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Students’ Book

‫ﻡ‬٢٠١٢-٢٠١١


Vocational Stream Girls’ Grade 12

Students’ Book

Ω2012 - 2011 áYÉÑ£∏d áeÉ©dG á°ù°SDƒŸG


322 Old Brompton Road, London SW5 9JH, England Maktabat El Nashr El Tarbawi El Souri (Syrian Educational Publishers) Omar El Mukhtar 2nd Str., Bldg. 6 El Mazraa, Damascus-Syria Phone: (011) 44676789 Fax: (011) 44676788 e-mail: info@syrianep.com www.syrianep.com

Š York Press 2011 All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the Publishers.


Contents Unit

Title

Page

1

Drawing and Decoration

6

2

Home Economy

10

3

Preparing for an Exhibition

14 18

Review (Units 1 - 3) 4

Machines and Equipment

20

Culture and Values 1

Global Warming

24

5

The Internet

25

6

Using Computers for Designing

29 33

Review (Units 4 - 6) 7

Advertising

35

8

Marketing a Product

39 43

Culture and Values 2 9

Folk Costumes and Seasonal Fashion

44 48

Review (Units 7 - 9) 10

Safety at Work

50

11

General Symbols

54

12

Latest Discoveries

58

Culture and Values 3

The Spread of the Desert

62

Review (Units 10 - 12)

63

3


Scope and Sequence UNIT

LANGUAGE

NEW SKILLS identifying the meaning of words in context; identifying synonyms; practising word formation skills; giving a reading text a suitable title; distinguishing between true and false sentences

1 Drawing and Decoration (pp. 6-9)

Language Functions: giving opinions; giving reasons Vocabulary: word related to drawing and decoration Grammar: review of verb forms

2 Home Economy (pp. 10-13)

Language Functions: giving explanations; giving examples; suggesting ways to save money Vocabulary: words and phrases related to home economy issues Grammar: future time clauses

finding the meaning of words from context; practising outlining skills; giving a reading text a suitable title

3 Preparing for an Exhibition (pp. 14-17)

Language Functions: giving opinions; giving explanations; talking about the objectives of an exhibition; giving reasons; giving advice Vocabulary: words related to exhibitions Grammar: non-defining relative clauses

identifying problems and finding solutions for them; combining sentences to form non-defining relative clauses

UNIT

LANGUAGE

4 Machines and Equipment (pp. 20-23)

Language Functions: comparing and contrasting crochet hooks and knitting needles; giving opinion; giving reasons Vocabulary: terms related to machines and equipment used for making clothes Grammar: modal verbs and the passive

NEW SKILLS talking about knitting; taking notes; identifying the purpose of a brochure

writing email and web addresses; Language Functions: describing labelling a picture; rewriting contracted items; describing a process Vocabulary: terms related to buying forms online; labels Grammar: reported questions identifying synonyms; rewriting 6 Using Computers for Language Functions: giving sentences as reported speech; looking up Designing opinions; giving reasons the definition of words in a dictionary (pp. 29-32) Vocabulary: terms related to CAD Grammar: reporting verbs used in the negative; reporting verbs + infinitive 5 The Internet (pp. 25-28)

4


UNIT

LANGUAGE

NEW SKILLS

7 Advertising (pp. 35-38)

Language Functions: talking about preferences; making comparisons; giving explanations Vocabulary: terms used in advertising Grammar: the second conditional

listening to identify topics; extracting and matching vocabulary with their meaning; describing items; explaining media suitable for advertising; roleplay; matching titles and adverts with their description

8 Marketing a Product Language Functions: giving (pp. 39-42) reasons; giving opinions Vocabulary: terms used in marketing Grammar: the third conditional

practising dictionary skills; distinguishing between true and false sentences; practicing word formation skills; forming sentences in the third conditional; identifying the meaning of words from context practising dictionary skills; practicing critical thinking skills; giving the text a suitable title; identifying problems and finding solutions for them; identifying the meaning of words from context

9 Folk Costumes and Seasonal Fashion (pp. 44-47)

Language Functions: giving opinions; giving reasons Vocabulary: word formation Grammar: tag questions

UNIT

LANGUAGE

NEW SKILLS

10 Safety at Work (pp. 50-53)

Language Functions: giving reasons; giving examples; giving advice; giving opinions Vocabulary: terms related to safety Grammar: indefinite pronouns

identifying synonyms; talking about causes of fire and ways of preventing it; discussing various safety procedures

11 General Symbols (pp. 54-57)

Language Functions: comparing and contrasting containers and utensils Vocabulary: expressions with the word safe Grammar: prepositions

looking up words in a glossary; identifying antonyms; identifying symbols; matching symbols with their meanings; completing a multiple choice activity; labelling a picture

12 Latest Discoveries (pp. 58-61)

Language Functions: giving opinions; justifying; talking about new and important inventions; giving examples; giving explanations Vocabulary: words for important discoveries Grammar: sentence fragments; run-on sentences

preparing a short presentation; researching and writing a paragraph; matching an interview with its corresponding description; writing an introduction and a conclusion to a text; listening to fill in the blanks; reading descriptions to identify the inventions; matching inventions and their titles and categorising them

5


1 Drawing and Decoration A Dialogue 1

Read the dialogue and answer the questions. Interviewer: Our show’s viewers are waiting to hear some easy tips for house decoration from you. Decorator: Well, let’s start with the ‘cleaning up’ tip. You can give a new look to any room by removing unwanted furniture to open up the space. If you plump up already existing cushions, you help the couches look new! Interviewer: What about the use of colour in the room? Decorator: That’s a good question. You only need to make a little effort to create a big impact. A new coat of paint makes the room look fresh. I advise the use of a neutral colour, unless one really wants to use their favourite colour no matter what it is! Interviewer: This sounds interesting. Would you give us more tips? Decorator: Yes, but this is more complicated. One can choose a theme for the room, like a countryside style or a modern theme. Then the choice of décor is implemented according to the theme. Interviewer: Oh, this sounds like a difficult task to achieve. Could you give us simpler ideas? Decorator: Sure. One can simply decorate the room with carpets, small accessories and plants.

Questions 1 How many tips has the decorator given? List them. 2 What does the term ‘cleaning up’ mean in this context? 3 Find in the dialogue words that mean the following: a influence b setting c cover d make rounder e rug 2 Which theme would you choose to decorate your own house? Explain why?

6


n

Drawing and Decoration B Listening 3

Listen and complete the text. Studies in environmental psychology suggest that colour itself does not have an effect on us, but our (1) __________ of that colour does. To some people, black, for example, represents stability and elegance. To others, it represents (2) __________ and to some others it represents (3) __________. If three people with different (4) __________ of black are in a room where everything is black, each could react differently. One might feel stable and elegant, another might be (5) __________ and the third might feel (6) __________. But what dictates our perceptions of a colour in life? Is it our culture, our personal experiences or a combination of both?

C Vocabulary 4

Complete the sentences by using the words in brackets in their proper form. 1 A (paint) __________ specialising in ceramics must wash ceramic surfaces with water prior to painting. 2 I use a silicone-based (adhere) __________ that dries quickly. 3 The (décor) __________ of the bathroom may include a simple (draw) __________ of the soap dish. 4 Take time to plan (furnish) __________ your house. 5 After the (paint) __________ is completed, great care has to be taken because the outlines are susceptible to damage. 6 You can use some modern colour palettes such as citrus and cherry red for (décor) __________ your house.

D Grammar Review of the Verb Forms Simple Present It expresses an unchanging, repeated or recurring action or situation. It can also represent a widespread truth. Example He works as an interior designer. (Unchanging state) Example Every year, the art teacher selects the best drawings. (Recurring action) Example Mona Lisa is one of Leonardo Da Vinci’s famous paintings. (Widespread truth) Simple Past It expresses an action or situation that was started and finished in the past. Most past tense verbs end in -ed. The irregular verbs have special past tense forms which must be memorised. Example The Renaissance Movement influenced art. (Regular form) Example In 1891, fifteen of Monet’s paintings were sold. (Irregular form) Future It expresses an action or situation that will occur in the future. This tense is formed by using will or shall with the base form of the main verb, or by using am, is or are + going to with the base form of the main verb. Example The manager of the art exhibition will finish her term in May. (Regular form) Example The artist is going to display his sculptures in the art gallery. (am, is, or are with going to) Example The new art gallery opens tomorrow. (The present tense of the main verb with an adverb or adverbial phrase to express future, e.g. tomorrow)

7


Present Continuous It describes an ongoing action that is happening at the same time the statement is written. This tense is formed by using am, is or are with the main verb form ending in -ing. Example Our art teacher is teaching us organic art using food, flowers and grass. Past Continuous It describes a past action which was happening when another action occurred. This tense is formed by using was / were with the main verb form ending in -ing. Example The carpenter was carving a wooden log when the chisel got broken. Present Perfect It describes an action that happened at an indefinite time in the past or that began in the past and continues in the present. This tense is formed by using has or have with the past participle of the verb. Most past participles end in -ed. Irregular verbs have special past participles that must be memorised. Example Researchers have travelled to many countries in order to collect more significant data. (Indefinite time) Example Acrylic paints have been available since the 1950s. (Continues in the present) Past Perfect It describes an action that took place in the past before another past action. This tense is formed by using had with the past participle of the main verb. Example By the time the decorator arrived, the clients had already left. 5

Contrast the meanings of the two sentences. Use number 1 as a model. Example 1 a That artist carves wooden statues. b That artist is carving wooden statues. Sentence a means that the artist carves wooden statues as his job, whereas in b the artist is carving wooden statues now. 2 a She has been in the art gallery for twenty minutes. b She was in the art gallery for twenty minutes. 3 a When the painter arrived, we discussed the proposals and made a decision. b When the painter arrived, we had discussed the proposals and had made a decision. 4 a He promised to give us 2000 SYP, and he has already sent 1000 SYP. b He promised to give us 2000 SYP, and he had already sent 1000 SYP.

E Speaking 6

8

Work in pairs. Discuss how the colours of the ceramic teapot in the picture inuence your mood.


Drawing and Decoration F Reading 7

Read the following article from Do It Yourself magazine then answer the questions. Anyone can make dazzling colourful mosaics. You can use your imagination to create attractive and functional objects for your home. Mosaics allow you to decorate furniture or create totally abstract pieces of art. The basic method for all mosaics is collecting small pieces (tesserae) of hard material and setting them into grout on a suitable base. Grout is the cement-like substance used to fill the gaps between the tesserae and make the surface level while strengthening the mosaic at the same time. While tesserae used to be small square pieces of ceramic, they now can be made from ceramic, rubber, wood, glass, metal or old plates. There are two ways to make mosaics: the direct-grout method and the adhesive method. The direct method is quick but doesn’t allow you to see the pre-design. In the adhesive method, you can follow a design but this is more messy as you have to lay the grout over the tesserae into the gaps. Trust us, use your imagination, believe in yourself and you’ll have fun!

Questions 1 Which of the following is the most suitable title for the article? a Using China Mosaics

b How to Make Mosaics

c Pattern Coordination

2 Which of the following is the most suitable definition for the word mosaic? a a pattern produced by the arrangement of small pieces of a hard material b an arrangement of colours that represents a theme 3 Is the following sentence true or false? Discuss. One can transform anything like mirrors, tables and walls with just a few tools and techniques. 4 Read the following instructions and decide which belongs to the direct method and which to the adhesive method. The first sentence is a clue. a Draw your design onto the base. Apply the tesserae one at a time by putting the adhesive on the tesserae and attaching it to the base. Then mix the grout and push it into the gaps. Clean the tesserae then leave the mosaic to dry. b Before starting, have a design in mind or an image that inspires you. Prepare the base, mix the grout and apply it directly to the base in a small area. Then push the tesserae into the grout to form the pattern. Let it dry then polish it.

9


2 Home Economy A Dialogue 1

Read the dialogue between a lady trying to cut down her food shopping bill and an expert in home economics. Then answer the questions. Lady: I’m trying to cut down my expenses. Can I make savings in my grocery shopping? Expert: Yes. An essential step in this process is not to shop on a weekly basis. This may sound peculiar, but it’s true that people who shop frequently tend to spend more. Lady: Oh, how often should one go shopping then? Expert: You know, it’s not a matter of ‘how often’; it’s a matter of stocking up on well-priced, non-perishable food. Lady: What does this mean? Expert: Well, whenever you see special offers or items on sale, go ahead and buy them. Lady: Sure, I understand now. So when there is an offer of ‘buy one get one free’ for example, that’ll be a good deal. Expert: Right, but do check the expiry date. Good luck.

Questions 1 Find in the dialogue words that mean the following: a decrease b strange c costs d not susceptible to decay 2 Is it good to shop on frequent basis? Explain your answer. 3 Has the lady benefited from talking with the expert in home economics? Explain your answer. 2 How and when do you go shopping? After reading this dialogue, are you going to change your shopping habits?

10


Home Economy B Listening 3

Listen to some useful instructions about the use of some home cleaning products. Complete the table by placing a check (✔) in the correct box. To kill ants

To clean the oven

To unblock a drain

To clean the sink

To clean windows

To clean furniture

bicarbonate of soda and vinegar ammonia and water bicarbonate of soda and toothpaste vinegar and water baking soda and salt

C Vocabulary 4

Complete the sentences by using the words in the box. starters desserts delicious meals the leftovers dining out at restaurants the ingredients A good way to save money is to eat at home. (1) __________ is costly. You can cook (2) __________ at home which allows you to control (3) __________ and make sure that you’re eating healthy meals. Occasionally, you may eat (4)__________. Remember, there is no need to order (5) __________ and (6) __________. In case you order more than you can eat, ask the waiter to pack (7) __________ to take home with you.

D Grammar Future Time Clauses Time clauses act as adverbs and tell us when something happens. They usually begin with words like: when, as soon as, before, until, if and after. Clauses that refer to future time are formed with the verb in the present tense. Examples When winter comes, we will use the wood burning fireplace because it’s economical. After having my retirement pension, I am going to look for a place to live where the cost of living is cheaper. As soon as there is a garage sale, I will go and search for useful items to buy. Before I store the leftovers in the freezer, I will put them in plastic wrappers instead of freezer bags.

11


5

Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs as in the example below. Example 1 When my friend invites us to dinner, each one will prepare a different meal. 2 If we __________ (leave) for a holiday next week, we __________ (unplug) all the electrical appliances. 3 My family __________ (buy) a second-hand car as soon as the bank __________ (give) them the loan. 4 If Alex __________ (move) to college, he __________ (get) a roommate to share the expenses. 5 After he __________ (find) a suitable house, he __________ (do) some of the renovations himself. 6 I __________ (search) for a low-cost holiday spot before I __________ (book) my ticket. 7 She __________ (not buy) anything until her mum __________ (allow) her to do so.

E Speaking 6

Work in pairs. Write a caption that describes each of the pictures below, then discuss with your partner how each person in the following pictures is saving money. You may use the following phrases as guidlines. gives more light lasts longer doesn’t use electricity saves energy saves money

12


Home Economy F Reading 7

Read the following article in a home economics magazine and answer the following questions. If you are looking for ways to save money at home, there are two significant factors you should think of. The first is related to power saving which is reflected on your electricity bill. You should always turn off the lights where they are not needed and when you leave a room. Don’t keep the television set and radio on if you’re not watching a programme. Keep the refrigerator door closed if you’re not sure what food you need to get out of it. Try to accommodate yourself in hot or cold weather by using a fan or blankets instead of using air conditioning or heaters. The second factor is related to reusing items at home. Use the plastic grocery bags as garbage bags. Food cans and jars can be used as food containers, vases or gadgets. You can turn unwanted or old clothes into cushion covers or cleaning cloths. Use these tips and save your pennies!

Questions 1 Suggest a suitable title for the article. 2 Place the ideas of the article in the following outline. Factor 1 ____________________________________________ Example 1 __________________________________________ Example 2 __________________________________________ Example 3 __________________________________________ Example 4 __________________________________________ Factor 2 ____________________________________________ Example 1 __________________________________________ Example 2 __________________________________________ Example 3 __________________________________________ 3 Suggest other factors and examples that you could use to save money at home. 4 Match the following captions or brief descriptions with the pictures below. a woman closing the fridge door b woman switching off the light c woman putting a bag in a garbage bin

1

2

3 13


3 Preparing for an Exhibition A Dialogue 1

Read the dialogue and answer the questions. Laila: Good morning, Lama. How is the preparation for the exhibition proceeding? Lama: Fine. We have thirty-five ladies already registered for stands. We have just enough space in the site for this number. But I’m afraid we may not have enough space if more ladies sign up today. Laila: Well, in a way this is good news. I never thought we would have so many participants. If more ladies come to sign up, we’ll have to find solutions. Lama: Could we make the size of the stand smaller so we can have additional ones? Laila: Certainly, that’s one option. Another may be that we hire the piece of land adjacent to the one we already have. Lama: Ok, shall we put up a sign that there is a deadline to register? Laila: Yes, it’s a good idea though we would like most of the ladies of the town to sign up. Lama: Sure. It has to be a success. Everyone has been working hard.

Questions 1 Who do you think the two ladies are? 2 What problems are they facing? 3 Are there any solutions? Explain. 4 Find two words that have the same meaning in the first quotation by Lama. 5 Find the meaning of the words in bold. 2 Have you ever participated in an exhibition similar to the one in the picture below? If yes, how was the experience? If not, would you like to participate in one now? Elaborate.

14


Preparing for an Exhibition B Liste Listening 3

4

Listen to some useful ideas about the preparation of an exhibition. Read and complete the sentences. Be cheerful but don’t ________________________________. Be welcoming but don’t ________________________________? Be relaxed but don’t ________________________________. Be comfortable but don’t ________________________________. Listen again. Check your answers. Try to explain the four don’ts.

C Vocabulary 5

Complete the sentences by using the correct form of the words in brackets. 1 An (exhibit) __________ serves as an (effect) __________ environment to present your products. 2 An exhibition could serve as a (compete) __________ with other (produce) __________. 3 It’s very important that you find an (attract) __________ way for your products to be (display) __________. 4 To choose your stand, a (centre) __________ position where most (visit) __________ choose to go would be good. 5 While preparing for the exhibition, the (exhibit) __________ should pay attention to the (transport) __________ of goods. 6 Upon the closing of the exhibition, please organise the transport and (remove) __________ of the (exhibit) __________. 7 Banner stands are ideal for in-store (promote) __________, (receive) __________ areas or for signage at conferences and exhibitions. 8 Our company offers its customers (style) __________ and functional brochure display units that suit any (present) __________ or exhibition. 9 A show (organise) __________ will offer you a shell scheme package which (typical) __________ includes stand walls, lighting, carpet and possibly a power socket. 10 With a wide (select) __________ of exhibition products and services, we can create the perfect brief or budget in order to (maximum) __________ the visual impact of your (present) __________.

6

Work in pairs. Make a list of items that you might see in an exhibition.

15


D Grammar Non-defining Relative Clause Non-defining relative clauses give extra information about a noun. They are always separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. Compare the following sentences: Examples Always place your artwork on padding when working on a hard surface. (Padding is a thick piece of soft material used for protection.) Always place your artwork on padding, which is a thick piece of soft material used for protection, when working on a hard surface.

Relative Pronouns Subject Object Possessive

Person who whom whose

Thing which which whose

Place where

1 The preposition in non-defining clauses can go at the end of the clause. Example This is the Rose Art Museum, which you may have heard of. This pattern is often used in spoken English, but in written or formal English you can also put the preposition before the pronoun. Example The Rose Art Museum, of which you may have heard, presents professional artists’ artworks. 2 Non-defining clauses can be introduced by expressions like all of, many of, both of, each of... + relative pronoun (whom for persons and which for things). Examples a There were a lot of people at the party, many of whom I had known for years. b He was carrying his belongings, many of which were broken. 3 The relative pronoun at the beginning of a non-defining relative clause can refer to all the information contained in the previous part of the sentence, not just to one word. Example Chris’s preparation for his exhibition was good, which was a big surprise. (The fact that the preparation for the exhibition went well was a big surprise.) 7

16

Combine the second sentence with the first, using a non-defining relative pronoun. 1 “Exhibition” comes from the Latin root exhibire. Exhibire means “hold out”. 2 Invite key people from local organisations. Key people from local organisations share an interest in art or the topic of the exhibition. 3 Your open reception serves several purposes. Examples of such purposes are to welcome the public and friends, deepen the viewer’s experience of the artwork and make connections between the artist and the community. 4 It is important to give the art exhibition a name. The name’s theme comes from picking one painting and working the promotional materials around it.


Preparing for an Exhibition E Speaking 8

Work with a partner and discuss the following picture of an open-air exhibition.

F Reading 9

Read the following paragraph to help you plan for an exhibition and answer the questions. In an exhibition, you can demonstrate the skills and services you have to a large number of customers, so you need to have a good plan to achieve success. First, you need to define your objective. Do you want to get some feedback about your product? Do you want to sell and gain profit? Do you want to gain a good reputation? Next, you should set your budget. You need to think of the stand hire, transport costs and the cost of any staff you need to hire to help you. Then, you need to book your stand well ahead of time to ensure a good site. Finally, you must decide on what products to exhibit. Pick the best items you have. It’s your opportunity for professional success.

Questions 1 What could the objectives of an exhibition be? 2 What do you need money for when preparing an exhibition? 3 Is it important to book a stand ahead of time? Why? 4 Does the article give good advice for any product or items (paintings, handmade clothes, jewellery, ceramics‌)?

17


Review (Units 1-3) A

Match the words with their definitions. 1 implement a manageable 2 perception b likely to decay or go bad quickly 3 susceptible c redecoration 4 functional d unusual 5 peculiar e put into effect 6 perishable f rot or decompose 7 liable g practical 8 decay h recognition 9 drain i legally responsible 10 renovation j a channel or pipe carrying off surplus liquid

B

Construct a sentence with each word. 1 expert 2 leftovers 3 appliances 4 optional 5 elaborate

C

Construct a paragraph with the following words. imagination, furnish, attractively, plump up, cushion, impact

D

Write the nouns of the following verbs. 1 exhibit __________ 6 visit __________ 2 affect __________ 7 transport __________ 3 compete __________ 8 promote __________ 4 produce __________ 9 receive __________ 5 attract __________ 10 present __________

E

Use words from the box to complete the sentences. grocery bags fans

air conditioning television turn off saving reusing radio refrigerator blankets old clothes vases

1 To save money at home, you should think of two factors: __________ power and __________ items at home. 2 You must __________ the lights when they are not needed. 3 Keep the __________ and __________ off if you’re not using them. 4 Don’t open the __________ door too frequently. 5 Be satisfied by using __________ and __________ instead of using __________ or heaters. 6 Use the __________ as garbage bags and __________ and jars as food containers. 7 Unwanted __________ can be used as cleaning cloths. F

18

Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1 While I (decorate) __________ the plate, it (fall) __________ from my hands and (break) __________ into pieces. 2 To open up space in the room, my neighbour (remove) __________ unwanted furniture. 3 Decorators (give) __________ easy tips for house decoration. 4 After two months of drought, people (master) __________ how to use water economically.


G

Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1 If you (economise) __________ electricity use, your electricity bill (drop) __________. 2 I (start) __________ making beautiful mosaics as soon as I (take) __________ a vacation. 3 After I (listen) __________ to the interview between the decorator and the interviewer, I (redecorate) __________ my house. 4 I (buy) __________ artefacts only when they (be) __________ on sale. 5 You (save) __________ money if you always (eat) __________ at home. 6 We (put up) __________ a sign for registration as soon as we (start) __________ the preparation for the exhibition.

H

Combine the second sentence with the first, using a non-defining relative pronoun. 1 An exhibition will demonstrate the skills and services of a large number of customers successfully. An exhibition must have a good plan. _____________________________________________________________________________ 2 A businessman must study the cost of the hired stand, staff and transportation. A businessman thinks of making profits. _____________________________________________________________________________ 3 There were many friends at the exhibition. I had known them for years. _____________________________________________________________________________ 4 Stocking up on well-priced, non-perishable food is a good strategy. It makes savings in grocery shopping. _____________________________________________________________________________ 5 You must remove unwanted furniture to open up the space in any room. This is a basic “cleaning up” tip. _____________________________________________________________________________

19


4 Machines and Equipment A Dialogue 1

Read the following dialogue between an interviewer and an expert in the art of knitting. Then answer the questions. Interviewer: How can you advise beginner knitters to start knitting? Expert: Well, the first thing they need to have is a supply of yarn of different colours, types and styles. Then they need to get knitting needles. Interviewer: I know that there are various sizes of knitting needles. Is this right? Expert: Yes, knitters need different sizes for different yarn thickness. The straight sets range between one millimetre to fifty millimetres. And there is a similar range of the double-pointed needle type used for holding stitches while working cables such as in making socks. Interviewer: What about crochet hooks? Expert: These also come in various sizes. They are used to pick up dropped stitches and to tuck the ends of knitting projects. Interviewer: So, knitters simply need yarn and needles to start knitting. Expert: There are a few other tools that are handy, such as a tape measure, an iron, scissors and a basket to store the knitting supplies. Knitting is a simple hobby, but it needs some tools to make it easier and more enjoyable.

Questions 1 What are the knitting supplies in the picture? What other supplies does a knitter need? 2 How can the knitter choose the needles? 3 In what way are crochet hooks similar to and / or different from knitting needles? 4 What do the one millimetre and fifty millimetres refer to? 2

20

Have you ever tried knitting? If yes, do you like it? If not, would you like to try it now?


Machines and Equipment B List Listening 3

Listen to two questions about embroidery machines and write notes about the four machines in the table below. Modern Sewing machines

Modern embroidery machines

Sewing machines

1990’s embroidery machines

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

thread cutter

C Vocabulary 4

Complete the sentences with the correct words for knitting tools. steam iron double-pointed needles

nail-like tools thread cutter

the correct tools embroidery machines

1 It is easier to carry a __________ in a bag than scissors. 2 It is very important to have __________ when completing an upholstery project. 3 __________ are special purpose sewing machines which produce a design on fabric. 4 A good tool to use for knitting projects to be correctly shaped when they are complete is a __________. 5 Cable needles are small __________ and are bent in the middle. 6 Upholstery tacks are small __________ with neat or decorative heads.

double pointed needles

steam iron

21


D Grammar Modal Verbs and the Passive Subject

It / The sewing machine

5

Modal verb can could has to had to is going to must should will

Passive infinitive (be + past participle) be used for several sewing tasks. be imported from many countries. be appreciated by experienced and novice sewers.

Put these sentences in the passive form. Example 1 You can buy sewing kits either online or from the craft store. Sewing kits can be bought either online or from the craft store. 2 They should order a high quality needle felting machine. 3 In a front-loading washing machine, we should seal the door during the washing cycle. 4 We could sew the same design using an embroidery machine. 5 We must repair the sewing machine’s needle bar. 6 We had to throw away the old breakable threads. 7 The factory will purchase a new industrial sewing machine. 8 We will send the necessary embroidery equipment.

Needle Bar

E Speaking 6

Read about sewing tools, equipment and supplies on the Internet and write a caption for each of the following pictures. Then prepare an oral presentation that has the following outline. I Introduction _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ II Hand Sewing Tools _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ III Sewing Machines _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ IV Machine Embroidery _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ V Conclusion _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

22


Machines and Equipment F Reading 7

Read the brochure below then answer the questions. Our company provides you with the best quality weaving machines. For those of you who are in the commercial field, our machines help you produce the best upholstery fabric and silk carpets. For those of you who do art and craft weaving at home, we help you by providing training in the use of the machinery. Our machines are modern; they are controlled electronically. We get the best three types you can find in any market: the shuttle weaving machine, the circular weaving machine and the narrow fabric machine. While the first one weaves silk fabric as well as many other commercial textiles and linens, the second one is used to weave cotton which is used for handbags and heavy drapery. As for the third type, you can use it to produce the narrow and tight-weaved wicks of candles and oil lamps. Visit us and we will teach you how to enjoy the art or craft of weaving.

Questions 1 What is a good definition of weaving? 2 Who are the customers of the company? 3 What is the purpose of the brochure? 4 If you need to buy a weaving machine, would you visit this company? Why? 5 Match the following titles with the pictures below. a circular weaving machine b narrow fabric machine c shuttle weaving machine

23


Culture and Values 1 Global Warming Climate change is not a new phenomenon in the history of Earth. However, with the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, Earth has started to experience unprecedented rapid climate changes due to what we now call global warming. Global warming is the consequence of the greenhouse gases issued from the combustion of fossil fuels. Such gases will influence the Earth’s climate even years from now, since it has not adapted yet to such rapid environmental changes. The percentage of greenhouse gases is directly proportional to the percentage of fossil fuels that are burned by humans. However, climate change is not only caused by humans; other factors that existed even prior to the Industrial Revolution continue to influence the Earth’s temperature. Nevertheless, the effect of these nonhuman factors remains either minimal or unnoticed. However, increasing temperatures are by no means the only effect of global warming. In addition, global warming influences annual rainfall, increases the erosion of land that is near the coast, extends the growing season and results in the melting of glaciers. Finally, it can cause changes in the frequency of infectious diseases in particular environments.

Questions 1 Rephrase the definition of global warming given by the text and list, in your own words, its effects on Earth. 2 What is the meaning of the following words: phenomemon, unprecedented, rapid, combustions, glaciers? 3 Why can’t the Earth adapt to the changes in climate? 4 In your opinion, are humans to be blamed for global warming? Explain using the evidence given in the text. 5 Find information on the Internet about two of the latest solutions for global warming (For example: more white clouds needed in the sky and synthetic trees that absorb a bigger quantity of carbon dioxide) and put them with photos you can find in a brochure. How to prepare a brochure: -Open a word document and click «New» in the toolbar. -Go to «File» and «Page Setup.» Select «Margins» and set the margins at half-an-inch for all sides. -Select «Paper Size.» Go to «Orientation» and select «Landscape.» -Click «Format» and then «Columns.» Go under «Presets» and select «Three.» You will see a section labelled «Spacing.» Enter one inch for the spacing and click «OK.» You will now have the layout for the brochure. -Add text and images to the brochure. Type inside the brochure to add text. To insert an image, click «Insert,» and then «Picture.» Select «From File» and you will be able to use an image from your computer. To add a background, go to «Format» and then «Background.» You will be able to select a color for the background. 24


5 The Internet A Dialogue 1

Read the dialogue and answer the questions. Walid is the Sales Manager of a company. Juliet is an IT specialist. She is producing a new website for the company. Walid: Good morning Juliet. How is it going? Juliet: I’ve just finished designing the new website. Have a look at this page on the screen. Customers can now see all our products online. Walid: Good. Juliet: If they click on this button, they can place orders online too, or they can order by telephone if they prefer. Walid: Can they pay online? Juliet: Yes, they can if they have a credit card. Walid: Have you written a report to explain how it works? Juliet: Yes, I have. Walid: Good. Have you produced an English version and an Arabic version of the website? Juliet: I haven’t finished the Arabic version yet because the translator is off sick. Walid: OK. Could you let me have a copy of your report, please? Juliet: Yes, certainly. I’ll print you a copy now. Walid: Thank you. Well done, Juliet.

Questions 1 What is Juliet doing for the company? 5 How can customers pay when they place an order? 2 Is the website ready for customers? 6 Why has Juliet written a report? 3 What can customers see on the 7 Do customers need to understand English to use the website? website? 4 What can customers do if they want to 8 Where is the report now? buy something?

25


B Listening 2

Listen to the text about the effects of the Internet on people and businesses and complete the sentences. 1 The number of hosts on the Internet _______________. 2 Worldwide, nearly 300 million people _______________. 3 The new technology has produced _________________.

C Email and web addresses 3

Write the correct email and web addresses. When you hear this 1 waleed at sports dot com 2 adam at city dot co dot UK

Write this waleed@sports.com

3 theo walcott, that’s T-H-E-O then W-A-L-C-0-T-T at goalfeast, that’s G-O-A-L-F-E-A-S-T all one word dot com

D Grammar Reporting yes / no Questions We report yes / no questions with if or whether. DIRECT SPEECH: “Do you need help with the financial report?” REPORTED SPEECH: I asked him if he needed help with the financial report.

Note We do not use the auxiliary verb do except in negative questions. DIRECT SPEECH: “Who doesn’t need a business plan?” REPORTED SPEECH: She asked me who didn’t need a business plan.

Reporting wh- Questions When we report questions with who, what or which + to be + complement, the verb to be can come before or after the complement. DIRECT SPEECH: “Who is the new stockholder?” REPORTED SPEECH: She asked me who the new stockholder was.

or She asked me who was the new stockholder

26


The Internet 4

Finish the sentences using reported speech. You may need to change the tense. Example: Peter: “Did John clean the computer’s screen yesterday?” Peter asked me if John had cleaned the computer’s screen the day before. 1 Mandy: “Are the boys reading the book about e-commerce?” Mandy asked me ______________________________________________. 2 Jason: “Who gave you the laptop?” Jason wanted to know _________________________________________. 3 Rami: “Is Tareq still forgetting to log off the website?” Rami asked his colleague _______________________________________. 4 Ali: “According to the online weather forecast, will it rain tomorrow?” Ali asked me _________________________________________________. 5 Yasmine: “Where do you put your downloaded files?” Yasmine wanted to know _______________________________________. 6 Nadine: “Why didn’t Samira do online business with them? Nadine wanted to know __________________________________________. 7 Linda: “Did your mum book her ticket online?” Linda wanted to know ___________________________________________. 8 Grandmother: “Where are my glasses?” My grandmother asked my mother __________________________________. 9 Ahmad: “Must I do my homework about wireless communication this afternoon?” Ahmad asked me ________________________________________________. 10 A man: “When did the graphic designer last update the company’s website?” A man asked me _________________________________________________.

E Buying sports equipment online 5

Have a look at the Internet page below and choose an item you would like to buy online. In pairs, describe the item you choose. (size, colour and price)

Running shoes 100 $ 70 $

Short-sleeved shirt 25 $ 15 $

Sunglasses 50 $ 30 $

Laptop bag 20 $ 15 $ 27


F Reading 6

Read the article below and decide whether sentences a-e are true or false. Correct the false statements.

How the Internet Works The Internet is really simple to use, but there’s a lot of complex technology behind the World Wide Web. Computers are linked together in a giant network so they can share information. Information is exchanged between all the computers in a network – it doesn’t matter where they are in the world. There are two types of computers on the Internet – ‘servers’ and ‘clients’. Servers are like assistants and clients are like customers. Information is stored and distributed by the servers. They are very powerful computers. Your home or school computer is a client and it can get information from the Internet. Computers are linked together by telephone systems. Information is changed into telephone signals and sent quickly from one computer to another through the servers. Networks in different countries are linked by satellites and large undersea cables. a We can share information with people all over the world through the Internet. b We have servers in our homes so we can surf the Internet. c The Internet uses telephone systems to send signals. d Information exchange on the Internet is very fast. e Your computer sends an email directly to another computer by phoning it. 7 Summarise in one paragraph how the Internet works. 8 Research online more information on how the Internet works and present it to your classmates in a well-organised oral presentation.

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6 Using Computers A Dialogue 1

for Designing

Read the following dialogue between a reporter and a fashion designer and answer the questions. Reporter: We hear of Computer-Aided Design in various fields, such as architecture and machine building. Could you please explain to us how it is used in the fashion world? Fashion designer: With pleasure! Computer-Aided Design, known as CAD, has become essential in the current fashion designing process. CAD software is used to create layouts for a fashion piece. Reporter: It must have some advantages over a simple hand sketch with a pencil and a pad of the past. Could you name some of its benefits? Fashion designer: The main benefit includes quicker patterns and better fit for sizing. The designer chooses preset patterns from thousands and makes necessary amendments according to a model’s dimensions to attain the design and the correct fit. Reporter: This sounds interesting but somehow complex! Fashion designer: No, not at all. Some designers may still prefer paper drafting on a board to digital work, but it’s important to understand the significance of CAD software in today’s industry. CAD software makes the process efficient, so the designer has more time to design, and the manufacturer spends less time tailoring and making adjustments. Reporter: So, we should advise designers to sign up for courses in Computer-Aided Design to learn the basics of technology and for training sessions to keep up-to-date.

Questions 1 Find words in the dialogue that mean the following: a necessary b advantages c already programmed d changes e essentials 2 What are the benefits of using CAD software? 3 Does the fashion designer encourage the use of CAD? Explain your answer. 2

Would you like to use CAD software in fashion design? Why or why not?

CAD software

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B Listening 3

4

Listen to a radio programme about the use of a digital embroidery machine. Complete the sentences. Have you used a digital embroidery machine yet? Well, it’s high time you did. Digital embroidery machines now come with their own (1) __________ which you can use to customise existing images or create your own (2) __________. You can make any jeans or jacket amazing. All what you need is a digital (3) __________ machine, an embroidery digitising software, fabric or (4) __________ and embroidery thread. Learning to use a digital embroidery machine will save you a lot of time and give you an opportunity to add your personal (5) __________ to fabric. Don’t miss the opportunity. Listen again and check your answers.

C Vocabulary 5

Complete the sentences by using the correct form of the words in brackets. 1 After the garment is completed, the (design) __________ either saves the drawing for future work or prints it for the portfolio. 2 The (profession) __________ who creates the design spends hours working on each design. 3 There are many different types of female garments such as evening and (bride) __________ wear. 4 One feature of CAD software is its ability to put specific (measure) __________ into the programme and then to print it out for a (manufacture) __________. 5 Could CAD software replace a human-operated (sew) __________ machinery for garment (construct) __________?

Digital Embroidery Machine

30


Using Computers for Designing D Grammar Reporting Verbs Used in the Negative With a small number of reporting verbs, you usually make the reporting verb negative, not the reported clause. believe expect feel imagine propose suppose think Examples “I think graphic designers should not view computers only as tools for completing traditional tasks.” He / She does not think designers should view computers as tools for completing traditional tasks.

Reporting Verbs + Infinitive Many functions are reported with the following pattern: Function advising requesting instructing warning encouraging reminding

Reporting Verb She advised He asked You told They warned We encouraged I reminded

Object me her us him them you

Infinitive to buy insurance. to work late. to send the money. not to drive fast. to try again. to bring the key.

In the examples above, the reporting verb introduces an action. If the verb introduces information, a different pattern is used: Examples 1 The manager told him to avoid bad suppliers. (action) 2 The manager told him that nothing could ruin a business more than bad suppliers. (information)

6

Rewrite these statements as negative reported speech, using the verb in brackets. Example 1 Tom Sharp doesn’t understand the process of colour separation. (feel) I don’t feel that Tom Sharp understands the process of colour separation. 2 Tina has not had much experience in using the digital embroidery machine. (believe) 3 We should not look for a new designing agency. (propose) 4 We could always ask for more advanced machinery. (believe) 5 They would not agree to this in the middle of a campaign. (expect) 6 Digital filter design can be operated effectively using modern computer tools. (think)

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E Speaking 7

Work in pairs to describe the embroidery designs in the following pictures.

F Reading 8

Read the following tips for purchasing an embroidery digitising machine and / or software then answer the questions. When you are purchasing an embroidery digitising machine, ensure that it has an image importing feature. It’s better if it gives realistic stitch design previews and stitch counts. It should also include digitising software. The software has to have the conversion feature to digitise your own designs. Remember, your embroidery machine has to be compatible with the software. If you already have an embroidery digitising machine, have your model number with you to purchase compatible software: In both cases, whether you are purchasing an embroidery digitising machine or software, make sure that the software: • has a built-in drawing tool, image pad and layout design area features. These are necessary to read scanned or freehand designs. • includes a separate reader-writer box for your embroidery cards. It will be connected into the computer’s USB port. Take time in purchasing the right embroidery digitising machine and software to make your designing process a pleasure.

Questions 1 Look up the definition of the words in bold and write them down. Then read the words in the context they appear in and check if the definition you have written matches the meaning in context. importing realistic conversion compatible purchase built-in 2 What should you look for when purchasing a new embroidery digitising machine? 3 If you already own an embroidery digitising machine, what should you do to update it?

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Review (Units 4-6) A

Use words from the box to complete the following paragraph. yarn an iron one knitting needles hobby fifty sizes double-pointed scissors a tape-measure simple

Knitting is a simple (1)__________ which is easy and enjoyable. Beginner knitters need a supply of (2) __________ of different colours, types and styles. They have to choose the right (3) __________ because there are various (4) __________ ranging from (5) __________ millimetre to (6) __________ millimetres. Moreover, there are (7) __________ and (8) __________ knitting needles. Some other useful tools in knitting are (9) __________, (10) __________, (11) __________ and a basket to store the knitting supplies. B

Complete the information. 1 Crochet hooks are used _________________________________ to ____________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 2 Double-pointed needles are used for _________________________________ while working cables such as in making socks. 3 Modern weaving machines are controlled ________________________________ and they help you produce ____________________________________________________________ 4 CAD — Computer-Aided Design — has become _________________________________ because it uses special _____________________________________________ 5 Digital embroidery machines should have ____________________________________ and ___________________________________________________________________________

C

Match. 1 The shuttle weaving machine 2 The circular weaving machine 3 The narrow fabric machine 4 The Internet 5 Servers 6 Clients a is used to produce the narrow and tight wicks of candles and oil lamps. b links computers in a giant network, so they can share information. c weaves silk fabric as well as many other commercial textiles and linens. d are the computers used at home or school that can get information from the Internet. e are assistants that store and distribute information. f is used to weave cotton which is used for handbags and heavy drapery.

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D

Write five facts about digital embroidery machines. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

E

Construct a paragraph with the following phrases in the space provided below. the new website online

all our products online pay online credit card

order

______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ F

Decide whether the sentences are written in the active or the passive form. Change the active to passive form. 1 Knitters need different sizes of knitting needles for different yarn thickness. 2 Crochet hooks are used to pick up dropped stitches and to tuck the ends of knitting projects. 3 Knitting requires some tools to make it easier and enjoyable. 4 Our company provides you with the best quality weaving machines. 5 The best upholstery fabric and silk carpets are produced by our weaving machines.

G

Rewrite the following sentences in reported speech. You may need to change the tense. 1 The teacher: “Did you learn how to write web and email addresses correctly?” 2 Reporter to fashion designer: “Could you explain how CAD is used in the fashion world?” 3 Reporter to fashion designer: “What are the advantages of using CAD?” 4 Reporter to fashion designer: “Shall we advise designers to sign up for courses in ComputerAided Design to learn the basics of technology to keep up-to-date?” 5 Walid to Juliet: “How is the production of the new website going?”

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7 Advertising A Dialogue 1

Read the dialogue and answer the questions. billboard Mike: Salah! We’ve got to choose an advertising agency for the National Tourist Office of Syria. And you’re going to be working on the project too because you know about the tourist business. Salah: Why don’t they choose an agency themselves? Mike: Because they are not as familiar with the advertising business as we are. And I used to work in an agency, remember? Salah: What kind of a job you used to have? Mike: I started as an Accounts Executive, working on beauty products. Then I became Accounts Manager. I used to plan advertising campaigns for our clients. Salah: Which job do you prefer, working in advertising or working for TST*? Mike: I didn’t care much for beauty products. No, I like working for TST more! You get to work with lots of different clients. Another good thing about consulting is that salaries are higher. And the work isn’t quite as stressful. Salah: I’m very lucky to be in this job. Anyway, I prefer working for lots of clients rather than working for just one.

Questions 1 Mike says that Salah is suited to the new project because _____ a he’s Syrian. b he knows people in the National Tourist Office. c he has worked in tourism. d he knows several advertising agencies. 2 The text says that TST is taking on this new client because ______ a TST has greater expertise in advertising. b Mike has worked in an agency. c TST will get a better deal from the agency. d the National Tourist Office is too busy.

3 “I didn’t care much for beauty products” means ______ a I didn’t think the company was very good. b I didn’t work hard at my job. c I didn’t take care of my skin. d I wasn’t interested in what the company was advertising. 4 According to the text, consulting is better than working for an advertising company because ______ a you have more interesting colleagues. b the job is better paid and more varied. c the stress provides a challenge. d you get to focus on one client. 5 What do the words in bold refer to?

* Technical Syria Technostructure: a company in which a group of experts direct the workings of industries. 35


2

7 small cheap objects that are given away as presents, especially to children 8 a short TV notice promoting a product

What is the means of advertising used in the picture on page 35? In pairs, make a list of advertising means that you know.

B Listening 3

Listen to the dialogue between Mike and Salah. Which of these topics are discussed? Number them in order from 1– 4. A Agencies C Tax E Big brands

4

Banner

B TV advertising D Newspapers F Magazines

Brochure

Listen again. Note one fact for each of the four topics.

C Vocabulary 5

36

Read the brochure about an advertising agency. Then match the underlined words with their definitions (1 – 8). SAC (Syria Advertising Corporation) produces its own TV advertisements. It can also produce video documentaries for sales promotions or sales conferences. For these purposes, it has its own studio and facilities for video editing. Specialists produce animated cartoons. Editors are skilled at using computer graphics, so your message comes across loud and clear. The company also has a workshop for producing outdoor and indoor banners for conferences, competitions or promotions. SAC has links with manufacturers who can produce novelty items for sales promotions at supermarkets and sporting events. Finally, SAC is noted for its high-quality catalogues, which it produces for mail-order companies. 1 visual images produced by computer processing 2 video or TV programmes that give facts and information 3 printed booklets with information, photos and prices of products 4 the process of preparing a video by deciding what to include 5 long pieces of cloth on which an advertising slogan is printed 6 filming a series of pictures to give the appearance of movement.

D Grammar The Second Conditional We use the second conditional if the condition is impossible or unreal now or unlikely in the future: Condition

Result

If I were you,

I would work harder.

If we ended tariffs tomorrow,

there would be advantages and disadvantages.

If the speaker thinks the condition is realistic or likely, the first conditional is used. Example If you reduce your tariffs, we will reduce ours. 6

Complete the sentences, using the verbs in brackets. 1 If I __________ (know) how to make this product appealing, I would tell you. 2 I would think of more creative presentations if I __________ (be) you. 3 If we __________ (not take) the customers’ interests into consideration, our success in advertising would not be the same.


Advertising 4 If it __________ (be) possible, I will provide you with the final sample of the new advertisement tomorrow. 5 It would cost less if we __________ (cooperate) with other advertising agencies. 6 I will ring you tomorrow if I __________ (have) any news about what the store thinks of their new advertisement. 7 If we __________ (have) a million Syrian pounds, we would establish a new advertising agency. 8 If our last advertisement __________ (be) dull, nobody would buy that old-fashioned product.

Flat

4WD car

House

Sports car

House boat

Small car

E Preferences 7

8

Are these shoppers talking about general things (G) or specific things (S)? Mark the phrases by ‘G’ or ‘S’. Examples 1 I like those ones more. _____________ S 2 Red is not my favourite colour. _______G 3 I like it more than the green one. 4 I don’t like trainers; I prefer shoes. 5 I don’t like it as much as the green one. 6 I prefer light colours to dark ones. 7 I don’t care for it. 8 What about this one / these ones? Work in pairs. Point and talk about objects and clothes that you want to buy. Example A What about those sunglasses? B No, I don’t care for them. I prefer lighter frames.

G Selling a product 10

Imagine you are a copywriter. What would you write about these products? Example Trainers: These long-lasting trainers give better ankle support and have under-foot cushioning.

Laptop

F Comparisons 9

Work in pairs. Compare the houses and the cars in the pictures below. Examples A The good thing about living on a houseboat is that you have a nice view. B And another advantage is that it’s cooler than a house or flat in summer. A The good thing about a small car is that you can park it easily. B The problem with a 4WD is that it uses a lot of fuel.

Fountain pen

Video camera

Limousine

37


H Reading 11

Match the titles with the descriptions. Then answer the questions. direct mail cinema television posters newspapers radio magazines 1 __________ This is the most effective, but it is also the most expensive. It is also difficult to target consumers. Research shows that many viewers do not watch advertisements. 2 __________ It is possible to target national markets by choosing consumer, trade or professional media. They are suitable for communicating detailed and complicated information. However, they are expensive. 3 __________ These are expensive for advertisers. However, readership is well researched. As a result, it is simple to target a specific market, the whole country or a local area. 4 __________ These have a powerful impact, but only a limited message is possible. They are not suitable for communicating a lot of detailed information. 5 __________ Through mailing lists, this reaches target consumers accurately. However, the response rate can be low. 6 __________ This has a powerful impact for younger age groups. However, it reaches only a small percentage of the public. Some films are not popular and attract small audiences. 7 __________ Market segments can be targeted because of listeners’ daily routines. Humour is often used in order to interest listeners.

Questions 1 Circle the correct answer. a Advertisers choose the right media in order to obtain the maximum ________. i target ii impact iii communication iv segment b Which media is not described as expensive? i radio ii TV iii magazines iv newspapers c A company that wants to target consumers accurately would not consider advertising ________. i on the radio ii in the cinema iii by direct mail iv on TV d Advertising agencies find out about newspaper readers by doing ________. i mailing ii routines iii research iv communicating 38

2 Why might a company decide to advertise in a local magazine? 3 What kind of information are posters suitable and unsuitable for? 4 How do people know that not all viewers watch advertisements? 5 Choose suitable media for these advertising campaigns and explain your reasons. a prestige advertising for an airline b a new car model c a department store sale d financial services such as banking or insurance e freight services


8 Marketing a Product A Dialogue 1

Read the dialogue and answer the questions. Mrs Salma: Hello, how are you my friend? Mrs Rouba:I’m fine. What’s new? Mrs Salma: I’m calling to tell you I’ve started a new job. Mrs Rouba:What kind of a job? Mrs Salma: I’m working for a cosmetics company. I visit homes door-to-door taking orders. Mrs Rouba:Do you enjoy it? Mrs Salma: Yes, it’s very exciting. I order the initial package. It includes a few products and marketing tools, such as catalogues, free samples, coupons and product information. I show these products to women in their houses. If they like them, they can order. Mrs Rouba:It’s quite interesting! Mrs Salma: I really enjoy meeting people, and I earn my income by working part-time only.

Questions 1 Look up the meaning of the following words in a dictionary or your glossary. a enjoy b exciting c package d coupon e earn 2 Why does Mrs Salma enjoy her new job? 3 What do the words in bold refer to? 4 Name the beauty products in the picture above.

f income

B Listening 2

Listen and decide if the following statements are true or false. Correct the false statements. 1 The first salesperson in that company was a female. 2 He named the company after his son. 3 The company provides quality cosmetics at inexpensive prices. 4 The company produces only perfume.

39


3

Listen again and complete the text with the missing phrases. It is rather strange to say that the first salesperson in a famous cosmetics company was a man. That man used to go door-to-door selling books, but he was always asked about the perfume he was wearing. He (1) _________ and started the perfume business. Afterwards, he established his own company and (2) _________ the title of a book. This famous cosmetics company always adapts the image of a female salesperson going (3) _________ selling its products. This female salesperson (4) _________ make up with other women inside their houses. This worldwide company supplies the market with distinctive cosmetics at (5) _________. All the representatives of this company have their own choice of how to earn their money. They either sell through catalogues they give to friends and family or through online selling.

4

Listen again and answer the questions. a Why does the cosmetics company always adapt the image of a female salesperson? b What are the choices given to the representatives of that company?

C Vocabulary 5

Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in brackets. 1 Word-of-mouth marketing is highly (depend) _________ on being (believe) _________ and honest. 2 A marketing strategy should be (centre) _________ around the key concept that customer (satisfy) _________ is the main goal. 3 (Confide) _________ and (succeed) _________ make you look your best. 4 The number of women in (market) _________ continues to increase and their influence is (grow) _________ considerably.

D Grammar Third Conditional The third conditional is a structure used when talking about unreal situations in the past. Like the other conditionals, the third conditional sentence consists of two clauses, an if clause and a main clause. if clause If she had joined our marketing group,

main clause she would have received a widely recognised marketing certification.

explanation She didn’t receive a widely recognised marketing certification because she didn’t join our marketing group.

If the if clause comes first, a comma is usually used. If the if clause comes second, there is no need for a comma. Examples If the e-marketing association had not been successful, it wouldn’t have had members in over sixty-five countries. Building and maintaining a customer relationship would have been harder if the company had not used the Internet to achieve so. Form of third conditional: if clause : if + subject + past perfect verb main clause : subject + (would / could / might) have + past participle 40


Marketing a Product 6

Join these sentences using if. 1 Product managers used tools to identify consumer preference. The new product had increased success. 2 Product managers gained customers’ confidence. They overcame customers’ scepticism, confusion and indifference. 3 You deeply believed in your product, service and company. You persuaded and influenced your target customers and clients. 4 The advertising campaign generated an insufficient level of new product awareness. This new product didn’t achieve profitability.

E Speaking 7

Work in pairs. Make a list of the advantages and disadvantages of door-to-door selling. Arrange your ideas in the T-chart below. Advantages

Disadvantages

F Roleplay 8

Work in pairs. Student A is a salesperson and Student B is the customer. The products that Student A is selling are: linen (bed sheets, tablecloths, towels, etc.) or handicrafts. Choose one product and perform a roleplay.

41


G Reading 9

Read the text and answer the questions. Marketing your products and services helps a lot in the success of your company. Spending a great amount of money on your advert is not the point, but using the correct technique of advertising leads to the proper results. Online marketing is very cheap and effective especially for small businesses. Advertising on the Internet gives a company a big opportunity to promote its products. People all over the world would have access to any advert at any time. Direct marketing has proved to be very beneficial in increasing awareness of your company. Radio adverts, for example, will help you present your products. Word-of-mouth marketing is beyond doubt one of the most powerful forms of advertising. Being in direct contact with the customers affects your company positively. When you are face-to-face with customers, you can identify their responses and satisfy their needs.

Questions

e-marketing

1 Find words in the text that have a similar meaning to the following definitions: a prepare the way for b chance c give publicity to d realisation e recognise 2 Fill in the following table with the forms of marketing mentioned in the text and write down the characteristics of each one. Types of Marketing

Characteristics

1

2

3

H Writing 10

42

Why do you think that marketing affects the success of any company? Elaborate.


Culture and Values 2 __________________ Women in Business (WiB) is a nonprofit organisation whose main aim is to facilitate trade transactions between the Arab World and the UK. This organisation is managed by an international team of unpaid enthusiasts who work hard to realise its ambitions and aspirations. In addition, WiB is also considered to be a worldwide forum in which women involved in business share ideas and broaden their experiences with others in conferences and meetings held in a variety of countries Furthermore, WiB has played a major role in encouraging worldwide interaction between qualified employees and businesswomen, with the aim of enhancing women’s economic development. Finally, WiB encourages all its participants, regardless of their professional level, to take part in the seminars. It also provides its members with the opportunity for professional development by participating in its annual events. When questioned, over four-fifths of the participants stated that they have benefited from participating in WiB’s seminars which were conducted by proficient lecturers and included real-life experiences.

Questions 1 Give the text a suitable title. 2 What is the meaning of the words in bold? 3 Do you think WiB can achieve all its goals? 4 Fill, in your own words, the following company profile for WiB. Profile of ____________________ (Write a brief paragraph here that describes the company, its history, the sector in which it operates, etc.) Company Details Location: _____________________ Financial facts: _____________________ How does the company compare to others in its sector? ___________________ Personnel: ________________________

43


9 Folk Costumes and Seasonal Fashion A Dialogue 1

Read the dialogue and answer the questions. Granddaughter: Grandma, could you please help me with my assignment? Grandmother: Sure, what is it about? Granddaughter: It is about Athwab Bilad El Sham and the tradition of embroidery in the Arab World. Are there any special clothes you used to wear? Grandmother: We used to wear the thob. It is a long cotton dress with triangular sleeves, embroidered round the neck, at the chest and the sides. It is held in by a belt woven with red and black wool or cotton. Granddaughter: What did you wear in winter? Grandmother: Coats. They were made in dark colours with wide sleeves and side slits. These coats were bought from the souk. The silk Kaftan was worn by wealthy women over the dress. Granddaughter: What about the veil, Grandma? Grandmother: When I was a child, most women used to wear it and wrap a large silk cloth, the shambar, over it. It is held in place by a headband consisting of a smaller and thinner scarf called a mandil that is folded diagonally. The veil is made of two colours and the ends of the scarf are decorated with fringes, tassels and simple embroidery.

Questions 1 Look up the meaning of the following words in a dictionary or your glossary. a embroidery b slit c wrap d fringe e tassel 2 Why did the girl ask her grandmother to help her with the assignment? 3 What do you think was special about Athwab Bilad El Sham? 2 Which country’s national dress do you like? Describe it to your partner.

44


Folk Costumes and Seasonal Fashion B Listening 3

Listen and complete the text. Keeping up with the latest (1) __________ is one of the most important secrets and plans of managing a successful fashion design business. You have to decide which kind of cloth you’ll need as well as the accessories your models will wear to get the final look. Your preparation in the fashion industry starts eighteen months ahead of fashion production. The designer has eighteen months (2) __________ , design, pattern and transform the cloth into a material ready to be displayed to the public. Eighteen months are not very long at all because you’ll have to wait until the wholesalers start supplying what you need. But while you are showing your work on the catwalk and at trade shows, you are searching for what’s likely to be popular in the following season. When you (3) __________ , you must be careful about timing. Your new fashion show releases new colours and styles at the same time with other designers. Finally, there is no reason why you are not able to be successful if you are well-organised and (4) __________ all your attention and effort to your work.

4

Listen again and decide if the following statements are true or false. Correct the false statements. 1 Preparation for a fashion production starts one year and a half ahead. 2 Timing is not important for a designer. 3 Time for rest is available for the designer after every fashion show. 4 The designer releases his new styles before others do.

C Vocabulary 5

Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in the box. design

colour

collect

vary

1 Women’s costumes can be decorated with patchwork materials in __________ colours. 2 Time is so tight when preparing a new __________. 3 The neckline down the chest is ornamented with __________ appliqué work. 4 Most __________ release new colours and styles at the same time.

D Folk costumes 6

The following are examples of national costumes. Some are labelled correctly and others aren’t. Find the incorrect ones and correct them.

Japan

Russia

Lebanon

Armenia

Syria

India

45


E Grammar Tag Questions Tag questions are used in speech at the end of sentences to check information or opinions. Usually, positive sentences have negative tags. Negative sentences have positive tags. Examples You are well-known in fashion shows (+), aren’t you? (-) You haven’t been told how to make folk costumes (-), have you? (+) 7

Complete these sentences with the right tag question. 1 In Syrian folk costumes, the embroidery was usually in a V-shape on the top half of the garment, ________? 2 You don’t have your costume for the national festival, ________? 3 You are wondering what type of dress you should wear for your graduation party, ________? 4 They displayed the folk costumes in glass cabinets to protect them from different weather conditions, ________? 5 I’m right about this year’s fashion trends, ________? 6 They have worn the traditional costumes in special events related to tradition, heritage or pride, ________? 7 You won’t have to buy new clothes because this year’s fashion is the same as last year’s, ________? 8 It will be informative to have a session about different traditional folk costumes which are related to the country’s traditions and culture, ________?

F Speaking 8

46

You are the commentator at a fashion show. Describe the following designs.


Folk Costumes and Seasonal Fashion G Reading 9

Read the text and answer the questions. Leading designers warn that unpredictable weather patterns caused by climate change are playing havoc with the traditional pattern of spring / summer and autumn / winter collections. One of the most famous Italian designers said that the whole fashion industry would have to change. The industry had to adapt to the reality that there was no strong difference between summer and winter any more. The US fashion giants have all hired climatologists to help them plan their next collections. In Paris, a famous designer declared that with global warming he didn’t believe in four distinct seasons any longer. Other designers claimed that if the industry did not adapt to climate change, it would not survive. Thus, new styles will emerge to satisfy the demands of all-weather clothing. The features editor of a fashion magazine thought that we would start to see a move toward what you could call trans-seasonal or all-year clothing. So, we would have t-shirts sold in January, and fur coats sold in August. It’s bonkers!

Questions 1 Choose the best title for the text written above. a unpredictable weather b traditional clothes

c fashion show

2 What problem is the whole fashion industry facing? 3 What are some solutions given by the designers? 4 Find words in the text which have a similar meaning to the following definitions. a to tell someone that something bad may happen b creating disorder and confusion c change your behaviour in order to be successful in a new situation d to make someone feel pleased by doing what they want e slightly crazy 5 Why do you think that the fashion industry is important nowadays?

47


Review (Units 7-9) A

Compare the following products. 1 simple telephone and mobile phone 2 digital embroidery machine and sewing machine 3 computer and laptop

B

Explain the following phrases in your own words. 1 online marketing 2 direct marketing 3 word-of-mouth marketing

C

Which technique of advertising from task B would you choose for selling each of the following products? Write a paragraph of three sentences to explain your answer. 1 digital embroidery machine 2 Athwab Bilad El Sham

D

Fill in the gaps with the correct word from the box. belt shambar

embroidered fringes

thob wore

chest veil

souk

tassels Kaftan

Grandmother said that in the past they used to wear the (1) __________. It is a long cotton dress with triangular sleeves, (2) __________ round the neck, at the (3) __________ and the sides. It is held in by a (4) __________ woven with red and black wool or cotton. In winter they (5) __________ coats which were bought from the (6) __________. The silk (7)__________ was worn by wealthy women over the dress. All women used to wear the (8) __________, a large silk cloth, over the veil. The __________ is made of two colours and the ends are decorated with (9) __________, (10) __________ and simple embroidery.

E

48

Write ďŹ ve secrets related to a successful fashion-designing business.


F

Use each of the following phrases in a meaningful sentence. 1 unpredictable weather patterns 2 The industry had to adapt 3 Fashion agencies hire climatologists 4 trans-seasonal or all-year clothing

G

Complete the sentences, using the verbs in brackets. 1 If Salah preferred working as Accounts Manager, he (work, not) __________ in advertising. 2 If Salah (be, not) __________ lucky, he wouldn’t be working for lots of clients. 3 If The National Tourist Office of Syria were familiar with the advertising business as Salah and Mike, it (hire, not) __________ TST to represent it. 4 If editors at SAC weren’t skilled at using computer graphics, your message as a client (come, not) __________ across loud and clear. 5 If I (have) __________ more money, I would take some trips.

H

Complete the following sentences in your own words. 1 If I had never studied English, ___________________________________________________ 2 If I had not come to this school, _________________________________________________ 3 If I had been born in Australia, __________________________________________________ 4 If I had been born thirty years ago, _______________________________________________ 5 If I had graduated at the age of 21, ______________________________________________

I

Complete these sentences with the right tag question. 1 An Italian designer said that the whole fashion industry should change, 2 The US fashion giants have all hired climatologists, 3 New styles will emerge to satisfy the demands of all-weather clothing, 4 T-shirts were sold in January, 5 The fashion industry is very important nowadays,

? ? ? ? ?

49


10 Safety at Work A Dialogue 1

Read the dialogue between two sewers and answer the questions. Nadia: Hello Samira, I’ve heard about the accident you had last week? How did it happen? Samira: I was at work in the sewing room focusing on the dress I was making. In just one second, my finger was caught under the needle of the new sewing machine. Nadia: That must have hurt a lot. Was anyone there? Did anyone assist you? Samira: Oh, I didn’t need help. I had to take a deep breath and take the needle backwards to save my finger. Nadia: What did you do next? Did you go to the clinic? Samira: First, I bandaged it myself. I thought the injury was minor. But then, after work, I passed by the clinic to have it checked. The doctor sterilised the wound and gave me some tablets to relieve the pain. Nadia: Good. And please next time, beware of needles and other sharp tools in the sewing room to avoid accidents. Samira: Yes, they can cause major injury. I will be cautious. Thank you.

Questions 1 What happened to Samira? 2 Did she panic? Give two incidents to prove your point. 3 What was the advice that Nadia gave to Samira? 4 Find words in the text for each of the meanings below. a cut (n) (2 words) b aid (v) (2 words) c main d cleaned e lessen f be careful (2 words) 2

50

Have you experienced an accident at work? If not, have you heard of any accidents experienced by others? Elaborate.


Safety at Work

B Listening 3

Listen to the radio programme and answer the questions. 1 How many people are there in the episode? Who are they? 2 What is the topic of the programme? How many episodes does it have? 3 Does the programme intend to describe accidents or give solutions?

C Vocabulary 4

Complete the sentences by using words from the box. machinery

table

burner

fabric

poultry

posture

appliances

1 Make sure there isn’t anything under your __________ before you begin cutting. 2 Keep your __________ in good condition. 3 Don’t use electric __________ near the sink. 4 Maintain proper __________ when working at a sewing machine or cutting _____________. 5 Be careful with raw __________, seafood and eggs. 6 Don’t leave glass containers on the __________.

D Grammar Indefinite Pronouns An indefinite pronoun does not refer to any specific person, thing or amount. It is vague and “not definite”. Most indefinite pronouns are either singular or plural. However, some of them can be singular in one context and plural in another. Singular another, anybody / anyone, anything, each, either, enough, everybody / everyone, everything, less, little, much, neither, nobody / no one, nothing, one, other, somebody / someone, something Plural both, few, fewer, many, others, several Singular or plural all, any, more, most, none, some, such 5

Fill in the gaps with everyone, somebody, something, anything, nothing, somewhere, anywhere or nowhere. 1 ________ dangerous in the workplace that can blow up, burn or poison should be used, stored and transported with great care. 2 It is ________’s job to follow work safety rules and regulations. 3 The manager has scheduled a safety training session for all the employees, so they should go ________. 4 The workers couldn’t find the fire extinguisher ________. 5 He has few bruises because of the fall, but ________ serious. 6 The cleaning staff should wipe the slippery wet floor ________ near the bathroom. 7 One of the responsibilities of a human resources manager is to tell the employer if ________ happens that might affect the employees’ safety. 8 ________ has to call the ambulance; Ali fell and sprained his leg.

51


E Giving and responding to warnings There are a number of structures used when giving warnings in English. Here are some of the most common: 1 Use the imperative followed by might or will in a statement. Example Don’t push so hard on that toy, or you might / will break it! 2 Use the imperative. Example Watch out! Be careful! 3 Use the imperative followed by otherwise you will or might + the main form of the verb to show consequences. Example Work hard, otherwise you’ll fail your exam. 6

Act out a conversation about each of the following pictures using the structures in the table above.

open scissors / injure

7

52

flame / burn

Circle the correct answer. 1 Don’t push so hard on that doll, or you _____ it! a might break b might to break c might breaking 2 _____ Be careful! a Watching out! b Look at! c Watch out! 3 Work hard, _____ you’ll fail your exam. a otherwise b although c despite 4 _____ overcook the meal. You’ll burn it. a Not b Don’t c No

fall / burn / injure


Safety at Work F Speaking 8

Decide what the safety issue is in each of the following scenarios. Work in pairs and discuss the various options you have for dealing with the situation. Scenario 1 You work in a fast-food restaurant, and your employer asks you to stay until closing time for many nights. You do not get home until midnight and you must get up for school by 6 a.m. You are very tired at school and work. Yesterday, another employee at work was tired and he was in a hurry to go home. Because of this, he accidently spilled some hot oil and burned himself. Scenario 2 You and your partner are working on a local farm. The farmer has just started spraying pesticides on his fields, and he has asked you to handle the pesticide containers and sprayers. Neither of you has gloves or respirators or has any training. The farmer is in a hurry to get the job done before it rains this week. If you ask for gloves and respirators, the farmer will have to go buy these supplies. You could lose several working hours. Scenario 3 You and your partner work at a local convenience store. Your supervisor has just decided to make each of you take turns working alone in the store in the evenings. This decision makes both of you very nervous. Someone could rob you or assault you, and no one would know. Since your employer trusts both of you, she specifically wants you both to work the evening shift but doesn’t want to have more than one employee working at the same time. Scenario 4 You and a friend just got a summer job mowing along the side of country roads. Your supervisor asks you both to mow a very steep hillside. You notice the tractors have no rollover protection. Several teenagers applied for these jobs because it is very well-paid. Your supervisor chose you on a trial basis to see if you could handle the job.

G Reading 9

Read the following excerpt from a newspaper article and answer the questions. Research studies have shown that fires and burns come third in causing home injury and deaths. We can prevent such accidents by being aware of safety precautions. First, wherever there is a fire at home, be it in the kitchen or the living room, an adult has to be there. Second, keep any flammable materials such as towels, curtains and bags away from fire. Third, don’t overload electric circuits by using multiple plugs or keeping electric appliances on when you don’t need them. Fourth, keep an effective fire extinguisher around. And finally, if a fire does start at home and you can’t stop it, remember to call for help and execute your pre-arranged escape plan.

Questions 1 What do the words in bold refer to? 2 What is the writer’s purpose behind writing the newspaper article? 3 According to the article, can we prevent fire? Elaborate. 4 What does the writer mean by ‘pre-arranged escape plan’? 5 Think of some other causes of fire and give suggestions to avoid it.

53


11 General Symbols A Dialogue 1

Read the dialogue between a daughter and her mother and answer the questions. Mona: Mum, look what happened to my new blouse. It shrank after I washed it! Mum: What does the laundry label say? Have you checked? Mona: Oh, no. I should have done that when I bought it. Let me see. It has a bucket symbol with one dot. What does that mean? Mum: It means you can wash it in the machine with cold water. Did you do that? Mona: No, I put it in the washing machine with the other laundry. I must have washed it with hot water. Mum: Now it’s too late to do anything. Next time, remember to read the instructions on the care labels of your clothes. Mona: Yes, I should. It doesn’t take much time and it protects my clothes.

Questions 1 What is Mona’s problem? 2 What is her mother’s advice? 3 Look up the following words in the glossary. a shrink b bucket c laundry d care label 4 Find a pair of antonyms in the dialogue.

B Listening 2

54

Listen to the description of some symbols we find on electric ovens and match them with the pictures below by writing the number of the text beneath the picture. a b c d


General Symbols 3

Listen again and check answers.

C Laundry symbols 4

Match each symbol with its meaning. 1

bucket with a hand

a do not wash

2

bucket with a cross

b dry clean

3

square with a black circle

c hand wash

4

bucket with 3 dots and a horizontal line d tumble dry without heat

5

circle

e tumble dry with high heat

6

square with a circle and 3 dots

f machine wash, hot water, permanent press

D Vocabulary 5

Find expressions in the text that have the word ‘safe’. Use the table below to write them with their meanings. All Tupperware products carry a “food safe” sign. Some Tupperware items are microwave safe but are not meant to be used in cooking. Some containers carry the freezer safe symbol. This means they can be placed in the freezer with the proper amount of food without having it damaged. Tupperware items produced after 1979 have the dishwasher safe symbol but need to be kept away from the heating element in the dishwasher.

Words with safe

Meaning Can be Can be but Can be but Can be but

6

What is the difference between containers and utensils? Look up the meaning of the two words in the glossary. 55


E Grammar Prepositions Prepositions are used before nouns to give additional information in a sentence. Prepositions are usually used to show where something is located, when something happened or an action. Prepositions showing: Location: above, below, over, under, among, between, beside, in front of, behind, next to, with, in the middle of, on, in, at Time: at, on, by, before, from, since, for, during, to, until, after Action and movement at, by, from, into, on, onto, off, out of, towards

7

56

Choose the correct answer for each question. 1 White clothes should be washed ______ cold water while black clothes are washed ______ hot water. a under / into b on / into c in / in d on / on 2 Always read the instructions ______ the care label before you put the laundry ______ the washing machine. a behind / into b on / into c behind / in d in the middle of / in 3 I saw something about it ______ television. a in b on c at d through 4 Look ______ the triangular shape on the care label to help you select the proper type ______ bleach. a inside / on b for/ of c along / of d through / of 5 Two lines ______ the drying symbol represents gentle cycle, while an X ______ the symbol with a circle means do not tumble dry. a under / over b on / up c in / on d between / over 6 The dots ______ the ironing symbol indicate the temperature ranges ______ ironing. a over / for b for / in c in / for d above / in 7 Always look for the microwave safety label ______ you put the container ______ the microwave. a by / in b before / in c before / under d after / in front of 8 Food items that don’t carry the “freezer safe” symbol can’t be stored ______ the freezer. a in b on c at d through 9 All sewing students should learn to read the symbols that are printed ______ sewing patterns. a inside b on c along d through


General Symbols F Reading 8

Read the following symbol key in a sewing manual. Use the picture of the pattern below to write the symbols. The following are the common symbols you see on the paper patterns. Read them carefully to avoid errors in cutting the fabric and in sewing the garment. Numbers: how many pieces of the pattern piece you need to cut out, for example two sleeve cuts Cutting lines: bold black lines on the outer edge of the pattern piece with a picture of a pair of scissors Stitching lines: broken lines indicating where the pieces of fabric are stitched together Gathering lines: broken lines that begin and end with a notch indicating that you should gather between the notches Seam allowance: the width of the fabric between the stitching line and the cutting line Notches: diamond shapes along the gathering line used to line up pieces of fabric to be joined Buttonhole positions: markings to stitch buttonholes on the fabric Directional sewing: small arrow along the stitching line to show the way or direction to stitch, for example from the waistline to the hemline

9

Bring a pattern with you to class and in pairs show your partner the symbols printed on it.

57


12 Latest Discoveries A Dialogue 1

Read and answer the questions.

1 A: Hello. Can I ask you a question, please? B: Yes. A: Thank you. What was, according to you, the most important discovery in history? B: I’d say medicine. A: Can you be more specific? B: Vaccines were an important discovery. Because of vaccines, children don’t get awful diseases anymore. A: Thank you for your time. B: You’re welcome. 2 A: What do you think was the most important discovery in history? C: Well, there have been so many things, but I’d say electricity. A: Electricity? C: Yes, I think so. We need it every second of the day, don’t we? We need it to use our computers, to browse the Internet, to put the lights on, for heating and watching television. A: Right, thanks very much.

3 A: What do you think was the most important discovery in history? D: Radio waves! We need them for our mobile phones and satellites. I mean, we can’t live without them! A: That’s right. Thanks a lot. D: No problem.

Questions 1 What is the interviewer (A) interested in knowing from the three interviewees (B, C and D)? 2 What were the three answers to his main question? 3 What is the meaning of ‘awful’? 4 According to you, which one of the three discoveries is the most important? Why? 5 How would you answer the interviewer’s question? Explain your answer.

electric lamp

58


Latest Discoveries B Listening 2

Listen and circle the correct answer. 1 Colin is __________. a sixteen b seventeen c eighteen 2 Colin is from __________. a England b Ireland c Scotland 3 Colin’s invention is for children with __________. a breathing problems b hearing problems c learning problems 4 The child breathes the spray through the elephant’s __________. a mouth b tail c trunk 5 Who suffers from asthma? a Colin’s mother b Colin’s cousin c Colin’s brother

C Vocabulary 3

Write the words between brackets in the right form. The first digital (mechanic) (1) __________ calculator was invented in 1623 and the first (commerce) (2) __________ successful device was produced in 1820. Many toy inventors have college degrees in engineering, such as (produce) (3) __________ design, mechanical engineering or electronics. In 1951, the first video tape recorder captured live images from television cameras by (convert) (4) __________ the information into (electricity) (5) _________ impulses and saving the information onto magnetic tape. Scientists are working on how to (integration) (6) __________ solar cells into mobile phones, allowing them to be powered (continue) (7) __________ on just two hours of sunlight a day.

D Matching 4

Match the following titles with their specific descriptions, then group the inventions in different categories and give them appropriate titles. a Extraction-Assist Robot b Tread-Walk

c Perpetual Motion Device d Phones with Sound Waves e Hair-Washing Machine f Paper-Based Lithium-Ion Batteries g Raytheon’s XOS 2 Exoskeleton h Visually Impaired Assistant (VIA)

1 allows the user to lift 200 pounds hundreds of times without getting tired 2 helps carers who work in hospitals and health care institutions. It makes use of the company’s robot hand technology, featuring 16 fingers to wash the user’s hair 3 represents a combination of GPS and a walking stick and includes four mini cameras and a GPS receiver 4 turns sound waves into electricity 5 machine that generates more energy than it consumes and produces power from perpetual motion 6 developed for the elderly and disabled in order to enable them to fulfil their personal mobility needs 7 carries injured soldiers from the battlefield, breaks locked doors and lifts heavy cargo 8 used to power electronic newspapers and to make smart packaging that would assist marketers 59


E Grammar Sentence Fragments and Run-on sentences A sentence fragment is an incomplete sentence. Some fragments are incomplete because they lack either a subject or a verb, or both. Example

Some of the inventions studied in Professor Saleh’s class last term. A run-on sentence is a sentence in which two or more independent clauses (that is, complete sentences) are joined without appropriate punctuation or conjunction. Example

It is nearly half past five we cannot finish the machine before dark.

5

Mark complete sentences with CS, sentence fragments with F and run-on sentences with RO. _____ 1 The invention that I saw yesterday. _____ 2 It is not an exceptional discovery, it is only average. _____ 3 Your idea to invent a time machine is quite impossible. _____ 4 Because I have no new inventions yet. _____ 5 Present your new invention carefully. _____ 6 Our latest discoveries were revolutionary, therefore, our profits will be higher. _____ 7 Having finished her new project, Joy sat down to an evening of television. _____ 8 The steam engine, one of the well-known inventions in history. _____ 9 I went in, I adjusted a few details. The machine worked perfectly well. _____ 10 Hurry up!

6

Correct the run-on sentences in exercise 5.

7

Correct the fragments in exercise 5.

F Speaking 8

The following is a list of three new inventions with a short description of each. In groups of four, discuss which one is the most important and which is the least important. Plastic into oil This machine is able to turn plastic into oil; it will help people use more renewable energy sources. Robot Suit This is a robot suit that elderly farmers can attach to their bodies to help them carry out their daily work more easily. Toothbrush without toothpaste This is a toothbrush that creates a solar-powered chemical reaction inside a person’s mouth and cleans their teeth without using toothpaste.

9

60

Prepare a five-minute talk to explain your answers to task 8.


Latest Discoveries

G Reading 10

Read the text and answer the questions. Self-Cleaning Clothing Wool manufacturers are interested in this invention: coating fibres such as wool with titanium dioxide nanocrystals, which break down food stains when exposed to sunlight. Of course, these nanocrystals do not harm the skin. They don’t even affect the feel or look of the fabric. When coated with titanium dioxide, fabrics become self-cleaning and may be useful in hospitals, for instance. Some may say that this is not a new invention since materials that use nanoparticles are already on the market. However, such materials are stain-repellent fabrics with a nanofibre coating that pushes the liquid off the fabric by making the particles roll off instead of being absorbed into the material. Titanium dioxide can decompose organic matter when exposed to ultraviolet light and when mixed with water. It can also destroy bacteria when exposed to sunlight. The most important feature of titanium dioxide is that it can get rid of ink stains in seventeen hours and coffee stains in two hours.

Questions 1 Write a suitable introduction to this text. 2 Find five difficult words and explain them using the glossary. 3 Give an example of stain-repellent fabrics. 4 Explain, in your own words, the difference between the type of fabric described in the text and stain-repellent fabrics. 5 Write a suitable conclusion to this text.

clean laundry in baskets

H Writing 11

Do some research on the Internet to ďŹ nd two recent inventions you are interested in and write a fully-developed paragraph describing each.

61


Culture and Values 3 The Spread of the Desert Desertification is one of the most dangerous environmental problems facing our world today. Around a sixth of the world’s population has to face its consequences. Countries with a dehydrated climate offer the perfect environment for desertification. In such areas, the surface of the soil is ruined and thus no plants grow. Consequently, no animals can graze there. These harsh conditions force people to leave their land and go to other areas where they can get water and food. Some people survive their journey, while others die of starvation or thirst. Desertification is not only caused by natural conditions. Man also plays a vital role in accelerating the process of desertification. Farmers tend to overgraze the land in order to feed the growing population. Moreover, people are cutting down trees and this erodes the soil since there are no more trees to protect it against the wind and rain. The effects of desertification are not as simple as they might seem. Strong winds and wild fires often occur in desert areas and this might have a serious impact on the availability of the most valuable resource on the planet: water.

Questions 1 What are the causes of the problem described in the article? 2 Choose the correct endings to the following sentence beginnings. a Land can no longer be used for growing crops if… 1 the top layer of soil is destroyed. 2 animals are grazed on the land. 3 people move to greener areas. b The Earth’s most precious resource is… 1 productive land. 2 water. 3 people. c Trees and plants… 1 grow well in deserts. 2 stop wind and rain from damaging land. 3 are a major cause of desertification. 3 Research another environmental problem and compare it to desertification in a Venn diagram.

62


Review (Units 10-12) A

Write a complete paragraph using the following phrases. injury was minor passed by the doctor some tablets

have it checked relieve the pain

B

Match the words to their meanings. 1 beware a domesticated fowl, such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, etc. 2 cautious b pre-planned 3 elaborate c be careful 4 poultry d safety measures 5 prevent e careful, attentive 6 precautions f present in further detail 7 flammable g carry out 8 extinguish h keep from happening 9 execute i put out 10 pre-arranged j burnable

C

Read the following statements and decide which is true and which is false. Correct the false statements. 1 Research studies have shown that burns come second in causing home injury and deaths. 2 Children should try to put out a fire at home. 3 Anything flammable must always be kept away from fire. 4 Towels, curtains and bags aren’t flammable. 5 Overloaded electric circuits never cause fire. 6 There is no need to keep an effective fire extinguisher around since fires happen rarely. 7 You must call for help if you can’t stop a fire.

D

What safety measures must be taken in the following situation? Give three suggestions. You are in the kitchen preparing lunch for your family. You are frying potatoes when the telephone rings. You answer the call. It is your best friend who has just arrived from a trip abroad. She has many exciting things to tell. You forget about the potatoes on fire.

E

Write a sentence with each given word. 1 shrank 2 laundry label 3 bucket symbol 4 instructions 5 protect

63


F

Guess the meanings of the following words. 1 waterproof 2 freezer safe 3 ovenproof 4 soundproof 5 mothproof

G

6 greaseproof 7 flameproof 8 fireproof 9 bulletproof 10 microsafe

Fill in the gaps with the correct preposition. 1 I heard __________ the accident you had last week. 2 I was __________ work __________ the sewing room. 3 My finger was caught __________ the needle of the sewing machine. 4 __________ work, I passed __________ the clinic to have it checked. 5 My brother works __________ a local company.

H

According to you, what was the greatest discovery in history? Write four sentences about it.

I

Mark complete sentences with CS, sentence fragments with F, and run-on sentences with RO. 1 Wool manufacturers interested in self-cleaning clothing. 2 Titanium dioxide nanocrystals don’t harm the skin. 3 When coated with nanocrystals fabrics become self-cleaning. 4 Titanium dioxide can destroy bacteria when exposed to sunlight. 5 Titanium dioxide can easily remove juice, ink and coffee stains. 6 However stain-repellent fabrics are not new on the market.

J

Correct the run-on sentences from exercise I.

K

Correct the fragments from exercise I.

L

Fill in the blanks with the correct indefinite pronoun. 1 __________ Tupperware products carry the sign of “food safe” on food containers and utensils. 2 __________ Tupperware items are microsafe, __________ are freezer safe. 3 __________ must read the instructions on care labels on their clothes before cleaning them. However, __________ can make a mistake and forget all about labels. 4 __________ of you are diligent students. The teacher has assigned __________ difficult tasks to you and __________ else. This has challenged __________ students to do their best. 5 According to __________, the most significant discovery in history is medicine. __________ consider electricity more important than the discovery of medicine. Nonetheless, __________ is as important as the discovery of radio waves as some might consider.

64


English for Starters, Vocational Stream – Girls’ English for Starters, Vocational Stream – Girls’, is an English language course that was specially written for vocational / girls’ secondary schools in Syria. The course progresses from an intermediate level of English in Grade 10 to an advanced level of English in Grade 12. The book introduces students to concepts in practical girls’ skills; it assumes no prior knowledge of these skills on the part of students and teachers. The course aims to review and consolidate the language and skills learnt at previous levels and equip students for their future foreign language needs in the following areas: language skills (reading, listening, speaking and writing), grammar, vocabulary and practical girls’ skills. It enables students to perform routine tasks at work and to take part in social interaction.

Components: Students’ Book Activity Book including a glossary Teacher’s Book Audio CD

‫ﺱ‬.‫ ﻝ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮ‬

EFS 12 Girls SB  

EFS 12 Girls SB