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Trueque, Truco, Trato "Barter, Trick, Deal" Public Markets as Urban Infrastructure along La Viga Spine, Mexico DF


Trueque, Truco, Trato "Barter, Trick, Deal" Public Markets as Urban Infrastructure along La Viga Spine, Mexico DF Master of Urban Design, 2014-2015


Studio Site Visit. Public Markets in Mexico City, October 2014.


Analytical Cartographies

Precedent Studies

Students Pankti Sanganee India | NMIMS University - BSSA B. Arch

Kartiki Sharma India | Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology B. Arch

Public Open Space

Urban Public Space in Delhi Civic Architectures in Sao Paulo

La Viga Canal and its Historic Legacy 14

24

Incremental Housing

Incremental Housing in Chile Previ in Lima

Mingchuan Yang China | Xiameng University B. Engineering. Urban Planning

Shuya Xu China| Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology B. Engineering. Urban Planning Yiwei Huang China| Huazhong Agricultural University| UMASS Bachelor and Master of Landscape Architecture

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Table of Contents

Shreejit Modak India | L Saheja School of Architecture| B. Arch

28

Public Space, Public Life 16

Public Markets and Administrative Units Mobility and Access 18

María Arquero de Alarcón Assistant Professor of Architecture and Urban Planning and Design

32

Markets

36

Housing and Market Typologies along the Spine 20

Hsin-Han Lee/ Victor Taiwan | Chung Yuan Christian University B. Arch

Instructor

Huaqiangbei Rd and OCT Loft in Shenzhen, China Superblock of Gracia, Barcelona Spain

Market Hall in Netherlands, Taipei night market

Sihao Xiong China | Shenzhen University B. Arch

Saswati Das India| TVB School of Habitat Studies B. Arch

Culture and Neighborhood Intervention

Canals and Neighborhood Riverwalk in San Antonio, Canals in Amsterdam; Hafen City in Hamburg, Cheonggyecheon inSeoul

40

Analytical Cartographies

Precedent Studies


Group Proposals

Public Market as Neighborhood Anchor 44

Table of Contents Foreword Introduction Analytical Cartographies Precedent Studies Design Proposals

09 11 12 22 42

Tie-in

44

Public, Connected and Inclusive

52

Mercado Apatlaco

58

A Living Market

64

Vertical Play Grounds

70

Culture Incubator

76

(F)air (S)pace Matters

80

Market as Culture Shed

84

Acknowledgments

92

Mercado El Verde

Mercado Paulino Navarro

Markets as Magnets, Exchange as Catalyst 62

Mercado Hueso Periferico

Mercado Xochimilco Zona

Market as Cultural Shed

Mercado Villa Coapa

Mercado El Verde

Group Proposals

7

Public Market and the Public Realm

Culture Connector

Table of Contents

Mercado Villa Coapa


8

Foreword


Foreword Michigan/Mellon Project on Egalitarianism and the Metropolis

The Michigan/Mellon Project on Egalitarianism and the Metropolis is a 4-year academic and research initiative focused on architecture, urbanism and humanities research in Detroit, Mexico City and Rio de Janeiro. It is made possible by a $1.3 million grant from the A. W. Mellon Foundation. The project allows design theory and practice to inform and be informed by questions of social justice, social movements and transformative creative arts movements - both past and present. The emphasis on cities and their specificity will focus humanists on linking theories of human interaction and collective life with the physical space of a city and its histories. The increased expertise in urbanism allows for humanists to better understand the market forces and economic constraints that inform design decisions that directly affect human life. The Master of Urban Design (M.U.D.) degree program in architecture exemplifies the aspirations of the Michigan / Mellon project in seeking to expose students to global contexts. The OneCity Studios situate questions of ethics, aesthetics, and cultural context within megacities and postindustrial cities, with students and faculty traveling to the selected city of focus twice during the academic degree program.

Milton S. F. Curry University of Michigan Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning Associate Dean and Associate Professor of Architecture Director, Master of Urban Design Degree Project Director, Michigan / Mellon Project on Egalitarianism and the Metropolis

9

Egalitarianism is an aspiration as well as a potential set of protocols for the ethical development of urban spaces. Through the work of the faculty and students - interacting with communities of scholars and designers in Mexico City - these projects represent significant insights into how egalitarian places may come into being using urban design.

Foreword

In Mexico City - the focus city for the M.U.D. degree for 2014-15-, the context of a bustling metropolis with histories that intersect with pressing ecological challenges provides a robust site for our students’ investigations. Key nodes for the promotion of cultural traditions and social exchange, the Urban Design Studio II has examined the legacy of the public markets as vital civic infrastructures and anchors for urban vitality. Framing the design investigations, the studio focused on sites along a former waterway, Canal de la Viga, and revealed dormant relationships in these urban landscapes of exchange.


The Viga Promenade

La Merced Central Market

La Merced Central Market, TIME Magazine


Trueque,Truco,Trato "Barter, Trick, Deal"

Public Markets as urban infrastructure along La Viga Spine

Public markets hold a deep-rooted place in the history and culture of Mexico. Mexico City itself was once a place of barter, trade and exchange of goods among travelers from very distant places: the temporality and intensity of these occupations of the public domain first shaped the systems of open spaces in the city, and later structured entire neighborhoods around. Till date, markets act as public spaces for commerce and the street markets derive their name, ‘tianguis’ from the nahuatl language, honoring its pre-colonial roots. As the poet and writer Pablo Neruda once wrote, “I traveled around Mexico for entire years from market to market. Because, Mexico is in the markets”. Public markets are where people congregate to buy their staples, meet together, and construct a sense of community. The number of these public markets has been gradually dwindling in the last few decades with the influx of capitalism endeavors in the developing city, which tend to sideline the markets and almost eliminate the social cohesion they built into the local economies. Initially developed as informal markets, a government policy in the 1950s was directed towards their regulation on both federal and local levels. While on the one hand, this was a way of getting the vendors off the street and building regulated concentrations of vendors consolidating political networks, the markets are today somewhere in between the formal and informal; visible, yet invisible. Presently, SEDECO (Secretary of Economic Development) is involved with the up-gradation, renewal and renovation of these public markets. The studio investigates the idea of the multiple urban roles of the markets vis-à-vis the slow death of this community-based Mexican institution. During the semester, the students take on current political initiatives to reformulate the role of the public markets in the city, and revisit their legacy as public infrastructure and neighborhood anchors. The design investigations consider new programmatic mixes to re-define the identity and role of the market in the communities they serve, while tackling local economies, flows and logistics, street commerce, gentrification, public space improvement, and other social needs. The selected area for the design interventions is anchored along the trace of the former Viga Canal that runs from Xochimilco to La Merced Public Market, the former Central Market. In its way, the spine cross-registers a diverse range of popular neighborhoods, many of them still centered around the public markets serving them. Historically, this waterway was one of the main infrastructures supporting the supply of regionally grown fresh produce into the city. The spine connected the chinampas of Xochimilco (the centers of agricultural production in the south) with the central markets in the city center (the nodes of metropolitan produce distribution and consumption). As the city transformed its last rivers and streams into roads, the Viga Canal became a paved thoroughfare in the 1950s. Acknowledging the radical metamorphosis that Mexico City has undergone over time, the design proposals project alternate urban visions for this site. This entails studying the contemporary economies and ecologies along the spine in order to define a series of urban projects incorporating notions of the infrastructural, the domestic, and the public, and the trades among them. This publication is a synthesis of the entire semester, structured around three inter-related studies – research of existing conditions along the spine, study on relevant precedents, project formulation and design development. This involves a process of investigating temporal, spatial and experiential relationships in order to stage the formulation of new =urban visions while engaging in economic, cultural and ecological dimensions of place.

Introduction

Pablo Neruda, Confieso que he vivido.

The fall 2015 Urban Design Studio explores the diverse mechanisms of urban exchange sponsored by the everyday condition of public markets in Mexico City. From the larger footprints of the contemporary food systems, through the immediacy of the public market and its neighborhood adjacencies, as well as the notions of the typological and the temporal, the studio interrogates the potential of such urban infrastructures to generate new forms of urbanity.

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“Lo recorrí por años enteros de mercado a mercado... Porque México está en los mercados.”


Markets on Wheels National Chains

Public Market Local Supermarket

Tianguis International Chains

Central de Abastos Ambulantes

Convenience Store

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DELEGACIONES

RESIDENTS NGO COLONIA Neighborhood

MARKET

SCHOOL

CHURCH

UNIONS

SEDUVI

Civil Associations / Local Unions

Self initiated governing bodies by/for the people -division of profits Partnership with local unions for mutual benefits Markets, Ngos, Church, Residents, School, etc.

Secretary of Urban Development and Housing

12

Design, implement, coordinate urban policy Reclaim public space, reactivation, urban landscape, social housing. Mobility, self sustaining growth, conservation areas, land productivity

Secretary of Economic Development

SEDECO

General coordination between Delegaciones and other bodies: Social, economic development Job creation, investment support, business development, technical assistance. INVI

INFONAVIT

Housing Institute in Mexico City

Public Agency created to meet the housing needs of the low income residents (vulnerable and at risk ) through credit lines Programs also include support for upgrades and self-construction

National Housing Fund for Workers Workers’ housing, social housing-construction reduce costs, subsidies, bank loans, etc.


Public Markets

La Viga Spine

70,000 direct jobs 210,000 indirect jobs

The public markets represent: • 27% of all retail types, • 27% are shopping malls and • 46% other comercial areas.

77% of the public markets

are located in neighborhoods with a medium and low index of Social Development (IDS)

The investigations driving the cartographic studies interrogate the urban relationships between market, neighborhood, and the city at large. The maps focus on the construction of analytic and projective narratives along La Viga Spine, the larger area of study. The objective is to gain familiarity with the existing urban structures and local dynamics through the development of a series of collective cartographies. This section introduces an analytical framework to better operate at very different scales in the study of complex environments, using different techniques to observe, measure, and interpret the existing conditions. A Timeline reveals the very origins of the city as a place of exchange, and tracks the relevance of the system of public markets in both national and local policies of urban development. From that initial approach, the maps focus on the spine along the former La Viga canal, starting with an historical study tht reveals the traces of the canal when it functioned as a conveyor for the exchange of goods and transportation to the public markets situated along its course. From those historical accounts to its current condition, the studies also draw a relation between public and urban space to understand the increased privatization-commercialization of public spaces. By looking at the public markets at a subset of transportation intersections, the group assesses the efficiency of a market by inter-relating the pattern of mobility, accessibility and congestion. These nodes of intersection along the La Viga spine drew opportunities to study the housing typologies and types of markets while considering the socioeconomy, cultural and political framework of Mexico city .

Analytical Cartographies

329


Markets’ timeline in Mexico City Currency

Tianguis

Atenantitlan

Olmecs

Acolman

Azcapotzalco and Iztocan sold slaves.

Mesoamerica

Teotihuacans

Maya

Tlatelolco sold everything from basic foodstuffs, to slaves, to exotic items from distant lands to precious metals such as gold; glazed pottery, manufactured items from Spain.

Tenochtitlan

sold Jade, cotton, cacao and precious metals.

1951

sold salt.

sold dogs. Along the Mexican Plateau centered on the Valley of Mexico, whose lakes make transportation of goods easier using boats. Lake and canal transportation though La Lagunilla

1500

Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire

Lakes and canals remained the main way of get ting goods, especially agricultural products to market in the city.

Introduction of crops, animals and other merchandise from Europe.

50

Mercado de San Juan Tlatelolco

replaced

As early as 1541, indigenous peoples were growing, selling and consuming crops such as radishes, lettuce, pomegranates peaches, quince, apples and figs

Carpentry, pottery, canoe making, locksmithing, ironworkers ,tailors, bacon makers, shoemakers, bricklayers, bakers and bars selling pulque and much more.

1600 First regulatory step came in 1580, when grain producers were prohibited from selling directly to the market. Instead, they were required to sell to the colonial government, which then stored the grains in large warehouses called pósitos or alhóndigas to sell to the general market.

El Parían first formal market at Zocalo.

50

Santa Catarina and La Lagunilla included more fixed markets and more regulated tianguis which were established outside the Zocalo.

1700

The Portales de Mercaderes, the Portales las Flores and Portales la Diputacion,stores affixed to several of the main buildings surrounding the Zocalo.

El Baratillo

Built at Zocalo.

El Volador

the first market to be run similar to the tradition al retail markets of today. First market established off the Zocalo.

Riot 1692 against conde de Galve City fire

Colonial Period

50

1800

At the end of the colonial period , the market places of the city of Mexico were grouped into three categories: 1) corresponded to a core located in the Plaza Mayor, and El Parian , portals Merchants, Flowers, and The Council Volador . 2) fixed drawers and wooden stalls on the periphery , and in the squares of Santa Catarina Martir, the Cross and The Factor Vizcainas considered of secondary importance . 3) stretched in many squares and plazas on mats or in the shade , with no fixed positions , among them were the tianguis of Jesus, The Cal , Santa Ana, Carbonero, Burros, Mixcalco , Straw or Corn, located in what is now the corner of Pino Suarez Republic of Salvador.

San Juan or Iturbide

50

Porfirio Díaz This government took steps to begin to regulate and modernize the food distribution system by establishing official monopolies called tendajones or estanquillos.

The area was still along a major canal called La Viga, filled with docks to re ceive incoming merchandise to the city from Xochimilco, Chalco and Texcoco.

By 1887, there were nine main markets in the capital. In the north, there were the Santa Catarina, Santa Ana and Guerrero markets; in the south, the Mercado de San Juan; in the east La Merced and San Lucas and in the west Dos de Abril and San Cosme. By the end of the century, these were joined by the La Lagunilla market in 1893, the Loreto Market in 1889, and Martínez de la Torre in 1895.

La Lagunilla third biggest market after Parian and Volador The market absorbed . merchants from the closure of markets located in and near the main square, or Zocalo, of Mexico City.

1900 Mexican Revolution of 1910

Abelardo L. Rodriguez includes a theatre, library, day care center, school and two market sheds

La Merced

50 During the presidency cy of Adolfo López Mateos(1958-1964) eighty eight markets were constructed in Mexico City.

The government began to replace a number of markets, which were stalls made of wood and lamínate. Eighty eight markets were contructed in Mexico City. Mercados sobre ruedas (markets on wheels) was a concept implemented in 1969, to give agricultural producers a means to sell directly to consumers. The idea was that an association of producers could seek permission to sell their produce in a particular spot on a particular day of the week.

Sonora

Jamaica

La Nueva Viga

Independence to present

14

Mapping Analysis

Martinez de la Torre

sea food

Central de Abastos

Xochimilco Plant Market / Cuemanco flowers and plants

The Law, passed under the presidency of Miguel Alemán Valdez, recognized the public market as public utility. Under this legislative provisions, the Federal District Department was in charge their administration to promote affordable basic food basket, and increase the hygienic conditions in the basic access of food. Under Mayor Ernesto Uruchurtu Peralta tenure ( ), the city developed 180 public markets: Mercado de La Merced (as metropolitan distribution center), Mercado de San Juan (fish and seafood), Mercado de Sonora, Mercado de la Lagunilla and Mercado de Peralvillo, among others.

1952-66

The López Mateos presidency (19581964), established a national system

for food distribution to provide affordable staples for poor Mexicans and a market for farm produce. The strategy behind the institutionalization of the Public Markets was twofold: on one side, they were key infrastructures in the spatial configuration of the city center. On the other, they represented an equilibrium between the indigenous tradition of the tianguis and the wholesale markets. Through time, the public markets promoted a civic and institutional culture, highly visible and responsive across the geography of the city.

1980s

In the , the construction of new public markets is halted. This political decisión laid out a very uneven distribution of these public infrastructures in the áreas that were rapidly urbanizing at that time.

1997

In , a series of changes to this initial policy placed the public markets under the responsibility of the 16 Delegaciones. As such, these boroughs took competencies in the budget distribution for administration, operation, and conservation and maintenance of the public markets. More than 150 of the public markets have some historic value and heritage protection

2010

In , SEDECO initiated a process to regularize the ownership and monetary contributions of the sellers (14 pesos per sq m). This initiative aimed to update the census of owners, and ensure financial stability in the system.

2013

2000 Commercialization patterns for food and other staples were strongly influenced by the United States, with the introduction of concepts such as supermarkets and convenience stores. The current retail situation in Mexican cities varies widely. On one end, there are a myriad of small corner stores (called mesceláneas, expen dios de abarrotes or tienditas) and on the other are major supermarket and department chains such as Comercial Mexicana, Wal Mart, Liverpool and others.  These types of markets now account for eighty percent of food sales in Mexico City. 

In , Norm 29 is challenged in court. The regulation of proximity of public markets to other commercial areas gets dismissed.

2013

10

Norm 29 Policy for Protection and Promotion of the Public Markets in Mexico City, 2013-2018 La Merced project and city plans for market renewal

In , SEDECO launched the program focusing on the Policy for Protection and Promotion of the Public Markets in Mexico City, 2013-2018


transit,transect,transfOrMatiOn

tHe HistOry, anD transfOrMatiOn Of la viga canal la viga WitHin WatersHeD

LA VIGA CANAL The canal connected Xochimilco and Chalco with the central market in the city, La Merced, and was an important route in the transport of fresh produce from the Chinampas to the residents in the city. In 1840, Francisco Calderon de la Barca wrote about the canal: “The canal is surrounded by trees that project shadow on it. It takes to the chinampas, and it is always full of Indians on their boats, where they carry fruits, flowers and legumes to the market in Mexico. Early in the day, it is a beautiful spectacle to see their colorful boats floating in the canal.” In 1940, The canal was paved after decades of neglect. In 1998, during the administration of Elio Villasenor, the street up to Av. Santa Ana was recreated (a parallel drainage system of roughly 800 meters and a strip of canal for recreational purpose).

the canal connected Xochimilco and chalco with the central market in the city, la Merced, and was an important route in the transport of fresh produce from the chinampas to the residents in the city.

ZOcalO

a

XOcHiMilcO

la viga Dock (south san Pablo church)

a

fray servando tere sa de Mier

francisco calderon de la Barca wrote about the canal: the canal is surrounded by trees that project their shadow on it. it takes to the chinampas, and it is always full of indians on their boats, where they carry fruits, flowers and legumes to the market in Mexico. early in the day, it is a beautiful spectacle to see their colorful boats floating in the canal. the first steamboat that sailed through the canal was the Hope , 21 July 1850

Overall elevatiOn Of la viga canal

B

the overal elevation of De la viga is within the range of 2230-2255 meters. However, the lowest elevation happens near historic center in Mexico city D.f.

Garita de la viga viaducto rio de la Piedad

Present transect is showing the transect of current canals starting from av río churubusco to the end of Xochimilco. from the map it indicates the transformation of accessibility to canal, the bank types, vegetation types, elevation difference and public transportation engagement.

1855

in 1878 the first 8 miles of navigation were opened, thus altering the height of the bridges Pipis and Jamaica.

Present transect

c 1855

santa anita

B

1855 1880

1

ixtacalco

2

1880 1880 in 1901, the sculptures of the indios verdes were placed near the garita de la viga.

c

3

as part of the project for the national canal Drainage for the city, the government decides to close the canal. 1920

1910

san Juanico

4

1910

5

D 19101922

rivers in the city are piped as part of a large project of infrastructure. 6

eje 8 sur (av. Popocatepec) Mexicaltzingo 1922

8

The emergence of Mexico City was tied to the the search for a place of exchange and commerce. Since the city was surrounded by lakes, people used boats to transport goods: La Viga Canal was one of the most important routes to connect the areas of agricultural production to the central markets in the city. These markets were initially located near Zocalo, which is the central historic center in Mexico City. With markets and the city developing together, these urban infrastructures were located as neighborhood center to ensure basic provision of fresh food, and soon became neighborhood anchors. Presently, the city plans for renewal of the markets to revitalize the tradition.

5

3

9

10

1930 1930

e

6

7

f

8

11

e

4

During the administration of elio villasenor, the street up to av. santa ana was recreated (a parallel drainage system of roughly 800 meters and a strip of canal for recreational purpose)

f 11

9

antiguo canal de la viga 10

g

12

12

13

13

14

14

15

16

15

17 16

18

17

18

g

15

MARKETS’ TIMELINE IN MEXICO CITY (left page)

2

Mapping Analysis

D

1

1922

the canal is paved after decades of neglect.

HISTORIC LEGACY

1930

7


COMPLEX-CITY

MEXICO CITY: PUBLIC LIFE AND URBAN SPACE An trend affecting public life in the Mexico City is the increased privatisation and commercialisation of public spaces. Face to face interaction now mostly takes place in the new spaces of shopping malls and transport hubs. The amount of public space provided by the colonial plazas is becoming increasingly residential in comparison to the spaces created with premeditated functions in mind the most common of which is consumption. To an important extent, this predetermines the kinds of interaction and activities that take place within them. In addition, the fact that these spaces are characterised by constant surveillance and regulation of access means that they come to reinforce the rise of social exclusion in the city.

COMPLEX-CITY MEXICO CITY: PUBLIC LIFE AND URBAN SPACE

16

Mapping Analysis

Demographic expansion, urban sprawl, and fear of crime have resulted in the disintegration of the city traditional public spaces, now that have today a reduced significance in public life. Interaction within public spaces has been replaced by interaction through the placeless invisible links of radio, television, video, and the Internet. Many residents stay at home rather than use the city in their free time as a conscious effort to free themselves from the urban hubbub but also, very importantly, as the result of the unequal provision of open and green spaces as well as entertainment and cultural facilities. A trend affecting public life in the Mexico City is the increased privatization and commercialization of public spaces. Face to face interaction now mostly takes place in the new spaces of shopping malls and transport hubs. The amount of public space provided by the colonial plazas is becoming residential in comparison to the spaces created with premeditated functions in mind, the most common of which is consumption. To an important extent, this predetermines the kind of interaction and activity that take place within them. In addition, these spaces are characterized by constant surveillance and regulation of access, which means that they come to reinforce the rise of social exclusion in the city.

COMMERCIALISATION Privatisation and commercialisation of public spaces. Mercados Tianguis ( by organisation) Tianguis ( No organisation) Central comercial Departamental Store Public markets Markets on wheels


COMPLEX-CITY

MEXICO CITY: PUBLIC LIFE AND URBAN SPACE Demographic expansion, urban sprawl, and fear of crime have resulted in the disintegration of the city – traditional public spaces now have a reduced significance in public life. Interaction within public spaces has been replaced by interaction through the placeless invisible links of radio, television, video, and the internet. The majority of the inhabitants of Mexico City stay at home rather than use the city in their free time. They do so as a conscious effort to free themselves from the urban hubbub but also, very importantly, as the result of the unequal provision of open and green spaces as well as entertainment and cultural facilities.

COMPLEX-CITY

LINEAR PARKS

URBAN WILDERNESS

PARKING AREA COURTYARDS

SPORTS AREA

PARKING AREA COURTYARDS

SPORTS AREA LINEAR PARKS

Martires de Tlatelolco : Escuela Secundaria Tecnica 74 - Deposito La Viga

PUBLIC PARK

Jardin PeriodistasIlustres - Jardin Chiapas - Deportiva Venustiano Carranza

SQUARES

TYPES OF OPEN SPACES

Parque de las Rosas - Militar

MARKET

PARKING AREA

NEIGHBOURHOOD PARK

LINEAR PARKS

COURTYARDS

Xopa - Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social Soriana La Viga

PUBLIC SPACE + PUBLIC LIFE

TIANGUIS PARKING AREA

COURTYARDS WATER BODY

LINEAR PARKS TIANGUIS

COURTYARDS PARKING AREA

NEIGHBOURHOOD PARK SQUARES

CHINAMPAS

PARKING AREA

COURTYARDS

LINEAR PARKS SPORTS AREA

Mapping Analysis

SQUARES

Lago Acitlain - Parque Deportiva CTM Culhuacan - Reserva Ecologica de Chinampas

17

LINEAR PARKS

Croc Culhuacan Secc 6 - Hermoso Atardecer en la Capital - Aurelio Manrique 7 Presidentes Ejidales

PARKING AREA COURTYARDS

Valle del Sur - Editorial Paper de Mexico - Pochteca Papel

PUBLIC SPACE Traditional public spaces Squares and Plazas Linear Parks Courtyards Sports Areas Parks Public Parks Tianguis Lakes and Water Bodies Parking Lots


Mapping Analysis 18

MARKETS ALONG THE SPINE First planned as neighborhood centers in the 1950s, the public markets along the La Viga Spine continue to serve the residents in this popular section of the city. The analysis visualizes the market location and size, transit access, and the different administrative boundaries that coexist in the area. As the spine transverses different Delegaciones, the map indexes the diverse demographics conditions theconnected by this line.


Mapping Analysis

LOCATION, MOBILITY & ACCESSIBILITY The focus of the study is to analyze the the patterns of mobility and access around the public markets, as they are key indicators in the level of connectivity and overall efficiency of these infrastructures. The data about the mobility, accessibility, and the rate of congestion obtained in the study will inform the future development of the urban projects in the selected markets along the spine.

19

PUBLIC MARKETS AT URBAN INTERSECTIONS


20

Mapping Analysis

HOUSING TYPOLOGIES ALONG THE CANAL The residential typologies reflect different density capacities, and formal relationships of built versus void. The different spatial arrangement at the parcel and block level define different models of aggregation and relationships between the private domestic spaces and the collective space around

MARKETS TYPOLOGIES ALONG THE CANAL The public markets along the Spine are identified as special or traditional types. Special markets sell only typical kind of goods like cloths or vegetables, whereas traditional markets sell all types of local products. The density of tianguis were noted based on its intensity from goggle earth along with the availability of parking provided around the market. All these public markets are located in neighborhoods with lower middle income households.


21

Mapping Analysis

HOUSING & MARKET TYPOLOGIES ALONG THE CANAL


Amsterdam Canals, Netherlands Market Hall in Netherlands Superblock of Gracia, Barcelona, Spain Riverwalk, San Antonio, US

Previ in Lima, Peru

Architecture and open space in Sao Paulo, Brazil

Culture, urban systems and the contemporary neighborhood

Market Types

Water as a driver for urban revitalization

Incremental Housing

Open Public Space

22

Incremental housing in Chile


Cheonggyecheon, Seoul, South Korea Markets and Urban public spaces in Delhi, India

Taipei Night Market, Taiwan

Huaqiangbei Rd and OCT Loft in Shenzhen, China

The selected precedent studies showcase relevant notions for the semester investigations: the issues of temporality associated to commercial uses in the city, the capacity of water to revitalize former industrial areas, the interaction of public open spaces with architecture while negotiating the cultural and neighborhood legacy, and the nature of incremental housing and synergies of different kinds of market.

Precedent Studies

Hafen City in Hamburg, Germany


Temporal Transformations in Public Space

8:00 am

10:00 am

1:00 pm

5:00 pm

Urban Public Spaces in Delhi: "Shami Bazaar" Public Space is a dichotomous arena in Delhi. It serves and it is owned by the lower and upper middle-classes differently. Thus, it creates and becomes the “in-between space� that does not conform to the utopian ideals of planners and policy makers. It forms links between various social strata and plays a significant role in the functioning of the city.

CRITIQUE

24

Precedent Studies

Street regulations cannot take place in a vacuum. Their effects need to be shaped by existing structures of power and current arrangements of space and imaginaries of the city. These may differ from place to place within the city, because each place has its own unique characteristics. Especially because street vendors together form a very organic market, significantly important for the city and its public.

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday


Saturday

Sunday

LOWER INCOME GROUPS Source of livehood for the vendors salary: Rs 30-50 (US$ 0.20 - 0.80) National Street Vendors ‘Act of India’ 2014 >>> FORMAL RECOGNITION Place of transit MIDDLE AND UPPER CLASSES

DELHI, STREET MARKETS AND PUBLIC SPACE

Friday

10:00 pm

Precedent Studies

Thursday

8:00 pm

25

6:00 pm


Architecture and Public Spaces

26

Precedent Studies

Lessons from Sao Paulo


"Over the past 50 years, São Paulo’s architects have developed a distinctive concrete modernism that is at once monumental and intimate – solid as a fortress, but inviting everybody in. Among the city’s endless skyscrapers, it has resulted in some of the liveliest public spaces on Earth."

MASP | Lina Bo Bardi, 1946-1947

Casa de Vidro by Lina Bo Bardi, 1950-1951

São Paulo Library / Aflalo and Gasperini Architects, 2010

27

Victor Civita Plaza / Levisky Arquitetos Associados, 2006

CENTRE OF ART AND EDUCATION OF PIMENTAS| Cultural Centres Guarulhos, SP, Brazil

Red Bull arts centre by Triptyque,2014

Precedent Studies

Museu Brasileiro de Escultura (MuBE) / Paulo Mendes da Rocha,1995

SAO PAULO CULTURAL SPACES

The SESC Pompéia by Bo Bardi, 1977–86

The Praça das Artes by Brasil Arquitetura, completed in 2012


Elemental Incremental Housing “To settle the 100 families of the Quinta Monroy, in the same 5,000 sqm site that they have illegally occupied for the last 30 years which is located in the very center of Iquique, a city in the Chilean desert. We had to work within the framework of the current Housing Policy, using a US$ 7,500 subsidy with which we had to pay for the land, the infrastructure and the architecture. Considering the current values in the Chilean building industry, US$ 7,500 allows for just around 30 sqm of built space.” References: "Quinta Monroy / Elemental" 31 Dec 2008. www.archdaily.com/10775/quintamonroy-elemental/

Chile

X Quinta Monroy Project

Other Completed Elemental Project

http://www.elementalchile.cl

H

H

Low Cost Housing

Z

(Incremental Housing)

http://www.logoschilevector.cl

2000 Alejandro Aravena, Andres Iacobelli, & Pablo Allard meet at Harvard. Elemental founded

01

02

Chile’s new social housing policy (VISDU), leads to Elements Frist built project

03 Quinta Monroy project begins

04

http://www.oas.org

Families move in to Quinta Monroy

05

to the Quinta Monroy model

06 Update to VISDU including higher standards

07

08

Owners occupy Lo Espejo project,

Owners occupy Pudahuel project,

Partnership with

Precedent Studies

Arauco forestry company housing concepts

10 Elemental completes project in Monterrey, Mexico

11

12 Elemental develops master plan for Calama for copper company Codelco

Chile

Universidad Catolica

28

09

Affordable- Incremental Housing • Self- Help • Based on the fluctuating wages of the lower income society • Creates a community • Future sustainable material and housing

Site and development

Temporary

Deteriorates

Overcrowding


Experimentation and analysis Architects: Elemental Alejandro Aravena, Alfonso Montero, Tomás Cortese, Emilio de la Cerda Engineering: Juan Carlos de la Llera & José Gajardo. Execution Time: 9 months Client: Gobierno regional de Tarapacá / Programa Chile-Barrio, Chile. Budget: US $204 /sqm Constructed Area: 3500 sqm

x

x

Narrow House types , 3m wide Blind Rooms/walkthrough rooms = OVERCROWDING

All 100 families in a Tower First thing to collapse in earthquake and again homeless. Strict opposition.

x 1 house = 1 family = 1 lot ( Just 32 units) 1 house = 1 family = 1 lot ( Just 32 units) Isolated type unable to gaurantee harmonic growth

References: 1. Diego Hernandez. "ELEMENTAL: Incremental Housing and Participatory Design Manual," 2012. 2. Incremental Housing: the Chilean experience. by Margarita Greene Z. Facultad de Arquitectura, Diseño y Estudios Urbanos Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile

Design Construction / Budget

Designed Spaces and its transformation over time

29

Precedent Studies

ELEMENTAL

Strategy for Individual housing : Stacking Blocks 6m x 6m in a 9m sq


PREVI - El Proyecto Experimental de Vivienda de Lima Experimental Housing PREVI was a product of international competition held for devising the solution of housing problem in Lima, Peru under the reign of President Fernando Belaunde (architect) in 1966. Many international Architects and Peruvian Architects participated in this competition held in conjunction with United Nations. Some of the Architects participated were James Stirling, Aldo van Eyck, Charles Correa, Christopher Alexander, Etc. All the Architects designed proto-types for Low-Cost Housing.

KIkutake, Kuro Kawa, Maki

30

Precedent Studies

The Concept of experimental low-cost housing was taken further into incremental development by the residents of this project, which was later looked upon as an inspirational project for the development of other neighborhoods of Lima. This project turned out to be very successful in fulfilling the the growing needs of the community staying in this neighborhood. PREVI turned out to be the platform for a change in typical housing unit. 14 Architects were chosen and their designs and typologies were made a part of whole master plan of PREVI, instead of just one Prototype. The design and the typologies not just proved as appropriate prototypes, but these epitomized the beginning of a framework for expansion in Lima.

References: El Tiempo Construye: Time Builds! The Experimental Hosing Project (PREVI) Lima: Gensis and outcome) GG Paperback – 2008

Aldo van Eyck

Montagne, Morales

Esquerra, Saenz, Samper, Urdaneta

Llanos, Mazzari


PREVI was designed taking the population growth of Lima into consideration, addressing the idea of LOWCOST HOUSING through simple, prefabricated construction methods. The selected Architects designed the housing typologies for the further expansion required by the families which would reside. The growth was imagined to be incremental. The families would expand their houses according to their needs. In doing so, the construction methods used in the first phase catered for this growth.

Heights of Structures in 1978

Heights of Structures in 2003 after incremental expansion

CRITIQUE

Amenities Layout

Housing Typology Layout

Precedent Studies

With all, the Proto-Types, designed by various architects, could have been placed distributed more organically instead of clustered together with a great deal of rigidity.

PREVI

PREVI inspired many projects in various neighborhoods of Lima similarly responding to the needs to accommodate a population explosion at the time.

31

PREVI proved to be an ideal approach to the growing population in Lima creating a typology for Incremental Housing., and addressing a flexible model for continuous growth.


32

ZHEN ZHONG ROAD

ZHEN HUA ROAD

HUA QIANG ROAD

Electronics Museum

Food Market

CROSS SECTION F - CATWALK ARENA

ZHEN XING ROAD

HONG LI ROAD

HUA QIANG ROAD

Night Life

CROSS SECTION E - FASHION CENTER

NO EIGHT ROAD

Spa / Pool

Fashion Center

Precedent Studies Catwalk Aren--a

HUA QIANG ROAD

ZHONG HANG ROAD

SHEN NAN ROAD

ZHEN ZHONG ROAD

ZHEN HUA ROAD

ZHEN XING ROAD

Culture Revitalization

Hua Qiang Bei Road and OCT Loft in Shenzhen HUA FA BEI ROAD


Catwalk Catwalk ArenaAren--a

Night LifeLife Night

Catwalk Aren--a

Night Night Life Life

Catwalk Aren--a

N

BEFORE

N

AFTER

LEGEND

Residential

Industrial

Art studios &offices

Art exhibitions

Restaurant, cafe & bars

Retails

Fashion Center

Food Market

Fashion Center Fashion Center

Food Market Food Market Food Market

Fashion Center

Residential Industrial Art studios &offices Art exhibitions Restaurant, cafe & bars Retails

Spa / Pool Spa / Pool

N 0

20

100M

40

Spa / Pool Spa / Pool

N

LEGEND FOR HQB ROAD 20

40 lantern

100M

Electronics Museum

CROSS SECTION E - FASHION CENTER

Electronics Museum Electronics Museum Electronics Museum

existing building LEGEND FOR HQB newROAD building

lantern be renewed apartment existing building ancillary service architecture be added new building 3D-corridor for public space

33

apartment be renewed agricultural &ecological space ancillary service sinked squarebe & added architecture ramp to underground space 3D-corridor for public space taxi & bus station agricultural &ecological 3D-parking space sinked square & ramp to underground space semi-underground parking taxi & bus station 3D-parking semi-underground parking

Night Life

N 0

20

40

CROSS SECTION E - FASHION CENTER

Precedent Studies

0

CROSS SECTION E - FASHION CENTER

HUA QIANG AND OCT LOFT

N

BEFORE

LEGEND

100M

Night Life

References: http://image.baidu.com http://www.octloft.cn/map_type/shopping http://www.zhubo.com/project/?type=type&typename=1&d=33

Night Life LEGEND FOR HQB ROAD

lantern existing building


Superblock of Gracia Sustainable Neighborhood The concept of Superblock has been revisited in Barcelona as a way to create a more accessible pedestrian city, and to construct a more sustainable aboveground transport network.

34

Precedent Studies

The Mobility Plan has increased the availability and accessibility of public space in the District of Gracia (Barcelona) through the introduction of two Supeblocks, drafted by the Agencia de Ecologia Urbana and director Salvador Rueda Palenzuela. The superblocks represent a new model of mobility and public space in Gràcia, and have improved the livability and functionality of the district.

References: 1. BCNECOLOGIA, www. bcnecologia.net (maps and diagrams) 2. ITDP - Europe’s parking U-turn: From accommodation to regulation, Micheal Kodransky and Gabrielle Hermann, Spring 2011 (images of street under “phasing" ).


Walkability The Superblock units are made up of a grid of basic roads forming a polygon, some 400 by 400 metres, with both interior and exterior components to serve the flow of people and goods. The interior (intervĂ­a) is closed to the majority of motorized vehicles and above ground parking, and gives preference to pedestrian traffic in the public space. In this new scenario, citizens also have access to public green spaces within a walking distance of 200 meters or less.

Pattern of mobility

Public open space

The outer perimeter of the Superblock is where motorized traffic circulates.

System of flows: 1. Primary circulation 2. Secondary circulation 3. Existing parking lots 4. Proposed parking 5. Density of activities 6. Re-configured circulation

1

2

3

4

5

6

A. Restriction of vehicle access inside superblocks. Dedicated pedestrian and bicycle paths. B. Re-defining underutilized spaces. Implementation of new public space project. Infilling informal activities to residents to participate. C. Unified section streets. Removal of visitor ground level parking spaces inside superblocks. Urban vegetation and furniture.

35

Precedent Studies

SUPERBLOCK

Phasing

A

B

C


Market Hall The market at home The Market Hall is a sustainable combination of food, leisure, living and parking, fully integrated to celebrate and enhance the synergistic possibilities of the different functions. A secure, covered square emerges beneath an arc, conceived as an inversion of a typical market square and its surrounding buildings. During the day it serves as central market hall, after hours the hall becomes an enormous, covered, well lit public space. Client: Provast Nederland, The Hague. Netherlands Funding: Allowing private investment, primarily developer Provast. Program: 100,000m, 228 apartments, 100 fresh market produce stalls, food related retail units, preparation and cooling pace, supermarket, 1.200 parking spaces. References: http://www.mvrdv.nl/projects/ markethall Spatial Strategy:

Parking and loading only takes place underground which means that the building has no back side.

36

Precedent Studies

On level - 1, a supermarket for all additional shopping.

The loading and distribution take place underground, so that at ground level, Market can be accessed from all sides.


Laurenskerk (church) Outdoor market (on Tuesday and Saturday)

Rotterdampas (a business company)

Market Hall (construction)

Precedent Studies

MARKET HALL

Station Rotterdam Blaak

37

Rotterdampas (a business company)


Taiwan's Night Market Shilin Night Market Sprawl

38

Precedent Studies

Shilin Night Market Operates Different Times

References: http://castor0605.pixnet.net/blog/post/71217067 http://jasonblog.tw/2014/02/history-of-shi-lin-market-in-taipei.html http://yule.dsjjns.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/ĺ?°ćšž3.jpg


Shilin Night Market Spatial Strategy

Spatial Type of Shilin Night Market

TAIWAN NIGHT MARKETS

MTR Station

Store Commercial

Shilin Night Market Operates Different Times

39

Activity Flow

Street Commercial

Precedent Studies

Stalls

Streets as Connection

References: http://mw2.google.com/mw-panoramio/photos/medium/6509139.jpg https://www.pinterest.com/pin/443252788299947269/ http://space.putao.com.tw/putao/listChatReply.do?pageNo=1&post.id=58328


Canals as Open Spaces Historically canals were of immense importance to commerce and the development, growth and vitality of a civilization. Modern canals are a mere remnant of the numbers that once fueled 17th– 20th century industries and economies. The surviving canals today primarily service only bulk cargo and large ship transportation industries, whereas the once critical inland boat and barge canals have largely been supplanted, initially by faster and cheaper to maintain railways, later by using the flexibility and slope climbing capability of lorries. In recent decades, due to the scarcity of water in many cities, canals have become treasured places which contain surface water. Many cities start to work on revitalizing canals by using different techniques and turn those post industrial sites into open spaces.

RiverWalk, San Antonio, Texas U.S

40

Precedent Studies

5.2 km

Canals Amsterdam, Netherland

HafenCity, Hamburg, Germany

100+ km

4 km

A network of walkways along the banks of the San Antonio River, one story beneath the streets of Downtown San Antonio. The River Walk winds and loops under bridges as two parallel sidewalks lined with restaurants and shops.

Grachten were the life-lines of Dutch and Flemish cities. They were used for many purposes: for transportation, for draining, for water-winning and as sewers, all at the same time.

HafenCity Hamburg is a project of cit warehouses of Hamburg are being repla official buildings, and residential areas. can be flooded in certain time to deal w

References: www.rantlifestyle.com

References: www.bezienswaardigheden.be ; Fidderengosink.nl

References: Commons.wikimedia.org ; www.kcap.e


Cheonggyecheon, Soeul, Korea

ty-planning where the old port aced with offices, hotels, shops, The first floor of all warehouses with climate change.

An abandoned factory site are turned into an eco-friendly development which combines dense layout with green space, includes permeable paving and waterways which provide natural flood control and a lake which filters rainwater.

The massive urban renewal project is on the site of a stream that flowed before the rapid post-war economic development required it to be covered by transportation infrastructure.

eu

References: www.landezine.com

References: landscapeiskingston.wordpress.com

CANAL AS OPEN SPACE

10.9 km

Precedent Studies

0.2 km

41

Arkadien Winnenden Berlin, Germany


1

2

3

4

42

5

6 1 1 km

2 km 2 km


Paulino Romero

3

2

Design Proposals

1

Apatlalco

3

2

3

4

El Verde

1

3

2

4

3

2

5

2

3

3

5

6

4

3

1

Hueso Periferico

4

3

2

5

6 4

4 5

6

Students build on the initial research and formulate 6 urban eight different proposal centered around the public markets as urban infrastructure, for six different markets along La Viga Spine.

5

Villa Coapa

3 3

Through the development of these urban visions, students engage the economic, cultural and ecological dimensions of place, and speculate on the actors and strategies of urban development to advance each 6 scheme.

3

4

5

5

6 4

6

5 Xochimilco

6

5

Each of the proposals include: 1. A multi-scalar urban strategy of integration in the metropolitan system.; 2. The definition of units of intervention, with emphasis on the articulation of urban blocks and building typologies, and the relationship of the residential component with the local 
urban infrastructures. 3. The programmatic and performative considerations. 4. Identification of stakeholders and implementation strategies.

6


TIE-IN Mercado Apatlaco

44

Precedent Studies

As per the legacy, public markets are representative of social and cultural narrative that defines the lifestyle and history of the city. They act as neighborhood anchors and basic service providers. Tie-in proposes a redefinition and rearrangement of this urban unit.


Define

Open spaces

The intervention capitalizes on the friction and negotiation between the existing adjacencies on the project; - La Viga, the main street and the unit (M + O) - the public market and school (M + S) - shops and streets (M + O) - private market and housing (M+ H)

Identify

Re-configuration

Connectors

Urban programs

Radii of influence

Step I

TIE-IN

Re-configuration of circulation

Step II Re-definition of public market

Design Proposals

The site has a mix of public and private markets, and other social and institutional facilities like the school and the church. The project focuses on the interfaces of these different public uses. and maintains the varying scales of open spaces on site.

The site lies on the periphery of two Delegaciones, separate administrative units, with very different natures and and explores opportunities to re-establish the market as a centrality and re-define the relationships among the programs on site.

45

The project positions the public market and school as a local centrality and reinvigorates their relationship with the surrounding housing, open spaces and private markets in the neighborhood. By doing so, the proposal revisits the 1950s legacy where the public market was the center of the neighborhood life.

Step III Re-densification of housing


Step 1: Re-configuration of the perimeter circulation. The presence of public and private markets adds to the congestion pedestrian and vehicular flow. The pedestrianization of the street gives a different character to the street. The implementation of urban furniture to host new temporary and ephemeral

programs learn from existing uses operating in the public spaces: from Tianguis to seasonal or religious celebrations, the intervention accommodates the soft infrastructures to serve them. The proposal connect with La Viga through a forested threshold that acts as an inhabited buffer between the noisy main street and the pedestrianized axis. The current parking lot in the site is placed underground, offering the retailers air rights and re-zonning for this contribution where-in urban housing can be proposed as well.

46

Design Proposals

Temporality


47

Design Proposals

TIE-IN

Experimentation and analysis

Program diagram Public market


Step 2: Identifying the two main anchors of the urban unit: the relationship between the public market and the school. This adjacency is negotiated through a buffer of programs that serve the public market, the school and also to the surrounding neighborhood. SEDECO and INVI are in charge of the development of the affordable housing in the parcel of public market. The rental housing creates a sustainable economic model for the maintenance of the public market. The current character of the public market is enhanced by redefining the circulation within and around, and improving the current building condition.

48

Design Proposals

A series of nested public plazas act as buffer between the market and the pedestrian street thus subduing the congestion at such intense nodes and junctions.

Program diagram

Souvenir shop Meat shop Fruits/ veggies

Public market Affordable housing Shared open space

Grocies

Ground floor plan Open space Circulation Adajacencies

Spatial diagram


49

Design Proposals

TIE-IN


Step 3: Implementation of housing. The proposed partnership between private and public agencies aims to create a variety of housing types in the area. The proposal includes a mix of affordable and market housing to balance the goals of diversity and inclusion in the neighborhood. It also serves the needs of the majority of lower and middle income population in this area of the city. The open space between the existing retail and new proposed housing act as a buffer and a value addition to the private market.

Eateries

Fruits/ veggies Grocery Restaurant

Program diagram Public market Affordable housing Shared open space

Open space Circulation Adajacencies

Ground floor plan

50

Design Proposals

Spatial diagram


51

Design Proposals

TIE-IN


Public, Connected and Inclusive Reclaiming Public Space in the Fragmented City The Mercado Villa Coapa is located in a residential area designed to host the athletes’ in the 1968 Olympics, and later repositioned as popular housing to serve the needs of a growing urban population. Over time, the area has witnessed the development of suburbanlike commercial islands interspersed in a sea of popular housing, increasing the sense of car dependency and isolation. Together with this spatial configuration, the surrounding areas are further characterized by low-income households, and suffer from high-crime and unemployment rates.

Mercado Villa Coapa

Connection Experience Studies JAMAICA

Concerntration Integration of Multii-uses Self-regulation of Multi-levels Adaptable Unit

Governance SAN JUANICO

Design Proposals

VILLA COAPA

52

As Public transportation nodes As Public Service Center As Cultural / Community Activity Center

Self-Governance Self- Adjustment Long-term Capital Market


PUBLIC, CONNECTED AND INCLUSIVE

Vehicle Flow Distance bus, social motor vehicle, bus and taxi Pedestrian Flow Path system for pedestrian

Non-vehicle Flow Bicycle-pedestrian shared paths and Barrier-free facility for disabled

Underground parking

Community Center +0 Along with social onnections, +1 cencouraging programs

offered by community groups, senior centers, colleges

Community library +0 Including art gallery, room and out+1 reading door plaza exhibition. +2 Primary carrier of grass public cultural service system

Coworking space +1 The social gathering of a group of people +2 who are still working but ++ independently, who share values

Affordable rental housing +1 -+10

Offering subsidiary rental houses/public rental housing aimed at different lowincome groups

53

-1 Isolating noise parking and improving -2 environment for -3 public open space

Market & Management Office a new +0 Creating commerce +1 community model +2

Design Proposals

Entrance Main Entrance of Different Circulation

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3

Phase 4


54

Design Proposals


+ Public Space

55

Design Proposals

+ Semi-public Space

PUBLIC, CONNECTED AND INCLUSIVE

+ Connection

+ Private Space

Through the redevelopment of the publicly owned market site, the design proposes a model of public-private investment to finance a suite of public facilities, commercial uses and mix-income housing. The intervention gives visibility to the public programs serving the surrounding areas- including a modernized public market, a community center and library-, leveraging profit through additional programs, and leaving the public grounds open and adaptable to serve the many manifestations of public life in the metropolis. By investing in social infrastructure, this catalytic project explores a sustainable model that ambitions to bring back the livability of public space by reinventing the model of public market.


56

Design Proposals


PUBLIC, CONNECTE AND INCLUSIVE Design Proposals 57

24-HOUR CITY As an alternative public space for people to enjoy together in the dense city. In the night, the pedestrian bridge, connecting with the open activity space, classroom(office space), catering area(night market), and library could turn to be a community night college. Seasonal change, day to night, cultural events and the spontaneity of different persons enjoying the park amenities are intended to allow familiar, but changing experiences.


Culture Connector Mercado El Verde The public markets were designed to act as centers of the neighborhood, providing basic fresh produce and driving a lively cultural life. Over time, these urban facilities became part of a strong network of public facilities, spreading these cultural activities to the streets, the open spaces, and permeating the residential fabric around.

Boundary determination

Framework

Design Proposals

Environment analysis

58

Implementation strategy

Center

Distribution

Spread


Financing: Delegacion; Land agent; SEDECO; School; SEDUVI Return: Selling or renting books; Increased educational opprtunities for residents

S1 through the school and the public market

59

Public market + Theater & apartment & underground parking Financing: SEDUVIL; SEDECO; Land agent; Partner with the private; Return: Selling tickets and advertising; Opening training classes; Selling or renting apartments; Improving the convenience and competition of market.

Design Proposals

CULTURE CONNECTIONS

Public market + Dining hall & Library

S2 through tower and market


PASSAGE BETWEEN THE PUBLIC MARKET AND THE LIBRARY The market and the school are not separated now. The building with dining hall and library connects the two institutions. The market is able to provide the meal for students, and the library improves the competition and diversity of market. The market opens to the street and people can buy what they want conveniently. The public passage encourages people to communicate, creating an additional opportunity for social interaction.

YARD BETWEEN THE

60

Design Proposals

SCHOOL AND THE LIBRARY In the school yard, students can exercise and play. The library provides a quiet place for students and residents to read. The pocket garden in the street could provide the space for people to sit, chat, eat and do other activities, and the additional right of way gained for pedestrians serve the people more comfortably and safer. The tower behind the market provide a new landmark for the neighborhood, adding cultural activities that expand in to the open space around and activate this new community center.


61

Design Proposals

CULTURE CONNECTIONS


Public Markets as magnets, exchanging as catalyst Reimagining the Markets along La Viga Spine Opportunities

Activities Connections

62

Design Proposals

Proposed Phases


The proposal recovers the role of La Viga canal as cultural corridor, a spine that transverses a rich collection of neighborhoods with strong cultural traditions and a diverse social base. By carefully selecting a subset of public markets along the spine, and activating one at a time, the proposal reveals dormant relationships between these civic infrastructures and public life along the spine. The investment in these nodes of local activity is complemented by interventions in the public realm through programming and the incorporation of different landscape typologies along the line. For the careful observer, the legacy of the La Viga Canal is still present in the urban landscapes along the Spine. The water landscapes that the Canal Nacional carries in the south, churches and small monuments, commercial areas, street names, and the rich tree canopy in some sections on the north, they all hint at former adjacencies and relationships today lost amidst the busy thoroughfare. The public markets along the spine are also a living memory of this system; for decades, La Viga canal served as a conduit for the delivery of fresh produce from the fertile chinampas of Xochimilco and Chalco.

Mercado Hueso Periferico 102 Locales

63

Mercado Xochimilco Zona 447 Locales

Design Proposals

Mercado Prado Churubusco 117 Locales

MARKETS AS MAGNETS, EXCHANGING AS CATALYST

Mercado Paulino Navarro 110 Locales

Proposed Concept


A Living Market Mercado Paulino Navarro The Mercado Paulino Navarro was once the entrance of the historic La Viga Canal. Today, a small monument marks this hidden memory of water amidst the contemporary flow of traffic that took its place. Also portraying the nostalgia of past times, the market lies barely half-occupied, and suffers from competition from other market types, both formal and informal. The design proposal rebuilds the Mercado and adds a series of public programs and housing types. The new public market becomes a community center—a reference for public gathering, a multi-functional market able to coexist with other market types thanks to modernized facilities, and a large house accommodating a diverse range of residents.

64

Design Proposals

Together with the intervention in the market, the proposal redefines the public spaces around the market and gains presence in a redesigned La Viga Canal.

Programs inserted in second phase

Existing programs Programs inserted in first phase

Programs inserted in third phase


Rooftops for roof gardens (House and rooftop actors: private developmers and international developers)

Balconies for public engagement (Mid income housing actors: SEDUVI, private developers)

Rooftops for Market restaurants (Market and restaurant actors: Market, market union, SEDECO)

260 m2 housing

(2 units) + 228 m2 housing

170 m2 housing 3 units

82 m2 housing 6 units

Design Proposals

RESTAURANT, OFFICE, DAY CARE CENTER

PUBLIC MARKET

UNDERGROUND PARKING

65

Day care center actors: School, market, surrounding neighborhood, Delegacion

A LIVING MARKET

170 m2 housing (2 units) + 150 m2 housing


66

Design Proposals


67

Design Proposals

A LIVING MARKET


68

Design Proposals


A LIVING MARKET Design Proposals 69 Mercado Paulino Navarro performs as a gateway to the cultural route from Zocalo to Xochimilco. The new market will become both a public market with multi programs and a community center where people could live and work, buy and sell, learn and rest. The proposal increases the permeability of the market towards the street: vendors will sell products on both sides of the market entrance, also serving as a welcoming point of entry to the neighborhood. The rooftop will be used as outdoor eating space. When have meals on top of the market, tourists and residents could view the whole spine landscape, and also the cityscape. Ephemeral activities are also part of the design process. Public open spaces can be occupied by tianguis in certain times of the day. Daycare center could also move out and enjoy the outdoor landscape.


Vertical Grounds for Play Mercado Hueso PerifĂŠrico Mercado Hueso PerifĂŠrico is adjacent to Canal National, one of the few moments in which water still renders visible in the City, and lies in close proximity to Mercado de Cuemanco, the largest flower market in Latin America. The area has also an important presence of institutions as UNAM and the Institute of Marine, and a robust residential fabric. Despite the diverse composition of the area, the market is on the verge of deterioration after decades of disinvestment, and the changing patterns of consumption of the residents. The design intervention defines a prototype of Vertical Garden that displays alternative models of Urban Agriculture, building on the green campaign raised by the residents of this area to satisfy the need of accessible fresh local produce.

70

Design Proposals

Congestion

Green and Parking Spaces

Amenities

Transit


PROGRAM STACKING STRATEGY

Restaurant and Viewing Deck Private Ownership

Artist Studio and Art Gallery Private Ownership

Rental Housing Public Ownership

Vertical Garden and Agro Experimentation Laboratory Public and Private Ownership

Vertical Garden and Day-care Center

Public Ownership

Design Proposals

Public Market, Cafe, Shops and Internet Bars

VERTICAL GROUNDS FOR PLAY

Public and Private Ownership

71

The design acts as a vertical container of public spaces and programs including the market area, cafes, a day-care center, and an artist gallery for the community to invite creative minds to engage the art in combination with the nature.


Boulevard along the Canal Private Housing

Public Enclosures Temporary Structures

Mercado de Plantas

Bridge

72

Design Proposals

Plaza


Rental Housing Festivity Ground

Community Garden

Proposed Vertical Urban Grounds

73

Design Proposals

VERTICAL GROUNDS FOR PLAY

Community Garden and Plaza


VIEW FROM THE STREET

74

Design Proposals

Together, the whole proposal brings back the character of public spaces with linkage of series of green open spaces and connection with the canal.

OPEN SPACE IN THE GROUND LEVEL


75

Design Proposals

VERTICAL GROUNDS FOR PLAY


Culture Incubator Mercado Xochimilco Zona Located in the historic center of Xocimilco, the public market signals the south end of La Viga Spine. In 2003, UNESCO declared Xochimilco a World Heritage Site in recognition to the legacy of the chinampas, “one of the most productive and sustainable agricultural systems in the world.”

EXSITING

MARKET

SCHOOL MARKET

SCHOOL OPEN SPACES

CHURCH

HARBOR CHURCH

HARBOR

40%

10%

EXSITING HOUSING

HOUSING

WATER

MARKET

CHURCH

MONUMENTCOMMUNITY Parking

FORMALIZE FORMAL CULTURE CULTURE OPEN SPACES ROAD SYSTEM TIANGU TIANGUIS Low Congesion

MULTI-GENERATION HYGIENE RULES PROGRAM ART EXIBITION

ART EXIBITION CULTURAL ROUTE

CULTURAL

Canal

HOUSING

WATER Canal

INTERNET SYSTEM WATER PURIFICATION INCREMENTAL PARKING HOUSING

PARKING

INCREME HOUSI

School Tianguis

Church

CULTURE PEDESTRIAN

FORMALIZE TIANGUIS PEDESTRIAN

Hotel / Motel Trajineras

WATER ELEMENTS PEDESTRIAN

Restaurants / Cafes

Major Roads Metro/Literail Line

ART EXIBITION

CULTURAL ROUTE

Canal

Urbanization Cultural Elements

98%

Urbanization Accessibility

95%

PARKING

Urbanization Congesion

98%

Design Proposals

Canal

Canal School

76

Tianguis

Church Hotel / Motel Trajineras Restaurants / Cafes

Major Roads Metro/Literail Line Canal

10%

INTERNET SYSTEM INTERNET SY WATER WATER PURIFICATION PROPOSAL PURIFICATION WATER

WATER ELEMENTS PEDESTRIAN WATER ELEMENTS PEDESTR

Parking

40%

ROAD SYST

HARBOR

Green Scape

Green Parking

SPACES ROADOPEN SYSTEM

Medium Congesion

Metro/Literail station Major Pasero Roads/ Bus Stop Metro/Literail Line Canal High Congesion

Urban Green

PROPOSAL

Major Roads Metro/Literail Line SCHOOL Canal High Congesion

Green Scape

The intervention recognizes the vibrancy and fragility of the market area, and develops a two-fold strategy: (1) build on existing local culture to increase the programmatic offer and transform the tourist base, and (2) transform of the public space network to reorganize traffic flows and reconnect with the local cultural waterscapes. Green Parking

PROPOSAL Existing

MULTI-GENERATION HYGIENE MULTI-GENERATION RULES HYGIENE R PROGRAM PROGRAM MONUMENTCOMMUNITYMONUMENTCOMMUNITY

The Mercado de Xochimilco plays an important role in this productive urban waterscape: the flowers and vegetables cultivated in the chinampas populate the stalls in the market, attracting local residents and tourists alike. A must-see stop in the touristic visits to the canals, the market concentrates most of the economic activity in the area, and its surroundings suffer from most congestion all day long.

Urban Green

EXSITING Existing

Urbanization Cultural Elements

98%

Urbanization Accessibility

95%

Urbanization Congesion

98% Metro/Literail station Pasero / Bus Stop

PEDESTRIAN

Medium Congesion

Low Congesion

INCREMENTAL HOUSING


Art studio as an culture intervention.

Use a landscape spine to link trajineras.

Trajinera

Culture Intervention

Trajinera

Culture Intervention

The spine connect the open spaces.

Add parking garage, retails, hotels, offices and other affiliations.

Entrance to Trajineras

Open Spaces

Grass Lawn

Affiliations

Water Monument Grass Lawn Retails, Garage, Offices, Hotels

Entrance

CULTURE INCUBATOR

Affiliations

Open Spaces

Cultural Recreation

Design Proposals

Plaza

Historic Public Market

77

Cultural Recreation Cultural Recreation

New Public Market

Cultural Recreation Artist Studios

Cultural Recreation


Hotel Garage

Retail Residence Retail

1

A four floor affiliate building. With the founction of hotels, offices, garage and retails.

Family Hotel

Residence Tianguis

Retail Tianguis

Retail

1

2

This culture route is awesome!

Cultural 3 Retail Art

Tianguis

78

Design Proposals

Public Market

Artist House and Studio

4

Artist House and Studio

Art Communication Center

Artist House and Studio

200

0 100

400 300

Exhibition Residence

500Ft


Residence Residence Residence

Retail Retail

Tianguis Tianguis

Tianguis Tianguis

Family Family Hotel Hotel Family Hotel

Tianguis

Retail Tianguis

Retail Retail Retail

Public Public Market Market

Tianguis Tianguis

Cultural Cultural Art Retail Art Retail

Public Market

Tianguis

Cultural Art Retail

Artist Artist House and House and Studio Studio Artist House and Studio

The tianguis can be located around the market and private owned houses can be changed into retails and add more floors to other founctions.

Artist Artist House and House and Studio Studio Artist House and Studio

Art ComArt Communication munication Center Center Art Communication Center

Artist Artist House and House and Studio Studio Artist House and Studio

Exhibition Exhibition Exhibition

Residence Residence Cultural Cultural Art Retail Art Retail

Residence

79

Cultural Art Retail

CULTURE INCUBATOR

3

There are tianguis in the entrance to welcome tourists and private owned houses can be changed into retails and add more floors to other founctions.

Design Proposals

2

4

A mix used building combine different founctions about culture. We can invite artists to live, work in studio and hold an exhibition.


(F)air (S)pace Matters Mercado Villa Coapa This project envisions Mercado Villa Coapa as a new urban centrality of Mexico City, away from the current centers of Zócalo and Avenida República. This center, which brings together both traditional and modern facilities, promotes democratic and healthy public life; therefore, recreating Villa Coapa from its current decaying state, post Olympics (1968) into a new iconic urban center of Mexico City.

Main road cross-section

Design Proposals

Access from nearest metro

80

Transition

Green walkway

Public Promenade

Edg e Co ndit ions

Cr os sA xe s

Access from neighborhood

Commercial high-rise

The project calls for the co-existence of public and private sectors with mutual benefits, and argues against the idea of “modern” development, of iconic towers representative of the rich, higher economic class. Instead, the proposal argues for inclusive growth with mutual interdependence that can accommodate the public sector and lower income group within the same model of development.

Center

Transit Center

Semi-formal buffer


5

Phase AFFORDABLE HOUSING

SOCIAL HOUSING Programs Implementation Strategies

• SEDUVI for Housing • Community Facilities privately developed on public land • Separate fee club and community facilities. Revenue generation

5 PUBLIC FACILITIES: LIBRARY, CRECHE, COMMUNITY CENTER

STUDIO APARTMENTS CONDOMINIUMS

• SEDECO + Private Development • Own by SEDECO. Developed privately • Lease contract 1-15 years. • Mall owners option to expand

Phase

4

DINE-DINING FOOD STREET PRIVATE MARKETS

• Mall starts functioning in tandem with Hotel and Apartments • Attracts brands • Food Street developed publicly with revenue generated by increasing land value

1

ENTERTAINMENT ZONE GAMING BOOTH, POOL, ETC CLUB, BAR • Private Developers, SEDUVI • Land Value Increases • Revenuew generated with tickects, or rent, or land

Phase

TRANSIT CENTER TEMPORARY GUESTHOUSE

2

HOTEL • Sistema Transporte colectivo publico • Partnership with mall owner / developer

(F)AIR (S)PACE MATTERS

3

Phase

Design Proposals

Phase

CINEPLEX 2 PUBLIC + 1 PR1VATE

81

Phase


82

Design Proposals


Stepped levels that form a transition between the neighborhood housing and the city center, yet this space creates a sense of informal publicness in the city center against a backdrop of domesticity. This space caters to activities of different kinds - that includes just people spending time, informal meetings, flea markets, fairs, etc. The possibility of transforming uses makes this space a blurred boundary integrating the urban center into the neighborhood.

Design Proposals

PUBLICNESS AT MULTIPLE SCALES

83

The urban city center of Villa Coapa is a negotiation between the verticality of iconic towers of Mexico City that speak of so-called “development�; and the horizontality of the ground that can behave in multiple ways to cater to multiple levels of publicness. This space between the horizontal and the vertical is what defines publicness in Mexico City.

(F)AIR (S)PACE MATTERS

VISION: A PUBLIC URBAN CITY CENTER


Market as Culture Shed Mercado El Verde Looking at the public market as a culture shed engages the legacy of this urban infrastructures at both neighborhood and metropolitan scales. Long time centers of interaction and social life, they sponsor a rich set of cultural practices around food, dance, exchange, celebration, and gathering space. The design proposal learns from a careful observation of the conditions around the El Verde market, located in the Cuihuacan neighborhood, close to the Canal Nacional. The area is mainly residential, with a high concentration of schools, and big patches of open space, mainly devoted to parking. The intervention proposes a mix strategy to concentrate new programs around the market and reorganize commercial activities both temporally and spatially.

Design Proposals

Courtyards

84

Parking

Mainly Residential Area Parks


INITIAL TERRITORY

FUTURE PROSPECT

FOUR PHASES OF THE MULTI DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

85

Design Proposals

The successive phases include the seeding of new programs (infill housing and commercial) and the improve connectivity between nodes of activity and the recreational strip along the canal.

MARKET AS A CULTURE SHED

EL VERDE

PHASE 0: CENTRALIZE

PHASE 1: SEEDING

PHASE 2: TRANSFORM OPEN SPACES

PHASE 3: ACTIVATE

Add New Business

Underground Parking Housing w/ 29 units

Multi-use Building Open Space Street Closings

Open Up In-between

Agents:

Agents:

Agents:

Agents:

SEDECO Delegaci贸n

SEDECO Private Real Estate Developer Real Estate Operator SEDUVI

SEDUVI School Real Estate Operator STC ( Secretariat of Communications and Transportation )

SEDECO SEDUVI Residents


PARKING ENTRANCE

EL VERDE PARKING EXIT

4

PROPOSED LIBRARY XAVIER VILLAURRUTIA

2

7 3 6

PROPOSED HOUSING PARKING EXIT

5

1

01

05

Meter 100

0

86

Design Proposals

2


DESIGNING TEMPORALITY

3

Event 01

Event 02

Event 01 Weekday Morning Once the parking lot goes underground, the place transforms to a soccer yard, which serves the community. It also introduces the tianguis into the area. Event 02 After School Hours

The area is interspersed with events, performances and areas to exercise. The opening up of the school to the open spaces around increases the diversity of this piece.

(LEFT IMAGE) Depending on the different period, different events happen on this soccer yard. During weekday, this place is a yard for doing exercise; accompanied with some street vendors. After school hours, the campus opens up to the community. Meanwhile, it transforms to a more accessible area. Tianguis spread in from different paths. Furthermore, the STC establishes a new car free ordinance. It connects the both sides of the road. And the culture communication spreads more efficiently.

6

MARKET AS A CULTURE SHED

The whole area full of tianguis, connect with both sides of the road, spread out and create a culture shed.

Design Proposals

(RIGHT IMAGE) The mixed use housing adds 29 units for diffirent family types, the commercial areas increase the retail types offering in the neighborhood, and the plaza serves as a natural extension of this acticities, a place for social exchange and encounter.

Event 03 Car Free Street During Weekend

87

Event 03


Design Proposals 88

As the project is built, the library become the a central node in the neighborhood, and creates an inhabited thershold between the larger community and the school. The library invite the community to engage and activate the open space after school hours, and becomes a borderline between public and private, formal and informal. The clear demarcation of areas for the stalls and the tianguis become blur, and these two commercial types start to work together.


MARKET AS A CULTURE SHED Design Proposals 89

Empower the Residents to program the pocket park


1

2

3

4

92

Acknowledgements

1. Visit to Entorno Taller, de Paisaje Xochimilco (with Tonatiúh Martínez yTomás Sánchez). 2. Workshop at Tecnológico de Monterrey, DF Campus (with Lorena Sicilia). 3. Visit to Arquitectura 911 sc (with José Castillo). 4. Visit to UNAM , Main Campus.

Acknowlegements Reviewers / Jurors Design Instigators

Craig Borum Professor in Architecture University of Michigan

Kit McCullough Lecturer in Architecture University of Michigan

Lily Chi Associate Professor Cornell University

Milton S. F. Curry Director of the Master of Urban Design, Associate Dean and Associate Professor University of Michigan

McLain Clutter Assistant Professor in Architecture University of Michigan Felipe Correa Director of the Master of Urban Design, and Associate Professor Harvard University

Harley Etienne Assistant Professor in Urban and Regional Planning University of Michigan Robert Fishman Professor in Architecture and Urbanism University of Michigan

Karl Daubmann Associate Professor in Architecture University of Michigan

Sharon Haar Chair and Professor in Architecture University of Michigan

Ana Maria Duran Calisto Visiting Professor in Architecture University of Michigan

El Hadi Jazairy Assistant Professor in Architecture University of Michigan


5

6 7 8

Conrad Kickert Assistant Professor in Urban Design University of Cincinnati V. Mitch McEwen Assistant Professor in Architecture University of Michigan Mónica Ponce de León, Dean and Eliel Saarinen Collegiate Professor Anya Sirota Assistant Professor in Architecture University of Michigan

Geoff Thun Associate Dean and Associate Professor in Architecture University of Michigan Claudia Wigger Lecturer in Architecture University of Michigan Integrated Project Development Seminar Kit McCullough Urban Development Workshop Timur Galen

8. Xochimilco, bridge over channel.

Representative of SEDUVI Laura Janka, Architect

Loreta Castro Reguera Taller Capital, México DF

Representatives of SEDECO Horacio Robles, Miguel Ángel Valladolid, Javier Hinojosa, Miguel Delgado, Ángel Rodríguez, Said Israel Vázquez

Manuel Cervantes Céspedes CCArquitectos, México DF Alberto Kalach TAX, Taller de Arquitectura, Mexico DF Hugo Sánchez, Tonatiuh Martínez Entorno Taller de Paisaje, México DF

Tatiana Bilbao Tatiana Bilbao SC. , México DF

Arturo Ortiz Struck Architect, Head at Taller Territorial de México

José Castillo Architectura 911 SC., México DF

Lorena Sicilia, Architect, México DF Tecnológico de Monterrey

93

5. TAX Taller de Arquitectura, (view from the roof). 6. Vasoncelos Library. 7. Xochimilco, Indigenous Food at Entorno Taller (with Carlota). 9. Unidad Habitacional Nonoalco-Tlatelolco. 6. Teotihuacán.

Acknowledgements

9


Trueque, Truco, Trato "Barter, Trick, Deal" Public Markets as Urban Infrastructure along La Viga Spine, Mexico DF Master of Urban Design, 2014-2015


Trueque, Truco, Trato "Barter, Trick, Deal" Public Markets as Urban Infrastructure along La Viga Spine, Mexico DF

MUD: Mexico - Trueque Truco Trato  
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