credited as the birthplace of Techno music. It is clear that Black Bottom’s progressive character has influenced many generations of Detroit music, and in turn the world.

Right Page: Image of “seedbombs”


â&#x20AC;&#x153;A seed bomb is a compressed clod of soil containing live vegetation that may be thrown or dropped onto a terrain to be modified.â&#x20AC;?






Spitzley,David. “Hazen Pingree: Mayor, Governor,


Franchescini, Amy. Victory Gardens 2008+. January 19

Potato Tycoon.” January 19 2010. http://www.

2010. January 1 2009. http://www.sfvictorygardens.


Zurier, Sarah. “Hazen Pingree, American Idol.” January


19 2010. December 30 2008. http://greenzonegarden.

11. Maya Drozdz and Michael Stout, “Seed Bombs.”

January 19 2010. April 27 2009. http://visualingual.


“Black Bottom, Detroit” January 19 2010. November


3 2009.,_



13. “Black Bottom.” January 19 2010. http://www.

V.P. Scavarda. “Victory Gardens” The Arsenal of Democracy. January 19 2010. http://www.hal. 14. Carol Dacey-Charles, “Could Detroit Become

Americas’s New Bread Basket.” The Slow Food USA


Blog. January 19 2010. April 17, 2009. http://www.



Lawson, Laura. City Bountiful: A Century of


Community Gardening in America. California:



University of California Press, 2005.





1. Ar wed Messmer, the Palace of the Republic


Urban Forest Nature is reclaiming the city Kahyun Lee


“This continent has not seen a transformation like Detroit’s since the last days of the Maya. The city, once the fourth largest in the country, is now so depopulated that some stretches resemble the outlying farmland and others are altogether wild.”2

Between 1980 and 2000, Detroit lost fully

at the Wayne Truck Plant,” said John Bebow,

one-fifth of its population. For the first time

executive director of the Center for Michi-

since the 1920 census, the city’s population

gan. The state has reinvented itself before. In

dipped below 1 million. Also, about 109,000

the 1840s, Eastern states were beginning to

more people left Michigan in 2009 than

exhaust their timber resources, and informa-

moved in 2008, quadruple the loss of seven

tion about Michigan pine began to spread.

years ago. That long-standing reliance on

Lumbermen began flocking to the Great

the auto industry has made Michigan slow

Lakes State.4 The lumber industry of the 19th

to embrace the changes needed to keep and

century gave way to the auto industry of the

attract residents. “Remember, 10 years ago,

20th century. Now, nature is reclaiming the

you could still make (good money) working

abandoned spaces in the state.



5. Camilo JosĂŠ Vergara, Brush Park



Deforestation : virgin forest from 1620 to today 6





The first towns in Michigan were Sault

most famous periods of growth in the United

Sainte Marie and Saint Ignace, started in

States. Early American settlers viewed the

1668 and 1671. But most of the towns didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t

forest as either a barrier to development or a

get going until the 1800s. People didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t

source of rapid wealth. As the forests of the

become interested in trees and lumber

east were depleted, logging companies moved

until the 1800s. Michigan was part of the

west into the Great Lakes area. From about

Northwest Territories, organized in 1805.

1840 to 1900, most of the Michigan forests

In 1837, Michigan became a State. By then,

were cut down for farms and to produce

new cities were beginning to grow along the

lumber for buildings, ships, and mines.

Great Lakes. It was time to log the forests.

Michigan was the nationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s leading lumber

The great logging era is, perhaps, one of the

producer between 1869 and 1900.7



Cutover forest in Wisconsin in 1911: from about 1840 to 1900, most of the Great Lakes regionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s forest s were cut down for farms and to produce lumber for buildings, ships, and mines. 9


10. Alger County Historical Society, Logging Histor y

11. State Archives of Michigan, a Michigan Logging Camp


In 1900, the peak year of white pine logging, more than 2.3 billion board feet of lumber was cut from the stateâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s forests. Logging camps reached Lake Superior and the Canadian border.12


Timber was supplied by logging camps spread throughout the wilderness. Called â&#x20AC;&#x153;State of Maine camps,â&#x20AC;? they were crude communities consisting of two buildings: one for the men called a hovel and the other a barn for the oxen. To meet milling advances, camps became larger and more efficient. 13


photographs from Alger -Sullivan Historical Society 14


Gus sextonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s camp in the Pineries, 1900 J. M. Paine camp near Carlton, 1899 Price brother â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s camp, nor th of Grand Rapids, 1890


Logging camps in the Great Lakes States experienced enormous changes between the 1840s and the 1940s. The camp buildings displayed increasing functional specialization through time. Although the camps gradually increased in size during the pine-river drive era, the largest camps were associated with the hardwood-rail era. The influence of different cultural groups, the increasing size of operations, the changing technology of logging and log transportation were among the factors that influenced Connor â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s camp, Feb. 1901 photographs from Minnesota Historical Society 15

settlement patterns at logging camps in the Great Lakes States.16


Lumberjacks and logging camp worker s seated on the

Interior of a logging camp blacksmith shop,

“deacon’s seat” (wooden bench in front of the men’s

Colbroth & Company, camp #4, 1912

bunks) in a sleepcamp (bunkhouse), near Carlton J.M. Paine Logging Camp, 1899

Photo by William F. Roleff.

Male cookees in a cookcamp’s sleeping quar ter s, nor thern Minnesota, circa 1900

Lumberjacks eating in mess hall at Scott and Camp office and store interior

Graf Lumber Company, camp one, ridge William F. Roleff, Photograph collection, 1913

Blacksmith shoeing hor se at a lumber camp William F. Roleff, Photograph collection 1912


Lumberjacks at logging camps photographs from Minnesota Historical Society 17


Greenness change with census tract s in detroit , 1975-1992 21 Green areas show tract s with greenness increase; red areas with greenness decrease; black areas, no change


Detroit in better days in 1949: the neighborhood containing St. Cyril Catholic Church

Rural sprawl in Detroit in 2003: since the 1950s the city has lost half of its population22

the urban prairie of St .Cyril Parish 1949 & 2003 photographs from DetroitYES forums 23


In the 1950, Detroitâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population peaked at 1,849,568. In 2000, the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population was 951,270. It was 912,062 in Aug 2009. Between 1970 and 2000, over 161,000 homes and buildings were demolished in Detroit, with thousands more razed every year.20 In the blocks of the city grid, there are no homes or buildings lining the streets. Nature is reclaiming many of these empty blocks, with native grasses and trees thriving and turning these once-dense inner-city neighborhoods back into greenfields.


the extent of urban abandonment in Detroit Aerial maps from google ear th 2009





Due to the seasonal nature of the industry, logging camps tended to be temporary.


Due to the economic situation of the city, houses are becoming temporary and vacant. 100

0 1965 1970

1975 1980


1990 1995

2000 2005

Vacant homes, 1965-2008 Vacant homes per thousand households 18


People are leaving the city Nature is living in the city

Feral Houses photographs from 19


â&#x20AC;&#x153;Even a simulacrum of wildness, abandoned, will become truly wild given enough time. There is a certain comfort here. The earth is fine. Nature is patient. The plants are just waiting. It is the monuments we build, the paths we tread that are endangered.â&#x20AC;?24

the Belle Isle Zoo photographs from 25


“A thicket of saplings reaches toward a tattered ceiling’s filtered light in the reading room of the Camden Free Library in New Jersey.”26


27. Camilo JosĂŠ Vergara, Rot in Peace


â&#x20AC;&#x153;A mixture of silver maple and birch trees grow straight out of the ashes of school textbooks on the third floor of the Roosevelt Warehouse.â&#x20AC;?28


29. g. s. george, Resurget Cineribus


Nature is



296 1. Arwed Messmer. “The Palace of the Republic.” Anonymous Heart Berlin. 13 Oct. 2007. <http://www.anonyme-

< new/?page=1&content=129>. 6. Buck Denton. “DEFORESTATION: Area

of Virgin Forest from 1620 to Today.”


The Conservation Report. 24 Feb.

2. Rebecca Solnit. “Detroit Arcadia: Exploring the Post-American Landscape.” Harper’s Megazine. 7 Jul. 2007. 66. 3. Ron French. “Michigan Efforts Fail to Slow

10. Alger County Historical Society. “Logging History.” Rocks National Lakeshore. National Park Service. U.S. Department of the Interior. 11. Michigan Historical Museum. “A Michigan

2009. <

Logging Camp.” History, Arts, and


Libraries. <

7. Michigan Forests Forever Teachers Guide. “Michigan Forest During the Logging Era.”

mhc/museum/explore/museums/hismus/ prehist/lumber/tools.html>.

Population Exodus.” The Detroit News.

Michigan Forests Forever. <http://mff.

12. Forest History Center. “Logging (and

3 April. 2009. Metro and State Section.

Lumberjacks).” Minnesota Historical



Society. <

METRO/904030390/Michigan-efforts-failto-slow-population-exodus>. 4. Bob Garrett. “Life in a Logging

8. Michigan Forests Forever Teachers Guide. “Michigan Forest During the

sites/fhc/logging.html>. 13. Forest History Center. “Logging (and

Logging Era.” Michigan Forests Forever.

Lumberjacks).” Minnesota Historical

Camp.” Archives of Michigan. 12 Jan.


Society. <

2010. <



look/2010/01/12/logging-camp>. 5. Dr. Gerry Coulter. “Ruined America:

9. Michigan Forests Forever Teachers Guide.

14. Logging/Railroads. “the Logging Camps.”

“Michigan Forest During the Logging Era.”

Alger-Sullivan Historical Society. <http://

The Photographs of Camilo José

Michigan Forests Forever. <http://mff.>.

Vergara.” Euro Art Web Megazine.

Issue 10 / Photography. Fall 2009.


15. Forest History Center. “Logging Camp Buildings.” Minnesota Historical Society.

297 < logging.html>. 16. Randall Rohe. “Settlement Patterns of Logging Camps in the Great Lakes Region.” Journal of Cultural Geography. Volume 6. Issue 1. Sep (1985): 79. 17. Forest History Center. “Lumberjacks at Logging Camps.” Minnesota Historical Society. < sites/fhc/logging.html>. 18. John D. Nystuen et al.. the Greening of Detroit. 1975-1992: Physical Effects of Decline. (University of Michigan). 19. Mr. Michael D. LaFaive. “Flashy Projects Have Not Helped Detroit.“ MACKINAC

Blog. 27 Dec. 2008. Plans & Policies,



fs/0//entry/2130066/ >.

html>. 22. Vacant Homes per Thousand Households.

28. Detroit. “Resurget Cineribus.” g. s. george’s photostream. <

1965-2008. Congressional Budget Office.


Department of Commerce. Bureau of the


Census. Haver analytics 23. “Feral Houses.” Sweet Juniper. 23 Jul.

29. Detroit. “Resurget Cineribus.” g. s. george’s photostream. <

2009. <




24. “Return to the Abandoned Zoo.” Sweet Juniper. 17 Jul. 2009. <>. 25. “Return to the Abandoned Zoo.” Sweet Juniper. 17 Jul. 2009. <http://www.sweet-

<>.>. 26. “Rot in Peace.” Courtesy of

of St. Cyril Parish 2003 & 1949.” <http:// <http://www.slate.




21. Ken. “Lessons from Detroit.” DenverInfill <http://www.slate.

Urbanism Section. <http://denverinfill.

Center for Public Policy. 2 Dec. 2005. 20. DetroitYES Forums. “the Urban Prairie

27. “Rot in Peace.” Courtesy of



Trapping Lumbering & Mining A Look at Early Economies in Michigan Michael McBean

Left : Map of New France, ca. 1640: the Great Lakes region appear s in the center near the bottom 1


1660: Pierre Esprit Radisson and Groseilliers

1810: Territory Population = 4,762 (non-

return from a trapping expedition with 60


canoes worth of pelts

1812: War of 1812, fur trade dwindling

1673: British presence causes strains

1821: 1821 a large body of pine was

between Native Americans and French

discovered near Pontiac.

1701: Detroit is founded as one of first cities

1828: The Territorial Capitol is built at Detroit

A Selected timeline of Michigan focusing

of the Midwest

for a cost of $24,500.

on Michigan’s fur trade, timber and mining

1715: The French establish Fort

1830: State Population = 31,630


Michilimackinac at the Straits of Mackinac.

1830: The existence of vast pine forests

1754: The French and Indian War

became known

1760: The French surrender Fort

1834: First steam sawmill in Saginaw

Pontchartrain to the British, ending French

1835: The Toledo War ensues over the

The Timber Era: 1820 – 1920

rule in Detroit and New France.

Michigan-Ohio boundary. Michigan previously

The Copper Era: 1860 – 1950

1763: During the Indian wars in the area,

was denied admission to the Union because

Pontiac, an Ottawa chief, leads a 135-day

it would not surrender its claim to the Toledo

siege of Detroit. Indians capture all the forts

strip. The area eventually is surrendered in

1609: Samuel de Champlain and Henry

in Michigan, except Detroit.

exchange for the western section of the Upper

Hudson visit Sagniaw

1780: The first sawmill in Michigan is built in


1620: Coureurs de bois (Men of the woods)


1837: Michigan is admitted to the Union as the

make Detroit a regular stop

1805: The Michigan Territory is created, with

26th state.

1622: French explorer Étienne Brulé and his

Detroit designated as the seat of government.

1837: 433 sawmills in the state

companion Grenoble are probably the first

William Hull is appointed governor. Fire

1840: State Population = 212,267

white men to see Lake Superior.

destroys Detroit.

1842: Copper mining operations begin near


The Fur Era: 1609 – 1812


Keweenaw Point.

1896: 198,800,000 ft of lumber / 90,000,000

1930: State Population = 4,832,325

1844: Iron ore is discovered in the Upper


1939-1945: World War II

Peninsula at Negaunee.

1900: State Population = 2,420,982

1940: State Population = 5,256,106

1848: Michigan/ Illinois canal opens

1900: Copper production = 303,058 tons

1940: Copper production = 909,000

1850: State Population = 397,654

1910: State Population = 2,810,173

1942-1945: Copper production = over

1850: Copper production = 728 tons

1910: Copper production = 540,080 tons

1,000,000 tons

1855: Ship canal at Sault Ste. Marie opens.

1913-1914: Copper Country Strike

1949: Lumber Peninsula processed about

1857: 48 Steam engines running in Copper

1917: the Price Fixing Committee of the

653,400,000 board feet of lumber


War Industries Board started setting the

1950: State Population = 6,371,766

1860: Copper production = 8064 tons

price of copper to be paid by the American

1950: 504 Lumber using plants employ

1866: 64,800,000 ft of lumber / 8,600,000

government and manufacturers.

~25,700 people state-wide full-time


1920: State Population = 3,668,412

1957: The five-mile Mackinac Bridge opens

1870: The full extents of the Upper Peninsulaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

1920: Copper production = 604,531 tons

Nov. 1.

vast Pine forest is explored

1920s: the Michigan mines worked at a max

1960: State Population = 7,823,194

1870: Copper production = 14,112 tons

depth of 8000 to 9000 feet. By contrast,

1967: Copper Strike

1879: 313,000,000 ft of lumber / 75,800,000

miners took Butte copper from a max depth of

1970: State Population = 8,875,083


3800 feet; Arizonaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s vein mines bottomed out

1980: State Population = 9,262,078

1880: Copper production =30,240 tons

at 2900 feet.

1990: State Population = 9,295,297

1880: Incandescent lamp invented

1921: Copper prices drop from 30cents/lb to

2000: State Population = 9,938,444

1889: 621,690,00 ft of lumber / 73,500,00


2001: Detroitt celebrates its 3001th


1930: Copper production = 697,000 tons


1890: State Population = 2,093,890

1935: 821 sawmills processed 111 million

1890: Copper production = 129,881 tons

board feet of lumber


_The Fur Era: 1609 – 1812 The name Michigan is a French adaptation of the Ojibwe term mishigama, meaning “large water or “large lake.”2 The Michigan lakes and rivers have played important roles in all of the state’s early economies, including serving as home to Michigan’s first cash crop: the Beaver.


Left : Car toon by Oscar Warbach 3 Right : Map of Midwest Territor y 1787 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1836 4


An example of a â&#x20AC;&#x153;lineshackâ&#x20AC;? a trapper might use 5

Michigan as Resource

The trapping of fur-bearing animals

and the trading of their pelts drove the Michigan economy for nearly 200 years. The pelt of the Beaver was especially coveted in Europe, Russia and China. While trade reached all corners of the glober the nonNative American population was never more than a couple thousand persons during this time. Life was harsh for the ones who braved the wilderness, long winters (when trapping was best) and the sometimes violent relationships with various native tribes. Above and right : Maps of Michiganâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s trading post s through various occupations 6


â&#x20AC;&#x153;Not only did her geographical position favor Michigan for the fur trade; her forests were teeming with fur-bearing animal whose pelts would for many years have richly supplied her little trading posts and given her a place in the history of the important branch of commerceâ&#x20AC;?.7

and Native Americans trapping them 8 ; a drawing of

The Structures

apart. Then I place a pole four inches in

notched log joint s 9 ; Drawing of French Trapper J. Meek 10

diameter on the top. The forms a plate for

From left to right : a drawing of beavers building dams

Below is a first hand description of a

trapper building his own temporary shanty.

one side of the building. Four feet distant,

While permanent shanties were often dug

and a parallel to these, I place the other two

a couple feet into an embankment to help

crotches with a similar plate. Then I place

with the cold and hopefully lasted a couple

other poles across the ends from one plate to

seasons the temporary shanties lasted a

the other. The done, the frame of the wigwam

couple weeks at most.

is finished, ready to inclose. . . .The door

may be a split board. It should be opposite

â&#x20AC;&#x153;I cut four crotches, each about six

feet long, and sharpen their lower ends. I

the fire, and open to the north to prevent

stick two of them into the ground eight feet



â&#x20AC;&#x153;I take a trip in a circle, following lakes, rivers and small streems, and striking across from one to the other, till I come round to the starting point. At this point I build a wigwam.â&#x20AC;?12


Clockwise from Left : Front view of a contemporar y hunter ’s shack 13 ; Roof and chimney of a modern lineshack 14 ; View out the door 15 ; Photographer kneeling next to front door 16 ; interior view of stove and chimney 17 ; lineshack in winter 18

“The old regulars always have built rude huts at various point in the region of their operations”.


â&#x20AC;&#x153;The old regulars always have always built rude huts, call shanties [or lineshacks], at various points in the region of their operations Shanties are of two kinds, temporary and permanent. . . . The permanent shanty is made of logs, laid one above another in a square form, joined at the corners by means of notches, and roofed over with split logs formed into troughs. The crevices should be stopped with clay or moss. At one end a rude fire-place and chimney of stone should be built, the latter reaching just above the top of the shanty.â&#x20AC;?19

Left : Examples of temporar y lineshack constructions 20 ; Right : Examples of permanent constructions 21


Above and next page: Examples of dilapidated permanent shanties 22, 23



Clockwise from left: Map of fur trading routes that extended through Canada and down into the Great Lakes, showing Michilimackinac 24 ; Painting of early trading post, Michilimackinac on Lake Huron 25 ; French and English fur trade routes 26


“If the line extends directly from a settlement, so that it has what may be called a home-base, none but rude, temporary shanties are built; and once in about ten days, during the season a man is sent back to the settlement, to carry out furs and bring back provisions. But if the line commences so far from the frontier that such returnjourneys are impracticable, then, besides the temporary shanties, a more substantial and permanent hut, called a home shanty, is built at some point on the line, for depositing furs, provisions and other valuables. . . . a resident at the main depot is very necessary, as bears and other wild animals (not to mention fire and human thieves) have a habit of breaking into an unguarded shanty, and destroying everything within reach.”27

“This life, free from bonds of civilized society, full of dangerous hunting exploits, and narrow escapes from the Indian scalping-knife and starvations, held a certain fascination for these folk, which made them unwilling to return to civilized realms”28



Fort Michilimackinac

Fort Detroit

Mackinac, MI

Detroit, MI

Fort Michilimackinac located at the straits

Fort Detroit, seen above in plan with a map

that connected present day Lake Michigan

of the Detroit River, was a highly contested

with Lake Huron was a important settlement

settlement changing hands between the

to control. Trading posts like Michilimackinac

Native Americans, the French, the British

were heavily fortified due to their importance

and the American. Located on the Detroit

as gateways for the fur trade. Judging from

River and connecting the natural resources

the architecture much of life in Michigan was

of the midwest with the cities of the east and

spent huddled harsh external forces.


Opposite page: Aerial view of For t Michilimackinac in present day Mackinac, Michigan 29 Above left : For t Michilimackinac; 30 Above right : Map of Detroit River with the fir st city plan of Detroit 31


Left : “Death of the Elk” 1869 by Alfred Jacob Miller 32 Above: “ The Trapper ’s Last Shot” 1855 Williams Tylee Ranney


“It was a life of many hardships, at time seemingly barren of all pleasures.”34


Left : “Star ving Trapper s” 1837 Alfred Jacob Miller 35 Above: “ The Free Trapper ’s Indian Wife” 1855 William Tylee Ranney 36


End of the Fur Era By the early 19th century the still young United States was beginning to populate the west and the need for towns increased exponentially for the next half century; the population increased from 4,000 to 400,000 in just 40 years. This changing landscape combined with the decreasing supply of furbearing animals and decreasing European and Chinese interest in furs led to the end of the nearly 200 years in which the fur trade dominated the Michigan economy. Soon the life of the trapper was romanticised and became a leisure activity for some.

Above left : “Greeting the Trapper s” 1852 Alfred Jacob Miller 37 ; Opposite left : “ The Thir sty Trapper ” 1850 Alfred Jacob Miller 38 ; Opposite Right : “ The Young Trapper ” 1890 illustration in “Sword and Pen; or Ventures and Adventures of Willard Glazier ” 39



_The Timber Era: 1820 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1920 The population boom in Michigan mostly occurred in the southern half of the Lower Peninsula. The vast white pine forests of the north and the Upper Peninsula supplied the wood to the growing cities of the region. The rivers again were important to Michiganâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s economy as they now provided the cheapest way to transport in and out of the deep forests.

Left : The fir st por table sawmill 40

Right : Map of Michigan Railroads 1870 41


Above: Map of the common forest types in the United States 1992 42

Michigan as Resource

was growing, and as it grew it needed more

lumber to build houses, and the great weight

Michigan is more than half forestland.

Michigan’s forest fulfilled more than half of

of the pineries in Michigan made its pressure

the region’s (Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota,

felt. Most obviously in the Saginaw Valley.

Ohio, Illinois and Indiana) timber needs. The

first sawmills were portable moving from

but as an independent river it is short. It is

town to town along the railroads, lumbering

formed by the union of five rivers —the Cass,

as per the local needs. These particular

the Flint, the Shiawassee, the Bad, and the

lumberjacks were called “whip-sawyers” and

Tittabawassee. All in all, these rivers drain a

their life was a constant journey from place to

huge plat of land in the heart of the state’s

place, sawing for local consumption. However

lower peninsula, covering half of the thumb

the inefficiency soon forced these types of

on the east and reaching more than halfway

sawmills out of business. Still, the country

to Lake Michigan on the west, and some of the

noblest stands of pine in the New World were to be found here. If men were going to make money selling pine lumber, the Saginaw Valley was the obvious place to begin.

The Saginaw is deep and broad,

Above: River s of the Michigan mitten 43


This page: Maps of common forest s of the United States by type 1992 44


Life of the Lumberjack The life of the lumberjack was less solitary

shed and the foreman’s home. Raising a

than that of the fur trapper, as hauling timber

family as a lumberjack was not impossible

out of the forest needed a large team of

but the profession often employed a team of

people and horses. However the lumberjack

men which left any other family members in

was still a transitory lifestyle picking up and

towns down river from their moving camps.

moving when ever the woods of the area had

At the head of the river as in Saginaw a large

been exhausted the camp would pick up and

permanent sawmill would be built. Railroads

move several miles up river to the next area.

from the sawmill towns like Saginaw would

Men lived in tight quarters of bunk beds and

supply the rest of the region with the huge

not much else. The camps consisted of men’s

knot free easy-to-cut pine that are still seen

quarters, an office, a kitchen, a blacksmith’s

in almost all of the 19th century homes. The

Top left : Interior of a modern recreation of the men’s quar ter s in a camp 45 ; Bottom left :

hardwoods of the southern part of the state

a “wanagon”, a floating kitchen neccessar y

proved far more difficult to process without

during a move ; Opposite page: Drawing of



a logging camp 47

Bedding consists of a bunch of hay and four double blankets



The Structures

operations is changed, the expense involved

along either side. The bunks, which are 4

is not much above the actual time of the men

feet. by 6 ½ feet hold two men a apiece,

The Camp

employed in moving

four men sleeping in each tier and total

The camp clearing covers an area

accommodation of 52 men. Bedding consists

the location of a camp is proximity to the

of two or three acres. The buildings are on

of a bunch of hay and four double blankets…

timber. At the same time the camp site must

high ground sloping to the north, in which

Built against each row of lower bunks and

be so located as to allow of easy railroad

direction the camp fronts. The railroad spur

extending the length of the row is a bench

construction to it. If possible the camp is

passes a few feet in front of the building,

(‘Deacons’ Seat’) 18 inches high by 14 inches

situated near a lake or other surface water to

and terminates twenty rods to the west, at

wide, which with a small table, a chair and two

afford a water supply for the horses

the banking ground. The buildings are six in

stools make up the furniture. . . .The stove

number: west to east: Men’s quarters, cook

(4’x8’) stands in the middle, the stove –pipe

shed-like affairs, built of odds and ends of

camp, office, foreman’s house, and barn, with

passing through a square hole in the roof.

hemlock and hardwood lumber, tarpapered

a blacksmith’s shop south of the barn. (root

Four cheap lamps and ten lanterns for the

and battened, the props and uprights being

cellar and four outhouses).

teamsters. A sink, 2ft 8ft is built at one end,

The chief point in determining

The camp buildings are simple

and there are wash basins towels and two

constructed on the spot from posts cut in the woods. The materials used are thus of

Men’s Quarters

barrels of water. A tub full of drinking water is

the cheapest, and as they are knocked down,

kept on a shelf near by.48

transported, and rebuilt when the scene of

row of bunks one above the other runs

46 feet long 26 feet wide. A double

Opposite page: Woman, man and eagle 49




Above: A foremanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s house shown with he and his family 52

The rivers provided the routes for many timber companies so logos were burned into the ends of the logs so that everyone would know whose logs were whose. A difficult task as Michigan supported several hundred different timber companies.

Opposite page: View of logs collecting near sawmill 50 Above left : Examples of the company brands burned into logs headed down the river 51


Michigan Wheels and “Skid Road”

In 1875 in Manistee, MI, Silas Overpack developed these pair of large wheels a.k.a. big wheels or logging wheels, which were specially designed to carry logs that were up to 100 feet in length several at a time and skid them down the road. These 9-10ft tall wheels expanded the timbering season as it was until that point Michigan’s rough and wet forest made logging strictly a winter industry. At least 65 different lumber companies in Michigan used them making Michigan the nations leading producer.53

Top left : Lumbering Operations, Cadillac, Michigan 54 ; Bottom left : Team of men and oxen on a “skid road” 55 ; Right : Michigan Wheels on display 56





Right : View of utate veli t sdfag afgafa asdgas

Right : View of utate veli t sdfag afgafa asdgas


Mill towns were becoming mechanized islands in an all-embracing wilderness.65

Previous spread left to right : Small sawmill over stream 57 ; Sawmill 58 ; team of oxen pulling logs with regular wheels 59 ; Logger s 60 ; Clear -cut forest 61 Opposite page: View of logs collected by train being dumped to travel down river to sawmill 62 This page left to right : Sawmill 63 ; Interior of a sawmill 64


All images: 1915 Proposed sawmill facility 65


Right: Locations of Wood Processing Facilities in the Upper Peninsula 1915; Above: Layout of proposed sawmill; Opposite page: Diagram of horse driven machiner y in proposed sawmill 65


Sawmill Towns

come to these sawmill towns. Looking at the

plans for a sawmill in the 1915 the types of

Flint, Pontiac, Grand Rapids,

Saginaw, Bay City, Port Huron and Grand

long uni-directional warehouses that come

Haven are among a few of the Michigan cities

with Henry Ford is known for, have already

that exist today almost entirely because

been commonplace in the timber industry for

of the importance of their sawmills. These

decades. The difference is materials and that

settlements were built by the income of the

horses and steam still drove machinery.

timber industry. Industrialization in form had


End of the Timber Era

This page: Maps of forest types and coverage before settlement and today 66 ; Opposite page: Map of railroads of 1915 67 ; Stereoscope image of forest scene 68


There were many consequences of the timber industry. Fires due to the dry brush left behind, issues with flooding, but also the railroads pushed north following the timber tracks and connecting southern Michigan with the Upper Peninsula which has already become an important source of Copper and Iron ore. The timber industry becomes a less important material as steel construction dominater post World War I America.


_The Mining Era: 1860 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1950 As Michiganâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Upper Peninsula was being explored veins (or lodes) of copper and iron ore were found in the Keweenaw Peninsula very close to the surface. The copper deposits of this area became so dominant of culture there that the region is still to this day called Copper Country.

Michiganâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Copper Country

Opposite page: Map of the abundant copper lode on the Keweenaw Peninsula in the UP 69 ; This page; Map of Geology types and locations 70


Diary of Cornelius Shaw71 (helped start a mine in 1847) June 11: black flies troublesome June 13: face swelled from bit of sand flies June 16: went over to Bay exploring. Took canoes…Sand flies outrageous.’ June 18:’black flies bad’ June 22: found vein of copper…but was drove out of the woods by the black flies &almost blind when I got home by their bite June 25: got bit by flies so bad that I am almost blind & my face one complete sore. I would hardly be recognized by my most intimate acquaintances. June 30: ‘flies not so bad, but an increase of musketoes’ July8: ‘flies are leaving & musketoes take their place

This page: Quincy Mineshaft #2 72 ; Opposite page: Map of Keweenaw Peninsula and Copper lode 73



Left to right : Map of copper lode with Jeffer sonian grid over top 74 ; Map of proper ty of the Clobe Copper Company 75 ; Map of copper -rich regions of Michigan 76

Michigan as Resource

times more than any other mining operations in the nation. The area supported hundreds of

Michiganâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Copper Country was some

mining companies all purchasing square plots

of the richest and shallowest copper deposits

of land derived from the Jeffersonian grid and

in the world. Producing nearly 50% of the top

searching the earth for deposits. In the first

four producing countries combined (even

half century copper ore was relatively easy

at the end of its globally significant period

to extract; from 1845 to 1877 Michigan was

between 1943-45). However before the end

unsurpassed in the world. Copper production

the Michigan mines were drilling down 8000

increased until the end of World War II.

and 9000 feet below ground which was 2-3


Right : Section of Lake Superior and the copper lode underneath 77 Below: Detail of proper ty map showing mineshaft s in plan 78


Top and bottom: Proper ty maps of Kear sarge Amygdaloid Lode 79


Left : Map of Quincy mineshaft s in plan 80

Quincy Mining Company Hancock, Michigan 1846 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1945 A mining operation the size of the Quincy Mining Co. set up mineshafts along the southeastern edge of their property so that they can drill down diagonally then mining out laterally. The lines visible on the maps to the left are the main mine shafts and the tightly spaced lines visible above are the lateral mines dug out at each subsequent level.

Right : Map of Quincy mineshaft s in plan, color showing change in depths 81



The Soo Locks were opened in 1855,

industrial-mining-population center.


producing increased immigration, commerce

and cheaper copper shipping connections

gave way to attractive communities housing

were built by the company to attract workers.

to eastern industrial markets. Railroads

miners, mill men and merchants. Settlers

Seperated from the rest of town these

were soon serving the entire area. The

poured in from everywhere to work the mines,

housing blocks had names like Hardscrabble

Keweenaw was on its way to becoming a major

clear land and build farms and to establish

and Limmerick.82

All over the range the wilderness

Opposite page: Site plan of Quincy location1865 83 This page right : Image of worker â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s housing after being abandoned 84 ; similar houses all fancy and new 85

Housing blocks like the ones above



The Structures

the mineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s shutdown. The executives on the

the workers, the miners were more likely

The Houses

east coast wanted to build more elaborate

to stay, raise families, and be less likely to

To attract a better class of worker,

and fancy homes with amenities such as

leave the area or transfer to another mining

the Quincy Mining Company built and

electricity and running water. However,

company. This strategy proved effective and

maintained housing for the workers. Over the

the on-site managers didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t think it was

helped the Quincy Mining Company retain

course of operations, the types of housing

necessary for the miners to have such high-

its status as one of the premier mining

ranged from simple tents in the early days, to

class dwellings. But the east coast executives

companies in the region.88

complete three story houses shortly before

realized that if they offered nicer homes to

Opposite page: Site plan of Quincy location 1920 86 Above: Image of worker â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s housing complex Limmerick including homes, water and utilities and a church 87


Weary with tail for one-third of the day I hear the footfalls coming this way; Put thy strength, O arms of mine, Carry them up where the sun doth shine. One by one they come without sound From two hundred fathoms under the ground



This page: Images of miner s at work 90, 91, 92, 93


The Structures

The Shafthouse

The process of drawing the copper

ore out from thousands of feeting from below the ground required massive machinery housed in these tall peculiar buildings. The angled shape is in part due to the angle of the copper lode itself which determined the angle of the mining operation trying to maximize copper production. The height of these buildings allows the company to gravity to help sort bad rocks from copper deposits. Above: Images of Quincy #2 Shaft House 94, 95 ; Right : Interior view of Quincy #2 96


Above: Sections of Quincy Mining operations 1860 & 1866 97 ; Opposite page: Section Quincy #2 Shaft Rock House 98




Opposite page: Miner s and operator s of Quincy #6 Shaft house 99 ; This page: Quincy #6 Shaft house 100



Opposite page: Quincy #6 Shaft houseunder construction 101 ; This page: Quincy #6 Shaft house 102



Opposite page: View of Quincy Mining operations with quincy #2 in center 103 ; Above left to right : Quincy #6 in ruins 104 ; Quincy #2 in use for museum tour s 105


Above: Elevation of Hoist House machiner y 106 ; Right : View of hoist with spiral staircase 107




The process of extracting tons of

copper uses a lot of manpower to dig and blast away in the mines and a lot of steam engine power to haul up the copper, earth and men out of the ground. The peculiar shape of the shaft houses are specifically tailored to house the diagonal hoist (opposite page108) and the mechanism (this page top109) for sorting through poor rock (non-copper earth) and copper rocks. The height of these buildings is designed to take advantage of gravity in the sorting of these heavy extractions. Quincy #2 Shaft House was the deepest in the world at 9260 ft or 1.75 miles below ground.

The site map to the left110 shows

a different techtonic consequence of the mining. Tailings are the material left over after the process of separating the valuable from the worthless; it is made up of superfine copper and dirt. The map shows how the tailings built up between the years 1890 and 1928.


End of the Mining Era By 1900 the shafts of Keweenaw were the deepest in the world. Thus bringing copper to the surface required increasing amounts of investment and it was apparent to geologists that the mines of the district had reached maturity. When the mines were no longer profitable, the companies and employees left.111

All that remains are ruins of mines, ghost towns and a lot of copper.


Economics is the real reason for the

is costly on many levels. From the human

bottoming out of all of these early Michigan

lives lost in the mines, to the raging brush

economies. As vast as the demand was for

fires that destroyed towns, to the 200 year

beaver pelts, for soft woods and for copper

near-eradication of fur-bearing animals in

ore the industries only stopped when the

Michigan, to the swindling and cheating of a

demand was no longer profitable enough.

native people out of their land and livlihood.

As with the fur trade and the timber industry

These industries are rich in poetic nostalgia

the resources did not run out but rather

and whatever natural resource comes next

became too costly to extract compared to

should not forget that industry and the

a dwindlng market demand. The expense of

infrastructure that supports its use can be

this style of natural resources development


Left : Map show present-day Mineral Right s 112 ; Right : Map showing current trends in mining speculation 113



Michigan or mishigama, meaning “large water or “large lake” is on the precipice of having another internationally significant resource in heavy abundance. Only this time it wont go out of fashion and the demand wont decrease. Can we capitalize on the frugality, poetry and ingenuity of the past without repeating their mistakes?

Over one billion people lack safe water, and three billion lack sanitation114

Opposite page: Map showing the flow of water within The Great Lakes 114







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Retrieved 2010-2-1



31 32




Wonders, Karen. “Big Trees: Pictures & Politics”





Bentley Historical Archives

images/map_mich_1870_rail.jpg Retrieved 2010-2-1



Nix, Steve “Maps of Common Forest Types” http://



Rudy, Dean.



mtman/html/jmeek/fig12.jpg Retrieved 2010-2-1

Cover_Type.htm source: USDA Retrieved 2010-2-1


Ibid. http://


34 Johnson, Ida Amanda 35


Retrieved 2010-2-1 33

dir/Yak_R_Drive_Wanigan.jpg Retrieved 2010-2-1



php?ID=2516236 Retrieved 2010-2-1

Retrieved 2010-2-1




Rudy, Dean.



mtman/html/jmeek/fig8.jpg Retrieved 2010-2-1


File:Cadillac_Big_Wheels.jpg Retrieved 2010-2-1

with_log.jpg Retrieved 2010-2-1

376 57

The Pigmy Packer. “Ghosts of the Past 2”. Mount

from a new bicentennial history of his native

Lansing: Donald Chaput. 1969. Print. Retrieved 2010-

Whitney Packers & Owen Valley Historic Site. http://

state. American Heritage Publishing 2008.

2-1 http://

cottonwood_sawmill_1921.jpg Retrieved 2010-2-1

ah/1976/3/1976_3_4.shtml Retrieved 2010-2-1

Retrieved 2010-2-1

58 Ibid. past2/cottonwood_sawmill300.jpg Retrieved 2010-2-1 59

73 http://www.minsocam.

Development Project. Helsinki: Department of Natural


Buffalo, NY. 1950 http://freepages.genealogy.

Resources, Forest Management Division. 1977. Print.

Retrieved 2010-2-1

“North Central Region: Web-Based Forest


Bentley Historical Archives


Management Guide”


Bentley Historical Archives

timber%20-%20page%2093.jpg Retrieved 2010-2-1


76 Retrieved

“GROG: Green Tech Blogs”. http://lifekills.wordpress.

nowusgs_big.jpg Retrieved 2010-2-1




redwood-logging.jpg Retrieved 2010-2-1 61





Marek, Edward S.. Wisconsin Central. http://


Michigan Family History Network. http://www.

2010-2-1 77 Retrieved 2010-2-1


structure.jpg Retrieved 2010-2-1

1-logging-b.jpg Retrieved 2010-2-1


Bentley Historical Archives http://www.minsocam.


Bentley Historical Archives



Lankton, Larry and Charles Hyde. Old Reliable: An

RobbinsSports/ThunderLakeMill.jpg Retrieved 2010-

Retrieved 2010-2-1

Illustrated History of the Quincy Mining Company.

Hancock, Michigan: The Quincy Mine Hoist

statemap_MI2000.htm Retrieved 2010-2-1

Association, Inc.. 1982.

2-3 64

Michigan Timber Resource

Keneenaw Peninsula Chamber of Commerce. http://

Goodyear, C.W.. Bogalusa Story. Privately Published.


65(all images)






Catton, Bruce. Michigan Timber: An excerpt


Chaput, Donald. Hubbell: A Copper Country Village.


Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and

377 Sciences, Michigan Technical University. http://www.

Retrieved 2010-2-1 blog/maps/ Retrieved 2010-2-1 Retrieved 2010-2-1



Wood, Vivian.



98 Ibid.

cophist.html Retrieved 2010-2-1




100 Lankton.



101 May.



102 Lankton.

86 Retrieved

103 Ibid.


104 May.



105 Panaramio Google Earth images. http://static.





Retrieved 2010-2-1



106 Lankton.



107 Ibid.



108 Ibid.



109 Ibid.


Panaramio Google Earth images. http://www.

110 Ibid.

111 Wood, Vivian.




Retrieved 2010-2-1

Panaramio Google Earth images. http://static.

cophist.html Retrieved 2010-2-1

112 Save the Water-Save The Wild UP http://www.

113 Ibid. 114 The Michigan Save Our Water Committee. www. Great-Lakes-Watershed.png Retrieved 2010-2-1



Great Lakes_shoreline lake level conditions and corresponding shoreline impact and trends over time Lauren Jennifer Barry

Left : High lake levels on Lake Michigan in 1986 caused severe erosion 1


“The Great Lakes contain the largest supply of freshwater in the world, holding about 18% of the world’s total freshwater and about 90% of the United States’ freshwater supply.”15

“The Great Lakes contain the largest supply of freshwater in the world, holding about 18% of the worlds total freshwater and about 90% of the United States total freshwater. The Lakes are a series of five interconnecting large lakes, one small lake, four connecting channels, and the St. Lawrence Seaway. Combined, the lakes cover an area of over 94,000 square miles (245,000 square kilometers) and contain over 5,400 cubic miles (23,000 cubic kilometers) of water.”2


ArcelorMittal steel plant , Indiana 3

corn field, Illinois 4

fisher y dock , Lake Ontario 5

56 billion gallons of water are used each day for municipal, agricultural, and industrial uses.6

Lake Superior Water Levels in Meters


40% of the Canadian and 15% of the U.S. Gross Domestic Product originates within the basin.7 Lake Michigan & Lake Huron Water Levels in Meters

“Great Lakes water levels have fluctuated

The primary driving forces are precipitation

throughout their historical record. Levels and evaporation. Lower precipitation, leads to of Lakes Michigan and Huron, for example, lower runoff from the basin; similarly, higher reached record highs in both 1886 and 1986.

evaporation draws water from the lakes causing levels to decline.

Lake Erie Water Levels in Meters

Lakes Michigan and Huron’s record low water levels coincided with climatic events such as

Two human activities, diversion and consump-

the Dust Bowl of the 1930’s, a multi-continental tive use, have potential for affecting lake levels, severe drought of 1964 (which is the record

although they have had relatively little impact

low for the two lakes), and the most recent and

to date. Diversion refers to transfer of water

strongest El Niño on record of 1997.

from one watershed to another. Consumptive use refers to water that is withdrawn for use

Great Lakes water levels respond to changes

and not returned. Most consumptive use in

in their water supplies, including precipitation

the Great Lakes is caused by evaporation from

falling on the lakes, the runoff from their trib-

power plant cooling systems.”16

utaries’ watershed, and evaporation from the lakes’ surfaces.

Right : Char t s compare annual averaged water level data with a long-term mean level from 1860-2010. 17

Lake Ontario Water Levels in Meters


42 million people depend on the Great Lakes for their drinking water.8

Left : Low lake levels at Old Mission Point lighthouse, Grand Traver se Bay, Lake Michigan in October 2007 9 Center : Shoreline erosion and flooding of Red Lantern Restaurant at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Lake Michigan 18 Right : the drinking fountain as a symbol of our dependence on, and accessibility to water supply 19

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Spread evenly across the continental U.S. , the Great Lakes would submerge the entire country under 9.5 10 feet of water.â&#x20AC;?


High Water Levels Cover Recreational Beaches 20


At 3,228 miles Michigan has the second longest shoreline in the United States, second only to Alaska (6,640 miles).11

AK: 6,640 miles

MI: 3,228 miles

CA: 840 miles




MI, AK, CA shoreline drawings not to scale

Great Lakes shorelines_length of shoreline in U.S. and Canada (statute miles)12 Lakes Michigan

Connecting Rivers

Grand Total




















3,288 189









































New York
























Grand Total









photo: Dale G. Young / The Detroit News 24


Detroit’s River walk Project

photo: David Guralnick / The Detroit News

Shoreline Usage “Following the 1825 opening of the Erie

United States Steel established the pattern of

Canal, settlement and economic expansion

American centralized industrial consolidation

accelerated. The Erie Canal was an astonishingly

and eventual global dominance. The region

successful public venture that effectively

hosted the world’s greatest concentrations of

integrated markets and commerce between the

production for oil, coal, steel, automobiles,

Atlantic seaboard and the region. The region


on both sides of the border became a vast

and heavy transport equipment. Agronomy

research and design laboratory for agricultural

industrialized as well, in meat processing,

machinery and techniques. Owner-operator

packaged cereal products, and processed

family farms transformed both demographics

dairy products.




and ecology into a vast terrain of farmlands, producing primarily wheat and corn.

The development of the Great Lakes region proceeded along several lines that took


Color postcard view of South Works plant of Illinois Steel from Calumet River. c. 1910 25



advantage of the many resources within the

technology made the Region the world’s

basin. The waterways became major highways



of trade and were exploited for their fish. The

by the middle of the twentieth century.

fertile land that had provided the original

Nineteenth century proto-monopolies such

wealth of furs and food yielded lumber, then

as International Harvester, Standard Oil, and

wheat, then other agricultural products. Bulk





goods such as iron ore and coal were shipped

automobiles and other manufactured goods.

have often resulted in public parks, and a

through Great Lakes ports, and manufacturing



number of large venues (such as arenas,


shorelines of the great lakes due to their

theaters, and conference centers), have also

shipping demands. Thus, as many of these

sprouted up along the water in a number of

“Thus, nearly all the settlements that grew into

waterside industrial sites have shut down,

Great Lakes cities.”27

cities in the Great Lakes region were established

opportunities have arisen along the great

on the waterways that transported people,










“[by the middle of the twentieth century]... the region hosted the world’s greatest concentrations of production for oil, coal, steel, automobiles, synthetic rubber, agricultural machinery, and heavy transport equipment.”13 raw materials and goods. The largest urban

previously inaccessible to the public. Since

areas developed at the mouths of tributaries

the majority of the cities in the Great Lakes

because of transportation advantages and the

region were established along the waterways

apparently inexhaustible supply of fresh water

and grew inland, these waterside sites prove

for domestic and industrial use. Historically,

to desirable in that they provide both access

the major industries in the Great Lakes region

to the water, and a prime downtown location.


Endeavors to clean up these waterside sites





American Steel and Wire Company’s Plant , Cleveland, Ohio c. 1901 28

River Rouge: Ford Motor Company plant , River Rouge, Michigan 29

“A large part of the steel industry in Canada and the United States is

Situated riverside, between two great lakes, Detroit was home to a

concentrated in the Great Lakes because iron ore, coal and limestone

thriving carriage trade before Henry Ford built his first automobile

can be carried on the lakes from mines and quarries to steel mills.

factory in Highland Park, Michigan in 1899. Ford’s manufacturing

In the United States, ore is carried from mines near Lake Superior to

innovations were soon adopted by rival automobile manufacturers,

steel mills at the south end of Lake Michigan and at Detroit, Cleveland,

including General Motors, Chrysler and American Motors. Each

and Lorain in the Lake Erie basin. In Canada, ore from the upper lakes

of them, like Ford, established its headquarters in the Detroit

region is processed in steel mills at Sault Ste. Marie, Hamilton and

metropolitan area, solidifying Detroit’s status as the world’s car


capital. At the turn of the twentieth century, entrepreneurs in the


Detroit area — notably Henry Ford — forged into production of the automobile, capitalizing on the already-existing machine tool and coach-building industry in the city.31

Right : Assembly line at River Rouge Ford Motor Company plant 32


Grant Park 34

Chicagoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Grant Park is built on a foundation of debris from


The Great Chicago Fire 33

the Great Chicago Fire that was dumped into Lake Michigan in the 1870s.


Detroit Riverfront [casestudy] “The city of Detroit was founded on the banks of the Detroit River in 1701. Since that time our community grew, from the ribbon farms and forts that first dominated the shoreline to the heavy industry of the 19th and 20th centuries. As industry dried up along the banks, the area fell into disrepair and became littered with above: construction of the Dequindre Cut 35

abandoned buildings, warehouses and silos. In early 2003, the Detroit RiverFront Conservancy

below: the Dequindre Cut (completion)


was established with the mission of bringing public access to Detroit Riverfront. Today, nearly three miles of RiverWalk are complete for the community and visitors to enjoy. And that is just the beginning, as the Conservancy continues to make progress on its ultimate vision of five and a half miles of Riverfront — spanning from the Ambassador Bridge to Gabriel Richard Park, just east of the MacArthur (Belle Isle) Bridge — linked by a RiverWalk, parks, plazas and pavilions.”14

Gabriel Richard Park 37

396 1.

NOAA, Great Lakes Environmental

16 September 2009. Online image. Flickr.


Research Laboratory (GLERL). “Water


Levels of the Great Lakes”. 2009. http://


6. Joan Chadde. “The Great Lakes—At a

12. NOAA, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL). “Water

Crossroads”. International Association

Levels of the Great Lakes”. 2009. http://

for Great Lakes Research. 8 January 2008.

Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,


Great Lakes Environmental Research


lakelevels/lakelevels.pdf 2. Department of Commerce, National

13. “Great Lakes region (North America)”.

Laboratory. ‘‘About Our Great Lakes’.’

7. ibid.

Wikipedia. 27 January 2010. http://

June 2004.

8. ibid.


9. NOAA, Great Lakes Environmental


3. Ohio Citizen Action. “Indiana father’s

Research Laboratory (GLERL). “Water

lawsuit targets polluters, including U.S.

Levels of the Great Lakes”. 2009. http://

Steel and ArcelorMittal”. March 36, 2009.

Online image. http://www.ohiocitizen.


14. The Detroit Riverfront Conservancy. 2010. 15. Joan Chadde. “The Great Lakes—At a Crossroads”. International Association

10. Greening of the Great Lakes. “Great

for Great Lakes Research. 8 January 2008.

Lakes Facts”. 2010. http://www.

14 January 2007. Online image.




org/campaigns/isg/isg.html 4. tlindenbaum. “Field of Opportunity”.

lindenbaum/357385564/in/set72157594481060620/ 5. Cécile Vázquez. “What comes to mind”.

11. Michigan Sea Grant [University of

16. NOAA, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL). “Water

Michigan]. “The Great Lakes”. http://

Levels of the Great Lakes”. 2009. http://

397 lakelevels/lakelevels.pdf 17. ibid. 18. Shoreline erosion and flooding of Red namerica/usstates/outline/ca.gif 24. Dale G. Young/The Detroit News.

30. “People and the Great Lakes”. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. http://

Lantern Restaurant at Indiana Dunes

Online Image.

National Lakeshore, Lake Michigan


Wikipedia. 27 January 2010. http://

(National Park Service photo by R. Royce,


March 1972) 19. “Drinking Fountain”. Online Image.

25. Color postcard view of South Works plant of Illinois Steel from Calumet River,

31. “Great Lakes region (North America)”.

region_%28North_America%29 32. Encyclopedia Brittanica, Inc.

Shutterstock. 13 January 2009. http://

c. 1910. Online Image. www.pullman-

Assembly line at River Rouge Ford

Motor Company plant. Online Image.

drinking-fountain.html 20. High Water Levels Cover Recreational

26. “Great Lakes region (North America)”.

Wikipedia. 27 January 2010. http://


Beaches. Online Image. www2.jsonline.





21. [Michigan] Enchanted Learning. Online

27. “People and the Great Lakes”. U.S.

33. The Great Chicago Fire. Online Image.

Image. http://www.enchantedlearning.

Environmental Protection Agency. http://



GIF 22. [Alaska] Online Image. http://www. namerica/usstates/outline/ak.gif 23. [California] Online Image. http://www.

28. Detroit Photographic Company. American Steel and Wire Company’s Plant, Cleveland, Ohio c. 1901. 29. Charles Sheeler. “Classic Landscape”. 1931.

34. Grant Park. Online Image. historic-sites--in--chicago-il 35. [construction of the Dequindre Cut]. Online Image. The Detroit Riverfront Conservancy. http://www.

398 36. [the Dequindre Cut (completion)]. Online Image. tag/newfangled-things/ 37. Gabriel Richard Park. The Detroit Riverfront Conservancy. Online Image.




THE LAKE EFFECT More then just snow. Sarah Petri

Left : View of Lake Erie. 8


“The Great Lakes are the largest system of fresh, surface water on Earth, containing roughly 21 percent of the world supply and 84 percent of North America’s supply. Only the polar ice caps contain more fresh water.”1 The Great Lakes - Superior, Michigan, Huron,

The channels that connect the Great Lakes are

From Lake Ontario, the water from the Great

Erie, and Ontario, and their connecting

an important part of the system. The St. Marys

Lakes flows through the St. Lawrence River

channels form the largest fresh surface water

River is the northernmost of these, a 60-mile

all the way to the Atlantic Ocean, about 1,000

system on earth. If you stood on the moon,

waterway flowing from Lake Superior down to

miles away.

you could see the lakes and recognize the

Lake Huron. At the St. Marys rapids, the Soo

familiar wolf head shape of Lake Superior, or

Locks bypass the rough waters, providing safe

This system greatly affects our way of life, as

the mitten bounded by lakes Michigan, Huron

transport for ships. The St. Clair and Detroit

well as all aspects of the natural environment,

and Erie. Covering more than 94,000 square

rivers, and Lake St. Clair between them, form

from weather and climate, to wildlife and

miles and draining more than twice as much

an 89-mile long channel connecting Lake

habitat. Yet for all their size and power, the

land, these Freshwater Seas hold an estimated

Huron with Lake Erie. The 35-mile Niagara

Great Lakes are fragile. In the past, this fragile

6 quadrillion gallons of water, about one-fifth

River links lakes Erie and Ontario, and sends

nature wasn’t recognized, and the lakes were

of the world’s fresh surface water supply and

approximately 50,000 to 100,000 cubic feet

mistreated for economic gain, placing the

nine-tenths of the U.S. supply. Spread evenly

of water per second over Niagara Falls; the

ecosystem under tremendous stress from our

across the contiguous 48 states, the lakes’

manmade Welland Canal also links the two

activities. 2

water would be about 9.5 feet deep.

lakes, providing a detour around the falls.

Right : Satellite Image of the Great Lakes. 9




“during the winter the weather clears up stormy”3 Left : View of Lake Erie during the winter. 10

The Lake Effect: The Snow Belt During the late autumn and winter months of

for clearing skies over land in other parts of

cools and the moisture that evaporated into it

the year, when the cold artic air sweeps over

the country Specifically, cold arctic air passing

condenses (into tiny droplets or ice crystals)

the Great Lakes region of North America, snow

over the Great Lakes picks up moisture and

and forms clouds. Depending on the degree

squalls may form along the lee shores of the

deposits it as snow inland from the downwind

of instability of the air mass (i.e., how much

Lakes. This heavy formation of snow is more

shore. The scientific explanatino of the waters

warmer the lake water is than the air), bands

commonly known as “lake-effect snow”. Lake

of the Great Lakes become increasingly warmer

of either stratus, stratocumulus, or heavy

effect snow is generated from the temperature

relative to the cold dry arctic air masses that

cumulus clouds form over the water and travel

contrast between the cold arctic air moving

flow down from the north and northwest. When

with the wind toward the downwind shore.

over the relatively warm waters of the Great

this air traverses the lake, the lower levels of

When enough moisture condenses out of the

Lakes, consequently, producing heavy amounts

the atmosphere pick up moisture and warmth.

air, it falls in the form of snow over the water

of snowfall in the surrounding land regions.

This air (along with the moisture it picked up

and the lee side (downwind side) of the lake.

Unlike most winter storms, lake effect snows

from the lake below) is now lighter than the

do not build their foundation upon strong

air above it and starts to rise as it continues

areas of low pressure. Instead, they are fueled

its journey across the lake (a condition known

by the same dry arctic air that is responsible

as “convective instability”). As the air rises, it


Hougton, MI Marquette, MI

Cheboygan. MI

Traverse City, MI

Tug Hill Plateau, NY Grand Rapids, MI Buffalo, NY

Right : Diagram of snow Erie, PA

accumulation in the Great Lakes region; including cities with the most snow fall

Annual Snow Accumulation in the Great Lakes Region Tug Hill Plateau 410 in Houghton 208 in Marquette 180 in Buffalo 93 in Cheboygan 90 in Erie 88 in Traverse City 87 in Grand Rapids 73 in Right to Left : Lake Effect snow. 11


Above: Satellite emages of Lake Effect Snow in the Great Lakes region. 12


Meteorlogical Variables During the summer season, the Great Lakes

meteorologists as convective instability, and

Stability: Stability affects the depth through

absorb large amounts of heat. Because water

starts to rise, forming cloud bands of stratus,

which mixing and convection will occur. Deeper

heats slowly but retains its stored heat for a

stratocumulus, or cumulus over the water.

mixing allows deeper, more intense convection


substantial time, the open waters of the Lakes

that intensifies lake effect snow.

are much warmer than the arctic air that

Temperature Difference: The temperature

crosses them during the autumn and winter.

difference between lake surface and overlaying

Wind Speed: Sufficient wind speed is necessary

This is particularly true for the first cold blasts

air promotes â&#x20AC;&#x153;convective instabilityâ&#x20AC;? that

to advect arctic air over the lake, and transport

of winter rushing out of the polar regions,

provides the basic energy source for lake effect

sufficient amounts of warm, moist air to the

making November and December the prime

snow. The greater the temperature difference

shore. Increased wind speed also increases

months for heavy lake-effect snows. When

between the cold air and the warm water, the

turbulent fluxes, which enhances the vertical

the cold and relatively dry air characteristic

heavier the snow determines where lake effect

mixing required for lake effect snows.

of arctic air masses traverses a lake, the

snow will fall, with the leeward or downwind

lower portion of the air mass is warmed and

portion of the lakeshore receiving the most

Wind Direction: Local surface wind direction

moistened. This air thus becomes lighter

lake effect snow.

moist air to the shore.7

than the air above it, a condition known to

Lake Effect Snow Watch: conditions in the atmosphere are primed to produce lake effect snow Lake Effect Snow Warning: more than seven inches of snow are expected in a 12 hour period Lake Effect Snow Advisor y: more than four to seven inches of snow are expected in a 12 hour period


Above, Right to Left : View of Lake Superior snow squalls during the winter season. 13




â&#x20AC;&#x153;Lake effect snowfall contributes 50 percent of the annual winter snowfall on the eastern and southern shores of the Great Lakesâ&#x20AC;?5 Left : View of Lake Superior during the winter. 14



“outdoor recreation in the Great Lakes is a way of life”2 Left : View of Lake Michigan. 15


The Lake Effect: The Experience The Great Lakes offer outstanding tourism and

Great Lakes states rank in the nation’s top ten

recreation opportunities, ranging from pristine

in total number. The commercial and sport

wilderness activities in national parks such as

fishing industry is collectively valued at more

Isle Royale and Pukaskwa to waterfront beaches

than $4 billion annually. Diving on shipwrecks

in major cities. A well-defined four-seasons

is a growing Great Lakes sport, thanks to many

climate supports many types of recreation

underwater preserves and parks throughout

from ice fishing, skiing and snowmobiling in the

he lakes. Off Lake Superior’s Whitefish Point,

winter to golf, fishing, boating and swimming

better known to sailors as the “graveyard of

in the summer. The eight Great Lakes states

the Great Lakes.”2

have about 3.7 million registered recreational boats, or about a third of the nation’s total. Michigan and Minnesota lead the nation in the number of boat registrations, and six

Left : View of Lake Huron at sunset . 16



Above, Right to Left : 1. View of Lake Michigan, playing on the beach 17 2. View of Lake Michigan beach during the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;polar bear plungeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; 18 3. Lake Superior sailing at sunset 19 4. Lake Erie beach at sunset 20



Above from Right to Left : 1. Lake Michigan 21 2. Lake Michigan sailing 22 3.Lake Michigan beaches 23 4.Lake Erie sailing 24 5.Lake Erie Walleye fishing 25 6.Lake Huron beach 26 7.Lake Erie Walleye fishing 27


“About five million people use the Great Lakes for recreational purposes.”6



“The Great Lakes states have about 3.7 million registered recreational boats, or about a third of the nation’s total.”2 Left : View of Lake Michigan. 28



The Great Lakes ecosystem sustains the lives of 33 millino people, shaping our health, culture, and recreation, and was responsible for our economic development. The region is tremendously diverse, randing from the wild Lake Superior shorelines in the north to the big cities and industrial centers in the south. The economy of the Great Lakes basin is diverse, ranging from fishing and farming to automotive manufacturing, and tourism.6

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Every summer, the long, sandy beaches that ribbon the Great Lakes shorelines draw millions of people seeking relief from the heat and a chance to be closer to nature...â&#x20AC;? Left to Right : View of Lake MIchigan. 29



â&#x20AC;&#x153;...we want to be able to swim without worrying about getting sick from the water.â&#x20AC;?6



â&#x20AC;&#x153;Every day, 40 million people drink water that is drawn from the Great Lakes, treated, and delivered to their taps. Nine million more people rely on rivers, wells, and small inland lakes in the surrounding watershed.â&#x20AC;?6 Left : View of pollution in the Great Lakes. 28

The Lake Effect: Contaminated Hot Zones The pollution of our waterways became a

humans have affected the quality of the Great

for increased water pollution controls, which

national issue in June of 1969, the day that the

Lakes water over the centuries include sewage

eventually led to the Great Lakes Water Quality

Cuyahoga River, flowing through Cleveland,

disposal, toxic contamination through heavy

Act and Clean Water Act in the 1970s.

Ohio, on its way to Lake Erie, caught on fire

metals and pesticides, overdevelopment of

because it was so polluted. Although this was

the waterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s edge, runoff from agriculture and

Water pollution is defined as a change in the

not the first time that the Cuyahoga River

urbanization, and air pollution.

chemical, physical and biological health of a waterway due to human activity. Ways that

had been in flames, the 1969 fire caught the attention of the nation and the fight began

The pollution of our waterways became a

humans have affected the quality of the Great

for increased water pollution controls, which

national issue in June of 1969, the day that the

Lakes water over the centuries include sewage

eventually led to the Great Lakes Water Quality

Cuyahoga River, flowing through Cleveland,

disposal, toxic contamination through heavy

Act and Clean Water Act in the 1970s.

Ohio, on its way to Lake Erie, caught on fire

metals and pesticides, overdevelopment of

because it was so polluted. Although this was

the waterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s edge, runoff from agriculture and

Water pollution is defined as a change in the

not the first time that the Cuyahoga River

urbanization, and air pollution.

chemical, physical and biological health of a

had been in flames, the 1969 fire caught the

waterway due to human activity. Ways that

attention of the nation and the fight began



Toxic Contaminant Hot Spots LAKE HURON



Right : Diagram of pollution througout along the shores of the Great Lakes

Right to Left : 1. Lake Erie pollution 31 2. Lake Onterio pollution 32 3. Lake Erie beach pollution. 33



â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Great Lakes provides 56 billion gallons of water per day for municipal, agricultural, and industrial useâ&#x20AC;?3

Left : View of an Industiral Site - Pollution of the Great Lakes. 34


â&#x20AC;&#x153;...23% of Great Lakes beaches were closed for at least a day, and 14% were closed for more than 9 days, to prevent the spread of waterborne disease. Bacterial and viral pathogens are introduced to the Great Lakes from overflowing sewage plants and polluted runoff from our yards, streets and farms.â&#x20AC;?5

Right : View of point source water pollution into Lake Erie. 35


436 1. 2. 3. elements/lkefsnw1.htm 4. science_sky/85452 5. elements/lkefsnw3.htm 6. Our Great Lakes: What is happening to them, what it means and what you can do to keep them great. 7. effect_snow 8., user : Countr yDreaming_ September 10, 2008 9. w w 10., User : James Mar vin Phelps (mandj98)_Februar y 13, 2008 11., User : ncweathercenter_ August 29, 2008 12. w w 13., User : ann j p_Februar y 16, 2008 14., User : siskokid_Januar y 29, 2008 15. http://w w

16., User : reflectionsofthenor th_June 28, 2008 17., User : farlane_April 1, 2006 18., User: markofphotography_ Januar y 1, 2007 19., User : juniperbudd_July 26, 2007 20. User : raul_July 22, 2009 21., User : StevenLPierce_ Speptember 8, 2008 22., User : maomau_August 13, 2007 23., User : Flipped Out_August 22, 2006 24., User : themodastudio_ March 25, 2009 25., User : eriequest .com_April 14, 2008 26., User: unknown 27., User : eriequest .com_April 14, 200821. 28., User : Nate C_October 7, 2007 29., User : Nate C_October 7, 2007 30., User: unknown 31., User : hattie mahatma_May

24, 2008 32., User: coreyonderick_ December 14, 2006 33., User : ncweathercenter_ August 29, 2008 34. http://w w 35. http://w w




Ballast Water Invasion Invasive species in the Great Lakes Youngkuk Hwang

Left : (PIC1)Ballast water is expelling to the Lake



The Great Lakes on Earth The Great Lakes hold 20% of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s fresh water.

Left : (PIC2)Great Lakes from space by the SeaWiFS Project , NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE.


The St. Lawrence River and Seaway is of vital geographic and economic importance to the Great Lakes system, connecting the lakes to the Atlantic Ocean and providing navigation to deep-draft ocean vessels.

The Great Lakes/St Lawrence Seaway System

Opened to navigation in 1959, the St Lawrence

The canal was built in 1913, deepened in the

is one of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s greatest and most

Seaway has moved over 2bn metric tonnes of

1950s and further straightened in 1973.

strategic commercial waterways. Stretching

cargo, about 50% of which travels to and from

The Soo Locks allow ships to travel between

more than 3,700km from the Atlantic Ocean

overseas ports in Europe, the Middle East and

Lake Superior and the lower Great Lakes.

to the heart of North America, it is a highly

Africa. Construction of the 306km stretch

The locks pass an average of 10,000 ships per

competitive transportation route serving the

of the Seaway between Montreal and Lake

year. This is achieved in spite of the locks

US and Canadaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s largest interior markets.

Ontario was recognized as one of the most

being closed during the winter from January

The system is used by a wide variety of vessel

challenging engineering feats in history.

through March, when ice shuts down shipping

types, including self-unloading bulk carriers

The 44km Welland Canal is the fourth version

on the Great Lakes. The winter closure period

(Lakers) up to 305 metres trading exclusively

of a waterway link between Lake Ontario and

is used to inspect and maintain the locks.

in the area.

Lake Erie, first built in 1829.


Right : View of utate velit esse molestie conseqvel illum dolore eu feugiat nulla facilisis autate velit esse molestie stiesties. 3

Above: Locations of Soo Locks, Welland Canal and St . Lawrence seaway system


Locks in the Great Lakes Right : View of utate veli t sdfag afgafa asdgas

Right : View of utate veli t sdfag afgafa asdgas

The St. Lawrence Seaway

The Soo Locks

The Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River are

The world-famous Soo Locks form a passage

part of a vast system linking North America’s

for deep-draft ships around the rapids in

heartland with ports and markets throughout

the St. Marys River at the far east end of

the world. The world’s longest deep-draft

Lake Superior. Early pioneers arriving in the

inland waterway, the system extends from

territory were forced to carry their canoes

Duluth, Minn., on Lake Superior, to the

around the rapids. When settlement of the

Gulf of St. Lawrence on the Atlantic Ocean,

Northwest Territory brought increased trade

a distance of more than 2,340 miles. This

and large boats, it became necessary to

shortcut to the continent’s interior was made

unload the boats, haul the cargoes around the

possible with the construction of a ship canal

rapids in wagons, and reload in other boats.

and lock system opened in 1855 at Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., the development of the Welland Canal since 1829, and the completion of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1959.

Left : Top; Soo Locks (PIC3) Bottom; St . Lawrence Seaway (PIC4)


The Welland Canal The Welland Canal, with its eight large locks, was built to allow ships to pass around Niagara Falls as they move from Lake Ontario to Lake Erie. This canal system, the western section of the St. Lawrence Seaway, ranks as one of the outstanding engineering feats of the 20th century. The current Welland Canal, the fourth to be constructed, was opened in 1932 and was the first segment of the modern seaway to be built.and maintained by The Saint Lawrence Seaway

Ref 1.

Development Corporation (United States) and The Great Lakes St. Lawrence Seaway System (Canadian). The seaway remains a model of binational cooperation between the two nations.

Ref 2.


Ballast: Ballast is any material used to weight and/or balance an object. One example is the sandbags carried on conventional hot-air balloons, which can be discarded to lighten the balloonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s load, allowing it to ascend. Ballast water is therefore water carried by ships to ensure stability, trim and structural integrity.


Left : (Illustration1) Ballast water Right : (PIC5) Ballast water expelling (Illustration2) Invasive species


The discovery that marine species could be translocated in the ballast water of modern steel ships was first reported by Ostenfeld (1908).


Above: (PIC6) Old cargo ship in Lake Erie (1918)


Above: Clockwise from left top; Sea Lamprey(PIC7), RoundGoby(PIC8), Blood Red Shrimp(PIC9), Zebra Mussel(PIC10), Asian Carp(PIC11), Ruffe(PIC12), Sea Lamprey.(PIC 13)

Right : (PIC14) Sea Lamprey mouse


â&#x20AC;&#x153;Some 180 exotic species have found their way into the lakes during the past 200 years, jeopardizing the entire ecosystem; can we stop them?â&#x20AC;?



The sea lamprey was one of the first to invade the Great Lakes. It has been very damaging because part of its life cycle is spent feeding parasitically on the blood of host fish like the native lake trout. Sea lampreys are a very primitive, jawless fish.

â&#x20AC;&#x153;During the past two centuries, invasive species have significantly changed the Great Lakes ecosystem. In turn, the changes have had broad economic and social effects on people that rely on the system for food, water, and recreation.â&#x20AC;? Left : (PIC15) Harmed fished by Sea Lamprey


Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) are

Round goby are thriving in the Great Lakes

predaceous, eel-like fish native to the coastal

Basin because they are aggressive, voracious

regions of both sides of the Atlantic Ocean.

feeders which can forage in total darkness.

They entered the Great Lakes through the

The round goby takes over prime spawning

Welland Canal about 1921. They contributed

sites traditionally used by native species,

greatly to the decline of whitefish and lake

competing with native fish for habitat and

trout in the Great Lakes. Since 1956, the

changing the balance of the ecosystem. The

governments of the United States and Canada,

round goby is already causing problems for

working jointly through the Great Lakes

other bottom-dwelling Great Lakes native fish

Fishery Commission, have implemented a sea

like mottled sculpin, logperch and darters.

lamprey control program.

Unfortunately, they have shown a rapid range of expansion through the Great Lakes.


From left : (PIC16) Sea Lamprey, (PIC17) Round Goby, (PIC18) Asian carp

Asian Carp are a significant threat to the Great Lakes because they are large, extremely prolific, and consume vast amounts of food. They can weigh up to 100 pounds, and can grow to a length of more than four feet. They are well-suited to the climate of the Great Lakes region, which is similar to their native Asian habitats. Researchers expect that Asian carp would disrupt the food chain that supports the native fish of the Great Lakes. Due to their large size, ravenous appetites, and rapid rate of reproduction, these fish could pose a significant risk to the Great Lakes Ecosystem.


Above: (PIC19) Asian carp jumping


â&#x20AC;&#x153;Asian carp would disrupt the food chain that supports the native fish of the Great Lakes. Due to their large size, ravenous appetites, and rapid rate of reproduction, these fish could pose a significant risk to the Great Lakes Ecosystem.â&#x20AC;?


It is time to take an action which is delayed for last 100 years. Right : (PIC20) Docked cargo ship is expelling ballast water in harbor


460 1.

Smithsonian Environmental Research

12. Ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus, http://

Center , Ship undergoing mid-ocean


The “soo Locks” at Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.


ballast water exchange http://serc.


Photo courtesy U.S. Army Corps of


Engineers, Detroit District

26 2010,


SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space



Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE. Image


taken 2000-04-24, thus PD


jawless, suction-cup like mouth and its


circles of rasping teeth and toothed



tongue, Credit: Image courtesy Great


Lakes Fishery Commission, Jan 26


“St. Lawrence River and Seaway”




“great lake from space” Provided by the

Great Lakes Information Network





10. Invasive zebra mussels, credit: USFWS,



U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Detroit

11. “bighead asian carp” AP Photo/The

13. Sea lamprey, Mike Greenlar photo, Jan

14. Close-up of the adult sea lamprey’s

releases/2009/07/090720163734.htm 15. Sea lamprey, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Jan 22 2010, http://www.biology.duke. edu/bio217/2005/ncy/sea%20lamprey.

District. Great Lakes map, “

Times Picayune, Chris Granger, http://



22 2010,

Louise Dodds-Ely, Great lakes & St



Lawrence Seaway System

html 16. Sea lamprey, by Brian Morland, Jan

461 17. Round Goby2, 18 September 2007, Jan

22. (illus 1.) Ballast water, International

21 2010,

Marintime Organization, Alfred Elicierto,


18. “bighead asian carp” AP Photo/The Times Picayune, Chris Granger, http:// ssf/2009/12/area_fishermen_fear_asian_ carp.html 19. Asian carp, Nerissa Michaels / Illinois River Biological Station via the Detroit free Press / AP, Jan 21 2010, http://www. 20. “Bulk carrier discharging water ballast in port.”, AP, polisci/students/megaport/ballast.htm 21. “Great Lakes Compact” Illustration; locations of soo locks, welland canal and st. Lawrence seaway system, by Lloyd Alter, files/2008/03/wisconsin-local-politics-onwater.php


The Grotesque is a research book assembled by students in the M.Arch graduate option architecture studio at the Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning under the direction of studio critic Christian Unverzagt in the Winter of 2010. The work is produced as an academic inquiry into issues of energy and ecology as they relate to the built environment in and around Detroit, Michigan and the Great Lakes Region. The students have attempted to cite sources whenever possible and make no claim of ownership to the visual imagery or statistical data used.

The Grotesque - volume 1  

The Grotesque is a research book assembled by students in the M.Arch graduate option architecture studio at the Taubman College of Architect...

The Grotesque - volume 1  

The Grotesque is a research book assembled by students in the M.Arch graduate option architecture studio at the Taubman College of Architect...