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Activity Book

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Vocational Stream Commercial Grade 12

Activity Book

Ω2012 - 2011 áYÉÑ£∏d áeÉ©dG á°ù°SDƒŸG


Contents Unit

Title

Page

1

Warehousing and Shipping (1)

3

2

Income Statement

6

3

Competition and Pricing

9

Test 1

12

4

Warehousing and Shipping (2)

14

5

Financial Position

17

6

Retail and Wholesale

20

Test 2

23

7

Advertising (1)

25

8

E-Marketing

28

9

Workplace Ethics

31

Test 3

34

10

IT and Telecoms

36

11

Advertising (2)

39

12

Latest Discoveries

42

Test 4

45

Correspondence Glossary

47 60

2


1 Warehousing and Shipping (1) Exercise 1 Matching

Match the following warehousing and shipping names (1-7) with their descriptions (i-vii).

1 Online Tracking 5 Inventory Management 2 Kitting & Hand Assembly 6 Pickup 3 Warehousing 7 Packing 4 Shipping i If you are moving home or office or shipping a package and want to pack it yourself, we have a wide range of packing supplies including padded envelopes, corrugated boxes, bubble wrap, packing peanuts, tape and any other essential packing items you may require. ii If your package includes several components from one or several suppliers, we will pickup or receive each component, kit and hand assemble the package, store the inventory in our secure warehouse and ship out on demand. iii Our secure warehouse hub, with state-of-the-art security and climate control systems, will receive and store any quantity or type of inventory, for any period of time. iv Whether it is across town or around the world, we will ensure that your package gets to its destination safely and on time. We are able to offer you a wide variety of delivery, time and insurance options and advise you on the best method based on your package, destination, time frame and budget. v You can either drop off your package or we can pick it up from your home or office. vi Our online system enables multiple users to monitor your inventory stock levels and submit shipping orders directly to our warehouse hub in real time. vii We enable you to keep track of all shipped packages online and in real time. Simply, enter your package tracking number and monitor the status and location of your package.

3


Exercise 2 Vocabulary Put the words in brackets in the correct form. Our mission is to supply our customers with services that meet established (require) (1) . We (constant) (2) seek to improve responsiveness, (product) (3) and quality. We also develop (partners) (4) with our customers which encourages a well-founded (rely) (5) on our (able) (6) to comply which established customer requirements. It is very important for us to develop partnerships with our (supply) (7) that provide us with quality parts and materials in a timely with our employees in providing the manner. In addition, we participate (direct) (8) best benefits, working conditions and opportunity for personal and (profession) (9) (grow) (10) that our business will allow. Finally, we train our staff to meet the needs of the ever-changing work environment and global marketplace.

Exercise 3 Grammar Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense. 1 We (enable) your warehouse to be more productive with the workforce it has. 2 Yesterday, we (find) new ways to cut costs. 3 This strategy (decrease) employee turnover next year. 4 These improvements (lead) to faster order fulfilment since 2010. 5 It (work) by storing your database for every key task. 6 We (monitor) the actual time for task completion before you got this machine. 7 Employees at all levels (receive) immediate feedback on their performance now. 8 We (utilise) historical data when this strategy was introduced. 9 With accurate forecasts, managers (improve) labour efficiency every year.

Exercise 4 Reading Read the text and answer the questions. Here are some of the products and solutions that could help achieve your goal of optimising your warehousing operations. We offer mobile computers, cordless barcode scanners, handheld scanners, wireless networking and power over Ethernet products, warehouse shipping software and comprehensive barcode scanning software packages. We have a vehicle-mounted computer that will meet all your data processing needs. Its rugged enclosure has no ventilation holes, ensuring that the front and back panels can withstand dust, water penetration and other environmental hazards. We supply parcel and shipping scales to fit the needs of a wide variety of mail and package shippers. We also design and supply a comprehensive line of wireless switches for all your mobility needs. We provide you with a low-profile floor scale that features a durable platform design that can handle all kinds of warehousing traffic from forklifts to trucks. It comes with a 300% overload capacity and a 150% end-load capacity.

4


Unit 1 Questions 1 What is the meaning of optimising, handheld, comprehensive, rugged and mobility? 2 What is the main idea of the text? 3 Are the products presented in the text important at a warehouse? Explain. 4 Which one is the most important? Why? 5 Write a conclusion for the text.

Exercise 5 Roleplay Work in pairs. Imagine you are applying for the following job. Prepare a conversation between you and your potential employer. Job Summary Industries: Wholesale Trade / Import - Export Job Type: Employee / Material Handler - Warehousing / Shipping Duties: Pick and prepare orders for customers Receive and document products for inventory Receive and document returns from customers Load and / or unload trucks for deliveries / pickups Maintain accurate counts and locations of product Manage other warehouse personnel Follow safety procedures Skills / Qualifications: High school diploma required Minimum 2 years warehouse experience Basic computer skills Good verbal and written communication skills

Exercise 6 Writing Invent a warehousing and shipping company and write about it using the following phrases. was established in a warehousing company serving serve our customers, requirements now operate out of depots enhance our door-to-door capabilities serving the needs of your suppliers and customers give a personal and cost-effective service

5


2 Income Statement Exercise 1 Taxonomic Skills

The following are six pieces of evidence for the usefulness and limitations of the income statement. Put them in the correct column. a It assesses the capacity to generate future cash flow by reporting income and expenditure. b It predicts future performance. c Some numbers depend on judgments and estimates (e.g. depreciation depends on the estimated useful life and salvage value of the item). d It helps investors and creditors to determine the past financial performance of the enterprise. e Some numbers depend on the accounting methods used. f Items that might be relevant but cannot be reliably measured are not reported (e.g. brand recognition and loyalty). Usefulness

6

Limitations


Unit 2 Exercise 2 Vocabulary Put the following phrases in the right place to complete the income statement template. advertising gross sales utilities salaries repairs and maintenance cost of goods rent freight charges office supplies insurance gross profit taxes and licenses Company Name Income Statement From: January 1, xxxx To: December 31, xxxx Income

Total Income Expenses

Total Expenses Net Income

7


Exercise 3 Grammar A Write the verbs in the correct tense. If you need help refer to the grammar box in your Students’ Book. a When you (have) (1) a plan with fixed goals and action steps, you (guide) (2) your business through turbulent economic conditions. b You (help) (3) increase your ability to make judgments after you (practise) (4) this strategy over a period of time. c Before he (make) (5) a profit on his sales and a return on his investment, Mr Jet (decide) (6) what business he (concentrate) (7) on. d As soon as you (decide) (8) what business you are in, you (be) (9) ready to consider another important part of your business plan. e You (ask) (10) your banker to recommend people who know most about location in your line of business when you (think) (11) you have finally solved the site location question. f When the money you can spend for advertising (be) (12) limited, it (be) (13) vital for your advertising to be on target. time to determine what jobs you want to do for your store before g You (take) (14) you (think) (15) about how much money you can afford for advertising. B Write six sentences about income statement using the future time clause.

Exercise 4 Reading Read the text and answer the questions. Income statements and balance sheets are the most basic elements required by potential lenders, such as banks, investors and vendors. They will use them to determine credit limits. However, one should not forget the difference between an income statement and a balance sheet. The first represents a period of time, while the latter represents a single moment in time. It is very important to format an income statement so that it is relevant to the business. It can be prepared in one of two methods. The ‘single step income statement’ totals revenues and subtracts expenses to find the bottom line. The ‘multi-step income statement’ takes several steps to find the bottom line, starting with the gross profit. It then calculates operating expenses and, when deducted from the gross profit, yields income from operations. Adding to income from operations is the difference of other revenues and other expenses. When combined with income from operations, this yields income before taxes. The final step is to deduct taxes, which produces the net income for the measured period. Questions 1 What are the main ideas in the text? 2 Match the words with their meanings. a latter 1 second b potential 2 subtract c format 3 give d yield 4 plan e deduct 5 possible 3 Who are, according to the text, potential lenders? 4 How many steps are found in the multi-step income statement? What are they? 5 Write a concluding sentence for the text.

8


3 Competition and Pricing Exercise 1 Vocabulary

Match the words with their meanings. a penetration pricing b skimming pricing c competition pricing d product line pricing e bundle pricing f psychological pricing g premium pricing h optional pricing

1 pricing different products within the same product range at different price points 2 the seller considers the psychology of price and the positioning of price within the market place 3 the organisation sets an initial high price and then slowly lowers the price to make the product available to a wider market 4 the price set is high to reflect the exclusiveness of the product 5 the organisation packs a group of products at a reduced price 6 the organisation sets a low price to increase sales and market share 7 the organisation sells optional extras along with the product to maximise its turnover 8 setting a price in comparison with competitors

Exercise 2 Dialogue Complete the dialogues. Use formal or informal phrases appropriately. 1 A Let’s go and have lunch. B I would if but meeting in ten minutes. . 2AI B Unfortunately, I’m afraid the meeting tomorrow is not possible. cinema this evening. 3A B I can’t. I have to work this evening. 4 A Our proposal is that our two companies work together on this project. B I wish but because it’s against our company policy. swim? 5A B That’s a good idea. Let’s do it now. 6 A We succeeded in promoting our new product, do you agree? B . 9


Exercise 3 Grammar A Combine the sentences using who, which, whose or where. 1 Competition is an essential element in pricing. Competition is growing among chain supermarkets. 2 Monopolisers are people who are in full control of supplying certain goods. Monopolisers usually don’t face competition. 3 Commercial industries are always looking for ways to minimise production costs to survive competition. Competition has become fierce these days. 4 People discovered that items are becoming more expensive by the day. People are more interested in the price of items than their quality. 5 Competition is very intense with certain items. These items are low-priced and of high quality. 6 Small shops cannot measure up with chain supermarkets. Items of small shops aren’t that varied. 7 Commercial companies are aware of market competition. In commercial companies the number of employing financial advisors is higher than any other companies. B Write five sentences using non-defining relative clauses to describe the importance of competition and pricing in business and their effect on the market.

Exercise 4 Reading Read the text and answer the questions. Perfect Competition or Monopoly? When a service or item is supplied only by one producer, the latter controls the price in a way that the consumer has no influence over the market. This is what we call monopoly. Sometimes, the government monopolises an industry, such as electricity, to control it. A natural resource is sometimes exclusively managed by a specific company or powerful person so the industry related to it becomes a monopolistic industry. A copyright or a patent is also a good reason to form a monopoly since the company who has it can impede others from entering the market. An oligopoly is similar to a monopoly in that it also controls the price of a service or item. However, it is not one firm that produces the service or product; many companies produce identical items. This situation develops competition among these companies to get bigger market shares. Perfect competition means there are fewer barriers to entry for new companies than in monopolies or oligopolies, and prices are determined by supply and demand. Thus, producers in a perfectly competitive market are subject to the prices determined by the market. For example, in a perfectly competitive market, if a firm decides to increase its selling price of a good, the consumers can just turn to the nearest competitor for a better price. This causes any firm that raises its prices to lose profits.

10


Unit 3 Questions 1 How many main ideas are there in the text? 2 Write each in one sentence. 3 Write a suitable introductory paragraph and a suitable concluding sentence for this text. 4 Give real-life examples of a monopoly, an oligopoly and a perfect competition. 5 Find three difficult words in the text, write their meaning and use each in a meaningful sentences.

Exercise 5 Writing Write a paragraph about trade agreements using the following guide words / phrases. WTO – international organisation – trade between countries / trade agreements – discussed – agreed – member countries – meetings / aim – help producers – exporters – importers –international trade / sometimes – disputes – member countries – trade / problem discussed – find a solution / problem – not solved – WTO Appeals Tribunal

11


Test 1 Part One: Reading Comprehension (35 marks) Read the following text and answer the questions. You can still find the traditional storage or self-storage firms in Syria. However, there exists now a variety of moving companies that provide storage and warehousing services. You can refer to the listing of such companies in the directory. There, you look for the kind of services each company offers and the range of prices. A respectable storage company requires insurance coverage for the goods. Other companies may include the insurance fees in the rental charge. 1 Do moving and storage companies in Syria offer a range of services? Explain your answer. 2 What is the use of the directory? 3 What does the word ‘now’ in the second sentence contrast with? 4 Write TS for the suitable topic sentence and CS for the concluding sentence. a Be wise, compare services and choose a company that suits your purposes. b It is important to find a good storage company which offers security for your goods and reasonable prices.

the method adopted by a firm to establish its selling price for products. 5 the process of wrapping of items that serves to identify, describe, protect and promote 6 a ratio of profitability calculated as net income divided by revenues 7 displaying information about an item on its container or the product itself the selling of goods and 8 services produced in one country to another country a financial statement that 9 measures a company’s financial performance over a specific period of time the management process 10 through which goods and services move from concept to the customer

4

III Complete the dialogue with phrases from the box. I know what these mean geographical areas charging a product or a service other aspects in marketing

B

Part Two: Grammar and Structure (60 marks) II Write the correct word for each definition pricing labelling income statement packaging marketing warehouse exporting balance sheet shipping 1

a place in which goods or merchandise are stored 2 the business of sending or transporting packages or goods usually through the mail 3 a financial statement that summarises a company’s assets, liabilities and shareholders’ equity at a specific point in time 12

A B

A B

A

A You know, I still don’t understand the concept of pricing. Well, pricing is one aspect of marketing, besides three others. It has to do with (1) and deciding how to do that. Oh, is it that simple? It can be, but it could also deal with some general issues such as setting different prices according to (2) , deciding whether there should be quantity discounts and considering transfer pricing. . You mentioned three (3) What are they? The other three parts of marketing are product management, promotion and wdistribution. (4) . Thanks for the information.


Test 1 IV In the dialogue above, B mentions the three parts of marketing besides pricing. Put the structures below in the correct column in the table as examples of each of the three parts of marketing. Stimulating market demand, the addition of new products, deciding when the product or service will be available, deciding on exclusive, selective or extensive distribution, deciding on the name of the product, introducing the product in the market, deciding on the logo, increasing consumer demand, improving product availability, advertising, selling through a wholesaler or a retailer, deciding where the product or service will be available Product management

Promotion

Distribution

5 Any businessman, that knows the rules of the game, could take a sound decision. 6 At the first meeting, which was held yesterday, the chair announced new policies. 7 The director Mr Srour who was present at the meeting listened attentively to the suggestions of the staff. 8 Ahmad who should know something of the matter thinks differently.

Part Three: Writing (25 marks) VII You head a business company that imports Italian clothes to Syria. Write a one-paragraph letter to a company that offers shipping services from Milan to Lattakia. You need to specify the goods, the estimated price of the goods and the purpose of the shipment (personal or business). You need to know the time needed for the shipment to arrive to Lattakia, the charge for the shipment and storage until the goods are released and the time needed for the shipment to arrive.

V Complete the sentences. 1 Before the investors get the income statement, 2 Customer service has been a boost to the company 3 Until we know what goods sell best, 4 They had already shipped the goods to Lattakia 5 After the taxes are reduced, 6 When you price the goods, you VI Identify the following sentences as correct (C) or incorrect (I). 1 The applicant who came yesterday did not leave his phone number. 2 The Sami who works with us is not the Sami, who was at school with you. 3 The best bylaws that Mrs Salloum wrote twenty years ago are still up-to-date. 4 The building at the end of the street, which my grandfather built, needs renovating. 13


4 Warehousing and Shipping (2) Exercise 1 Vocabulary

Fill in the blanks with words from the list. vessels routes in transit tonnage destination proposal 1 The goods were damaged while they were . 2 Our government has made a to reduce its import tarriffs. 3 The Suez Canal Office records the total of all passing ships. 4 The containers are taken to their on lorries. 5 Some ships always travel on the same scheduled . 6 Tramps and bulk carriers are different kinds of .

Exercise 2 Grammar A Complete the sentences in the passive by using the structures in brackets.

1 Steaming machines to remove wrinkles (can import) from our supplier in China. 2 A new store room (must empty) immediately. 3 The engine of the truck (had to fix or change). 4 The arriving goods (are going to put) in the new section of the warehouses. B Put these sentences in the passive form. 1 In the past, people had to unload heavy containers themselves. 2 Nowadays, warehouses must use many ways of shipping and transportation. 3 Warehouse managers should emphasise space management. 4 Trucks may take several days to transport the ordered goods. 14


Unit 4 Exercise 3 Reading Read the text then answer the questions.

If I send goods to an importer in another country, how do I know that he will pay me? That is the question that exporters must ask. If an exporter has done business with an importer before, he may allow the importer to pay after delivery of the goods. However, this is risky for the exporter. Cash in advance is the safest method for exporters, but this is risky for importers. A common method, which often satisfies both the exporter and the importer, is called documentary collection. The exporter uses a bill of exchange (B/E) to instruct the importer’s bank. The bank collects the money from the importer, and the importer collects the bill of lading from the bank. Another common method is documentary credit (also called ‘letter of credit’). An importer opens a D/C (or L/C) at his bank, and the bank promises to pay the exporter’s bank after the goods are loaded onto the ship. Questions 1 Give the text a suitable title. 2 How many different methods of payment are described in the text? 3 Why is payment after delivery risky for exporters? 4 Why is payment in advance risky for importers? 5 Why is documentary collection less risky than the other methods mentioned in the text?

15


Exercise 4 Speaking Discuss the following questions in pairs. 1 What is the difference between passenger ships and bulk carriers? 2 What is the difference between imports and exports? 3 What is the difference between transporting oil and transporting coal by sea?

Exercise 5 Writing Write a paragraph explaining how importers pay for goods that they import. Use these guide questions. 1 What does the exporter receive when the goods are loaded onto the ship? 2 Which bill does the exporter write? To which bank does it give instructions? 3 Where does the exporter send the documents? 4 Whose bank are the documents sent to? 5 What does the importer’s bank receive from the importer, and where does the bank send it? 6 Where does the importer get the shipping documents from? 7 Which bill does the importer hand over in exchange for the goods?

16


5 Financial Position Exercise 1 Vocabulary Match the following phrases with their definitions. 1 Financial Audit

2 Financial Management

3 Financial Position

4 Financial Reporting 5 Financial Statement

6 Financial planner

a It indicates the organisation’s overall financial situation, taking into account current assets and liabilities and projected income and expenses. b It is a person who helps to sort personal finances and develop a financial plan to help achieve short-term and long-term financial goals. c It is a formal periodic examination of accounts and financial records of an organisation or programme, generally performed for the purposes of verifying that funds were used as they were intended and in accordance with standard financial management practices. d It is a written report that summarises the financial health of a company. e It is a process of implementing and managing financial control systems, collecting financial data, analysing financial reports and making sound financial decisions based on the analysis. f It is an established system for periodic reporting on financial transactions and financial status of an organisation or programme.

Exercise 2 Grammar Rewrite the following questions in the reported speech form beginning the statement with “He/She asked me...” a “What is an important step in planning your financial future?” b “When is it a good time for preparing a statement of financial position?” c “Do you compile a list of what you own – your assets – and what you owe – your liabilities – to prepare your statement of financial position?” d “Does preparing the statement of financial position involve transferring information from paper money you have or will be receiving?” e “How is net worth determined?”

17


Exercise 3 Reading Read the text and answer the questions. The Statement of Changes in Financial Position (SCFP), also called the financial cash flow statement, is one primary financial accounting report besides the income statement, balance sheet and statement of retained earnings. The SCFP statement, unlike the income statement, includes only real cash flow. For example, if an asset is paid for in cash the full transaction is counted for the period when it occurs. On the other hand, the income statement reflects the asset purchase only through a number of depreciation expense entries over the depreciable life of the asset. The SCFP reports real cash flow changes during the period, structured around the equation: increase or decrease in cash = income minus expenditure. The following is a simple, high-level example of an SCFP: My Corporation Statement of Changes in Financial Position for the year 2012 Sources of Cash Net cash flow, operations and investments Cash flow from other investing activities Net cash flow from extraordinary item Total cash inflows Uses of Cash To pay dividends during the period To repay debt To purchase assets Total cash outflows Increase / Decrease in cash during period

2,901 912 492 4,305 134 456 620 1,210 3,095

Questions 1 Explain, in your own words, what is the Statement of Changes in Financial Position. 2 What is, according to the text, the difference between the Statement of Changes in Financial Position and the income statement? 3 If you were to explain to your friend what to put in an SCFP, what would you say? Use the example above to help you in your explanation.

18


Unit 5 Exercise 4 Writing Write a paragraph about ďŹ nancial position using at least four of the phrases in exercise 1.

19


6 Retail and Wholesale Exercise 1 Vocabulary

A Match the following wholesale / retail terms with their deďŹ nitions. 1 anchor store 2 brand awareness 3 visual merchandising 4 cash discount 5 comparable-store sales 6 dead stock 7 first in, first out 8 inventory

a the art of implementing effective design ideas to increase store traffic and volume of sales b a percentage reduction in price for payment within a specified period of time c the merchandise a retail store has on hand d a major retail store that attracts a lot of customers to a shopping centre and to the other shops e a method of stock rotation in which goods that are received first are sold first f a statistics method used to compare sales of retail stores that have been open for a year or more g extent to which a brand is recognised by potential customers h unsold merchandise

B Fill in the blanks with a word from task A. can be determined by showing buyers the brand and asking whether they are 1 familiar with it. 2 is too often bought because of lack of knowledge and communication between sales and purchasing. 3 In the past, grocers were a common type of , since they are visited often. 4 Our company showed an impressive growth of 5.9% in the last quarter which was fuelled by strength in flat-panel TVs, video-gaming hardware and notebook computers. 5 Reduction in price given by the creditor to the debtor is known as . 6 The main principle of is that it is intended to increase sales.

20


Unit 6 Exercise 2 Grammar Report the following sentences using advise, ask, tell, warn, encourage and remind. a Learn how to personalise your shop’s customer service. b Get answers to inventory buying and management questions. c Running a retail business requires a set of day-to-day policies and procedures. d A trade show is one of the best places to buy wholesale merchandise for your store. e Never feel pressured to buy from a salesperson. f The more you negotiate and sharpen your skills, the better you will get.

Exercise 3 Reading Read the following text from a tourist guide about Syria and answer the questions.

There are many ways to buy things which we need. We can either buy products online or can go to retail outlets such as supermarkets, department stores and shopping centres. Despite the advantages of these means of retail shopping, many people still prefer to do their shopping in souks. Some mistakenly believe that a souk is a traditional local market which doesn’t offer shoppers everything they might need. However, examples of souks in Syria prove this to be a fallacy. Examples include Damascus’ Souk al-Hamidiya and Aleppo’s Souk. In both souks you can find a variety of food products as well as soft goods such as carpets, textiles, musical instruments and olive soap, which is the most important product sold in Aleppo’s Souk. Almost every town of any size in Syria has a souk. In bigger communities, such as Damascus, there are also specialty souks which sell specific kinds of items. For example, if you go to Damascus and you are interested in books and literature, you have to pay a visit to Al-Miskiyeh. Moreover, people who are fascinated by jewellery can find all kinds of classic as well as modern jewellery at Souk al-Saghah. Shopping in souks is not only a fun activity, but also a means to find whatever items you need. Questions 1 Give the text a suitable title. 2 Explain the following words: a outlet b soft goods c fascinated 3 Find in the text a pair of synonyms and a pair of antonyms. 4 Find in the text words that come from Arabic. 5 List the means of retail shopping that are mentioned in the text. Compare and contrast them in a Venn Diagram.

21


Exercise 4 Speaking There are many ways for retailers to buy wholesale products for their retail stores. Discuss with your group all the following possibilities. Then choose the one you think is the most suitable for you and explain your choice. Retailers can often find products to sell in their stores by: • searching online • joining buying groups • using library resources • attending trade shows or buyers’ market

Exercise 5 Writing Use the following information to write about the career of a wholesaler. What wholesalers do

What wholesalers don’t do What wholesalers need

What wholesalers can provide for their customers

What wholesalers want to achieve

22

• buy from producers • sell to retailers, industry and other wholesalers • promote products to retailers, etc. • sell directly to the public • capital • office space • warehouses • transport for distribution of goods • the trust of suppliers and customers • prompt delivery of goods • technical assistance • management services • consultancy services • financing / credit • risk bearing • market information • developing product ranges • bulk buying • profit • good relations with suppliers and customers • a good reputation


Test 2 Part One: Reading Comprehension (35 marks)

Part Two: Grammar and Structure (60 marks)

I Read the following text and answer the questions. When you start a new business, you don’t have to create your own retail plan. You could seek professional help to establish a retail plan which will be easier and faster to use. Specialised companies now offer well written retail business plan templates. These come in a popular word processor format, an MS Excel fully automated financial projection application, an easy to use presentation template or a comprehensive business plan guide. You have to choose the template that best suits your business type which becomes the default. Some companies offer you an additional retail business plan template besides the one you purchase. Some others may require an additional fee to the second template. By using such templates, you could easily add project plans, phasing diagrams, floor plans and specific plans. Moreover, you could easily insert financial data from the financial application. It is advisable to get professional help to boost your investment in the new business. 1 What is the writer’s advice to the reader?

II Write the correct word for each definition. Most (store) (1) companies do not (allow) (2) you as a (move) (3) to store in their warehouses certain items such as (flame) (4) or (corrode) (5) items, (perish) (6) food and plants.

2 Find five adjectives that the writer uses to convince the reader.

III Complete the dialogue in your own words.

A Oh, there are so many competing storage companies that I find it difficult to choose one. B It is easy. First you have to A How can I find out? B A What else do I have to look for? B A Thanks. You’ve been of great help. IV Rewrite the following sentences in the suggested structure. A Passive

1 They will offer special prices to the ships that transport food items.

3 What are the available retail templates? 4 Explain how each of the following pairs of words related in the text? a professional and specialised

2 The ministry should maintain the roads to the border. 3 The director has to control the financial state of this department.

b default and additional 5 Write the concluding sentence in your own way.

4 They are going to control the time the trucks can go on this road. 5 We can classify retail stores according to the service they offer. 23


B Reported speech. 1 Samia: “A good business should generate new clients as well as retain old ones?” 2 Ahmad: “How much is the raise for the old staff?” 3 The Human Resource director: “The new administration is offering a self-service policy?” 4 Simon: “Who is going to collect the rent this month?” 5 Teacher: “Can I have your assignments now?

Part Three: Writing (25 marks) V You are starting a small fast food business. Write a brochure to explain the services you are offering (self service, delivery…).

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7 Advertising (1) Exercise 1 Vocabulary Match the underlined phrases in column A with their deďŹ nitions in column B. A 1 Stella works for an advertising agency. 2 She started as an Accounts Executive. 3 She is now an Accounts Manager. 4 She regularly speaks to her clients. 5 They want to advertise a new product. 6 She is planning an advertising campaign. 7 Stella is familiar with the product. 8 She has a lot of expertise in advertising. 9 She might look for a job in consulting.

B a the company that advertises its goods b knows enough about something c a series of adverts d expert knowledge e an assistant who works on an advertising account f a company that produces adverts g advising companies h something that is produced in a factory i the person in charge of an advertising account

Exercise 2 Dialogue Use the following sentences to make a conversation between two parents discussing the advertisements on TV. They’re amusing They give you time to have a snack Children see things on TV and want you to buy them I agree They interrupt the films too often

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Exercise 3 Grammar A Combine the given sentences using the second conditional and the proper form of the verbs. 1 Your business name will be known. You design a logo or write a slogan on your business cards and materials. 2 It is beneficial and time saving. You talk to the advertising representative of the newspaper. 3 You attract the clients’ attention. You use words, graphics and colours properly. 4 You advertise in a newspaper. You can, in your advertisement, direct viewers to the company’s website. 5 Your company has a fleet of vehicles. The company turns them into an advertising tool by wrapping them with a vinyl graphic of the company’s products. 6 You can donate a product. There is a charity auction. 7 You begin searching what types of advertisements are available and suitable for your target clients. You develop an effective advertising campaign. B Complete the sentences using the verbs in brackets. 1 If you used short creative words in your advertisement, they (attract) the viewers’ attention. 2 It would be profitable and cheaper if you (advertise) on the Web page. 3 If the company (have) a website, it (start) selling its exquisite products.

Exercise 4 Reading Read the text and answer the questions. Changes in Advertising Advertising has been considered a one-way form of marketing communication. This is changing. In the near future, technologies will be readily available to enable a television viewer to click a button to request more details of a product seen on TV. In fact, it is expected that advertising will become highly interactive. In addition, advertising has never stimulated immediate demand for the product advertised. In other words, customers cannot quickly purchase a product they see advertised. This is going to change soon. The introduction of Internet advertising has also made do-it-yourself advertising an easy-to-manage process and has empowered small businesses to manage their advertising on their own. They can handle the creation and placement of advertisements that appear on the Internet such as creating advertisements that run on local television. Finally, digital advertising convergence refers to a growing trend for using computer technology to deliver media programming and information. Convergence allows one media outlet to take advantage of features and benefits offered through other media outlets. For instance, the convergence of television and Internet opens many potential opportunities for marketers to target customers in ways not available in traditional television advertising. For example, technology may allow adverts delivered to one household to be different from adverts delivered to a neighbour’s television even though both households are watching the same programme.

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Unit 7 Questions 1 List the advertising changes described in the text. 2 What key words helped you identify the developing ideas? 3 Explain the words in bold in the text. 4 Write a conclusion of two or three sentences for the text.

Exercise 5 Writing Use the notes to write in your own words a magazine advert for a seven-day holiday. Lay it out like an advert in the box below.

Notes: Seven-day holiday including tours 29,000 SYP (full board); Holiday Hotel, Damascus – Syria; Western and traditional food; cafe; water-sports; horse-riding

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8 E-Marketing Exercise 1 Vocabulary Complete the sentences with a word from the box. efficient recipient

product headers preview anticipation descriptive features distracting interest

In e-marketing, there are some (1) that are a must for the success of the strategy used for advertising any (2) . Good headlines, for example, should be short and (3) . They should also engage the (4) of the reader. They should convey a kind of mystery or (5) so that the readers are tempted to read. In addition, words should be (6) . Finally, (7) can graphically enhance email messages, but they also can be (8) . They should be designed on a smaller scale so that the header and one or two lines of the text are seen in the (9) window. This increases the likelihood that the (10) will scroll down and read your email.

Exercise 2 Grammar A Rewrite the following sentences as main clauses in the third conditional to make a coherent paragraph that starts with the provided if clause. Use terms such as also, in addition, moreover and ďŹ nally for coherence. 1 The company has partnerships with top publishers in the region. 2 It executes millions of dollars of advert campaigns every year. 3 It provides advertisers marketing solutions. 4 It delivers results to advertisers through its experienced team and by using intelligent technologies. 5 It offers a wide range of digital media consultancy and executes many innovative e-marketing strategies. If you had joined our company, ...

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Unit 8 B Write five sentences about e-marketing using the third conditional.

C Complete the sentences, using the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1 If he (hire) an expert on e-marketing, he (realise) wireless media is. more and (get) 2 The company (sell) organised workshops about e-marketing. 3 If suppliers (consider) easier. 4 If companies easier. 5 If we (consider) products, we (sell) 6 If the company (had)

e-marketing, they

how important

10% higher revenues if it had (promote) their goods much

(send) their updates and offers to their customers, marketing (be) what the e-marketing specialist suggested about customising our more items. a website, it (start)

selling its exquisite products.

Exercise 3 Reading Read the text and answer the questions. Hisham Assi, an Arab Australian of Syrian origins, is an e-marketing expert who has recently launched “SyrianTenders” in partnership with two experts from Syria. “SyrianTenders” offers indepth information about tenders taking place all across Syria. The site lists tenders according to cities and categories, and it provides premium features such as SMS and email notifications of new tenders. Until now, the majority of businesses in Syria have been relying on daily newspapers or the main government tenders site. The business site requires a small monthly subscription fee to view the tenders - first month is free though - and another small monthly fee for the tenders to receive notifications via email and SMS alerts. Hisham says that in early 2011, they will be publishing private tenders from large and international organisations and companies in Syria. They will also extend the service and site by including an English version to provide access to foreign suppliers looking to do business in Syria. Being an expert in e-marketing, Hisham does not stop there; as he also plans for a corporate blog as part of “SyrianTenders”. It will also be a good idea if it becomes a way to apply for tenders online, where businessmen and companies can bid directly via “SyrianTenders” with no need to do any paper work or attend tenders in any physical location. Questions 1 Divide this text into: introduction, body and conclusion. 2 Choose five difficult words from the text and explain them. 3 What are the major changes that Hisham Assi made to the Syrian tenders field? 4 Do you think it is important to extend the service and site by including an English version? Why? 5 Go to the “SyrianTenders” website and write one piece of information that is not found in the text.

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Exercise 4 Speaking Imagine you are a small business owner and you want to market your products online. Work in pairs. Role play a conversation between you and the marketing expert who is going to use e-marketing to help you. Use the following ideas. a Branding means creating corporate logos, mission statements and theme songs. b Effective branding is all about telling customers who you are, what you do and how you do it. c It is vitally important for small businesses and solo entrepreneurs alike to use the Internet to make an impact. d The opening paragraph lets visitors know exactly who the site is for. e A web-based or email marketing message should state a benefit right away. f Most online marketers should try to create fans since they cheer you on, rave about you to their friends and eagerly follow everything you do. g What matters most are the words you use. h To create fans, you must deliver useful brand-related information and speak to readers in a conversational tone. i The Internet is a gold mine of opportunities, especially for those who use it to create a recognisable brand identity.

Exercise 5 Writing Read what geo-targeting is and write a paragraph about the beneďŹ ts it offers to e-marketing. Geo-targeting and geo-marketing are the methods of determining the geolocation (the physical location) of a website visitor with geolocation software. They also include delivering different contents to that visitor based on his or her location, such as country, region, state, etc.

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9 Workplace Ethics Exercise 1 Vocabulary A Complete each sentence with a correct word from the box. margin

quantities

profit

loss

trial order

reduction

1 If you buy something for 10 SYP and sell it for 12 SYP, you have made a . . 2 If they order a large quantity, we can give them a price 3 Sadly, the transport costs were so high that we suffered a on the sale. 4 We would like to place a of 20 of your new calculators. 5 Our profit on furniture is 20%. 6 We are sorry that we cannot give a discount for such small . B Match the words with their deďŹ nitions. 1 facilitate a come together 2 real-time b physical equipment 3 refer c make easier 4 converge d the final user of a product 5 incorporate e seller 6 hardware f points to, talks about 7 software g same time, live 8 vendor h something used with hardware 9 end user i use, include

Exercise 2 Grammar Complete the sentences below with the right tag question. 1 Business ethics is related to the moral principles at work, ? 2 Employers always emphasise the importance of morality within their companies, 3 She has been given several warnings for her constant delay at arriving to work, 4 The manager did not notice the employee smoking secretly behind his desk, 5 They will interview all the employees to investigate who stole the office keys, 6 They are surprisingly well-behaved during working hours, ? 7 You can be on time for the business meeting, ? 8 They have not violated any of the mentioned business ethics, ? 9 The employees will complain to the manager about their colleague’s misbehaviour, 10 They did not expect the new manager to be so strict regarding business ethics,

? ? ? ?

? ?

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Exercise 3 Reading Read the text and answer the questions.

Any training programme regarding ethics should require employees to become familiar with applicable laws and regulations, as well as with the procedures for reporting and investigating concerns about responsible business conduct. The training should enhance the ethical awareness of employees and should uncover ethical issues and concerns that relate to their needs as well as those of the enterprise. It should also include an examination of the criteria for ethical decisionmaking. All participants should leave the training programme confident that they know what the enterprise expects of them and what they can expect from the enterprise in turn. They should be able to recognise issues of responsible business conduct and have the confidence and courage to make the right decision, explain that decision to the appropriate people and act accordingly. Employees should not be punished for making a mistake if they can demonstrate that they: • recognise the issue; • have a reasonable grasp of the relevant facts; • consider enterprise standards, procedures and expectations; • explore the range of options available; • can justify the choice they make or action they take. Questions 1 Give the text a suitable title. 2 Match the words with their meanings. a require 1 reveal b uncover 2 show c conduct 3 control d demonstrate 4 involve e grasp (n.) 5 behaviour 3 Write for the text a suitable introduction and a suitable conclusion of two or three sentences each.

Exercise 4 Speaking A Work in pairs. What advice would you give to the people in the following pictures.

B How would you have behaved? 32


Unit 9 Exercise 5 Situations A Discuss the following situations with your partner and give your opinion on whether you think they are ethical or not in the business world. A company hires 14-year-old children to work from 7 a.m. until 5 p.m. An international chemical company is using chemicals that are harmful to the environment. B Use expressions you learned from your Students’ Book about workplace ethics to comment on the following story. My husband, my baby and I were going to San Francisco for our friend’s wedding. We were the first people to book on the new airline, so we had no problem securing seats in the bassinet row. Weeks later when I called to confirm the booking, it turned out we’d been placed in a standard row. I asked how full the flight was. “About 90%,” they said. A week later I saw, on the Internet, our seats on sale at a very competitive price. My reaction was “This doesn’t look like the action of a 90% full plane.” I called and pretended I wanted to make a booking. I gave our dates and asked, “How full is the plane?” “Oh, less than 50%,” they said. Now I know airlines are in business, and businesses need to make sales, but in my opinion, lying to sell is bad business ethics.

Exercise 6 Writing Write a well-organised paragraph explaining the following statement: “The pursuit of profits and economic progress is not a license to ignore community norms, values and standards of respect, integrity and quality.”

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Test 3 Part One: Reading Comprehension (35 marks) I Read the following text and answer the questions. Have you ever noticed the amount of adverts you are subjected to every day? Have you considered their effect on how you see things? It’s interesting to know when and how advertising started. Well, the earliest form of advertising could be traced back to Greek and Roman times. Public criers used to shout about the goods of local traders in markets. In the nineteenth century, new manufacturing techniques of the Industrial Revolution marked a new phase in ‘overproducing’ goods. New policies in various countries had to be adopted to find markets, such as removing taxes on advertising. Producers, on one hand, had better facilities to attract consumers, and consumers began to recognise the possibilities and attractions of mass consumption, on the other hand. Some adverts were then considered unrealistic and the issue of the effect on this on female consumers was raised. While we see new opportunities of work for women in the field of advertising, it was also believed that women became easily attracted by simple displays in shops window and pictures in public places. The introduction of supermarkets aided the independence of shoppers to take decisions without a salesperson to advise them. Now in the twenty-first century, we have different media of advertising: audio, visual and audio visual. A family sitting at home receives a number of adverts through the radio or TV. Other people get adverts through newspapers and magazines, billboard, leaflets and banners. Let’s stop and ask ourselves: to what extent do we allow adverts of any form to influence our need and decision to buy things? Could they ever blind us to our reality?

Questions 1 Is advertising an old art / activity in history? 2 What factors influenced the development of advertising? 3 What are the positive and negative effects of advertising on women? 4 In your opinion, are women more influenced by advertising than men? Give reasons for your answer. 5 Do you allow adverts to control your decisions in buying things? 6 Suggest a title for the text.

Part Two: Grammar and Structure (60 marks) II Complete the dialogue with the following phrases. • An advertising agency cannot deceive the clients because this will harm the business • So advertising is a respected profession • It seems it’s up to the individual to make anything of the profession • Unfortunately, there are people who think that you deceive the public because you are trying to sell them something through advertising A I’ve always liked advertising as a profession. But I’ve recently heard some people say that it is an unethical and dishonourable profession. Is that true? B Not at all. (1) . A How can you defend your opinion? B Advertising adopts specific rules that ensure advertising messages are based on some truth. (2) . A Oh, I see your point (3) . B Yes, it is and it is a good profession to make a fortune once you get started.

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Test 3 IV Put the words in brackets in the correct form.

A I think I’ve been mislead (4) . III Complete the following sentences A Use the correct tenses. 1 If you had a team of qualified staff, . 2 If you had advertised for your new business, . 3 If you provided special prices on weekends, . 4 If she had enrolled in an e-marketing course, . 5 If she knew how to behave in the interview, . B Use the right tag questions. 1 You haven’t been to the new department,

A business company uses advertising to create an image of a product. Advertising is a means of (provide) (1) information about something they want to promote. It can reach people through (vary) (2) types of mass communication. People come into contact with many different kinds of advertising (day) (3) . They come across (print) (4) adverts in newspapers and magazines. They find poster adverts (place) (5) in buses and neon signs or billboards along streets. (Commerce) (6) break up radio and television programming. (Manufacture) (7) decide to choose any means to encourage people to buy their products. They use (advertise) (8) to gain new customers and increase sales.

Part Three: Writing (25 marks) ?

2 It’s difficult to predict problems, ? 3 You’re not going to apply for a promotion, ?

V Write a short speech you are going to present to your classmates about the benefits of e-marketing over traditional marketing. You may use the following concepts: modern communication technologies, direct response marketing, worldwide Web and the return on investment

4 They issued the new attendance policy, ? 5 The advertisement in the newspaper was not a success, ?

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10 IT and Telecoms Exercise 1 Matching Complete the sentences in column A with the structures in column B. A 1 Mobiles can be used 2 Landlines are expensive 3 In very remote areas you can’t use 4 Satellite phones are required 5 Telecom technology uses 6 Features on this mobile include 7 A mobile signal may get weaker 8 Photos are expensive to send

B a your mobile. b if you are behind a hill. c to put up in rural areas. d radio waves, cables and metal wires. e from one mobile to another. f in most places except far out at sea. g an built-in camera and a radio. h for oil workers in the desert.

Exercise 2 Vocabulary Circle the correct answer. 1 Computer users download lots of useful information from the . a hardware b service provider c software d Internet 2 After you have bought a computer, you must then install some . a hardware b software c web pages d bookmarks 3 You don’t have to go online if you want to . a type an email b send an email c access the Internet d receive emails 4 In some countries, people prefer to type their emails offline because . a it is quicker b it is easier c it is more private d they save on phone charges 5 Computer continues to get faster, smaller and cheaper every year. a hardware b software c expertise d Internet 6 From time to time computer users get a new of their existing software. a version b copy c printout d password

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Unit 10 Exercise 3 Dialogues Complete the following dialogues. 1 AI text messages. B Do you? I don’t. I find the letters too small to read. 2 AI people who use mobiles on the train. They always talk so loudly. B Really? I it. It doesn’t bother me.

Exercise 4 Grammar Complete the text using an indefinite pronoun from the box. both

one all anything

everybody somewhere any everyone

(1) innovations have introduced some changes in (2) ’s life. (3) old and recent innovations derive from the need to make life easier and more practical. (4) of the most important innovations in history is the plane that can transport goods and people to any country in the world. If you choose to go (5) outside your country, taking a plane would be the easiest and the fastest means of transportation available to (6) . You can also ship almost (7) to (8) country in the world, and it would arrive in a relatively short time. Planes have been a crucial innovation in the history of transportation.

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Exercise 5 Reading Read the text and answer the questions.

IT and telecom jobs involve a wide range of digital technologies to help people use and share information. These jobs are not just about the technology; they are also about people having good skills. The telecom industry is different from the IT industry. The first requires customer care, system security, managing software development and basic IT applications whereas the latter is about developing computer solutions that help businesses and individuals become more successful in their work. IT professionals usually develop software or websites, set up new systems or train people to use IT services. These industries are looking for a big number of new workers for the future, so the career prospects are excellent. Indeed, graduates can find IT and telecommunication jobs, such as financial software development, hardware development, Internet and web business, professional services IT, public sector IT and technology consulting in many business and technology areas. Finally, many companies nowadays prefer to work with providers offering a combination of IT and telecommunication services rather than drawing a contract for each separately in order to reduce costs. Thus, IT and telecommunication companies should start delivering both types of services so telecom providers should boost their IT skills, and IT service providers should expand into networking and telecommunication. Questions 1 Give the text a suitable title. 2 How many main ideas are found in the text? What are they? 3 Why, in your opinion, are people skills necessary nowadays in the telecom and IT industry? 4 Choose one of the jobs mentioned in paragraph three and say why you think it is very important as a job for the future. 5 Do you agree with the last idea in the text? Explain.

Exercise 6 Writing Write about the history of telecommunication. Use the following outline as a guide. 1 Early telecommunication 2 Telegraph and telephone 3 Radio and television 4 Computer networks and Internet

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11 Advertising (2) Exercise 1 Matching A Complete the sentences in column A with the structures in column B. A 1 An advertising agency advises a company 2 Consultants and advertising agencies 3 First, you must decide who 4 Then you carry out audience research 5 Some viewers watch one TV channel, 6 The agency contacts the TV network 7 Daytime TV advertising rates are cheaper 8 Radio advertising is much cheaper

B a than those at peak evening times. b your target audience is. c and books the airtime. d than TV advertising. e advise their clients on the best way to advertise. f to find out more about their habits. g that wants to advertise its products or services. h while others watch several.

B Match the following advertising words with their deďŹ nitions. a a large organisation such as a bank 1 commercial 2 deceptive b a large outdoor board 3 informative c gives useful knowledge or information 4 institutional d publicises commercial goods or services 5 poster e a particular item that is offered for sale 6 product f gives misleading information or false ideas

Exercise 2 Vocabulary Read and complete the text using words / phrases from the box. in-depth interviews pack size at the most introduced

find out measure out face-to-face sample

Market research interviewers conduct interviews with a (1) of the population. Then they multiply the sample by the total population in order to (2) the size of the market. Researchers do (3) interviews in the street or do telephone surveys. Most interviews last five minutes (4) . In addition, researchers may conduct (5) , which last half an hour. During these interviews, consumers can discuss their preferences in detail. In return, they receive payment or a gift to compensate for their time. For example, a manufacturer of soap powder (6) a very large pack-size, which didn’t sell. He had to find out why the new pack-size was unsuccessful. Consumers said they found the largest (7) too expensive. Others said that it took up too much space in their flats. And a third group said they preferred to the powder. Without this buy individual wash size packets, so they didn’t have to (8) information, the manufacturer would not have known how to repackage its product. 39


Exercise 3 Grammar Choose the correct preposition from the box. by (3) on (2) for of (3) to

in into inside before

1 2 3 4

Working an advertising company needs plenty creative thinking. an advertisement takes much time. Working Billboards are prepared a number of designers. The arrival of the winter collection clothes the company’s stores are a picture of a lady wearing warm clothes. represented 5 The advertisement shows how easy it is use this machine. The steps are represented three easy steps. The child the picture refers to the fact that anyone can make use this appliance. 6 we add the final details into the advertisement, we should leave a copy of it the manager’s desk or his drawer.

Exercise 4 Reading Read the text and answer the questions.

To reach a large audience and attract customers while still saving money, one needs to have a good advertising strategy. Hence, many strategies can be used to enhance the success of any business through advertisement. One of the keys to all advertising is to accentuate the factors that give the business its competitive edge. A good advert should sell the benefits of the product or service. Image also counts when it comes to advertising and promoting a business. A business would be more successful if it works to build a consistent image. One should not forget that successful advertising costs a lot of money, but that is because it works. Another important matter in advertising is the fact that one should advertise in media that reaches the target market. One should also advertise according to the seasonal advertising needs. Diversification is also necessary. It is common for business owners to choose the best place to advertise based on price. However, it is better to spread the advertising choices around. One should not forget that no product or service will appeal to everyone. Many business owners try to come up with ways to reach every market. This does not usually work. Therefore, finding the right market and offering everything one can offer to that audience is essential for success. It is also very easy to ask new customers where they have heard about the business since it is advantageous to know which adverts generate business. Questions 1 Give the text a suitable title. 2 What is the meaning of the words in bold? 3 How many tips does the text give for successful advertising? What are they? 4 Which one you think is the most important? Why? 5 Write a suitable conclusion for the text.

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Unit 11 Exercise 5 Writing A Write a paragraph of seven sentences about radio and TV advertising. Use these guiding points. • Advantages of radio advertising: e.g. cheap • Advantages of TV advertising: e.g. powerful images • Disadvantages of radio advertising: e.g. no pictures • Disadvantages of TV advertising: e.g. expensive

B Explain the following quotation in a paragraph of ten lines. Never write an advertisement which you wouldn’t want your family to read. (David Ogilvy)

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12 Latest Discoveries Exercise 1 Vocabulary

Write the words in brackets in the correct form. Dragging your luggage around with you is a (pain) (1) task, especially on the way back from a holiday. This new (invent) (2) allows you to stop pulling around your luggage or wheeling it back home. This luggage bag is a mini scooter, allowing you to scoot around with your luggage (safe) (3) tucked away. When everyone else is carrying around their luggage, you will be jumping on your scooter, shortening your trip back home and making the ride more fun. The scooter also folds up, allowing you to use it as a normal luggage carrier. It’s a simple idea but an (extreme) (4) effective product, which we think will become very popular. This gadget allows you to recharge four devices (simultaneous) (5) . It is compatible with over 1,000 products. It is a (practice) (6) and (afford) (7) charging station and it is offered in white or black. It is an extraordinary goodlooking product, designed for the office and every room in the house. Its advantage is that it (charge) (8) most of your electronic devices simultaneously.

Exercise 2 Dialogue Imagine you are a salesperson standing on the road trying to convince customers passing by you to buy the following item. Prepare what you are going to say to the customers to sell this product. Arrange your answer in a dialogue form. This new LED umbrella comes equipped with a built-in light which illuminates in the dark. At the touch of a button, the light shines offering a safe and secure passage to your destination. The light is embedded inside the handle to lighten the area under the umbrella’s hood. For those of you who can’t handle a long walk home in the dark, this LED umbrella is sure to make that walk a little bit brighter.

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Unit 12 Exercise 3 Grammar A a b c d e f g h i

j

Decide if the following sentences are fragments or run-ons. While many people have digital cameras these days. Though advancements in microelectronics made the vision of a computer a realistic one. All televisions make use of an image which is scanned to produce a representation time signal, it is then reversed and decoded by the human eye. It’s hard to decide which inventions are the most important, they are so many. The transistor possibly the most important of the famous inventions of the twentieth century. Received a patent that was needed to bring about the industrial age. The engineer whose high-frequency alternator gave America its start in the field of radio communication. The Internet something which many of us now take for granted. Through various experimentations with electricity, he invented a basic electric battery, it was followed by electric light once he realised that carbon glowed, producing light when connected to the battery. These great men and their ideas have changed the world, the way we live our lives.

B Correct the fragments and run-ons from task A.

Exercise 4 Taxonomic skills Unscramble the following sentences to make two advertisements about two new inventions. a The blues and greens indicate a mellow mood, compared to pinks, reds and oranges which indicate a stressed out individual. b The stress watch is aimed at busy people with hectic lives, as it monitors stress levels throughout the day and indicates your levels via a black bar graph on the screen. c There is no better alarm system than a vicious dog barking ferociously at the intruder’s awaiting entry point. d Once the stress levels hit a peak, you can take a rest and watch as your levels begin to drop. e The alarm noise is sounded whenever the door knob is touched or door is pushed, so the alarm is designed to be set off under the slightest of pressures. f This invention is called an Alarm Security Bar which adds instant protection to any home without the need for expensive installation and monitoring. g Thankfully, the watch also tells the time, so you will never miss an appointment or meeting. h This watch not only looks fantastic, but also serves a great purpose. i The alarm can either be set to a powerful siren or the alternative barking alarm sound.

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Exercise 5 Reading Read the text and answer the questions.

Can you believe that going solar is cheaper than burning coal? Nanosolar is a new solar power invention without a panel but just a coating of paint, thin as a layer, that takes light and converts it to electricity. It sucks power from the air; it is ubiquitous because it’s cheap. The company produces its power sheet solar cells with printing-press-style machines that set down a layer of solar-absorbing nano-ink onto metal sheets as thin as aluminium foil, so the panels can be made for about a tenth of what current panels cost and at a rate of several hundred feet per minute. Cost has always been one of solar’s biggest problems. Traditional solar cells require silicon, and silicon is an expensive commodity. It also has to be put on glass, so it’s heavy, dangerous, expensive to ship and expensive to install. Nanosolar cells use no silicon. Right now, the biggest question for Nanosolar is not if its products can work, but rather if it can make enough of them. California, for instance, recently launched the Million Solar Roofs project, which encourages the installation of 100,000 solar roofs per year, every year, for 10 consecutive years. Questions 1 Give the text a suitable title. 2 Match the words with their meanings. a ubiquitous 1 existing b current 2 uninterrupted c launch 3 everywhere d consecutive 4 begin 3 List two advantages of this new invention. 4 What are the disadvantages of the old solar systems? 5 Do you think this new invention is going to be implemented in many countries in the world? Explain.

Exercise 6 Writing Can you imagine an electronic glove that allows you to write in thin air? It looks very similar to a fingerless bike glove, but it has a built-in sensory computer program. It can recognise when you trace letters of the alphabet. What are the advantages and disadvantages of such a pen? Write a well-organised paragraph.

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Test 4 Part One: Reading Comprehension (35 marks)

Part Two: Grammar and Structure (60 marks)

Read the following text and answer the questions. Here are stories of two interesting inventions. The first is that of the English inventor and businessman Percy Shaw (1890 –1976). Shaw lived in London where the streets were very dirty and the air was polluted with smog- a mixture of smoke and fog. That made it difficult for people to see the roads. Shaw wanted to find a means to light the roads. One evening, while he was driving, he noticed that his car lights reflected the eyes of the cats on the streets. This is how he invented the ‘Catseyes’ we see now in the middle of the road to guide people to keep in lane. The second invention is that of the American actress Mary Anderson (1859–1940). During a trip to New York in 1903, she noticed that drivers put their hands out of the vehicle they were driving to clear the windscreen. Anderson wanted to find a way to help drivers clean rain, snow or dirt from the windscreen and not get wet. The following year, she applied for a patent for a device that consisted of a lever that a driver could operate from inside the car. The lever caused a spring-loaded arm with a rubber blade to swing across the windshield and then back again to their original position. Anderson got the patent for the device in 1905. 1 Find a word in the text that means: a one of a line of small flat objects fixed in the middle of the road that shine when lit by car lights and guide traffic in the dark

II Complete the dialogue with structures from the box. I forgot to mention that / is the domain of IT that has to be through a multimedia distribution mechanism / programming languages / that include installing applications as well as managing and administrating entire systems / IT is the area of managing technology

A I often hear the term IT and I can’t understand what it refers to. B IT refers to Information Technology. (1) . It covers a variety of areas such as processes, computer software, information systems, computer hardware, (2) and data constructs. A Does this mean that anything which renders data, information or perceived knowledge in a visual format (3) . B Yes, (4) . A Oh, I see. Then, what do IT professionals really do? B They perform a variety of functions (5) , information databases, data management, networking, engineering computer hardware, database and software design, (6) . A This means that information technology b the legal right to be the only producer or is starting to spread farther than the seller of a book, play, film or record for a conventional personal computer and network specific length of time technology, right? c the large window at the front of a vehicle B Right. (7) it also (a car, bus, etc.) integrates other technologies such as the use 2 Did Shaw and Anderson intend to be inventors, of cell phones, televisions and automobiles. or did they become inventors by chance? A Wow, this is fascinating. Explain your answer. 3 Do you think anyone can invent a useful device? Could you? 45


III Rewrite the sentences correctly. 1 I was there for over an hour they came. 2 They feel this urge on revenge. 3 I want to introduce you for my uncle. 4 She asked her friend to get her cheese before France. 5 Grandparents insist at staying home.

6 I love the weather on May. 7 Jane was silent on a moment. 8 Does anybody agree at me? 9 There was anything you could do. 10 Would you like enough to drink? 11 Can you some else to do it? 12 I thought I’d seen you anywhere.

IV Complete the text with adjectives from the list.

shallow hydroelectric near-shore remote

reliable tidal

Floating wind turbines could capture the energy of higher wind speeds. Besides solar power and and (2) power, (1) wind turbines are now one of the most (3) renewable energy solutions. The main problem of wind turbine is that when their size increases, the noise they produce increases. However, there is a solution to this problem. They could be placed in (4) areas on land or be built at sea with the tower embedded in the seabed of (5) waters. This limits them to (6) waters with 50 metre depth. The disadvantage is that they cannot utilise the strong winds further out to sea.

1

Part Three: Writing (25 marks)

2

V How do you expect oating wind turbines to affect our future life? Write a short paragraph.

3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10 11 12

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Correspondence Part One: Written Communication A Revision

48

B Business Cards and Envelopes

49

C Reports

51

D Business Questionnaires

53

E Graphs and Charts

54

Part Two: Oral Communication A Revision

56

B Oral Presentations

57

C Socialising and Etiquette

58

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Part One: Written Communication A Revision a

The following text is about electronic ďŹ ling of accounting documents. Complete it with words from the following list. simple security volume fundamental improve confidentiality digitally cost effective high level categorised solution retrieval service electronic manual

Since practices are growing and there is an increase in the (1) of documents, the physical storage and (2) of documents has become time consuming and problematic. Hence, rapid response (3) and access to information is required by companies. The solution is (4) document management. Today, accounting firms believe that electronic document management is a (5) component of their work and it is the trusted (6) for document storage and management. Consequently, the electronic system should be (7) to use and . Paper documents are scanned, stored and managed (9) (8) allowing firms to dramatically reduce costs and (10) service. This electronic system also allows documents created during tax preparation, auditing and administrative tasks to be stored with the appropriate (11) controls. Documents should be effectively (12) and readily available to make the work easy. Accounting has always been a (13) process but now it is an electronic sophisticated system so it needs a (14) of security to protect client (15) . b

Read the following cover letter and identify its characteristics. Dear Mr Henson, I saw your advertisement for the marketing and events coordinator position on the Internet. The job sounds very interesting to me and I would like to apply. Please find my CV enclosed. As you will see in my CV, I am a recent graduate with a degree that involves aspects of the leisure industry and marketing. I have several years of experience in customer service, administration and hospitality. I am also well practised at keeping a professional and calm attitude while juggling the many issues that can arise in a busy work environment. I have experience in playing a support role in many events that have taken place in the hotel where I used to work and the restaurant where I am currently employed. This has given me the opportunity to work closely with event planners and managers. What is not covered in my CV is my love of sports. I am a particular fan of rugby, rowing, football and tennis. I have personally competed in both tennis and swimming events, as well as field hockey long ago in my youth. There is more about me than sports and hard work and I would love the opportunity to discuss my skills and experience in relation to this role. Thank you for taking the time to consider this application and I look forward to hearing from you in the near future.

Signature

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B Business Cards and Envelopes a

Read the following advertisement for business cards. Then write a letter to order a business card. Whether you are seeking the elegance of a traditionally printed card for that classic look or the vibrancy of full colour photo real printing, we got it here. With up to ten standard colours to choose from and a wide variety of beautiful paper stocks, keep it simple or upgrade it to options that are more elegant. One of the most popular styles today, UV coating using offset full colour printing offers beautiful cards at an affordable price. The UV coating on the front provides a glossy finish that helps your card to pop. We offer both Satin Matte and Glossy laminated business cards. This process combined with full colour offset printing provides your cards with a water and tear resistant finish on both sides of your card. Pricing

Business Cards

Quantity

100

250

500

1000

Spot Colour Business Cards

N/A

1034 SYP

1410 SYP

1880 SYP

UV Coated Business Cards

1410 SYP

1880 SYP

2350 SYP

3525 SYP

Laminated Business Cards

N/A

3525 SYP

3995 SYP

4465 SYP

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b

Match the following kinds of envelopes with their descriptions and pictures. Booklet Announcement Baronial Catalogue Commercial 1 These are very common envelopes. They are mostly used for announcements, invitations, cards, small booklets or brochures. 2 These are more formal envelopes. They are popular for invitations. 3 This style of envelope is mainly used for catalogues, magazines and reports. 4 These are the most popular envelopes for business correspondence, that we send and receive every day. They are mostly used for letterheads, invoices, statements and checks. 5 These envelopes are mostly used for sending catalogues, folders and the like.

a

b

c

d

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e


C Report a

Work in pairs. Examine the following text as an example of a report. Take notes in the space provided. Console and PC Games Introduction This report will analyse the games available for purchase using a mixture of desk and field research. The report will then make a selection of the best games available that are likely to appeal to as many people as possible. Web Based Research According to […] news, the […] expansion pack recently broke all sales records. […] have sold […] and […] sold […]. According to […], the […] may be harder to shift because of its higher price tag. Key games include: […], […] and the latest edition of […]. On the other hand, […] reports that […] continues to outsell […] significantly. Surveys The figures show that most people in the area prefer to play games on consoles. Comparing the three age groups, it is clear to see that […] sales are strongest among children although there is a significant market amongst people over 24. The […] is also still used by children. The surveys also showed a keen interest from teenagers between the ages of 18 and 24 to buy more games, whereas people over 24 were less interested in buying games for themselves. Many parents are expected to buy consoles for their children and they consider the […] to be a good choice for this. Conclusion The indicators show that children and 18-24 year olds are the main buyers of games and parents are likely to be buying […] for children. Recommendations The key console to stock is the […] because parents are looking for gifts for their children. The other consoles should be stocked in smaller quantities because they are less in demand. In terms of games, it may be worth offering some packages with the […] and […] aimed at children. 18-24 year olds seem most likely to be buying […] and […] so the key games for these systems need to be in stock and for the PC a good stock of […] is essential.

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b

522

Write a report similar to the one in task a on any item of your choice in the Syrian market.


D Business Questionnaire a

Work in pairs. Use the following three questions to guide you to write a questionnaire to help a company develop. Use all the types of questions discussed in your Students’ Book. • Where do you think we should concentrate our resources? • What do you think is most important for the company? • What improvements can we make?

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E Graphs and Charts a

The two graphs below show the main sources of energy in a country in the 1980s and the 1990s. Write a paragraph describing the changes which occurred.

s

54

s


The graph below gives information about global water use in three sectors: agriculture industrial and domestic. Write a paragraph to compare and contrast the use of water in the sectors.

3

b

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Part Two: Oral Communication A Revision a

Work in pairs. Use some of the following phrases or sentences to discuss one of the following topics. A cause of stress at work An idea to save cost

A factor that influence profit A way to improve quality

I agree with you on that point. That’s a fair suggestion. So what you’re saying is that you... In other words, you feel that... You have a strong point there. I think we can both agree that... I don’t see any problem with / harm in that. I understand where you’re coming from; however,... I’m prepared to compromise, but... The way I look at it... The way I see things... If you look at it from my point of view, ... I’m afraid I had something different in mind. That’s not exactly how I look at it. From my perspective, ... I’d have to disagree with you there. I’m afraid that doesn’t work for me. Is that your best offer? b

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Do some research on the following statements to say if they are true or false. Explain. 1 During negotiations, one should not treat an opponent with respect and consideration at all times. 2 In “competitive” negotiations, the two parties try to establish a common goal. 3 Prior to engaging in negotiations, it is wise to consider one’s own “bottom-line”. 4 When in salary negotiations, employees should “low-ball” in their opening remarks. 5 One key to effective conflict-resolution is to deal with personalities rather than issues. 6 It may be impossible to detect that a counterpart is lying by observing body language. 7 One should admit to agreeing with an opponent during the course of negotiations.


B Oral presentations a

Say if the following statements are correct or not. 1 Know the class from the front. The front of the class feels different from the seats you are normally used to. 2 You are the focus, not your topic. 3 Complicated flow charts are a must. 4 Don’t limit the colours you use in the slide show. 5 Your audience needs time to absorb a slide.

b

Explain the following statements. 1 The audience wants to know you are confident. It will enable them to trust your information. 2 Neither moving nor standing still is wrong. Use either to make yourself comfortable. 3 Look for neutral faces positioned around the room. That way as you’re making eye contact, you’ll know you can look without being thrown off your talk. 4 Visuals might overpower a talk and draw attention to them.

c

Put the sentences under the right heading: Body movements or Voice. Don’t fidget. Loud/soft, high/low, fast/slow are used in English to gain emphasis and variety. Slowing down helps the audience to comprehend your talk. A wide variety of vocal style is possible. Use your hands to stress key ideas or depict a key shape. Look at your audience (not at your overhead slide). Don’t hold papers that rustle, pens that click or the change in your pocket that clinks. Body Movement

Voice

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C Socialising and Etiquette a

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Read the following information on International Business Etiquette then go online to ďŹ nd more examples. In many cultures, the first step of finding the right time or place to socialise in the business world can be an issue if you are not familiar with the culture. In some cultures, for example, you might be expected to build relationships with your counterparts in the professional environment, while in other cultures you might be expected to spend some time outside work socialising in order to build trust. For instance, when doing business in Panama, you will often find that your counterparts do not make a clear distinction between their professional and personal relationships. You may hear conversations vary from business to personal, or you might receive an invitation from a colleague to attend a family event, which you should kindly accept. On the contrary, when doing business in Germany or Belgium, you might find that your counterparts prefer to keep their private spheres separate from their professional environment. Conversation rarely touches on any personal issues, and most people will go their separate ways at the end of the day. Finally, when doing business in China, you will often be expected to spend time outside work socialising with your Chinese counterparts to build trust and a relationship before discussing business, as they will want to show you an immense amount of hospitality as their guest.


b

Write a well-organised paragraph about one of the following statements. Remember that your colleagues aren’t always your friends, even though you spend considerable amount of time with them every day. The workplace is a mixture of diverse personalities. You cannot expect everyone to be always nice and pleasant. So, how do you deal with difficult people and those with undermining behaviours at work in different ways?

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Glossary A abide by verb to accept or act in accordance with a rule, decision or recommendation: I said I would abide by their decision. absorb verb to take in or soak up energy, a liquid or other substance by chemical or physical action, typically and gradually: Buildings can be designed to absorb and retain heat. accentuate verb to make something more noticeable: The advertisement accentuates the benefits of the merchandise.

address noun the particulars of the place where someone lives or an organisation is situated: They exchanged addresses and agreed to keep in touch. adjust verb to alter or slightly move something in order to achieve the desired fit, appearance or result: The interest rate should be adjusted according to the inflation rate. advantageous adjective helpful and likely to make you successful: This step was advantageous to the firm since it helped increase its capital.

accountant noun a person whose job is to keep or inspect financial accounts: Tax advisers can also be qualified accountants who have undertaken formal training.

advert noun an advertisement; a notice or announcement in a public medium promoting a product, service or event or publicising a job vacancy: We received only two replies to our adverts.

accounts executive noun advertising firm’s representative who manages services for a particular client (called an account): What does an advertising agency accounts executive do?

advertising agency noun marketing services firm that assists companies in planning advertisements: They own the largest advertising agency in the city.

accounts payable noun money owed by a company to its creditors: Vendors providing accounts payable software or outsourcing.

affordable adjective reasonably priced: I am looking for an affordable car.

accounts receivable noun money owed to a company by its debtors: Different consulting firms advise collectors and others to manage accounts receivable. accurate adjective (of information, measurements, statistics, etc.) correct in all details; exact: It is essential that the doctor gives his patients accurate information about their illness. acquire verb to learn or develop a skill, habit or quality: You must acquire the rudiments of Greek. address verb to think about and begin to deal with an issue or problem: A fundamental problem has still to be addressed.

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amortisation noun the process of reducting or extinguishing a debt by money regularly put aside: In 2001, our expenses included $ 5.5 million of restructuring charges and $ 2.5 million of goodwill amortisation. analyst noun an investment expert, typically in a specified field: My father is a senior market analyst. animated cartoon noun a film made by photographing a series of cartoon drawings to give the illusion of movement when projected in rapid sequence: Click on “graphic” to view animated cartoon at the source. annual adjective occurring once every year: I always attend the union’s annual conference. apparition noun the appearance of something remarkable or unexpected: I love learning about the evolution of comics, esp. super heroes, as they are such a strange apparition. appreciation noun increase in monetary value: Statistics showed an appreciation of 50% in property values.

agricultural adjective relating to farming: The major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers, fuels and raw materials.

assessment noun the evaluation or estimation of the nature, quality or ability of someone or something: He made a rapid assessment of the situation.

airtime noun time during which a broadcast is being transmitted: She keeps a margin from selling airtime which makes up her profit.

assistant noun a person who helps in a particular work: My mother works as a laboratory assistant.

align verb to put things into correct or appropriate positions: The fan’s blades are carefully aligned.

associated adjective connected with something else: Pain is the primary symptom associated with shoulder disorders affecting the soft tissue.

allocating noun the process of distributing resources or duties for a particular purpose: The authorities are responsible for allocating homes to refugees.

association noun a group of people organised for a joint purpose: What is the view of your national association about these programmes?

alternative adjective an alternative idea, plan, etc. is different from the one you have and can be used instead: Do you have any alternative suggestions?

assortment noun a mixed collection of things or people: The room was filled with an assortment of clothes.


audience noun the people giving or likely to give attention to something: There will always be an audience for tragic literature. authority (often authorities) noun a person or organisation having power or control in a particular, typically political or administrative sphere: Welsh health authorities face a 13 million SYP deficit this year. auto bag roll noun a small roll of film used for packaging or protecting goods: They are the largest manufacturers and suppliers of auto bag rolls. automated adjective using computers and machines to do a job, rather than people: The production process is now fully automated. awful adjective used to emphasise the extent of something, esp. something unpleasant or negative: The chairperson gave an awful speech. B balance sheet noun a statement of the assets, liabilities and capital of a business or other organisation at a particular point in time, detailing the balance of income and expenditure over the preceding period: I will leave the ideological balance sheet to accountants. banner noun a long strip of cloth bearing a slogan or design hung in a public place or carried in a demonstration or procession: A banner in the front window announced “Grand Reopening”. baronial adjective very large and richly decorated: The reception was held in the hotel’s baronial hall. barrier noun a rule, problem or obstable that prevents people from doing something or limits what they can do: The existing electrical barrier is rapidly corroding. basic adjective at the simplest or least developed level: Their knowledge is very basic.

benefit noun an advantage or profit gained from something: We offer an excellent benefits packages. bent adjective something that is bent is no longer flat or straight: He stepped on a bent nail. bid price noun the price that dealers or other prospective buyers are prepared to pay for securities or other assets: The bid price was high. billboard noun a large outdoor board for displaying advertisements: I saw a billboard by the side of the road. bill of lading noun a detailed list of a shipment of goods in the form of a receipt given by the carrier to the person consigning the goods: He wouldn’t know an invoice from a bill of lading form. boost noun an increase or improvement: The community will get a boost from a new library and recreation centre. branch noun a division or office of a large business or organisation, operating locally or having a particular function: He went to work at our Aleppo branch. brand noun type of product manufactured by a particular company under a particular name: Which brand of soap do you use? branding noun the promotion of a particular product or company by means of advertising and distinctive design: I think that personal branding is a very important topic. broad adjective covering a large number and wide scope of subjects or areas: He has a broad range of experience in accounting. broaden verb to increase something such as your knowledge, experience, or range of activities: This course helps high school students broaden their general knowledge.

basics noun the essential facts or principles of a subject or skill: It is important to learn the basics of the business.

brochure noun a small book or magazine containing pictures and information about a product or service: The purpose of the brochure is to introduce your business to the public.

basis noun the system or principles according to which an activity or process is carried on: She needed coaching on a regular basis.

broken adjective in small pieces because it has been hit, dropped, etc.: Wrap it well so it doesn’t get broken in the mail.

benefit verb to receive an advantage; profit; gain: The deal benefited them both.

broker noun a person who buys and sells goods or assets for others: The customs broker usually makes all necessary foreign trade customs arrangements. browse verb to search for information on a computer or on the Internet: Browse your hard drive and choose the graphic you want to display. bruised adjective fruit that has a mark on its skin that spoils its appearance and sometimes its taste: Bruised fruits are not appetising. budget noun an estimate of income and expenditure for a set period of time: Keep within the household budget. bulk adjective cargo that is an unpackaged mass such as grain, oil or milk: They imported bulk cargoes of timber and grain. C campaign noun an organised course of action to achieve a particular goal: They carried out a successful advertising campaign. candidate noun a person or thing regarded as suitable for or likely to receive a particular fate, treatment or position: She was the perfect candidate for a biography. caption noun a heading or title, as of an article: Each painting is accompanied by a caption. capture verb to record or express accurately in words or pictures: She did a series of sketches, trying to capture all his moods. cargo noun goods carried on a ship, aircraft or motor vehicle: A ship carrying a cargo of oil has sunk. cash flow noun the total amount of money being transferred into and out of a business: Could you charter them in sixty days to give you a cash flow to sustain a reasonable repayment schedule? catalogue noun a publication containing details and often photographs of items for sale, esp. one produced by a mailorder company: Catalogues for art exhibitions may range in scale from a single printed sheet to a hardcover book. chain noun a group of establishments, such as hotels, stores or restaurants, owned by the same company: They own the nation’s largest hotel chain.

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chair noun chairperson of an organisation, meeting or public event: The chair of the committee did a press conference. charge noun a price asked for goods or services: Fuel charges will rise in December. circulation noun the movement, exchange or availability of money in a country: The new coins will go into circulation today. classify verb to arrange a group of people or things in classes or categories according to shared qualities or characteristics: Mountain peaks are classified according to their shape. clientele noun a group of clients of a shop: The restaurant attracts a young clientele. coating noun a thin layer or covering of something: A coating of paint will make the room much brighter. COGS (Costs Of Goods Sold) noun the cost of purchasing raw material and manufacturing finished products: One of the most commonly recognised figures in accounting is cost of goods sold. collaboration noun the action of working with someone to produce or create something: He wrote on art and architecture in collaboration with John. collapse verb (of an institution or undertaking) to fail suddenly and completely: In the face of such resolve his opposition finally collapsed. colleague noun a person with whom one works, esp. in a profession or business: She discussed the idea with some of her colleagues. column noun a section of a newspaper or magazine regularly devoted to a particular subject or written by a particular person: I read nothing except the criminal news and the agony column. combine verb to unite or merge: The band combines a variety of musical influences. compensate verb to pay a sum of money to make up for a loss or injury: Payments were made to farmers to compensate them for cuts in subsidies. competitive adjective having a strong desire to be more successful than others: Some US industries are not as competitive as they have been in the past.

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competitive edge noun a factor that gives a special advantage to a nation, company, group or individual when it is competing with others: It encourages us to bring clarity and competitive edge to our offering. competitor noun an organisation or country that is engaged in commercial or economic competition with others: Last year they sold twice as many computers as their competitors. computer graphics noun visual images produced by computer processing: Early computer graphic effects in movies where not very realistic. concrete adjective real; definite: I haven’t got any concrete proof. confirm verb to tell someone that a possible arrangement, date or situation is now definite or official: Could you confirm the dates we discussed? conference noun a formal meeting for discussion: He gathered all the men around the table for a conference. conglomerate noun a large corporation formed by the merging of separate and diverse firms: The larger companies are mostly part of multi-national conglomerates. consignee noun the person that something is delivered to: Select the consignee to whom the documentation needs to be sent prior to shipment. consignment noun agreement to pay a supplier of goods after the goods are sold: He sells new and used children’s clothing on consignment.

convert verb to change in form, character or function: They converted the spare bedroom into an office. coordinate verb to negotiate with others in order to work together effectively: You will coordinate with consultants and other departments on a variety of projects. copywriter noun a person who writes the text of advertisements or publicity material: The key to being a successful copywriter is to write effectively rather than correctly. correspondence noun letters sent or received: His wife dealt with his private correspondence. corrugated adjective in the shape of waves or folds or made like this in order to give something strength: I’m searching for some kind of corrugated metal roofing material. cost noun an amount that has to be paid to buy or obtain something: We are able to cover the cost of the event. cost verb to have a particular price: A full day’s activities will cost you 45 SYP. cost-efficient adjective effective or productive in relation to its cost: The most cost-efficient way to invest in the stock market. counter service noun a form of service in restaurants where food or refreshments are ordered at the counter: Customers who receive counter service will either pay for the order before or at the time that the order is received.

consistent adjective always behaving in the same way or having the same attitudes, standards: The robot behaves according to certain consistent patterns.

cover verb 1 to include or deal with a particular subject, group of things or a period of time: The course covers business law. 2 to be enough to pay a bill or cost: The award should be enough to cover her tuition fees.

consulting noun the business of giving specialist advice to other professionals, typically in financial and business matters: You should have a wide background in consulting in order to get this job.

cover story noun the main story that appears with a picture on the front cover of a newspaper or magazine: Visit our website to read the full cover story.

container noun very large metal box in which goods are placed to make it easy to lift or move them onto a ship or vehicle: Shipping containers are usually made of aluminium. contaminant noun a polluting or poisonous substance: A major fraction of chemistry is involved with identifying, isolating and studying contaminants.

cracked adjective damaged and showing lines on the surface from having split without coming apart: The old pipes were cracked and leaking. crate noun a large box made of wood or plastic that is used for carrying fruit, bottles, etc.: He bought a crate of pears. credit noun a payment received: Can worthy people and companies obtain credit on decent terms?


critical adjective (of a situation or problem) having the potential to become disastrous; at a point of crisis: The flood waters had not receded, and the situation was still critical. crucial adjective of great importance: The game is crucial to our survival. crushed adjective something pressed so hard that it is broken or damaged: The crushed car was taken to the scrap yard. cultivating noun the process of acquiring or developing a quality, sentiment or skill: Our company has succeeded in cultivating skills and methods to solve these problems. current noun happening or existing now: In its current state, the car is worth £1,000. customer service noun the part of a company or business that deals with questions, problems, etc. that customers have: You should call customer service and complain. customise verb to change something to make it more suitable for you, or to make it special or different from things of a similar type: Only registered editors can customise the articles on our website. D damage noun physical harm that is done to something or to part of someone’s body, so that it is broken or injured: The other ship sustained only minor damage. damaged adjective objects that are physically harmed: Damaged cars are usually kept in scrap yards. decline verb to fall in value or price: Spending on information technology has declined. decompose verb to break down into component elements or simpler constituents: Many chemicals decompose rapidly under high temperature. defect noun a fault or lack: All the cars are tested for defects before they leave the factory. delay noun a period of time by which something is late or postponed: They must restore normal services without delay. delegated adjective authorised to do something as a representative: He is the delegated staff member.

deliver verb to take goods, letters, packages, etc. to a particular place or person: The morning mail has just been delivered. demand noun 1 the desire of purchasers, consumers, clients, employers, etc., for a particular commodity, service or other item: a recent slump in demand 2 pressing requirements: He’s got enough demands on his schedule. dented adjective having a slight hollow in a hard, even surface made by a blow or by the exertion of pressure: He fixed the dented passenger door. depot noun a place where goods are stored until they are needed: We got to the store depot, loaded up and started to return. depreciation noun a reduction in the value of an asset with the passage of time: That’s only 11% and that’s not even counting depreciation. derive verb to originate or come from: Cheese and butter are derived from milk. destination noun the place to which someone or something is going or being sent: This is a popular destination for golfers. device noun a mechanical or electronic tool that is made or adapted to a particular purpose: The tape measure is one example of a measuring device. diesel adjective having an internal combustion engine in which heat produced by the compression of air in the cylinder is used to ignite the fuel: Are diesel engines more efficient than petrol engines? dilemma noun a situation in which a difficult choice has to be made between two or more alternatives, especially equally undesirable ones: The people often face the dilemma of feeding themselves or their cattle. discolouration noun a place on the surface of something that has become discoloured: The discolouration from the bruising lasted over 6 months. discuss verb to talk about something with another person or group of people: I discussed the problem with a friend. disfigure verb to spoil the appearance that something naturally has: He had been disfigured in an accident.

disseminate information verb to spread or disperse information widely: Health authorities should foster good practice by disseminating information. distinction noun a difference or contrast between two similar things or people: I was completely unaware of class distinctions. distribution noun the action or process of supplying goods to stores and other businesses that sell to consumers: A manager has the choice of four types of distribution. diversification noun a corporate strategy in which a company acquires or establishes a business other than that of its current product: But this kind of diversification took the company’s focus off its core asset. dividend noun a sum of money paid regularly by a company to its shareholders out of its profits: We should eliminate taxes on dividend and interest income. documentary noun a movie or a television or radio programme that provides a factual record or report: The documentary is scheduled to be shown again. duty noun a payment due and enforced by law or custom on the import, export, manufacture or sale of goods: The government has levied a 6 percent duty on imports. E EBITDA (Earning Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortisation) noun an approximate measure of a company’s operating cash flow based on data from the company’s income statement: EBITDA does not measure cash earnings because it omits all tax expenses. editorial noun a newspaper article that gives an opinion on a topical issue: Each edition of the newspaper contains an editorial, a number of main articles, a section on innovative practice and book reviews. efficient adjective if someone or something is efficient, they work well without wasting time, money or energy: She is an efficient secretary. elicit verb to evoke or draw out a response, answer or fact from someone in reaction to one’s own actions or questions: They invariably elicit exclamations of approval from guests.

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eliminate verb to completely remove or get rid of something: We need to develop a new policy that would eliminate inflation.

excessive adjective much more than is reasonable or necessary: Her family complained that she had spent an excessive amount of money.

e-marketing noun marketing of products or services over the Internet: Did the new e-marketing campaign succeed?

expedite verb to make a process or action happen more quickly: This new search engine will greatly expedite students’ research.

empower verb to give a person or organisation the legal right to do something: We should encourage our children to try their best at school and empower them to take charge of their future.

expenses noun the costs incurred in the performance of one’s job or a specific task, esp. one undertaken for another person: He calculated his hotel and travel expenses.

enhance verb to improve something: They enhanced their company’s customer service office. ensure verb to make certain that something shall occur: The client must ensure that accurate records be kept. entitled to phrasal verb to give someone a legal right or a just claim to receive or do something: The landlord is entitled to require references. entrepreneur noun someone who starts a new business or arranges business deals in order to make money, often in a way that involves financial risks: An entrepreneur should be a positive thinker, an improviser and a hard worker. episode noun each of the separate instalments into which a serialised story or radio or television programme is divided: If you want to see it yourself the episode is available here. equipment noun the tools, machines, clothes, etc. that you need to do a particular job, or activity: He sells brand new computer equipment. essential adjective extremely important: It is essential to keep upto-date reports. establishment noun a business organisation, public institution or household: These general requirements apply to all hotels and catering establishments. European Union (EU) noun an economic and political association of European countries as a unit with internal free trade and common external tariffs: Our website provides an access to information published by the European Union. exceptional adjective unusual; not typical: This is an exceptional case; I’ve never seen anything like it before.

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exposed verb make something visible, typically by uncovering it: At low tide, the sands are exposed. external adjective coming from or relating to a foreign country or an outside institution: We collected the data from external sources. extract verb to remove or take out, esp. by effort or force: The decayed tooth will have to be extracted. Extraction-Assist Robot noun a humanoid robot designed as a method for transporting wounded soldiers on the battlefield to safety: The Battlefield Extraction-Assist Robot has the size and shape of an adult male human. F facility noun a building or place that provides a particular service for a particular industry fairness noun the quality of being reasonable: I trust the fairness of the judicial system. fallacy noun a mistaken belief, esp. one based on unsound argument: A fallacy is an argument based on a false premise. fascinated verb draw irresistibly the attention and interest of (someone): I’ve been always fascinated by the sunset scene. feasibility adjective a plan, idea or method that is feasible is possible and is likely to work: We’re doing a feasibility study to make a decision about whether we should launch operations sometime next year. feature article noun a special or prominent article in a newspaper or magazine: They ran a feature article on retirement planning.

feedback noun information about reactions to a product, a person’s performance of a task, etc. used as a basis for improvement: We are working on a new system for blog advertising and the feedback is always useful. fidelity programme noun a programme designed to lower the turnover among users of a product or service by rewarding customers with incentives or other benefits for remaining customers: They launched a new local fidelity programme. financial adjective relating to money or currency: Financial analysts use spreadsheet and statistical software packages to analyse financial data. financial condition noun the financial status of a company at a specific point in time often described in a financial statement: The company’s financial condition is unstable. firm noun a business, esp. one involving a partnership of two or more people: He opened his own law firm. firmly adverb tightly; strongly: Tie the rope firmly to the post. fiscal adjective relating to taxes: I want to talk about the company’s new fiscal policy. fleet noun a number of ships, vehicles or aircraft operating together or under the same ownership: The agency fleet is replaced each year with new cars. flip-top bag noun a bag having a lid or cover that can be easily opened by pulling, pushing or flicking it with the finger: Flip-top bags are great for packing clothing. follow-up noun an activity carried out as part of a study in order to monitor or further develop earlier work: A follow-up interview was set for tommorrow. Food and Agricultural Fund (FAO) noun an agency of the United Nations whose responsibility is to secure improvements in the production and distribution of food and agricultural products and to raise levels of nutrition: The Food and Agricultural Fund was established in 1945. footnote noun a piece of additional information that is not very important but is interesting or helps you understand something: According to a footnote, the technique was not used.


forwarder noun a person or organisation that supervises the dispatch and delivery of goods, esp. by making banking and insurance arrangements and completing required documents: At least this thread begins to address the malicious party as the forwarder.

H

fragility noun the quality of being easily broken or damaged: Glass is known for its fragility.

hamper verb to hinder or impede the movement or progress of: Their work is hampered by lack of funds.

franchise noun an authorisation granted by a government or company to an individual or group enabling them to carry out specified commercial activities, such as providing a broadcasting service or acting as an agent for a company’s products: The future for this franchise is anything but clear.

handheld adjective small and light enough to be operated while you hold it in your hands: Some memory cards are used in handheld computers or digital cameras.

freight noun goods transported by truck, train, ship or aircraft: We’ll send your personal belongings by air freight. fundamental adjective forming a necessary base or core; of central importance: The United Nations protects fundamental human rights. G General and Administrative (G & A) Expenses noun the expenses of operating a business that is not directly linked to the company’s products or services: There are many possible general and administrative expenses involved in starting and running a business. generate verb to produce or cause something; to create: The programme would generate a lot of new jobs. good handle expression to start to understand a situation or subject: It’s difficult to get a good handle on how widespread this problem is. grant verb to give something formally or legally: Funds are granted to qualified researchers. gross income noun the total amount of money people have before taxes: Gross income is used in several important calculations. gross loss noun total losing trades including commission: Operations produced a gross loss of 1.1 million SYP during the first quarter last year. guarantee verb to promise to do something or to promise that something will happen: I guarantee you’ll love this film.

Hair-Washing machine noun subject matter having means esp. designed for washing a person’s hair or means to assist in the washing of the hair: I bought an automatic Hair-Washing Machine.

handle verb 1 to do the things that are necessary to complete a job: I handled most of the paperwork. 2 to deal with a situation or problem by behaving in a particular way and making particular decisions: The headmaster handled the situation very well. handle noun the part of an object that you use for holding it: I bought a knife with a carved wooden handle. header bag noun bag that has one to two headers with seal beneath it to allow for separation between bag and hanging area and a hole to allow hanging on a display hook: Header bags are used in retail stores for hanging displays. headline noun a heading at the top of an article or page in a newspaper or magazine: Headlines are generally written by copy editors. hectic adjective very busy or full of activity: I have a very hectic schedule next week. hi-fi adjective used for or relating to the reproduction of music or other sound with high quality: In the 1950s, the term high fidelity or hi-fi began to be used by audio manufacturers as a marketing term. high-resolution adjective relating to an image that has fine detail: Highresolution photos are required for sharp reproduction in our publications. highly adjective extremely; greatly: Acids are highly dangerous chemicals. household noun all the people who live together in one house: The best strategy for each household is to pay off all debts and save as much as possible.

hub noun the central and most important part of an area, system, activity, etc. which all the other parts are connected to: Does anyone know where the local commercial hub is located? I IMF (International Monetary Fund) noun a United Nations agency to promote trade by increasing the exchange stability of the major currencies: The world owes its prosperity to the inter-related missions of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. impact noun the effect or influence of one person, thing or action on another: Our regional measures have had a significant impact on unemployment. impede verb to make it difficult for someone or something to move forward or make progress: Specialised tariffs impede the flow of trade. implementing noun putting a decision, plan, agreement, etc. into effect or action: I think he will succeed in implementing his health care ideas. imply verb to strongly suggest the truth or existence of something not expressly stated: The report implies that two million jobs might be lost. import noun a tax you pay on commodities, articles or service brought in from abroad for sale: In December last year, the government had reduced import duty on natural rubber. impulse noun a sudden, strong and unreflective urge or desire to act: Marge’s first impulse was to run. income statement noun summary of revenues, costs and expenses for a business over a period of time: The counter-party thus would be able to avoid charges to its income statement resulting from declines in the value of its assets. inflate verb to increase something by a large or excessive amount: Objectives should be clearly set out so as not to duplicate work and inflate costs. install verb to place or fix equipment, software or machinery in position ready for use: We’re planning to install a new shower. integrate verb to form or unite two or more things into a whole: The government has integrated the public transportation system.

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integrity noun the quality of being honest and having strong moral principles; moral uprightness: He is known to be a man of integrity. interaction noun 1 a process by which two or more things affect each other: Price is determined through the interaction of demand and supply. 2 the activity of talking to other people, working together with them, etc.: The recreational games facilitated social interactions with other children. interest noun 1 money paid regularly at a particular rate for the use of money lent, or for delaying the repayment of a debt: The interest on the loan is 16 % per year. 2 a feeling of wanting to know or learn about something: He developed an interest in art. 3 the advantage or benefit of a person or group: We are acting in the best interests of our customers. intermediary noun a person who acts as a link between people in order to try to bring about an agreement or reconciliation: The deal was concluded through an intermediary. intermediate adjective having more than a basic knowledge or level of skill but not yet advanced: This book is suitable for intermediate learners of English. internal adjective existing or occurring within an organisation: They installed an internal telephone system. interrogate verb to ask someone a lot of questions for a long time in order to get information: The police interrogated the suspect for several hours. interviewee noun a person who answers questions in an interview: Interviewers can be quite surprised when the interviewee is genuinely interested in something. inventory noun a list of all the things in a place: We made an inventory of everything in stock. investor noun someone who gives money to a company, business or bank in order to get a profit: A major investor threatened to stop funding the project. irrational adjective not logical or reasonable: His behaviour is very irrational. issue noun an important topic or problem for debate or discussion: They wanted to adress the issue concerning pollution.

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issue verb if an organisation or someone in an official position issues something such as documents or equipment, they give these things to people who need them: The US State department issues millions of passports each year. J jargon noun special words or expressions that are used by a particular profession or a group of experts and are difficult for others to understand: Keep the report simple and avoid the use of jargon. jump line noun a line telling on, or from, what page a newspaper story is continued: To which page does the jump line refer us? K keep an eye on verb keep under careful observation: Dealers are keeping an eye on the currency markets. kicker noun a surprising or unexpected end to an event: The kicker came when the reporter asked the 22-mile runner whether she was tired or not.

leading question noun a question that deliberately tricks someone into giving the answer you want: Don’t ask leading questions. leisure adjective use of free time for enjoyment: Busy working people don’t have time for leisure activities. libel noun a published false statement that is damaging to a person’s reputation: The company’s lawyer sued two national newspapers for libel. lorry noun a large vehicle for carrying heavy goods: The lorry is said to have been on the wrong side of the road when the accident happened. loss noun the fact or process of losing something or someone: The company made a loss of $250,000 last year. M marketing portfolio noun an accumulation of the student’s work or research assignments: Creating a job marketing portfolio can set you apart from the rest of the candidates.

L

mass market noun the market for goods that are produced in large quantities: A mass market may consist of a whole population or just a segment of that population.

label noun a piece of paper or another material that is attached to something and gives information about it: It says “dry clean” on the label.

mast noun a tall metal tower that sends out radio and television signals: Nobody wants a mobile phone mast put up anywhere near where they live.

laminated adjective covered with a thin layer of plastic for protection: Six sheets of plastic laminated card material are provided at the end of the book.

measure noun a plan or course of action taken to achieve a particular purpose: Children were evacuated as a precautionary measure.

lapse noun a temporary failure of concentration, memory or judgement: Despite the occasional lapse, this was a fine performance by the young pianist.

mechanism noun a natural or established process by which something takes place or is brought about: We have no mechanism for assessing the success of forwarded inquiries.

launch verb to introduce a new product or publication to the public for the first time: The company has launched a software package specifically for the legal sector.

media noun the main means of mass communication, esp. television, radio, newspapers and the Internet regarded collectively: The media is a very good means of spreading news.

lawsuit noun a claim or dispute brought to a court of law: His lawyer filed a lawsuit against Los Angeles city.

media outlet noun a publication or broadcast programme that transmits feature stories and news to the public through various distribution channels: Our website is a worldwide news media guide with more than 3000 media outlets.

layout noun the way in which writing and pictures are arranged on a page: The most common layout of a business letter is known as block format. leading adjective best, most important or most successful: They played a leading role in organising the annual summer camp.

mellow adjective relaxed and goodhumoured: He was less of a fighter and more of a mellow guy.


merchandise noun goods meant to be bought and sold: This store has an astonishing range of merchandise. merchandising noun the activity of promoting the sale of goods, esp. by their presentation in retail outlets: Problems rooted in over expansion and poor merchandising. merger noun the joining together of two or more companies or organisations to form one larger one: There has been a lot of talk about a merger between two leading banks. mobility noun the ability to move or be moved freely and easily: I think that labour mobility is a really good thing. modify verb to make small changes to something in order to improve it and make it more suitable or effective: The feedback will be used to modify the course for next year. money-back guarantee expression a simple promise that, if a buyer is not satisfied with a product or service, a refund will be made: We are so certain that you will be completely satisfied with our products, that we offer a 1 year unconditional money-back guarantee. morality noun principles concerning the distinction between right and wrong or good and bad behaviour: The past few years have seen a sharp decline in morality. motivation noun the general desire or willingness of someone to do something: You ought to keep your staff up-to-date and maintain their interest and motivation.

net sale noun dollar sales amount remaining when reduced by sales tax and any returns or allowances: Half the net sale will be donated to a children’s fund organisation. non-profit organisation adjective an organised body of people whose purpose is not to make any profit: They are building a new non-profit educational institution. non-recurring adjective not occurring periodically or repeatedly: This year’s earnings, excluding non-recurring items, decreased by 4% . norms noun generally accepted standards of social behaviour: Norms are meant to keep people in check. novelty adjective something unusual, small or cheap that is often given as a present: This shop has a wide selection of novelties and t-shirts. O objective noun a thing aimed at: The system helped us achieve our objectives. oligopoly noun the control of all or most of a business activity by very few companies, so that other organisations cannot easily compete with them: Regarding oil, it is an oligopoly with a guaranteed fixed high demand. omission noun someone or something that has been left out or excluded: The omission of recent publications from his bibliography caused him to be accused of plagiarism.

N

on demand expression as soon as or whenever required: He promised us endless coffee on demand.

net income noun income after all expenses and taxes have been deducted: All these lands were rented, but the net income was not large.

one-off expenses noun an expense that is paid once and not repeated: These charges include one-off expenses and restructuring charges.

net income from continuing operations noun an income statement figure indicating the net income that a firm brings in from ongoing business activities: After all of these expenses are deducted, the investor is left with a figure called net income from continuing operations.

operate verb function or work: We have as yet no conclusive evidence on how these cells operate.

net profit noun the actual profit after working expenses not included in the calculation of gross profit have been paid: You did all the trading and all I did was figure your net profit or loss.

operating income noun income generated from regular business operations: The operating income is the sum of the operating revenue and the operating expenses.

operating expenses noun the cost of operating a business: OPEX is the abbreviated form of operating expense.

opponent noun someone who you try to defeat in a competition, game, fight or argument: He is admired even by his opponents.

opportunity noun a set of suitable circumstances for a certain course of action: We may see increased opportunity for exports. optimal adjective best or most favourable: The conditions for sailing are optimal today. optimise verb to improve the way that something is done or used so that it is as effective as possible: The circumstances need to be optimised so that we attract investors. order noun a request by a customer for a company to supply goods: Goods will be sent within 24 hours of receiving your order. outstanding adjective 1 a debt remaining to be paid or dealt with: There was a small charge outstanding. 2 extremely good: This is an outstanding painting. overhead noun money spent regularly on rent, insurance, electricity and other things that are needed to keep a business operating: Their offices are in London so the overheads are very high. overpower verb to defeat or overcome with superior strength: Overpower your wicked self with your will. P packaging noun a process of wrapping something for sale: Always check the date on the packaging. packing noun when you put things into cases or boxes so that you can send or take them somewhere: Do you need help packing your clothes. padded adjective filled or covered with a soft material to make it thicker or more comfortable: After a long day at work, I put my bag on the table and settled on the padded chair. page setup noun the way in which a page is organised, planned or arranged: If you want to create professional quality documents, then learning to use the page setup tools is a must. pallet wrap noun a stretch film commonly used to protect and secure loads of packaged goods: Mass-market retailers use shrink wrap for multipack items and pallet wrap for product warehousing. Paper-Based Lithium-Ion Batteries noun ultra-thin batteries that could be used to power electronic newspapers: Paper-Based Lithium-Ion Batteries were developed by Stanford researchers.

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payment in advance expression trading method in which the buyer pays for the goods before they are sent out: Payment in advance is a must at this institution. pay rise noun an increase in the money you earn: He gave his employees a 4% pay rise. percentage noun an amount expressed as if it is a part of a total which is 100: Tax is paid as a percentage of total income. perception noun a way of regarding, understanding or interpreting something: We need to change many popular perceptions of old age. performance noun the extent to which an investment is profitable, esp. in relation to other investments: Both the first and second chart appear to have improved in performance. Perpetual Motion Device noun any device or system that produces more energy than it consumes, resulting in a net output of energy for indefinite time: The laws of physics have to be broken for the Perpetual Motion Device to work properly. perspective noun way of regarding something; a point of view: Most history guidebooks are written from the editor’s perspective. policy noun a course or principle of action adopted or proposed by a government, party, business or individual: It is not company policy to dispense with our older workers. polythene noun a strong light plastic used to make bags or sheets for covering food, small containers, etc.: Their roots are in a little polythene bag with some soil and they look pretty dormant. portray verb to describe or represent something or someone in a work of art or literature: The author wanted to portray a new type of hero. potential adjective having or showing the capacity to become or develop into something in the future: It would seem that there are two ends in potential conflict. potential impact noun possible influence: He talked about the potential impact of climate change on world food supply. preference noun a greater liking for one alternative over another: a preference for long walks and tennis over jogging

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prestige adjective something of high quality that people respect you for: he has always been interested in upkeeping the prestige of his family. prevent verb to keep something from happening or arising: Action must be taken to prevent accidents. prestige adjective denoting something that arouses such respect or admiration: He played tiny roles in prestige films. process noun a series of actions or steps taken in order to achieve a particular end: They developed a new canning process. production noun the process of making or growing things to be sold, esp. in large quantities: By September, the new engine was in production. profit margin noun the difference between the cost of producing something and the price at which you sell it: The company’s profit margin was going down. promotion noun the activity intended to help sell a product, or the product that is being promoted: The winter sales promotion will start next week. provision noun an amount or thing supplied or provided: Our company offers childcare provision to staff with children up to the age of five years old. public relations noun the state of the relationship between the public and a company or other organisations: Every company should have a public relations office. purchase verb to buy something: You can purchase an insurance policy online.

R radio waves noun a form of electric energy that can move through air or space: There is a treatment which uses radio waves to heat up the cancer cells until they are killed off. rapidly adverb happening in a short period of time or at a fast pace: The country’s economy is declining rapidly. ratio noun a relationship between two amounts, represented by a pair of numbers showing how much bigger one amount is than the other: The ratio of nursing staff to doctors is 2 to 1. rationally adverb logically or reasonably: Think rationally. Raytheon’s XOS 2 Exoskeleton noun a robotic suit that allows the user to lift 200 pounds hundreds of times without exhaustion: Raytheon’s XOS 2 Exoskeleton has been named one of the best inventions of 2010. readership noun the readers of a newspaper, magazine or book regarded collectively: It has a readership of 100 million. realistic adjective having or showing a sensible and practical idea of what can be achieved or expected: Jobs are scarce at the moment, so you’ve got to be realistic. recent adjective having happened or begun not long ago: The situation has improved in recent years. recurring adjective occurring periodically or repeatedly: Nature is a recurring theme in the poetry of the Romantics.

purchase noun something you buy, or the act of buying it: She paid for her purchases and left.

reduce verb make smaller or less in amount, degree or size: The helmet law should reduce injuries in motorcycle accidents.

pursuit noun search for something in a determined way: The journalist is writing many articles in pursuit of various social objectives.

reject verb to refuse to agree to a request: The proposal was rejected by the comittee..

Q questionnaire noun a set of printed or written questions with a choice of answers, devised for the purposes of a survey or statistical study: The study will consist of a large scale questionnaire. quota noun an official limit on the number or amount of something that is allowed in a particular period: The government has imposed quotas on the export of timber.

relational marketing noun promotional and selling activities aimed at developing and managing trusting and long-term relationships with larger customers: Companies are turning to relational marketing in order to develop more creative and cost-effective strategies. reliable adjective can be trusted or depended on: He is a reliable man. report noun a spoken or written description of an event or situation: He gave a report on his sales trip to Korea.


representative noun someone who speaks officially on behalf of a company, organisation or group of people: Every one of our elected representatives had to make their choice. request verb to politely ask someone to do something: The items I requested aren’t available at the moment. resource noun 1 something such as useful land or minerals that exist in a country and can be used to increase its wealth: Our country is rich in natural resources. 2 a stock or supply of money, materials, staff and other assets that can be drawn on by a person or organisation in order to function effectively: Local authorities complained that they lacked resources. 3 something such as a book, film or picture used by teachers or students to provide information: This book is a good resource about commerce. restock verb to stock again: Stock up on Saturday, restock on the next Saturday and hope everything keeps well through the week. restriction noun a rule or law that limits or controls what people can do: The law imposed new financial restrictions on private companies. retail noun the sale of goods in shops to customers for their own use and not for selling to anyone else: He is a manager with twenty years of experience in the retail business. retain verb to continue to have: You have the right to retain possession of the goods. return noun the amount of profit that you get from something: Markets are showing extremely poor returns. revenue noun money that a business or organisation receives over a period of time, esp. from selling goods or services: This new project will increase revenues for website publishers. revolutionary adjective completely new and different, esp. in a way that leads to great improvements: The new cancer medicine is a revolutionary breakthrough. rival noun person or thing competing with another for the same objective or for superiority in the same field of activity: He has no serious rival for the job. roll verb to move over a surface smoothly without stopping: Tears rolled down her cheeks.

route noun a way or course taken in getting from a starting point to a destination: Our route was via Europe. routine noun a sequence of actions regularly followed; a fixed programme: I settled down into a routine of work and sleep. rugged adjective strongly built and not likely to break easily: It is rolled up and shipped in a rugged mailing tube. run verb to be in charge of or to manage something: She runs her own business. rural adjective happening in or relating to the countryside, not the city: She lives in a remote rural area. S safeguard verb to protect something from harm or damage: The industry has a duty to safeguard the interest of consumers. sales analysis noun the determination of the extent to which a sales force has met its sales objectives within the specified timeframe: The sales analysis shows a significant increase in revenue. sales & marketing expenses noun wages, salaries and commissions for a company’s sales and marketing personnel: We should monitor our sales and marketing expenses. sales costs noun expenses directly related to creating the goods or services being sold: Gross profits will be as much as 90% of the sales cost. sales revenue noun the amount of money from customers for the sale of goods and services during a period of time: Generate new sales revenue by extending one of the most secure, wellmanaged and cost-effective platforms in the industry. sales target noun the amount of sales a sales representative is expected to achieve: The movie was a potential sales target at the festival, where it won the award for best screenplay. scheduled adjective included in or planned according to a schedule: The bus makes one scheduled thirty-minute stop. scoot verb to move quickly and suddenly: The bugs that scoot along the water surface are not spiders.

scratched adjective having small cuts or marks on something by pulling something sharp across it: Did you photograph the scratched car before leaving the accident scene? sealed adjective closed so that they can only be read by a certian person or a certain time: He folded the sealed envelope and walked to the mailbox. seasonal adjective happening, expected or needed during a particular season: Although it was hot, the city was drenched in seasonal rains. sector noun an area or portion that is distinct from others: I believe they should share some of the economic strife that the private sector is living. seek verb to try to achieve or get something: The painter tries to seek perfection in his paintings. segment noun each of the parts into which something is or may be divided: The hotel industry’s luxury segment is rebounding faster than the overall hotel market. service noun a particular type of help or work that is provided by a business to customers, but not one that involves producing goods: A wide range of financial services are provided. setup noun the way in which an organisation or equipment is organised, planned or arranged: Would you feel comfortable in a teamteaching setup? shipment noun a load of goods sent by sea, road or air; or the act of sending them: The goods are ready for shipment. shrink-wrap noun clinging transparent plastic film used to enclose an article as packaging: The most commonly used shrink-wrap is polyolefin. simultaneously adverb occurring, operating or being done at the same time: Two letters arrived simultaneously from the library. siren noun a device that makes a loud prolonged sound as a signal or warning: A police siren chimed as the car sped past below my window. situate verb to fix or build something in a certain place or position: The pilot light is usually situated on the right of the front of the boiler. skid noun a set of wooden rollers used for moving a log or other heavy object: The earliest skid was patened in 1924.

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slight adjective small in degree; inconsiderable: The chance of success is very slight. slip noun a minor or careless mistake: The judge made a slip in his summing up. slogan noun a short and striking or memorable phrase used in advertising: They designed a slogan for their new product. soft goods noun textiles or clothing and related merchandise: The new shop sells original soft goods. sole adjective one and only: My sole aim was to contribute to the national team. solid adjective dependable: You can rely on Samer for good solid advice. species noun group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding: In a small space, a particular species of jellyfish goes to the bottom of the tank and just sits. specific adjective precise and clear in making statements or issuing instructions: When ordering goods, be specific. spoil verb to diminish or destroy the value or quality of: I wouldn’t want to spoil your fun. staff noun all the people employed by a particular organisation: The entire staff has done an outstanding job this year. stained adjective carrying a mark on something, esp. one that cannot be removed, or to be marked in this way: Mix one cup of white vinegar with two cups of water and apply it to the stained carpet area. stain-repellent adjective an agent that is applied to an object’s surface which primarily acts as a water repellent: Use stain-repellent spray to protect your fabrics. stakeholder noun a person with an interest or concern in something, esp. a business: We bring key stakeholders together in a workshop event. statement noun a document setting out items of debit and credit between a bank or other organisation and a customer: This statement is an interesting one for several reasons. status noun a situation at a particular time, esp. in an argument, discussion, etc.: What is the status of the commercial treaty?

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steam engine noun an engine that uses the expansion or rapid condensation of steam to generate power: Steam engines were first invented in 1705. stimulate verb to encourage development of or increased activity in a state or process: We need innovative mechanisms to stimulate the economy. strategy noun a plan of action or policy designed to achieve a major or overall aim: It’s time to develop a coherent economic strategy. storage room noun room where goods are stored: He’d found it in an old toolbox in the rear storage room of his TV repair shop. sufficient adjective enough or adequate: They had sufficient resources to survive. suit noun a set of clothes to be worn on a particular occasion or for a particular activity: My mum bought me a new jogging suit. summary lead noun the traditional journalism tool used to start off most hard news stories: This lecture examines the development of summary lead in traditional news. supplier noun a resource from which a person or place can be provided with the necessary amount of that resource: His company is the largest supplier of office equipment. survey noun a set of questions that you ask a large number of people in order to find out about their opinions or record their behaviour: The survey showed that Britain’s trees are in good health. systematic adjective organised carefully and done thoroughly: You have to develop a systematic way for organising your work. T tabloid noun a newspaper having pages half the size of those of a standard newspaper, typically popular in style and dominated by headlines, photographs and sensational stories: I only read the tabloids at weekends. tangible adjective clear and definite; real: The emphasis is now on tangible results. tanker noun a ship, road vehicle or aircraft for carrying liquids, esp. petroleum, in bulk: Tankers used for liquid fuels are classified according to their capacity.

target noun 1 a person, object or place that constitutes the aim of something: The advertisement was designed for a specific target audience. 2 something that you are trying to achieve: Higher degrees in English are a target for foreign students. target audience noun a limited group, area etc that a plan, idea etc is aimed at: Our target audience is men aged between 18 and 35. target market noun a group of people whose needs and preferences match the product range of a company and to whom those products are marketed: Our department store has a target market consisting of consumers under the age of 30. tariff noun a tax or duty to be paid on a particular class of imports or exports: The government may impose tariffs on imports. tax noun an amount of money that you have to pay to the government according to your income, property, goods, etc. and that is used to pay for public services: He already pays 40% tax on his income. telecom noun abbreviation of telecommunications; communication over distance by cable, telegraph, telephone or broadcasting: Our vision is to become the best in the Telecom World. textile noun type of clothing or woven fabric: This shop has a fascinating range of textiles. titanium dioxide noun a white non-reactive solid that occurs naturally and is used extensively as a white pigment: Titanium dioxide is often used to whiten skimmed milk. three-dimensional adjective having or appearing to have length, breadth and depth: This new software has a new graphics engine, which will make charts appear more three-dimensional. tolerate verb to accept or endure someone or something unpleasant or disliked with forbearance: How was it that she could tolerate such noise? tonnage noun the size or carrying capacity of a ship measured in tons: If the amount of tonnage doesn’t meet cost obligations, they have to make up the difference. track verb to record or study the behaviour or development of someone or something over time: The progress of each student is tracked by a computer.


trade noun the action of buying and selling goods and services: There has been a marked increase in trade between East and West. trader noun a person who buys and sells goods, currency or stocks: Her father is a small trader who sells hats in Aleppo. tramp noun a cargo vessel that carries goods among many different ports rather than sailing a fixed route: The tramp operates without a schedule. transit noun the carrying of people, goods, or materials from one place to another: A painting was damaged in transit. transport verb to take goods from one place to another in a vehicle: The statue was transported to Damascus. Tread-Walk noun kinematic walking new vehicle with active velocity control of treadmill: The walking patterns of a Tread-Walk is different from the treadmill’s. trend noun a general direction in which something is developing or changing: The current trend is towards more part-time employment. turbulent adjective characterised by conflict, disorder or confusion: He has had a turbulent career. turnover noun the amount of money taken by a business in a particular period: The annual turnover of the previous year has increased by 20%. U undertake verb to commit oneself to and begin an enterprise or responsibility: A firm of builders undertook the construction work. United Nations (UN) noun an international organisation of countries set up in succession to the League of Nations, to promote international peace, security and cooperation: The United Nations was set up in 1945.

unpredictable adjective not able to be predicted or known: He is emotional and unpredictable.

visual adjective related to seeing or sight: Artists translate their ideas into visual images.

up selling noun a sales strategy where the seller will provide opportunities to purchase related products or services, often for the purpose of making a larger sale: When planning your up selling strategy, think about your customers and what exactly would make them want to add on to their planned order.

Visually Impaired Assistant (VIA) noun a device aiming to help people who can’t see find a simpler way to get around: Designer Noam Klopper has introduced the Visually Impaired Assistant (VIA).

up-to-date adjective incorporating the latest developments and trends: They built a new, modern and up-to-date hospital. utilise verb to use something for a particular purpose: We must analyse how best to utilise what resources we have. V vaccine noun a substance which contains a weak form of the bacteria or virus that causes a disease and is used to protect people from that disease: The doctors were worried that there would not be enough vaccine for everyone who needed it. variety noun a number or range of things of the same general class that are different or distinct in character or quality: The centre offers a variety of leisure activities. verify verb to make sure or demonstrate that something is true, accurate or justified: His conclusions have been verified by later experiments.

W warehouse noun a large building for storing large quantities of goods: Our warehouse is eight or ten kilometres out of town. wholesale noun the business of selling goods in large quantities at low prices to other businesses, rather than to the general public: He established his own business and began to sell wholesale to shops. wireless adjective related to computer networking, broadcasting, telephony or telegraphy using radio signals: Be ready for the next platform in wireless connectivity with the integrated quad-mode Wi-Fi chip. World Trade Organisation noun an international body founded in 1995 to promote international trade and economic development by reducing tariffs and other restrictions: The World Trade Organisation (WTO) has the principle of a free market at its heart.

vessel noun a ship or large boat: All vessels should be registered including those in private marinas. via preposition by means of: I sent you the file via electronic mail. vibrancy noun full of energy and enthusiasm: You can’t fail to be impressed by the musical vibrancy of contemporary London.

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) noun UN specialised agency helping developing countries and countries with economies in transition in their fight against marginalisation: United Nations Industrial Development Organisation assists public and private stakeholders.

vicious adjective very unkind in a way that is intended to hurt someone’s feelings or make their character seem bad: She can be quite vicious at times.

unload verb to remove a certain load from any of the known means of transportation: The driver unloaded some boxes from the back of the truck.

visibility noun the state of being able to see or be seen: Visibility on the roads is down to 10 metres due to heavy fog.

video editing noun the process of manipulating and rearranging video shots to create a new work: Video editing can be done at home.

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‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬

322 Old Brompton Road, London SW5 9JH, England Maktabat El Nashr El Tarbawi El Souri (Syrian Educational Publishers) Omar El Mukhtar 2nd Str., Bldg. 6 El Mazraa, Damascus-Syria Phone: (011) 44676789 Fax: (011) 44676788 e-mail: info@syrianep.com website: www.syrianep.com © York Press 2011 All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the Publishers.

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English for Starters, Vocational Stream – Commercial

English for Starters, Vocational Stream – Commercial, is an English language course that was specially written for vocational / commercial secondary schools in Syria. The course progresses from an intermediate level of English in Grade 10 to an advanced level of English in Grade 12. The book introduces students to concepts in commerce; it assumes no prior knowledge of commercial skills on the part of students and teachers. The course aims to review and consolidate the language and skills learnt at previous levels and equip students for their future foreign language needs in the following areas: language skills (reading, listening, speaking and writing), grammar, vocabulary and commercial knowledge. It enables students to perform routine tasks at work and to take part in social interaction in a commercial context. Components: Students’ Book Activity Book including a glossary Teacher’s Book Audio CD

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EFS 12 Commercial AB