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HOUSING IS A VERB [ Gentrificaton process, youth housing and participation design in Lisbon]

TANjA RADOVANOVIĆ | Reiseuni 04


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Housing is a Verb [ Gentrificaton process, youth housing and participation design in Lisbon]

Graphic design, text, concept

® Tanja Radovanović

REISEUNI 04: Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa Lisbon, Portugal Tallinn University of Technology Tallinn, Estonia University of Ljubljana Ljubljana, Slovenia Wizo Haifa Academy of Design Haifa, Isreal Bauhaus Dessau Foundation Dessau, Germany University of Innsbruck Innsbruck, Austria

Mentor : Francisco Aires Mateus

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За моју породицу, која ме направила оним што јесам, њиховом бескрајном љубављу и подршком. За моје животне пријатеље, који ми пружају безусловну љубав, осмијех, инспирацију и мотивацију. За моје нове пријатеље, који су учинили ове двије године најмагичнијим путовањем, пуним лекција и радости. Хвала.

To my family, who made me who I am, with their endless love and support. To my life long friends, who give me unconditional love, laughter, inspiration and motivation. To my new friends, who made these two years the most magical journey, full of life lessons and joy. Thank you.

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CONTENTS

15 | Abstract CHAPTER ONE

17 | Gentrification process in Lisbon 18 | Change - Lisbon is open 20 | Situation - social structure in the city center 22 | Interview no.1 - the professionals 25 | Mouraria analysis 28 | Mouraria - history and structure 34 | Elements - urban structure of the neighborhood 36 | Patio - typology and atmosphere of the void 38 | Vernacular atmospheres - shadow, light, material 40 | Diversity - social structure of the neighborhood 43 | Participation design 45 | The logic behind 46 | Interview no.2 - the residents 49 | Learning from 50 | Postcards - essential elements 52 | Home - the dream 58 | PREVI project - proyecto Experimental de Vivienda 60 | Elemental studio - incremental housing and participatory design 62 | Favelas - not a problem, but a solution 64 | Quinta de Malagueira - ongoing transformation 66 | Arquitectura Popular em Portugal - material, scale, atmosphere CHAPTER TWO 69 | Urban approach - housing grid and urban system 95 | Architecture approach - individual houses design 121 | Atmospheres

131 | Conclusion

135 | Bibliography 136 | Index

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‘‘ The planned city can neither eliminate nor subsume the informal qualities and practices of its inhabitants. The informal persists; it’s inherent strengths resist and deflect efforts to impose order. The totally planned city is, therefore, a myth ’’

The Informal City / Brillembourg and Klumpner

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ABSTRACT

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isbon has had a big change in infrastructure and lifestyle in the last ten years under the influence of big increase of tourism. Each neighborhood in the city is distinct and has it’s own character, that is also why each of them responds to process of gentrification differently. Mouraria is and old Moorish neighborhood, just beneath the Castelo de Sao Jorge on the north side of the hill. With it is rich cultural and urban history, Mouraria is the next place of interest. Dealing with process of gentrification in this place needs analyzing of the urban tissue, architectural elements as well as social structure of the community that is richly diverse. The problem of young people finding affordable housing in city center of Lisbon is one of the consequences of gentrification, that I want to focus on. Their inability to afford apartments in the city center, lead to design of smaller units, but also ones that will give dignified and comfortable living. To avoid constant change of the social structure and to provide strong community bond, these units need to be able to expand, so the young people are able to stay even if their family expands. To make the houses grow organically with the neighborhood and to provide diversity, that is a characteristic for Mouraria I decided to interview young Portuguese people in the age between 20 and 35, people who are students, workers, couples, etc, and develop the house according to their wishes, but in the same time developing a system that will be unique for all of them, so they would be unified in one structure. Typical in Moorish architecture and so in Mouraria are houses with the patio. In one of the oldest Moorish settlements in Lisbon, on the Castelo of Sao Jorge are two small houses with patios in the middle, and rooms surrounding it. By wanting to integrate the new inhabitants and new neighborhood into the ancient one, the new housing will integrate gardens and patios inside or outside the house. Some will be private and some shared between a few houses in the neighborhood, giving spaces for more social interaction. The voids allow the sun and air to enter, but walls prevent from the north wind that is present on the location. These elements come from the ancient way of living, but are also providing possibility for modern living, growing your own food and having private garden in the city center. The connections of the patios, gardens and open spaces will make a path that awakes senses, with smells of plants and sounds of people an birds. The grid is made of walled spaces, topographical streets and stairs that go against the topography. New habitation becomes an organic connection of two levels of the neighborhood.

key words: neighborhood, integration, growth

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GENTRIFICATION PROCESS IN LISBON

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CHANGE [ Lisbon is open ]

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rom my balcony in Lisbon, I see the street atmosphere change dramatically in the course of 24 hours.

In the morning it’s used by the elderly residents, they talk, drink coffee in their usual bar, read newspaper, gossip, laugh, watch, as the neighborhood slowly wakes up. Little after the shouting of the kids in the school close by begins. The neighbors help old lady from downstairs, to unload the truck for her shop each week. There is a sense of community. Those are moments I like to notice. But there are also tour groups beneath the window repeating the same thing over and over, and people taking selfies with our blue and white tile facade, that you have to wait until they get a good shoot, to unlock the doors. At night my street becomes full of young people (mostly tourists), coming here to party. The shouting and the music last until late at night. At dawn the cleaners, with their noisy machines, clean all the mess, and the day begins again. The noise, the loss of privacy and loss of basic need services, such as normal priced super markets, made the neighborhood of Bairro Alto a place inhabited mostly by elderly people and temporary accommodation. This is a process of gentrification. In the last 40 years, process of gentrification has been affecting cities around the globe, each one in different manner and measure, but with similar consequences. The concept is based on social re-composition of the urban structure, usually, of the historic parts of the city, in an aim to rehabilitate housing facilities. Lisbon started changing after economic crisis in 2008, after signing the Troika agreement, as well as changing visa policies. The growth of tourism was seen as a ‘fast policy’ solution towards overcoming the crisis, and the liberalization of the housing market took place in 2012 as a condition of the European Union’s bid to ‘rescue’ Portuguese banks and the state, the result has been a wave of housing rehabilitation in which local residents have been evicted in order to open new hotels and short-term leases.3 This made Portugal very cheap and attractive for foreign investments and tourists. “This is a trend of the big cities.” In central London, Paris or Frankfurt, the scenario is very similar: in these cities, a family with an equivalent salary can not buy a house in the center. The rise in prices may even slow down, because it will not be sustainable to continue to grow at this rate, but we have to accept that Lisbon has entered this league and will remain in it now on.” says Sérgio Pereira.1 The issue of gentrification is economical, political, social and architectural. It’s also inevitable, since the city is an ever changing organism.

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I1 map of Lisbon city center area

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SITUATION [ Social structure in the city center ]

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isbon received more than six million visitors in 2017 alone. The attrac tiveness of the city, also made it and IT capital of the region, a lot of young and creative people from abroad are moving to Portugal (mostly temporary), working here, and making Lisbon more alive than ever. But why are young Portuguese moving out of the city? In the historical center of Lisbon, the price of square meter soared 67% in a decade. Platforms like Airbnb have already started being more controlled in cities like Berlin and Barcelona, in Lisbon it’s yet to happen. Today, it has been estimated that there are about 40 000 empty derelict homes, which means 14% of city’s housing. It has been inevitable that buildings have deteriorated. In 2001, 61% of housing in Lisbon needed repair work done on them and 5% are seriously rundown.2 Just across the place where I live, there is three abandoned houses with openings sealed with bricks. Good point of the gentrification process is that the city center is now being rebuilt and renovated. On every corner there is a construction site. The areas of the city that used to be considered unsafe are now changed, and some of them are even main tourist attractions, like Bairro Alto and Cais do Sodre. The city improved the maintenance of the streets and public spaces. The public spaces are reevaluated, expanded and more used than ever. Bad point is that the price of rent has became unfordable to local people, especially younger generation of students and the beginners in their working careers. In the period of my one year stay in Lisbon the prices of single rooms in the student flats grew in average 70euro, and now take about half of average Portuguese salary. In talking with younger Portuguese people, I found out that the price of rent is not the only issue. A lot of them consider living in the historical center as noisy, too crowded and inconvenient. Gentrification rapidly changes consumption facilities. The working class food stores or cafe’s, turn into hipster or urban places for middle and upper class with higher prices, making them unfordable for the local people. This means, people have to walk much bigger distances or take public transport to buy basic necessities. One of the characteristics of gentrification is the phenomenon of ‘‘loss of a place’’. People feel that the changes of the places that defined the neighborhood make them no longer associate with it. All these are points, plus the rise of the rent every semester, make younger people choose to live on the outskirt of the city or go to university in Porto or Coimbra. The foreigners are ready to pay the price and don’t care too much about the changes in the city, while the locals are pressured to leave.

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I 2,3,4 Scenes from the documentary ‘‘You’ll soon be here’’ by Fabio Petronilli

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INTERVIEW NO.1 [ The professionals ]

To get a professional view of the situation I did an interview with an anthropologist Maria Filomena de Almeida Paiva Silvano and architect Inês Lobo. Their professions and the fact that they are locals in Lisbon helped get a new point of view. The interview was divided in three themes of conversation: Present and Future of Lisbon, gentrification and Mouraria neighborhood. Right now the city centre of Lisbon is largely populated by older generations; furthermore, temporary habitation and buildings just waiting for renovation is an issue, how do you see this matter? Silvano: The housing situation of the city of Lisbon results from several reasons: laws that encouraged the purchase of housing in the periphery and made the rental market unfeasible. Late arrival of the lifestyles that accompanied the return to the centers of the cities of young layers in other countries. Crisis resulting from Troica intervention that impoverished the middle classes and the elderly. Lobo: Of course it’s a problem, in Lisbon or in other city in the world, but at the same time the historical city (Alfama, Castelo, Bairro Alto,...) also before was empty, without young people living there. I think this possibility now, to have more tourists or foreigners is not bad and maybe for those parts of the city is a solution, because I don’t think people from Lisbon want to live there. Apart from high rents, what do you think are other reasons that make young people choose not to live in the city centre? Silvano: At the moment, I think that the cause is mainly economic: young people do not have the monetary availability to keep up with rents. However, the issue of lifestyles is also explanatory. The lifestyle of the new middle classes who value the life of the city center is still a minority today - although it is still a goal to be achieved, but today it is hardly feasible. Lobo: I think it’s only the high rents, maybe now the tourism is a bit too much and I wouldn’t like to live surrounded by airbnb’s and tuc tuc’s etc, but I think in almost all other parts of the city, the problem is the cost and nothing else. We have very good public spaces now, because the re-qualification of the urban space was incredible. Do you know that 8 years ago it was decided that the center of Lisboa is the limit of the city? Because if you rebuild something in the center of the city, you only need to pay 6% of the taxes of IVA, if it’s not center of the city, you pay 20%. So it was decided that everything is the center of the city, to promote investments in rebuilding. Do you personally, as a local, like to go to the city centre or do you avoid it, and if you go what are you doing there (shopping, cafes? Silvano: I live in the city center - although not in the center said historical (Av of the Republic). That’s why I do everything downtown. I go to work, ride a bicycle, go shopping... As for the historical center: I go shopping, walk and eat. Last year I was working in the studio of fashion designer Filipe Faísca, who is in the historic center, and I felt the difficulty of facing the tourist flow when I was in a hurry. But I also like to be a tourist in other cities and so I accept this inconvenience well. I’d rather have this nuisance, but live in an airy city where you do not speak just one language. In your opinion, is the spirit of Lisbon is changing, and can the city grow without a change in lifestyle? If it only can survive by changing, what are the things that should happen to make the change positive for the citizens? Silvano: Cities change. It’s part of history. And they change more in function of their positions in complex and global networks than in terms of local causes. Lisbon was a commercial port where all the goods of commercial capitalism passed, and later it was a peripheral capital city of a country dominated by a dictatorial regime that alienated it from the world and above all from democratic Europe. For reasons that once again combine global trade flows - in this case tourism - with local life, it is becoming a cosmopolitan peripheral city. This situation has prices, especially for the local inhabitants, who must be controlled and managed by the public authorities. In any case, as an anthropologist, I know that there are no “city spirits”, there are dynamic realities in constant transformation. There are no authentic things either -

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essentialist discourse is a demagogic discourse, used by tour operators, demagogic politicians, and unfortunately also by incompetent scholars. The question is what to do with change, which is inevitable, trying to protect populations with fewer instruments to defend themselves, and resisting right-wing and left-wing populist discourses that are always looking for the essentialist terminology - the authentic, the true ours, ours alone. Lobo: I don’t know in Lisbon I think lot’s of people use the public space, you can see people using the bikes to go to work, using public transportation, running, using the parks etc. I think if you have a good public space, everyone uses it. People are always talking about tourists, when it’s too much it’s a problem, but at the same time I don’t think in Lisbon it’s too much - yet. If you go to Venice, or to Paris you compare and it’s completely different, of course. I think we must find a way to deal with people who come from outside and stay just for a while and people who live here. And I think people who come from outside, they don’t occupy the city in a sense that we must leave, or we must stay in our own homes and not use our space. I think maybe the way we are using the city is changing, but maybe it’s not only about tourism maybe it’s because way of living is different, people work a lot, or people don’t work. I think there is a lot of things to do in Lisbon yet, but I think it’s a city where it’s easy to live, because it’s not very big and it’s not small. You can walk everywhere. How do you see that government trying to deal with the issue of the rent rising and people being unable to afford to live in the city? Lobo: The government is trying right now to regulate the prices of the real estate market. They started to work on projects of housing for renting with lower prices, very big projects, and some of them will have student residences. It’s not easy, but I think they are very concerned about it, and I think it’s the only way to try to fix this problem. But I also think that the rise of the rent is going to stop now. Do you think there is going to be a point where interest for Lisbon drops and real estate bubble that is happening right now bursts? Is this possibility being evaluated? Lobo: I think it’s going to stop because the prices are quite unusual. I don’t think it’s possible for it to go up anymore. But the problem is not going to be Portuguese, because the investments are not ours, but foreign. I think the Brazilian people are going to stay and come more, because there is crisis in Brazil and they are going to buy more, but the others they are going to stop. Because Lisbon has a limit, it’s a nice city, but there is only so many foreigners willing to pay a lot of money to live here. The problem may appear for the architects, again, because there is going to be less work. But the tourism is not going to stop, the businesses around the tourism are going to continue, but they are not the core of the problem, it’s the buying and selling and investments that made the rents go up. How do you see the future development of the Mouraria neighborhood? Silvano: I believe that the region of Mouraria and the surrounding area are in a position to continue to welcome people from other countries. I conceive the diversity of cities as always being a positive thing, even if it brings some problems that will have to be solved. I would therefore like this area of ​​the city to continue to welcome populations from outside Europe and for the public authorities to support this dynamic. Lobo: I think Mouraria is a special neighborhood , because it has fixed population. It’s completely different than the other neighborhoods along the Avenida Almirante Reis. Lot’s of people living there, that live there for a long time. There are also lot’s of associations and groups of people who work there. So I don’t think it’s going to change a lot. The new re-qualification of the old buildings and the additional connections to the castle will make a bit of a change, but not that significant in the structure of the neighborhood. If we think about housing, I don’t think it will change, and there is not enough space for it to change a lot. It’s very surrounded by other things, kind of blocked, so it can’t spread or change further. And how do you see the change in it’s social structure? Lobo: This is a special place in Lisbon, you know that there are lot’s of cultures here, people that came from everywhere, but not only in Mouraria, because it’s difficult to talk about Mouraria alone. It’s a situation in whole Almirante Reis avenue, and Mouraria is the starting point of it. That’s the biggest avenue that we have in Lisbon and there are several neighborhoods along the avenue that are inhabited by immigrants, that have there small shops there. And I hope it stays like that. It’s very dense area of the city, meaning it has a lot of housing. Also I don’t think this is an interesting or good place for tourists, so maybe it’s still possible to maintain this area, with normal prices for people.

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MOURARIA ANALYSIS

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I 5 The Garden of Earthly Delights by Hieronymus Bosch, Museo del Prado in Madrid, 1490 -1510

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MOURARIA [ history and structure ]

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isbon development began from the castle of Sao Jorge and Alfama neighborhood as a Roman settlement. After the Christian Reconquest of Lisbon, Mouraria got it’s name, as it was the one remaining area of the city where Muslims were allowed to live. The street and house grid is mostly preserved from the Moorish period. The Martim Moniz Square came to be after the demolition of old streets and the buildings that were on the site. The neighborhood and the square remain as one of the main trading spots of the city center. Settled on a steep terrain of the hill, Mouraria’s urban structure is defined by streets that follow the topography and the stairs that go against it. Meeting points or public squares are a few, and they are usually platforms on the slope. Staircases play big role in public space of the neighborhood, they are used as terraces of restaurants, cafe’s, sitting places or music stages. They cut into the urban structure and can be wide as the street and melt into a public space or be less wide than a meter and end with a door of the private house. The line between public and private is thin in Mouraria. Most of the spaces are public, but they are so integrated in the housing that visitors can feel as though they are intruding someones private property. The housing spreads outside, using the street as a place for sitting, meeting, place to do laundry, plant flowers, make small gardens. The doors of the houses are quite usually partly open, so the sounds of the news on tv and dinner being made is running outside of the house and through the streets. These atmospheres make the whole neighborhood a community, tied by their way of living and using public and private space. Mouraria is rich with hidden corners filled with little gardens and terraces. Since the structure of the neighborhood is very organic, the streets and houses are not following any grid but simply the terrain and the needs of it’s ancient inhabitants. This characteristic of the neighborhood connects it to other old towns, grown without the architects, but also with new places, that are grown in the same manner. Since it’s oriented towards the north and southern sun is hidden by the hill, Mouraria has less sunlight than Alfama, but it has more color in it’s fabric. The houses are painted in vibrant warm colors. The greenery that is present in the hidden corners of the neighborhood also adds it’s own color. This ‘Back door of the city’ welcomed a lot of immigrants in last years, so the place became a mixture of cultures and languages in quite a small space. This richness in cultural diversity is one more additional layer to complexity and beauty of Mouraria and this combination of historical heritage, local lifestyle, ethnic diversity and vibrant colors are what makes Mouraria a very special area in the city.

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I 6,7 Mouraria atmospheres 29.04.2018. TR

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Narrow streets, view of the sky interrupted by extruding details of facades.

I 8.9.10 Mouraria atmospheres 29.04.2018. TR

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Back gardens on platforms between the retai


ining walls.

Staircases that make the streets and entrance space for the houses.

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Courtyard in between house, staircase and retaining walls.

I 11,12,13 Mouraria atmospheres 29.04.2018. TR

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View of the city of Lisbon.


Curvy streets and staircases, that make organically shaped spaces.

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ELEMENTS [ urban structure of the neighborhood ]

Streets | Topography The streets in Mouraria are following the topography lines of the hill.

Stairs | Events Elements used to get access against the topography lines, but also used as meeting and event places.

Patios | Voids Essentials of this urban tissue, voids that are giving in air and light.

Gardens | Senses Spreading smells of fruits thorough the neighborhood and giving it additional colors of orange, red and green.

Meeting spaces | Life Places for conversations, meetings, market sales, music and life cores of the neighborhood.

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I 14 Graph of elements

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PATIOS [ typology and atmosphere of the void ]

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he courtyard symbolizes ‘‘A void at the core, the presence which is made of absence. A space peculiarly dedicated, almost enshrined, as an architectural institution of the elements of light and air, a stage, a closely guarded platform, both shy and ostentatious, both protected and outgoing and a zone of gregarious behavior.’’ (Robert Nelson) Being under heavy Moorish influence, Mouraria is filled with patios, courtyards and gardens. They can be found in public buildings, palaces and houses alike. It’s traditionally a place of security and privacy, but also a buffer zone in between the busy street life and quiet home. Patio is also used as a social space. In the warm climate as Portuguese is, big amount of the day is spent outside, so patios are used for family gatherings or relaxing moments of the day. They work as a link of exterior and interior - a transition space. Courtyards encourage outdoor activities and interaction between inhabitants, as well as making the activities visible and hidden enough to activate the street. The barriers in between can be physical or imaginary, but they provoke the sense of a threshold. They are an partly closed private space, but open to the sky, giving the house ability to ‘breathe’ even though it’s in the center of the city. Patios are also made for practical reasons. The walls of the patios and the garden inside, defend the house from the wind and direct sunshine, while they reflect enough sun to get it inside the house when needed. Water surfaces in the patios can also help with the temperature, because they humidify the air. Gardening in the patios has been tradition in Lisbon since the origins of the city. The two recovered houses on Sao Jorge castle both have a patio where inhabitants would plant their spices and food. These patios enabled them to withstand the Christians for much longer then the residents of the north of Portugal. They are one of the reasons Lisbon inhabitants were called ‘the salad eaters’, because they could survive days, eating only salad that grew in their yard. This style of living is both ancient and modern. Providing young people with their own piece of a small, open sky garden in this location, that is just beneath the castle, gives a possibility to continue an ancient Lisbon tradition in a modern way. It provides a hiding from the tourists and noise on the streets, gives social connection with the community, helps with warm climate of the city, defends from north wind and brings connection to the old tradition of the city. ‘‘El patio es un lugar al aire libre completamente propio, interior, y esta es su esencia. Ello significa seguridad, la casa se abre al exterior sin que nadie pueda acceder a ella; pero al mismo tiempo significa privacidad, y solo en el sentido funcional sino tambien en el posesivo y representativo: el patio es un paraiso privado, un particular centro del mundo.’’ 11 ‘’ The patio is an outdoor place completely own, interior, and this is its essence. This means security, the house opens to the outside without anyone being able to access it; but at the same time it means privacity, and only in the functional sense but also in the possessive and representative: the patio is a private paradise, a particular center of the world. “ 11

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I 15 Map of Mourara neighborhood yellow fill - patios in Mouraria black fill - houses in Mouraria

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I 16 Patio house in Pompeya, Italy

I 17 Patio houses on the Sao Jorge castle in Lisbon, Portugal

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I 18, 19 Roman patio houses in Volubilis, France

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DIVERSITY [ social structure of the neighborhood ]

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ouraria has a past as a ‘back door’ of the city of Lisbon, place known for the ‘otherness’ where the misfits of the city lived, and it still has traces of that. Even thought the neighborhood has almost merged with the rest of the city, and the separation is visible in their social structure. In Mouraria there are three main groups of residents: traditional residents, new gentrifiers, and immigrants. This simultaneity of bad reputation as a bohemian and vicious neighborhood, and as the cradle of Lisboan authenticity, rooted in the birth of fado, can be traced back to the 19th century. Between 1930 and 1960, the neighborhood will be targeted by an urban policy echoing modernizing ideals of hygiene and embellishment. Its downtown, on the hill’s base, will finally be demolished between 1946 and 194. Existing marginal activities(prostitution, taverns) will be pushed to other parts of the neighborhood, and the impact of demolishing Mouraria’s heart of social life will be all the more intense as the vacant plot (named Martim Moniz) will for decades be of an indefinite statute, serving as parking, a rubble deposit and a temporary market. By 2007, Mouraria was seen simultaneously as an immigrant and typical neighborhood, dirty, unsafe and heavily associated with drugs and prostitution. Among its residents, there are the ‘natives’, immigrants and recent arrivals to the neighborhood, often Portuguese and of a very different sociocultural profile, whom they call marginal gentrifiers. These representations show signs of change that will shape the new breath of intervention.12 Most of Portuguese residents are here for generations. They are building up or dividing houses to make the whole family fit. Mouraria is a birth place of Fado music, making it a very important place not only for Lisbon, but Portugal as a whole. In Mouraria, big percent of inhabitants are immigrants from all around the world, but mostly India, Bangladesh, China, and old Portuguese colonies. With them, they brought their way of living, their cuisine, spices, music, languages... They spread through the windows on the streets feeding the curiosity of visitors. All this makes Mouraria a melting pot of culture and diversity. There are now two main images about the neighborhood that may be battling for dominance: the first is the image of a traditional neighborhood; the second, an image of a more cosmopolitan place. The development of the second would mean continuing to sell houses to tourists and representing Mouraria as a ‘brand’ of Lisbon. Achieving a neighborhood able to accommodate both images requires rethinking how to integrate the traditional identity and memories of older residents with the challenges presented by the physical and social transformations of today13 Mouraria is the most multicultural area of the country, where there is the highest concentration of immigrants with different backgrounds, to keep this diversity working there has to be a bottom-up approach in urban interventions that will include and consider all aspects of this complex structure.

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I 20,21,22 Mouraria atmospheres 29.04.2018. TR

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PARTICIPATION DESIGN

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PARTICIPATION DESIGN [ the logic behind ]

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ecause of the process of gentrification in Lisbon, the new housing is mostly temporary. The young people are renting flats or rooms for a period of one semester or a year, until they have to move, because the rent becomes unfordable. Since Mouraria has such a strong community bond that defines the neighborhood I wanted to make a concept that will blend in, that will make the people stay and bond with the place and the community. Mouraria is made up of houses, for this reason, I wanted to make a continuation of the neighborhood with individual houses and not a building. But average young Portuguese person can’t afford an individual house. This lead me to think that the houses have to be developed through time, from the basic need house, until their dream house. In this process the residents also add something of theirs, that makes the space more rich. The houses grow with the personal preference of the user. Taking away the user and just making the system of growth, takes away the whole essence of the process. Because of this fact I decided to interview young Portuguese people in the age between 20 and 35, people who are students, workers, couples,... and develop the house according to their wishes, but in the same time developing a system that will be unique for all of them, so they would be unified in one structure. The opinions of the users are affecting the program of the house. Their need for a art studio or for the guest bedroom, the kids bedroom, or even a pool, is being taken into consideration and separated into phases of development of the house. The spaces are built from basic need ones, to less necessary for living, but essential for enjoyment of life. The starting size of the ground floor house is about 40/50 square meters, that is to be expanded in future into 80 or 120 square meters, plus roof terrace. The houses are developed around shared courtyard or patio, that will allow the community to meet more and share a common outdoor space. The patios are spread through the neighborhood on different height levels and they are pauses in the narrow walking paths. Some houses have gardens inside, by the request of the residents, but also to connect the new with the old. On the existing location the gardens behind the houses are spilling up hill into the plot. To preserve some of this color, essence and atmosphere, the greenery is used wherever it was possible. In this way the whole project should present a mix of hanging gardens and a favela, two organic organisms - growing into one together. Using real people and their dreams to design houses, gives this project a different, more social dimension, because their personalities and wishes affected the design of each house.

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INTERVIEW NO.2 [ the residents ]

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he interview was done with 10 people of different professions, age and residency. What connects all of them is that they are in between 20-35 year old and currently living and planing to continue living in Lisbon. All of them, except one, are Portuguese. The one exception is a woman that is married in Portugal, works there and speaks the language, so I found that she‘s also a valid source of information. All of them are different professions, from IT technician to artists to journalist, different social status, some are from Lisbon, some moved in few years ago. All this gives wider picture of the young society in Lisbon right now. From these interviews, I gained a different perspective of designing, as I was speaking with none architects about architecture and their view of spaces and house, was very different than what I’m used to. I also gained a new fresh view on the situation of the city in Lisbon. As locals, they could see the situation in a more clear way than I could, comparison between all these points of view, gave a unique perspective, that I couldn’t get in any other way. Questions of the interview: •

How old are you, what is your profession and where are you from?

Describe your perfect home? Which rooms or content do you dream to have inside? Imagine walking through and describe what do you see inside.

What is the most important space of the house for you? Where do you feel most safe and at ease? Do you have a dream room from your childhood that you always wished to have? (like library, art room, play room...)

Do you want a young person house or a future family house? How many bedrooms do you need?

How many floors do you imagine your house to have?

How much do you use public spaces close to your residence? Do you often go for walks around the neighborhood, do you enjoy it? What is your favorite public space in Lisbon?

What is the most important public building or commercial space to have close to your residence?

How much do you interact with your neighbors? Do you greet them, do you know their names, do you share spaces?

Which neighborhood in Lisbon is your favorite and what are the factors that make it so?

Do you feel that Lisbon changed in these past 10 years and how do you see this change?

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View of the location from the Miradouro da Graca.

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Sealed entrance to the location from street Costa de Castelo.


Interior of the location.

View to Graca neighborhood from the location.

I 23,24,25 Location photos 15.01.2018. TR

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LEARNING FROM

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POSTCARDS [ two images for the concept ]

Godinje village houses in Crmnica, Montenegro I 26

Traditional houses in Montenegro were shared by many generations of the same family. The family would build an additional spaces to the house, as they needed it. Because of the steep terrain some rooms of the house were separate units, but no spaces was wasted. The roof of some spaces are used as a veranda, empty spaces beneath are used for keeping fire wood, and storage, rooms, everything is connected with staircases that also make a space for interaction between family. Even now, houses in Montenegro are largely planned with the possibility of expansion for future generations.

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Nakagin tower by Kisho Kurokawa in Tokyo, Japan, 1972. I 27

This revolutionary building, by member of Metabolism group in Tokyo, Japan, Kisho Kurokawa, was made from prefabricated capsules attached to the concrete cores, that contained communications for the tower. Each capsule was designed for one person or a couple. But this minimal space was planned to be able to extend. When the person/s needed more space they could buy more capsules, with different designs and spaces, connect them in between each other and in this way - get a more comfortable space. Unfortunately, this stage of the building was never achieved and the tower stayed in the same state as it was built. Right now, most of the capsules are used as office spaces.

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MY HOME [ the dream ]

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oth of my parents are civil engineers who had a dream to build their own house. The 90’s were the years of war and inflation in my country, so as most of the young families at the time, we lived with my grandparents. But my parents are very determined and hard working people, so by spring of ‘96 they bought a plot and split it in three parts with two other families, who were their friends from college and had the same goal - to build their dream house, step by step. By the winter of ‘96 the foundations have been done and 10 year building of the house has started. In ‘99 we moved into the first phase of the house. We lived for next few years in a small one bedroom house, that was actually going to be turned into a garage at the end of the process. While we lived there, my parents were building the other parts of the house, first the left part of the ground floor with a giant terrace, then slowly the first floor, then the roof, then the windows, then the interior piece by piece, as much as they could afford. My parents designed the house and the construction by themselves, together with a lot of the furniture inside of it. So starting off from a 40 square meter garage/flat, we now live in a four bedroom house, with a library and a gym and a big garden where we grow our own fruits and vegetables. The pure concrete terrace (page 43) where my mom and her friends are drinking coffee in ‘01, is still a gathering space for all of our friends, but now looks as a piece of paradise surrounded by greenery. Growing up in these conditions was actually very fun. Since next to me were two other families also living on the construction site, we made it our playground. We were making countless games: little hide out houses, canyons in the sand and earth, bonfires, benches, everything that a kid can think off. Also playing in the empty unfinished house and listening how ‘Here will be the living room, here your room...’ made me imagine all the possibilities of how these spaces could look like. I think this way of growing up actually affected me a lot in choosing architecture as my profession. This process made me aware of all the aspects and phases of a house, also growing up in the suburbs of the city, where most of the people were developing the houses in a similar way, made a sense of community and neighborhood very strong, as we would celebrate each important step in the building process all together. Even today when everything is long finished, we are still changing and adding things inside and outside. My own experience thought me that building a home is actually never finished, because it’s a process that requires a lot of work, love and devotion.

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The beginnings. / May 1997. I 28

My dad with a friend on the construction site. / May 1997. I 29

Finishing the roof and the final structure of the house. / November 2000. I 30

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My mom looking over the construction site. / May 1998. I 31

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My grandparents visiting the house. White part of th


he house is already inhabited. / January 1999. I 32

My mom and her friends drinking morning coffee on our terrace. / January 2001. I 33

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Rare snow fall in Podgorica and kids using the construction left overs for snow games. / Dec 2001. I 34

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Putting up windows, interior still unfinished. / July 2004


4. I 35

Current state. / July 2018. I 36

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PREVI [ Proyecto Experimental de Vivienda ]

P

REVI project (Proyecto experimental de vivienda, Experimental Hous ing Project) was a project initiated by Peruvian government located in the deserted 40-hectare site north of Lima’s downtown.

The competition brief was based on a series of experimental principles: • • • • • •

A neighborhood and design based upon the high-density, low-rise concept, a module and model for future urban expansion. A growing house concept, based on the traditional courtyard dwelling. Configurations of housing clusters within the neighborhood plan. An entirely human-scale pedestrian environment in the neighborhood Improved and new house-building methods with earthquake resistance An overall neighborhood landscape plan

Foreign and Peruvian architects had a task to design an urban scheme for about 1500 low cost single family houses. The neighborhood should have educational, social and commercial facilities. The housing was designed to grow from one story into two or three story housing, that had to revolve around a traditional courtyard dwelling. This new concept of housing, that was being developed in the same period as innovative ideas of Le Corbuiser were ruling the world of architecture, proposed something very different. The houses are to be developed in an organic way, according to the users needs, they are to be of human scale, to have privacy and be based on traditional way of living. Technological solutions had to be adequate and constructive points based on the flexibility and progressive horizontal or vertical growth. Peter Land coordinated with the PREVI Development Group and designed the master plan with 26 clustered of housing schemes. The first pilot scheme would consist of 500 houses, so that the designs could be fully tested on the ground, and in the second phase the best would be rolled out by the thousand. Except the second phase never happened.4 In 1985 in 85 different houses moved in 2800 inhabitants. In total 467 houses were built by 24 architects. Three decades later, the neighborhood developed so much that houses are unrecognizable. The neighborhood is considered to be one of the safer and better places to live in Lima. It was designed as a platform for change. The houses were not the end, but the beginning. As frameworks for expansion, they evinced one of the key principles of the barriadas (slums), which is that the house is a process and not a static object.8 PREVI project was a start and a lesson in how to approach participation design. The project aimed to include the inhabitants into the process of building, while still giving them the design and frame structure over which they could develop the house that they need.

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Project Atelier 5 in 1978 and 2003. I 37

Project of James Stirling in 1978 and 2003. I 38

Project of Kurokawa-Kikutake-Maki in 1978 and 2003. I 39

The development system. I 40

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ELEMENTAL [ incremental housing and participatory design ]

I

f you don’t have enough money to build a decent house, instead of building a small one, why not build half of a good one and build the rest later? This is the philosophy of Chilean architect Alejandro Aravena.

Experimenting with unfinished low-income houses Elemental studio built a neighborhood in Iquique, Chile, which were to be built at $7,500 per unit, for 100 families. Elemental provided the residents with just enough to meet the Chilean legal requirements for low-income housing, allowing them to expand the rest.5 In this way the inhabitants end up living in a dignified space and the monotone repetition of the facade becomes diverse by fills of new units made by the needs of the people. The land and the housing gains value as the time passes and as they expand it and improve it. Since the inhabitants are the owners of the land and the house they are investing into it and not giving a big amount of their salary to return the debt, that would push people more into poverty (a lesson from older examples). ‘‘Apart from offering just a house, we are convinced that we should provide future occupants with other means for living as well, such as opportunities for jobs, education, health facilities and transport. Expressing these possibilities in equations makes it easier to make the right choices. For instance, land in Mexico is generally very expensive. We, therefore try to make the building density as high as possible. On a typical plot of 6 x 6 m, we build duplexes that combine the feeling of a row house with the density of an apartment block. This is one of the outcomes of such formulas.’’ 6 says Aravena. The expansion of the housing has certain rules, all of the houses can reach the maximum size of 72 square meters, as through the research they realized that it’s the size where expansion usually stops anyway. It’s interesting that a lot of families don’t use every square meter to expand, and they leave spaces for terraces outdoor gardens, as they reach the second level of need, not the basic one but the need of a space that you can enjoy. The project put into practice is his belief that “architects design nouns – windows, ceilings, floors – but these nouns come from verbs which are life itself. Looking, eating, meeting. We should be looking at both nouns and verbs.” The Iquique project, he says, was ultimately less about providing the noun of shelter than “giving tools to escape poverty”.7

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Social housing has to solve the following question:

Low-rise DENSITY

Without OVERCROWDING

With the possibilty to GROW

Chile- Antofagasta housing, ELEMENTAL 2014. I 41

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FAVELA [ not a problem, but a solution ]

A

cross Latin America, nearly third of all city dwellers live in informal conditions. Across the world, 85 percent of housing is built illegally.9 So the amount of housing that is self built, without an architect, without an engineer, only by the people and scarce materials that they have is bigger then the opposite. People usually don’t own the land where they are building, so these dwellings have to be on the outskirts of the city and usually on the steep terrains. These types of housings can be found everywhere around the world, but they are more present in developing countries. In Europe the biggest favela or ‘wild neighborhood’, as we call them in the Balkans, is in Serbia, Belgrade - neighborhood called Kaluđerica with between 35 and 40 000 people. Asia has the biggest favela in the world, Orangi Town in Karachi, Pakistan with incredible 2,400,000 people. In Latin America they can be found in almost any city. They came to be after rapid movement of people into cities in search for better opportunities. The government has been struggling for decades to make enough housing for the people, but with no success. So people took the matter in their own hands. The houses are built from anything they can afford or find: bricks, wood, metal pieces, anything that can make roof above their heads. They usually start from one space, and get expanded as they get more resources. The usual problems are infrastructures, sanitation and safety. In Rio de Jeneiro, Medellin and Bogota, the poor neighborhoods got connected to more urban parts of the city, with the transport for the rich, a metro cable gondola. In this way, not many people had to be moved from the site, and the communities stayed whole. The bond of communities are very strong and important in these kind of neighborhoods. There is a lot of cases where the communities themselves organized the neighborhood to respond to their needs. They in-force their own rules of expansion, safety and living, something like self government. Famous example is Torre David in Caracas, where hundreds of people occupied a 45 story, unfinished, abandoned skyscraper, and turned it into their home. They built additional walls, made food stores, gym, and have a strict rules of how the living community there works. The skyscraper is inhabited until 28 floor, without an elevator. The favelas may not be modernism, but they are the byproduct of modernity. In their spontaneity, energy and resourcefulness, they represent an aspect of urbanity that is only now coming to be appreciated. 10 There is a big similarity between favelas and old vernacular cities, even old Moorish neighborhoods like Mouraria is. The way that they grow is organic, without a plan, with only the landscape as a guide, with the materials that are found on site, according to the needs of the inhabitant and the weather conditions of the location. In this way, both typologies became living organisms, attached to the landscape, with it’s curvy, narrow veins for streets, full of life, because everything is made for the inhabitant, by the inhabitant.

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Leticia neighborhood, Lima, Source: HUAPAYA ESPINOZA, JC. Fernando Belaunde Terry and the modern ideas. Architecture and urbanism in Peru between 1936 and 1968. I 42

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QUINTA DA MALAGUEIRA [ ongoing transformation ]

Q

uinta da Malaguiera was on of the three housing projects that defi ned Alvaro Siza’s early work. Bouça and São Victor were low cost projects developed for the worker’s council in Porto, that formed to address the severe housing conditions that existed in Portugal after the 1974 revolution. Malagueira was designed in the outskirts of old Roman town of Evora. It’s a large low-rise, high density urban complex of about 1200 houses built in the period of 20years. The dwellings at Malagueira are patio or atrium types with an “ell”-shaped group of rooms on two sides of a small interior patio. There are two similar types, both built on an 8m x 12m plot, one with the courtyard in front and the other with the courtyard at the rear. Both have living, dining and kitchen spaces at the courtyard level with an interior stair leading to bedrooms and terraces above. The two types can be combined in several different ways resulting in different patterns of solid and void. This manipulation of the paired combinations is a key to the rich concatenated rhythm that is achieved with a pallet of only two dwelling types. Wall heights vary from entry gate height, to the second floor height to a vent wall that is perpendicular to the street and extends to the height of the second floor roof. This range of wall heights coupled with the alternating position of the patios and terraces results in a rich three-dimensional composition. The construction follows the topography so the houses step along the street as well as stepping perpendicular to the street. This further adds to the compositional variety. Seen from a distance, the houses seem to be taller than just 2 floors as they step up the contours giving the impression of a much denser, taller, terraced organization. The very limited pallet of doors and window shapes also vary in height with the contours furthering the concatenated organization of walls. The houses are designed to be added on to over time by the occupants so that they can begin as a simple two room house built on one level that can be transformed into a much larger dwelling with several bedrooms, multiple baths, and roof terraces. The incomplete quality of the evolving houses within the walled volume helps break down the strict repetition typical of most low cost housing.14 The urban project is developed in a manner of existing neighborhood near by, with parallel streets. The Malaguiera is spread in two wings around a meadow with a spring and small lake. All of the units are connected with a concrete aqueduct that invokes a memory of an old Roman aqueduct whose remains are still visible in the urban tissue of Evora’s old town.

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Quinta da Malagueira housing, Ă lvaro Siza, Evora ,1977. I 43, 44, 45

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ARQUITECTURA POPULAR EM PORTUGAL [ atmosphere, scale and material ]

‘‘However, within this variety of features is there nothing in common that is specifically Portuguese? We believe there is and that there are certain constants sometimes of subtle distinction, but for all that present. This does not imply a unity of styles or types of architectural element, but rather something in the character of our people reveled in the buildings’’ 15

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‘‘The patio, or backyard surrounded by the rest of the farm units is a true open-air living room. Every part of the house is accessible from the yard and all doors give onto it. ‘‘ 16

I 46, 47, 48 Examples of old housing in Portugal

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URBAN APPROACH

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black fill - defining buildings 1 Castelo Sao Jorge 2 Convent of Coleginho 3 Church and convent of Graça 4 Mouraria creative hub 5 Teatro Taborda 6 Associação renovar a Mouraria 7 São José Hospital 8 Hotel Mundial 9 House of Fado 10 Housing project grey fill - public spaces

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1 Martim Moniz 2 Rossio 3 Figuera 4 Intendente 5 Miradouro da Graça 6 Largo Severa 7 Largo dos Trigueiros 8 Restaudores

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PATIOS [ private / public ]

Patios or courtyards, that are located in between the houses are public spaces, but made to feel more like an expansion of the house in a spirit of an shared courtyard. The platforms on which patios are, are on different height levels, and are connected with a labyrinth of streets and staircases throughout the neighborhood. The central courtyard is the biggest one and serves as the main square of the neighborhood. Two patios on the left are part of the miradouro, so they are more public are open then the other ones. Patios have either greenery - to provide shade, or water surfaces - to provide cooling effect by evaporation.

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MIRADOURO [ the viewpoint connection ]

Even though the existing location is surrounded by fence, the beautiful view of city of Lisbon on the top spot of the viewpoint even now, attracts people to stop and try to get a bit of it. On the highest spot there is a platform where people can stop and take photos. The hill is transformed into hanging garden, with little patios in between as a rest stop. On the bottom of the miradouro, three old ruins are demolished to make a new square that connects a very frequent street of Calcada de Santo Andre with the neighbourhood and with the street Costa de Castelo above.

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Miradouro model.

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RETAINING WALLS [ old and new ]

The existing retaining walls are separating the steep terrain of the plot into platforms of different levels. To make the housing, additional retaining walls were needed.

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Concept model of the urban structure.

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ARCHITECTURE APPROACH

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HOUSE NO.1 [ Isabela ]

Isabela | 21 | Art student

The house is entered from the main square or patio in the neighborhood. Towards it is has only two openings, the door and the window of the entrance in the atelier. Main spaces in the house are the big dinning room with the kitchen that is looking over the garden with an olive tree and sculptural spiral staircase that is going up to the first floor. Important space is the atelier that is longitudinal and has a transition from more closed to open space. Closed space is used for painting, then there is a transition space with the hallway and the window towards the lively square, which then turns into a terrace that looks over the garden bellow. On top of the house there is a roof terrace used for gatherings of Isabela’s family and friends. The garden is open towards the sky and is connecting all the floors and spaces in the house.

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HOUSE NO.2 [ Iva ]

Iva | 30 | Hotel supervisor

The house is located in the bottom of the miradouro. The entrance is from the side of the promenade. In the first phase the house is a studio flat. For Iva the kitchen was not an important element of the house, but the bathroom was, that’s why it has a priority in size. The garden is the connection of all floors as the staircase is spiraling around it. Iva asked for the family house, so it has 3 rooms for kids, while the last floor is dedicated to the couple. On the last floor there is a small pool, which was a big wishof Iva. The house is like a small tower, with a roof terrace on the top.

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HOUSE NO.3 [ Joao ]

Joao | 28 | IT technician

This horizontal layout house is entered from the narrow side. It’s program is spread on three floors, from more public and necessary until the relaxation area. The first phase contains all the basic elements, the bathroom, kitchen and the garden at the end of it. The dashed line is the position of the bed in the starting phase of the house, until the room is made. The second phase is made out of sleeping and working space, that are open to the garden. The last phase is devoted to fun and relaxation. Joao dreamed to have a trampoline, so half of this floor is devoted to it and other half to a couch area for games, that he’s also a big fan of. On the top of the house there is a roof terrace for gatherings.

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HOUSE NO.4 [ Manuel ]

Manuel | 28 | Chef

Since Manuel is a chef and is very passionate about cooking, the kitchen had to be the center space of his house. It expands into the garden which he wanted for planting vegetables and spices. In the first, basic needs phase, the dinning room will be used as a bedroom and living room. In the second phase the bedroom will move upstairs. On the first floor there is one bedroom, and one more room that can be used as an guest room or as an living room, depending of the preference. On the top of the house there is a roof terrace that is reached by spiral staircase that is located in the garden bellow.

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HOUSE NO.5 [ Diana ]

Diana | 26 | Radio producer

The ground floor, that would be built first contains the necessary elements, small kitchen, and living/working space. The whole wall bellow the staircase is used for storage. To Diana the bedroom area was very important and that’s why it takes up the whole first floor. The roof would be used for parties, barbecue and other.

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HOUSE NO.6 [ Inex ]

Inex | 26 | Psychologist

Inex asked for a young person house, developed around the central garden. Most of the house is devoted to relaxation and gatherings. The first phase is an open space, separated into different zones, only with furniture. The characteristic elements are the fire place and the bathtub in the living room, which were both wishes of Inex. The dashed line is the position of the bed in the starting phase of the house, until the room is made. The second phase is two bedrooms with terraces and a big bathroom. The hallway is developed around the garden and getting through it the light from the roof lights up the whole house.

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HOUSE NO.7 [ Rui ]

Rui | 24 | Rental agent

Rui’s passion is reading and his dream was to have a library, so, as in some houses there are gardens spreading though few floors, here the bookshelves are doing the same. The library has a glass roof, so the light passes through the bookshelves and enters the house. The first phase is basic, open and with library shelves raised from the floor and open towards the living space. The dashed line is the position of the bed in the starting phase of the house, until the room is made. The second phase is the bedroom and working area. The staircase is developed around the library, until the roof.

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HOUSE NO.8 [ Joao ]

Joao | 28 | Banker

Joao’s house, divided into different programs on different floors, from more public to more private. The ground floor is for cooking, eating and gathering, with a garden at the end. The dashed line is the position of the bed in the starting phase of the house, until the room is made. The second phase is a big open space living room, with a wall library and a terrace. It’s possible to enter the house from the first floor too, as it exits on the little square outside. On the third phase is the big bedroom, looking over the garden. The accent was on light and openness of the space. Roof is used as another terrace space.

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HOUSE NO.9 [ Luis ]

Luis | 25 | Activist

Luis’s house is the smallest one and it’s made to be an open space, open to change at any time. All the elements are along the walls, and the center space is open. The first floor is to be used as a bedroom in the second phase. The roof top is garden area.

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HOUSE NO.10 [ Daniela ]

Daniela | 25 | Journalist

Daniela asked for a big kitchen where her family and friends could gather and meet. In the first phase are: the kitchen, bathroom, living space and the garden. The garden is connected to the kitchen with a door and big window above the sink. The dashed line is the position of the bed in the starting phase of the house, until the room is made. The bedroom was the most important space for her, hence the big bedroom is located in the second phase of the house. In the corner of it, looking at the garden, behind the sliding door, is space for meditation. It’s small, secluded and peaceful. In the third phase is a small house gym with a bathroom, since Daniela likes to be active. On the roof is an open terrace.

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CONCLUSION

One project can’t solve the problems of gentrification and the rent rises in the whole city, but it can be a model of possible future development. This experimental approach is rooted in the vernacular architectural traditions of Portugal and further than it. By using the elements and the philosophy of the existing to build the new, we are making the city grow in a natural, organic and healthy way. Involvement of the residents in the project since it’s beginning, makes them to be more connected with the spaces that will make their home. Getting people to be involved with this project, made me see how passionate and engaged people could be and how much inspiration they bring into the design process. This new structures are imagined as a porous connection of two levels of Mouraria neighborhood through the plot that is right now a closed off, hidden garden in between the houses. Miradouro is the more public area of the plot and the little streets in between the houses are more private, but still public. This play between public and private is the main characteristic of the historical center of Lisbon, the one that attracts all the visitors, but also the one that is threatened by the city’s modernization. The project is working with the existing atmospheres, proportions and materials and in this way it’s being integrated into the existing space. The project is moving from the big scale to the small. First is considered the current situation of social housing in the whole city of Lisbon - then zoomed into a very specific and special neighborhood in the city - then into the chosen plot and it’s possible urban connections to the existing neighborhood - and then into ten, of thirty, houses in the new urban plan and their interior. The gardens and patios that are spread through the neighborhood are also an element of integration. The greenery that is growing outside and inside of the houses, on different height levels of the plot, has both visual and olfactory effect on the senses. The growing plants in these ‘hanging gardens’ together with growing houses are like two living organisms intertwining and integrating into existing space.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS Antón Capitel - La Arquitetura del Patio, Editorial Gustavo Gill, Barcelona 2005 Alejandro Aravena, Andres Iacobelli - Elemental / Incremental housing and participatory design manual, 2012 Alfred Brillembourg , Kristin Feireiss, Hubert Klumpner - Informal City: Caracas Case, August 31, 2005 Arquitectura Popular em Portugal Vol 1 - Edicao da Ordem dos Arquitectos, (4th edition) Lisboa 2004 Arquitectura Popular em Portugal Vol 2 - Edicao da Ordem dos Arquitectos, (4th edition) Lisboa 2004 Bernard Rudofsky - Architecture Without Architects, Doubleday and company, New York1964 Bernard Rudofsky - Now I lay Me Down to Eat, Anchor Books, New York 1980 Justin McGuirk - Radical Cities, Verso London 2015 John F.C. Turner - Housing by People, Calder and Boyars, London 1976 Jaime Lerner - Urban Acupuncture, Island Press, Washington 2014 Peter Land - The Experimental Housing Project (PREVI), 2015 ESSEYS Agustin Cócola Gant - Tourism and commercial gentrification, “The Ideal City: between myth and reality. Representations, policies, contradictions and challenges for tomorrow’s urban life” Urbino (Italy) 27-29 August 2015 Jason Patch - The Embedded Landscape of Gentrification, Visual Studies, Vol. 19, No. 2, October 2004 Leonor Bettencourt, Paula Castro - Diversity in the Maps of a Lisbon Neighbourhood: Community and ‘Official’ Discourses about the Renewed Mouraria, Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL) & CIS-IUL, Portugal Luís Mendes - Public policies on urban rehabilitation and their effects on gentrification in Lisbon, Institute of Geography and Spatial Planning of University of Lisbon, 2013 Richard Sennett - Boundaries and Borders Robert Nelson - The Courtyad inside and out: A brief History of and Architectural Ambiguity , ENQUIRY , volume 11, issue 1 , 2014 Pedro Gomes - Differing approaches to public space and the multicultural in the (re)making of a strategic place: Mouraria in Lisbon, Portugal, City Futures 2014

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INDEX

QUOTES 1 Famílias com 4 mil euros já fazem contas para comprar casa no centro de Lisboa / accessed on 10.May 2018 / https://www.dn.pt/dinheiro/interior/familias-com-4mil-euros-ja-fazem-contas-para-comprar-casa-no-centro-de-lisboa-9293271.html 2 T.Barata Salguiero, Lisboa, Periferia e centralidades, Oieras, Celta Editora, 2001 3 Cocola-Gant, A (2018) Tourism gentrification. In Lees, L and Phillips, M (Eds) Handbook of Gentrification Studies. Cheltenham and Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing. 4 PREVI: The Metabolist utopia / accessed on 14. May 2018 https://www.domusweb. it/en/architecture/2011/04/21/previ-the-metabolist-utopia.html 5 Half A House Builds A Whole Community: Elemental’s Controversial Social Housing / accessed on 14. May 2018 / https://www.archdaily.com/797779/ half-a-house-builds-a-whole-community-elementals-controversial-social-housing 6 Less Money - More creativity /accessed on 19. of May / http://www.elementalchile. cl/wp-content/uploads/080814_QM_Mark_Magazine_HQ.pdf 7 Alejandro Aravena: the shape of things to come / accessed on 19. May 2018 / https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2016/apr/10/architect-alejandro-aravena-pritzker-prize-elemental-housing-iquique-constitucion-tsunami-defences 8 Justin McGuirk - Radical Cities / chapter - From Lima to Santiago: A Platform of Change / page 75 / line 3 9 Justin Mc Guirk - Radical Cities / chapter - Rio de Jeneiro : The Favela Is the City / page 107 / line 2 10 Justin Mc Guirk - Radical Cities / chapter - Rio de Jeneiro : The Favela Is the City / page 103 / line 8 11 Anton Capitel - La Arquitectura del Patio /page 12 / line 21 12 Pedro Gomes - Differing approaches to public space and the multicultural in the (re)making of a strategic place: Mouraria in Lisbon, Portugal (2007-present) / page 2 / line 34 13 Leonor Bettencourt, Paula Castro - Diversity in the Maps of a Lisbon Neighbourhood: Community and ‘Official’ Discourses about the Renewed Mouraria 14 Quinta da Malagueira Siza, Álvaro | Évora, Portugal | 1977-1998 / accessed on 20.July 2018 http://housengprototypes.org/project?File_No=POR003 15 Arquitectura Popular em Portugal Vol 2 - Edicao da Ordem dos Arquitectos / Lisboa 2004 / page 403 16 Arquitectura Popular em Portugal Vol 2 - Edicao da Ordem dos Arquitectos / Lisboa 2004 / page 409

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ILUSTRATIONS I 1. Map of Lisbon city center area / Personal collection I 2,3,4. Screenshots from the documentary ‘‘You’ll soon be here’’ by Fabio Petronilli I 5. The Garden of Earthly Delights by Hieronymus Bosch, Museo del Prado in Madrid, 1490 -1510 / https://arthistoryproject.com/artists/hieronymus-bosch/thegarden-of-earthly-delights I 6,7 Mouraria atmospheres 29.04.2018. Tanja Radovanovic / Personal Collection I 8, 9, 10 Mouraria atmosphere 29.04.2018 Tanja Radovanovic /Personal Collection I 11, 12, 13 Mouraria atmospheres 29.04.2018. Tanja Radovanovic / Personal Collection I 14 Graph of elements of Mouraria neighborhood / Personal collection

I 15 Map of Mouraria neighborhood / Personal collection I 16 Patio house in Pompeya, Italy / Anton Capitel, La Arquitectura del Patio, page 17 I 17 Patio houses on the Sao Jorge castle in Lisbon, Portugal / https://www.

archdaily.com/89460/musealization-of-the-archaeological-site-of-praca-nova-of-sao-jorge-castle-jlcg-arquitectos/5012f7d428ba0d06580008e7-musealization-of-the-archaeological-site-of-praca-nova-of-sao-jorge-castle-jlcg-arquitectossite-plan I 18, 19 Roman patio houses in Volubilis, France / Anton Capitel, La arquitectura del Patio, page 19 I 23,24,25 Location photos 15.01.2018. Tanja Radovanovic / Personal Collection I 26 Godinje village houses in Crmnica, Montenegro / https://crna.gora.me/vijesti/ drustvo/foto-vodimo-vas-u-crmnicko-godinje-selo-koje-mozete-obici-a-da-ne-ugledate-svjetlost-dana/ I 27 Nakagin tower by Kisho Kurokawa in Tokyo, Japan, 1972 / https://medium. com/@agkdesign/nakagin-capsule-tower-6-photos-e94ce98bb28b I 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36 Jovica Radovanovic / Personal collection I 37, 38, 39, 40 Time Builds!, Fernando García-Huidobro, Diego Torres Torriti and Nicolás Tugas, G. Gili, 2008 https://www.architecturalpapers.ch/index.php?ID=95 I 41 Chile - Antofagasta housing, ELEMENTAL 2014. https://divisare.com/projects/280763-elemental-alejandro-aravena-antofagasta I 42 Leticia neighborhood, Lima, HUAPAYA ESPINOZA, JC. Fernando Belaunde Terry and the modern ideas. Architecture and urbanism in Peru 1936 - 1968. I 43, 44, 45 Quinta da Malagueira housing, Álvaro Siza, Evora ,1977. / 27.06. 2018. Tanja Radovanovic, Personal collection I 46, 47, 48 Examples of old housing in Portugal, Arquitectura Popular em Portugal Vol 2 - Edicao da Ordem dos Arquitectos,(4th edition) Lisboa 2004

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Profile for Tanja Radovanovic

Housing Is a Verb / thesis by Tanja Radovanovic  

Housing Is a Verb / thesis by Tanja Radovanovic  

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