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VOLUME 14, NO. 1 R E S

Reflections on Progress by John Horn Presents a second look at an address given by John Horn at the 1988 Midwinter Conference in which he shared reflections on Texas education from the 1950s through the 1980s, along with predictions for the 1990s—many of which transpired


Small Schools Reduce Poverty’s Power over Texas Student Achievement


Enhancing Professional Development: Concerns and Recommendations by Betty Alford

Reveals new research released in February which shows that smaller schools in Texas and three other states reduce the damaging effects of poverty on student achievement

Shares findings from two studies a decade apart which illustrate that a continuing discrepancy exists between the need for and the impact of professional development; identifies opportunities that were perceived as most meaningful




Snapshot of a Leader: Texas’ 2000 NSOTY Nominee Cathy Bryce


PTAs: Good Information to Share with Your Communities


TASA Annual Report 1998–99


New TASA Honorary Life Members


TASA Directory Update

Offers a snapshot of Cathy Bryce through her responses to specific questions on the American Association of School Administrators’ 2000 National Superintendent of the Year Award Program Application

Emphasizes that while the voice of one parent acting alone for a child is important, the voices of 750,000 parents in Texas and 6.5 million parents nationwide working together cannot be ignored

Highlights the association’s activities and services during 1998–99; provides a breakdown of revenue and expenditures; and lists TASA staff

Pays special tribute to 53 educators who were given Honorary Life Memberships in January

Gives an update of TASA members who have either renewed their membership or joined the association since publication of the 1999–2000 Directory, Who’s Who in Texas Public Schools SPRING 2000 3








Executive Director’s View

Teachers’ feelings of preparedness, positive trends in public education, action statement highlights of the 1999 National Education Summit

Thinking differently




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President’s Message Inspiring experience

The Leader (News from the Texas Leadership Center) Developing and sharpening leadership skills, board briefs, Review on Leadership and Spirit


Celebrate our history Envision ourfuture

INSIGHT Officers

At-Large Members

Virginia L. Collier, President, Brenham ISD James E. Wilcox, President-Elect, Hooks ISD Leonard E. Merrell, Vice-President, Katy ISD Quentin S. Burnett, Past President, Argyle ISD

Marla Guerra, UT–Pan American Sylvia R. Hatton, ESC Region I Jim V. Scales, College Station ISD Ralph Yturralde, El Paso ISD

Executive Committee Eliseo Ruiz, Jr., Los Fresnos CISD, 1 Henry D. Herrera, Alice ISD, 2 Michael W. Moehler, Calhoun County ISD, 3 James F. Smith, Alief ISD, 4 M. R. “Bob” Tilley, Kirbyville CISD, 5 Mike Roberts, Snook ISD, 6 James E. Dunlap, Hallsville ISD, 7 Harvey Hohenberger, Chisum ISD, 8 Robert H. Henderson, Henrietta ISD, 9 Anthony Ray Daugherty, Pottsboro ISD, 10 Lloyd H. Treadwell, Springtown ISD, 11 Rex Daniels, Lampasas ISD, 12 Ron Reaves, New Braunfels ISD, 13 Anthony P. Reed, Clyde CISD, 14 Ray Don Gibson, Wall ISD, 15 Larry D. Appel, Dumas ISD, 16 Paul L. Whitton, Jr., Frenship ISD, 17 Bobby D. McCall, Iraan-Sheffield ISD, 18 Pam Padilla, Anthony ISD, 19 Alton Fields, Pleasanton ISD, 20 Dawson R. Orr, Pampa ISD, Legislative Chair

Editorial Advisory Committee Virginia L. Collier, Brenham ISD, Chair Jesus H. Chavez, Harlingen CISD Sandra Lowery, Stephen F. Austin State University Richard A. Middleton, North East ISD Dawson R. Orr, Pampa ISD Susan K. Sclafani, Houston ISD Kay E. Waggoner, Red Oak ISD James E. Wilcox, Hooks ISD

TASA Headquarters Staff Johnny L. Veselka, Executive Director Ellen V. Bell, Associate Executive Director, Professional Development Louann H. Martinez, Associate Executive Director, Governmental Relations Pat Pringle, Associate Executive Director, Administrative Services Ann M. Halstead, Director, Communications & Technology Pat Johnston, Director, Special Services Iliana Cavazos, Design/Production Karen Limb, Editorial Coordinator Neal W. Adams, TASA General Counsel, Adams, Lynch, & Loftin—Bedford

Advertising For information on advertising in INSIGHT, contact Ann Halstead, TASA, 512-477-6361.

INSIGHT is published quarterly by the Texas Association of School Administrators, 406 East 11th Street, Austin, Texas, 78701-2617. Subscription is included in TASA membership dues. Subscriptions may be purchased for other school officials and employees with authorization from TASA members. © 2000 by TASA. All rights reserved. TASA members may reprint articles in limited quantities for in-house educational use. Articles in INSIGHT are expressions of the author or interviewee and do not necessarily represent the views or policies of TASA. Advertisements do not necessarily carry the endorsement of the Texas Association of School Administrators. INSIGHT is printed by Thomas Graphics, Austin, Texas.

SPRING 2000 5


1999 National Education Summit Action Statement Highlights How Prepared Do Teachers Feel? and performance standards (36 percent), or using student performance assessment techniques (28 percent).

"Reform initiatives, new technologies, and changing student populations have required teachers to learn new ways of presenting material and managing their classrooms . . . . Teachers’ self-assessments provide one indication of the extent to which preservice and on-thejob learning have prepared them to meet the new demands," writes the National Center for Education Statistics in Teachers’ Feelings of Preparedness. According to this report:

Teachers were least likely to report they felt very well prepared to integrate educational technology into their teaching methods (20 percent) or address the needs of students with disabilities (21 percent) or students with limited English proficiency or from diverse backgrounds (20 percent).

In 1998, the majority of public school teachers (71 percent) felt that they were very well prepared to maintain order and discipline in their classrooms.

Teachers who spent more than eight hours in professional development in a specific activity in the previous 12 months were generally more likely than other teachers to feel very well prepared in that area.

Source: Teachers’ Feelings of Preparedness (2 pages; NCES Indicator of the Month, December 1999) is available online at

Fewer teachers felt that they were very well prepared to meet certain instructional requirements, including implementing new teaching methods (41 percent), implementing state or district curriculum

Positive Trends in Public Education "There’s no question that our public schools must become better. But the public also needs to recognize that there have been major improvements in public education since the early 1980s, when the nation started focusing seriously on school reform," asserts Do You Know . . . The Good News about American Education?, a report published by the Center on Education Policy and the American Youth Policy Forum. This report presents a selection of positive indicators that highlight improvements in public education over the past 15–20 years. Although the report focuses on the positive, each indicator also includes a section on further work that needs to be done to build on the progress already made. For example, students today are taking more "core" courses than did students in 1982. However, the report points out that the work ahead should include aggressive efforts to encourage all students to complete four years of English and three years each of social studies, science, and mathematics before they graduate. At the high school level, schools should eliminate the "general track" of courses that do not adequately prepare students for either the workplace or higher education. High schools also should offer advanced courses 6 INSIGHT

such as calculus and physics so that students are not hindered from progressing because these key courses are not available. Other positive indicators in the report include: ●

Dropout rates are lower today than they were in the 1970s and 1980s. The dropout rate (percentage of 16- to 24-year-olds who were not enrolled in school and had not completed high school or a GED) for black youth fell from 21 percent in 1972 to 13 percent in 1997.

Between 1982 and 1996, students improved their achievement in mathematics, as measured by the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Average NAEP math scores rose for all age groups tested, with 9-year-old students making the most progress.

Source: Do You Know . . . The Good News about American Education? (32 pages) is available from the publisher, Center on Education Policy, 1001 Connecticut Avenue, Suite 619, Washington, DC 20036; 202-822-8065, Fax: 202-822-6008. The report is available online at

The purpose of the 1999 National Education Summit was to identify the crucial next steps needed to make sure that all students are achieving at highs standards in every American school. The commitments made by the nation’s governors and business leaders at the first National Education Summit in 1996—commitments to higher standards, better assessments, and tougher accountability measures— have clearly become central elements in a nationwide campaign to improve school performance. In the Summit’s 1999 Action Statement, the nation's governors, business executives, and educators pledged to take specific steps to improve teacher quality, offer greater learning opportunities to students, and strengthen accountability in schools. The following are the highlights of the Action Statement: Improve educator quality by ● establishing alternative pathways into the teaching profession to attract the most talented candidates ● raising standards for certification to ensure all teachers are prepared to teach to higher academic standards, regardless of their path into the profession ● targeting professional development resources on programs designed to help teachers teach to higher academic standards ● equipping school leaders with skills to improve instruction and manage organizational change ● creating competitive salary structures that attract and retain the best-qualified teachers, rewarding them for skills and performance Help all students achieve high standards by ● ensuring every school has a rigorous curriculum aligned with state standards and tests ● providing low-achieving students with extra help and additional learning time ● giving parents more schooling options by expanding public school choice and charter schools ● giving schools substantial flexibility and control over personnel and resources while holding them accountable for results

Strengthen accountability by ● benchmarking states’ standards, assessments, and achievement against those of other states and nations ● recognizing and rewarding highly successful schools ● intervening in chronically failing schools ● providing incentives for students to achieve standards by aligning college admissions standards with high school standards and expanding the number of companies using academic records in their hiring decisions

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SPRING 2000 7

Executive Director’s VIEW

Thinking Differently!

(FPO) pg. 8

During the past year, I had the opportunity to serve on the National Advisory Committee on School Board/Superintendent Leadership, Governance, and Teamwork for High Student Achievement. This committee—including representatives of AASA, NSBA, state associations, and the business community, as well as national education policy experts—focused its attention on the vital aspects of effective school board/superintendent leadership, based on teamwork, communication, and trust as the keys to quality education for America's students. The committee’s 32-page report—entitled Thinking Differently—will be mailed this spring to all of the nation's superintendents and school board presidents. The recommendations contained in the report are supported by both the AASA and NSBA leadership, thereby offering a unique opportunity for members of these two organizations to work together to achieve a higher vision of board/superintendent leadership in local communities across America. The report suggests strategies for: ● ● ● ● ● ●

Creating public engagement and community mobilization Attracting and retaining qualified school board members Attracting and preparing outstanding educators to become outstanding superintendents Achieving continuous board/superintendent education and development Revisiting laws that may inadvertently impede effective school governance Awakening students and teachers to the diversity in our changing society

Further, the report urges superintendents and school boards to think differently about educational leadership, including standards for leadership teams, public engagement, leadership team development, roles and responsibilities, teaching and learning, technology, superintendent recruitment and education, and legislative reform. Specific recommendations are offered in each area. TASA members should watch for this report, coming your way soon. Thinking Differently is a theme that is appropriate to our business in other ways, as well. Earlier this year, the TASA Executive Committee authorized the creation of a comprehensive new system for sharing documents and communicating with school leaders across the state. For several months, we have collaborated with a Washington-based company, TransACT Communications, Inc., to develop a powerful technology tool to enhance information exchange and professional collaboration. The TASA EduPortal™ will be launched this spring as a Web-based subscription service that allows school administrators to search, create, manage, and publish documents through a private portal on the Internet or a local district's Intranet. The system will allow access to state-level documents posted by TASA and locally generated policies, operating procedures, and resources through state-of-the-art search strategies and document retrieval. Additionally, this partnership will offer access to a comprehensive Translation Library™ of forms and correspondence in 20 languages for effective communication with limited- or non-English-speaking families. Watch for further information on this exciting new service that will redefine TASA's role in a technology-oriented environment.

SPRING 2000 9

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President’s MESSAGE

Inspiring Experience I wish each of you could have been in San Francisco in March for AASA’s National Conference on Education. Beginning with Flip Flippen and Monty Roberts blending good horse training with good child management and ending with Ron Susskind’s presentation of his book Hope in the Unseen, it was an inspiring experience! While the sessions seemed exceptionally good this year, I have always found one of the greatest values of AASA’s National Conference to be the contacts made with educators across America. Every year, I go feeling certain that no one is facing the problems that I am in my district and that we are in Texas. I go feeling certain that our challenges are in some way unique. Every year, I return having once again been reminded that educators across this nation have a great deal in common. All superintendents have difficulties with their boards sooner or later. The problems commonly focus around personnel issues and the involvement of board members in the everyday management of the district.

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From New York to New Mexico to Florida to Oregon, superintendents are searching for ways to inspire staff to tackle the complex issues of educating a wide diversity of students without adequate resources. Buildings are in need of repair, substitutes are hard to find, and someone in the community is devoting time to talking negatively about the schools. It happens in New York City and on the Indian reservations of the Far West. For me, there is a kind of reassurance in hearing others describe situations I thought were uniquely my own. Perhaps it’s because I am reaffirmed that I didn’t create my own difficulties. Whatever the reason, I find it liberating. It frees me to think beyond the issues that seemed so all-important at home. I reach for new ideas. I soak up the affirmations that I am one with thousands of bright, dedicated professionals. I feel good about education and about myself. To close this column—the last one I will write as your president—let me say that it has been a pleasure to serve you this year. You are an awesome group of professionals, and I’m proud to call you my colleagues. To give yourself a lift, go to <> and download Good News about American Education (see Newswire, p. 6). It’s free, and you’ll be glad you did.

SPRING 2000 11

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Reflections on Progress

In 1988, public education in Texas was in the midst of a turbulent period, having gone through four years of implementing a massive set of new state regulations and years of litigation over school finance equity. John D. Horn, superintendent, Mesquite ISD, was serving as president of TASA and delivered the following keynote address at the Midwinter Conference sponsored by the Texas Education Agency. Horn offered an insightful perspective on the political climate of the time and the most prevalent issues and challenges he thought were facing public education as we were about to enter the decade of the 1990s.

stated while indicating that the latter may require more fundamental structural changes than anything of the previous decades.

As the 1980s neared completion, Horn referred to four dominant issues for the days ahead as two sets of twins. One set he called TEAMS and PIEMS. The other set he named VOICE and CHOICE. These four labels symbolized the advance of the more comprehensive testing programs and their underlying accountability partner, the information and data collection system, and the demands for more "say" from all quarters. It is worthy of note that Horn called for more "voice" for school leaders as well. He predicted that both sets of twins might be half-grown by the close of the decade.

Commissioner of Education W. N. Kirby broke with tradition in asking Horn to address the 1988 conference. Horn revealed, "I felt considerable trepidation but I saw it as an opportunity and a responsibility. I also knew that the TASA leadership was very supportive. In that vein, I want to say that I am grateful that we had a professional organization like TASA with the credibility to be invited. Commissioner Kirby took the risk and gave his trust because I think he had a good read on things and sensed that having the TASA president to speak could be beneficial both to the conference and to our collective efforts to find productive paths forward. I am equally proud of TASA today for how it has transformed itself to better meet the professional development needs of superintendents and how it also is better equipped to influence educational policy than it was back then."

In reflecting on the speech, Horn said, "This speech was more about the educational/political milieu we were in at the time than predictions about educational trends. However, the signals were there, one needed only to make the connections and discover the threads or themes that seemed to be common to the legislation, political climate, and public agendas for discussion at the time." With regard to his call for unity and one united voice among the educational community, he lamented that such a vision was still more a dream than a reality. However, he said "It is affirming to know that the request for a greater balance between state and local authority and responsibility was heeded with the rewrite of the Education Code in 1994, which restored a great deal of authority to local districts but with a new level of accountability." Horn said that he foresees the major movements that characterized the 1990s continuing to be significant influences for some time to come as evidenced by the debate over charter schools, vouchers, and student transfers. "We also have the added challenges of recruiting and developing teachers and school leaders and the partnerships that will be required to meet those needs. The challenge to better utilize technology is equally daunting," Horn 14 INSIGHT

Regarding his philosophy of educational improvement that surfaced throughout the speech, Horn observed, "I have always been one to reflect on my experience to see what I could learn from it and how I could improve. During the last 10 years we have learned a lot about teaching and learning, the change process, about more effective leadership practices, and about greater quality in the management of processes for improved results."

In just 23 months, the decade of the 1980s will come to an end, and 1990 will be here. The senior class of 2000 will be in the third grade. By then we will be but a short decade away from bidding farewell to the 20th century. These reference points serve to remind us of the passage of time, to allow us to take stock of the present and plan for our future. Contemplating time in this context evokes two very divergent feelings. One is a sense of urgency and the notion that if we are going to get anything done then we better get at it. The other is a yearning to look back and reflect on what has gone before and to wonder about the future. Of course, such reflection helps us to realize that some things are better off forgotten and enables us to discern what is on the horizon more accurately. Educationally, what will the 1990s bring? A better question might be—What will we bring to the 1990s? Some of us will bring too much baggage—others, perhaps not enough.

If we go back in Texas education to the middle of this century, the 1950s were definitely years of reform—not unlike the 1980s. The new commissioner for that era, the late J. W. Edgar, and his contemporaries, some of whom were honored here today, faced monumental tasks. The 1960s were characterized by a blind faith that the schools could solve all of society’s major problems.

The 1970s, it could be said, belonged to the courts and to the champions of due process. Some are saying that the 1990s will be a time of reforming the reforms. I hope not. My hope is that in Texas the next decade will be a time of refining the reforms. Making predictions about the educational future is even more hazardous than guessing if the winter weather conditions will be bad enough to close school. Nevertheless, I think it is fairly safe to say that we in education will have another set of twins to nurture. Their names are "voice" and "choice." They will join our present set of twins, whom you know as TEAMS and PIEMS. How will we deal with our new set of twins? ●

The wisest will provide for meaningful involvement and more choices in our districts. Parents will voice increasing demands to share in educational decisions about their children, and they will want more choices. In fact, promoting and providing for greater parental involvement may hold more potential for improving student learning than any other one thing we may do. Effective superintendents, principals, and teachers are asking to be empowered to improve student learning. They want a greater voice and more latitude—and, yes, they are willing to be held accountable for results. Some of the intensity of frustration among local leaders now is due to feelings of not being heard and having too few choices. The research evidence is growing—that the best and most effective campuses are not in straitjackets regarding processes. They have staffs who care about kids, and who are deeply involved in needs analysis, setting achievement targets, and choosing the most effective methods. They thrive on reasonable measuring and reporting.

Other signs of "voice" and "choice" are all around us. Rollback elections have become commonplace. Private schools are proliferating. Various forms of the voucher system are an integral part of the political rhetoric of presidential candidates. Texas voters have said they want to elect their state school board members. The present board has requested authority from the legislature to allow it to make more choices. The commissioner has asked the board to allow him to make more choices. The board is to be commended for granting his request. Shall we then chide the legislature for not granting the board’s request? The major thrust embodied in HB 72 will and should continue. We needed the focus, direction, and general support it has provided along with raised expectations. But the potential for improved student learning and operational efficiency will be greatly weakened unless refinements in the laws and rules allow for greater "voice" and "choice." It appears that the present board and the commissioner recognize these needs as much as we do. The long-range goals they have adopted are a reflection of that recognition.

Ultimately, the success of TEAMS and PEIMS may depend on the success of voice and choice. Most of our local leaders already have shaped new visions of success. They are leaving no stone unturned to improve not only teaching and learning but their own management and leadership effectiveness as well. There are many topics that could be addressed in this regard, but if we are to achieve the success I have implied, we must devote considerable energies to three rather simple notions: cooperation, balance, and competence. Let’s talk about cooperation. The last three and a half years have not been easy for any of us. They have been unsettling for our publics, our students, our teachers, our local boards, for the political leadership, for the State Board, the TEA, and for us as local leaders. The legislature handed the State Board of Education a mammoth responsibility in 1984. The State Board of Education, in turn, placed a mammoth responsibility on the commissioner and his staff. And, ulti-

mate responsibility for implementation was placed at the local level. On the whole, the State Board, the TEA staff, and educators out in the schools have demonstrated a true spirit of cooperation and commitment toward effective implementation of the reforms. If this had not been the case, our schools would be in total disarray today. Ordinarily, people simply cannot absorb so much change in such a short period of time without major disruption. We know that at times there have been major tugs of war. At times, our actions have been unduly influenced by "we–they" attitudes. It is time for us to balance our tendency to complain with more constructive criticisms and positive solutions to problems. At the same time, it is increasingly incumbent on the TEA staff and on the State Board of Education to listen more intently to the local leadership, and to consult in more depth prior to the formation and release of major policy decisions. The December meeting of the Commissioner’s Advisory Panel of Superintendents offers a good example. This meeting provided for an extremely productive exchange of views, criticisms, and suggestions. The development of the Compensatory Education rule is another example of how the process should work. Superintendents are not just another specialinterest group with whom the TEA staff and the State Board of Education must reckon. We are part of the management team. By law, we are not equal partners; but, we deserve to be treated as equals by the TEA management, based on a mutual respect for each other’s responsibilities and capabilities. Local boards deserve to be treated as equals by the State Board. Let me give you just two examples of true partnerships and cooperation at work. The Texas Leadership in Educational Administration Development Center is a statewide effort to contribute to the improvement of elementary and secondary education in the state by developing, strengthening, and expanding the leadership practices and skills of Texas school administrators. The LEAD Center, which is a cooperative venture between TEA, TASA, the principals’

organizations, professors of educational administration, and the private sector, has become a model for the nation. It shows what can be done when we in Texas make a commitment to work together. The work of the advisory committee that developed the management training rules is another example of the success achieved through a true partnership. These new rules could serve as the very cornerstone for enhancing the leadership function of Texas school administrators. And those rules fit hand and glove with the LEAD program. Not only must there be greater cooperation between local district personnel and TEA personnel, local school boards and the State Board and legislature, there also must be greater cooperation among ourselves. In some cases we seem to have allowed our differences and our divisions to obscure our commonalities. We are divided along so many lines that it is almost a heyday for the politician who is not supportive of public education. Such division, however, is a yoke around the neck of the politician who is committed to quality education. Admittedly, our districts have different needs based on size, population characteristics, geographic location, or wealth. But, the time is past when we can fight for our individual share of resources or influence with little concern for the state as a whole. If we persist in that mode, I think that as educational leaders we will find ourselves further on the outskirts of state policy-making. It is imperative that superintendents come to some consensus on the equity lawsuit. This issue opens up a window of unprecedented opportunity for us, and we dare not fail to seize that opportunity. Even the district judge has challenged us to develop a legislative remedy. We must fashion a plan that is both economically and politically feasible. Within our association and in this audience, we have strong advocates in both camps. But, I am proud to report that the TASA officers and Executive Committee are determined to not only mediate the major differences but to exercise the lead in developing a consensus on the fundamentals of a more equitable system. I trust that this commitment extends throughout the education community. An act of leadership requires SPRING 2000 15

risk. As an association we cannot be content to be on the sidelines on this issue. The boys and girls of this state need us to be a principal player—therefore, we will risk tranquility in our organization to do it. In conjunction with TASB and in alliance with others, we have established the Texas Center for Educational Research. A reliable database and an objective analytical ability are essential to the development of a consensus on financial solutions. It will be as nonbiased as is possible. In the process of establishing the center, during our discussions on the objectivity issue, one of the participants backed away from the table and said, "All this objectivity scares me." It may scare you, and sometimes it scares me! But we must not be afraid of the truth. During the next 16 months, we must pull together in ways that we have not in more than 16 years. The governor and other elected state officials should be able to turn to local and state educational leaders and say: "Tell us what is best in education for the state as a whole." And with one united voice we should be able to answer.

If we cannot bring ourselves to be able to provide that united voice, then we have no one but ourselves to blame if the educational character of the 1990s is not to our liking. On the contrary, if we can come together, there is no limit to the strength and influence we can bring to bear on developing a more equitable finance system, as well as perhaps on the amount of dollars available to distribute and other important policy decisions. We will be seen as part of the solution and not part of the problem. Closely associated with the concept of cooperation is the matter of balance. I am speaking here about the balance of authority, the partnership between the state and the local school districts—a partnership that has proven essential to providing educational services effectively and efficiently. The balance of authority to run the schools shifted dramatically to the state level with the adoption of HB 72. Though it seems a paradox, the responsibility to fund major costs of the reforms shifted dramatically to the local district. Neither the shift in authority nor responsibility would have been possible had there not been perceptions among the general public, the business community, and state officials that the local schools were ineffective and inefficient. Some of these perceptions were reflections of reality, but some were myths perpetuated by the media based on generalizations from nontypical situations. Texas has many lighthouse districts, but the long shadow of those false perceptions obscured their example. Lamar Alexander, governor of Tennessee and chairman of the National Governors’ Association, who produced Time for Results, the Governors’ 1991 report on education, summed it up best when he said, "The governors are ready for some oldfashioned horse trading.



We’ll regulate less if schools and school districts will produce better results." Locally, we have implemented the reforms, but it may be like the teacher who made the little boy stay after school and write 100 times on the chalkboard the phrase "I did" because he kept saying "I done." When he had completed the assignment, he wrote the teacher a note at the bottom of the chalkboard that said, "Teacher, I ‘done’ it." I think that, without hesitation, we can boast that we have followed the instructions conscientiously, even to implementing mandated processes that may not be any more effective than that teacher’s technique. We have given everything in a good-faith effort. But, unlike the little boy, we have gone far beyond simply following the instructions. We "got" the message and we have learned. We have gained new insights and strengthened our commitments to excellence. For this, we deserve a vote of confidence— a renewed trust that can be demonstrated by restoring some authority and by working toward a more balanced partnership between the local and state school- governing authorities. I understand that there are some school districts that consider themselves so independent and so autonomous that they file no budgets or audits or other reports with TEA. That is clearly an impossible situation. On the other hand, we do not need a continuing proliferation of rules applying to all school districts to bring a few mavericks into line or to address problems peculiar to a few. We all know that many of the provisions of HB 72 reflected a general lack of confidence in the skills and abilities of local school board members and local administrators. Whether or not that was justified then is not important today. But, what is important now is the high degree of management and leadership competencies that have been demonstrated by local school leaders in the last three and a half years. Most superintendents, principals, and other central office administrators are working both harder and smarter. Instructional leadership and teacher appraisal training have provided a stimulus to improve both understanding and skills, as well as motivation to excel, the natural frustrations not withstanding. continued on page 19

Small Schools Reduce Poverty’s Power over Texas Student Achievement New research released in February shows that smaller schools in Texas and three other states reduce the damaging effects of poverty on student achievement and help students from less-affluent communities narrow the achievement gap between them and students from wealthier communities. SPRING 2000 17

The Rural School and Community Trust, a national nonprofit organization dedicated to improving rural schools and strengthening the relationship between schools and the communities they serve, has undertaken a series of four state-level studies to address this topic. The four states are Georgia, Montana, Ohio, and Texas. These studies were conducted by Craig Howley of Ohio University and Appalachia Educational Laboratory, and Robert Bickel of Marshall University.

In Texas, the researchers analyzed the scores from the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) tests. TAAS scores in reading, mathematics, and writing were considered for 8th and 10th grade students. Reading and math scores were considered for 3rd and 5th graders. The TAAS scores were analyzed from 6,288 schools in 960 suburban, urban, and rural districts. The poverty level in the schools was measured by the percentage of students in the school district who receive free or reduced-price lunches. The researchers did not compare school performance based on absolute definitions of "small" and "large," but rather on relative size: how relatively smaller schools perform compared to relatively larger ones. What they found is that:

The researchers noted that the results of this study were not significantly altered (but slightly strengthened) when they controlled for race. Small schools are a major positive factor in student achievement among the poor, race notwithstanding. Nonetheless, many Hispanics and African Americans live in communities where poverty rates are quite high and, therefore, are very likely to attend schools that are probably too large to produce highest levels of achievement. These relationships are particularly strong for Hispanic students. Hispanic enrollment in schools at risk is between 2.5 and 3 times the rate of Hispanic enrollment in schools not at risk.

"All of these results argue strongly for smaller schools in both urban and rural communities," said Marty Strange, the director of the Rural School and Community Trust’s policy program. "If improving student scores on standardized tests is a policy goal, Texas policy-makers should support smaller schools, especially in less-affluent communities."

Smaller schools produce higher achievement in poorer communities. As school size increases, poverty has a more powerful negative effect on achievement scores. In eight of ten testing instances, there is a statistically significant negative effect on achievement due to the interaction between poverty and school size.

These effects were found at the school level only, not at the district level. However, larger districts were shown to have a direct negative effect on average student achievement (community poverty level notwithstanding) at the 8th and 10th grade levels. Howley and Bickel also calculated the proportion of the variance in test scores that can be explained by the level of poverty in the communities served by schools. This statistic—called "poverty’s power rating" because it suggests how much negative impact poverty has over student achievement in bigger versus smaller schools—was calculated for larger and smaller schools (those above and below the median size). Results for Texas schools indicate that: ●

● ● ●

In all grades and in all subject areas tested (reading, mathematics, and writing), poverty’s power rating is substantially lower in Texas schools that are below the median size than it is in Texas schools above the median size. In larger schools, poverty’s power rating ranged from 32 percent to as much as 62 percent. In smaller schools, poverty’s power rating ranged from just 3 percent to no more than 31 percent. In the critical grades 8 and 10, when children are increasingly at risk of dropping out, small schools cut poverty’s power by 80 to 90 percent in reading, writing, and mathematics.

Because the academic achievement of poorer students is tied so closely to school size, the researchers argue that many Texas schools serving lower- and moderate-income communities are too large to achieve top student performance. Many Texas students are in schools where average achievement scores would likely increase if the school were smaller, and large numbers of Texas students attend "schools at risk"—schools where the poverty level is high enough that any increase in school size would likely lower average TAAS scores. The research shows that: 18 INSIGHT

27 percent of Texas’ 3rd graders (80,955 students), 32 percent of 8th graders (76,437 students), and 46 percent of 10th graders (135,037 students) attend "at-risk" schools. Of Texas schools offering 3rd grade, 806 schools (26 percent) are "at risk." Of schools offering 8th grade, 417 (29 percent) are "at risk." Of schools offering 10th grade, 679 (57 percent) are "at risk."

Conclusions 1.

The less affluent the community served, the smaller a school should be to maximize the school’s performance as measured by standardized tests.


Poverty’s power over student achievement is much stronger— as much as 10 times stronger—in larger schools than smaller ones in Texas, depending on grade level and academic area.


If improving student achievement as measured by standardized tests is a policy goal, states should consider placing maximum size limits on schools, particularly in poorer communities.


States concerned about reinvesting in deteriorating school facilities should not be eager to increase school size in most instances if higher student achievement is a goal.


Many Texas schools serving moderate- to low-income communities would likely produce higher student achievement scores if they were smaller. From one-fourth to one-half of Texas students are in schools whose achievement levels would likely improve if the schools were smaller and would likely worsen if the schools were larger.


The rate of Hispanic enrollment in schools that are probably too large to produce top performance (given the level of income in the community they serve) is between 40 and 70 percent, depending on grade analyzed. The Hispanic rate of enrollment in schools not too large is between 16 and 26 percent.


Many of these relationships appear to be particularly powerful at the grade levels where children are at or approaching an age when they are most at risk of dropping out of school.

Reflections on Progress continued from page 16

in its potential effectiveness requires expert leadership. We have demonstrated both.

A continuous program of structured professional development on the part of most administrators is welcome. It is gratifying to know that the required general management training proposed is based on individual and district needs. It will establish a mechanism to further develop ourselves and to develop those we lead.

The effective schools research, as well as research in other management and leadership areas relating to schools, continues to verify that the hope for improvement comes from an internalized commitment to improvement at the local district and the campus level in particular. The whole notion of campus-based management rests upon an assumption of competence, and on the assumption that the campus level must be given more latitude and yet be held accountable for producing results.

At both the state and local levels, rules and policies must be based on competence, confidence, and trust. Otherwise, there will not be enough paper or monitors to ensure compliance, and more energies will be devoted to compliance and monitoring than to the actual instruction of youngsters. The most difficult part is behind us now. The mountains of paper generated by TEA surely will not continue. The majority of the rules surely are in place. To implement what someone else has planned in detail requires expert management. To implement a plan imposed by someone else in such a way that those on the front line truly believe

people in business and industry are coming to appreciate and understand the complexities of the school administrator’s role today. I believe that the typical successful school superintendent could trade places with the typical chief executive officer of a business or industry of comparable size and budget and be more successful in operating that business than the chief executive officer could be in managing the local public school. Several major corporate executives with whom I have served on three major committees this year will confirm both observations.

Both state and local boards have a responsibility to set standards and establish expectations for outcomes, but it is incongruent and inconsistent with the research to specify all the means by which those results are to be accomplished.

We have every right to be proud of our recent accomplishments as school administrators. And, from what I can see on the horizon, we have every reason to be optimistic about our future success because cooperation, balance, and competence will be added keystones to quality.

The manner in which school administrators are perceived by the general public, and by many state leaders, has changed for the better. Our jobs are extremely complex and demand a wide range of skills and abilities. More

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Enhancing Professional Development: Concerns and Recommendations by Betty Alford

SPRING 2000 21

Two findings emerged clearly from a seminal study of professional development in 1988 as teachers across the nation reported that staff development was strongly needed and that staff development as it had been provided was largely ineffective (Sparks, 1994). Ten years later in 1998, similar results were obtained in a study in East Texas. Eighty-six percent of 595 educators in East Texas answered "yes" or "definitely yes" to a survey item that asked whether the need for professional development for personal growth was strong. However, as in the seminal study on professional development in 1988, although the need for staff development was rated as strong, only 49.6 percent of 504 respondents indicated "yes" or "definitely yes" that professional development had enhanced performance in their professional position. Clearly, these teacher and administrator responses illustrated that a continuing discrepancy exists between the need for and the impact of professional development. These results confirm Michael Fullan’s (1990) contention, "Despite the fact that we know a great deal about what effective staff development looks like, it is still not well practiced" (p. 3).

The improvement of student achievement is a primary, preferred end result of professional development (Sparks & Hirsh, 1997). Although many schools have been making structural changes such as block scheduling, policy reports support that structural changes will not automatically boost achievement (Public Policy and School Reform, 1996). As Fuhrman (1999) reports, "In the absence of explicit attention to capacity, the new systems are insufficient approaches to improve student achievement" (p. 10). Neither will new standards alone change student achievement (Public Policy and School Reform, 1996). Expanding educators’ knowledge, skills, and expectations about student learning is important in achieving long-term change that positively impacts student performance (Klein et al., 1996; Fuhrman, 1999). This focus involves teachers identifying their own training needs (Klein et al., 1996). As Sparks and Hirsh (1997) state, "Staff development is at the center of all good reform strategies—without it, such strategies are merely good ideas that cannot find expression" (p. 96).

Survey responses confirmed that professional development is enhanced when educators are given the opportunity for self-direction and identification of critical needs and, in response, are provided specific, relevant, content-specific professional development opportunities. Educators suggested that attention also must be paid to the quality of the information, presentations, and presenters to enhance professional development opportunities. The educators’ recommendations all pointed to the need for sessions to be small enough to allow for dialogue and experiential learning. Discussions about teaching and learning are at the heart of school improvement. As Abelmann and Elmore (1999) suggest, "External accountability systems will be relatively powerless in the absence of changed conceptions of individual responsibility and collective expectations within schools" (p. 43). The authors further argue, "A belief in the capacity and efficacy of teachers and principals to influence student learning, coupled with the knowledge and skills necessary to act on those beliefs, are prior conditions necessary to the success of strong external accountability systems" (p. 43). Dialogue and hands-on 22


learning become avenues for clarifying beliefs and expectations to guide action for increased student learning.

The need for campus-based professional development linked to campus goals also was clear from respondents’ comments as was the need for administrator support. Without the administrators’ support, teachers expressed that it would be difficult to implement the things learned. This would support Fullan and Watson’s (1997) findings that infrastructures and support are needed for quality staff development. Professional learning activities should lead to changes in practice and improved student learning. The infrastructure provides the opportunity to clarify the vision for teaching and learning, establish supportive policies, ensure time and resources, improve communication, encourage parent and community involvement, provide encouragement and recognition to participants, and evaluate progress. Fullan and Watson (1997) further suggest that efforts are needed to reduce fragmentation and achieve coherence of reform initiatives.

Survey data indicated that developing an ongoing professional development plan based on educators’ identified needs and supported by administrators with provision for follow-up is a clear way that professional development can be enhanced. As Mink, Esterhuysen, Mink, and Owen (1993) suggested regarding implementing change, "The kind of planning needed is not a one-time effort, but an ongoing, never-ending process" (p. 89). The results of the study reinforced the importance of providing professional development opportunities with follow-through. The importance of providing opportunity for dialogue in professional development also was stressed. As Anderson and Snyder (1993) suggested, "Most importantly, inquiry about professional work, with all its trials and tribulations, engages educators' minds and souls and infuses a school with the sense of what is possible" (p. 59). The professional development opportunities that were perceived as most meaningful provided for learner engagement with the subject matter and with fellow learners. The need for constant learning was reinforced, but the format for learning was recommended to include a variety of time frames and growth opportunities. The importance of the superintendent’s and principal’s support and modeling of the learning needed to prepare all students for the needs of the 21st century emerged clearly.

It is hoped that other educators can gain insights from this study by considering lessons learned even while recognizing the importance of each local context and all elements of the system in bringing about high-quality, results-based professional development that truly impacts school reform and the improvement of teaching and learning. The search is not for the silver bullet, but rather for a continuum for perpetual learning experiences that benefit students and teachers to a high level and impact positive results.

Betty Alford is assistant professor, midmanagement coordinator, and coordinator of the Gear-Up Project for the Department of Secondary Education and Educational Leadership. References Abelmann, C. & Elmore, R. with Even, J., Kenyon, S., & Marshall, J. (1999). When accountability knocks, will anyone answer? Consortium for Policy Research in Education Research Report Series, RR-42. University of Pennsylvania. Graduate School of Education. Anderson, R. D. (1995). Final technical research report: Study of curriculum reform. Volume I: Findings and conclusions. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado.

Through Staff Development. Alexandria, VA: 1990 Yearbook of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Fullan, M. & Watson, N. with Kilcher, A. (1997). Building infrastructures for professional development: An assessment of early progress. Final report submitted to the Rockefeller Foundation. University of Toronto. Toronto, Canada. Fuhrman, S. H. (1999). The new accountability. Consortium for Policy Research in Education: Policy Briefs. University of Pennsylvania: Graduate School of Education. Klein, S., Medrich, E., & Perez-Ferreiro, V. (1996). Fitting the pieces: Education reform that works. U.S. Department of Education: Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Mink, O., Esterhuysen, P., Mink, B., & Owen, K. (1993). Change at work: A comprehensive management process for transforming organizations. New York: Jossey-Bass. Public Policy and School Reform: A Research Summary. (1996). Consortium for Policy Research in Education Research Report Series, Report #36. Graduate School of Education: University of Pennsylvania.

Anderson, R. & Snyder, K. J. (1993). Clinical supervision: Coaching for higher performance. Pennsylvania: Technomic Publishing Company, Inc.

Sparks, D. (1994). A paradigm shift in staff development. Journal of Staff Development, 15 (4), 26–29.

Fullan, M. G. (1990). Staff development, innovation, and institutional development. In B. Joyce (Ed.), Changing School Culture

Sparks, D. & Hirsh, S. (1997). A new vision for staff development. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, VA.


The study results have implications to other entities that are engaged in collaborative planning for professional development. The identification of ways professional development can be strengthened offers ideas for other school districts and universities that engage in partnerships to promote professional growth. A caution is warranted, however. As Anderson (1995) reported in his study of curriculum reform, There is no silver bullet . . . . The search should not be for one key ingredient; the search should be for the inclusion of all of the essential ingredients—and putting them together in a manner that takes full account of the systemic nature of the situation. (p. 56) SPRING 2000


Snapshot of a Leader: Texas 2000 NSOTY Nominee

Cathy Bryce

Cathy Bryce, superintendent, Weatherford ISD, was selected as Texas’ nominee for the 2000 National Superintendent of the Year Program sponsored by the American Association of School Administrators. The following offers a snapshot of her responses to specific questions on AASA’s 2000 NSOTY Award Program Application. Q. Today’s school leaders must collaborate with groups in the community—both those that directly serve children and those that affect them. What are the two most important things you have done to communicate with and coalesce these diverse groups? What impact have these efforts had? A. One of the most important things that I have done to bring diverse groups within the community together to begin dialogue and to open channels of communication has been the initiation of a strategic planning process for the district. A new mission statement, beliefs, and indicators of success established by this group will guide the district in planning for the future. Six strategies were identified to form the framework for action plans that will result in 100 percent of Weatherford ISD students learning how to learn, succeeding both personally and professionally in a constantly changing world, and being responsible stewards of their community. Six committees, composed of parents, business and community leaders, school staff, board members and students, were organized to develop action plans for implementation of each strategy. The membership of the original group and the committees was representative of the diversity within the community. Approximately 130 individuals have 24 INSIGHT

been involved in this strategic planning process. The process itself and the community involvement have been critical in creating an awareness of not only the needs and issues facing the district but also the many good programs and outstanding learning opportunities that are in place in our schools.

growth rather than reacting to the growth of the city, it is anticipated that joint planning between the city and school will be greatly expanded. Quarterly joint meetings of the board of trustees and the Weatherford City Council are currently being planned. We are serving as a model for our community and our county to demonstrate the power of collaboration.

Substantial progress has been made in developing cooperative working relationships with city and county government with the support and guidance of the Weatherford ISD Board of Trustees. Joint meetings of the Weatherford City Council and the board of trustees, initiated by me, have provided opportunities for open discussion of growth issues common to the city and the school. Topics of discussion have included zoning considerations for new developments, traffic flow and safety issues as new schools are opened, safety and security concerns within the school and the community, and joint funding of facilities to meet youth athletic and adult recreational needs. An environmental project funded by the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission was a joint effort of Weatherford ISD; the City of Weatherford; Parker County commissioners; and Cleanscape, an affiliate of Keep Texas Beautiful and Keep America Beautiful. Weatherford ISD initiated dialogue for the project, coordinated project activities, and managed the overall project. This is the first time these groups have worked collaboratively on a project for the mutual benefit of the school and community.

Q. As we enter the 21st century, schools are moving from providing information to students to helping them find and turn information into usable knowledge. How have you helped prepare your staff for this new role? What other support have you given them?

These efforts have resulted in an awareness of common concerns of the three entities, and a forum has been established for open communication and dialogue about the issues. A major step has been taken in opening the doors for future planning for the rapid growth that the city and the district are experiencing. The City Council recently invited district representatives and members of the community to a meeting facilitated by a professional planner as it begins a strategic planning process similar to the one used by Weatherford ISD. With a new city manager that strongly supports planning for

A. As I visited campuses and began to meet with administrators and teachers shortly after arriving in Weatherford ISD, I initiated my own inquiry and discovery process to learn as much as possible about the instructional program as it existed in the district. Through the process of questioning and initiating dialogue with staff, the district has accelerated its move toward instruction focused on conceptual learning, instructional strategies based on inquiry and discovery rather than on lectures and textbooks, interdisciplinary studies, problem-solving and critical thinking skills, and application of knowledge and skills. Teachers are seeing their students as consumers of knowledge rather than storers of information and themselves as facilitators of learning rather than as presenters of content. The key to the changes brought about in the classroom has been the professional development opportunities made available to all staff. The maximum number of days allowed by the state under provisions of a waiver has been requested each year and used to bring highquality facilitators to the district, as well as to support time for teachers to plan and engage in deep dialogue about their practice. Teachers and administrators have been encouraged to attend conferences and workshops that would benefit them and their campuses and to visit other campuses and districts to observe programs that have potential for replication within

Weatherford ISD. Administrators have participated in monthly study sessions to review current literature that can be applied to their development as leaders and to expand their knowledge in areas that affect teaching and learning. An extended study of brain-based learning resulted in the request that all teachers receive copies of the book by Eric Jensen, Teaching with the Brain in Mind. Every campus conducted extended study sessions of the book to gain a common knowledge by which to rethink their individual and campus educational program. In addition, 591 teachers, classroom aides, and administrators will be attending the annual conference of the Texas Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development in October to hear Eric Jensen and Larry Lezotte. The role I have played in leading the learning with administrators has given them a model to take back to their campuses and departments that demonstrates the importance of making connections in the learning and in applying the learning in the workplace and/or their personal lives. They in turn have taken their learning, shared with their staffs, and modeled their commitment to lifelong learning for their teachers and students. The availability of adequate resources in the form of dedicated time; quality trainers; and ongoing support in the application of new learning, technical assistance, and appropriate materials, supplies, and technology is critical as we continue to improve teaching and learning. The Weatherford ISD Board of Trustees is fully committed to seeking all avenues of funding available to the district to support professional development as the role of the teacher evolves as the facilitator of learning, and to redesign the educational program as the students extend and apply the knowledge they gain through discovery and inquiry. Currently all elementary campuses are recipients of major grant awards to support a reading initiative, with four campuses also receiving grant funding for restructuring, professional development, and resources to improve teaching and learning. Technology also has played an important part in preparing staff to help students transform information into usable knowledge. Through a partnership with Coca Cola, the district was able to place new computers in every classroom and have them networked. Extensive training for all teachers has resulted in a knowledge base for teachers that allows them to use technology to access the Internet to expand curriculum resources, to connect their students with global resources, and to increase and enhance their communications with other teachers within the district on student-related issues and for instruc-

tional support. Distance learning labs, made available through a special grant, will continue to expand opportunities for new ways to acquire and use knowledge for both students and staff. Q. Experts say schools of the 21st century should be round-the-clock hubs for lifelong learning. At the same time, education must be extended beyond the traditional school walls—into the community and into cyberspace. What has your district done to pursue these two ideals? A. Weatherford ISD has a long-established tradition of supporting and encouraging lifelong learning by opening the doors to the community and taking students beyond the school walls into the community. It was exciting to come to a district that has well-developed programs in Adult and Community Education and extensive partnerships with parents, business leaders, and the community as a whole. I have encouraged the expansion of Community Education programs to encompass a broader range of activities for older adults; for young children, adolescents, and teens; and for other populations with specific needs. Greater accessibility to school facilities and technology has been made available to the community and to youth for enrichment and sports activities. The Career and Technology Department (CATE) has developed certification programs with major corporations such as CISCO that are providing exceptional opportunities for high school students and adults. The CISCO Academy trains and certifies individuals to design, build, and maintain computer networks.

well as for all levels of English as a Second Language. The district offers one of approximately six programs in the state for adults to earn a high school diploma. Additional instruction is provided in workplace settings with employers sharing the cost of the program, providing the facility, and offering incentives for their employees. After-school enrichment and child-care programs have been expanded to all elementary campuses to provide a safe haven for children that also reinforces their learning. Partnerships with local businesses have been greatly expanded to include approximately 200 local business leaders who provide support for the district in the form of commitment of time in planning and decision-making activities, financial and material resources, knowledge and expertise, and public support of students and the school. Students and teachers also are invited into local businesses to make the connections between what is learned in the classroom and its application in a variety of workplace settings. Partnerships currently are extending to allow students to serve as interns in local businesses in addition to the cooperative work programs that have been in place. Partners frequently are found in classrooms and leading special programs and activities at school, in the community, and in continued on page 36


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PTAs: Good Information to Share with Your Communities Parenting is a difficult task. In our society today, our young people are at risk. Nearly one-third grow up in poverty, more than one-half live in single-parent homes, and one-fourth lack health insurance. They are exposed to a violent world and a peer culture that rarely values learning. If it takes an entire community to raise a child, where can parents turn for assistance? One often misunderstood and underestimated source of assistance is PTA (Parent Teacher Association). PTA began as an organization to help mothers learn to become better mothers and to work for laws to help protect all children. Although most people believe PTA exists to raise money for schools, its primary goal is parent involvement and the promotion of health and safety for all children. PTAs work for children. They meet together, study problems, support teachers, volunteer in schools, attend workshops on parenting, and become informed on issues regarding children and youth. While the voice of one parent acting alone for a child is important, the voices of 750,000 parents in Texas and 6.5 million parents nationwide working together cannot be ignored. As a result, PTA members make a difference. In 1982, Texas PTA called for stronger drug information in textbooks and conducted 140 drug-awareness programs for Texan’s War on Drugs. In 1995, Texas PTA impacted the Texas Education Code giving parents access to 10 different student records. In 1999, PTA volunteers and staff worked to pass school-based health clinics, CHIP (Children’s Health Insurance Program), and 26


mandatory seat belts for all children 15 and under, and had a strong role in defeating vouchers. In 1995, the Texas Education Agency, working with Texas PTA, advocated revising the Texas Education Code to require each school have a parent-teacher organization. Schools and the public do not always understand the difference between PTA (Parent Teacher Association) and PTO (Parent Teacher Organization). PTA is a state- and nationalaffiliated organization dedicated to advocacy for all children. It has as resources other PTA units and state and national organizations. It has a voice in state and national legislation and has national network capabilities with other child advocates.

PTA sponsors Reflections, an art recognition and achievement program. Students in preschool through Grade 12 participate in the areas of literature, music, photography, and visual arts. The Teacher Scholarship Fund was established to assist Texas teachers in enhancing their professional skills and knowledge. Texas PTA has awarded more than $280,000 to more than 500 participants. The Emergency Relief Fund is maintained by the PTA state office. It issues grants to assist members of PTA who have suffered economic hardship due to illness, accidents, or natural disaster. It takes 20 individuals to form a new PTA. Most PTAs meet in a school situation but this is not a requirement. There is a statewide Star Spangled PTA that is open to those who wish to support the objectives of PTA but do not wish to affiliate with a local unit. PTSAs are parent-teacher-student associations that stress student involvement. Anyone from Grade 9 and up can be a member of PTSA. Leadership opportunities abound for members who wish to take on added responsibility. Texas PTA Leadership Orientation is available to any PTA member and is required for all PTA officers. The course provides training on goal setting, public speaking, management techniques, parliamentary procedure, and PTA specific information.

Additional training activities are available during Legislative Days (spring legislative years in Austin), Summer Leadership Seminar (July in Austin), and Texas PTA Annual Convention (November in varying large cities). The local portion of PTA dues is decided by members of the local unit. Each member’s dues must include one dollar for National PTA and one dollar for Texas PTA. All other monies collected at the local unit are to be used as determined by the unit’s members. Texas PTA dues collected are used to provide training materials, support to local PTAs, an 800 number, and the office operations in the historic state office. Located in downtown Austin, the office employs a staff of 20 full-time professionals. Each department serves the various member needs. Membership, Programs, Meetings and Convention, Communication, and Financial divisions all have the same mission—serve the members to promote the welfare of all children. It’s easy to see why PTA is the largest child advocacy organization in existence. Joining PTA also is easy. Contact a local campus PTA for membership enrollment information or call the Texas PTA Office at 1-800-TALK-PTA. Information also is available at the state Web site,, or the national Web site,

PTO is a campus-level advocacy group that deals primarily with issues arising from its school. There is no affiliation with other PTOs, and there are no state or national resources. Decisions made by a PTO have no effect on other children in other schools. The benefits of a PTA membership are many. PTA leaders receive monthly resources to help them present programs, understand issues relating to education and child safety, guide the operation of PTA, and be up to date on legislative issues. These resources help parents in the tough job of parenting and to bridge the gap between parents, teachers, administration, and students. PTA maintains a video-lending library with materials on AIDS education, alcohol and drug prevention, nutrition, arts in education, bicycle safety, child abuse prevention, discipline/ self-esteem, parenting, and more.

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TASA Annual Report 1998â&#x20AC;&#x201C;99

1999–2000 TASA Staff

TASA provides a broad range of member services in the areas of Administrative Services, Governmental Relations, Professional Development, and Communications and Technology. To derive its operating funds, TASA relies on a variety of income sources, including membership support, the TASA/TASB Annual Convention, and seminars and training, to name just a few. The charts on page 33 illustrate TASA’s revenue sources and expenditure categories for 1998–99 (the last full year for which data is available), as well as total revenue for the preceding four fiscal years. The association’s services and activities—broken down into individual categories—follow.

Membership The association provided benefits and services to 1,922 members in 1998–99. Membership categories are as follows: Superintendent (987) Central Office (629) Education Service Center (61) University/College (51) Association/Agency (17) Miscellaneous (34) Paid Life Retired (14) Associate (105) Student (24)



51% 33% 3% 3% 1% 2% 1% 5% 1%

Executive Office Johnny Veselka, executive director Trish Reichle, public relations coordinator Debbie LaRoche, executive secretary Administrative Services Pat Pringle, associate executive director Pat Johnston, director, special services Nanette Gardner, accountant II Steve Flores, executive assistant, special projects Ginny Endress, manager, data services Barbara Hardin, administrative assistant Lisa Gregory, accountant I Kaye Copeland, secretary Pam Cantrell, accounting clerk Marita Rogers, receptionist Jean Hilderbrand, secretary/receptionist Governmental Relations Louann Martinez, associate executive director David Backus, staff counsel and assistant executive director Kim Skotak, administrative secretary Professional Development Ellen Bell, associate executive director Dian Cooper, assistant executive director Jennifer Wright, administrative secretary Dottie Petersen, secretary Communications & Technology Ann Halstead, director Iliana Cavazos, graphics/production coordinator Karen Limb, editorial coordinator Mark Pyeatt, communications specialist

SPRING 2000 31

Total Expenditures 1998–99

Membership Services

Capital Expenditures 3% Communications 4%

Professional Development Offered professional development opportunities to school administrators across the state through workshops on a wide variety of topics, including:

Building Operations 6% Administration 13%

Technology Leadership Academy (sponsored by Southwestern Bell, Cabletron Systems, Cisco Systems, Corbey Company, and Microsoft Corporation)

TASA/Texas A&M Administrative Leadership Institute (cosponsored with Texas A&M University)

Texas Assessment Conference (cosponsored with TEA, TAAC, TACTP, and NATD)

Professional Development and Support 38% Salaries and Benefits 36%

Total Revenue 1998–99 ●

Grant Writing: Finding Dollars for Instructional Technology (sponsored by Computer Curriculum Corporation)

Publications/Advertising 2% Building Operations 3%

Continued planning for Learning for Leadership: A Mentoring Program for New Superintendents. Participation in such a program will be a requirement of the certification process for the superintendency effective September 1, 2000.

Miscellaneous 6% Royalties 13% Membership Dues 15% Convention 19%

Represented TASA on the State Board for Educator Certification (SBEC) Educator Certificate Renewal Task Force to advise SBEC on changing teacher professional development from seat time and certificates to meaningful professional development linked to teacher and student learning.

Seminars/Training/ASRC 42%

Total Revenue 1994–95 to 1998–99 Served on the National Staff Development Council Host Committee for the annual conference, which had not been in Texas since 1993. Faces of the Millennium: Our Challenge, Our Future was the title of the international conference that brought 3,500 attendees to Dallas, including more than 800 Texas staff developers. Served on the Professional Development Imperative, a group of more than 20 professional associations working to create a new vision for educator professional development. The PDI has written a "rally cry" statement of what meaningful professional development entails, including being research-based, having follow-up, and committing educators to take responsibility for their own learning and organizations to provide resources that support learning.

3,500,000 3,000,000







2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000,000

1994–95 32





1998-99 (est.) SPRING 2000 33

Governmental Relations Completed a successful legislative session, achieving many of the legislative priorities established by both the TASA Legislative and Executive Committees, and the TASA/TASB Joint Special Committee on Revenue and School Funding. Specifically, TASA, with the coordinated assistance of its members working with the TASA staff, helped secure the lion’s share of the state's surplus revenue, garnering $3.8 billion for public education spending. A large portion of that appropriation went to a TASA priority—increasing teacher salaries. As part of the $3,000 increase for every teacher, librarian, nurse, and counselor, both automatic escalators that increased the minimum salary and required number of days when additional state funds flowed through the FSP were eliminated. In addition, the large infusion of dollars also went to increasing the basic allotment, raising the guaranteed yield and wealth levels. Contributed to the successful defeat of legislative initiatives such as vouchers, legislation creating a new indicator to the AEIS for noneconomically disadvantaged students, and legislation that would have held districts accountable for any student for whom the school could not fully verify enrollment in another school in the state or nation. Participated in legislative briefings around the state upon conclusion of the 76th Legislative Session; completed the final bill summary report; and monitored and actively participated in matters at the state level that related to the State Board for Educator Certification and the State Board of Education, as well as House and Senate Interim Committees. Organized and initiated a new legislative committee effective June 1999 through May 31, 2001. Worked with the new committee under the leadership of Dawson Orr, TASA legislative chair and superintendent of Pampa ISD, to identify and organize legislative strategy for the 77th Session, convening in January 2001.

Communications Continued offering a wide variety of publications and communications services that complement all association services and help to inform and educate members. Redesigned TASAnet, the association’s World Wide Web page. The primary goal of the new design is to give members direct access to education resources so they don’t have to spend their valuable time searching the Internet. Now included on the home page are indexes of links to TASA departments and services, including membership information and forms; education news sites, including Texas daily newspapers; key education organization sites; and more than 100 resources on topics such as accountability and performance, educator certification, school safety and discipline, and technology. The site continues to include a comprehensive calendar of events scheduled by TASA and other education organizations; governmental relations issues, including news on state and national levels and activities of state government and education-related committees; and a listing of administrative and teacher/professional support staff vacancies in Texas.



Strategic Planning Offered two Strategic Planning programs through affiliation with The Cambridge Group: Strategic Planning External Facilitation, a comprehensive program designed for districts with fewer than 7,500 students; and the Strategic Planning Certification Institute, for school districts that want to train members of their own staff to lead the district’s Strategic Planning efforts.

additional participants were trained at 5 different locations across the state. Also, 167 additional school district personnel at 14 locations received the Structural Pest Control Board’s required Integrated Pest Management Coordinator training through the association. In addition, training was given to more than 212 participants in 15 CEU/Sports Turf workshops and 85 participants in 5 Maintenance and Operations workshops.

Provided external facilitation to seven school districts with a complete turnkey approach to developing a long-range strategic plan. Directed by TASA external facilitators, school districts analyzed critical issues, set objectives, and developed a comprehensive three- to five-year plan. The strategic plans were characterized by:

Continued the Professional Liability Insurance Program for TASA members, offering an occurrence policy providing for liability and employee-rights coverage; 847 TASA members subscribed to this service during 1998–99, including 131 new subscribers.

A vision of the next five to ten years Concentration of effort through a focused mission and measurable objectives Full district and community involvement District and community consensus District and community support Implementation through individualized administrative accountabilities Annual evaluation, renewal, and update of the plan Supported the overall goal of the planning process in involving the community and enabling the district to practice true Strategic Planning across all programs and activities.

Cosponsored the Superintendent Leadership Development Program in cooperation with ESC Regions 2, 13, and 20, which utilizes a variety of simulation exercises and an interview to assess administrative behavior in 11 skill dimensions.

Texas Curriculum Management Audit Center Conducted training seminars on a variety of curriculum management audit processes and theories, including: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Developing User-Friendly Curriculum Guides Curriculum Management Audit Training Curriculum Management Audit Report Writing Curriculum Alignment for Math and Science Curriculum Alignment for Language Arts and Social Studies Curriculum-Driven Budgeting

Facility Planning Completed nine facilities studies through the association’s Facility Planning Services, designed to assist school districts with demographic and enrollment studies, long-range facilities planning, and writing educational programs for facilities.

Identified potential lead auditors from Texas’ pool of trained auditors; included Texas auditors on audit teams across the country.

Sponsored the 10th Annual National School Facilities Workshop with AASA in cooperation with CEFPI, Southern Region, which offered a combination of national and state perspectives, as well as identified facility trends that support and respond to educational programs and new teaching.

Led the nation in the design of audit training and the number of districts requesting audit and curriculum alignment services.

Administrative Services Resource Center Continued providing quality technical and professional support services through ASRC, serving 308 subscribers in 1998–99. Completed development of the Superintendent Evaluation Handbook containing resources, legal requirements, and sample instruments essential to all superintendents. Conducted the 7th Annual First-time Superintendents’ Academy, offering first- and second-year superintendents an in-depth examination of the roles, responsibilities, and challenges inherent in the superintendency. Continued to offer pesticide training sessions to prepare school personnel for the state-mandated pesticide applicator examinations; 30

Conducted curriculum management audits in eight Texas school districts.

Texas Leadership Center Continued successful professional development training seminars, including D.E.C.I.D.E. (Six Steps in Conflict Resolution) and Leadership Development Process. Piloted Building Vertical Teams training of trainers. The seminar is one of the most popular in the 1999–2000 professional development calendar. Made plans to host the first Motorola University Leadership Development Institute for Texas superintendents February 22–25, 2000. A design team advised TASA/Texas Leadership Center staff through the pilot and redesign of the program offered initially in Illinois. Sought funding for the Advanced Leadership Academy for School Executives to include training of trainers in assessment for development activities for experienced school administrators.

SPRING 2000 35

Snapshot of a Leader continued from page 25 their places of business. A strong partnership with Weatherford College has resulted in the development of many new articulation agreements to allow high school students to begin their coursework for two-year certification programs. Through service learning, the community has truly become the classroom for elementary and secondary students. Through grant funds, an outdoor learning center and garden area have been created along a creek that runs beside the high school. It is the lab for science and horticulture classes, and a source for inquiry and discovery projects within many disciplines. Weatherford ISD has been recognized at both the state and national levels as the Outstanding Service Learning Program in Texas at the elementary and secondary levels. Weatherford ISD has placed technology as a high priority for extending the educational program beyond traditional school walls. An aggressive approach to making high-quality technology available to every teacher and in every classroom in the district has put Weatherford well ahead of many districts in Texas. As technology has been made available to teachers, extensive training has been required to ensure that teachers have the skills to use the technology to improve instruction and to open the channel to global communications for their students. A district Web site provides an exceptional tool for communications with parents and others who are interested in information about the district. Links are available to campuses, community resources, and various special topics with updates regularly. The District Calendar of Events is published weekly in the local newspaper to keep the public informed of school activities. I recently began weekly broadcasts on a local radio station to feature academic programs, student achievements in all areas, and such issues as district growth and long-range plans to accommodate the growth. Distance learning capabilities expand opportunities for new courses for students, advanced college studies for staff, and professional development for staff. District staff, under the leadership of the director of technology, have developed a Technology Enhanced Curriculum Initiative that has been presented at conferences and workshops across the state. This innovative project has encouraged teachers to develop new curriculum modules to integrate the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills that are dynamic and can be shared with other teachers. Weatherford, Texas, is an outstanding model of a "community of learners."

Q. Leadership in schools and elsewhere is constantly changing. Briefly explain your



understanding of the term "superintendent of education." How does your style of leadership relate to this concept? A. To me, the term "superintendent of education," most simply defined, refers to the lead learner in a community of learners. As the chief purveyor of learning within the community, it is the responsibility of the superintendent to model what the district stands for. Learning is not just for youth. It is not just for those in the field of education. Lifelong learning is essential for everyone. It is not limited to academic, content-based education. Learning is what keeps us growing and active and alert to the world around us. As a superintendent of education, I must be willing to question our practices, generate critical thinking to analyze where we are, lead the way to improving teaching and learning through examination of the research, and create an atmosphere where it is safe to step outside the box and take the risks of going beyond where we are to where we want to be. My own style of leadership relates very closely to the concept of the "superintendent of education." I believe that the most effective form of leadership is modeling. It is very difficult to expect others to follow if they are not able to see in your actions what you expect of them. Communication occurs best when everyone has a common base of knowledge that comes from studying and learning together. With communication comes the opportunity for questioning and applying new learning in problem-solving situations. It also creates opportunities for challenging what we do and why we continue to do things in the same way.

where campus administrators have initiated study groups at their campuses similar to those in which they participate with other administrators. Teachers have been active learners and have expanded their groups to include parents who asked to participate in their study sessions. My commitment to children is evident in everything that I do. I believe it is critical that I be very visible in my commitment to kids. I am frequently in classrooms at all grade levels and at every campus. I am an active supporter, observer, and participant in all extracurricular activities, special events, performances, and other activities in which our students participate. The personal relationships I develop with students serve as a source of strength for me and continually renew my energy, my enthusiasm, and my dedication to ensuring that the highest quality of education is available to every child. As a superintendent of education, I believe that I must have a vision that will enable me to see beyond our current reality. I must be able to communicate that vision to others, inspire others to share that vision, and then lead them to enroll in our future and commit their efforts to the work to be done to move forward. Continuous improvement must be our motto as we work to make things better. As a leader, I was pleased to read the following excerpt from a Blue Ribbon School application prepared by Weatherford High School staff:

As a teacher for the entire community, every interaction I have is an opportunity to teach about the importance of learning and the role of public education. I urge our employees and board of trustees to be cognizant of the fact that we are no longer the only game in town. Democracy is dependent on an educated populace, and public education will continue to be the most viable venue for education for the masses. As the diversity of our country and its cultures continues to change, it is incredibly important that we strive to improve our teaching in order that our children may achieve success in a constantly changing world. Only through education can the children of today become the leaders that we will need to carry us forward in the 21st century.

"Dr. Cathy Bryce makes it her business to keep abreast of the latest information in education and legislation affecting the public school system. Under her guidance, Weatherford ISD and Weatherford High School in particular have been involved in the study of "brain-compatible learning" and its impact in the classroom. Dr. Bryce has challenged school administrators and faculty to set higher standards and goals for academic excellence, better attendance, fewer dropouts, and better communication within the campus, district, and community. The results of this push for superiority is evident in improving TAAS scores, better attendance records, and increasing involvement of business and community in school affairs (i.e., Facilities Planning Committee). Because of this new leadership, Weatherford is more aware of the trends in education outside the boundaries of our district and is more willing to act positively to improve education within those boundaries."

By demonstrating my commitment to lifelong learning, we have created a climate safe for learning for staff and students and parents. The effectiveness of this type of modeling is evident

Reading these comments was very rewarding as I realized that as a superintendent of education my passion for children and their education is making a difference in Weatherford, Texas.


American Association of School Administrators Texas Association of School Administrators in cooperation with the Council of Educational Facility Planners, International–Southern Region

11th Annual National School Facilities Workshop

0 7/1 9 - 21/2 0 0 0



Kimberley Briggs Ronald Caloss Steve Crane Timothy “Tim” D. Crowe Geoffrey H. Fletcher Kerry Leonard David S. Soleau To register, call TASA today at 800-725-TASA.


From the Director

Developing and Sharpening Leadership Skills by Gloria J. Crum and Marla M. Guerra A school with a strong leader is a focused organization that creates successful students and an environment that fosters intellectual growth for everyone. Knowledge enables a leader to be effective through choosing the best action for a given situation. The Principals Assessment and Development Center (PADC) at ESC Region 1 in Edinburg, Texas, is based on the belief that this knowledge comes from an awareness of the essential proficiencies needed and opportunities to apply those skills. This article shares the development, design, and depth of impact of the various principal academies attended by principals and assistant principals in the ESC Region 1 area. The PADC program has recently been named one of the "Top Ten" professional development programs for school administrators in the United States by the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC). In 1996, ESC Region 1 began the project of developing professional development and assessment activities for principals. The first principals’ academy was designed to study the leadership capacity and effectiveness of campus principals and how that might affect the campus performance. The PADC assessed principals’ skill levels and developed training experiences that assisted principals in developing and strengthening their leadership skills. The demographics of the first academy participants included the following: ● ● ● ●

Thirty principals with zero to 22 years’ experience An equal number of elementary and secondary school principals An equal number of male and female principals Twenty-seven different districts represented in the cohort group

These principals helped evaluate the various sessions and resources and made suggestions and gave approval to the design of the present academies. In addition, the Texas Center for Educational Research (TCER) evaluated the original Leaders of Excellence Academy I. As a result, academies were offered at three levels in the ESC Region 1 area during the 1997–1998 school year: assistant principals,



beginning-level principals, and experiencedlevel principals. The campus rating, level of professional development, and organizational leadership were considered in matching principals with their respective academies. Seventy-four principals attended the three academies the second year. Additional changes were made as a result of feedback received from the participants. This year, 219 principals are attending three different types of academies. The PADC academies are based on the belief that assessment and professional development must be linked in order to develop strong leadership capacity. We use a network or cohort group for the delivery of professional development that allows opportunities to share ideas and reflections regarding instruction, curriculum, organization, and leadership. Comprehensive professional development that includes awareness, skill building, follow-up, and feedback is also a part of the academies. Mentoring and coaching opportunities are essential to the incorporation of newly learned or renewed skills. Participants select their own mentors who can commit to participating for the duration of the program. (The campus principal is the mentor for the participating assistant principals.) For the most part, mentors are other principals and central office staff. Mentors are required to participate in one and one-half days of training, which focus on effective mentoring practices as identified by the National Association of Secondary School Principals. They also attend periodic meetings in which they collaborate with their protégés on various projects. Each academy has core sessions that are attended by all participants, but participants also have opportunities to select individual sessions within the three academies. The assistant principals’ academy is called Supporting Leaders. The academy participants stay together for one school year. The core competencies and activities include leadership skills, legal-issues role playing, mentor/coaching meeting and development of professional growth plan, professional organizations’ resources, book review on the assistant principalship, and simulations and solutions. Various assessments are utilized

that include the School Administrators Skill Assessment (SASA) and True Colors. The beginning-level principals’ academy is called Developing Leaders. The academy participants stay together for a two-year period. The core competencies and activities include an overview of leadership skills, politics, simulations, development of a professional growth plan, mentoring and coaching, Seven Habits of Highly Effective People, budget planning, staff development, technology, and an individual project. The assessments utilized are Developmental Assessment Center (DAC), the Leader Effectiveness and Adaptability Description (LEAD), the FIRO-B instrument, and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. The experienced-level principals’ academy is called Leaders of Excellence. The core competencies and activities include leadership skills, simulations and feedback skills, mentoring and coaching, technology update, organization skills, discussions on hot topics, and an individual project tied to the principal’s campus plan. The assessment utilized is Selecting & Developing the 21st Century Principal. In addition, the principal completes the LEAD-Self questionnaire, and members of the principal’s campus staff complete the LEAD-Others questionnaire to measure their perceptions of the principal’s leadership skills. A correlation of this information is made to the principal’s Myers-Briggs Type Indicator results and the implications the information has on campus decisionmaking effectiveness. Professional development does take time. Therefore, the time must be carefully planned. Using the cohort concept enhances the delivery of professional development. In the Summer 1999 issue of the Journal of Staff Development, Ann Lieberman states that, "The kind of sharing that goes on in educational networks often has the effect of dignifying and giving shape to the process and content of educators’ experiences, the daily-ness of their work, which is often invisible to outsiders yet binds insiders together." Gloria J. Crum is director of the Principals Assessment and Development Center at ESC Region 1. Marla M. Guerra is an assistant professor in the Department of Educational Administration and Supervision at The University of Texas–Pan American.

News from the Texas Leadership Center

Board Briefs

The following are highlights of the Texas Leadership Center board of directors meeting held January 26, 2000. Updates

"Tools for Task Facilitation" Module The module, which is a three-way partnership between TEA, TASA/TLC, and the Texas Staff Development Council, was piloted November 10, 1999, and January 11, 2000, with TEA staff and TSDC board members. The final module will be available for training in fall 2000. ●

Motorola University Leadership Development Institute The first institute for Texas superintendents was held February 22–25, 2000, at the new Motorola facility in Austin. Approximately 20 superintendents were in attendance. Prework consisted of the book Built to Last, the Leadership Practices Inventory, and the MyersBriggs Type Indicator. ●

Academy was held February 9, 2000, during the Texas Computer Education Association conference. The focus for the session was on integrating technology into the curriculum. One hundred thirty administrators are participating in the four-phase academy, which includes online assignments and an online book study.

Technology Leadership Academy Phase Two of the Technology Leadership

In official business, the board of directors approved the minutes of the October 9, 1999, meeting and approved the financial statement of the center.

who view what they do as a job rather than a vocation, who are drained of energy rather than being animated, energized workers—we see a dispirited organization. Additionally, if leadership is all top-down, we will see a dispirited organization.

The author offers five requirements for the partnership model to work. These are presented in rich descriptions in the book and, as one reads them, site-based management resurfaces in the mind. It calls the question: Is site-based management being practiced in a true partnership?

An important lesson from this book is that some practices of leadership will suppress spirit—the force that creates energy, creativity, and commitment. Three major practices will create dispirited organizations: (1) coercive power, (2) persons in leadership roles who are unaware of their "shadow side" and how it can impact their organization, and (3) ego-driven executives. Those in leadership roles must be willing to take a close look at how their strengths and weaknesses impact the organization. For example a superintendent who is fear-based will put into place systems and procedures that are overly documented and accountability based. A principal who acts as if all he or she has to do is tell the teachers what is to be done (coercive power) creates compliant, but not truly committed, individuals.

The five requirements (the first three will look familiar; the last two deserve some deeper thought and discussion) are:

Book Review Leadership and Spirit by Russ Moxley Published by Center for Creative Leadership‚ and Jossey-Bass, ISBN 0-7879-0949-1 Reviewed by Jody Mason Westbrook, consultant, Texas Leadership Center and TASA With all that is written about leadership and leading, it is easy to dismiss the literature that doesn’t give us step-by-step solutions to the difficulties education faces. We adopt and implement reform after reform, but still we experience struggles. Perhaps our struggles are not because of the wrong programs or the way we implemented them. Perhaps, as Russ Moxley, author of Leadership and Spirit, challenges us to think, it is because we have dispirited leaders, workers, and thus, organizations. How can a dispirited organization create spirit, learning, and a zest for achievement in its students if the adults do not have those same qualities? With 30 years of experience in a variety of organizations, teaching and coaching hundreds of executives and managers, Moxley has observed the presence or absence of "spirit" and the resultant impact on organizations. Spirit is defined as "the unseen force that breathes life into us, enlivens us, gives energy to us." Spirit is not used in a religious sense, but more in terms of the ability to feel connected to others, our work, and our true selves. It is when "we feel most alive and find new sources of vitality and energy." If one looks at a school district and sees only physical and mental energy at work—workers

We know from years of site-based decision making that there exist varying degrees of success. In some cases, SBDM truly has individuals involved at all levels in real dialogue and decision making, but in others, the mere stamping of approval on someone else’s decision occurs. The difference: true practice of leadership as a partnership. This practice, as described by Moxley, is the next generation of leadership, passing up the "leader as an individual" model. He maintains, in very compelling examples, that partnership "mitigates the power, ego, and shadow" issues of leaders.

Balance of Power—when all individuals both claim and use their personal power for the shared work Shared Purpose—an abiding commitment to reaching a goal, even if there are differences on how to reach the goal Shared Responsibility—authority and accountability shared by all members Respect for the Person—a down-in-the-gut belief in the inherent worth and value of every person Partnering in the Nitty-Gritty—a belief that difficult, gut-wrenching decisions, when decided by more than one person, usually create a better and stronger decision Make no mistake—it is "possible to be successful, even highly successful, and have a dispirited workforce. But it doesn’t have to be that way." The Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development devoted an entire issue of Educational Leadership to “The Spirit of Education.” Review that issue, read the thoughtand heart-prokoving book Leaderhsip and Spirit, and then take a look at your leadership—does it encourage great work for our students, or does it squash the worker’s spirit?

SPRING 2000 39

New2000 Honorary Life


Thomas V. Alvis Superintendent Lefors ISD 6/30/1999 (38) Orville L. Ballard Field Service Representative ESC Region II 8/31/1999 (30) J. Phil Barefield Superintendent Aspermont ISD 12/31/1999 (29) James F. Barta Superintendent Natalia ISD 6/30/1999 (44)

Vernon Bohach Assistant Superintendent for Business Glen Rose ISD 6/30/1999 (40) Larry G. Butler Superintendent Stephenville ISD 12/31/1999 (30) Ronald Caloss Superintendent Hurst-Euless-Bedford ISD 5/31/1999 (32) Jimmie F. Carpenter Superintendent Midlothian ISD 6/30/1999 (28)

Gilbert Bernstein Assistant Superintendent for Administrative Services Denton ISD 7/31/1999 (30)

James C. Caveness Superintendent Grapeland ISD 5/31/1999 (30)

Nicholas D. Blain Superintendent Liberty-Eylau ISD 6/30/1999 (33)

William L. Chapman Superintendent Kenedy ISD 6/30/1999 (38)

Albert Pat Blankenship Superintendent Adrian ISD 5/31/1999 (43)

Jack E. Cockrill Superintendent McKinney ISD 2/28/1999 (36)



Each year, TASA pays special tribute through the presentation of Honorary Life Memberships to school administrators who have demonstrated extraordinary devotion to education and to the association. On January 24, 2000, the following 53 educators, who have at least 10 years of membership in TASA and who have completed at least 25* years of active service in the teaching profession (pursuant to Article III, Section 2, of the TASA Constitution), were honored. *An amendment to the TASA Constitution and Bylaws, passed in December 1999, changed the years of service requirements from 30 to 25. Due to recent changes in Teacher Retirement System benefits, many members are now retiring with less than 30 years of service.

Robert W. Denton Superintendent Sherman ISD 1/1/2000 (30)

James L. Harrison Superintendent Ferris ISD 12/31/1998 (31)

Patrick L. Deviney Associate Executive Director for Administrative Services TASA 8/31/1999 (30)

Michael P. Hartman Superintendent Coahoma ISD 3/1/1999 (30)

Billy L. Dornburg Department Director, Personnel Services ESC Region IV 9/30/1999 (32) James H. Ethridge Superintendent Star ISD 12/31/1998 (25) Les Farmer Superintendent Hubbard ISD (ESC 12) 11/30/1999 (31) Ron Gregory Superintendent Shamrock ISD 6/14/1999 (37) Jerry M. Hardy Superintendent Winnsboro ISD 6/30/1999 (35)

Lawrence L. Lane Superintendent Llano ISD 6/30/1999 (44)

William J Moore Superintendent Muleshoe ISD 6/30/1999 (30)

Bobby L. Roberts Executive Director ESC Region VI 2/28/1999 (42)

James H. Stewart, Jr. Superintendent Masonic Home ISD 7/31/1999 (44)

James W. Logan Superintendent Merkel ISD 5/31/1999 (40)

Thomas C. Myers Superintendent Gainesville ISD 6/30/1999 (31)

Jack Shanks Superintendent Dayton ISD 6/30/1999 (30)

Richard P. Stockman Superintendent Lometa ISD 5/31/1999 (30)

Jimmie Lynn Malone Superintendent Decatur ISD 10/1/1998 (29)

Joe C. Nation Assistant Superintendent Ballinger ISD 7/1/1999 (32)

Allen Sheffield Superintendent Hardin ISD 5/31/1999 (33)

Wanda Wyatt Talasek Assistant Superintendent for Business and Finance Fredericksburg ISD 11/16/1999 (30)

James D. McDaniel Superintendent Burton ISD 6/30/1998 (28)

Rex Peeples Superintendent Darrouzett ISD 6/30/1999 (39)

Jill Shugart Superintendent Garland ISD 11/30/1999 (38)

Carl McEachern Superintendent Bonham ISD 5/31/1999 (36)

Martin R. Pe単a Superintendent Point Isabel ISD 8/13/1999 (39)

Billy C. Sparks Superintendent Penelope ISD 5/30/1999 (32)

Nancy L. McNeal Superintendent East Bernard ISD 12/31/1999 (29)

Maurice Rawlings Associate Superintendent for Legal Services Hurst-Euless-Bedford ISD 6/30/1999 (44)

Lynda O. Speak Deputy Superintendent for Curriculum Katy ISD 11/30/1998 (38)

Dwight D. Winkler Superintendent Cuero ISD 6/30/1998 (29) Phil A. Wood, Sr. Superintendent Neches ISD 6/30/1999 (31) Franklin L. Wray Superintendent Leary ISD 5/1/1999 (30)

Robert B. Spoonemore Superintendent Pflugerville ISD 6/1/1999 (37)

Charles A. Holloway Superintendent Grand Prairie ISD 2/28/1999 (29) Rachel W. Howell Deputy Superintendent Mansfield ISD 6/30/1998 (25) Ervin Leroy Huddleston Superintendent Andrews ISD 3/5/1999 (31) Jo Anne King Assistant Superintendent Alvin ISD 5/31/1999 (45) Larry E. Krumnow Assistant Superintendent/ Business Manager Madisonville CISD 12/31/1998 (36) SPRING 2000 41

Cavazos, Jose Marcelo Associate Superintendent for Instruction Arlington ISD 1203 West Pioneer Parkway Arlington, TX 76013-6246 817-459-7300, fax: 817-459-7299

Directory Update of TASA Members The following are TASA members who have either renewed their membership or joined the association since October 25, 1999, the deadline for entry in our 1999–2000 Directory, Who’s Who in Texas Public Schools. Please insert this list in your directory for future reference. Agnew, Dwayne President Agnew Associates, Inc. 3223 So. Loop 289, Suite 424 Lubbock, TX 79423 806-799-0753, fax: 806-799-2014

Barron, Pam Special Programs Coordinator Carlisle ISD P.O. Box 187 Price, TX 75687-0187 903-861-3801, fax: 903-861-3932

Akins, Charles Associate Superintendent for Development and Community Partners Austin ISD 1111 West 6th Austin, TX 78703-5399 512-414-2482, fax: 512-414-8080

Battershell, Robin Superintendent Salado ISD P.O. Box 98 Salado, TX 76571-0098 254-947-5479, fax: 254-947-5605

Alemán, Jr., Delfino 226 Mission Street San Antonio, TX 78210 210-223-1107, fax: 512-463-7915

Becktold, Toni Hill 5000 CR 320 Blanket, TX 76432 915-646-8921

Anglin, Jane N. Principal Tornillo ISD P.O. Box 170 Tornillo, TX 79853-0170 915-764-5701, fax: 915-764-2020

Bennett, Gerald Assistant Superintendent Windham School District 801 Fort Gates Waco, TX 76708 936-291-5300, fax: 936-436-4031

Baker, III, Joseph K. 1606 Westwind Drive Fort Stockton, TX 79735 915-336-8560 Barnes, Gerald Lamar Assistant Superintendent Tyler ISD P.O. Box 2035 Tyler, TX 75710-2035 903-531-3608, fax: 903-533-5002 Barnett, Michael D. Chief Appraiser Smith County Appraisal District 245 SSE Loop 323 Tyler, TX 75702-2035 903-510-8600, fax: 903-510-8621



Bigbee, Edd M. Superintendent Azle ISD 300 Roe Street Azle, TX 76020-3194 817-444-3235, fax: 817-444-6866 Brown, C. Dewayne Executive Director of Support Services Troup ISD P.O. Box 578 Troup, TX 75789-0578 903-842-3067, fax: 903-842-4563

Cavil, Ben L. Director of Auxiliary Support Services La Marque ISD P.O. Box 7 La Marque, TX 77568-0007 409-938-4251, fax: 409-938-7347

Burnham, Joan G. Executive Director The Austin Project 901 Neal Street Austin, TX 78702 512-474-8007, fax: 512-474-8102 Burns, Bobby C. Area Assistant Superintendent for Administrative Services Carrollton-Farmers Branch ISD P.O. Box 115186 Carrollton, TX 75011-5186 972-466-6130, fax: 972-323-5886 Burrows–Mingea, Suzanne English Teacher–Newsletter Coordinator The Oakridge School 1805 Thomas Place Fort Worth, TX 76107 817-731-9565, fax: 817-731-9565 Carpenter, Lawrence E. 205 W. Gruver Circle Hewitt, TX 76643-3716 254-666-6087 Caudle, Virginia 2920 Pecan Springs Road Austin, TX 78723 512-928-3889

Cavitt, Vickey Elane Administrative Assistant to the Superintendent Comanche ISD 405 North Lane Street Comanche, TX 76442-2328 915-356-3357, fax: 915-356-3476 Clarke, Fred C. Assistant Superintendent for Technology Longview ISD P.O. Box 3268 Longview, TX 75606-3268 903-758-1728, fax: 903-236-3696 Clary, Cynthia Director of Instruction Ingram ISD 510 College Street Ingram, TX 78025-4101 830-367-5517, fax: 830-367-4869 Clements, Rickie Lynn Assistant Superintendent Sanger ISD P.O. Box 2399 Sanger, TX 76266 940-458-7438, fax: 940-458-5140 Cloud, Ariel 2117 Wychwood Drive Austin, TX 78746 512-327-4189 Coleman, Derrell 1101 Black Locust Pflugerville, TX 78660 512-990-7173 Cook, Ron Johnson Controls, Inc. 326 West Nakoma San Antonio, TX 78216-2690 210-349-9100, fax: 210-349-8730

Couch, Ken Regional Director, Marketing MBIA, Inc. 813 W. 11th Street, Suite B Austin, TX 78701 800-707-6242, fax: 512-479-8584 Cousins, Lindsey Marketing Coordinator Bay Architects 18201 Gulf Freeway Houston, TX 77289 281-286-6605, fax: 281-286-9606 Crabbs, Bill Michael W. Marrs Architects 2002 Scott Blvd. Temple, TX 76504 254-778-0877, fax: 254-778-1133 Craigo, Charlotte B. Associate Superintendent, Region 4 El Paso ISD P.O. Box 20100 El Paso, TX 79901-1442 915-834-5291, fax: 915-834-6705 Cross, Darryl Executive Director Richardson ISD 707 E. Arapaho Road Richardson, TX 75081 972-238-6634, fax: 972-238-6602 Daniel, Christopher Principal The North Hills School 5992 N. O'Connor Road Irving, TX 75039 972-273-6000, fax: 972-273-6111 Davis, Ron Account Executive DISA, Inc. 10750 Hammerly Blvd. Houston, TX 77043 713-972-3472, fax: 713-972-3449

Earp, Diana L. Client Services Linebarger, Heard, Goggan, Blair, Graham, Pena, Sampson, L.L.P. P.O. Box 17428 Austin, TX 78760-7428 512-447-6675, fax: 512-447-8791 Eschenbrenner, Janet Business Unit Leader Energy Services Business Group, El Paso Electric P.O. Box 982 El Paso, TX 79960 915-543-2265, fax: 915-521-4780 Faragoza-Olguin, Pricelda Superintendent Pettus ISD P.O. Box 504 Pettus, TX 78146-1149 361-375-3215, fax: 361-375-2295 Fields, Shane Superintendent Southland ISD Route 2, Box 103 Southland, TX 79364 806-996-5599, fax: 806-996-5342 Franklin, Cherri 301 SE Mustang Andrews, TX 79714 915-523-6292 Franklin, Claude Eugene Superintendent Slidell ISD P.O. Box 69 Slidell, TX 76267 940-466-3118, fax: 940-466-3062

Deming, Grant T. 1306 Skyline Ct. College Station, TX 77845 979-690-0315

Furr, Guy Superintendent Murchison ISD P.O. Box 538 Murchison, TX 75778-0538 903-469-3636, fax: 903-469-3887

Dennis, Jerry Associate Superintendent for Human Resources Pasadena ISD 1515 Cherrybrook Pasadena, TX 77502-1799 713-920-8539, fax: 713-475-7912

Gaffney, Patricia M. Educational Specialist ESC Region 4 7145 West Tidwell Houston, TX 77092-2096 713-744-6358, fax: 713-744-6522

SPRING 2000 43

Garrison, Joe Assistant Superintendent Tyler ISD P.O. Box 2035 Tyler, TX 75710-2035 903-531-3596, fax: 903-533-5016

Hart, Cheri A. Principal Cuero ISD 805 N. Hunt Cuero, TX 77954 361-275-2416, fax: 361-275-3474

Klussmann, Duncan F. Area 2 Superintendent Spring Branch ISD 16210 Capri Drive Houston, TX 77040 713-464-1511, ext. 2400, fax: 713-365-4819

Gast, Keith E. Superintendent Cotton Center ISD P.O. Box 350 Cotton Center, TX 79021-0350 806-879-2160, fax: 806-879-2175

Hartwick, Larry 508 E. 15th Street Colorado City, TX 79512 915-728-2553

Lacy, Robert C. Primary Principal Crockett County CCSD P.O. Box 400 Ozona, TX 76943-0400 915-392-5501, fax: 915-392-5177

Gatson, Jeanie Assistant Superintendent for Curriculum and Instruction Newton ISD 414 N. Main Newton, TX 75966 409-379-3254, fax: 409-379-5401 Gibson, Robert Superintendent Miles ISD P.O. Box 308 Miles, TX 76861-0308 915-468-2861, fax: 915-468-2179 Gill, Lisa Brady School Solutions Manager Project ACHIEVE 5905 Still Forest Drive Dallas, TX 75252 972-267-2722, fax: 972-267-2762 Gonzales, Janie 2401 Lake Air Waco, TX 76710 254-753-1533 Gonzalez, Cornelio 302 W. 38th Street, Apt. 218 Austin, TX 78705 512-371-9137 Gregory, Thomas Business Development, Education CE Ward Constructors, Inc. 3000 Richmond Ave., Suite 200 Houston, TX 77098 713-521-4664, fax: 713-834-1373 Harris, Elizabeth 1110 Sam Houston Victoria, TX 77901 361-788-9786, fax: 361-788-9701



Hays, Glo RR5, Box 130 Tahoka, TX 79373 806-998-4538, fax: 806-998-6082 Hodge, Charles Consultant Saxon Publishers, Inc. 321 U.S. Hwy. 75 North Fairfield, TX 75840 800-669-8398, fax: 903-389-6505 Iacoponelli, Mark Edward Teacher Galena Park ISD P.O. Box 565 Galena Park, TX 77547-0565 713-672-7491, ext. 216, fax: 713-679-7029

London, Kirk Superintendent Terrell ISD 212 West High Street Terrell, TX 75160-2613 972-563-7504, fax: 972-563-1406 Long, Anthony Eric 5815 Regulus El Paso, TX 79924-4918 915-757-6557 Long, Steve Superintendent Rule ISD P.O. Box 307 Rule, TX 79547-0307 940-997-2521, fax: 940-997-2446

Jansing, Shirley Coordinator of Special Programs La Vega ISD 3100 Bellmead Drive Waco, TX 76705-3096 254-799-4963, fax: 254-799-8642

Lovett, Kathryn M. Student 802 Ashley Wilson Sweeny, TX 77480 979-491-8314

Jetton, Delhma A. Programs Coordinator Raymondville ISD One Bearkat Blvd. Raymondville, TX 78580-3351 956-689-3850, fax: 956-689-6427

Malone, David E. Associate Superintendent for Technology Fort Bend ISD P.O. Box 1004 Sugar Land, TX 77487-1004 281-634-1068, fax: 281-634-1709

Kerby, Joni Leigh Teacher Texarkana ISD 4241 Summerhill Road Texarkana, TX 75503-2733 903-838-8286

Mata, Lucy 2106 Pittsburg Ave. El Paso, TX 79930 915-565-6326

McCarn, Steven 305 Brookside Sonora, TX 76950 915-387-9915 McDonald, Rod Superintendent Kelton ISD Route 1, Box 157 Wheeler, TX 79096-9635 806-826-5708, fax: 806-826-3601 McDonald, Tashalon Marketing Assistant Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley 2105 McDaniel Drive, Suite 100 Carrollton, TX 75006 800-441-1438, fax: 972-488-7702 McLean, Linda N. Assistant Superintendent for Instruction Nacogdoches ISD P.O. Box 631521 Nacogdoches, TX 75963-1521 936-569-5735, fax: 936-569-5745 McNeal, Nancy L. RR 1 Box 289 Bivins, TX 75555-9797 903-796-4865, fax: 903-796-4871 Mello, Janet Director of Staff Development Carrollton-Farmers Branch ISD 2427 Carrick Farmers Branch, TX 75234 972-277-3552, fax: 972-277-3549 Milner, Mary Ann Nichols Director of Curriculum and Instruction Quitman ISD 1101 East Goode Street Quitman, TX 75783-1640 903-763-4593, fax: 903-763-2710 Monroe, Leesa G. Assistant Principal Mineral Wells ISD 706 Holly Hill Road Mineral Wells, TX 76067 940-325-5353, fax: 940-325-3266 Moore, Linda J. Director of Alternative Education and Professional Development Mineral Wells ISD 906 Southwest 5th Ave. Mineral Wells, TX 76067-4895 940-325-6404, fax: 940-325-6378

Nelson, James E. Commissioner of Education Texas Education Agency 1701 N. Congress Ave. Austin, TX 78701 512-463-8985, fax: 512-463-9008

Pyeatt, Lee Ann Director of Instruction Crowley ISD P.O. Box 688 Crowley, TX 76036-0688 817-297-5800, fax: 817-297-5805

Niemeyer, Travis Business Development Manager Data Recognition, Inc. 1748 N. Greenville Ave. Richardson, TX 75081 972-680-0180, fax: 972-680-3457

Reed, Linda A. Area 1 Superintendent Spring Branch ISD 955 Campbell Houston, TX 77024-2803 713-464-1511, fax: 713-365-4071

Nobles, Tammy S. Assistant Principal Cuero ISD 805 N. Hunt Cuero, TX 77954 361-275-2416, fax: 361-275-3474 Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Dell, Donald L. Assistant Superintendent Celina ISD P.O. Box 188 Celina, TX 75009-0188 972-382-2751, fax: 972-382-3607 Perino, Maurine L. Superintendent Natalia ISD P.O. Box 548 Natalia, TX 78059-0548 830-663-4416, fax: 830-663-4186 Pesce, John Transamerica Consulting Group, Inc. 5903 Cane Pace Austin, TX 78746 512-330-0017, fax: 512-330-0018 Petrisky, Irene T. Administrator UTSA 1117 Twin Lane Schertz, TX 78154 210-658-2189 Priest, Robert L. Assistant Superintendent Abernathy ISD 505 7th Street Abernathy, TX 79311-3318 806-298-2563, fax: 806-298-2400

Reyes, Jr., Ignacio 9628 Gairloch El Paso, TX 79925 915-593-1946 Richardson, Sherry MCI WorldCom 701 Brazos, Suite 600 Austin, TX 78701 512-495-6775, fax: 512-495-6798 Ricker, Nancy L. Executive Director of Community Relations Fort Worth ISD 100 North University Drive, NW 260 Fort Worth, TX 76107-1360 817-871-2445, fax: 817-871-2461 Rueda, David 11215 Research Blvd., #1028 Austin, TX 78759 512-794-8770 Rulla, Elaine A. Curriculum Director Sanger ISD P.O. Box 2399 Sanger, TX 76266 940-458-7438, fax: 940-458-5140 Rutherford, Jean E. Assistant Superintendent for Curriculum and Evaluation Highland Park ISD (ESC 10) 7011 Westchester Drive Dallas, TX 75205-1061 214-523-1644, fax: 214-520-1692

SPRING 2000 45

Sullivan, H. Keith Superintendent Stockdale ISD P.O. Box 7 Stockdale, TX 78160-0007 830-996-3551, fax: 830-996-1071



Vargas, Edward L. Superintendent Ysleta ISD 9600 Sims Drive El Paso, TX 79925-7225 915-434-0000, fax: 915-591-4144

York, John T. Superintendent Linden-Kildare CISD 102 N. Taylor Street Linden, TX 75563 903-756-5027, fax: 903-756-7242



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Valenzuela, Victor Hugo School Solutions Manager Project ACHIEVE P.O. Box 680085 San Antonio, TX 78268 888-972-5386, fax: 210-521-7223

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Texas Education A ; s e gen iv cut cy e Ex

Tovar, Federico Joshua 1200 Devonshire El Paso, TX 79925 915-778-2773

Wyatt, Terry Superintendent Lueders-Avoca ISD P.O. Box 68 Lueders, TX 79533-0068 915-228-4211, fax: 915-228-4513

: The University

June 25â&#x20AC;&#x201C;27, 2000 a Renaissance Austin Hotel rs; Texas Counci l trato inis

Stoerner, Louis B. Associate Superintendent of Business Services Alief ISD 12302 High Star Alief, TX 77072 281-498-8110, fax: 281-198-4051

Thompson, Frederica H. 2205 E. Broadway Pearland, TX 77581 281-485-4431, fax: 281-485-5569

Wurzel, Barry President Wurzel Construction Company 1406 Camp Craft Rd., #212 Austin, TX 78746 512-306-0835, fax: 512-306-1458


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Education; Texas Ass o c i ati o n of

Stewart, Jerome Principal Lago Vista ISD 8034 Bar K Road Lago Vista, TX 78645-0001 512-267-8315, fax: 512-267-8330

Thompson, Bob Director of Business Development Laidlaw Education Services 418 Metro Park Drive McKinney, TX 75069 972-547-4498, fax: 972-547-0808

Whitney, CMC, Michael L. Certified Moving Consultant Bill Arnold Moving & Storage, Inc. 6126 Hidden Cove Corpus Christi, TX 78412 800-423-0656, fax: 361-992-6268

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Smith, Mark High School Principal Linden-Kildare CISD 102 N. Taylor Street Linden, TX 75563 903-756-7026, fax: 903-756-8512

Thompson, W. Yvonne P.O. Box 11610 Austin, TX 78711 512-389-2714

Webber, Paula W. 2205 6th Galena Park, TX 77547 713-679-6022

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Skoviera, Ellen Assistant Superintendent Leander ISD P.O. Box 218 Leander, TX 78646-0218 512-434-5000, fax: 512-434-5398

Texas Youth Commission Education Department 4900 N. Lamar Austin, TX 78751 512-424-6161, fax: 512-424-6300

Wanke, Jacqueline J. 16507 Los Cavos Helotes, TX 78023 210-695-5532, fax: 210-695-5532


Scott, Jennifer Assistant Superintendent for Planning and Accountability Longview ISD P.O. Box 3268 Longview, TX 75606-3268 903-753-0206, fax: 903-753-5389

Terry, Mike Superintendent Etoile ISD P.O. Box 98 Etoile, TX 75944-0098 936-854-2238, fax: 936-854-2241

Walker, David R. Principal Cleburne ISD 311 Featherston Cleburne, TX 76031-5422 817-556-5680, fax: 817-556-5689

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Schneider, Rodney Superintendent Whitharral ISD P.O. Box 225 Whitharral, TX 79380 806-299-1135, fax: 806-299-1257

Waddleton, Rios L. P.O. Box 7016 Midland, TX 79707 915-520-3880

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Taylor, Brent Director of School Support ESC Region 7 P.O. Box 1622 Kilgore, TX 75663-1622 903-984-3071, ext. 222, fax: 903-986-3908


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INSIGHT—Spring 2000  
INSIGHT—Spring 2000