DIGITAL DESIGN + FABRICATION SM1, 2017 3S
Su GU (815638) Matthew Greenwood + Group 8
Contents 1.0 Ideation 2.0 Design 3.0 Fabricaiton 4.0 Reflection 5.0 Appendix 6.0 Bibliography
1.1 Object 1.2 Object + System Analysis 1.3 Sketch design proposal
1.0 Ideation 1.1 Object
Digital Modelling 3070mm
1. Build up from the measured drawings and assemblage diagram, command “Polyline ” is chosen to draw the outlines of every piece. Then use “Extrude Planner Curve” command to make closed extrusions .
After being carefully scanned and photographed on a flat plane with scale ruler by the side, the moose head model is traced by hand. Dimensions are measured by scale ruler while tracing. For a better understanding of the relationships among each elements, the real model is also hold aside. By comprising photographs and real model, accurate drawings can be achieved.
2. Assembly the digital model by interlocking two exact pieces that match. Commands “Gumball”, “Osnap” which help movie pieces from point to point contribute to an accurate assembly.
1.0 Ideation 1.2 Object + System Analysis
This model is assembled as a waffle system. It stands up from a 2D board (show below) to a 3D model by interlocking 26 separate prices altogether. Separate flat pieces are slotted perpendicular to each other, therefore they can stand in a flat platform rigidly. Like most of the section and profile system, this model is self-supported. It can be joined without glue, although glue can help a firmer fix.
Slotting and interlocking two pieces which are with the same number (e.g. 28 to 28, 1 to 1).
Pieces of different sizes and spacing.
Different spacing between interlocking gaps produce shadows and volume to the model. Similar pieces in various sizes also create depth to the model when lied up.
1.0 Ideation 1.3 Volumn Sketch Model
This model is reconfigured by using the same material as the Moose head model. Similarly, interlocking technique is applied in the Section and Profile system to make a 2D section to a 3D model. It is noticed that two kits which are intersected along the gaps can create stronger structure than those do not. Moreover, by practicing the same interlocking technique by another material, Basel wood, which is thinner and softer, it is find that it is easier to form an angle while intersecting------The thickness and quality of a material can also effect the way to form volume.
1.0 Ideation 1.4 Sketch Design Proposal
Sketch design 1
Sketch design 2
Sketch design 3
Instead of thinking about the defensive reaction that personal space can bring to people, a sense of chaining can also be felt. Personal space not only poisoned people into their own space but restricts and keeps others close or away to themselves. This design is focus on this kind of feeling, using the chainedlike pattern wrapping around human body to actually show this limitations.
According to Sommer (1969), head and the space in front of human body is the most sensitive space. This design visually shows the personal space in those particular areas. The idea comes from the shelters in the real life. Slim repetitive curve ties interlock one another to form a radiated structure. It create an enclosure space around human body, like the shelter which provide people a sense of security.
According to readings (Sommer, 1969), personal space is invisible in the real life, however, when it is invaded, strong actions will be taken to defend people themselves. This design inspired by the studied object, moose horns. They act as a protection for moose when it feels dangerous. The horn it self can actually attack the invaders. This design consists of two parts: the pointed â€œhornsâ€? (can be stored to the back) and back storage. Once the person feels dangerous and comfortable, This horn will be released to warn others. It also act like a claim and sign for personal dominant.
M1 Reflection In this module, Moose Head model, which is of section and profile system, is measured and analysed while practising hand drawing and digital techniques at the same time. As emphasised in Heath’s book (2000), measured drawings is an efficient way to understand objects’ physical properties and the logical relationships inside. By observations and drawings, I get to know the typical characteristics and qualities of my system. It also provides me with a chance to practice drawing skills and teach me how to represent a design in an informative and formal way (Plans, Sections, Elevations). Moreover, by learning basic commands in Cheng’s book (2008), I start to build up a model by digital tools. I found that the command “move”, will help move objects accurately from point to point, which is very useful when assembling. Numerous design ideas are also encouraged after studying the personal space through readings. According to readings, personal space is invisible in real life, however, when it is invaded, strong actions will be taken to defend people themselves (Sommer, 1969). Therefore, in my sketch design, I explore ways to claim people’s dominance of their personal space and how the distance between “invaders” and people can be defined by moving pieces. I also come up with a new idea of the chaining feeling personal space will bring to us. However, the designs haven’t tightly followed the characteristics of section and profile system. Therefore, in the further design, I should not only focus on the ideas about how to represent ideas about personal space, but how my material system can sit naturally and tightly within my concepts.
2.1 Deisgn Agenda & Personal Space Analysis 2.2 ÂDesign development intro 2.3 Digitization + Design proposal v.1.1 2.4 Digitization + Design proposal v.1.2 2.5 Precedent research 2.6 Design proposal v.2.1 2.7 Design proposal v.2.2 2.8 Prototype v.1+ Testing Effects
Team Member: Ho Lam LEUNG Yilan ZHAO Su GU
2.0 Design 2.1 Design Agenda & Personal Space Analysis Based on the personal space diagram we got, the analysis summary is as followed. Problem to be addressed: 1. Extra protection measures are required for the right shoulder part. 2. Some preventions have to be done in the facial part to lower the impacts by sunlight and strangers’ vision. Area to be focused: Upper body, especially for the right shoulder and the face
In our daily life, we get used to comprehend surroundings by our five senses. Imagine how our life changes if some of them are restricted… Condition: At a smoggy dawn, the street is crowd of pedestrians, who are on the way back to work. Impact: - People are difficult to identify what’s happening in front of them due to low visibility. - The refracted sunlight may project on pedestrians’ face and dazzle their eyes. Issue: - High possibility of collisions between pedestrians - Uncomfortable feeling of eyes Keywords: Smog, Sunlight, Sights, Sounds, Collusion, Dazzling
Target Person Specs
- The right part of our body have a larger area of personal space, because our subconsciousness intends to explore uncertainty and handle stuffs with preferable and stronger side.
- At stationary position, our personal space is almost a sphere in shape, as people are highly aware to any invasion from any direction, especially for our upper body.
- The personal space around shoulder is comparatively big, as it is the most possibly to get hurt by collision.
2.0 Design 2.2 Design Development Intro
Refined Sketch Model
Sketch Design 1 -
Sketch Design 2 -
Sketch Design 3 -
Top Body Form
Sketch Model from M1
For this refined sketch model, we made several modifications based on the sketch model from M1. In terms of material, drawing paper was used to replace the normal white paper. It keeps the advantages in the flexibility and lightweight of its structure. And at the same time, the material and strucutral integrityis improved, so the negative influences by deformation can be lower subsequently. Moreover, we use strips in various shapes to form this reconfigured network structure in profolio and section system. It retains some 3-dimensionality for our further design and simulates a curvy surface fitting in the body landscape.
This refined sketch design is developed by several combination of previous practices. After careful reconsideration, we highlight one of the design features, that is, having a wrapping structure to represent the concept of personal space. In order to present this idea in section and profile material system, interlocking techniques are derived from previous researches. Curvy continuous tiles are chosen to symbolize the strong sense of protection of the body. Pattern
2.0 Design 2.3 Digitization + Design proposal v 1.1
In this version of proposed design, we modified our design from the refined sketch design development in previous section. Taking the curvy continuous tiles as a base, the focus of this design was shifted from whole body to upper body only.
With referring to the research images shown in the left, we first created a wrapping chain prototype from shoulders upon to hindbrain. This form is also coincident to our findings from personal space analysis. It not only functions as a protective gear to prevent harms due to smog atmosphere, but also gives a sense of self-security for people in such uncertain surrounding. Moreover, the right shoulder is emphasized for extra protection.
2.0 Design 2.4 Digitization + Design proposal v 1.2
After repeated revises, a mask-structure was added into the design, to replace the chain at the hindbrain. The major reason behind is that part of model doesnâ€™t perform a significant effects on neither physical nor psychological personal space. Furthermore, its weight creates a torque moment to the whole model, which may cause uncomfortability to the person. This mask is designed as the extension of the shoulder part. Because of the net shape from the section and proflie system, it can effectively diffuse the reflected and refracted sunlight due to heavy smog, as well as keep away from some dirty dusts in surrounding. In emotion wise, it provides a defense of privacy and a sense of elegance for person walking in public. Left
Details of Mask
2.0 Design Precedent applied to design
2.5 Precedent Research
Fence, Sturdy Veil, Varied And Partial Views, Knot Holes, Milling Patterns
Inspired by the visual effect from the precedent, we take the technique of assembling by two layers of different shape. 1. 2.
Repetitive systemetric tiles Organic curvy panels
1st Layer: Equally lined aluminium sheet 2nd Layer: Wood grain pattern with knots
Two layers that assembled by repetitive tiles can be less interesting.
Viewed frontly: effect can be seen through the tiles
In this precedent, section and profile system are applied by two layers interlocking vertically. It creates interesting changeable views. People can see through this fence when it is viewed frontally, while when viewed obliquely, things will be blocked by the large veil. However, lights can all pass through in different situation, which will produce fascinating optical illusion effect.
The technique of optical effects, exported from the precedent, will be adopted to our two-layers model design. This unique and impressive feature can only be achieved in section and profile system.
Viewed obliquely: effect are blocked by
2.0 Design 2.6 Design proposal V2.1
Interior of Mask
Based on the insights we got from the previous precedent section, we get two main aspects to integrate our design. First is highlighting the hearing sense by adding an exaggerated abstract â€˜curvy-earâ€™ at the right-back. Its form, inspired by hoodie, interlocked in sections can effectively enhance the hearing capability. The reason why we did in this way is that, hearing will become the most important sense to be taken when sight is restricted in smoggy environment. Second is making a movable mask over right face, which can make a difference in hearing status before and after blocked sight. As we want attempte acheiving a similar optical effect shown in the precedent, some plates in various shape are attached to the mask. In such design, the inter-movement of the mask and the cover will create an interesting visual through the interlocking structure.
2.0 Design 2.7 Design proposal V2.2 Face mask: Eyes blocked - blurry sight
Ear exposed in the air
Two separate layers which are moveable, can create optical illusion effect.
Shoulder pad: Ear-like shape which exaggerate the hearing sense.
For this development version, we mainly integrate the back cover structure. After several disccusion, we realized that hoodie structure, the back cover structure in last design, is too heavy and lose the focus and balance point of the exaggerated ‘curvy-ear’. Furthermore, we forsee there is a certain degree of difficulty in fabrication and that part will have low structure integrety.
Because of the above reasons, we move our focus to pay more concentration on the display of the interaction between right-side hearing and sight. To maintain the exaggerated ‘curvy-ear’ in a clear, simple and lightsome structure, the new design of cover is built on the original shoulder part. This structure plays a crucial role to support elements and make the mask moveable along the right face as well. Left
Details of Effect
2.0 Design 2.8 Prototype + Testing Effects
2.8 Prototype + Testing Effects Test 2: Testing on material strength in different thickness Issue: 1. How thick can it be self-supported stably? 2. What kind of texture is formed?
Test 4: Testing on how to assembly our designed mask Issue: 1. How the mask will be looked like in real when using two materials of different transparency? Result: It cannot be interlocked or hard to assembled by thin two layer.Transparent material creates interesting light reflection and shadows, but can be more dense. The minimium width of the interlock should be about as thick as this material.
Test 1: Testing on the visual impact of different materials Issue: 1. How much it can blocked? 2. How it looks like both from inside and outside when it is transparent or not? Results: The thicker materal will block more view. Transparent material creates crystal-like filter viewing from inside, while outside is not impressive enough may due to the density.
Test 3: Testing on the interlocking technique Issue: 1. How thick should the sloping slots be to achieve sufficient structural integrity? Result: The minimium width of the interlock should be about as thick as this
M2 Reflection In this module, we first finalised our design agenda and the specific conditions where our design will sit after careful considerations. As addressed in the lectures, the particular brief will contribute to a more detailed design for target users, narrowing down unnecessary ideas which will make our design confusing. Based on the design agenda, we abstracted useful concepts from our M1 sketch models and developed them to a more robust design. We determined to focus on three parts in this projects, which is shoulder, ear and mask. Inspired by the precedents showing in the lectures and readings, we applied optical illusion effects to our mask part, which will make our waffle system differ from the others. Rhino digital modelling is a highly efficient way to build up the overall form of our design digitally before it is built. It saves time, material and energy as forms can be edited and tested straightly on the computer screen. This is a way of abstraction, “an abstraction of reality”, which reduces “the infinite complexity of the real world” (Scheuer and Stehling, 2011). However, digital modelling may be not as efficient as building a physical model as a way to test its physical properties. Therefore, we made prototypes and several models to test different features. It is noticed that interlocking pieces perpendicularly to one another with thick materials will make models stronger. However, as our prototypes had not been manufactured to a concise form, the illusion effects were not strong enough. Moreover, the box board is not the material we will use for the final design. Therefore, this prototype didn’t convince us about whether our structure is stable or not. We should do more testing models at this stage to find out the most suitable material, which is not only buildable but represent our smoggy concept at the same time. Essential parts like how the mask connects to the shoulder and how to move mask to create layering effects should also be tested.
3.1 Fabrication intro 3.2 Design development & Fabrication of prototype v2 3.3 Design development & Fabrication of prototype v3 3.4 Final Prototype development + optimisation 3.5 Final Digital model 3.6 Fabrication sequence 3.7 Assembly Drawing 3.8 Completed 2nd Skin
Team Member: Ho Lam LEUNG Yilan ZHAO Su GU
3.0 Fabrication 3.1 Fabrication Intro How user wear it: the ties on both shoulder allow user wear it stably. The right is use to support the ear part as well.
Details of Mask
After several modifications and integrations of our design in the previous M2 journal, the model was consolidated into three major components - the body part, the ear part and the mask part. Each part is designed in such form to address the issues found in the analysis correspondingly. Moreover, we did some precedent research and extract some techniques of illusions into our waffle system design. These sensory effects were tested in last prototype making section, and prove that some of them are somehow achievable in our latter fabrication. At this stage, we put most of the effort and concentration Prototype and Testing on improving the notching problem between different components.
Apply illusion pattern on the body part as well. The inspiration image shows the sense of flowing, curvy surface. We aim to achieve this effect on the whole body design. Thinking about differeent density of waffle grids, we prefer change both verticle and horizontal sections in different density. The verticle sections transitionally to be denser following the clockwise. Moreover, transitionally being densing emphasize the illusion Development of ear part: as well. Inspirated by the image, the ear part is traditional waffle grids in organic forms. The ear part follows the human ear shape to emphassize the ear function (sense of hearing).
3.0 Fabrication 3.2 Design development & Fabrication of Prototype v2
This developed prototype focus on material and illusion testing. Instead of using thick cardboard like last M2 prototype, semi-transparent polypropylene sheets are practice in this one. Material testing results: 1. Thin lightweight polypropylene sheets can hold the structure in this scale, however, it is not as stable as cardboard. The notching between polypropylene sheets are also swinging. 2. Semi-transparent polypropylene sheets can create better illusion than the previous cardboard one. It especially produces a transcending effect at the edge.
3.0 Fabrication 3.2 Design development & Fabrication of Prototype v3
This developed prototype is a very unsuccesful model. Isometric View
The pp sheets are burnt badly due to unproper laser-cutting. It is noticed that pp sheet will also melt badly if treated badly. Another biggerst probelm we found is that pp sheet cannot be self-surpportedeven in a very dense spacing. They are too soft and unstable that theis model was not constructed at last.
3.0 Fabrication 3.4 Final Prototype Development + Optimisation Reading Responses
Architecture in the Digital Age - Design + Manufacturing/ Branko Kolarevic, Spon Press, London c2003 As we are doing the section and profile system for our project, the technique of two-dimensional fabrication is the most relevant digital fabrication processes to be implied into our model among all other fabrication methods illustrated in the reading. Somehow laser-cutting is a default way of fabrication to make those interlocking members in our design, whilst additive and subtractive fabrication orientate to some solid-based design, which is manifest not our case. We have also considered applying formative fabrication for reshaping the strips into some desired curvy form. However, we decided to forgo this idea at this moment, because our chosen material, polypropylene sheet, has already certain degree of elasticity allowing us to bend it manually into what we want. Moreover, formative fabrication deforms the shapes of members permanently, which may cause some unfavourable outcomes on the material integrity, as well as the whole model structural strength. Before using the laser-cutting, we first build our digital model in Rhinoceros. After the solid form of model is done, we convert it into our section and profile system by using the function of contouring and trimming. Then, we make some notches to those intersections of members for later assembly. Next is to orient all the components onto a same level plane and transform them into 2D line works with respective labeling. Lastly is to fit all of them into the laser cutter template and send it to the Fab Lab ready for fabrication.
As laser-cutting somehow is our default option of fabrication, time spent on considering other fabrication process were eliminated at the very first beginning of designing stage. Thus, we just concentrate on only one fabrication process, the laser-cutting, with deep understanding throughout the whole second skin project. Both surface strategies and production strategies are very useful and influential approaches for building our section and profile model in Rhinoceros. Our prototype models were built aimed to achieve not only our findings from the personal space analysis, but also a natural and organic envelope of our design. Thus, the surface strategies majorly act as the functional and practical purposes of our model. On the other hand, the production strategies influence the structural performance of the design. The text highlights some important steps and techniques on how to transform our design to ready for the laser-cutting fabrication process.
3.0 Fabrication 3.4 Final Prototype Development + Optimisation Material & Effects
The sketch shows the result we want to achieve on the illusion, which the pattern is very organic and elegent.In the color testing, the black one did not make the illusion outstanding. During the fabrication, we designed 4 different kinds of strips pattern to help us figure out which one can make obvious illusion. After testing, we understood if we follow the curves of the strips and interlock them in a systematic way, the illusion will be very obvious. The strips at this moment are not soft enough to create organic form. And the elasticity influence MDF structure (mentioned in the material part).We try make strips softer and curvey.
3.0 Fabrication 3.4 Final Prototype Development + Optimisation
Material & Fabrication
Hard to find and identify each element, and we had to regroup them together (Image from Prototype 3.2).
In fabrication of the 2nd skin model, we clearly label every piece in reqular sequence, and clearly identify each notch. Even on the template of laser cut, we layout every pieces in regular order.
During the fabrication, labeling clearly every pieces is very important. In process of prototype 3.2, we did not label very well. Therefore, we took long time to figure out which is which piece, which notches should be interlocked together. After this prototype, we lable every piece and notches to make sure we can fabricate accurately. When started interlocking strips, we firstly start from the third horizontal section (middle section of body structure). Because, it is the biggsr and widest piece, which can decrease hazard to minimum of cracking. Lastly, traming the strips.Using scissor to cut the exredundant strips, to reduse the weight and make illusion nice and clean.
3.0 Fabrication 3.4 Final Prototype Development + Optimisation
Material & Usage
Hot water: Try to make polypropylene softer and control the curves of these strips to reduse the elasticity of it.
After we interlocked most of the PP, the toppest and second MDF sections was broken by the tension of the polypropylene. Becouse we aim to design curvey patterns on the illusion. The elasticity of PP strips is too strong.
Another problem is the notches on the horizontal MDF section and the notches for polypropylene strips are so close that make MDF much easiewr to crack. We realised that PP cant be the structure of the whole design. So we decided to use MDF as our structure and PP strips are the substructure. On MDF there are a large amount of notches arranged by the horizotal sections (MDF). The PP strips will interlocked in these looped notches.
Therefore, in the final design, we changed the width of the horizontal sections to larger and the size of notches between the shoulder tiesâ€™ and the stripsâ€™.
3.0 Fabrication 3.5 Final Design Model
Isometric View of the Whole MDF structure
Isometric View of the Whole PP Sheet structure Subject to be changed by the illusion effect
3.0 Fabrication 3.6 Final Prototype Development + Optimisation Fabrication Sequences
1. Start building the model in Rhino into our desired outlook, which corresponds to the analysis result done before.
9. At the same time, the ear part were also under assemblege
2. Convert the design into section and profile system with the function of ‘Split’, ‘Trim’, ‘Boolean Difference’, etc.
3. Use the command ‘Intersect’ to mark the joints of different components , and make notches correspondingly using ‘BooleanDifference’
4. Re-orientate all components onto a XY plane and Make2D
5. Orangize them into a Laser Cutting template and make some labels for identification in assemblge process.
6. Send the file to FabLab and ready for lasercutting.
7. Pick out the required parts and make the8. Assemble the body structure part of the notches are clear enough for assemblege model, which is the MDF framework first, with referring to the labels on the components.
10. Connect the body and ear MDF structure together
11. Take out the pp strips one by one and rearrange them into an order based on their curvature.
12. Form the spiral structure of the ear with the polypropene shrips interlocking its three structural loops.
13. Insert the polypropene shrips into those gaps arrayed along the edge of the thirdlevel MDF.
14. Insert the rest of them to achive the illusion 15. Finish! effect.
3.0 Fabrication 3.7 Assembly Drawing
3.0 Fabrication 3.8 Completed 2nd Skin
Front View Front View
Ear Part Detaoil
M3 Reflection In this module, we began to present our design from digital to physical, which is one of my favourite parts of this subject. As noticed in Kolarevic’s book, Architecture in the Digital Age/ Design and Manufacturing (2013), we are at the time when digital design fabrications developed dramatically. We are no longer limited to project works in the traditional way worrying about achieving the construction in reality. The more complex model can be realised quickly from digital data to accurate physical model without significantly affect fabrication realisation (Kolareivc, 2013). These can be achieved in various ways including digital fabrication methods including laser-cutting, CNN and Roberts. We choose laser-cutting for this project as it is the most suitable method regarding time limitation, techniques and materials. This provides us with a lot of possibilities to achieve our imagination when designing our second skin. Detailed and complicated parts of our design (for example, notching of a body part) cannot be performed accurately for a more precise interlocking without accurate digital drawing. However, numerous problems occurred when translating digital design to the physical model, which corroborates “the uncertainty in the making” (Charny, 2012). Making physical models will reveal lots of problems that cannot be shown digitally. Nevertheless, through various experiments and testing, we learn to “experimenting and thinking by making” (Charny,2012). For example, we changed our material use from polypropylene sheets to a combination of MDF and polypropylene after failing to construct our model as it is not self-supported even in a dense spacing. We understand the importance of the quality of digital fabrication machine (laser-cutting in particular) after seeing burnt polypropylene sheet of our second prototypes. We changed the way to arrange polypropylene sheets on the body to make stronger illusion effects after countless testing. The processes of making become a knowledge and intelligence creation (Charny,2012) and we can make finer models every time as we were more experienced and skilful.
4.0 Reflection Before studying Digital Design and fabrication, I have never fully engaged in a digital design process from the beginning to the end. When I looked back to this whole semester, it is quite challenging and intensive. However, I believe that I made great progress during this entire semester in various ways. First, I got the chance to understand my material system (section and profile system) deeply. The fascinating characteristic of this system is that it can realise surface (aesthetic envelope) and structure (supportive elements) simultaneously. Besides, I learned to study physical quality and relationships inside an object by careful observation, recreation and representations (by hand or digital modelling). This process of learning will be practised continuously into my further studying. Second, the design process also teaches me how to nourish a more mature design. The most important thing I learnt from our second skin design is only focusing on one or two ideas then pushing it to an extreme. We picked up and changed too many plans and ideas in every module. Therefore, we lost the chance and time to think about an idea deeply and to apply it properly in our particular situation. For example, we studied about the illusion in M2 fence precedent but didn’t fulfil it into our final design as too many other illusion effects caught our eyes. Instead of designing three segments, we should focus on only one part (ear, shoulder or mask) to study thoroughly about its optical effects and structural properties, as some of our segments still looked “unfinished” without profound engaging at last. Pumping with various ideas is exciting, however, learning how to abandon less relevant information and narrowing down ideas through developments is crucial------this will help condense to a cleaner design. Also, receiving opinions and recommendations from others especially tutors is a very efficient way of learning. Critically finding problems and seeking solutions is also very significant during design. Third, regarding digital fabrication, digital tools primarily Rhino is practised throughout the whole process, by which we developed the final design. However, when translated the digital model to a physical one, I noticed the design risk Marble mentioned in Building the Future: Recasting Labor in Architecture (2008). He pointed out the connections between digital design, and physical fabrication tends to be so loose nowadays that there are gaps in between, creating difficulties in construction for builders and fabricators (Marble, 2008). This happened to us as well. For example, we designed our mask part connecting to the shoulder pad and expected it to be movable at the same time. This moving form can be somehow achieved digitally by adding slotting connections. However, when it comes to fabrication, it is so difficult to construct within our system that we gave up at the end. Although it is encouraged to be creative without thinking about the buildability, it would be more practical if we think about the possibilities of constructions in the further development. Equally importantly, teamwork is a critical part in this course. I learned a lot of skills from my teammates and understood that a satisfying result could only be reached by taking the most advantage of everyone’s strengths and combined them smoothly altogether. Communication is the most important thing among group work. It will cause misunderstanding among one another if ideas have not been presented clearly.
4.0 Appendix 5.1 Credit
5.0 Bibliography Charny, D. 2011. Power of Making : The importance of Being skilled, London: V&A publ. Cheng, R. 2008. Inside Rhinoceros 4 / Ron K.C. Cheng. Clifton Park, NY : Thomson/Delmar Learning, c2008. Heath, A., Heath, D., & Jensen, A. (2000). 300 years of industrial design : function, form, technique, 1700 2000 / Adrian Heath, Ditte Heath, Aage Lund Jensen. New York : Watson Guptill. Kolarevic, B 2003, Architecture in the Digital Age Design and Manufacturing /Branko Kolarevic. Spon Press, London Marble, S, 2008. Building the Future: Recasting Labor in Architecture/ Philip Bernstein, Peggy Deamer. Princeton Architectural Press. pp 38-42 Sommer, R. 1969. Personal space : the behavioral basis of design / Robert Sommer. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Prentice Hall, c1969.A Scheurer, F. and Stehling, H. _2011_: Lost in Parameter Space? IAD: Architectural Design, Wiley, 81 _4_, July, pp. 70-79