Page 1

Learning Approaches Supaporn Jaisook, Somyot Chitmongkol and Sumlee Thongthew A Community of Innovation: Technological Driven System Based on Participatory Rural Appraisal and Design Thinking Approach Papinya Thongsomjit, Jaitip Na-songkhla and Siriwan Silapacharanan

Some Problems of Slab Box Stones at Ban Wang Prachop, Tak Province Pipad Krajaejun

Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

A Mathematics Instructional Model by Integrating Problem-Based Learning and Collaborative

Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts Volume 13 Number 2 (July-December) 2013 Task-Based Learning Approach Emphasizing Associative Memory Techniques for Chinese Character Recognition and Reading Narinchai Haphuriwat, Sumlee Thongthew, Suree Choonharuangdej and Prannapha Modehiran Digital Modeling of Buddha Sculptures Sawitree Wisetchat A Study of Language and Culture of “” (feces) of Lao-Wiang in Nong Kop Subdistrict, Ban Pong District, Ratchaburi Province Samiththicha Pumma

Book Review William J. Jones

Volume 13 Number 2 (July-December) 2013

www.surdi.su.ac.th, www.journal.su.ac.th, www.tci-thaijo.org /index.php/sujsha/index

Relationship between Religiosity and Prosocial Behavior of Thai Youth Sukhonta Mahaarcha and Sirinan Kittisuksathit The Effect of Virtual Distance on Determinants of Work and Organizational Commitment Puckpimon Singhapong Buddhist Sects in Lān Nā from the Reign of King Tilōk to that of Phayā Käo (1441-1525): Studies of Dated Bronze Buddha Images in Chiang Mai Surasawasdi Sooksawasdi L1 Use with University Students in Thailand: A Facilitating Tool or a Language Barrier in Learning English? Napapat Thongwichit Characteristics of Culture in Thai Society and Virtual Communities Kumpol Buriyameathagul

ISSN 1513-4717


Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

Copyright All rights reserved. Apart from citations for the purposes of research, private study, or criticism and review, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any other forms without prior written permission by the publisher. Published by Silpakorn University Printing House. Silpakorn University, Sanamchandra Palace Campus, Nakhon Pathom 73000

ŠSillpakorn University ISSN 1513-4717


Editorial Advisory Board

Silpakorn University Journal of

Emeritus Prof. Chetana Nagavajara, Ph.D. Social Sciences, Humanities, and Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Anthropology Centre, Arts is published in June by Thailand Silpakorn University. The journal Prof. Santi Leksukhum, Ph.D. features articles and research notes/ Department of Art History, Faculty of Archaeology, articles in the fields of Art and Silpakorn University, Thailand Design and the Social Sciences and Emeritus Prof. Kusuma Raksamani, Ph.D. Humanities. Its aim is to encourage Department of Oriental Languages, Faculty of Archaeology, a n d d i s s e m i n a t e s c h o l a r l y Silpakorn University, Thailand contributions by the University’s Assoc. Prof. Rasmi Shoocongdej, Ph.D. faculty members and researchers. Faculty of Archaeology, Silpakorn University, Thailand Well researched, innovative works Assoc. Prof. Maneepin Phromsuthirak, Ph.D. by other scholars are welcome. A Faculty of Arts, Silpakorn University, Thailand review committee consisting of Prof. Samerchai Poolsuwan, Ph.D. academic experts in the relevant fields Faculty of Sociology & Anthropology, will screen all manuscripts, and the Thammasat University, Thailand editorial board reserves the right Assist. Prof. Wilailak Saraithong, Ph.D. to recommend revision/ alteration, English Department, Faculty of Humanities, if necessary, before their final Chiang Mai University, Thailand acceptance for publication. Assist. Prof. Alice Thienprasert, Ph.D. Director, Silpakorn University Research and Development Institute, Thailand Editor Assoc. Prof. Thanik Lertcharnrit, Ph.D. Faculty of Archaeology, Silpakorn University Editorial Board Asst. Prof. Bamrung Torut, Ph.D. Faculty of Education, Silpakorn University Asst. Prof. Kamonpan Boonkit, Ph.D. Faculty of Arts, Silpakorn University Prof. Miriam Stark, Ph.D. Department of Anthropology, University of Hawaii, USA Assoc. Prof. Peter Smith, Ph.D. International College, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom Assoc. Prof. Matthew Liebmann, Ph.D. Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, USA Assoc. Prof. D. Troy Case, Ph.D. Department of Sociology and Anthropology, North Carolina State University, USA Managing Editor Pranee Vichansvakul All correspondence should be addressed to : Managing editor, 44/114 Soi Phaholyothin 52, Phaholyothin Road, Klongthanon Saimai, Bangkok 10220 Telephone : 080-5996680 Fax : 66-2973-8366 E- mail address : pranee_aon1@hotmail.com Web site : http: //www.journal.su.ac.th and www.surdi.su.ac.th Information about the Journal An electronic journal is accessible on the web sites (http://www.surdi.su.ac.th, www.journal.su.ac.th, and www.tci-thaijo.org /index.php/sujsha/index)


Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts Volume 13 Number 2 (July-December) 2013

Contents Editor’s Note

5

Articles

Task-Based Learning Approach Emphasizing Associative Memory Techniques for Chinese Character Recognition and Reading Narinchai Haphuriwat, Sumlee Thongthew, Suree Choonharuangdej and Prannapha Modehiran

7

Digital Modeling of Buddha Sculptures Sawitree Wisetchat

29

A Study of Language and Culture of “//” (feces) of Lao-Wiang in Nong Kop Subdistrict, Ban Pong District, Ratchaburi Province Samiththicha Pumma

47

Relationship between Religiosity and Prosocial Behavior of Thai Youth Sukhonta Mahaarcha and Sirinan Kittisuksathit

69

The Effect of Virtual Distance on Determinants of Work and Organizational Commitment Puckpimon Singhapong

93


Buddhist Sects in Lān Nā from the Reign of King Tilōk to that of Phayā Käo (1441-1525): Studies of Dated Bronze Buddha Images in Chiang Mai Surasawasdi Sooksawasdi

L1 Use with University Students in Thailand: A Facilitating Tool or a Language Barrier in

149

179

Learning English? Napapat Thongwichit Characteristics of Culture in Thai Society and Virtual Communities Kumpol Buriyameathagul

207

A Mathematics Instructional Model by Integrating Problem-Based Learning and Collaborative Learning Approaches Supaporn Jaisook, Somyot Chitmongkol and Sumlee Thongthew A Community of Innovation: Technological Driven System Based on Participatory Rural Appraisal and Design Thinking Approach Papinya Thongsomjit, Jaitip Na-songkhla

271

and Siriwan Silapacharanan Some Problems of Slab Box Stones at Ban Wang Prachop, Tak Province Pipad Krajaejun

295

​ ook Review ​​B Human Rights and Gender Violence: Translating International Law into Local Justice, by Sally Engle Merry. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006, ISBN: 9780226520742, 264 pages, $27.50 William J. Jones

313

329


Editor’s Note This issue of Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts marks the end of 2013 and is packed with a wide variety articles from varying fields, including education, art history, linguistics, archaeology, cultural studies, and visual arts. We hope this trend will continue next year. As always, as editor, I would like to encourage submission of papers to our journal. Meanwhile, may I express my heartfelt acknowledgements to past, present, and future contributors to our journal, as well as our manuscript reviewers for their constructive comments on the papers.

Till we meet again in 2014! Thanik Lertcharnrit, Editor thanik@su.ac.th

Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts is indexed in the Thai Journal Citation Index Centre (TCI Centre) Database.


Task-Based Learning Approach Emphasizing Associative Memory Techniques for Chinese Character Recognition and Reading Narinchai Haphuriwat, Sumlee Thongthew*, Suree Choonharuangdej and Prannapha Modehiran Faculty of Education, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand * Corresponding author: tsumlee@yahoo.com Abstract This article aims to present a part of an experimental research to develop an intructional model. The purposes of this research were to: 1) develop a Chinese language instructional model based on the Task-Based Learning approach that emphasizes associative memory techniques for Chinese character recognition to enhance reading ability, and 2) evaluate the efficiency of the developed instructional model. This study was conducted in three phases: the first phase was to develop the instructional model; the second phase was to develop the instruments; and the third phrase was to evaluate the efficiency of the model and to develop a conclusion based on the results. The sample of this experiment was of sophomore Chinese majors who were students at the University of Thai Chamber of Commerce and who had difficulties recognizing sounds and meanings of Chinese characters and in reading abilities. The instruments used in this study were a pre-post test, two formative tests, observations, journals, questionnaires and interviews. The findings of the study revealed that the developed instructional model was the model emphasizing interactive activities, raising consciousness of associated characters, having semantic and phonic elements as memory cues, so as to enhance ability to identify characters and words in the texts and to apply reading strategies. The procedure of the developed model were: Step one, Associated characters; Step two, Characters in words and contexts;

Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts Vol. 13(2) : 7-27, 2013


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and Step three, Feedback and reflection. The results of the evaluation of efficiency illustrated that the mean of the post-test scores of Chinese character recognition and reading comprehension ability were higher than that of the pre-test scores at the significance level of .05. Key Words: Task-Based Learning; Associative memory; Chinese Character Recognition

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Introduction One of the major obstacles of learning Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL) is the nonequivalence between listening-speaking and readingwriting competency. This is because certain Chinese scripts are pictographs that require semantic memory to recognize them (Kupfer, 2007: 6-7). In Thailand, reading is also one of the challenges for CFL students, particularly beginners. After taking CFL for one to two years, these students still find reading Chinese a major challenge. Also, one of the concerns among CFL educators is how to enhance reading and writing skills while developing communicative competence (Cui, 2007: VII). In the field of Foreign Language Acquisition (FLA), Task-Based Learning (TBL) has been recognized as one of the approaches that effectively promote learners’ communication skills (Skehan 1998; Willis, 1998; Lee, 2000; Bygate, Skehan, and Swain, 2001; Nunan, 2006), while reading can also be developed through the required reading materials (Willis, 1998; Ellis, 2009). To do so, CFL learners need to be equipped with ample techniques to recognize the Chinese characters to ease their reading development path. Due to the fact that most Chinese characters are of semantic and phonic elements, allowing readers to guess meanings and sounds through associated characters, this study thus makes use of Search of Memory (SAM) model (Raaijmakers and Shiffrin, 1981: 93-134) to help strengthen learners’ character recognition. Its objective is to develop an instructional model based on the TBL approach, while also applying the SAM model to enhance Chinese character recognition and reading ability. Literature Review TBL and FLA Approaches The sociocultural approach views tasks as mediators in social interactions. The key of the sociocultural theory, which tries to answer how learners internalize new language forms and how social interactions affect this internalized process, is mediated mind. Mental activities are mediated and developed through social activities. Learners can internalize through series of social activities that is later modified and reorganized to the next higher order. The process allows learners to exercise conscious control 9


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within mental activities such as attention, planning and problem-solving. The mediation occurs through means, which includes interactions with concrete materials such as tying a knot, interactions with other people, and interactions through language (Vygotsky, 1987). Language development takes place when learners are placed in an environment where they can control their mental activities and thoughts. Mediation in foreign language learning occurs in three circumstances, namely: 1) meaning negotiation by discourse partner; 2) self negotiating by private speech; and 3) meaning negotiation through concrete substance such as tasks. The key is the close relationship between personal interactions and intramental activities (Lantolf, 2000). Based on this hypothesis, learners internalize new language through the use of language forms when interacting with others. This means internalization occurs before the ability to independently apply these skills and knowledge. It occurs when learners are given an opportunity to use new skills while accomplishing certain goals. To do so, learners need to understand the input that includes unknown language forms and produce these forms in a new context. Tasks are viewed as means for cooperative interactions that allow learners to firstly, use the new form and vocabulary through working with others; secondly, participate in the activities utilizing the internalized skills and knowledge to independently complete undemanding tasks; and finally, apply structures of the acquired language in more complex tasks that require cognitive processes (Ellis: 2009, 178). Task Types and Their Features To study the effects of tasks on learning, various types of tasks have been explored (see Ellis, 2009), some of which are demonstrated below: 1. Task types distinguished by outcome: convergent (or closed) & divergent (or open) The outcome of the convergent task is controlled, providing opportunities for learners to use specific language forms and structures to complete tasks. Thus, using language to negotiate meaning is more applicable and meaning negotiation may occur more frequently in the interactions. On the contrary, a divergent or open task allows students to freely express their thoughts; therefore, it is more challenging with a higher cognitive process. Yet if learners find the task too demanding, they may simply complete the 10


Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

task without using much of the language. Studies of effects of convergent and divergent tasks also found effects on input and output. While a convergent task has a positive effect on comprehensible input, a divergent task allows more student output (Duff, 1986). 2. Task types distinguished by input: require information exchange (or split information) & optional information exchange (or shared information) The missing information, or information gap, stimulates learners to use language to seek information to complete the task. On the other hand, the shared-information tasks establish interactions through the exchange of opinions. 3. Task types considered from how much cognitive complexity is required These types of tasks relate to cognitive complexity. Studies on this aspect also include the difficulty of tasks and their effects on meaning negotiation and communication strategies. Table 1 demonstrates task types and their effects on learning. Table 1 Task types and their effects on learning Variables

Types of tasks

Features of tasks & effects on learners

Outcomes

Convergent (closed)

Controlled language forms and structures Intensive use of language to negotiate meaning Positive effect on comprehensible input

Divergent (open)

Free expressions of thought Extensive use of language to negeotiate meaning Positive effect on learners’ output

Shared information

Opinion gap Less control of language forms and patterns

Split information

Information gap More control of language forms and patterns

Creative

Creative mode of cognitive complexity Describing and persuading

Problem solving

Problem-solving mode of cognitive complexity Explaining and reasoning

Input

Cognitive complexity

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TBL Procedures In TBL, learners are provided with opportunities to use language to communicate and develop their use of language that may occur in real life (Skehan, 1998; Nunan, 2006; Willis and Willis, 2007; Ellis, 2009). Using tasks can be either in task-supported or task-based instruction. In tasksupported instruction, tasks are used as a part or parts of class activities to serve certain instructional goals while in TBL, tasks are the center of the learning process. Figure 1 demonstrates components of the TBL framework.

Figure 1 Components of the TBL framework (Willis, 1998)

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Semantic and Phonic Elements of Chinese Characters and Memory Techniques Each Chinese character is represented in three dimensions: graphic, phonic and semantic. Recognizing a Chinese character requires the understanding of the grapheme-phoneme-semanteme (xing, yin and yi) relationships. As 85.62% of all Chinese characters are pictophonetic (xingsheng zi) (Kang, 1993 cited in Li, 2005), many CFL studies pay attention to these meaning-sound representations to create character recognition strategies. Considering two characters sharing the same phonic elements, there are three possible utterances: 1) absolutely resemble utterances; 2) partially resemble utterances; and 3) absolutely different utterances. In terms of meaning representation, many semantic elements (such as wood, water, fire etc.) can represent only broad meanings of the characters. Because of the above limitations, some educators are reluctant to promote this strategy, believing it would encumber beginning CFL learners. Others argue that CFL beginners are not adequately exposed to these elements. Class instruction and the learning process need to allow them to be aware of these features. CFL teaching requires a special model that integrates ‘graphemic competence’ (Jiang, 1998). Chinese characters are best memorized in a connected network in the lexicon if : 1) the structures and patterns of characters have visual association; 2) the elements of those characters reappear in the new characters; 3) there is a close relationship between visual graphic and learners’ language background (Zhang and Peng, 1992 cited in Shen, 2008: 504). Whenever learners encounter a new character, the visual presentation appears in their operating memory. Meanwhile, it interfaces with the existing characters in long term memory to detect whether there is any resemble visual presentation. The associated cues help them guess the sound or meaning. This interface may occur in either semantic or phonic elements or both. Breaking characters into elements and organize them according to sounds or meaning can support learning (i.e. Li and Jiang, 2008; Zhang, 2010). Table 2 demonstrates examples of these associations.

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Table 2 Examples of characters association Elements

Associated characters

Set 1 Signific element 疒 (sickness)

病 (sick)

疼 (ache, pain)

痒 (ache, pain)

疗 (treat, cure)

痴 (silly, insane)

Set 2 Phonic element 包 (bāo)

饱 (bǎo)

抱 (bào)

跑 (pǎo)

炮 (pào)

袍 (páo)

Set 3 Inconsistent association 持 Phonic element 寺 (sì) (chí)

待 (dāi)

寺 (sì)

诗 (shi)

特 (tè)

CFL Psycholinguists argue that the extent pictophonetic characters (xingsheng zi) can represent sounds and meanings relying on the following factors (Wang, 1977 cited in Jiang, 1998): 1) The frequency of appearance of that character; 2) The regularity of semantic representation; 3) In what context the character appears; 4) The frequency of appearance of the vocabulary of the character. Jiang Liping (1998) proposes the following memory techniques for beginners: 1) Organize characters in groups according to components (bujian) or elements (pianpang); 2) Associate the new characters with the previously learned characters by using personal cues; 3) In case the characters are composed of more than two components, focus the memory on the outstanding component of the character; 4) For characters with similar strokes, distinguish them in pairs. The association concept also appears in the SAM model, indicating two critical features that may be applicable to the associated Chinese semantic and phonic elements: 1. The use of visual image as a “cue” in encoding and decoding processes When a new word is presented, it interfaces with the long-term memory to search for any resemble cue or character. If the resemble cue or character is found, it strengthens the memory of the new word. The SAM model explains the use of cues during the encoding and decoding processes. Memory may also be strengthened with additional clues such as environmental or contextual clues.

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2. The organization of cues and the prevention of interference Memory is more effectively strengthened if items are organized into groups. To limit interference, each group should not require too many cues to recognize, otherwise, they become a factor of interference because of the cue overload. SCT’s C-R Task and Chinese Recognition The key of Sociocultural Theory (SCT) in TBL is mediated mind (Lantolf and Pavlenko, 1996), which occurs through social interactions. It can be modified and rearranged in higher order, allowing learners to exercise mental activities. According to Vygotsky (1987), the mediation occurs in three ways, one of which is language. That means language learning involves both developing means to internalize through mediating learning and how to use language to mediate language learning (Swain, 2000). Development occurs when the mediated learning is appropriately designed and used in an environment in which learners can control and manage the development in their brains. Tasks support learning by allowing learners to use structures and new vocabulary through cooperative work and gradually manipulate the new language more independently. This means students use the patterns and knowledge about the language in communicating and internalize them in long-term memory so as to retrieve them later. “Task” is different from “activities” and “exercises” in the role of learners. These tasks are designed for explicit learning, with outcomes to be awareness of how some linguistic features work, making language itself the meaning (Ellis, 2009). From the above explanation, Chinese character recognition is the ‘meaning by itself’ for students to ‘raise consciousness’ about the associated Chinese characters through interactions. The Construction of Framework Task Specification and Their Alignment While tasks are means for learners to cooperatively interact, they also give teachers opportunities to observe learners’ errors from their output to provide feedback in the meaningful contexts accordingly (Bygate, Skehan,

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and Swain, 2001: 11). It is, therefore, crucial to specify and align various tasks to serve different objectives of each step. Tasks specification and alignment for the developed model is based on SCT’s internalization process which are: (1) To raise consciousness about semantic and phonic elements of Chinese characters that are associated in a group of 5-7 items, and internalize character recognition through working with others; (2) To participate in the use of the previously learned Chinese characters in the vocabulary and sentences; and internalize the structures and character recognition skills more independently through a series of undemanding closed tasks; (3) To internalize reading ability by applying the character recognition skills and reading strategies through a more demanding open-ended or closed task; (4) To independently execute the use of characters, vocabulary, new language, reading strategies and more complex cognitive processes in an open-ended task. Table 3 demonstrates task specification and alignment of the developed model.

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Table 3 Task specification and alignment of the developed model The principles of the developed model

Task

Task Types Output

To raise consciousness about semantic and phonic elements of Chinese characters that are associated in a group of 4-6 items; and internalize character recognition through working with others.

Associated semantic and phonic characters in sets.

Closed

Consciousness-raising

To participate in the use of the previously learned Chinese characters in the vocabulary and sentences; and internalize the structures and character recognition skills more independently through a series of undemanding closed tasks.

Character Information- Closed recognition gap in words, sentences and contexts

Low complexity

To internalize reading ability by applying the character recognition skills and reading strategies through a more demanding openended or closed task.

Character recognition by guessing meanings and sounds and reading strategies

Information- Closed Medium gap or or open complexity opinion-gap

To independently execute the use of characters, vocabulary, new language, reading strategies and more complex cognitive processes in an open-ended task.

Outcome as a product of character recognition and reading ability

Creative / Problem solving

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Consciousness-raising

Cognitive process

Open

Higher complexity


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Construction of Associated Characters Bank and Their Alignment The associated characters bank contains pictophonetic characters (xingsheng zi) which reappear in the reading texts. The selection of characters in this study is based on character level 1 (jia) and level 2 (yi) in “Hanyu Shuiping Cihui yu Hanzi Dengji Dagang” (Liu and Song, 1992). 1. Associated phonic elements 1.1 Group characters according to the same phonic elements. Then analyze their sound representations whether they absolutely resemble, partially resemble or are absolutely different. Table 4 demonstrates samples of the three representations of the same phonic element. Table 4 Samples of the three representations of the same phonic element Phonic

Absolutely resemble

Partially resemble

element 青 (qīng)

Absolutely different

青 (qīng) 晴 (qíng)

睛 (jìng) 倩 (qiàn)

猜 (cāi)

情 (qíng) 请 (qǐng)

1.2 Specify a basic character (or characters) in each group so as to memorize it (or them) prior to the association process. Table 5 demonstrates an example of the specification of the basic character. Table 5 An example of the specification of the basic character Basic

Semantic

Phonic

Associated characters with

character

element

element

the same phonic element

请 (request, 讠(concerning 青 (qǐng) 青(qīng) 晴(qíng) 情(qíng) 请(qǐng) invite)

language)

请(qǐng) 睛(jìng)猜(cāi) 倩(qiàn)

1.3 Compile all associated characters in the characters bank. In case of this study, the researcher has compiled approximately 30 sets of sound-associated characters.

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2. Associated semantic elements 2.1 From the associated phonic characters bank in 1.3, analyze their semantic elements. Table 6 demonstrates an example of the analysis. Table 6 An example of the analysis Character Sound Meaning Semantic Related with the element meaning of semantic element element 青

Word Meaning made up of the of the word character

1 请

qǐng

request, invite

language

请问

excuse me, please

2 晴

qíng

bright

the sun

晴天

sunny day

3 清

qīng

clear

water

清水

clear water

The basic character (no. 1) possesses a phonic element that can be associated with characters no. 2 and no. 3. Meanwhile, the semantic element of no. 2 (the sun) and of no. 3 (water) can help the association of meanings. These two elements, therefore, reinforce each other. Moreover, memory is strengthened if the character appears in a word or a phrase such as ‘qíngtiān’ : the sunny day (‘tiān’ means ‘day or sky’). 2.2 List all semantic elements found from all of the above and analyze the cross-relationship among them. Table 7 demonstrates a sample of cross relationship among semantic and phonic elements. Table 7 A sample of cross relationship among semantic and phonic elements Semantic Phonic element Phonic element Phonic element Phonic element elements 青 反 交 包 氵 清 泡 木 校 心(忄) 情 亻 (倩) 饣 饭 饺 饱 辶 返

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From the above process, sets of associated Chinese characters are compiled and ready for C-R tasks and for constructing the reading materials, which will be incorporated in the next step. Table 8 demonstrates samples of pictophonetic characters that are organized into groups. Table 8 Samples of pictophonetic characters that are organized into groups Phonic elements 覀:票、飘、漂、要 青:青、请、清、情、猜 包:饱、抱、跑、泡、袍 古:姑、故、菇、苦 羊:样、洋、痒、祥

Semantic elements 疒:病、疼、痛、症、痒 饣:饭、饮、饺、饱、饿 衤:衬、袍、衫、裤、裙 火:炎、烧、灯、煮、照 肉:肚、肠、脑、肥、有

Some Remarks on Characters Grouping 1. Though an average number of characters a person can memorize is 7 ± 2 at a time (Miller, 1956 cited in Gordon, 1989: 211-212), the researcher proposes that each set should contain 4-6 characters, otherwise the associative memory may not be as effective because learners have to spare their memory on different sounds of characters. 2. It is imperative that the basic character in each set be indicated so as to keep them in long-term memory before the association process. 3. For those inconsistent associations such as semantic in one character and phonic in the other, clarification should be made to students at the beginning to avoid confusion. 4. Additional clues such as episodic memory or learners’ background may enable the memory to work more effectively. 5. To reduce interference, when presenting a set of characters, emphasize the regular characters together with the odd/irregular one. Work on all characters, but concentrate on characters appearing in the current lesson. 6. Characters should appear in a word level and in a context. Moreover, they should reappear occasionally so as to stimulate the search of associative memory and enhance recognition.

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Figure 2 demonstrates a sample of association of characters, regular and odd/irregular.

Figure 2 A sample of association of characters, regular and odd/irregular Reading Materials Development 1. Reading materials include sentences, dialogues, tables and passages. Reading passages cover various modes of writing such as narrative, explanatory, informative and descriptive. 2. Reading passages are in line with indicated tasks and Chinese characters in the C-R task. 3. Reading passages are of medium length corresponding to learners’ development. Contents cover topics relating to learners’ real life situations, reflecting the use of Chinese language to communicate in students’ future careers and in Thai social contexts. Figure 3 demonstrates steps in reading materials development.

Survey needs analysis

Identify timeframe and goals

Specify topics

Identify vocabulary and language forms & functions

Select sets of associated characters to match the vocabulary

Specify tasks in the social contexts of Thai society

Evaluate learners’ reading ability:

Construct reading materials, using associated characters, vocabulary, functions and forms, according to tasks

- Association of semantic and phonic elements

Align sets of characters with the topics

- Word recognition - Reading comprehension

Figure 3 Steps in reading materials development

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Framework of the Developed Model

Figure 4 The developed Instructional Model

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Procedure of the Developed Model The procedure of the model includes three steps, all of which reflect character recognition through the use of semantic and phonic elements as cues for associative memory. Step One Associated characters The aim of this step is to raise students’ consciousness about semantic and phonic elements that appear as parts of words in the reading texts. 1) The teacher stimulates students’ interests by a brief talk that includes topics of interest to students. 2) The teacher states the expectation of the outcome and clarifies how the activity supports students’ learning in terms of character recognition. 3) Students perform associated characters task as indicated on the activity sheet. Students are to study the given characters of the words and associate them in groups according to phonic and/or semantic elements as memory cues. 4) Students present their outcomes and discuss their findings with the whole class. 5) The teacher monitors, observes and provides feedback. Step Two Characters in words and contexts This step consists of three tasks requiring students to apply from simple complexity to higher level of cognitive process in the reading activities. 1) Task One: Characters in words and sentences Students apply characters learned in the previous task in meaningful words and sentences relating to the topic. Students are required to perform a communicative task with a conversation partner to find the missing information. 2) Task Two: Word recognition & Reading strategies Students interact in a group of four to complete the reading task, applying search of associative memory technique, using semantic and phonic elements as cues, to recognize characters while exploiting the learned reading strategies

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to comprehend the reading text and to complete the closed or open task. 3) Task Three: Independently apply techniques and strategies to create an outcome. This is the main task, which requires students to create an outcome by reading the assigned materials in either a creative or problem-solving task. Students should be able to independently exploit associative memory techniques as well as reading strategies to comprehend the reading task so as to complete their assignment and get ready for planning. 4) Planning and presentation Planning is an after-reading activity that allows students to reinvestigate their outcome and make a plan to present to the class. Students are also required to present a new set of associated Chinese characters that appear in their presentation. The teacher observes and monitors students’ group activity and provides feedback if necessary. Students’ presentation is the last activity in step two. This presentation can be done in various forms such as drawing, writing, simulation or role-playing. Step Three Feedback and Reflection 1) After the observations during previous activities, the teacher accumulates students’ errors found and provides feedback. The feedback can be activities that involve students in the learning process such as group work. 2) Students write reflections in journals and give feedback to the teacher so as to improve instructional activities in the next lesson.

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Conclusion The purpose of this study is to develop an instructional model for Chinese language based on the Task-Based Learning approach, with emphasis on associative memory techniques to enhance Chinese character recognition and reading ability. The development of the model has applied theories of curriculum and instructional design, which include principles, aims, contents, procedures and evaluation. The researcher found that the developed model can be applied not only to CFL teaching per se but also any FL pedagogy. Further studies regarding the association of Chinese characters in different aspects such as Chinese homophonous words and/or vocabulary (cihui) are also recommended so as to obtain the overall picture of character associations in the Chinese language. Acknowledgements This research was conducted under the support of CU Graduate School Thesis Grant.

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References Bygate, M., Skehan P., and Swain, M. (Eds.). (2001) Researching Pedagogic Tasks, Second Language Learning, Teaching and Testing. Great Britain: Longman. Cui, Xiliang. (2007) Preface. In The Cognition, Learning and Teaching of Chinese Characters, edited by Guder, A., Jiang, Xin, and Wan, Yexin, pp. IV-VIII. Beijing: Beijing Language and Culture University Press. Duff, P. A. (1986) Another Look at Interlanguage Talk: Taking Task to Task: In Talking to Learn: Conversations in Second Language Acquisition, edited by Richard, D., pp. 147-181. Mass: Newbury House Publication. Ellis, R. (2009) Task-based Language Learning and Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Gordon, W. C. (1989) Learning and Memory. CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Jiang, Liping. (1998) Jichu Jieduan Liuxuesheng Shiji Hanzi de Guocheng. Hanyu Xuexi, di 2 qi: 46-49. Kupfer, P. (2007) Eloquent but Blind - The Problem of Reading Proficiency in Chinese as a Foreign Language. In The Cognition, Learning and Teaching of Chinese Characters, edited by Guder, A., Jiang, Xin, and Wan, Yexin, pp. 1-16. Beijing: Beijing Language and Culture University Press. Lantolf, J. (2000) Second Language Learning as Mediated Process. Language Teaching, 33: 79-96. Lantolf, J. and Pavlenko, A. (1996) Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Acquisition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 15: 108-124. Lee, J. (2000) Tasks and Communicating in Language Classrooms. Boston: McGraw-Hill. Li, Rui. (2005) Duiwai Hanyu jiaoxue zhong de xingsheng zi biaoyi zhuangkuang fenxi. Yuyan Wenzi Yingyong di 2 qi: 104-110. Li, Zhu. and Jiang, Liping. (2008) Zenyang Jiao Waiguoren Hanyu. Beijing: Beijing Language and Culture University Press.

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Liu, Yinglin. and Song, Shaozhou. (1992) Hanyu Shuiping Cihui yu Hanzi Dengji Dagang. Beijing: Beijing Language and Culture University Press. Nunan, D. (2006) Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Raaijmakers, J. G. and Shiffrin, R. M. (1981) SAM: Search of Associative Memory. Psychological Review, 88: 93-134. Shen, H. H. (2008) An Analysis of Word Decision Strategies Among Learners of Chinese. Foreign Language Annals, 41(3): 501-524. Skehan, P. (1998) A Cognitive Approach to Language Learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Swain, M. (2000) The output Hypothesis and Beyond: Mediating Acquisition through Collaborative Dialogue. In Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning,edited by Lantolf, pp. 97-114. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Vygotsky, L. (1987) The Collected Works of L.S.Vygotsky. Volume 1. Thinking and Speaking. New York: Plenum Press. Willis, J. (1998) A Framework for Task-based Learning. Harlow: Longman. Willis, D. and Willis J. (2007) Doing Task-based Teaching. New York: Oxford University Press. Zhang, Hesheng. (2010) Hanyu Keyi Zheyang Jiao. Beijing: Shangwu Yinshuguan Chuban.

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Digital Modeling of Buddha Sculptures Sawitree Wisetchat Department of Research in 3D Visualization, School of Design, The Glasgow School of Art, Digital Design Studio, The Hub Pacific Quay, Govan Road, Glasgow G51 1EA, United Kingdom *Corresponding author: sawitreedesigns@gmail.com Abstract The Sukhothai Buddha (1238-1438 CE) a distinct sculptural style developed which is still characteristic of Thai Sculpture Style today. The Sukhothai style inherited some artistic elements from its precursors, yet evolved through a remarkable process of refinement and invention. This study considers the visualization of this evolution. Conventionally, styles are analyzed and compared through written descriptions with reference to still images. It is difficult, however, to visually appreciate the evolution of style by such means. A new technique is adapted from digital character animation to assist in the visualization of style differences and to illustrate style evolution. By modeling sculptures of different styles as variations on a common shape, blend animation allows one style to change smoothly into another by interpolation. The viewer can now better appreciate style differences, not by shifting gaze from one to another, but by watching one become another, wherein their differences attract visual attention. Key Words: Blend Animation; Morphing; Southeast Asian; Style; Sukhothai Buddha; Visualization

Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts Vol. 13(2) : 29-45, 2013


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Digital Modeling of Buddha Sculptures

Introduction Sculptural style can often be attributed to the physical objects we create. The specific style may reflect artistic choices by the individual artists or artisans who created it, as well as conventions common to their culture. Experts may focus on stylistic subtleties to date and identify the origins of archeological artifacts, when the underlying stylistic trends are well understood and documented. Style is a fundamentally important language of expression that is shared by the makers of the artifacts and their users. Across a very broad range of scholarly fields spanning archeology and art history to modern design, there are recurring methods for describing specific styles and for comparing styles. Most commonly, scholars will document and differentiate stylistic variations by employing two complementary techniques: textual descriptions and illustrations. It is conventional to select a representative example, or exemplar, and to subject it to a rigorous analysis wherein the stylistic features are described one-byone, often using specialized terminology specific to the given field. Such a written analysis is usually accompanied with photographs or illustrations, as the words alone seldom suffice. When describing multiple styles, a common stylistic lexicon may be used to summarize their differences and commonalities, which is then graphically represented by a tabulation of these stylistic features. Again, illustrations of the various exemplars are usually provided, sometimes simplified representations to focus attention to the style elements under consideration. To compare two styles, therefore, it is commonplace to describe examples of each, to present illustrations of each (often side-by-side), and optionally, to explicitly describe their differences, drawing the reader’s attention to salient features or common style elements across the representative examples. Such a practice relies on the author’s ability to capture style in words as well as the reader’s ability to understand the text and more tacitly, to appreciate the stylistic features as depicted in the given illustrations. Both tasks may require much of the reader. When considering complex objects the style differences may be difficult to capture in words for the features may be locally similar across the two objects but

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together create a very different stylistic expression. Also, two objects may be stylistically quite similar but the artifacts themselves may be so different in quality of preservation, size, material, and the images depict the two under very different conditions of lighting and viewpoint that it is difficult to attend to matters of style and to disregard these irrelevant aspects. Style is often difficult to abstract and to visualize, and this challenge arises in both formal and scholarly as well as informal and everyday considerations of style across a broad range of fields. Models Permit Abstracting Style When viewing an actual artifact, the observer is presented with not only an example of a given style of object, but also the specifics of that given object, including its idiosyncrasies, individual character, and many other visual aspects that distract from the appreciation of the style itself. When the artifact is of historical significance, and rare or perhaps unique, it is uncertain which aspects of the given object reflect an underlying style (which would have been shared by other examples, if available) and which are specific to that particular artifact. In such cases the underlying style of the specific object is hard to distinguish from what might be expressions and variations specific to it alone. But when multiple examples are available of a given style, there is an opportunity to abstract the style from the specifics of the individuals. A model can be created which represents the commonality across the individuals, without replicating any specific artifact. A two dimensional model might consist of an informal line drawing or sketch that is said to be ‘based on’ multiple examples. In three dimensions, a sculpted model might represent an idealization of a given style that is based on a distillate of multiple artifacts, or a so-called “artist’s conception” sculpture. In the modeling process, the style may be enhanced and clarified subtly, as well as abstracted from the imperfections of the original. Modeling is thus important in removing the visual distraction of idiosyncrasies and imperfections when focusing on an underlying style. Often an archeological artifact is incomplete or damaged, but can be used as the basis for a restoration of the ideal, original, form (or at least an artistic interpretation thereof). Even if the original artifact is complete and undamaged, a model

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has the potential to draw one’s awareness away from the details of the surface condition and composition, and to focus more on the underlying style and artistic expression. When considering the style differences between two artifacts, it is often difficult to attend to their styles when only still photographs are available, especially when the objects of differing composition, physical condition, size, and photographed from different perspectives and under differing lighting conditions. By viewing models photographed or rendered under conditions of identical illumination, material appearance, and perspective, one may better attend to their style as one shifts attention alternately between the two models. While a model may accurately capture the essence of the geometric shape associated with a given style, those style features remain implicit in the model and require an explicit description. Hence it is conventional to provide a guided written analysis, often feature-by-feature, to draw the reader’s attention to the various aspects of a given style. To compare styles, it is commonplace to use comparative descriptors such as “feature X is more sharply delineated in style A than its counterpart in style B”, where it is left to the reader to attend to this aspect in A versus B. There is variability, of course, in how well readers can appreciate style differences from such A-versus-B comparisons, and limits to the effectiveness of a written phrase such as “more sharply delineated” in capturing the stylistic difference. Style comparison is distinct from shape comparison. Formal mathematical means have been developed for the comparison of shapes, and they only indirectly apply to the comparison of styles. For instance, two shapes may be shown to be related by a transformation, wherein distortion of an underlying grid or mesh can help visualize how one shape would transform into another (Thompson, 1917). That is, the distortions to the grid represent not the shape, but the changes in shape between two related forms. Mathematical methods have been developed to quantitatively measure differences between two shapes (Siegel and Benson, 1982), and to represent the differences graphically as a field of vectors showing how corresponding points are displaced from one shape to another. This concept underlies the familiar technique by which two-dimensional images can be

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‘morphed’ by continuous interpolation of the pixel values in one to another while displacing them according to a continuous map that represents the deformation from one shape to another (Beier and Neely, 1992). While two- and three-dimensional morphing does not by itself capture and quantify differences in style, it provides the foundation for a new method that does significantly improve one’s ability to appreciate style differences. Shape blending attracts attention to differences A fundamental problem in comparing the styles of two objects A and B (two vases, for example) is that visual attention must shift one’s gaze and visual attention alternately between A and B. To appreciate how a specific feature differs on A versus B requires several sequential steps: 1) a given stylistic feature is located in A and some visual memory is retained regarding its appearance, 2) visual attention is then shifted to B and the corresponding feature is located, 3) the style observed in B is compared with the memory of its appearance in A. Usually the process is repeated with attention shifting from B back to A. If instead of considering two discrete objects A and B, suppose on object could change its shape (‘morph’) from A to B, through a continuous transformation. Then stylistic differences can be appreciated without the need to shift gaze and visual attention, alternately seeking its counterpart in B after examining A, or vice versa. More importantly, as A changes to B, features of the shape that are similar remain between A and B remain relatively constant, of course, while places that differ will be seen to undergo change. This is of considerable value, for an observer’s visual attention is naturally attracted by visual change. Consequently, by having an object’s shape change from one style to another, the observer’s attention is naturally directed to those aspects where the two styles differ. Those stylistic features in common are relatively static and easily ignored. The dynamic transformation of shape between the two styles thus provides a ‘self-guided tour’, reducing the need for an explicit feature-by-feature discussion of the style differences. Of course, a formal analysis would typically accompany such a demonstration in a scholarly description. Recent advances in digital animation permit the blending between complex 3D models. This requires a modeling process for each style is to be considered, but once created,

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continuous animation that blends between these models permits a dynamic appreciation of their style differences. The technique described below in the context of visualizing differing styles of facial features across Buddha statues from different cultures. In addition to facilitating the appreciation of style differences, digital animations that show a progression of style transformations (from A to B to C ‌) will permits a visual appreciation of the evolution of style. Observing an hypothesized evolutionary transformation between styles provides insight beyond what may be appreciated from a written discourse. The animated progression does not prove the hypothesis; it permits one to envision it. Moreover, many artifacts carry with them an aesthetic that is especially difficult to put into words, but may be appreciated visually. Blending between models of artifacts that differ aesthetically may enhance those differences. In fact, both style differences and the less tangible impressions of aesthetic differences are enhanced by viewing their transformation in a continuous animation, a ‘successive contrast’ effect familiar to perceptual and cognitive psychology. Dynamic presentations such as these reveal more than can be easily achieved by a combination of static illustrations and text. This technique enhances, but does not replace, the conventional approach of text plus supplemental images that accompany the written analysis. A Case Study This study summarizes a novel approach towards the visualization of style that was introduced by Wisetchat (2011) wherein computer graphics was used to assist in understanding the evolution of the Buddha statue that emerged in Sukhothai, Thailand. During the Sukhothai period an artistic style developed which is iconic of much of modern Thai artistic style. Buddha statues of the Sukhothai style are especially distinctive in those examples where the face is lean and elongated and delineated by delicate and graceful, even effeminate, curves (Van Beek and Tettoni, 1991), such as the Sukhothai sculptures from the Kamphaengpet school (Figure 1). The Sukhothai style emerged during a time when the geographic region that is now Thailand was divided into many kingdoms, with small ones under the control of larger empires. The Buddhist statues are

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Figure 1 A Sukhothai Buddha sculpture of the Kamphaengpet Style. 14th-15th century, National Museum, Bangkok.

important indicators of these cultures and their interactions. While trade and the spread of Buddhism resulted in the widespread adoption of common artistic elements, each region developed its own distinct style (Leidy, 2008; Rowland, 1963). The Sukhothai style could be regarded as a refinement and idealization of form, which emphasized graceful contours, a face that was androgynous and abstract, with highly sculpted facial features and an expression of peace and serenity. The origins of this style are not well understood, but clearly some stylistic aspects were derived from precursor styles that were introduced from Sri Lanka and Pagan (modern Burma), while many other features of

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the face, hair, and ornamentation have their origins in the Indian depictions of the Buddha from Pala and earlier (Rowland, 1963; Fisher, 1993; Krishan, 1996). Disregarding those features of the sculptures that constitute a common iconography broadly shared by Buddha statues across many cultures and periods (Brown, 1996; Fisher, 1993), some aspects appear to be unique inventions of the Sukhothai kingdom or in collaboration with the neighboring Lan Na Kingdom (Gosling, 2004; Woodward, 1997; Van Beek and Tettoni, 1991). Wisetchat (2011) used digital animation to visualize the evolution of the Sukhothai Buddha style. While its stylistic origins are complicated, representative examples of three precursor styles (that of Pala, Sri Lanka and Pagan) were considered, plus the Khmer-influenced Dvaravati style, in addition to modeling the Sukhothai style. Digital 3D models of these five styles were created using a technique that allowed continuous shape interpolation between any two such models. Blend Shapes and Animation The digital technique of ‘blend animation’ has been widely adopted for use in character animation (Deng and Noh, 2008). The method is particularly useful when combined with smooth ‘subdivision surface’ modeling (Catmull and Clark, 1978), which produces a smooth surface from a relatively simple ‘cage’ of vertices. An initial (or ‘base’) shape is constructed that will be used as the basis for variations on that shape. Multiple copies of that base cage are constructed that will be made to resemble the other shapes. Each variation becomes a ‘target’, i.e., another shape that the base shape can be deformed into without adding or removing detail, but just moving and reshaping the details that are originally present in the base shape. The target shapes can be made to appear different from the base shape only by having their vertices shifted or displacing in 3D space relative to counterparts in the original base shape. A ‘blend shape’ can then interpolate between the base and target shapes to form a continuous and smooth transition from one to the other. There are technical and artistic challenges to using this method. The first is that shapes can be modified only by the displacement of vertices; the

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a

b

c

d

e

Figure 2 One common polygonal model serves as a common cage for representing five distinct styles of Buddha statue. a: Pala, b: Dvaravati, c: Sri Lanka, d: Pagan, and e: Sukhothai. Since these models are sculpted from a common base shape by adjusting vertex locations, interpolation between the vertex locations between models can be used to create the impression of one statue ‘morphing’ or smoothly blending from one to another. topology of the mesh cannot be modified. Thus entirely new features cannot be created (such as a hole in an earlobe that is present in one style but not another). A sharp crease in one cage, can be softened in another, but great care is required if the crease is intended to completely disappear. The artistic challenge is to create enough vertices to allow any of the desired features to be sculpted, but the more vertices that are added to the base cage, the harder

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it is to manipulate them. A compromise is needed between complexity and simplicity. Also, shapes can only vary continuously based on what is there in the base shape, so features such as finials cannot be expected to come out of the topknot of a statue that does not have a finial in the base shape. Also, two models that differ between coarse coils of hair and fine coils of hair would be extremely difficult, even in concept, to blend between. Groups of fine coils would have to merge together to form a fewer number of larger ones, but the intermediate shapes would be very unnatural and meaningless. So blend animations are only attempted to show facial features that smoothly vary from one shape to another. Sometimes a sharp contour is sculpted such as the ridge of an eyebrow, or the double outline of a lip. Such a step-like edge which involves usually three parallel rows of vertices to force the surface to appear to crease between the outer two rows, with a steepness or sharpness determined by the middle row. To make the crease disappear, it is necessary to carefully separate the crease lines of vertices and to make them all lie in a common smooth surface. The use of subdivision surfaces makes this even more difficult, because when they are rendered, the surface will often still show a hint of that crease, especially for shiny surfaces. Two software tools were used: Autodesk Maya (Autodesk, 2011) and Pixologic ZBrush (Pixologic, 2011). After experimentation with different approaches, the following work flow was chosen. Maya was first used to create a moderately-detailed basic model, then ZBrush was used to refine that model, and finally Maya was used to render the blending animations on these refined models. Maya allows precise control over the shape of the subdivision surface by adjusting the position of each individual vertex in a cage, but that approach would be impractical to create different target shapes if each cage has a large number of vertices. The approach used here is to model one side of the face using a simple polygon cage, then to mirror it, combining it into one face, then convert it to a subdivision surface, then convert it back to a higher polygon representation that can be imported into ZBrush to have the shape refined. With care the high polygon representation can then be re-imported into Maya and used as a complex blend shape for animation.

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Modeling from Reference Material The modeling of a given target shape is based on reference material. This reference can be photographs of museum artifacts that are placed in the 3D scene as ‘image planes’. The 3D model is then sculpted to resemble the reference object from that photographed viewpoint. The use of image planes is only approximate, however, and many photographs would be needed to be sure the object has been modeled well from all viewpoints. A more sophisticated approach would be to import 3D data of the object into the scene (such as from a laser or CT scan of the museum artifact). The sculpting of a model’s cage could then be adjusted to closely match the shape of the digitized artifact, from all perspectives, and not just those available by the image plane photographs. Direct digitization of an artifact by scanning, unfortunately is often impractical or disallowed. Photogrammetry, the relatively new method of reconstructing a reference 3D shape from multiple photographs (e.g., Kraus, 2007) may be a useful alternative to digitization, assuming that photography of the artifact is permitted. Regardless how the 3D data is acquired, it is preferable to refine the blend shapes in 3D with reference to such 3D data, as opposed to photographs that are imported into the 3D scene. The goal of this process is to create a set of blend shapes that can be deformed from one into another; this is ultimately a task of sculpting and modeling, not of precise replicating. The polygonal cage of the blend shape is adjusted until the surface that it creates fits the 3D data of the object that is being modeled. It would be representative of either a specific artifact, or be generic across a number of examples. The result is therefore best thought of as an illustration and not a precise replica. Discussion Blend shapes can effectively demonstrate style differences and evolution, but the modeling process is open-ended. It is impractical to create too close a replica, and like technical illustration in 2D, there is an art to efficiently conveying the essence. Unlike 2D illustration, this technique adds not only a third dimension (depth) but a fourth (time) to show

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differences and evolution of style. Thus it is possible to go beyond using words and tables, to actually see the Sukhothai style as it differs from these other styles. Conventionally, photographs or diagrams are presented to illustrate different styles, where the viewer attempts to abstract away the essence of the style by comparing these alternatives. That is a very difficult task, especially when the statues differ in composition and condition, and the photographs show them from different viewpoints and lighting conditions, and so forth. It is important to remember that much is lost when viewing a simplified model compared to the original, but something new and valuable is also gained when that model can transform dynamically from one style into another. Without the distractions that come with viewing real artifacts, the abstract model captures the essence of the style itself. Changes in the model as it blends captures differences in styles. One can then return to observe the original artifacts with new appreciation. With this method, a viewer can now appreciate style differences between two objects A and B, not by shifting gaze between A to B but by watching A become B. During the shape blends, the differences between the two styles will draw one’s attention. For instance, if the nose changes from realistically rounded to highly sculpted and contoured, that will instantly reveal an aspect in which the two styles differ significantly. Equally importantly, shared aspects of the two styles will remain essentially unchanged and unnoticed. Blend animation reveals differences by change, and similarity by constancy. Having one style blend into another also allows the viewer to appreciate subtle overall differences, such as the feeling that is evoked by a style. For instance, by blending from a very masculine and physically powerful face of the Pala style to the Sukhothai style, the Buddha is seen to transform into a delicate and more abstract form that has lost some of its individuality to be replaced with calm serenity and ideal form. The visual and emotional impact of the change is more apparent, it seems, when this comparison is watched as a blend animation than when it is only simply presented with adjacent examples of the two. So blend animation between styles can be used not only to compare style features, but to also feel the

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emotional impact as the sculpture changes its character in front of your eyes. This might in turn provide insight into the ideals and motivations of the artists and their cultures. Regarding future work, a practical next step would be to refine the method so that it is more efficient. The software tools used in this study, subdivision surface modeling and blend shape animation, are widely used for character and facial expression animation. This study blended not just expressions, however, but the basic structure of the face, e.g., adding sharp sculptural creases in some cases which are smoothly rounded in others. While the techniques did prove feasible for this study, the process was not efficient, because considerable experimentation with alternative polygonal base cages was needed to finally create one that would be adequate for representing all the various target shapes in the study. If the base blend shape was especially well suited for one target shape it was often less well suited for another style. After much revision, a low-polygon cage was eventually created that could approximate the various target styles, but then the end result for each target style was a compromise. Future work would involve alternatives where the base cage has a higher polygon count and is more capable of representing a large range of target shapes, and the higher polygon version is not simply used for final refinement of the various models. To illustrate, consider the two very different styles of eyebrows in Figure 3. In the Ming dynasty example the eyebrow is represented by only a sharp crease, while in the Sukhothai example the eyebrow is marked by a similarly sharp slope on the lower edge of the eyebrow down towards the upper eyelid, but there is additionally a raised ridge above the arc of the eyebrows that delineated from the forehead by a sharp crease. Note that in the former the brow is smoothly continuous across the bridge of the nose, while in the latter the two arcs meet at the center with a sharp v-like cusp. These two geometries can be represented by a well-crafted low-polygon count cage of polygons, but with some difficulty. The alternative which is becoming increasingly feasible is to use a very fine underlying polygonal cage such that the underlying mesh can be more readily sculpted to match either style of eyebrow. Likewise, one can note that the eyes have not only

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Figure 3 Upper image: Ming dynasty (1368-1644) Buddha sculpture, ca. 1500, Shanxi Province, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Lower image: Sukhothai Buddha sculpture 14th Century, Ramkhamhaeng National Museum Sukhothai, Thailand. differing morphology, but differing details, with the Chinese eye design showing details that are missing in the Thai sculpture. Making a fine line-like feature appear to disappear in one blend target and yet be crisply defined in another requires considerable skill on the part of the modeler. A future extension is envisioned in which this technique is applied for public exhibitions, such as museums or educational websites. Buddha sculptural style, the subject of this study, is a particularly good test for this technique as it involves the sculpting of faces, which convey much meaning and aesthetic appeal, and being statues, they show abstractions and idealizations of form. The end result, if done well, allows the viewer to appreciate the subject matter in a virtual representation that is abstracted away from the details of the actual artifacts. This technique can be applied either in a museum setting, where the viewer can then turn to the actual artifacts and appreciate them with hopefully some added insight. The same media can also be presented in a classroom, or on the internet. The use of blend shape animation and the related digital techniques has far greater application than character animation. To become a mature tool, however,

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more development would be needed to understand how best to apply it to create the visualizations, then how best to present the resulting visualizations. Acknowledgements I thank my supervisors Ms. Gillian Moffat, Dr. Martyn Horner, and Dr. Paul Chapman, Dr. Minhua Ma for her assistance, and my examiners Professor Irene McWilliam and Dr. Elizabeth Harris, Liverpool Hope University. I am also grateful to the following experts: Ms. Duangkamol Yuthaseri of Ramkhamhaeng National Museum, Professor Sakchai Saisingha of Silpakorn University for consulting of the Art of Sukhothai Buddha, and at the National Museum, Bangkok, Dr. Anan Chuchot, and Mr. Disapong Netlomwong and Dr. Kent A. Stevens for technical assistance.

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References Autodesk (2011) Maya - 3D Animation, Visual Effects & Compositing Software [Online URL: usa.autodesk.com/maya] accessed September 4, 2011. Beier, T. and Neely, S. (1992) Feature-based image metamorphosis, Computer Graphics, 26(2): 35-42. Brown, R. L. (1996) The Dvaravati Wheels of Law and the Indianization of South East Asia. Leiden: E. J. Brill. Catmull, E. and Clark, J. (1978) Recursively generated B-Spline surfaces on arbitrary topological meshes. Computer Aided Design, 10(6): 350-355. Deng, Z. and Noh, J. (2008) Computer facial animation: A survey. In Data-Diven 3D Facial Animation, edited by Deng, Z. and Neumann, U., pp. 1-28. London: Springer-Verlag. Fisher, R. E. (1993) Buddhist Art and Architecture. London: Thames and Hudson. Gosling, B. (2004) Origins of Thai art. Weatherhill, Trumbull, CT. Kraus, K. (2007) Photogrammetry: Geometry from Images and Laser Scans, 2nd ed., Berlin: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. Krishan, Y. (1996) The Buddha Image. It’s Origins and Development. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. Leidy, D. P. (2008) The Art of Buddhism: An Introduction to its History and Meaning. Boston: Shambhala Publications. Pixologic (2011) Brush Portal [Online URL:www.pixologic.com/zbrush] accessed on September 2011]. Rowland, Jr., B. (1963) The Evolution of the Buddha image. New York: Asia House Gallery Publication/Harry N. Abrams, Inc. Siegel, A. F. and Benson, R. H. (1982) A Robust comparison of biological shapes. Biometrics, 38: 341-350. Thompson, D W. (1917) On Growth and Form. Cambridge Universit Press, Cambridge. [Online URL:openlibrary.org/books/OL6604798M/On_ growth_and_form].

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Van Beek, S. and Tettoni, L. I. (1991) The Arts of Thailand. Thames and Hudson, London, p. 114. Wisetchat, S. (2011) “Sukhothai: The Evolution of a Distinctly Thai Sculptural Style”. M.Phil. Thesis. Glasgow School of Art, Digital Design Studio, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland. Wisetchat, S. (2013) “Visualizing the Evolution of the Sukhothai Buddha”. Southeast Asian Studies, 2(3). (in press). Woodward, H.W., Jr. (1997) The Sacred Sculpture of Thailand. Bangkok: River Books.

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A Study of Language and Culture of “//” (feces) of Lao-Wiang in Nong Kop Subdistrict, Ban Pong District, Ratchaburi Province Samiththicha Pumma Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia (RILCA), Mahidol University, Nakorn Pathom, Thailand Corresponding author: p_samiththicha@yahoo.com Abstract 1 The objectives of this research are to study words and meanings using “//” (feces) and the cultural reflection of Lao-Wiang people in Nong Kop Subdistrict, Ban Pong District, Ratchaburi Province, when the word “/” is used. This study employs linguistic anthropology concepts to describe the relationship between language and culture from 430 words and expressions used in Lao-Wiang daily life. The results show that, the meanings of the word “//” in Lao-Wiang language is divided into two types; direct or basic meaning and indirect meaning, which result from meaning extension or comparison. The usage of the word “//” in Lao-Wiang language can be divided into five different types; 1) “//” as basic meaning for waste from human or animal including other waste in daily life. 2) “//” with extended meaning such as nature substances, animals, plants, appliances, colors and diseases etc. 3)“//” for explaining human behaviors in terms of extraordinary actions or feelings in a negative way. 4) “//” for exclamations or curses and 5) “//” for cultural morals such as: literature, idiom and proverbs.

______________ 1

This article takes place within the research framework of Mahidol University.

Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts Vol. 13(2) : 47-67, 2013


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A Study of Language and Culture of “//”

Moreover, it is found that in terms of the relationship between language and culture, the usage of the word “//” in Lao-Wiang language reflects a variety of social and cultural conditions of Lao-Wiang people in Nong Kop Subdistrict. These conditions include local environment, occupations, beliefs and values, utensils and tools, food and cooking, health and diseases, society, and local politics. Key Words: Language and Culture of Lao-Wiang people; “//”; Linguistic Anthropology

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Background and Significance Language is a method created by humans for communication. It is used to exchange information and ideas, to express feelings and needs and for general conversation between each other in the human society. In addition, language is related to the lifestyle and culture of its users. (Sanit Smuckarn, 1975:492) It is said, that the language of any nation reflects the thoughts, beliefs, environments and cultures of its ethnic groups. This becomes clearer, if we look at the concept of Nida (1998:29) who noted the following: Language and culture are two symbolic systems. Everything we express through language has a meaning, is designative or associative, denotative or connotative. Every culture uses its own style of language, which means the same word used in one context could have a different meaning used in another context, because it is associated with the culture, which is more extensive than language. One ethnic group living in Thailand interesting to look at, is the Lao-Wiang group, whose ancestors emigrated from Vientiane, Lao P. D. R. at the beginning of the Rattanakosin Period around 200 years ago. They came to escape war. At present, there are living a large number of Lao-Wiang people in Thailand, who still use their mother tongue in daily life. They live in several provinces (Suwilai Premsrirat and others, 2001: 44), such as Nakhon Pathom, Sing Buri, Lop Buri, Chai Nat, Nakhon Sawan, Saraburi, Nakhon Nayok, Kanchanaburi, Suphan Buri, and Ratchaburi, etc. In Ratchaburi province reside a lot of Lao-Wiang communities and Lao-Wiang language and culture still exists. (Suwattana Liamprawat, 2002: 244) For Lao-Wiang in Nong Kop Subdistrict, Ban Pong District, the scope used in this study consists of eight villages. These include Moo 2 Ban Rang Khoi, Moo 3 Ban Nong Kop, Moo 5 Ban Nong Pla Duk and Ban Nong Kae, Moo 6 Ban Nong Pla Duk, Moo 7 Ban Nong Ri, Moo 11 Ban Bo or Ban Khlong, Moo 12 Ban Wa Een, and Moo 15 Ban Nong Sa Ra Nang. Lao-Wiang has a population of 6,576 consisting of 3,221 males and 3,355 females. There are a total of 1,869 households. (2009) Most

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Lao-Wiang people in this subdistrict are farmers; others work for hire and trade companies or they work in agriculture (i.e., grow rice, sugar cane, green beans, vegetables and fruits, such as mangos, coconuts, and guavas). Moreover, people raise animals for sale, such as milk cows, beef cattle, pigs, poultry and fish. The study discovered that Lao-Wiang people in Nong Kop Subdistrict still use their mother tongue to communicate in daily life. The phonology of Lao-Wiang is as follows: There are twenty consonant phonemes in the language. All of them can be single initial consonants, which are /p, ph, b, d, t, th, k, kh, /, c, f, s, h, m, n, , N, l, w, j /. There is no initial cluster. There are nine final consonants, which are /p, t, k, /, m, n, N, w, j/. There are two types of vowels in Lao-Wiang language: monophthongs and diphthongs. There are 18 monophthongs, which are /i, i, e, e, E, E, , , , , a, , u, u, o, o, O, O/ and three dipthongs; /ia, a, ua/. There are six contrastive tones: Tone 1 (24), Tone 2 (35), Tone 3 (52), Tone 4 (33), Tone 5 (21) and Tone 6 (41). (Samiththicha Pumma, 2003: 48-50) Furthermore, the vocabularies of Lao-Wiang in Nong Kop Subdistrict are very interesting to study, especially in the category of “//”, because these are familiar terms and widely used in daily life, such as human and animal excretion, fecal matter types of humans or animals, droppings, plants, materials, sicknesses and colors etc. For example, “//” is in Lao-Wiang; /khi5 khin1 no5/ ‘ดินกอนใหญ’, /khi5 fa5/ ‘กอนเมฆ’, /khi5 ka2 uN4/ ‘ตนเงาะปา’, /khi5 si3/ ‘ขี้ซีหรือยางไม’, /khi5 khaN4/ ‘ครั่ง’, /khi5 ka4 thE6/ ‘แมลงกะแท’, / khi5 khin1 tk4/ ‘พยาธิ’, /khi5 ta4 pat4/ ‘เขียดตะปาด’, /khi5 khEw5/ ‘ขี้ฟน’, / khi5 met6 ka4 sun1/ ‘ขี้คลายเม็ดกระสุน’, /khi5 sik4/ ‘น้ำ�ครำ�’, /khi5 khin1 b2/ ‘สะดือ’, / khi5 ka4 diam2/ ‘จั๊กจี้’, /khi5 NEm3/ ‘ชอบหยอกลอ’, /khi5 diat4/ ‘รังเกียจ หรือขยะแขยง’, /khi5 caj2 haj6/ ‘หงุดหงิด’ /khi5 tua/5/ ‘โกหก’, /khi5 khOj5 khi5 kha5/ ‘คำ�อุทานหรือคำ�ดาผูอื่น’, /khi5 phuN3 lo3/ ‘โรคตานขโมย’, /si1 khi5 ta4 kua4/ ‘สีขี้ตะกั่ว’, /khi5 hEN5 thk4 ta2 ma1/ ‘คนที่มีลักษณะไมดีแตไดแตงงานกับคนที่ดีมีฐานะ กวาตัวเอง’, /khi5 hot6 caw4 khON1/ ‘การกระทำ�ที่ทำ�ใหตัวเองตองพลอยเดือดรอน’, etc. The word “//” in Lao-Wiang is both a verb and a noun. “//” as a verb it means to defecate, but “//” as a noun it refers to feces or the waste of humans or animals. Besides, the researcher discovered that

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extensions from the basic meaning of the word “//” exist, in which it becomes a metaphor. (Nida, 1975: 126) The Lao-Wiang use the extension of the meaning, for physical characteristics, i.e. shape, size, color, odor, or condition. In addition, the abstract extension of the meaning is also used, i.e. something worthless, trivial, or bad behavior etc. These extensions of the meaning of the word “//” in Lao-Wiang language are employed as terms referring to several things in everyday life, i.e. nature, plants, animals, foods, diseases or idioms etc. The researcher studied documents and other material and discovered that a lot of research has been done about language and culture from various ethnic groups living in Thailand. For example, Sanit Smuckarn (1975) studied the Thais “Faces” : a linguistic antropological analysis; Iam Thongdee (1985) studied daily life vocabularies in the Phatthalung dialect of Thai by an anthropological linguistic approach; Naraset Pisitpanporn (1986) studied a semantic study of the Northern Khmer language on rice cycle; Narawadee Pannara (1993) studied the vocabulary concerning eating habits among the Muslims in Narathiwat Province; Kamontham Cheunphan (1996) studied the lexical of community-forest and environment in Mien; Ranee Lertleumsai (2003) did a semantic and cultural study of Shan (Tai Yai) in terms concerning the concept of “Muang”; Kriengkrai Watanasawad (2006) undertook an Ethnolinguistic study of the lyrics of Thai country and city songs; Monta Chaihiranwattana (2008) aimed to study the figurative language and the socio-cultural reflections in central Thai folk songs; and Amonrat Rattanawong (2012) did a semantic study of Mlabri, etc. But no research about language and culture was ever done on ethnic Lao-Wiang people living in Thailand. In Fact, some research of Lao-Wiang groups was done in the past, but these are studies of voice and word structures. Kanchana Panka (1977) studied the phonological characteristics of Lao Dialects in Amphoe Muang, Nakhon Pathom; Wipawan Plungsuwan (1981) studied a tonal comparision of Tai dialects in Ratchaburi; Wanna Ratanapraseart (1985) studied word classes and word types of Lao-Wiang language in Chachoeng Sao Province; Kantima Wattanaprasert and Suwattana Liamprawat (1988) studied the phonology 51


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A Study of Language and Culture of “//”

of Lao dialects in Thacin River Basin; Suwattana Liamprawat and Kantima Wattanaprasert (1996) studied an analysis of lexical use and variation among three generations in Lao communities in the Thacin River Basin, etc. Some other research exists on the linguistic anthropology of Lao-Wiang; Kittiphat Nanthanawanit (2002) did a cultural-anthropological study of the Lao-Wiang community at Hat Song Khwae Village, Tron District, Utaradit Province. Therefore, the researcher decided to study the word “//” which is associate with the language and culture of Lao-Wiang people living in Thailand in order to understand their society, world view, system thinking and identity of Lao-Wiang people in Nong Kop Subdistrict, Ban Pong District, Ratchaburi Province. Objectives of the Study To study word and meaning of “//” in Lao-Wiang language and to analyze the cultural reflections from the usage of “//” in Lao-Wiang, Nong Kop Subdistrict, Ban Pong District, Ratchaburi Province. Benefits of the study 1. To get information and understanding about the cultural aspects of Lao-Wiang people, such as the local environment, occupations, beliefs and values, food and cooking, health and diseases, etc. in Nong Kop Subdistrict, Ban Pong District, Ratchaburi Province. 2. To preserve and disseminate the language in relation to the culture of Lao-Wiang people in above mentioned Province. 3. This dissertation is intended as a contribution to the fields of linguistics anthropology. Research Framework This research is based on two theories. They are as follows: 1. Linguistic anthropology is a science that studies the relationship between human beings and the language they use to communicate. 2. Language and thought are studies in the relationship between language and human thought.

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Research Methodology 1. Data Preparation : The data preparation includes activities as follows: 1.1 Collecting information on Lao-Wiang by studying articles, journals, textbooks, thesis and dissertations, which are relevant to the history, language and culture of Lao-Wiang, a reflection of society and culture, linguistic anthropology, language and thought described as a foundation in this study. 1.2 Sources for Lao-Wiang information are found in the following libraries : Library of Silpakorn University, Bangkok, Library of Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom, Public Library of Ban Pong District, Ratchaburi Province, Library of Thammasat University, Tha Phra Chan, Bangkok, Library of Language and Culture Institute, Mahidol University, and Office of Academic Services, Faculty of Arts, Chulalongkorn University. 2. Data Collection 2.1 Lexical items for the study used: A total amount of 430 lexical items of the word “//” used in Lao-Wiang language, in Nong Kop Subdistrict, Ban Pong District, Ratchaburi Province, were observed in this study. These items were collected by a sampling method from 20 Lao-Wiang informants of eight villages in Nong Kop Subdistrict for a period of two months (October-November 2010). In the survey, the researcher asked for the amount of the instances of “//” and how they are used? 2.2 Informant selection A total number of 16 informants, both, male and female, were selected for this survey. The informants have been observed, interviewed and took part on activities in Lao-Wiang culture. Several criteria’s for informant selection have been helpful to get this survey as correct and informative as possible. Being a native speaker of Lao-Wiang language was one of the must have criteria’s. In addition, informants needed to be mature (min. age 30 years) for language eliciting. The duration of living in the Lao-Wiang village was also an important criterion (min. residence 30 years) to have the knowledge and experience of living in this location.

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Each informant needed to be willing to participate in the research and to be able to devote the necessary time. This survey applied anthropology for the data collection and was done over a 1 year period from May 2011-May 2012. 2.3 Site selection The researcher selected 15 villages in total in Nong Kop Subdistrict for this servey. The first part of eight villages, including Moo 2 Ban Rang Khoi, Moo 3 Ban Nong Kop, Moo 5 Ban Nong Pla Duk and Ban Nong Kae, Moo 6 Ban Nong Pla Duk, Moo 7 Ban Nong Ri, Moo 11 Ban Bo or Ban Khlong, Moo 12 Ban Wa End, and Moo 15 Ban Nong Sa Ra Nang was served for linguistic data collection. The populations in these villages are 80% native speakers and they use the Lao-Wiang language in their daily lives. The other seven villages, including Moo 1 Ban Talat Bang Tan, Moo 4 Ban Bueng Kra Chap, Moo 8 Ban Yang, Moo 9 Ban Yang, Moo 10 Ban Rai Chet Sa Mak, Moo 12 Ban Khlong Bang Tan, and Moo 14 Ban Suan Kluai were served as sources for additional data investigation. 3. Data Arrangement A special data card for the lexical items was arranged. This data card was used for interviewing the informants and record the information from each informant separately. The lexical items were categorized as follows: Word............................................................................................. Meaning........................................................................................ Direct meaning...................................................................... Indirect meaning…………………………………………... Any situation from daily live..………………………………..... For communication with others..…………………………...….. Associate with………………………..…………………............ For typical example…..................................................................

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The researcher collected information obtained through interviews, observations, recording, photographs and attended activities from every informant. This information was recorded on separate information (one per informant). The data on the forms has been transferred into the computer system and was then easy to analyze as follows: Word......................................................................................... Informant No.1 ……………………………………………… Detials..........……………………………………………… Informant No.2 ……………………………………………… Detials..........……………………………………………… Informant No.3 ……………………………………………… Detials..........……………………………………………… Informant No. 4 ……………………………………………… Detials.........………………………………………….……. Informant No. 5 ……………………………………………… Detials..........………………………………………………. 4. Data Analysis 4.1 The data used in this analysis are from the site survey (see point 2.1 and 2.2). 4.2 Lexical items related to “//” were analysed by using semantic domains, divided into 5 main domains and 20 sub-domains. These domains have been used to reflect the cultures of Lao-Wiang people in Nong Kop Subdistrict, Ban Pong District, Ratchaburi Province. Furthermore, the analysis focused on the lexical items related to the words “//” and their reflection on Lao-Wiang’s identity. 4.3 The word “//” can reflect many angles of Lao-Wiang culture, such as the usage of the word /khi5 din2/ ‘ดิน’ ‘soil’, it can reflect local environment, occupations, beliefs and values, food and cooking of Lao-Wiang people.

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A Study of Language and Culture of “//”

Results of the Study 1. The meanings of the word “//” can be divided into two groups: direct and indirect meaning. 1.1 Direct meaning is a denotation or basic meaning of the word that most people can understand, such as the following words: /khi5/ ‘ขี้’ means feces or waste from humans or animals. /khi5 kaj4/ ‘ขี้ไก’ means waste out of the anus of the chicken. /khi5 ma1/ ‘ขี้หมา’ means waste out of the anus of the dog. /khi5 phia6/ ‘ขี้เพลี้ย’ means the feces of aphids. /khi5 laj4/ ‘ขี้เลื่อย’ means wood chips from lumber. /khi5 kEp4/ ‘แกลบ’ means waste from rice husk of paddy into rice. /khi5 pak4/ ‘กลิ่นปาก’ means foul odor in the mouth. /pa4 khi5/ ‘ปาขี้’ means a place in the forest, where one defecates. 1.2 Indirect meaning is a connotation or meaning for comparison. (Sukanya Rungchaeng, 2005: 1-4) This extends the definition of a primary and is also known as a “metaphor”. It is concerned with the idea of language and environment. (Wiphakorn Wongthai, 2000: 38-47) This metaphorical meaning does not occur to all words, but rather it appears to only a few words. The metaphor for this word mostly occurs in idioms and proverbs of the Lao-Wiang language, such as: /khi5/ ‘ขี’้ means action, dirt, bad things, worthless, insignificant things as shown in the following expression /kiat4 jaN4 ka/5 khi5/ ‘รูสึกเกลียดชัง’ /khi5 bO4 haj5 ma1 kin2/ ‘ขี้เหนียว’, and /thuk4 kh3 khi5/ ‘มีราคาถูกมาก’. /khi5 kaj4/ ‘ขี้ไก’ means worthless or insignificant things, such as /jiap4 khi5 kaj4 bO4 fO4/ ‘ทำ�อะไรไมเปน’. /khi5 ma1/ ‘ขี้หมา’ means worthless or insignificant things, such as /laN4 khi5 mu1 khi5 ma1/ ‘เรื่องเล็กนอย ไรสาระ ไมสำ�คัญอะไร’. /khi5 phia6/ ‘ขี้เพลี้ย’ means a bad thing, and is often used as a curse word, such as /phuak6 khi5 phia6/ ‘คนที่ทำ�ตัวไมดี ไมมีคุณคา’.

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/khi5 laj4/ ‘ขีเ้ ลือ่ ย’ means bad or worthless, such as /hua1 khi5 laj4/ ‘ไมมีความคิด’. /khi5 kEp4/ ‘แกลบ’ means bad or worthless, such as /kin2 khi5 kEp4/ ‘ลำ�บากยากจน’. /khi5 pak4/ ‘การนินทา’ means a bad word for mouth to others, such as /pen2 khi5 pak4 saw3 ban6/ ‘ถูกชาวบานนินทา’. /pa4 khi5/ ‘ปาขี้’ means an experience with that as well. The above mentioned comparison of the word “//” in Lao-Wiang language shows that, there is more than one meaning or complex meaning. (Murphy, 2010: 83-132) Therefore the word is known with a direct or indirect meaning by interpretation of the context or the circumstances around the world. The true meaning of the word is as follows: /laN1 ban6 mi3 tE4 khi5 mu1 khi5 ma1 ju4 tem2 paj2 mot5/ ‘หลังบาน มีแตขี้หมูขี้หมาอยูเต็มไปหมด’ ‘There is a lot of waste of pigs and dogs behind the house’. From the context, /khi5 mu1 khi5 ma1/ ‘ขี้หมู ขี้หมา’ is associated with the “behind the house” or /laN1 ban6/ ‘หลังบาน’ so /khi5 mu1 khi5 ma1/ ‘ขี้หมู ขีห้ มา’ in this sentence means a waste of pigs and dogs which is direct meaning. /kan2 pa/5 sum3 tha4 ni6 mi3 tE4 laN4 khi5 mu1 khi5 ma1 / ‘การ ประชุมครัง้ นีม้ แี ตเรือ่ งขีห้ มูขหี้ มา’ ‘There are no substantive matters in this meeting’. From the context, /khi5 mu1 khi5 ma1/ ‘ขี้หมู ขี้หมา’ is associated with “this meeting” or /kan2 pa/5sum3 tha4 ni6/ ‘การประชุมครัง้ น’ี้ and “the matters” or /laN4/ ‘เรื่อง’ so /khi5 mu1 khi5 ma1/ ‘ขี้หมู ขี้หมา’ in this sentence means not substantive matters which is indirect meaning. From the study of 430 words and expressions of the words “//” it can be concluded, that the comparative meanings of the word “//” are as follows: 1. “//” means things, which everyone becomes familiar with, because “//” is both human and animals from birth to death, such as / hen1 khi5 /On4 khi5 kE1/ ‘รูจักนิสัยใจคอกันเปนอยางดี’, /hu6 khi5 phn6/ ‘รูจัก

นิสัยใจคอกันเปนอยางดี’ and /pa4 khi5/ ‘รูจักสถานที่แหงนั้นเปนอยางดี’.

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A Study of Language and Culture of “//”

2. “//” means waste or useless things, which features a lot of worthless stuff, such as pig waste or /khi5 mu1/ ‘ขี้หมู’, dog waste or /khi5 ma1/ ‘ขี้หมา’. 3. “//” means sorrow or suffering, such as /kin2 khi5 kEp4/ ‘ลำ�บากยากจน’ and /kin2 khi5 hEN5/ ‘ลำ�บากยากจน’. 4. “//” means action from the body, speech and thoughts, which are found in morals and proverbs, to teach people to be careful in their living behavior otherwise they may be compared with smelly “//”, such as /khi5 law5 maw3 ja3 bO4 het6 na3 bO4 het6 haj4 mi3 mia3 bO4 than3 daj2 khaw1 kO2 bO4 lE3/ ‘ขี้เหลาเมายา ไมทำ�นาทำ�ไร มีเมียไมทันไร เมียก็ทอดทิ้ง’, and /phaj1 jak4 pen2 ni5 haj5 pen2 naj3 na5 phaj1 jak4 pen2 khi5 kha5 haj5 pen2 naj3 pa/5 kan2/ ‘ใครอยากเปนหนี้ใหเปนนายหนา ใครอยากเปนขี้ขาใหเปนนายประกัน’. 5. “//” means enjoyment when talking about “fart” or “feces,” it means the speakers are close and well acquainted with each other, so they can tease one another to remain in a good relationship, such as a short song for teasing children /ka2 kin2 khi5 mu1 ku2 kin2 khi5 ma1 ma1 khi5 han6 han3 khi5 mo4/ ‘กากินขี้หมู กูกินขี้หมา หมาขี้เรื้อน เรือนขี้เหร’, and /naw1 kin2 khi5 ma1 khaw1 /un4 kin2 khi5 /i2 tun4 hOn6 kin2 khi5 nok6 ka4 cOn6 jen3 kin2 khi5 nok6 ka4 ten2/ ‘หนาวกินขี้หมาขาว อุนกินขี้อีตุน รอนกินขี้นก กระจอน เย็นกินขี้นกกระเต็น’. 2. The word “//” is divided into 5 main semantic domains and 20 sub-semantic domains as follows:

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Table 1 The 5 main domains and 20 sub-domains of “//” of Lao Wiang language Semantic Domains (SD) Sub-SD

Main SD 1. Waste

1.1 Waste from body of human beings and animals 1.2 Type of “/” (feces) from human beings and animals 1.3 Feces of animals 1.4 Waste of human beings 2. Names 2.1 Names for natural substance 2.2 Names for plants 2.3 Names for animals 2.4 Names for human beings 2.5 Names for body of human beings and animals 2.6 Names for objects 2.7 Names for food 2.8 Names for places 2.9 Names for diseases 2.10 Names for colors 3. Behavior 3.1 Actions 3.2 Feelings 4. Vulgarity 4.1 Exclamation - Scolding 4.2 Scolding 5. Culture 5.1 Teaching - Literature 5.2 Idioms - Proverbs Total

Amount 151 16 20 50 65 110 25 10 18 10 5 10 5 3 10 14 86 59 27 20 3 17 63 10 53 430

The lexical items in all domains relate to each other and cannot clearly be separted. The reason for this is, that all lexical items come from word generation and meaning extensions of the word “//.” Thereby, a lot of new meanings are generated in the language.

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A Study of Language and Culture of “//”

3. The word “//” from the semantic domains used by Lao-Wiang people in their daily lives is bound up with their ideas, environment, lifestyles and culture aspects. In other words, they reflect the local environment, occupations, utensils and tools, beliefs and values, food and cooking, health and diseases, society and local politics of Lao-Wiang people (See Figure 1).

Local environment Local politics Culture

Waste

Occupations

Direct Meaning Society

Vulgarit

//

Name

Utensils and tools

Indirect Meaning Health and diseases

Behavior

Beliefs and values

Food and cooking

Figure 1 The relationship between the usage of the word “/kh/” of Lao-Wiang language and Lao-Wiang culture in Nong Kop Subdistrict Conclusions 1. Maintenance of the word “//” In standard Thai language, which has been changed over the years to use other words for reasons of politeness and appropriateness i.e. //u$t ca ra@// ‘อุจจาระ’, /mun/ ‘มูล’, /khru^t/ ‘คูถ’, /khra^p/ ‘คราบ’, and /se$t ‘เศษ’, the Lao-Wiang people in Nong Kop Subdistrict continue to use the word “/kh/” and do not replace it with other words. Therefore, the word “/kh/” in general still exists and has not been lost.  

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Futhermore, some words with concrete meanings, and words people are familiar with, still exist and have not been lost. Such words include /khi5 hu1/ ‘ขี้หู’, /khi5 ta2/ ‘ขี้ตา’, /khi5 khaj3/ ‘ขี้ไคล’, /khi5 mu1/ ‘ขี้หมู’, /khi5 ma1/ ‘ขีห้ มา’ etc, or some abstract meanings showing human behaviors, such as /khi5 com4/ ‘ชอบบน’, /khi5 son3/ ‘ซน’, /khi5 diat4/ ‘รังเกียจหรือขยะแขยง’, /khi5 tua/5/ ‘โกหก’, and /khi5 /aj2/ ‘ขี้อาย’, 2. Loss of the word “/kh/” In a few villages, some of traditional words are not passed on to descendants, so they will get lost or die with the old Lao-Wiang culture. These words are /khi5 ta4 nEw4/ ‘คำ�ดา’, /khi5 bak5 /E/5/ ‘เด็กทารก’, /khi5 ka4 tiN6/ ‘จับปง’, /khi5 khin1 no5/ ‘ดินกอนใหญ’, /khi5 khiN1 khaj3/ ‘ตะไคร’. 3. Negative meaning of the word “/kh/” The word “/kh/” is often used as an interjection, which starts as a refused sentence and has a negative meaning, such as /khi5 ka4 bO4 paj2/ ‘ขี้ ก็ไมไป’ (don’t go), /khi5 ka4 bO4 ma3/ ‘ขี้ ก็ไมมา’ (don’t come), /khi5 ka4 bO4 kin2/ ‘ขี้ ก็ไมกิน’ (don’t eat), /khi5 ka4 bO4 nOn3/ ‘ขี้ ก็ไมนอน’ (don’t sleep), and /khi5 ka4 bO4 waw6/ ‘ขี้ ก็ไมพูด’ (don’t speak) etc. The word “/kh/” is used to refer to several things in the daily lives of Lao-Wiang people which have a general meaning. Contrarily, the word “/kh/” is used to describe bad actions or behaviors or acts, which are not normal or unusual and something get used as a curse, such as /khi5 lak6 khi5 cok5/ ‘ชอบลักขโมยสิง่ ของ’, /khi5 N4 khi5 3/ ‘ชอบยกยองชมเชยผูอ นื่ ’, /khi5 lok6 khi5 phaj3/ ‘รางกายออนแอ เปนโรคงาย’, /khi5 pia6 khi5 NOj4/ ‘พิการ รางกายไม สมบูรณ’, and /khi5 N4 khi5 kuan2/ ‘ชอบรบกวน สรางความรำ�คาญใหแกผูอื่น’ ect. 4. Changes on the word “/kh/” Some words are undergoing sound changes. For example: /khi5/ + /cap5 piN6/

~

/khi5 ka4 tiN6/ ‘จับปง’

/khi5/ + /taj6/

~

/khi5 ka4 taj6/ ‘เชื้อลอไฟ’

/khi5/ + /din1/ + /mo3/ ‘ใหญ’

~

/khi5 khin1 no5/ ‘ดินกอนใหญ’

/khi5/ + /ta4 khaj3/

~

/khi5 khiN1 khaj3/ ‘ตะไคร’

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For Lao-Wiang people some words sound strange and are difficult to pronounce, i.e.: /ta4 khaj3/ ‘ตะไคร’ so it is pronounces as /khiN1/ and /khaj3/. 5. Word formation of “/kh/” Some words are formed by rhymes such as /khi5 lit5 pit5 pi4/ ‘เรื่อง เล็กนอย’, and /khi5 kha5 ha4 lak6/ ‘คำ�ดา’. Such formation helps to make pronounciation easier. Some words are borrowed from standard Thai language such as: 5 /khi bu4 ri4/ ‘ขี้บุหรี่’ and /khi5 kha4 ja/5/ ‘ขยะ’. These words result from nowadays culture, which is different from the traditional language: they employ the words /khi5 ja3 sup4/ ‘ขี้ยาสูบ’ and /khi5 a4/ ‘ขยะ’. Some words are derived from Pali-Sanskrit from Thai-Buddhism such as /khi5 /it5 cha1/ ‘ขี้อิจฉา’, /khi5 /a2 khat6/ ‘ขี้อาฆาต’. Some words are formed into complex words, such as /khi5 NE3 khi5 NEm3/ ‘งอแง--หยอกลอ’, /khi5 thuk6 khi5 hOn6/ ‘ลำ�บากยากแคน’, /khi5 loN1 khi5 lm3/ ‘หลงลืมงาย’, /khi5 ba4 khi5 naj4/ ‘เบื่อหนาย’, /khi5 hON6 khi5 haj5/ ‘งอแง’, and /khi5 /ot5 khi5 jak4/ ‘อดอยาก’, etc. These words are formed to emphasize characters, personalities, behaviors and habits of people. 6. The relationship between the word “/kh/” and Lao-Wiang’s culture Soil or /khi5 din2/ is very important for Lao-Wiang daily life, so the usage of the word /khi5 din2/ in Lao-Wiang can reflect many angles of their culture, i.e. the local environment, occupation, beliefs and values, food and cooking. Additionally, they can reflect the simple and nature-centered lifestyle of Lao-Wiang people. Many words are categorized as vulgar or indecent in Lao-Wiang. They come from the environment of the communities, such as humans, animals and diseases. These bad words get used, when Lao-Wiang people feel angry or upset with other people. Examples include /khi5 khOj 2 khi5 kha5 / ‘คำ�สบถหรือคำ�ดาผูอื่น’, /khi5 kha5 ha4lak6/ ‘คำ�สบถหรือคำ�ดาผูอื่น’ , /khi5 kha5 ha4caw6/ ‘คำ�สบถหรือคำ�ดาผูอื่น’, /phuak6 law3 khi5 khaN4/ ‘คำ�สบถหรือคำ�ดาผูอื่น’, /phuak6 khi5 phia6/ ‘คำ�สบถหรือคำ�ดาผูอื่น’, //aj6 phuak6 ma1 khi5 han6/ ‘คำ�สบถ หรือคำ�ดาผูอื่น’, and /phuak6 khi5 thut6 khi5 thaN1/ ‘คำ�สบถหรือคำ�ดาผูอื่น’, etc.

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Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

Some words are to describe the economy and society. They are changed due to time and nowadays cultures i.e. /khi5 thaj1/ ‘ดินทีเ่ กิดจากการไถนา’, /khi5 thak6/ ‘ดินที่เกิดจากการเทือกนา’,  /khi5 lan3/ ‘เศษขี้วัวทาลานสำ�หรับนวดขาว’, /khi5 faN3/ ‘เศษฟางแหง’, /khi5 si3/ ‘ขี้ซีหรือยางไม’, /khi5 khaN4/ ‘ครั่ง’ and /khi5 sik4/ ‘น้ำ�ครำ�’. These words are influenced by change of life-style. Changes are when traditional methods of rice cultivation get changed to use new technology or when big families change into a single family. In addition life-style can change for political or administrative reasons, as well as language matters, when words are borrowed from other languages. All of these factors affect the Lao-Wiang’s usage of the word “/kh/”. 7. The relationship between the word “/kh/” and Lao-Wiang thoughts Lao-Wiang people think of the word “/kh/” with concrete meaning and “/kh/” with abstract meaning. For instance, concrete meanings of the word “/kh/” are /khi5 din2/ ‘ขี้ดิน’, /khi5 tom2/ ‘โคลน’, /khi5 mu1/ ‘ขี้หมู’, /khi5 ma1/ ‘ขี้หมา’ and /khi5 Nua3/ ‘ขี้วัว’. Abstract meanings of the word “/kh/” include /khi5 diat4/ ‘รังเกียจ หรือ ขยะแขยง’, /khi5 ba4 khi5 naj4/ ‘เบื่อหนาย’, /khi5 jan4/ ‘กลัว’, /khi5 h4/ ‘เหอ’, and /khi5 /aj2/ ‘รูสึกอายหรือเขิน’. Lao-Wiang people create many compound words from the word “/kh/”. Thereby, a lot of new meanings are generated in the language. The word “/kh/” is employed as a term referring to things in daily life, including colors, foods, or diseases, and to describe the status of a person or personality. The usage of these terms is associate with ideas, experiences and culture of Lao-Wiang people in Nong Kop Subdistrict. Lao-Wiang people think that “/kh/” is a disgusting word, because it has a bad smell and it is only used for waste products. Nevertheless, in their daily lives the worthless “/kh/”can earn money for them. For instance, human or animal feces can become fertilizer or fuel used for homes. So it will earn a small income and is not completely disgusting. Furthermore, the word “/kh/” in Lao-Wiang includes food which people eat and then purge out. “/kh/” is regular and normal, but it has led to an advanced philosophy. “/kh/”can occur to all people in any place at any time. Therefore, we should live a normal and simple life; defecation is common in daily life. So our lives can be happy. On the other hand, stools

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are sometimes abnormal in the body. “/kh/” gets compared to the abnormal or bad things in life, such as /khi5 kin2 khi5 koN2/ ‘ฉอราษฎรบังหลวง’, /khi5 lak6 khi5cok5/ ‘ลักขโมยทรัพยสินของผูอื่น’, /khi5 ak6 khi5 k6/ ‘ยักยอกทรัพย’, and /khi5 mo3 ho1/ ‘โมโหงาย’, etc. These actions make life more difficult and unhappy for these people, their families and society. In summary, the results of the study conform to the hypothesis. It can be concluded that the words and idioms of “/kh/” in Lao-Wiang language spoken in Nong Kop SubDistrict, Ban Pong District, Ratchaburi Province relate to their life-style, society and culture from the past until today and the usage of the word “/kh/” in Lao-Wiang language can also indicate the identity of Lao-Wiang people in Ratchaburi Province as mentioned before. In addition, the results of this study support previous concepts and research that language and culture are closely related and that the words used in a language can reflect the culture of their speakers, such as Sanit Smuckarn (1975), Naraset Pisitpanporn (1986), Kamontham Cheunphan (1996), Cook (1997), Nida (1998), and Monta Chaihiranwattana (2008), etc.

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Rattanawong, A. (2012) A Semantic Analysis of Extended Meaning in Mlabri Body-part Terms. M.A. thesis, Mahidol University. Rungchaeng, S. (2005) Uppalak Choeng Manothat Khong Kanchai Khamwa Cai Nai Phasathai [Conceptual Metaphors Using /Cay/ (Heart / Mind)]. M. A. thesis, Thammasat University. (In Thai) Sapir, E. (1921) Language. New York : Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc. Smuckarn, S. (1975) Rueang Na Khong Khon Thai : Wikhro Tam Naeokhit Thang Manutsayawitthaya Phasasat [The Thais “Faces� : A Linguistic Antropological Analysis]. Phatthanaborihansat, 15(4): 492-505. (In Thai) Thongdee, I. (1985) Kansueksa Wichai Thang Manutsaya Witthaya Phasasat Khong Phasathin Changwat Phatthalung Doi Nen Wong Khamsap Kiaokap Chiwit Prachamwan Kankasikam Lae Kanthammahakin. M. A. thesis, Mahidol University. (In Thai) Watanasawad, K. (2006) An Ethnolinguistic Study in the Lyrics of Thai Country and City songs. Ph.D. Dissertation, Mahidol University. Wattanaprasert, K. and Liamprawat, S. (1988) Raingan Kanwichai Rueang Rabopsiang Phasalao Khong Lumnam Thachin [The phonology of Lao Dialects in Thachin River Basin]. 2nd ed. Nakhon Pathom: Silpakorn University. (In Thai) Wichienrot Khanittanan, W. (1973) The Influence of Siamese on Five Lao Dialects. Ph.D.Dissertation. The University of Michigan. Wongthai, W. (2000) Phasa Lae Watthanatham [Language and Culture]. Bangkok : Kasetsart University. (In Thai) Yingswadi, P. (1990) Lokkathat Khong Chaokhao Hok Phao Thi Sathon Chak Kham Laksananam Riak Sing Mi Chiwit [Worldviews of the Six Hilltribes in Thailand as Reflected in Classifiers for Animate Nouns]. M. A. thesis, Chulalongkorn University. (In Thai) WEBSITE The Local Information of Nong Kop Subdistrict; [Online URL: www. thaitambon.com/tambon/ttambon.asp?ID=700505] accessed on October 1, 2010.

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Relationship between Religiosity and Prosocial Behavior of Thai Youth Sukhonta Mahaarcha* and Sirinan Kittisuksathit Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand * Corresponding author: sukhonta@gmail.com Abstract Researches gradually suggest the importance of religious engagement as a developmental resource that guide youth to become responsible, caring, and civic-minded adults as well as enhances the youth’s prosocial behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between religiosity and prosocial behavior in Thai youths. Data were obtained from the 2008 Survey on Conditions of Society, Culture, and Mental Health conducted by The National Statistical Office. This study selected only Thai youth aged 15 to 24 and being Buddhists as a sample. Findings support the theoretical notion that religiosity of youth influence prosocial behavior. Maintaining the five precepts and Applying doctrine to daily life increased the level of prosocial behaviors among Thai youth. The authors discuss implications for stakeholders to launch efficiently and effectively religious education program by encouraging youth to take part in religious activities to ensure that they aware of the importance of religious and prosocial behavior. Key Words: Religiosity; Prosocial behavior; Thai Youth

Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts Vol. 13(2) : 69-92, 2013


Sukhonta Mahaarcha and Sirinan Kittisuksathit

Relationship between Religiosity

Introduction In the beginning of the 21st century, as a result of globalization, the cultural transformation has disseminated the materialism and consumerism through pervasive and persuasive advertising and mass media (NESDB, 2007). Thai youths also face the impact of globalization in several ways, both positive and negative ways. Nowadays, there are numerous negative behaviors that can be easily seen from daily media in Thailand. Prior studies indicated that Thai youth have dramatically changed in behavior and well-being. A lot of problems related to Thai youth’s behavior have been increasing such as fighting, smoking, drinking, gambling, game addiction, internet addition, luxurious lifestyle, school drop-out, rape, induced abortion, and suicide (Kittisuksathit, Mahaarcha, Gray, & Rakumnuaykit, 2006). From the finding of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Rajanagarindra Institute, the four main problems of Thai youth were violence, sex, drug, and suicide. During the past 10 years, the number of Thai youth in detention home is continuously increasing. Average age at first sexual intercourse of Thai teenagers, surprisingly, is youngest in the world. With the collaboration of house, temple, and school, good habits instilled at youth can be created, in turn, those youth may develop stronger community and then society (Buddhist Learning Club, 2012). An increasing number of juvenile delinquency and deviant behavior among Thai youth are often blamed for the moral crisis. Since the morals and ethics in Thai youth have weakened, major institutions (e.g. family and religious institutions) were expected to nurture and retain the role extensively (NESDB, 2007). In Thailand, The fifth national youth policy and National Child and Youth Development Plan in the years 2002-2011 concentrated on encouraging teenagers to happily adapt for social change based on moral and ethical values (National Youth Bureau, 2002). While young people have often been described as ecocentric and selfish, they acts of altruism are, however, plentiful (Santrock, 1996). Most of the studies have paid attention to problem behaviors extensively; contrary to prosocial and moral behaviors of youth have been much less studied. Prior researches are almost relevant to at least a considerable presence of

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youth problem and risky behavior, such as smoking, drinking habit, and drug abuse (e.g., Joronen, 2005; Fabes, Carlo, Kupinoff, & Laible, 1999). A majority work has been done in the area of behavior among youth in which probably excludes the humanitarian functions of religion, such as altruism, empathy, and volunteerism (Erickson, 1992), although researches linking religiosity and youth behavior have typically emphasized the strong impact of religious involvement on negative behaviours (Johnson, 2009; Hardy & Carlo, 2005). Scholars, nonetheless, have become recently interested in studying the positive aspects of human nature rather than the negative aspects (Rich, 2003). It has recently turned the attention to explore another side of youth. This study also attempts to understand the relationship between humanitarian functions associated with youths’ behavior. Unlike the overwhelming majority of research on the role of religious importance among senior populations, the literatures have been seldom observed but to a lesser but growing extent to tie youth to the religion areas (Barry, Nelson, Davarya, & Urry, 2010; Erickson, 1992). Since religion might not be seen as an essential variable influencing youth development, almost young people rarely participate in church-related activities. Contrary to some popular images, religion plays a significant role in youths’ lives and development (Erickson ; Regnerus, Smith, & Fritsch, 2003). Empirically, the US survey of happiness among youth found that being faith and spirituality are meaningful in pursuit of happiness (GMA Network Inc., 2007). Nonetheless, the bulk of published research studies on religious issues and youth’s behavior within general youth have merely originated in the Western countries. Most available researches are drawn from white and Christian societies. Concerned about religion issue in Thailand, youth still believe in doctrine rather high; however, in practice, they have less likely to make a merit (Sethaput, Varangratana, & Boonchaivatana, 1998). Several scholars mentioned religion is principally about social control. Research gradually suggests the importance of providing youth with opportunities to enhance prosocial behaviors that guide them to become responsible, caring, and civic-minded adults (Wilson, 2001). While the majority of studies so far

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Relationship between Religiosity

concentrate on the positive aspects of youths, this study try to explore youth’s religiosity. The findings are expected to particularly beneficial for quality youth development or guideline for strengthening youth program. It will enable them to better understand and tailor programs to that youth’s experience and environment. The central aim of this study is to examine whether religiosity influence on prosocial behavior among Buddhist youths in Thailand. Concept and Theoretical Perspectives of Religiosity The definition of religiosity can refer to various factors, including religious belief and religious practice. Miller and Thoresen (2003) have identified the operationalized religiosity by using religious beliefs and practices terms. Many researchers have identified religiosity in terms of different aspects of religious commitment or religious identity. The component of religious commitment mainly comprise with personal faith, participation in organized religious activities, and identification with a particular religious denomination. Correspondingly, dimension of religious identity refer to the subjective assessment of spirituality in one’s life, religious practice, and communal affiliation. The overlap among these two conceptions recommend that the differentiation among ritual practice, religious affiliation, and a personal sense of one’s religious belief in defining religious commitment or identity is need. Only investigating participation or affiliation probably underestimate the importance that religious identity has in one’s life. For the measurement, various studies measure religiosity by typically range from not at all to very religious by using survey items with response categories (Schneider, Rice, & Hoogstra, 2004). According to religiosity and spirituality can be considered as closely related constructs. Religiosity identified as commitment to, identification with and involvement in a religion or system of religious belief, or individual’s relationship with a particular faith tradition or doctrine about a divine other or supernatural power. Also, it is associated with institutional organization and affiliation, adherence to moral beliefs, dogma, or creed, and ritualistic participation in organized or individual worship or sacred practices (Boswell

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& Boswell-Ford, 2010; Hardy & Carlo, 2005). On the other hand, spirituality is identified as the intrinsic human capacity for self-transcendence, which the self is embedded in something greater than the self, including the sacred and which motivates the search for connectedness, meaning, purpose, and contribution (Benson, Roehlkepartain, & Rude, 2003). Regarding measurement of religiosity in previous work, Barry and colleagues (Barry, Nelson, Davarya, & Urry, 2010) operationalized religiosity in terms of religious beliefs and practices which is best represented by individual beliefs and practices. Study on religious concern of Thai youth has revealed that Thai students understand the concept and meaning of five precepts. Though, some of precepts may difficult to follow so that they may break the precept in terms of killing mosquitoes or other pests, cheating on exams, copying their friends’ assignments, lying to parents, as well as drinking alcohol. Particularly, few of them break the third precept by cheating on their partners (Tapontong, Napompech, & Kukuan, 2005) Conceptualization of Prosocial Behavior Theoretically, prosocial behavior represents a broad category of acts generally made with the intention of benefiting others being hallmarks of social competence in childhood and youth. It is manifested by so-called “self-sacrifice,� minimal concern for personal desires, or devotion to others pertained positively to altruistic moral reasoning whereas it is costly to the individual (Bekkers & Dirk de Graaf, 2005; Wentzel, Filisetti, & Looney, 2007). These voluntary behaviors include a broad range of activities in terms of both instrumental and emotional support, such as helping others in both an emergency and a non-emergency; sharing, comforting, rescuing, donating time, effort, or money; volunteering; and cooperative form of behavior rather than competing (Williams, 2007). Buddhism Roots of Prosocial Behavior For centuries, philosophers have mentioned the basis of prosocial and moral behaviors. Generally, philosophical concepts of prosocial behavior

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Relationship between Religiosity

and sympathy have their roots in religious doctrine. The most fundamental Buddhist code of ethics is the Five Precepts that define what kind of conduct should be avoided; (1) kill no living being, (2) never take that which is not freely given, (3) avoid sexual misconduct, (4) no lying, and (5) refrain from taking intoxicants (Instilling Goodness School, 2012). The “via positiva” of Buddhism outlines the virtues essential to reach ultimate happiness (Nirvana), including giving (Pāli: Dana), kindness (Pāli: Metta), sympathetic joy (Pāli: Mudita), as well as compassion (Pāli: Karuna). In addition, there are dharma principles of the four sublime states, called the Four Brahma Viharas, which is a series of four Budhhist virtues and meditation practices; (1) Loving kindness or benevolence (Pāli: Metta) is the wish that all sentient beings be happy without exception, (2) compassion (Pāli: Karuna) is mercy or special kindness shown to those who are suffer, (3) sympathetic joy (Pāli: Mudita) is being happy for others without a trace of envy, and (4) Equanimity (Pāli: Uppekha) is the ability to accept others as they are (Nyanaponika, 2012). Religiosity Pertaining to Prosocial Behavior Many reasons explain why religiosity has an influence on youth prosocial behavior. The increasing abstract thought and searching for an identity of young people draw them to religion and spiritual matters (Santrock, 1996). Religion is a form of social capital, acts as a source of social control, provides reinforcement for prosocial behavior, and punishment in case of lack of altruism (e.g., Hardy & Carlo, 2005; King & Furrow, 2004). Religiosity provides youth with moral directives to lead their decisions and behaviors (Smith, 2003). Although these conceptual linkages have only been minimally investigated, religiosity and spirituality have been linked to altruism, sympathy, helping, and other prosocial behaviors Religious involvement or religious importance are positively associated altruism and service (e.g., Furrow, King, & White, 2004; Smith & Denton, 2005). The study revealed religiosity was a significant predictor of youth behavior. Religious adolescents were related to more frequent volunteer work, and spent more

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time on extracurricular activities, as well as less likely to engage in risky behaviors (e.g., smoking, drugs, and alcohol use (Schneider, Rice, & Hoogstra, 2004). Regarding the type of religious orientation individual, the link between religiosity and prosocial behavior may differ. There are three types of religious orientation: persons with an extrinsic religious orientation regard religion as a means to other ends (e.g. social status); people with intrinsic religious orientation view religion as an intrinsically motivating end in itself; and those with quest religious orientation see religion as process involving questioning and re-examining values and beliefs (Batson & Grey, 1981). Previous studies of adolescences have found religious practice correspond to different levels of youths’ happiness (Francis, et al., 2004; Mahaarcha, 2010). Even these conceptual linkages have merely been minimally explored, religiosity has been related to humanitarian functions (e.g., altruism, sympathy, helping, prosocial behaviors, etc.). Given most religious doctrine have teaching that stress care and compassion with others, religiosity is a strong positive impact on youth prosocial behavior. In general, religious individuals are higher in prosocial behavior, as most religious institutions stress the significance of performing altruistic acts. Most studies, which have examined links between religiosity and prosocial behavior identically, found higher religiosity to be associated with higher rates of prosocial behavior (Hardy & Carlo, 2005). Previous studies examining prosocial behavior both self-reported volunteering and actual volunteering show that intrinsic religiosity may better predict helping behavior than extrinsic religiosity. It can be explained that extrinsic religiosity refers to gaining more social and personal rewards than on following individual’s religious commitment, whereas intrinsic religiosity is based on a religious system that internally guides individual’s behavior (Hansen, Vandenberg, & Patterson, 1995). Recently, the interdisciplinary field of positive youth development has regarded religious engagement as a developmental resource that promotes positive behavior and diminishes risk behavior (Scales & Leffert, 2004). Theoretically, religion is about motivation to refrain from participating in

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Relationship between Religiosity

risk behaviors. Chamratrithirong and colleagues (2010) found positive & indirect associations of spirituality of parents & teens within a family & the prevention of adolescent risk behaviors. Wallace and Williams (1997) proposed that for youth, religion is a secondary socialization influence together with school and peers, whereas family is regarded as the merely primary one. Religion can shape youths’ behavior by affecting youths’ beliefs, attitudes and behaviors through the mechanisms of social control, social support and values or identity. Besides, he also remarked that the family which is the primary socialization is shaped by religion as well. Another perspective is focused on religion motivate youth behavior directly. Smith (2003) argued that religious belief and experience are the stuff that prompts youth to act, meaning that religion motivates youth behavior directly. One of religion and youth research found that religion is the social control that push youth promptly toward conformity with social and legal norms influence youth to associate with significance others (e.g., family and friends) who hold such conformity standards (Bahr, Hawks, & Wang, 1993). In other words, religion is the mechanism that stimulates youth to follow or hold the social and legal norms of the family and peers. In sum, all of these perspectives depict religion that works through to shape youth behavior by the mechanism of social control and social learning. Using path analyses to examine the mediation between religious socialization and prosocial behavior, Kyoung (2010) found that the relationship between religious socialization by parents and prosocial behavior and peer competence were fully mediated by religious identity. On the other hand, religious identity was partially mediated the relationship between religious socialization by friends and prosocial behavior and peer competence. With received greater religious socialization by parents, youths with low religious identity displayed higher in externalizing behavior problems. In Thailand, there are some researches on youth’s behavior and religious concern. Several characteristics of youths (i.e., age, gender, household size, education, and region of residence) influence the participation in Buddhist religious activities, except for work status (Suankhem, 1994). Sriboaunam

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(2007) examined what factors affect the factor effecting virtue of lower secondary school students in Bangkok. Characteristic of student, family and school environment, religious activity and media perception were found to be the factor influencing virtue level. It was also found that students of lower secondary school in Bangkok showed a high level of virtue and moral reasoning in the universal ethical principle orientation in all aspects except the discipline and the law and order orientation aspects. A study of the impact of integrated house, school, and psychological trait in Thai student marked that students who have Buddhist life style, following the religious teaching in daily life, report higher responsible for themselves and family (Yodrabum, 2005). Additional evidence of the study of prosocial behavior in Thailand has focused on many kinds of actions (i.e., material donation, monetary donation, art and science donation, verbal support to make understanding and friendship, physical support, as well as giving with sympathy). Similar to western societies, female students, students who have higher-educated parents, as well as students from wealthier family found more prone to prosocial behavior than those who are not. Thus, we might conclude that transference, attitude, and value toward prosocial behavior, love and supportive child-rearing, and reasoning child-rearing, together with empathy could predict students’ prosocial behavior (Nimtongkam, 1992). Based on the theoretical perspective and literature reviews, it is hypothesized that religiosity affect prosocial behavior of youth, controlling with demographic characteristics of youth (namely gender, age, marital status, educational level, studying status, number of household asset, residential area, and living arrangement). Material and Method Data Data for analyses were drawn from the 2008 Survey on Conditions of Society, Culture and Mental Health conducted by National Statistic Office of Thailand. In this survey, the population in the survey covered all aged 13 years and over who resided in the sample households. In this study, the

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Relationship between Religiosity

youth population of the analysis were limited to the aged 15 to 24 years and being Buddhist. The reason was some parts of questionnaire asking above 15 years and most of respondents were Buddhists (91%). Measures Dependent variable: Prosocial behavior It was measured as a continuous variable and assessed using youth reports about frequency of the actions in one-year period before the survey, measuring the extent to which they did in such behavior as (1) helping others even not your relatives, (2) showing gratitude to the one who help you, (3) giving a chance to others first, (4) forgiving sincerely to others who feel remorse. Items are measured on a 5-point scale ranging from 0 (never) to 4 (always). (5) donating financial/ material/ food support, this item is measured on a 3-point scale ranging from 0 (never) to 2 (always). In addition, frequency of the actions in one-month period before the survey includes; (6) helping other when you have a chance, this item is measured on a 4-point scale ranging from 0 (not at all) to 3 (A lot). Researcher created a prosocial behavior score by using the 6 items which having totally 21-point scale. Independent variables: Religious practice and religious belief 1) Religious practice Researcher measured frequency of youth practice in several the activities during the previous year (i.e., chanting, offering food to monk, offering gift to monks, maintaining the five precepts, and meditation). The 10-point response format for individual items ranges from 0 (never) to 10 (everyday/ almost everyday). Then, the total score were created by summing the responses. Score for these 5 items were summed so that higher values reflect greater level of religiosity of youth. 2) Religious belief As subjective measure of religiosity, researcher used 4 indicators to measure level of religiosity of youth. Youths were asked ‘whether religion is necessary to your living’: 0 (necessary), 1 (not sure), and 2 (unnecessary), ‘in case of facing life or work problem, do you apply doctrine to overcome’ and coded 0 (never) to 4 (always), and assessed ‘the levels of religious of

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youth’ and ‘whether youth follow the doctrine’ which were coded 0 (not at all) to 10 (totally). Other variables Other variables include socioeconomic characteristics of youth. As indicators of socio-economic characteristics of youth, gender, age, marital status, educational level, studying status, number of household possession, residential area, and living arrangement were analyzed. For marital status of youth, those youth who are single were coded as one. All others (i.e., married, divorced, and separated) were coded as zero. Education level of youth was categorized into uneducated, kindergarten, primary education, lower secondary education, upper secondary/ vocational education, undergraduate education, and postgraduate education. Studying status can be classified by in or out of school. Out of school was coded as 1, while youth who are inschool was coded as 0. Household possession was defined to the ownership of four particular household items, namely computer with internet access, washing machine, air conditioner, and car/ pickup/ van. As they are not highly common asset of the household, these items were selected to be the criterion. Area of residence where youth live are coded between rural (0) and urban (1). Living arrangement was assessed from household roster which indicates respondents live with parent in the household was operationalized as living arrangement. Four dummy variables were created; (1) Living with both parents, (2) Living with father only, (3) Living with mother only, and (4) Not living with parent. Each category may or may not include the others (i.e. relatives, non-relatives). Method Since the independent variables are continuous variables, this study employed Multiple Regression Analyses to investigate the relationship between religiosity and prosocial behavior. Results The results are presented in three parts: a descriptive analysis of youth’s characteristics, prosocial behavior by gender and studying status,

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Relationship between Religiosity

and an analysis of the relationship between religiosity and prosocial behavior of youth in regression models. Table 1 presents the means and standard deviations of all variables. Most samples were female (61.4%). Mean age of youth were 19.5 years. One-third of youths were ever married. Almost half of youths had lower secondary education and 45.6% were still in-school. 32.4% of youth did not have any item of household asset. Two-third of youths was living in urban area. Most of youths did not live with parent in the household. Thai youth reported low level of religious belief, while reported moderate level of religious belief and prosocial behavior. Table 1 Percentage, mean, and number of the youths by characteristics Variables Sex Female Male Mean age Marital status Single Ever married Education level Never study Kindergarten Primary education Lower secondary education Upper secondary/ Vocational education Undergraduate education Post graduate education Studying status In-school Out-of-school

N

Percentage/ Mean

1,368 859 -

61.4 38.6 Mean = 19.5

1,558 669

70.0 30.0

27 19 333 979

1.2 0.9 15.0 44.0

747

33.5

121 1

5.4 0.0

1,015 1,212

45.6 54.4

80

S.D.

(2.9)


Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

Number of household possession 0 1 2 3 4 Residential area Rural Urban Living arrangement Both parent Father only Mother only No parent Mean score of religious practice (0-20) Mean score of religious belief (0-26) Mean score of prosocial behavior (0-21) Total

722 697 358 215 235

32.4 31.3 16.1 9.7 10.6

784 1,443

35.2 64.8

854 63 311 999

38.3 2.8 14.0 44.9

-

Mean = 5.5

(3.2)

-

Mean = 14.4

(4.5)

-

Mean = 13.0

(3.4)

100.0

2,227

Note: Standard Deviation for continuous variables Due to the highly significant differences in prosocial behaviors between girls and boys, as well as between in and out of school youths, additional model were developed. In this sample, from those who were still in-school, both male and female youths showed greater level of prosocial behavior than those who are out-of-school. Particularly for girls, in-school girls had obviously higher prosocial behavior—helping others even not your relatives, showing gratitude, giving a chance to others, forgiving, and donating—than out-of-school girls. Girls who are in-school reported higher in the item—helping others when they have a chance—than those who are out-of-school at a close to significance level. Among male youths, whether in or out-of-school youth did not show much difference in prosocial behavior score (see Table 2) 81


Sukhonta Mahaarcha and Sirinan Kittisuksathit

Relationship between Religiosity

Table 2 Prosocial behavior by gender and studying status Male (n = 859) Variables

In-school

Female (n = 1,368)

Out-ofp-value school

In-school

Out-ofp-value school

Helping even not relatives Low (0)

4.9

3.8

Medium (1-2)

55.6

High (3-4)

.640

2.8

2.8

57.9

54.0

60.8

39.5

38.4

43.2

36.4

1.0

1.8

0.0

0.3

90.9

90.7

87.0

90.0

8.1

7.5

13.0

9.7

2.2

0.9

1.2

1.1

Medium (1-2)

31.1

34.6

23.1

30.9

High (3-4)

66.7

64.5

75.8

68.1

2.2

3.5

2.5

2.9

Medium (1-2)

60.8

62.5

52.6

59.3

High (3-4)

37.0

33.9

45.0

37.8

1.0

2.2

1.6

2.5

Medium (1-2)

38.7

46.1

30.5

36.8

High (3-4)

60.3

51.7

67.9

60.7

Low (0)

29.4

44.3

25.7

32.9

Medium (1)

64.5

51.0

65.4

62.5

6.1

4.7

8.9

4.6

.036*

Helping when have a chance Low (0) Medium (1-2) High (3)

.592

.074

Showing gratitude Low (0)

.183

.006**

Giving a chance Low (0)

.367

.029*

Forgiving Low (0)

.022*

.020*

Donating

High (2)

Note: *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

82

.000***

.000***


Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

Table 3 examined the relationship between religious factors and prosocial behavior. Model 1 begins the analysis with the focus on the relationship between other variables and prosocial behavior. Gender of youth was most significantly related to prosocial behavior. Males had lower prosocial behavior than females. Educational level had a positive relationship with prosocial behavior. Those who were out-of-school had lower levels of prosocial behavior than in-school youths. Respondents who had higher household possession had greater have prosocial behavior. Living arrangement was not significantly associated with having had prosocial behavior. In Model 2, the effect of religious factors and prosocial behavior is a little different from the first model. Concerning religious factors, the results show that, youths who reported maintaining five precepts were related to have more prosociality. Those youth who reported greater in Applying doctrine to daily life and following the doctrine tended to have higher levels of prosocial behavior than those with lower applying and following the doctrine. Discussion This present study contributes to the understanding of religiosity to prosocial behavior among Buddhist youths in Thailand. These findings are consistent with prior studies, which have identified the religious factors that are related to desirable behavior of youth. As mentioned above, having Buddhist life style and following the religious teaching in daily life, youths are more likely to display higher prosocial behavior (e.g., Yodrabum, 2005). With regard to religious belief, only Applying doctrine to daily life and following the doctrine influence on prosocial behavior. The hypothesis regarding religious belief was, in part, based on study by Wallace and Williams (1997), who noted religion plays a role in shaping youthsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; behavior by affecting their beliefs and attitudes through the mechanisms of social control, social support and values or identity. However, there is no significant influence of belief in necessity of religion to the living and religious level on youthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s prosociality. In a sense, applying and following the doctrine can

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Sukhonta Mahaarcha and Sirinan Kittisuksathit

Relationship between Religiosity

Table 3 Regression models of the relationship between religiosity and prosocial behavior of youth Variables

Model 1

Model 2

Constant

12.016***

9.886***

Male

-0.717***

-0.356*

Age

0.033

0.012

Never married

-0.150

-0.108

Education level

0.175**

0.140*

Out-of-school

-0.702***

-0.526**

Number of household asset

0.185**

0.153**

Urban area

0.051

0.001

Both parent

0.147

0.104

Father only

-0.672

-0.713

Mother only

0.067

0.085

Living arrangement (No parent: ref)

Religious practice Chanting

0.094

Offering food to monk

0.114

Offering gift to monk

0.023

Maintaining the five precepts

0.247***

Meditation

0.071

Religious belief Necessity of religion to the living

0.119

Applying doctrine to daily life

0.630***

Religious level

-0.109

Following the doctrine

0.206**

R2 Adjusted R

2

Note: *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

84

0.040

0.120

0.036

0.112


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be viewed as an expression which closely link to prosocial behavior. There are many Buddhist doctrines, but these five precepts are the primary basis mode of training in Buddhist practice. Based on the study of Tapontong, Napompech, and Kukuan (2005), Thai students are able to understand the concept and meaning of five precepts correctly, however, some precepts may appear more difficult to follow. In this study, only maintain the five precepts can determine the youthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s prosocial behavior. We found no relationship between prosocial behavior and some following religious practices; namely, chanting, offering food and gift to monk, together with meditation. The benefit of taking five precepts provides a wholesome foundation of the moral obligation for self-growth. The first precept encourages goodwill, compassion, and kindness. The second precept helps to promote altruism, generosity, honesty, service, non-attachment, contentment, and right livelihood. The third precept leads to develop selfrestraint, mastery over the senses and emotions, renunciation, and control of sensual desire. The fourth precept helps to build up the honesty, reliability, and moral integrity. The fifth precept can be instrumental in cultivating wisdom, mindfulness, and clarity of mind (Plamintr, 1994). From the present research findings, obviously, an adherence to the Buddhist doctrine has been suggested as increasing prosocial behavior. Maintaining the five precepts is found to be the single most important religious practice for predicting prosocial behavior. Since practicing all five precepts are quite hard, the individual who practices all five precepts tend to act prosocially regularly. In-school youth have greater level of prosocial behavior than those who are out-of-school. Based on primary socialization theory (Oetting & Donnermeyer, 1991), school is seen as one of three primary socialization agentsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;family, school, and peers for youths. School is capable of transmitting prosocial norms in consequence of the assigned duty from society to transmit certain cultural and behavioral norms. Besides, gender differences in prosocial behavior are generally consistent with that found in researches of Western and Thai cultures (e.g., Beutel & Johnson, 2004; Ma, Cheung, & Shek, 1996; Nimtongkam, 1992; Pakaslahti, Karjalainen, & Keltikangas, 2002; Suawannachort, 2005; Tohkani, 2011; Yodrabum, 2005).

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Female youths are prone to have significantly greater levels of prosociability than male youths. In addition, in line with study of Nimtongkam, household wealth effects are related to prosocial behavior of youth. A possibility of explanation is that household wealth is associated with donation which is one of prosocial behavior items. For this standpoint, youths who come from relatively wealthier families do have more extra money for living and have more capacity to donate. A possible major predictor suggested by Bekkers (2004) is that education increases prosocial behavior. From the study on the influence of education on prosocial behavior, the higher educated people tend to show a wide range of prosocial behaviors, such as volunteer, give blood, register for postmortem organ donation, and engage in philanthropy, and donors than the lower educated. Bekkers and Dirk de Graaf (2005) observed that education increases prosocial behavior as it is considered as capacity of possession and accession to the resources. Further, not only educational level of youth, but also education level of parents has a positive relationship with youthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s prosocial behavior. This finding is compatible with that of Nimtongkam (1992), who identified the education level of parent will enhance the level of prosociality of child. Precisely how religious factors will affect the youthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s prosocial behavior recommend for policy implication. As regards the underlying relations of religiosity and prosocial behavior of youth, this study does suggest religious-oriented socialization can benefit the child outcomes. This paper draws attention to the need for practitioner to reaffirm the awareness of religion. Repeatedly encouraging young people to take part in religious activities and launching the program related to religion to ensure that at least they recognize and aware of it. Particularly, the findings of this study support the need for services for male youths. Recently, one of research on Thai youths had focused on ethical socialization (Tancharoen & Maphud, 2009), which indicated that chief agency of religious socialization is the parent in terms of doctrine, thought and religious practice. Parent may be held responsible for foster the religious belief and practice; chanting, meditation, practice the dharma in daily life,

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take the child to the temple for offering food to monk in important day. Education institution also takes part in cultivate by teaching and practice the dharma in the holy day and provide the instruction media. School may hold Buddhist activities such as dharma talks or offering Buddhist courses on dharma every Friday afternoon classes. Many possible sources of socialization agents in Thai contexts, e.g. Sunday Buddhist school, Buddhism-oriented school, or even Buddhist website. Religion is significance domains in all cultures and their potential impact on behavior, particularly among youth, is seldom explored. This study recommends considering religion as one of an essential component in a wide range of young peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s behaviors. Researcher probably may use different research methods, for example, naturalistic observation, peer rating, etc. It would be useful to study in cross-cultural studies and other religions. Some limitations of our study should be emphasized. There are some limitations to the present study. Some religious young people may behave prosocially with no truly internalizing prosocial values. On the other hand, they have other motives for being altruistic, such as gaining positive reinforcement, approval for action prosocially, or fear of negative consequences for not having prosocial actions. Thus, the present study is merely one step forward in understanding the roles of religiosity on teen prosocial behavior. Acknowledgements We would like to express our thanks to the National Statistical Office of Thailand for allowing us to use the data for analysis. Note This paper is based on the doctoral research of the first author while pursuing her Ph.D. degree in the Doctoral Program in Demography, Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University.

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References Barry, C. M., Nelson, L., Davarya, S., and Urry, S. (2010) Religiosity and Spirituality during the Transition to Adulthood. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 34(4): 311-324. Batson, C. D. and Gray, R. A. (1981) Religious orientation and helping behavior: Responding to own or to the victimâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s needs? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(5): 873-884. Bekkers, R. (2004) Giving and Volunteering in the Netherlands: Sociological and Psychological perspectives. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Utrecht University. Bekkers, R. and Dirk de Graaf, N. (2005) Field of Education and Prosocial Behavior. Paper prepared for Marktdag Sociologie, June 2, 2005, Brussels. Benson, P. L., Roehlkepartain, E. C., and Rude, S. P. (2003) Spiritual Development in Childhood and Adolescence: Toward a Field of Inquiry. Applied Developmental Science, 7(3): 205-213. Beutel, A. M. and Johnson, M. K. (2004) Gender and Prosocial Values during Adolescence: A Research Note. The Sociological Quarterly, 45: 379-393. Boswell, G. E. H. and Boswell-Ford, K. C. (2010) Testing a SEM Model of Two Religious Concepts and Experiential Spirituality. Journal of Religious and Health, 49: 200-211. Buddhist Learning Club. (2012) Recover House Temple School to Increase Moral of Adolescents. Retrieved on October 27, 2012 from http:// blctoday.org/?p=66. (in Thai) Chamratrithirong, A., Miller, B. A., Byrnes, H. F., Rhucharoenpornpanich, O., Cupp, P. K., Rosati, M J., Fongkaew, W., Atwood, K. A., and Chookhare, W. (2010) Spirituality within the family and the prevention of health risk behavior among adolescents in Bangkok, Thailand. Social Science & Medicine, 71: 1855-1863. Erickson, J. (1992) Adolescent religious development and commitment: a structural equation model of the role of family, peer group, and educational influences. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 31(2): 131-152. 88


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Fabes, R. A., Carlo, G., Kupinoff, K., and Laible, D. (1999) Early Adolescence and Prosocial/Moral Behavior I: The Role of Individual Processes. Journal of Early Adolescence, 19: 5-16. Francis, L. J., Katz, Y. J., Yablan, Y., and Robbins, M. (2004) Religiousity, Personality, and Happiness: A Study Among Israeli Male Undergraduates. Journal of Happines Studies, 5: 315-333. Furrow, J. L., King, P. E., and White, K. (2004) Religion and positive youth development: Identity, meaning, and prosocial concerns. Applied Developmental Science, 8: 17-26. GMA Network Inc. (2007) Family ties key to youth happiness - AP-MTV poll. Retrieved on 6 October 6, 2012 from http://www.gmanews.tv/ story/56803/Family-ties-key-to-youth-happiness---AP-MTV-poll. Hansen, D. E., Vandenberg, B., and Patterson, M. L. (1995) The Effects of Religious Orientation on Spontaneous and Nonspontaneous Helping Behaviors. Personality and Individual Differences, 19: 101-104 Hardy, S. A. and Carlo, G. (2005) Religiosity and Prosocial Behaviours in Adolescence: the Mediating Role of Prosocial Values. Journal of Moral Education, 34(2): 231-249. Instilling Goodness School. (2012) Following the Buddha’s Footsteps. Retrieved on November 31, 2012 from http://online.sfsu.edu/rone/ Buddhism/footsteps.htm. Johnson, M. K. (2009) Religiosity and Helping: Do Religious Individuals Volunteer More Help to Religious Organizations than Non-Religious Organizations? Unpublished master’s thesis. Baylor University, Waco, TX. Joronen, K. (2005) Adolescents’ Subjective Well-being in Their Social Contexts. Tampere: Tampere University Press. Kittisuksathit, S., Mahaarcha, W., Gray, R., and Rakumnuaykit, P. (2006 23-23 November 2007) Quality of Life and Happiness among Youth in Kanchanaburi Province. Paper presented at the Thai Population Symposium, Bangkok. Kyoung, O. S. (2010) Religious Identity as a Mediator Between Religious Socialization from Parents, Peers and Mentors, and Psychological Well-being and Adjustment among Korean American Adolescents. 89


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Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Ma, H. K., Cheung, P. C., and Shek, D. T. L. (2007) The relation of prosocial orientation to peer interactions, family social environment and personality of Chinese adolescents. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31(1): 12-18. Mahaarcha, W. (2010) Happiness of Thai Youths in Kanchanaburi Province. NIDA Development Journal, 50(2): 47-70. Miller, W. R., and Thoresen, C. E. (2003) Spirituality, religion, and health: An emerging research field. American Psychologist, 58: 24-35. National Economic and Social Development Board, Office of the Prime Minister, (NESDB, 2007) Summary the Tenth National Economic and Social Development Plan (2007-2011). Bangkok: The National Economic and Social Development Board, Office of the Prime Minister. (in Thai) National Youth Bureau. (2002) National Youth Policy and National Child and Youth Development Plan (2002-2011). Bangkok: National Youth Bureau, The Prime Ministerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Office. (in Thai) Nimtongkam, S. (1992) Psychosocial and Background Factors related to Prosocial Behavior of Lower Secondary School Students in Bangkok Metropolis. Unpublished Master Thesis, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok, Thailand. (in Thai) Nyanaponika, T. (2012) The Four Sublime States: Contemplations on Love, Compassion, Sympathetic Joy and Equanimity. Retrieved on November 24, 2012 from http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/ nyanaponika/wheel006.html Oetting, E. R. and Donnermeyer, J. F. (1991) Primary Socialization Theory: The Etiology of Drug Use and Deviance. I. Substance Use and Misuse, 33(4): 995-1026. Pakaslahti, L., Karjalainen, A., and Keltikangas, L. (2002) Relationships between Adolescent Prosocial Problem-Solving Strategies, Prosocial Behaviour, and Social Acceptance. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 26: 137-144.

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Plamintr, S. (1994) Sunthorn Plamintr’s Getting to Know Buddhism. Bangkok: Buddhadhamma Foundation. Retrieved on October 6, 2012 from http://www.urbandharma.org/udharma2/5precepts.html Regnerus, M., Smith, C., and Fritsch, M. (2003) Religion in the Lives of American adolescents: A review of the literature. Chapel Hill, NC: National Study of Youth and Religion. Rich, G. J. (2003) The Positive Psychology of Youth and Adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 3: 1-3. Santrock, J. W. (1996) Adolescence : An Introduction. Madison: Brown & Benchmark. Scales, P. C. and Leffert, N. (2004) Developmental assets: A synthesis of the scientific research on adolescent development (2nd ed.). Minnepolis, MN: Search Institute. Schneider, B., Rice, H., and Hoogstra, L. (2004) The Importance of Religion in Adolescents’ lives. Catholic Education, 7: 366-389. Sethaput, C., Varangratana, A., and Boonchaivatana, T. (1998) 1998 Survey of Thai Youth. Nakorn Pathom: Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University. Smith, C. (2003) Theorizing Religious Effects among American Adolescents. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42(1): 17-30. Smith, C. and Denton, M. L. (2005) Soul Searching: The Religious and Spiritual Lives of American Teenagers. New York: Oxford University Press. Sriboaunam, J. (2007) Development of a Causal Model of Factors Effecting Virtue of Lower Secondary School Students in Bangkok Metropolis. Unpublished Master Thesis, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. (in Thai) Suankhem, A. (1994) Participation of Thai Youths in Buddhist Religious Activities. Unpublished Master Thesis, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. (in Thai) Suawannachort, K. (2005) Antecedent Factors of Integration of House, School, and Psychological Characteristics Relating to Good Friend Behavior of Undergraduate Students. Unpublished Master Thesis,

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The Effect of Virtual Distance on Determinants of Work and Organizational Commitment Puckpimon Singhapong Faculty of Science and Technology, Assumption University of Thailand Corresponding author: puckpimon@gmail.com Abstract A theoretical model of the causal effects of virtual (physical) distance on employee motivations, job satisfaction, and organizational and work commitment was formulated based on findings from previous studies. The model was tested and developed using data collected by questionnaire from a sample of 238 employees based in Thailand and Indonesia who work in virtual environments in a multinational mobile telecoms equipment joint venture company. Theoretical and practical conclusions are drawn in relation to the role of virtual distance among other factors in the determination of work commitment and organizational commitment. Full or partial support was found for many of the relationships reported in previous studies. People with high levels of responsibility showed high levels of commitment to their work and organization as did individuals who were satisfied with their job and the job itself. Virtual distance had important positive effects on job satisfaction and employee recognition with no serious negative effects on work or organizational commitment and this finding was different from some previous studies. Key Words: Virtual distance; Virtual Organization; Motivation; Job Satisfaction; Work Commitment; Organizational Commitment; Telecommunication Organization.

Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts Vol.13 (2) : 93-147, 2013


The Effect of Virtual Distance on Determinants of Work

Puckpimon Singhapong

Introduction Improvements in communication technologies and the convergence of several broadband technologies have had a significant impact on how people work together. Organizations no longer need to co-locate work teams and this provides opportunities for cost savings, flexibility, innovation, and high resource utilization as well as increased competitiveness and global growth (Coggins, 2011). These virtual organizations have the potential to defy the constraints of space and time and allow team members to collaborate when and how they need to. However, Bjorn and Ngwenyama (2009), Peters and Manz (2007), and others found that virtual organizations with work teams distributed in multiple locations present problems as well as benefits and in the context of information technology companies SobelLojeski and Reilly (2008) reported increased complexity in work operations, misunderstandings, and risks of breakdown in communication. The concept of a virtual organization was evident first in the early works by economists in the 1970s studying transaction cost theory as the basis for outsourcing practices which emerged in the 1980s and different approaches to developing virtual organizations have evolved in conjunction with organizational restructuring practices and advances in communication technologies (Camarinha-Matos and Afsarmanesh, 2005). A well known model of a virtual organization is the virtual distance model developed by Sobel-Lojeski and Reilly (2008) which characterized virtual distance in three dimensions: physical distance; affinity distance; and operational distance. Physical distance is based on real differences in organizational location in terms of space and time. Affinity distance concerns cultural, social, relationship, and interdependency differences while operational distance is concerned with communications, multitasking, readiness, and distribution asymmetry. Physical distance is the focus of this study and it represents a situation where team members rarely meet, they are in different time zones, they are not in very regular contact, they have the same leaders but they rarely see them but they need to contribute to the company and have the same goals as other members of the team. Understandably, these conditions may have an impact on a memberâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s motivation, job satisfaction, and commitment to their work and the organization. 94


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Motivation is a set of activation or energetic forces of goal-oriented behavior. It is intrinsic or extrinsic to the employee and initiates and determines the direction, intensity, and persistence of work-related effort (Colquitt et al., 2009; Latham and Pinder, 2005; Jones and Page, 1984). Content and process motivation theories are the two main approaches to the study of motivation developed since the 1950s (Frence et al., 2005). Content theories emphasize what motivates people at work while process theories explain how motivation behavior is initiated. Herzberg’s motivationhygiene theory (two-factor theory) is a content theory of motivation which defines two separate sets of factors: motivational factors associated with satisfaction; and hygiene factors associated with dissatisfaction (Herzberg, 1987). Hygiene factors which include: salary; company and administrative policies; fringe benefits; physical working conditions; employee status; and job security are not included in this study because these factors are almost the same for all of the participants in the study who are all employed by the same organization. Instead, motivation factors including: recognition; sense of achievement; growth and promotional opportunities; responsibility; and the nature of work itself are included in the study as factors that are expected to vary among the participants and are expected to be affected to varying degrees by virtual (physical) distance. Job satisfaction represents an individual’s attitude toward specific and general aspects of their job (Siegal and Lance, 1987; Vroom, 1982). Three conceptual frameworks may be used to describe job satisfaction: content theory; process theory; and situational theory (Worrell, 2004). Content theory explains job satisfaction in terms of the employee’s achievement of self-actualization based on a five-tier model of human needs (Maslow, 1954). Process theory focuses on how well the job satisfies the employee’s expectations and values while situational theory explains job satisfaction in terms of the characteristics of the organization. In this study a predominantly process approach is adopted whereby job satisfaction represents a pleasurable emotional state resulting from a combination of psychological, physiological, and environmental circumstances that cause a person to say that they are satisfied with their job (Johnson, 2009; Hoppock, 1935).

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Work commitment represents the desire of employees to remain with their job because of the job itself (Cohen, 1993; Loscoeco, 1989). Work commitment also represents the willingness of an employee to increase their job performance believing that their work will help them to achieve their goals and values (Porter et al., 1974). Affective organizational commitment is used in order to assess an employeeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s level of commitment to the organization. Affective organizational commitment or engagement is the form of commitment that is most often measured by organizations and it occurs when an employee has satisfaction with their work, their colleagues, and their work environment. Employees who have high affective commitment are those who will go beyond the call of duty for the good of the organization (Robinson, 2000). Those who display affective commitment identify strongly with the company and its objectives and may turn down offers from other companies even if they are more financially attractive. Variations in affective organizational commitment can be explained by age, perceived fairness, organizational tenure, and perceived and organizational support (Hawkins, 1998) and many studies have reported an association between affective commitment and absenteeism, poor performance, and turnover (Mayer and Allen 1997; Mathieu and Zajac, 1990; Mowday et al., 1982). The structural features of the organization and personal characteristics of employees have less association with affective commitment compared with work experiences such as organizational rewards, procedural justice, and supervisor support (Rhoades et al., 2001). Against this background the purpose of this study is to identify the significant determinants of organizational and work commitment in a work environment where the effects of virtual (physical) distance are included. Following a discussion of the research design and methodology a theoretical model is derived from a comprehensive review of the related literature. This model is tested using data from a final sample size of 238 individuals who work for a multinational mobile telecoms equipment joint venture company in either Thailand or Indonesia. The company was the result of a merger between mother companies in Finland and Germany in October 2008. Its product patterns are a combination of large standardization quantities,

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personalized custom products, and outsourcing. The company has operations in 150 countries. The sample of participants in the study from Thailand and Indonesia are employed in positions where they have experience of working in a virtual environment separated from others by physical distance and includes individuals in the positions: Engineer; Manager; Team Assistant; Human Resources; Trainer; Financial and Controlâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and Solution Provider. Based on the results of the analysis of the theoretical model it is further developed to arrive at a final model which is the basis for the discussion of the theoretical and practical findings, and the overall conclusions of the study. Related Literature The focus of the review concerns recent studies that used quantitative methods and empirical data to evaluate theoretical causal models concerned with virtual distance, employee motivations, job satisfaction, and organizational and work commitment. An overview of these studies is presented first followed by discussion of important model variables. An Overview of Previous Studies Table 1 presents an overview of the nature of previous studies since year 2000 which identifies the variables examined in these studies.

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98

Mihhailova and Oun (2011)

Akkirman and Harries (2005)

Markus et al., (2000)

Chen et al. (2008)

Sobel-Lojeski and Reilly (2008)

Reference Making Virtual Distance Work in the Digital Age.

Project Focus

Privacy, trust, and justice considerations for location-based mobile telecommunication services. What makes a virtual organization work?

Virtual work usage and challenges in different service sector branches

Variables: Virtual distance, Job satisfaction, Motivation

Virtual organization/ Job satisfaction and motivation

Quantitative/Survey

Quantitative/Survey

Quantitative/Personal interview/Survey

Approach/ Data Collection

Quantitative/Personal interview/Survey

Organizational communication satisfaction Quantitative/Survey in the virtual workplace

Variables: Virtual distance, Communication satisfaction, Motivation

Virtual organization/ Communication satisfaction

Variables: Virtual distance, Motivation, Job satisfaction

Virtual organization/ Motivation and job satisfaction

Variables: Virtual distance, Motivation, Job satisfaction

Location-based /Privacy, trust, justice and job satisfaction

Variables: Virtual distance, Motivation, Job satisfaction, Commitment

Virtual distance/ Motivation and job satisfaction

Context/Dependent Variable

Table 1 An overview of the nature of previous related studies

The Effect of Virtual Distance on Determinants of Work Puckpimon Singhapong


99

Wang (2007)

Anderson and Shane (2002)

Piccoli et al. (2004)

Yingjun (2004)

Prasad and Akhilesh (2002)

Barney and Elias (2010)

Reference

Global virtual teams: what impacts their design and performance? Virtual organization (VO) and interorganizational relationships (IOR)

The impact of net centricity on virtual teams: The new performance challenge

Quantitative/Survey

Learning, job satisfaction and commitment: an empirical study of organizations in Chin

Variables: Virtual distance, Job satisfaction, Commitment

Virtual organization/ Job satisfaction and commitment

Quanttative/Survey

Variables: Virtual distance, Communication satisfaction, Motivation, Performance

Virtual distance/ Work performance

Quantitative/Survey

Quantitative/Survey

Virtual teams: team control structure, work Quantitative/Survey processes, and team effectiveness

Variables: Virtual distance, Communication satisfaction, Motivation

Virtual distance/ Team effectiveness

Variables: Virtual distance, Motivation, Job satisfaction

Virtual organization/ Motivation and job satisfaction

Variables: Virtual distance, Work performance

Virtual distance/ Work performance

Approach/ Data Collection

Flex-time as a moderator of the job stresswork motivation relationship: A three Quantitative/Survey nation investigation

Project Focus

Variables: Virtual distance, Job stress, Motivation

Virtual organization/ Job stress and motivation

Context/Dependent Variable

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Project Focus

Approach/ Data Collection

Job stress and organizational commitment among mentoring coordinators Job motivation and organizational commitment among the health professionals: A questionnaire survey

Variables: Organizational commitment, Achievement

The relationship between individual values, psychological well-being, and organizational commitment among Israeli police officers

Variables: Organizational commitment, Motivation

Job motivation/ Organizational commitment

Variables: Organizational commitment, Job stress

Job stress/ organizational commitment

Variables: Organizational commitment, Job satisfaction, Performance

Quantitative/Survey

Quantitative/Survey

Quantitative/Survey

Organizational commitment: a mediator Organizational commitment/Work of the relationships of leadership behavior Quantitative/Survey performance with job satisfaction and performance in a non-western country

Context/Dependent Variable

Individual value/ Organizational Cohen and Shamai (2010) commitment

Altindis (2011)

Michael et al. (2009)

Yousef (2000)

Reference

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101

Haines III et al. (2008)

Schmidt (2007)

Ebeid (2010)

Aydogdu and Asikgil (2011)

Bjarnason (2009)

Reference

Project Focus

An Empirical Study of the Relationship Among Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention Corporate social responsibility and its relation to organizational commitment The relationship between satisfaction with workplace training and overall job satisfaction Intrinsic motivation for an international assignment

Variables: Work commitment, Motivation

International assignment/ Motivation

Variables: Organizational commitment, Advancement

Workplace training/ Job satisfaction

Variables: Organizational commitment, Responsibility

Corporate social responsibility/ Organizational commitment

Variables: Organizational commitment, Work Itself

Organizational commitment/ Job satisfaction

Variables: Organizational commitment, Recognition

SOCIAL RECOGNITION AND EMPLOYEESâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; ORGANIZATIONAL Social recognition/ Organizational SUPPORT: The Impact of Social commitment, intent to stay and Recognition on Organizational service improvements Commitment, Intent to Stay, Service Effort, and Service Improvements in an Icelandic Service Setting

Context/Dependent Variable

Quantitative/Survey

Quantitative/Survey

Quantitative/Survey

Quantitative/Survey

Quantitative/Survey

Approach/ Data Collection

Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts


Approach/ Data Collection

Testing Herzberg’s two-factor theory in the Quantitative/Survey Thai construction industry

Variables: Motivation, Job satisfaction

Herzberg’s two-factor theory/ Motivation and job satisfaction

Project Focus Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory and job satisfaction in the Malaysian retail Quantitative/Survey sector: The mediating effect of love of money

Variables: Motivation, Job satisfaction

Herzberg’s two-factor theory/ Motivation and job satisfaction

Context/Dependent Variable

Job satisfaction/ work commitment

Learning, job satisfaction and commitment: an empirical study of Quantitative/Survey Wang (2007) organizations in China Variables: Work commitment, Job satisfaction Job satisfaction/ Withdrawal Work satisfaction, organizational Quantitative/Survey Falkenburg and Schyns behaviors commitment and withdrawal behaviors (2007) Variables: Work commitment, Organizational commitment/Job satisfaction Job satisfaction/ The study of organizational Quantitative/Survey Ngamchokchaicharoen Organizational commitment commitment in Thailand (2003) Variables: Organizational commitment

Ruthankoon and Ogunlana (2003)

Teck-Hong and Waheed (2011)

Reference

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Model Variables Based on previous studies the following variables are identified as having important influences and are appropriate to include in the theoretical model. Virtual Distance (Physical Distance): Physical distance is represented by measurable geographic, temporal and organizational distance or separation among employees which creates the sense that others are far away. Physical distance is based on real differences in location in terms of space and time (Sobel-Lojeski and Reilly, 2008). Achievement concerns success in challenging work completed though exertion, skill, and perseverance. Achievement is related to personal characteristics and background and the associated competitive drive to meet standards of excellence (Williamson et al., 2005). Achievement includes personal satisfaction from completing a job, solving problems, and seeing results. Achievement fulfills an internal need for appreciation and respect concerned with an individualâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s level of esteem (Gawell, 1997; Maslow, 1954). Recognition means being accepted or acknowledged (Wynne, 2000). Ideally, after an employee has completed challenging work they should be praised and recognized for their accomplishments by co-workers and managers. Work should be interesting, encourage creativity and innovation, and engage the employeeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s capabilities (Lawrence and Jordan, 2009). Those who achieve the recognition of others tend to feel confident in their abilities while those who lack self-esteem and the recognition of others can develop feelings of inferiority, and negative reactions such as blaming and criticism (Ruthakoon and Ogunlana, 2003). Work Itself is the actual content of the job or what employees do (Bassett-Jones and Lloyd, 2005: Pelit, Ozturk and Arslonturk, 2010). It involves an employeeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s feelings about their work tasks including whether those tasks are too easy or too difficult or interesting or boring (Herzberg, 1959; Wellens, 1970). Work itself is assessed by the extent to which an individual feels that their work tasks are challenging and interesting.

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The Effect of Virtual Distance on Determinants of Work

Puckpimon Singhapong

Responsibility refers to the employee’s control over their job and being including both responsibility and authority in relation to the job (Herzberg et al., 1959). Responsibility translates into self-regulation (Herzberg, 1959; Bassett-Jones and Lloyd, 2005) which represents “the self’s” capacity to alter its behaviors in accordance with standards, ideals, or goals either stemming from internal or societal expectations (Baumeister and Vohs, 2007; BassettJones and Lloyd, 2005; Herzberg, 1959). Advancement is the degree to which an individual experiences new learning and growth in their carrier. When an employee constantly achieves the work task or target then advancement is required as a motivation for the employee to continue to perform well and remain in organization (Ruthakoon and Ogunlana, 2003). Growth advancement translates into the central dynamic of new learning leading to new expertise and leads to upward change in status in the organization (Bassett-Jones and Lloyd, 2005; Herzberg, 1959). Job Satisfaction represents a pleasurable emotional state resulting from how people feel and what people think about their job (Johnson, 2009; Dunnette and McNally, 1976) Job satisfaction is the combination of psychological, physiological, and environmental circumstances that cause a person truthfully to say I am satisfied with my job (Hoppock, 1935). It represents a set of factors that cause a feeling of internal satisfaction and it is closely linked to an individual’s behavior in the work place (Davis et al., 1985). Positive and favorable attitudes towards the job indicate job satisfaction while negative and unfavorable attitudes indicate job dissatisfaction (Armstrong, 2006). Work Commitment represents the desire of employees to remain with their particular job because of the job itself (Cohen, 1993; Loscoeco, 1989). Work commitment also represents the willingness of an employee to increase their job performance believing that their work will help them to achieve their goals and values (Porter et al., 1974). Organizational Commitment (Affective Commitment) is the definite desire to remain the member of an organization (Colquitt et al., 2009; Sheldon, 1971; Buchanan, 1974). Affective organizational commitment

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has been referred to as engagement and is the form of commitment that is most often measured by organizations. Affective commitment occurs when an employee has satisfaction with their work, their colleagues, and their work environment. Employees who have high affective commitment are those who will go beyond the call of duty for the good of the organization (Robinson, 2000; Allen and Meyer, 1991). Research Design and Methodology A field study approach is used which is partly basic and applied, partly descriptive and explanatory, and cross-sectional in time. Descriptive statistical techniques are used for data preparation and analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques are used for the analysis and development of a model of cause and effect relationships designed to develop theoretical knowledge with practical implications about the effect of virtual distance on characteristics of an employeeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s motivation, job satisfaction and commitment. Data was collected using a self administered structured questionnaire developed in the English language with the assistance of a focus group of 20 representatives of the target population. Suggested modifications were included in a revised version of the questionnaire which was then administered in a pilot study using a sample of 20 suitable participants. Their responses and comments were noted and any modifications were incorporated into the final version of the questionnaire. A notated version of the final questionnaire is included in Appendix A1. The unit of analysis is an employee working for a multinational mobile telecoms equipment joint venture company in either Thailand or Indonesia who is employed in a position where they are expected to work with others who are separated from them by physical distance and consequently they have experience of working in a virtual environment. The target population included 620 such individuals and using a level of precision of 5 percent and a 95 percent confidence interval the minimum sample size for the study was determined to be 240 (https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pd006). Using the list of company employees as a sampling frame the questionnaires were

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distributed in hard copy form with a cover letter introducing the purpose of the study, instructions for its completion and return, and a contact address for enquiries in accordance with Neuman (2006). A final sample of 253 completed questionnaires was obtained. Theoretical Model Figure 1 presents the proposed theoretical model which was derived from existing theories and previous studies reviewed in the previous section. The theoretical model includes nine variables. Virtual Distance is the independent (exogenous) variable while Work Commitment and Organizational Commitment are dependent (endogenous) variables. The independent and dependent variables are linked by six intervening (endogenous) variables which are Job Satisfaction and a set of five variables associated with motivations (Achievement, Recognition, Work Itself, Responsibility, and Advancement) based on Herzberg (1959).

Figure 1 Theoretical model. The direct causal effects in the theoretical model in Figure 1 are associated with 18 research hypotheses which are tested in the study. Table 2 shows the research hypotheses with references to previous studies from which the hypotheses were derived.

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Table 2 Research hypotheses Research Hypothesis

Reference

Putnam, 2001; Chen Ross and Huang, 2008; Sobel-Lojeski and Reilly, 2008 Putnam, 2001; Chen Ross and H2: Virtual distance has a significant Huang, 2008; Sobel-Lojeski negative direct effect on Recognition. and Reilly, 2008 Putnam, 2001; Chen Ross and H3: Virtual distance has a significant Huang, 2008; Sobel-Lojeski negative direct effect on Work Itself. and Reilly, 2008 Putnam, 2001; Chen Ross and H4: Virtual distance has a significant Huang, 2008; Sobel-Lojeski negative direct effect on Responsibility. and Reilly, 2008 Putnam, 2001; Chen Ross and H5: Virtual distance has a significant Huang, 2008; Sobel-Lojeski negative direct effect on Advancement. and Reilly, 2008 H6: Virtual distance has a significant Putnam, 2001; Chen Ross and negative direct effect on Job Huang, 2008; Sobel-Lojeski Satisfaction. and Reilly, 2008 H7: Achievement has a significant Tsai and Tai, 2003; Milne, positive direct effect on Work 2007; Haines III et al., 2008 Commitment. H8: Achievement has a significant Tsai and Tai, 2003; Milne, positive direct effect on Organizational 2007; Haines III et al., 2008 Commitment. H9: Recognition has a significant Tsai and Tai, 2003; Milne, positive direct effect on Work 2007; Haines III et al., 2008 Commitment. H10: Recognition has a significant positive direct effect on Organizational Bjarnason, 2009 Commitment. H11: Work Itself has a significant Tsai and Tai, 2003; Milne, positive direct effect on Work 2007; Haines III et al., 2008 Commitment. H12: Work Itself has a significant Aydogdu and Asikigil, 2011; positive direct effect on Organizational Hsu and Chen, 2009 Commitment. H1: Virtual distance has a significant negative direct effect on Achievement.

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Research Hypothesis

Puckpimon Singhapong

Reference

H13: Responsibility has a significant positive direct effect on Work Commitment. H14: Responsibility has a significant positive direct effect on Organizational Commitment. H15: Advancement has a significant positive direct effect on Work Commitment. H16: Advancement has a significant positive direct effect on Organizational Commitment. H17: Job Satisfaction has a significant positive direct effect on Work Commitment. H18: Job Satisfaction has a significant positive direct effect on Organizational Commitment.

Tsai and Tai, 2003; Milne, 2007; Haines III et al., 2008 Al-bdour et.al, 2005; Ebeid, 2010; Madison et.al, 2012 Tsai and Tai, 2003; Milne, 2007; Haines III et al., 2008 Schmidt, 2007; Sharma and Bajpai, 2010 Williamson et al., 2009; Cohen and Veled-Hecht, 2008 Wang, 2007; Boles et al., 2007; Falkenburg and Schyns, 2007

Table 3 presents the operational definitions for the nine variables in the theoretical model with references to previous studies from which the definition was derived.

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Table 3 Operational definitions for model variables

Model Variable Virtual Distance

Achievement

Recognition

Work Itself

Responsibility

Advancement

Job Satisfaction

Work Commitment Organization Commitment

Operational Definition Physical distance based on real location differences in space and time. The extent to which an individual needs appreciation and respect in their work environment. The degree to which an individual feels accepted and recognized by co-workers and managers. The extent to which an individual feels that their work tasks are challenging and interesting. The degree to which an individual is given the freedom to make decisions in their work. The degree to which an individual experiences new learning and growth in their carrier. The degree to which employees feel satisfaction with their job. The degree to which an individual has the desire to remain with their particular job because of job itself. The degree to which an individual wishes to be a member of the organization.

109

Reference Sobel-Lojeski and Reilly, 2008 Lawrence and Jordan, 2009

Lawrence and Jordan, 2009

Pelit et al., 2010

Ruthakoon and Ogunlana, 2003 Herzberg, 1959; Bassett-Jones and Lloyd, 2005 Lawler and Porter, 1967; Locke, 1976; Rogers et al., 1994 Cohen, 1993; Loscocco, 1989 Sheldon, 1971; Buchanan, 1974; Colquitt et al., 2009


The Effect of Virtual Distance on Determinants of Work

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All of the model variables are measured as latent variables. Table 4 indicates the label used for each model variable, the number of indicators used to measure it and their labels, and a reference to an existing measuring instrument that was used to develop the questions associated with the indicators. Each of the indicators for the nine latent variables is measured on a 5-point Likert scale and these measures are treated as interval scale measures in the analyses. Table 4 Measurement scales and instruments Variable (Label) Virtual Distance (VD)

Number of Indicators and Labels 2 indicators: VD3, VD4

4 indicators: EM8, EM9, EM10, EM11 4 indicators: EM12, EM13, Recognition (REC) EM14, EM15 4 indicators: EM16, EM17, Work Itself (WOI) EM18, EM19 4 indicators: EM20, EM21, Responsibility (RES) EM22, EM23 4 indicators: EM24, EM25, Advancement (ADV) EM26, EM27 6 indicators: JS28, JS29, JS30, Job Satisfaction (JS) JS31, JS32, JS33 Work Commitment 6 indicators: WC34, WC35, (WC) WC36, WC37, WC38,WC39 Organization 6 indicators: OC40, OC41, Commitment (OC) OC42, OC43, OC44, OC45 Achievement (ACH)

Measuring Instrument Sobel-Lojeski and Reilly, 2008 Ruthakoon and Ogunlana, 2003 Lawrence and Jordan, 2009 Pelit et al., 2010 Ruthakoon and Ogunlana, 2003 Ruthakoon and Ogunlana, 2003 Lawler and Porter, 1967 Fink, 1992 Fink, 1992

Data Preparation and Preliminary Analyses For the sample of 253 questionnaires there were no missing values among the measures of the model variables and a check on data entry for a random sample of 10 percent (26) of the questionnaires did not reveal any

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data entry errors. There were 15 questionnaires which contained at least one outlier value for a model variable (i.e. a value 3 or more standard deviations from the mean) and these were removed from the sample leaving a final satisfactory sample size of 238. Principle Component factor analysis was used to evaluate the construct (convergent and discriminant) validity of the nine latent variables in the theoretical model. The results of the factor analysis are displayed in Appendix Table A1 and all of the latent variables have satisfactory construct validity because the factor loadings for their indicators exceed 0.4 in magnitude and the associated eigenvalues are greater than 1 (Straub et al., 2004). The internal consistency reliability for the indicators for the latent variables was assessed using Cronbachâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s alpha coefficients which are displayed in Appendix Table A2 and it is seen that in all cases the reliability is at least a â&#x20AC;&#x153;goodâ&#x20AC;? according to the interpretation of the value Cronbach alpha by George and Mallery (2003). Consequently, at the completion of these data preparation procedures the nine model variables have satisfactory construct validity and internal consistency validity. Characteristics of the Respondents From Appendix Table A3: 69 percent of the responders were male. The average age of respondents was 35 years. Half of respondents hold a bachelor degree, 44 percent have a master degree, and the remaining 6 percent hold a diploma. Appendix Table A4 shows that most of the respondents (81 percent) are managers (32 percent) or solution providers (25 percent) or engineers (24 percent). Work functional levels indicate that all of the respondents are engaged in work where there is a physical distance between them and their colleagues forming a virtual work environment. Working at a distance with other members of a cluster accounted for the largest proportion (41 percent) followed by 32 percent engaged with colleagues at a distance with a single country, 23 percent working with others on a global scale, and some (4 percent) working at a distance with multiple clusters. Overall the respondents are considered to have characteristics and work experiences that are appropriate to ensure the validity and reliability of their responses to the study questionnaire items.

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Descriptive Analysis of Model Variables Appendix Table A5(a) displays descriptive statistics for the indicators for the latent model variables. It is seen that for each indicator the magnitudes of the values of skewness and kurtosis are within the acceptable limits of 3 and 7, respectively, as recommended by Kline (2005) for the use of maximum likelihood estimation as the structural equation modeling (SEM) technique for model analysis. For the purpose of further descriptive analyses each of the nine latent variables was converted to a single scale interval variable with values computed for each respondent as the mean of the values which the respondent assigned to the associated indicators. Descriptive statistics for these single scale measures of the latent model variables are displayed in Appendix Table A5(b) and show that on average none of the model variables has a value less than 3 which represents a neutral point on their 5-point measurement scales corresponding to a neutral opinion about the questionnaire item. Notably, the mean values for Achievement and Responsibility are both highest at 4.47 indicating that the respondents experience very positive feelings of achievement and recognition in working at a distance from colleagues in a virtual environment. In addition, t-tests showed that there were no significant differences between males and females for the mean values of these measures for any of the model variables. Appendix Table A6 displays the correlation coefficients for associations among Age, Education, and Work Functional Level and the nine model variables where again the single scale measures of the latent variables have been used. As expected, virtual distance and work functional level are significantly positively correlated. People who work in a high (low) functional level (e.g. their colleagues are distributed across the globe (a single country)) experience high (low) levels of recognition. Job satisfaction has a significant negative correlation with age and so older people experience less job satisfaction compared to younger people. Considering the correlations among the model variables in Appendix Table A6 it is seen from the shaded cells that these significant correlations provide partial support for the corresponding causal effects in the theoretical model although there is

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a need for further evidence based on a SEM analysis of the model because significant correlations alone do not establish significant causal effects. Similarly, there are several other correlations in Appendix Table A6, which are not statistically significant, and this may suggest that the corresponding causal effects in the theoretical model are not statistically significant. These are suggestions only from Appendix Table A6 and they will be examined and tested in the SEM analyses. Model Analysis and Development Figure 2 shows the results of the SEM analysis of theoretical model using Amos 18 software. In Figure 2 direct effects are shown using the following notations which are used throughout subsequent sections: (a) The direct unstandardized effect is shown first followed by the symbol *, **, or *** to indicate if the effect is statistically significant at a level of 0.05, 0.01, or 0.001, respectively. No symbol indicates that the effect is not statistically significant at a level of 0.05 or less; (b) Next in parentheses the standardized effect is shown with S, M, or L to indicate if the magnitude of the effect is small, medium, or large, respectively. Small effects have a magnitude of 0.1 or less, medium are between 0.1 and 0.5, and large effects have a magnitude of 0.5 or more.

Figure 2 Analysis of direct effects in the theoretical model.

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Table 5 shows the values of the range of fit statistics for the theoretical model in Figure 2 as recommended by Kline (2005). Table 5 Model

Fit statistics for the theoretical model N

Nc

NC (Ď&#x2021;2/df)

RMR GFI AGFI NFI IFI CFI RMSEA

2371.587/722 = 3.285

.125 .647 .599 .735 .799 .798 .098 Theoretical 238 79 Model R2: JS (0.019); ACH (0.002); REC (0.020); WOI (0.002); RES (0.000); ADV (0.002); OC (0.182); WC (0.287) Note: R2 is the proportion of the variance of each endogenous variable that is explained

by the variables affecting it.

From Figure 2 it is seen that there are eight direct effects (highlighted) which are not statistically significant at a level of 0.05 or less and are small in magnitude. It may be that there removal from the model will lead to improved fit statistics. Also, based on the statistically significant correlations among the model variables (Appendix Table A6) it is plausible to suggest that each of the five variables Achievement, Recognition, Work Itself, Responsibility, and Advancement may have a significant direct influence on Job Satisfaction even though these five direct effects are not currently included in the theoretical model. Furthermore, since Virtual Distance has indirect effects on both Work Commitment and Organizational Commitment in the theoretical model then it is reasonable to suggest that it may also have direct effects on both of these variables. Consequently, there 15 optional direct effects in the theoretical model (the inclusion of up to 5 + 2 = 7 direct effects and the removal of up to 8 direct effects). In order to evaluate each of the 215 = 32,768 models in the hierarchy associated with these 15 optional effects the specification search facility available within Amos was used and following the recommendation by Kline (2005) the model with the smallest value for the fit statistic Normed Chi Square (NC) was selected as the final model. The final model is shown in Figure 3 using the same format for the direct effects as in Figure 2 and the fit statistics associated with the final model are presented in Table 6. 114


Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

Figure 3 Final model

Table 6 Fit statistics for the final model Model Final Model

N

Nc

238 89

NC (χ2/df) 1689.97/577 = 2.929

RMR GFI AGFI .078

.912

.897

NFI

IFI CFI RMSEA

.909 .940 .949

0.071

R2: JS (0.430); OC (0.494); WC (0.404); REC (0.016)

Note: R2 is the proportion of the variance of the endogenous variable that is explained by

the variables affecting it in the model.

The final model has a very satisfactory set of values for the fit statistics and reasonable proportions of the variance associated with the endogenous variables is explained by the model. All effects in the final model are statistically significant at a level of 0.05 or less and the only small effects are VD → WC and VD → OC. The full analyses of all effects in the final model are shown in Table 7. The determination of the statistical significance of indirect effects used the method proposed by Sobel (1986) and for totals of effects nonparametric bootstrapping was used based on 1000 random samples.

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116

Indirect

Total Indirect Total Direct Indirect Total Indirect Total Direct

Indirect

Nil Nil

Total Indirect

Total

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil 0.211***(0.293M) 0.583***(0.511L) Nil Nil 0.583***(0.511L) Nil

Nil

Nil 0.040*(0.079S) 0.211***(0.293M)

Nil

Note: *, **, and *** indicate statistical significance at levels of 0.05, 0.01, and 0.001, respectively.

Job Satisfaction (JS)

Nil Nil

Direct Indirect

Total

Nil

Nil

Nil Nil 0.491***(0.326M)

Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil

Nil

Nil 0.069*(0.127M) Nil

Nil

Endogenous Variable Dependent Work Commitment Recognition (REC) (WC) 0.069*(0.127M) 0.040*(0.079S)

Nil 0.168*(0.177M) Nil Nil Nil Nil 0.491***(0.326M)

Nil

Nil 0.109***(0.162M) 0.168*(0.177M)

Nil

Indirect

Total Indirect Total Direct

0.109***(0.162M)

Job Satisfaction (JS)

Intervening

Direct

Effect

Work Itself (WOI) Total Indirect

Responsibility (RES)

Advancement (ADV)

Virtual Distance (VD)

Variable

Table 7 Analysis of the final model

Exogenous

Intervening

0.142**(0.186M)

Nil

0.142**(0.186M) Nil

Organizational Commitment (OC) - 0.044*(- 0.086S) VD-JS-OC 0.015**(0.030S) 0.015**(0.030S) - 0.029*( - 0.056S) 0.126**(0.173M) ADV-JS-OC 0.024*( 0.033S) 0.024*( 0.033S) 0.150*(0.206M) 0.457***(0.396M) Nil Nil 0.457***(0.396M) Nil WOI-JS-OC 0.070**(0.061S) 0.070**(0.061S) 0.070**(0.061S)

The Effect of Virtual Distance on Determinants of Work Puckpimon Singhapong


Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

From Table 7 it is seen that: (a) all of the effects are statistically significant at a level of 0.05; (b) There are several small effects which are statistically significant which highlights the importance of considering the magnitude of effects and not only their statistical significance; (c) There are no situations where the magnitude of the direct effect of one variable on another is exceeded by the magnitude of indirect effects through intervening variables except for the effect of Work Itself on Organizational Commitment where there no direct effect and only a small indirect effect; and (d) although Virtual Distance has a small negative direct effect on Organizational Commitment through Job Satisfaction it has a small positive effect with a total effect that is small and negative. Discussion of the Findings Characteristics of the Respondents The respondents represent different work positions in a virtual organization where they are separated by physical distance. Most respondents were males, hold a bachelor or master degree, work in the positions of manager, solution provider, or engineer, and have an average age of 35 years. There are no significant differences among the means of any the model variables associated with the gender of the respondents. As expected, those who work in positions where virtual distance is greatest are very likely to be in multi-cluster and global roles (i.e. at high work functional levels). Employees who work in multi-cluster and global roles are responsible for coaching the local or country team, solving country and cluster problems. These individuals have expertise in team and time management. The organization provides competency and management skills training for those who work in multi-cluster and global positions. Their work tasks are focused on supporting and advising local teams with many members in different countries. Not surprisingly, it was found that respondents who have a high work functional level also experience high levels of recognition. Among the correlations between characteristics of the respondents and model variables the only other significant association suggested that older respondents tend to have a lower level of job satisfaction

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compared with younger respondents. This may reflect a situation where older employees have reached their upper limits in terms of recognition, remuneration, responsibilities, and promotion and although they may not be dissatisfied with their work it does not present the opportunities that it did when they were younger and in less senior positions. Interpretation of Causal Effects The effects in the final model are summarized in Table 8 based on the totals of effects shown in Table 7. Table 8 Summary of effects Intervening Variable

Dependent Work Commitment

Organizational Commitment

Job Satisfaction

Recognition

Virtual Distance

Medium, Positive, Only direct

Medium, Positive, Only direct

Advancement

Medium, Positive, Only direct

Nil

Medium, Positive, Only direct

Medium, Positive, Mainly direct

Responsibility

Nil

Nil

Large, Positive, Only direct

Medium, Positive, Only direct

Medium, Positive, Only direct

Nil

Nil

Small, Positive, Mainly direct

Nil

Nil

Nil

Medium, Positive, Only direct

Exogenous

Work Itself

Intervening Job Satisfaction

Small, Positive, Small, Negative, Only direct Mainly direct

The effects on dependent variables (Recognition, Work Commitment, and Organizational Commitment) indicate that only virtual distance has a medium direct positive effect on recognition and the more an employeeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work involves colleagues distributed across many countries (i.e. a high work functional level) the more they feel a high level of recognition. The more distant they are from the work team the more they communicate with the team members and the more recognition they receive from the team. There are no other factors that have such an important effect on an 118


Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

employee’s recognition. The result implies that individuals involved at high work functional levels in multi-cluster and global roles supporting many people in different countries are proud of their competencies and they gain trust which causes them to feel that they are well recognized. Three factors affect work commitment. The most influence is due to responsibility which has a large direct positive effect. Employees with more responsibility are more committed to their work and this finding is exactly aligned with existing theory and common understanding. Employees who are granted ownership of the work because they demonstrate a high level of ability normally complete the task assigned ensuring the quality of work and this leads to a high work commitment. The most important effect on work commitment is due to advancement which reflects the growth and development of an employee’s skills, competencies, and expertise in the job. Employees who have high levels of advancement are the ones who constantly achieve the work tasks which produces a high level of work commitment. The least and small influence on work commitment is due to virtual distance. As the virtual distance of an employee from their work tasks and associates increases there is very little effect on their work commitment. There are three factors that have a medium positive direct effect on organizational commitment: responsibility; advancement; and job satisfaction. As an employee’s level of responsibility increases then so does their level of commitment to the organization. Similarly, as job satisfaction increases then so does organizational commitment. When an organization provides opportunities for employees to develop expertise in their work then employees feel that the organization values their work and consequently as advancement opportunities for employees increase then so does the employee’s commitment to the organization. The nature of the work itself has only a small positive effect on organizational commitment. Also, as virtual distance increases there is only a small negative effect on organizational commitment. As noted above, job satisfaction only has an important effect on increasing organizational commitment. However, it does have an important mediating effect in the positive indirect effect of advancement on

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organizational commitment. Its mediating effect is much less important in the effects of virtual distance and the work itself on organizational commitment. Virtual distance, advancement, and the nature of the work itself each has an important positive direct effect on job satisfaction. Employees who work at high functional levels are normally provided the best facilities and travel budget to communicate with their distant teams and physically visit them quarterly on average and this results in strong job satisfaction. Advancement reflects how well employees are provided with opportunities to development skills and knowledge in order to be able to handle their work tasks and problem solving expertise and employees feel increased levels of job satisfaction if matters concerned with their advancement are provided for by the organization. A similar positive influence on job satisfaction results from organizations paying attention to the nature of the work itself. Interesting and challenging tasks enhance the nature of work and give employees an increased level of job satisfaction. When the level of job satisfaction and work commitment are high, the level of organizational commitment is also high. Comparison of the Findings with Previous Studies The research hypotheses associated with the theoretical model are compared to the findings in the final model in Table 9 which shows the hypotheses that were: supported by the findings; partially supported because although a significant direct causal effect was not found there were significant correlations between the variables; and not supported by the finding of this study.

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Table 9 Decisions for research hypotheses Research Hypothesis Supported by the Findings

Reference

Tsai and Tai, 2003; Milne, 2007; H13: Responsibility has a significant positive direct effect on Work Commitment. Haines III et al., 2008 H14: Responsibility has a significant positive direct effect on Organizational Commitment.

Al-bdour et.al, 2005; Ebeid, 2010; Madison et.al, 2012

H15: Advancement has a significant Tsai and Tai, 2003; Milne, 2007; positive direct effect on Work Commitment. Haines III et al., 2008 H16: Advancement has a significant positive direct effect on Organizational Commitment.

Schmidt, 2007; Sharma and Bajpai, 2010

H18: Job Satisfaction has a significant positive direct effect on Organizational Commitment.

Wang, 2007; Boles et al., 2007; Falkenburg and Schyns, 2007

Research Hypothesis Partially Supported by the Findings H7: Achievement has a significant positive direct effect on Work Commitment.

Tsai and Tai, 2003; Milne, 2007; Haines III et al., 2008

H8: Achievement has a significant positive direct effect on Organizational Commitment.

Tsai and Tai, 2003; Milne, 2007; Haines III et al., 2008

H9: Recognition has a significant positive direct effect on Work Commitment.

Tsai and Tai, 2003; Milne, 2007; Haines III et al., 2008

H10: Recognition has a significant positive direct effect on Organizational Commitment.

Bjarnason, 2009

H11: Work Itself has a significant positive direct effect on Work Commitment.

Tsai and Tai, 2003; Milne, 2007; Haines III et al., 2008

H12: Work Itself has a significant positive direct effect on Organizational Commitment.

Aydogdu and Asikigil, 2011; Hsu and Chen, 2009

H17: Job Satisfaction has a significant Williamson et al., 2009; Cohen positive direct effect on Work Commitment. and Veled-Hecht, 2008 Research Hypothesis Not Supported by the Findings H1: Virtual distance has a significant negative direct effect on Achievement.

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The Effect of Virtual Distance on Determinants of Work

Research Hypothesis Supported by the Findings

Puckpimon Singhapong

Reference

H13: Responsibility has a significant Tsai and Tai, 2003; Milne, 2007; positive direct effect on Work Commitment. Haines III et al., 2008 H14: Responsibility has a significant positive direct effect on Organizational Commitment.

Al-bdour et.al, 2005; Ebeid, 2010; Madison et.al, 2012

H2: Virtual distance has a significant negative direct effect on Recognition.

Putnam, 2001; Chen Ross and Huang, 2008; Sobel-Lojeski and Reilly, 2008

H3: Virtual distance has a significant negative direct effect on Work Itself.

Putnam, 2001; Chen Ross and Huang, 2008; Sobel-Lojeski and Reilly, 2008

H4: Virtual distance has a significant negative direct effect on Responsibility.

Putnam, 2001; Chen Ross and Huang, 2008; Sobel-Lojeski and Reilly, 2008

H5: Virtual distance has a significant negative direct effect on Advancement.

Putnam, 2001; Chen Ross and Huang, 2008; Sobel-Lojeski and Reilly, 2008

H6: Virtual distance has a significant negative direct effect on Job Satisfaction.

Putnam, 2001; Chen Ross and Huang, 2008; Sobel-Lojeski and Reilly, 2008

From Table 9 it is seen that overall the findings supported fully or partially 12 of the 18 research hypotheses associated with the theoretical model and derived from the results of previous studies. New Findings Table 10 shows four statistically significant effects in the final model that have not been reported in previous studies. These four new findings are feasible but certainly require further validation.

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Table 10 New findings New Findings Virtual distance has a significant positive direct small effect on work commitment Virtual distance has a significant negative mainly direct small effect on organizational commitment Advancement has a significant positive direct medium effect on Job satisfaction Work itself has a significant positive direct medium effect on Job satisfaction

Among the new findings shown in Table 10 virtual distance has a positive direct on work commitment and a mainly negative direct effect on organizational commitment whereas in the theoretical model virtual distance was proposed to only have indirect effects on work commitment and organizational commitment. The directions of these effects in the final model are compatible with the directions of the indirect effects proposed in the theoretical model. However, the direct effects of virtual distance on both work and organizational commitment require further study because although they are statistically significant in the final model they are only small in magnitude which implies that they may be of little importance. In the theoretical model advancement and the nature of work itself were proposed to be intervening variables in the effect of virtual distance on both work and organizational commitment with no causal relationships with job satisfaction. Consequently, the new findings in the final model of direct effects of advancement and the nature of work on job satisfaction are important and intuitively sensible. Conclusion Summarizing the preceding discussion of the findings from a theoretical perspective it is seen that responsibility (i.e. the degree to which an individual is given the freedom to make decisions in their work) and the advancement of employees (i.e. the degree to which an individual experiences new learning and growth in their carrier) have important positive influences on work and organizational commitment. Job satisfaction has an

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important positive influence on organizational commitment but it does not have an important influence on work commitment. The factors that have important positive influences on job satisfaction are advancement and the work itself (i.e. the extent to which an individual feels that their work tasks are challenging and interesting), which have not been reported in previous studies, as well as virtual distance (i.e. physical distance between employees based on real location differences in space and time). However, the nature of work itself has only a small positive effect on organizational commitment. Similarly, virtual distance has only a small negative effect on organizational commitment and a small positive effect on work commitment and these findings have not been reported in previous studies. Nonetheless, if the understanding and treatment of issues related to the nature of the work and virtual distance are not addressed by management then these may have strong negative effects on organizational and work commitment. The practical implications of the findings of the study are described in Table 11 in the form of two major practical objectives and the associated actions needed to achieve the objectives. For each objective the actions for achieving the objectives have been organized in sequence from the most effective to the least effective based on effects in the final model.

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Table 11 Summary of objectives and actions to improve work and organizational commitment Major Objective

Action

Related Construct in the Final Model

1.1 Creating check lists of tasks; ensuring that all employees understand what the tasks are; assigning employees the authority to handle the tasks; allowing Responsibility 1. Increase work flexibility for employees to perform their work and develop a feeling of trust; and commitment treating mistakes as opportunities for learning and development. 1.2 Managers are advised to constantly Advancement develop employeeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s competencies.

2. Increase organizational commitment

2.1 Increase responsibility (see Action 1.1).

Responsibility

2.2 Increase advancement (see Action 1.2).

Advancement

2.3 Ensuring that an individual feels Job Satisfaction that their work tasks are challenging and Work itself interesting. 2.4 Provide proper competency plan and Job Satisfaction allocate training budget for individual or Advancement team. 2.5 Balancing the need for travel for employees to meet their teams physically Job Satisfaction and the use of virtual communication Virtual distance technologies.

In the findings of this study virtual distance has not had any significant negative effects on job satisfaction, recognition, and work or organizational commitment and instead it has important positive effects on recognition and job satisfaction. However, this may be a result of studying the effects of virtual distance in a single organization where it appears that issues related to virtual distance (e.g. communication facilities and a professional management team) may be well understood and accommodated so as to reduce any negative influences it may have. The main benefits from a virtual

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organization are to better utilize the workforce, minimize the cost of office space, and gain flexibility on a global scale and such organizations are not easy to manage. It is strongly recommended for this study to be repeated with other organizations in order to establish the external validity of the findings and further studies should also take account of two other dimensions of virtual distance (operational distance and affinity distance) because this study focused on the single dimension of physical distance based on real location differences among employees in space and time.

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APPENDIX A1. Notated Questionnaire Section A Measuring Scale: 1 = Strongly Disagree, 2 = Disagree, 3 = Neutral, 4 = Agree, 5 = Strongly Agree. Statement

Indicator

Virtual Distance (VD) I work in the location that has different time zone from my boss.

VD3

I work in the location that has different time zone from my team.

VD4

Achievement (ACH) I am proud of myself when I completed the task.

EM8

I feel I have contribute the quality work to the company.

EM9

I have competency to complete the task.

EM10

My job gives me accomplishment.

EM11

Recognition (REC) I am aware that company recognized the value of my work.

EM12

I am important to my team.

EM13

I am important to my manager.

EM14

I gain the respect from my team.

EM15

Work Itself (WOI) My job is challenging.

EM16

I enjoy doing my job.

EM17

My job enhanced my knowledge.

EM18

I love my job.

EM19

Responsibility (RES) I have responsibility to my work.

EM20

My manager gives me the ownership of my work.

EM21

I am confident and know what to do when the problem occur.

EM22

I know well how my job contributes to company.

EM23

Advancement (ADV) I am doing this job because it helps me develop my carrier path.

EM24

My job increases my competency.

EM25

My job provides me an opportunity to be promoted.

EM26

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I got promotion response on my performance.

EM27

Job Satisfaction (JS) I am satisfied with the pay I received.

JS28

I am satisfied with my colleague.

JS29

I am satisfied with my manager.

JS30

I am satisfied with office’s working environment.

JS31

I am satisfied with company financial.

JS32

I am satisfied with my job.

JS33

Work Commitment (WC) I become absorbed in my work to the point where I shut out everything else.

WC34

I take pride in the quality of my own work.

WC35

My workday rarely drags or seems endless.

WC36

I think about what happens to my work even after i leave my department.

WC37

I am normally able to concentrate on my work without thinking about other things.

WC38

My work is a major source of need satisfaction in my life.

WC39

Organization Commitment (OC) I feel please to learn about my organization’s achievements.

OC40

I pay attention to how my organization is doing overall.

OC41

My organization’s goals help me to fulfill my own goals.

OC42

I have a clear sense of how my work contributes to the whole organization.

OC43

I often offer help to others even before finishing my own work.

OC44

I tend to get defensive when I hear negative comments about my organization.

OC45

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Section B 1. Gender o Male (1) o Female (2) 2. Age o 21 – 30 years old (1) o 31 – 40 years old (2) o 41 – 50 years old (3) o over 50 years old (4) 3. Education o Diploma (1) o Bachelor’s Degree (2) o Master Degree (3) o Doctoral Degree (4) 4. Position o Engineer (any field) (1) o Manager (2) o Team Assistant (3) o Human Resources (4) o Trainer (5) o Financial and Controller (6) o Sale/Account Manager (7) o Solution Provider (e.g. Solution Manager, Solution Consultant) (8) 5. Work Functional level o Country (1) o Cluster (2) o Multi-Clusters (3) o Global (4)

137


138

Work Commitment (WC)

Advancement (ADV)

EM26 EM24 EM27 EM25 WC38 WC37 WC36 WC35 WC34 WC39

OC42 OC41 Organizational OC44 Commitment OC45 (OC) OC40 OC43

Job Satisfaction (JS)

JS29 JS32 JS30 JS31 JS28 JS33

Indicator

Factor analysis

Latent Variable

Table A1

JS .910 .896 .865 .859 .836 .815 .051 .118 .126 .134 .077 .146 .138 .096 .119 .224 .005 -.072 .087 .066 .227 .024

OC .073 .133 .098 .150 .137 .046 .817 .792 .745 .734 .729 .728 .065 .094 .119 .037 .254 .243 .178 .213 .223 .235

ADV .086 .095 .115 .233 .190 .181 .105 .159 .076 .060 .041 .094 .899 .875 .868 .819 -.005 .212 .245 .091 .050 .215

WC .104 .071 .077 -.094 .060 .098 .220 .211 .272 .190 .241 .204 .078 .148 .112 .152 .748 .726 .713 .710 .693 .677

Latent Variable REC WOI .041 .076 .053 .125 .075 .114 .005 .138 -.001 .210 .049 .302 .084 .161 .103 .101 .028 .095 -.092 .235 .150 -.012 .225 .005 -.019 .206 .133 .171 .032 .218 -.033 .279 .130 .085 .096 .128 .038 .060 .148 .088 .170 .162 .094 .101 RES .166 -.015 .134 .117 -.021 .039 .016 .153 .053 .141 .142 .333 .057 .116 -.086 .034 .123 .186 .201 .274 .181 -.005

ACH .104 -.002 .142 .047 .060 .117 .070 .132 .073 .049 .222 .086 -.015 .023 -.035 .186 .038 .072 .036 .250 .186 .155

VD .003 .046 .021 .010 .037 -.095 -.032 -.024 .057 -.166 -.001 -.009 -.024 -.024 -.050 -.062 .119 -.089 -.020 .041 .105 .142

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139

Virtual Distance (VD)

Achievement (ACH)

Responsibility (RES)

Work Itself (WOI)

Recognition (REC)

EM13 EM14 EM15 EM12 EM19 EM18 EM17 EM16 EM23 EM21 EM20 EM22 EM8 EM10 EM9 EM11 VD4 VD3

Indicaontor

JS .009 -.094 .119 .082 .212 .095 .187 .058 .100 .052 .058 -.011 .117 .044 -.051 .119 -.057 .070

Factor analysis (Continue)

Latent Variable

Table A1 OC .068 .035 .148 .004 .121 -.012 .101 .113 .020 .159 .084 .127 .085 .146 .079 .008 -.030 -.049

ADV -.003 -.039 .067 .109 .123 .397 .213 .259 .061 .027 -.011 .019 .000 -.035 -.075 .287 -.045 -.034

WC .089 .059 .118 .103 .077 .131 .047 .089 .138 .022 .135 .310 .034 .114 .143 .061 .036 .064

Latent Variable REC WOI .885 .033 .867 -.001 .793 .069 .767 .208 .822 .158 .777 .074 .745 .155 .682 -.089 .257 .035 .104 .191 .121 .344 .163 -.140 .113 .219 .244 .076 .368 -.008 .268 .251 .134 -.046 .118 -.055 RES .187 .200 .183 .051 .064 .024 .133 .201 .799 .795 .723 .690 .160 .269 .269 .099 .024 .037

ACH .139 .228 .245 .246 -.005 .202 .192 .190 .135 .148 .272 .304 .828 .757 .714 .671 -.020 .002

VD .140 .102 .196 .103 -.004 -.057 -.155 .005 .117 .084 .012 -.142 -.013 .055 -.082 .033 .962 .957

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140

1.674

1.432

1.325

1.116

Work Itself

Responsibility

Achievement

Virtual Distance

2.790

3.312

3.580

4.186

5.799

7.426

8.674

12.623

29.768

78.158

75.368

72.055

68.475

64.290

58.490

51.065

42.391

29.768

% of Cumulative Variance %

1.116

1.325

1.432

1.674

2.320

2.970

3.469

5.049

11.907

Total

2.790

3.312

3.580

4.186

5.799

7.426

8.674

12.623

29.768

% of Variance

78.158

75.368

72.055

68.475

64.290

58.490

51.065

42.391

29.768

Cumulative %

2.108

3.033

3.088

3.202

3.463

3.693

3.768

4.012

4.896

Total

5.270

7.582

7.720

8.006

8.658

9.233

9.420

10.029

12.239

% of Variance

78.158

72.888

65.306

57.586

49.580

40.923

31.689

22.269

12.239

Cumulative %

Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis; Rotation Method: Equamax with Kaiser Normalization. Rotation converged in 9 iterations; Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy = .876; Bartlettâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Test of Sphericity: Approx. Chi-Square 8407.739, Degrees of Freedom 780, Significance 0.000, Only components with eigenvalues 1 or more are shown.

2.320

Recognition

3.469

Advancement

2.970

5.049

Organizational Commitment

Work Commitment

11.907

Job Satisfaction

Total

Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings

Total Variance Explained Initial Eigenvalues

Factor analysis (Continue)

Latent Variable

Table A1

The Effect of Virtual Distance on Determinants of Work Puckpimon Singhapong


EM 12-15

Recognition (REC)

141 0.872*

0.916**

0.942**

Cronbach Alpha Indicator

EM 8-11

JS 28-33

Achievement (ACH) Job Satisfaction (JS)

Responsibility EM 20-23 (RES)

Latent Variable (Label)

0.957**

0.854*

0.855*

Cronbach Alpha

Note: * indicates good and ** indicates excellent (George and Mallery, 2003).

EM 16-19

EM 24-26

Advancement (ADV)

Work Itself (WOC)

Indicator

Latent Variable (Label)

Table A2 Cronbach alpha coefficients

Virtual Distance (VD) VD 3-4

0.958**

0.890*

WC 34-39

Work Commitment (WC)

Cronbach Alpha 0.911**

Indicator

Organizational Commitment OC 41-45 (OC)

Latent Variable (Label)

Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts


Frequency

142 3

41-50 years

over 50 years

104

Master 238

119

Bachelor

Total

15

Diploma

Education

238

106

31-40 years

Total

24 105

21-30 years

Age

238

74

Female

Total

164

Frequency

Male

Gender

100.0

43.7

50.0

6.3

100.0

1.3

44.5

44.1

10.1

Percent

Personal Characteristics

Table A3 Personal characteristics of respondents

100.0

56.3

6.3

Av. Age = 35 years , Standard Deviation = 0.7

100.0

98.7

54.2

10.1

Cumulative Percent

100.0

31.1

68.9

Percent

The Effect of Virtual Distance on Determinants of Work Puckpimon Singhapong


143

9 1 20 7 7 59

Team Assistant

Human Resources

Trainer

Financial Controller

Sales/Account Manager

Solution Provider 238

77

Manager

Total

58

Frequency

Engineer

Work Position

Table A4 Work characteristics of respondents

100.0

24.8

2.9

2.9

8.4

.4

3.8

32.4

24.4

Percent

Global Total

Multi-Clusters

Cluster

Country

Work Functional Level

Work Characteristics

238

55

9

98

76

Frequency

100.0

23.1

3.8

41.2

31.9

Percent

Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts


144

3.84

.787

3.55

.726

.704

-.205

-.363

-.220

OC42

OC41

3.32

3.68

3.60

.761

.780

.764

3.98

-.279

OC40

EM19

.766

-.058

3.83

-.423

EM18

.748

3.98

EM17

.721

.667

Organization Commitment (OC)

3.53

3.76

3.99

-.765

WC37 WC38

EM16

-.097

-.315 1.143

.707

.689

.739

WC39

.728

-.301 -.695

3.65

3.93

3.66

.894

.960

.939

.900

.899

.916

Standard Deviation

Work Itself (WOI)

.735

WC36

3.99

-.277

EM14

-.482

EM15

.803

4.02

.157

EM13

-.427

3.49

3.07

3.50

3.56

3.71

Work Commitment (WC) WC35

.827

-.899

JS33

3.67

-.255

.173

JS32

EM12

.691

-1.100

.656 -.129

WC34

4.18

EM11

.611

-.941

Recognition (REC)

4.57

EM10

.614

-1.318

JS29 JS31

4.61

4.53

EM8

EM9

.612

-1.305 JS30

-.150

Achievement (ACH)

1.453

3.25

3.00

-1.517

VD4

-.260

JS28

1.609

Mean

3.21

Latent Variable/ Indicator

VD3

Skewness Kurtosis Job Satisfaction (JS)

Standard Deviation

Virtual Distance (VD)

Mean

Descriptive statistics for indicators of the latent model variables

Latent Variable/ Indicator

Table A5(a)

-.046

-.112

.035

-.246

-.049

.301

.173

.098

.013

-.425

-.541

-.709

-.593

-.590

-.493

Skewness

.163

-.377

-.392

-.194

-.266

-.393

-.471

-.883

-.356

.043

-.184

.196

.038

.118

.071

Kurtosis

The Effect of Virtual Distance on Determinants of Work Puckpimon Singhapong


145

3.54

3.57

3.20

3.09

EM24

EM25

EM26

EM27

Advancement (ADV)

4.35

.975

.998

.952

.906

.676

-.357

-.594

-.297

-.474

-.732

-.316

-.250

-.095

-.468

.058

.117

-.897

OC45

EM23

.565

-.069

4.43

-.975

EM22

.613

4.54

.136

EM21

-1.082

OC44

.611

4.56 3.45

3.58

3.62

EM20

Mean

OC43

Latent Variable/ Indicator

Responsibility (RES)

Skewness Kurtosis Job Satisfaction (JS)

Standard Deviation

Virtual Distance (VD)

Mean

.714

.746

.826

Standard Deviation

Descriptive statistics for indicators of the latent model variables (Continue)

Latent Variable/ Indicator

Table A5(a)

.354

-.199

-.352

Skewness

-.142

-.230

.092

Kurtosis

Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts


3.11

4.47

3.88

3.95

4.47

Achievement

Recognition

Work Itself

Responsibility

Mean

Virtual Distance

Latent Variable

.516

.626

.705

.528

1.501

Standard Deviation

-.833

-.015

.397 -.330

-.252

.088

-1.436

Kurtosis

-.570

-1.011

-.268

Skewness

Organization Commitment

Work Commitment

Job Satisfaction

Advancement

Latent Variable

Table A5(b) Descriptive statistics for single scale measures of latent variables

3.54

3.68

3.43

3.35

Mean

.637

.569

.832

.884

Standard Deviation

-.085

.123

-.736

-.547

Skewness

The Effect of Virtual Distance on Determinants of Work

146

Puckpimon Singhapong


Variable

147 .071 -.086 .005 .101 -.046

Work Itself (WOI)

Responsibility (RES)

Advancement (ADV)

Job Satisfaction (JS)

Work Commitment (WC)

Organization Commitment (OC)

1 .241 .442 .115 .139 .340 .260

.558 .402 .548 .181 .229 .381 .330

.222

-.071

.006

REC

.321

.349

.404

.549

.326

1

-.124

.037

-.064

WOI

.382

.460

.209

.144

1

.049

.090

.088

RES

.275

.355

.370

1

-.082

-.022

-.065

ADV

Latent Model Variable

.312

.236

1

-.070

.597

1

.011

-.029

-.045

- .132 -.021

WC

JS

1

-.112

-.124

.007

OC

Notes: (a) Highlighted correlations are statistically significant at a level of 0.05; (b) Shaded cells correspond to causal effects in the theoretical model.

Latent Model Variable

.263 -.095

Recognition (REC)

1

.030

Achievement (ACH)

.014

.858 1

.017

-.055

Virtual Distance (VD)

.012

ACH

-.068

VD

Correlations among characteristics of respondents and model variables

Age Characteristics of Education Respondents Work Functional Level

Table A6

Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts


Buddhist Sects in Lān Nā from the Reign of King Tilōk to that of Phayā Käo (1441-1525): Studies of Dated Bronze Buddha Images in Chiang Mai* Surasawasdi Sooksawasdi Thai Art Department, Faculty of Fine Arts, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Corresponding author. E-mail address: tibetan07@gmail.com Abstract

Southeast Asia has long been known for vital cultural forms that are

both resilient and able to blend well with those from outside the region, especially those that fit well with local social conditions, customs, and beliefs. This syncretism occurred in the case of Buddhism in Lān Nā during its period of prosperity from the reign of King Tilōk to that of Phayā Käo (1441-1525). Although traditionally these beliefs were thought to have derived from the Theravāda sect of Buddhism of Wat Suan Dòk and Wat Pā Däng (along wit­­h various local beliefs), in reality the Lankan Theravāda Buddhism­ of Lān Nā assimilated and blended Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna beliefs to such an extent that the two traditions became one. Further, the influence of Northern Buddhist art traditions can be detected in some features of Lān Nā Buddha images as well as in relevant rituals and customs. Actually, Lankan Buddhist art itself was derived party from Mahāyāna beliefs in earlier times.

______________ * Edited from the same title research grant by Chiang Mai University (The project of support and development research for new established faculties and the faculties of the social sciences and humanities, 2552-55)

Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts Vol.13 (2) : 149-177, 2013


Buddhist Sects in Lān Nā from the Reign of King

Surasawasdi Sooksawasdi

The research consisted of a multi-disciplinary study incorporating

Buddhist history and a comparison of Lān Nā Buddha image features and bronze casting techniques with those of their counterparts in Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Tibet. The study also compares the characteristics of the Mahā Purusa . Laksana, . . the “Great Man,” as found in Mahāyāna and Theravāda texts, religious philosophies, and beliefs. Also included in the study are relevant customs and rituals such as consecrating Buddha images and placing Buddhist relics inside them. The study found that in the prosperous period of Theravāda Buddhism in Lān Nā, some Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna beliefs and rituals were so well assimilated that their history and origin cannot be traced. Key Words: Buddha image; Phra Singh; Golden Age of Lān Nā; Theravāda;

Mahāyāna; Vajrayāna; syncretism

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The Golden Age of Lān Nā

Hans Penth (1937-2009) aptly defined the ‘Golden Age of Lān Nā’

as the period when Lān Nā was completed through the powerful military of Chiang Mai and its satellite towns, the philosophical prosperity of Buddhist monks, the impartiality of law and order, the skillfulness of craftsmen, and the progress in irrigation and agriculture (Penth, 1983: 26-27). Because of these factors, Chiang Mai became the center of politics and culture in what is now Northern Thailand from the time of Phayā Kue Nā to that of Phayā Käo (1355 to 1525). The peak of the period occurred, during the reigns of King Tilōk and Phayā Käo (1441-1525).

Chiang Mai’s prosperity was also facilitated by Buddhist activities,

such as merit making, which united the different elements of society – kings and queens, the royal court, noblemen, craftsmen, ordinary lay people, and monks. Consequently, many monasteries were built not only in Chiang Mai but also throughout Lān Nā. Moreover, a great number of Buddha images were created for each monastery as evidenced by the number of inscriptions on the images’ pedestals referring to donors. Land and crops were traditionally dedicated for the monasteries’ maintenance and lay people sometimes offered their relatives as attendants to important Buddha images. Northern Thai Buddhists would offer food and drink to the image as if it were the Lord Buddha himself. At that time, and also now, after an image is consecrated, it is believed to be a Buddha, imbued with life. The Ari sect and the evidence of Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna Buddhism in Lān Nā

During the Golden Age of Chiang Mai, Lān Nā monks would be

ordained at or make pilgrimages to Sri Lanka and Bagan, which were renowned centers of Theravāda Buddhism. The Chiang Rai Inscription 4 (CR. 4) dating from 1498 or 1499 C.E. found at Wat Rattanavanārām in what is currently Phayao Province (Inscriptional History of Phayao 1995: 224-227), relates the journeys of Chiang Mai monks to Sri Lanka in the 15th century. Among them were the revered monks Mahā Dhammagambhīra

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and Mahā Medhankara, who founded the Pā Däng sect in Chiang Mai (Jinakālamālī 1967: 119-123) and Phra Yānakitti Thera, King Tilōk’s teacher. Similarly, Bagan Inscription 764, dating from early 1393, gives details of the pilgrimage of a revered monk Chiang Mai, Mahāsāmī Mahā Thera, who is said to have been the teacher of a Chiang Mai king who must have been Sèn Müang Mā (1385-1401) as referred to in the Jinakālamālī. He conveyed some golden decorated lotuses and donated money to the Shwe-zigon on three occasions (Luce, G.H. and Ba Shin, 1961: 332).

Some texts and lyrical Northern Thai poems, such as Chāmadevī

Wong and Glong Mangtrā Rob Chiang Mai, furnish details about a Lān Nā – Pegu route. This route, which took three months to cover by walking (Na Nakorn 1979: (8)), ran through Chom Thong and Mae Sarieng, and crossed the Salween River to Muang Thrang (nowadays known as Papun) located on the west bank of the Salween in Myanmar. The Mon people who migrated from Hariphunchai to Pegu in former times followed this route, as did the Bagan ascetic Mang Lung Lwang, sent by Ayudhyan King Borommatrailōk in 1465 to be a secret agent in Tilōk’s court (Wyatt and Wichienkeeo 1998: 97-99).

This familiar route also must have been traveled by the Indian monk

Buddhagupta, spiritual teacher of the Tibetan monk Tāranātha, as related in the latter’s history of Indian Buddhism written in the 16th-17th centuries (Chattopadhyaya 1990). Buddhagupta was a great traveller; he visited many places in India and Burma, the islands of the southeastern seas, and even Africa, with a view to find traces of Buddhism and Buddhist remains. He also went to Tibet where Tāranātha later recorded his visit in a Tibetan short biographical note. The life and travels of Buddhagupta have been incorporated in a biography written in Tibetan by Tāranātha under the title Sans rgyas sbas pa (Ray 1936: 84). It is important as a source of geographical information regarding numerous places in India, Burma, Africa, and several islands of the Archipelago. This ‘history’ is also an important piece of evidence concerning the spread of Mahāyāna over Mainland Southeast Asia, especially to what is referred to as Koki land,

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a region that consisted of many important ancient cities: Rakhine, Bagan, Pegu, Haripuñjaya, Angkor, for example. Buddhagupta’s evidence, written by Tāranātha, seems to suggest that the Mahāyāna sect had by this time lost its influence in Bagan, but not in Haribhañja and Balgu where he heard “as far as possible the law of secret mantras” (Ray 1936: 87).

Even though Nihar-ranjan Ray was uncertain whether or not

‘Balgu’ should be Pegu, he agreed with Giusseppe Tucci (1931: 683-702) that ‘Haribhañja’ must be Hariphunchai (Lamphun) in Northern Thailand. The way of life of Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna monks at that time can be detected by the two monks mentioned; first, the Mahāsiddha Santipada and second, the pandita Parhetanandaghossa. We can identify the guru as .. Anuttara Yōga Tantra, teacher in the Vajrayāna sect by his order ‘Mahāsiddha’ while the lay pandita . . Parhetanandaghossa was probably a Vajrajārya, teacher in Vajrayāna but not exactly monk because he lived as a lay person, as found at Newar temples called Bāhās (Bāhīs) in Katmandu and Patan, Nepal (Figure 1). The Newar Vajrajārya would live as a lay scholar – or ‘pandita,’ with his .. family but made a living by conducting the Mantra ceremony for people.

Figure 1 A vajrajārya at Swayambhunarth Stūpa in Katmandu, Nepal. The Newar vajrajārya used to live as a lay scholar with his family but made a living by conducting the mantra ceremony for people. (Author’s photograph)

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Many centuries before the journey of Buddhagupta in Koki land,

the Ari sect had spread as far as Śrāvakayāna (an old word that now means Theravāda sect). The mural paintings of Paya-thon-zu and Nandamanya Temple in Bagan and the evidence of the Tibetan monk scholar Tāranātha point to the existence of a Tantric Buddhist sect in Bagan, and perhaps in other localities in Myanmar as well (Aung-Twin 1985: 36-37). This sect was probably that of the Ari, or Samanakuttaka, another name of the Ari referred to in the Sasanavamsa, who had their principal center on Mt. Popa near Bagan. Charles Duroiselle identified the Ari or Ariya, a name derived from the word Arya (noble), as a sect affiliated with the Northern School of Buddhism and fully saturated with Tantrism (Duroiselle 1911: 126).

The 1476 Kalyanī Inscription of the Mon King, Dhammazedi, refers

to the Aris by the word ‘ariyarahanta’(ariyarahanta pakkhabhikku sangha), the monastic sect of the noble arhants, respected as descendants of Sona and Uttara Thera from the Asokan period (Woodward 2003: 168). In fact, there is a large amount of evidence of the Aris in a Burmese chronicle, Hmannan Yazawin, also known as The Glass Palace Chronicle, from the Bagan period. An example is a Tantra ceremony called the flower of virginity, a ceremony of presenting a daughter or son to the acāriya before giving them in marriage, resembling the ceremony in Angkor, referred to as chen-t’an by Chou Ta-Kuan in 1296 (Chou Ta-Kuan 1993: 18-19). Hmannan also mentions the close relationship between the Aris and the King of Sagaing in 1315. It appears that many of the Aris lived around Pinya, Ava, and Sagaing at that time and were patronized by their kings (Duroiselle 1911: 92-93).

Even without evidence of the Aris in Lān Nā texts or inscriptions,

the role of Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna artistic expressions can be detected in Hariphunchai sculpture. An example is a terracotta crowned head in the Hariphunchai National Museum, Lamphun. (Stratton 2004: 121, figs. 5.61 a and b) (Figure 2 a and b), which seems closely related to those of the Pāla style of art in Bengal and Bihar around the 11th century. Another terracotta piece was found at Wat Pratu Li, Lamphun. It is a head of a male figure with arched eyebrows and large protruding eyes, wearing a crown with five leaf

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Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

ornaments which normally are found in Bagan art of the 12th - 13th centuries (Department of Fine Arts 2009: 245 fig. 70). Carol Stratton like Hans Penth (2004: fig.11), found the same kind of crowned decoration on four repoussée bronze Buddha images at Wieng Tha Karn, Lamphun, a satellite center which was flourishing at that time (Stratton 2004: 122, fig. 5.62).

Figure 2 a and b. Crowned head of the Buddha converting King Jambūpati, or Jambūpati himself, or another royal devotee. Stucco, late 11th - early 12th C. (Stratton 2004)

Stratton’s identification of a subcategory which she calls the

‘wide-eyed type’ Phra Singh (Stratton 2004: 174-176, figs. 7.32 and 7.34) is similar to A.B. Griswold’s categories of ‘stiff’ (Figure 3) and ‘supple’ types (Figure 4). Griswold believed that the Phra Singh group of Lān Nā originated from the Pāla images which were inspired by Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna ideology that passed through Bagan (Griswold 1957: 33-34).

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Figure 3 Example of a ‘stiff’ type of Phra Singh Buddha image, 1470, at Wat Phrachao Meng Rai, Chiang Mai. (Author’s photograph) Figure 4 Example of a ‘supple’ type of Phra Singh, Wat Nong Phan-ngern, San Pa Tong, Chiang Mai, identified as Phra Singh 1473-74 in Wat Pha Khao, Chiang Mai. (Author’s photograph)

The wide-eyed Phra Singh group may relate to the influence of

Vajrayāna Buddhism at that time. Although Stratton (2004: 176) mentions that the type is possibly a Sri Lankan prototype from the early years of the Kandyan Period (1469-1815), the similarity of the ‘wide-eyes’ of Phra Singh in Chiang Mai and a Hariphunchai terracotta figure of a Buddha disciple (Figure 5) could also be interpreted as examples of the concept of sudden awakening. This concept was first mentioned by Piriya Krairiksh (1985: 137). Hiram Woodward (1997: 118) later mentioned the ‘wide-eyes’ as a specific characteristic of Ari or Ariya iconography. This idea, if it is true, should be a significant manifestation of the Ari sect in Hariphunchai as well. For the Vajrayāna sect of Tantric Buddhism, as well as the Ari, the goal of awakening (enlightenment) is the most important ideology. The eyes of those who suddenly attain enlightenment this way could be very different from the eyes of other images, both of Hindu gods’ and the Buddha, which are half opened as if in meditation. 156


Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

Figure 5 Buddha disciple, terracotta, ca. 12th - 13th C., Chiang Mai National Museum. (Chalor Karianthong’s photograph) King Tilōk, the Crowned Buddha image, and Chakravātin

In the Golden Age of Lān Nā, 15th-16th centuries, political, social, and

religious contests intensified between the ideology of secular kingship and that of the Chakravātin or universal monarchy. The ordination of King Tilōk for a short period at Wat Pā Däng, Chiang Mai, a practice similar to that of King Lüthai (Mahādhammarāja I) of Sukhothai and King Borommatrailōk of Ayudhya certainly reflected the challenge. The socio-political context is also shown in the crowned Buddha image at that time representing the Buddha over-awing Jambūpati, related in the familiar Jambūpati Sūtra. A study by Niyada Laosunthon (1999: 201-202) found that the story came from a Tibetan text, the Sūtra of the Wise and the Foolish (mdo bdzans blun). This again confirms the role of the Northern School ideology in Theravāda culture. The cult of the universal monarch is also clearly shown in a crowned

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Buddha image that was ordered cast by Tilōk in 1465-66 (Figure 6). Surasak Sisam-ang (2008: 71-73) remarks on the relationship between the image and the royal name “Siridhammajakrapatdi-tilōkrajadhiraj.” At the same time Tilōk celebrated his new royal house, after destroying the revered tree of Chiang Mai at Ban Sri Phum because of a trick played by the Bagan ascetic Mang Lung Lwang as related in The Chiang Mai Chronicle (Wyatt and Wichienkeeo 1998: 97-99). According to the chronicle, Borommatrailōk sent the Burmese monk, Mang Lung Lwang, to Chiang Mai to trick Tilōk into believing that he could extend his life and become a Chakravātin if he removed the revered banyan tree at Ban Si Phum which was believed to protect the city. This incident took place together with the casting of a royal crowned image and building a new royal house. Sisam-ang also notes the resemblance between Tilōk’s crowned Buddha image and the Vajrayāna Aksōbhaya image (Figure 7) found at Pa-hto-tha-mya temple in Bagan and interprets it to mean that the cult of the universal monarch was the newly promulgated ideology of Tilōk. In addition, we can find a resemblance in their monastic robes with those of Nepalese and also Tibetan images as shown in the monastic robes of the Aksōbhaya, Tibetan-Nepalese style, in the National Museum of Nepal, Chhauni (Figure 8).

Figure 6 Crowned Buddha image at Wat Benchamabophit, Bangkok, made by King Tilōk of Chiang Mai in 1465-66. (Sisam-ang 2012)

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Figure 7 Dhayānibuddha Aksōbhaya image found at Pa-hto-tha-mya temple in Bagan. (Strachan 1989) Figure 8 Aksōbhaya image, bronze, Tibetan-Nepalese style, National Museum of Nepal, Chhauni. (Author’s photograph)

The cult of the crowned Buddha image in the 16th century can be

studied from the casting of the Mahākyain Pharas (Royal Oath Buddha), also known as the Nantet Phara (Coronation Buddha). This image is mentioned in a Rakhine palm leaf manuscript entitled Buddha Abhiseka Mangala, . which was transcribed in 1543 (San Tha Aung 1997: 53-56). The manuscript gives details of the coronation ceremony in which the image in full royal regalia must be raised above the Rakhine King while he circumambulates a holy pagoda three times. Again the influence of Northern Buddhism revealed in these crowned Rakhine images (Figure 9) led Pamela Gutman to suggest that the influence of Sino-Tibetan art from the Chinese Yuan and Ming Dynasties came from monks who traveled between monasteries in Rakhine, Tibet, and Bengal (Gutman 2011: 146-153).

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Figure 9 A crowned Buddha image, Rakhine style, 17th - 18th C., Bangkok National Museum. (Author’s photograph) Comparison of Chiang Mai and Nepal-Tibet Buddha Images

Actually the linkage between Northern and Southern Buddhism can

be detected in Lān Nā Buddha images. From this study we find that the iconography of some Chiang Mai bronze Buddha images dating from the Golden Age resembles that of images in Nepal and Tibet. The first similarity is the high conical usnīsa . . . found on two Phra Singh images kept in Wat Benchamabophit, cast in 1484-85, (Figure 10) and on another cast in 1486, now in the Bangkok National Museum. The style of these tall usnīsas . . . must have come from that of a Tibetan Buddha image’s usnīsa . . . (Figure 11). This feature, the tall usnīsa, . . . can be interpreted as the first Mahāpurusa . Laksana, . . or characteristics of a Great Man, Usnīśīrasa, .. . mentioned in the Mahāyāna manuscript Lalitvistara. Second, the curled fingers of the right hand in the gesture of subduing Māra (Maravijaya) of some Chiang Mai Phra Singh images are similar to those of Tibetan images. An example can be seen in the image at Wat Nong Phan-ngern, Chiang Mai, cast in 1473-74 (see Figure 4).

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Figure 10 Phra Singh 1484-85, Wat Benjamaborpit, Bangkok, with a high conical usnīsa. . . . (Krairiksh’s photograph) Figure 11 Phra Shākyamunī Buddha image, West Tibetan style, mid 11th - 12th C. (Rhie and Thurman 1991)

Note here that the fingers on the hands of this group of ‘Lion Lord’

images are of natural length and quite realistic, clearly different from the fingers mentioned in the Theravāda manuscript Pathomsombōdhi which are definitely of equal length. Marilin Rhie and Robert Thurman (1991: 74-75) explain this feature as follows: “Shākyamunī touches the earth with the tip of the middle finger of his right hand, responding to the devil Māra’s challenge to his right to enlightenment.” And, “He calls upon Mother Earth herself to bear witness to his long evolutionary struggle, over billions of lifetimes, to come to this moment.”

Surprisingly, while Lān Nā texts, like those of Sukhothai, always

mention that the discipline of the Lanka Wong sect was accepted as being from Sri Lanka at that time, we seldom find Lān Nā images with Sri Lankan proportions. It seems that the Sri Lankan proportions for seated images, caturamāna . (Figure 12), were never brought to Lān Nā, just as the preferred Sri Lankan meditation gesture was less favored in Lān Nā than the subduing Māra gesture. Further, from our study we find the skill of Sri Lankan craftsmen was in stone carving rather than in bronze casting. While

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we find splendid Sri Lankan life size or larger images in stone, it is difficult to find bronze images such as those of Lān Nā and Nepal-Tibet. Sri Lankan proportions were not adopted; instead three varieties of Lān Nā seated image proportions were followed among Lān Nā craftsmen, even though their familiarity is fading today. In a manuscript discovered in Lampang, names are attached to these three types.

The most squat is the

nigrodhalakkhana, . “banyan characteristics.” Next is the gajalakkhana, . “elephant characteristics,” and the thirdly is the sīhalakkhana, . “lion characteristics” (Woodward Jr. 1997: 23).

Figure 12 Sri Lankan proportions for seated images, caturmāna. . (Author’s photograph)

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On the other hand, another concrete piece of evidence that affirms

an ancient connection between Lān Nā and Nepal-Tibet craftsmanship is the Lān Nā casting technique, which involves many pieces that are joined together with traditional rivets called swae. We also find that some heads from both traditions in the 15th -16th centuries were cast hollow. In this case their usnīsa . . . as could be opened to place relics or propitious objects inside (Figure 13). In some Lān Nā image the usnīsa . . . was cleverly adjusted to facilitate inserting a relic, such as the Phra Singh image cast in 1482 now in the museum of Wat Phra That Hariphunchai, Lamphun (Figure 14). The placing of 500 relics and crystals, as well as golden and silver Buddha images in the head of the Lawapura Buddha image (Figure 15) by Tilōk in 1483, as mentioned in the Jinakālamālī, can explain the cult of relic worship that was certainly related to the above-mentioned techniques of casting. From the field study in 2000 we found that the usnīsa . . . of this Lawapura image was separately cast and could also be opened. According to the study by Juhyung Rhi (2005: 169-211), inserting relics in the usnīsa .. . of images began with the first Buddha image in the Gandhāra style of art in India and later spread to Bengal and Sri Lanka. The possibility here is that the cult was taken to Sri Lanka first by the Mahāyāna sect of Abhayagīrī monastery in the Anuradhapura period, 103 BCE., and later absorbed by the Mahāvihāra monastery.

Figure 13 Buddha image, Chiang Mai style, 15th - 16th C., Wat Nam Hu, Pai, Mae Hongson, hollow cast head with usnīsa . . . that can be opened to insert relics or other propitious objects. (Author’s photograph)

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Figure 14 The usnīsa . . . of the Phra Singh 1482, adjusted to insert relics, Wat Phra That Hariphunchai Museum, Lamphun. (Author’s photograph) Figure 15 Lawapura Buddha image, Wat Si Koet, Chiang Mai; 500 relics and crystal, golden, and silver Buddha images were placed in the head by Tilōk in 1483 as mentioned in the Jinakālamālī. (Author’s photograph) The Consecration of a Buddha Image

Sri Lankan Buddhists, like the Nepalese, Tibetan, and Thai,

believe that only consecrated images can be worshiped (von Schroeder 2001: 29). The Sri Lankan netra pinkama ceremony (eye ritual) is similar to the khai ta phrajao (eye opening) in Lān Nā. This ceremony can be carried out for wooden, stone, and bronze, and even stucco Buddha images.

If we compared the Tibetan consecration ceremony, we can

understand the concept of transformation of an ‘inert’ image into a live one from Nepal and Tibet to Lān Nā. Northern Thai people today are familiar with the ceremony of inserting a Buddha heart (Figure 16) and unbaked

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brick or golden or silver plate with inscriptions or yantras into the new images. The study of Phra Jatupon and Phra Supachai (2009: 6-7), suggests that the Yantra Pajjota (Figure 17) used in Lān Nā consecration ceremonies may have originated in the Suan Dök sect from the reign of Tilōk. A rare handbook for the placing of the Buddha heart, from Wat Tung Kha, Lampang Province, shows an illustration of the Buddha heart with lungs and internal organs (Figure 18). This handwritten manuscript of Gruba Yasalee also gives details about auspicious times and elements needed for the ceremony. We can reasonably conclude that this physical concept, ‘the Buddha heart,’ had been adapted from the Tibetan consecration, Rab gnas cho ga or Rab gnas, that gzung, mantras and dhārānīs . (incantations), which must be inserted into an image, stupa or kalaśa (holy vase). Although Yael Bentor (1992: 1-12) gave details of the four kinds of gzung, we found a different one. From the explanation of Lama Ngawang Sangpo, a high monk of Tharlam Monastery at Boudhanath Stupa, Kathmandu, the six kinds of gzungs (Figure 19) that should be inserted include Shuktor gzung for the upper part of image, Den gzung for the neck, Thuk gzung inside the chest, Chhya Ghung Ma gzung for the side of the Thunk gzung, Dhyosal gzung for the pedestal, and Nyechun phomo gzung for the pedestal cover (Bista 2010). He also informed us that it is considered very auspicious to insert Buddha relics, ring bsrel, inside the head of the images if possible; but actually the relics of very high level gurus have been used.

Gennady Leonov (1992: 100-110) defined “relics” in the context

of the consecration rite as not only remnants of deceased lamas or objects connected with an historical event or person, but also as a term designating all types of objects inserted. In Tibetan Religious Art (1977: 32) L. Sh. Dabyab explains that Tibetans inserted ‘relics’ – meaning objects that were ‘suitable and available’ – inside a sculpture. We also find that gems and jewels were auspicious items that used to be placed in the head; an example is the Lawapura image into whose head King Tilōk inserted such items. The Karunapundrika-sūtra, cited by Rhi (2005: 201), makes mention of gems, especially manīvaidūrya, like manī or the jewel of Chakravātin, that

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are of high importance as Buddha relics. This phenomenon must have been familiar to Lān Nā people who from ancient times have made Buddha images from “kaeo,” crystal, or other precious stones. Even the Emerald Buddha image had to be made by this ideology of the Golden Age. It is possibly that monks who traveled between Nepal-Tibet and Lān Nā invented the Buddha image consecration ceremony practiced in Lān Nā.

Figure 16 Huajai Phrachao (Buddha heart), silver repousse technique at Wua Lai Silpa, Chiang Mai. (Author’s photograph)

Figure 17 Yantra Pajjota used in the consecration of an image may have originated in the Suan Dok sect, from the reign of Tilōk. (Phra Jatuporn and Phra Suphachai 2009)

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Figure 18 Handbook of placing Buddha heart from Wat Tung Kha, Lampang, shows illustrations of the Buddha heart with lungs and internal organs. (Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s photograph)

Figure 19 The six kinds of gzungs that should be inserted, explained by Lama Ngawang Sangpo, Tharlam Monastery at Boudhanath Stupa, Kathmandu, Nepal. (Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s photograph)

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Srog-shing: the tree of life

Our study agrees with Donald Swearer (2004) that the Buddha

image consecration ceremony represents the transformation of an image of Shākyamunī Buddha into a living being. In Lān Nā monasteries, as those in the Northeast, there are young boys called khayom whose parents bring them there to be educated, they also have to attend to the Buddha image in the temple by presenting food and water every day as if to a human being (Ketphrom 1995). The Tibetans also insert srog-shing, the tree of life, or central axis, into the image. The srog-shing that is presented by the Lama Takya of Trikal Maitreya Buddha Vihara at Kadhmandu (Figure 20) is, as Leonov (1992: 104) mentions, “usually is a thin wooden stick, square at the bottom and narrowing to the top. Its length is usually two-thirds of the total height of the sculpture. Bija (mystic syllables) are depicted on its plain sides.” In fact the stick is also rolled with five colored threads depicting each of the bijas symbols of five Dhyāni Buddhas of Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhism. This is also interpreted as a way of making the image come alive because the five Dhyāni Buddhas are also symbols of the five skandhas (aggregates): Vairocana (vijñāna / consciousness), Aksobhya (rūpa / body), . Ratnasambhava (vedanā / sensation), Amitābha (Samjñā / perception) and Amokhasiddhi (Samskāra / intention). Srog-shing then means rebirth . of the Buddha Lord by the law of Pratiyasamutpāda or its causes and elements of birth, death and rebirth from samsāra. This belief conforms . to Rhi’s statement about the complicated relationship between relics and the Tathākatawigarha . (Buddha image) in the form of Dharma (Rhi 2005: 169-211). In this way the image can teach the Dharma as if it were the Lord Buddha himself. The communication between the Shākyamunī, the image, and the people is complete as if the Buddha were present.

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Figure 20 Srog-shing, tree of life or central axis, presented by lama Takya of Trikal Maitreya Buddha Vihara at Kadhmandu, Nepal. (Author’s photograph)

The ye dharmā and the Phra Singh stanza

Another important dharma related to the image is the ye dharmā

inscription that can be found on votive tablets and clay stūpikas throughout Southeast Asia dating from around the 12th century. The stanza is also very famous in Tibet. Peter Skilling’s article, “Buddhist sealings and the ye dharmā stanza” (2008: 503-525), explains that the sāvaka-bhāsita stanza spoken by Asvajit, one of the five monks close to the Lord Buddha, was as effective as if spoken by the Lord Buddha (Buddha-bhāsita) himself because it had the full force of the ‘Buddha’s-words’ (Buddhavacana). He also states that beyond the Vinaya context, and outside of the Tripitakas of the old schools, the stanza occurs in several independent sūtras, including those of the Mahāyāna and in at least one Tantra. Discourses of the stanza in Northern Buddhism were held from that time. In the Pratiyasamutpādanāma-mahāyāna-sūtra the stanza is preached by the Buddha in the Trayastrimśa . Heaven. In the Mahā-Vairocana-Abhisambōdhi Tantra the verse is incorporated into the text spoken by Vairocana to Vajrapāni . (Hodge 2003: 413-414, cited by Skilling). Phasook Indrawooth (2008: 50-51) also remarks that the Pratityasamutpāda was very important in Vallabhi,

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the center of Buddhism in West India from the 6th - 7th centuries. I-Ching mentioned the significance of Pratityasamutpāda as Buddha relics because when stūpas or images were made of gold, silver, copper, iron, clay, brick or stone, it was commonly believed that relics or dharma should be inserted within for great merit to the donors. For this reason, the Buddha images can be both uddesikacetiya, an indicative reminder, and dharmmacetiya, a doctrinal reminder, as seen from the Tibetan consecration that ‘dharma,’ mantra and dhāranī . should be inserted. We found a 1549 inscription from Phitsanulok, the dharmakāya inscription (Department of Fine Arts 1984: 277-281), that detailed all important dharmas needed for nibbāna that are explained by the parts of a Buddha image; the head is like sabbaññutañāna . (the knowledge of omniscience), the forehead is like catutthañāna . (the fourth knowledge), the nose is like gotarabhūñāna . (the knowledge of one who destroys the lineage), the fingers are like the ten anussatikammatthāna (the .. meditation of recollection), etc. This kind of dharmakāya is also spoken of in some Lān Nā scriptures such as that of Grūbā Kong at Tha Wang Pha, Nan Province, “the Dharmakāya written into Buddha images and cetiyas.”

During the Golden Age of Lān Nā, a stanza known as the Phra Singh’s

heart stanza was established as a brief summary of the four noble truths. The stanza, samani dunima samadu sanidu, actually is found on pedestals of certain bronze Buddha images in Chiang Mai, both the Phra Singh group and Chiang Mai group. The oldest inscription with the stanza (Figure 21) is found on the pedestal of a standing Buddha holding an alms bowl (Figure 22) in Wat Chiang Man, Chiang Mai, cast in 1465 (Penth 1976: 55-56). Later this classic Lān Nā stanza came to be known as Pathamang (the first) stanza or Pathamang Si Dan (four corners of Pathamang) of magic cloths or manuscripts (Figure 23). Although the main subject is the same, further magic is added for everyday life events, such as advancement, security, being favored by chiefs or women, etc. We can conclude here that the local stanza in the North, which is not found in any other part of Thailand, must again reflect some Tibetan beliefs and practices of Esoteric Buddhism in the Lān Nā Buddhist society of the Golden Age.

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Figure 21 The oldest inscription of Phra Singh’s heart stanza on the pedestal of a standing Buddha image with a bowl at Wat Chiang Man, Chiang Mai, and cast in 1465. (Penth 1976)

Figure 22 The standing Buddha image with a bowl at Wat Chiang Man. (Author’s photograph) Figure 23 Later Lān Nā stanza known as Pathamang or Pathamang Si Dan of a magic cloth. (Belonging to Srilao Ketprom)

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Conclusion

This study finds that there are a number of reasons to believe that in

the period when Buddhism was prosperous, Lān Nā sculpture was influenced by the Pāla-style Buddha images from Bengal-Bihar, Orissa, and Tibet. This style is based on Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna beliefs, which because of their complexity makes it difficult to identify the specific origins. The role of Tibetan art is found in the well-known iconographic characteristics of the Phra Singh Buddha image: a round face with arched eyebrows and a prominent chin, a stout body with a well-developed chest, the short end of the monastic robe terminating in a notched design on the left shoulder, the gesture of subduing Māra, the crossed-leg seated posture, and the base decorated with two rows of lotus petals and stamen. Moreover, Tibetan influence can also be detected in the stylistic handling of the “subduing Mara image” in the Chiang Mai style, especially the fingers. Several characteristics of a “Great Man,” such as the high conical usnīsa, . . . found in the Lān Nā style Buddha images during its prosperous era, can also be found on Nepal-Tibetan Buddha images. Further, the practice of inserting relics inside the usnīsa . . . of some bronze Buddha images of this period also reflects a similar Nepal-Tibetan custom. Another practice was placing the Buddha heart, made of silver, inside the Lān Nā Buddha images, a practice that continues until today, and that could be related to the Tibetan custom of Rub Gnas where gzung (mantras) and srog shing (central axis) are placed inside Buddha images. This similarity includes the belief about paying respect to the Buddha images as uddesikacetiya and dharmacetiya. King Tilōk, as a great king of that period, used the Buddhist tradition of supporting Buddhism and kingship to expand his power. This resulted in strengthening the Mangrai Dynasty, which lasted until the reign of Phayā Käo, for a total of around 84 years. The record of the Tibetan monk Tāranātha confirms the existence of Buddhist society, both Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna and Theravāda, in the city of Hariphunchai. The Phra Singh images from this time confirm both the role and the route of the Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna sects that had successfully blended into the culture and artistic traditions of Lān Nā during

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its Golden Age. At its height, Lān Nā was like a river which received from many sources but continued to flow along its own way. Acknowledgements

I would like to express my greatest gratitude to Chiang Mai

University, which has supported me throughout my project. I am grateful to Srilao Ketphrom for his continuous support in providing information about Lān Nā culture and inscriptions in this research and to Prof. Dr. Phasook Indhrawooth for her valuable advice regarding my early draft of the full text research. Special thanks go to Mr. Srawut Roopin who helped me in completing the fieldwork in Thailand, and to Mr. Mukunda Bista, Mr. Rohit Kumar Ranjitkar and Nepalese craftsmen for their friendly support while I was working in Patan, Nepal. Many friends whose their names are not mentioned here must also be thanked. Finally I am grateful to Carol Stratton and Dr. Bonnie Brereton, without whose edits this English edition could not have been completed. Any errors that may occur, however, are my own responsibility.

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Tucci, G. (1931) “The sea and land travels of a Buddhist Sadhu in the sixteenth century,” Indian Historical Quarterly, VII, No.4, December. Von Schroeder, U. (1992) The Golden Age of Sculpture in Sri Lanka. Hong Kong: Visual Dharma Publications. __________. (2001) Buddhist Sculptures in Tibet. Vol. I and II. Hong Kong: Visual Dharma Publications. Woodward, H. (2003) The Art and Architecture of Thailand: From Prehistoric Times through the Thirteenth Century. Leiden: Brill. Woodward Jr., Hiram W. (1997) The Sacred Sculpture of Thailand. Bangkok: River Books. Wyatt, D. K. and Wichienkeeo, A. (1998) The Chiang Mai Chronicle. Second Edition. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books.

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L1 Use with University Students in Thailand: A Facilitating Tool or a Language Barrier in Learning English? Napapat Thongwichit School of Liberal Arts, TEFL Program, Walailak University, Thailand Corresponding author: E-mail: t.napapat@gmail.com Abstract This research aims at investigating the university studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; attitudes and purposes of L1 use in English classrooms to propose a guideline for teachers of English at the university level. The researcher uses a mixedmethods type research to integrate data from multiple sources: survey, semi-structured interview and field notes from a group of the second-year, the third-year and the fourth-year students at a government university in southern Thailand. The results demonstrated that the overall students hold a positive attitude towards L1 use as it plays significant roles in domains of affective filter, comprehensible input, language preferences and language proficiency. Meanwhile they realize drawbacks of L1 if overused in EFL context where English is limited to the classroom only. Furthermore, the data revealed that L1 is expected by the students to be used in translation, instruction, discussion, vocabulary, grammar and comprehension check. The findings ultimately suggested that teachers make a judicious use of L1 to facilitate the studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; learning. With a carefully planned lesson, L1 should be regarded as a worthy source in the field of second language learning. Key Words: Attitude Most researchers seem to agree that an attitude is a state of readiness, a tendency to respond in a certain manner when confronted with certain stimuli (Oppenheim, 2005). Attitude can also be considered the sum of beliefs. Here it means the studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; response to L1 use in the language classrooms.

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Napapat Thongwichit

L1 Use with University Students in Thailand

Belief Belief is a psychological state in which a person holds a proposition to be true. Thus, in the study, belief refers to what the students perceive or think about L1 use no matter right or wrong. EFL (English as a Foreign Language) In Thailand, English is considered a foreign language because the country has Thai as an official language and it is not an English-speaking country. Thai people rarely use English in their daily communication. English is only taught to people who need to learn it for their studies or their career. First language (L1) (also native language or mother tongue) First language (L1), in this study, refers to the Thai language which is the language a person has learned from birth. Second language (L2) (also target language) Second language (L2) here means English. It is the language which a person is learning and is contrasted with their mother tongue.

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Introduction Learning English in EFL context Learning any language has its own challenges, especially when it is the language that you were not born with, you need to try even more. Younger learners in an informal second language learning environment are allowed to be silent until they are ready to speak, while older learners are often forced to speak (Lightbown & Spada, 1993, p.22). Imagine what would happen if you study English in a limited context: nowhere in your country requires English communication except your luxuriously artificial classroom. English in this situation, at best, is just the decoration of your wisdom. Thus, one of challenges in this case is the surrounding context. Your cognitive process belongs to one language while in class you need to be exposed to another world: the world of a foreign language which is unfamiliar to your routines. What if in the limited context, in class, you are cordially encouraged to use only English? As students, this might be a nightmare. Why? First, they only live their life with their mother tongue: for traveling, studying other subjects, chatting with their friends and family, or even discussing with teachers at lunchtime. English automatically and completely disappears after the class. To make things worse, the students might have only two or four hours a week to practice English in class. The language or the input that learners are exposed to is crucial to make their language learning occur (Ellis, 1997). Yet, the input is very limited here. Second, language learning is like growing flowers. It takes time to grow at a suitable pace. With great care and love, little young flowers will beautifully bloom. Learners are like flowers: beautiful but different. They have various backgrounds, expectations, beliefs and preferred learning styles. Although a language lesson provides a useful textbook, learners may not appreciate this if they do not see any links between the book and an examination they are working toward (Richards, 2001). Similarly, what language a teacher uses in an English classroom is as important as how the students feel towards it. Whether or not to use the mother tongue in the language classroom: the studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; voices are meaningful.

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A philosophical journey of L1 It can be traced back to the old days when the idea of completely avoiding L1 use in classrooms was unquestionably accepted according to the belief of the interference of the native language on the target language: the learners were likely to rely on their L1 once they were to produce the second language by writing or speaking (Bhela, 1999). L1 was considered negative inside a second language classroom. With this notion, L1 was intentionally avoided by most teachers of foreign languages. In addition, it is believed that extensive use of the target language in a classroom can aid students’ communication skills (Crichton, 2009). This belief is then explicitly combined into a famous teaching approach called Communicative Language Teaching (CLT). The approach supports the belief of maximizing the target language use in a classroom which undoubtedly promotes minimizing L1 use. CLT believes that “the target language should be used not only during communicative activities, but also for explaining the activities to the students or in assigning homework” (Freeman, 2000, p.132). This being widely accepted, the target language has been intensively promoted in its use in the classroom. L1 therefore, has been hopelessly forced to disappear. More recently, this kind of belief stills plays its role worldwide among students. It is found that they sometimes hold a negative attitude and reject L1 use (NAZARY, 2008) (capitals in original). This is because in their perception, L1 is just a language learning barrier rather than a facilitating tool. One group of the students in this study did not believe in L1 advantages; therefore, L1 meant nothing to their language learning. Taking deeper consideration of the result, there is something more than just their belief that affects this phenomenon. It is explained that the resistance to L1 arrives from the advanced students. Thus, whether or not to successfully use students’ native language also depends on students’ language proficiency (Kavaliauskiene, 2009). In other words, if teachers make use of L1 in a class of high language proficiency students, they may surprisingly find the students unhappy and bored. However, there are several studies on second/ foreign language learning that attempt to consider L1 from a different perspective. A lot

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of research studies prove that L1 use plays an important role in language teaching and learning for many aspects (Brooks, 2009; Campa & Nassaji, 2009; Simsek, 2010). It seems like L1 was given one more chance to shine its positive light into the language learning process. Findings from several studies reveal positive feedback from students towards L1 use. For example, it is said that university students in Lithuania mainly use their mother tongue in helping them learning English (Kavaliauskiene, 2009). Later on, it is found that most university students in Turkey also have positive attitudes towards the use of L1 (Turkish) in the classroom (Saricoban, 2010). These show the other side of studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; perception towards L1 use in language classes. Speaking of advantages of L1, language teachers cannot deny that the outstanding one is its benefits on learning grammar and vocabulary. Cook (2001) is one who supports this academic phenomenon as he states that students learn grammar and vocabulary better and faster through their first language. This strongly supports the idea that L1 should have its own place somewhere in language classes. In addition to grammar and vocabulary, some instructors use L1 for instructional purposes. It is found that experienced teachers most often use L1 for activity instructions and personal comments (Campa & Nassaji, 2009). L1 was also studied and proved that it is appropriate within teaching L2 among low proficiency ESL students in writing class (Stapa & Majid, 2006). Even teaching vocabulary to low English proficiency level students is more effective with the application of L1 (Bouangeune, 2009). Students with lower language proficiency need L1 to help them master the target language. L1, in this case, is therefore pleasantly accepted because it is the language that they best understand. If the language used in the classroom is the only input for students it is crucial that the students understand it. Allwright (1994) stated that if the input is slightly more advanced than the learnersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; level this will assist their learning. We also should not forget that students usually rely on their existing language knowledge or their L1 to comprehend and learn logic and organization principles behind the target language (Gabrielatos, 2001). This is another strong belief supporting why L1 is beneficial. To conduct classes without the studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; L1 may be possible; 183


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however, L1 still plays its role inside the learners’ cognitive process during their language learning (Kahraman, 2009). L1 has now been continually studied as a potential resource in language learning. Besides learning achievement, L1 also has a significant role in reducing students’ affective filters and giving them a more effective way to learn. Ford (2009) found in his interview that most university teachers in Japan agree to use English only policy, they occasionally use Japanese for creating a relaxed atmosphere, giving instructions and directing tasks. Even student teachers also come back to L1 from time to time as they need to deal with student confusion, discipline problems, lack of time and building rapport with students (Bateman, 2008). Students’ feelings are one factor that teachers should not overlook. Their feelings about themselves and what they are studying unavoidably affect the quality of their learning (Arnold, 1999). If students feel happy and unworried, they are much more ready to learn. If not, sitting in classes for them just means being there but getting little or nothing from the lesson. Once this dismal condition arises, it is harmful to the students’ motivation. In this case, L1 is an alternative for it is generally perceived as a tool to increase students’ motivation (Cianflone, 2009). As learners will better achieve their learning goals if they have high motivation; teachers sometimes employ students’ first language for this reason. All the presented details above are like two lenses for us to look at L1. While the first lens denies the first language and intentionally promotes the target language in classes; the other lens provides the contrasting view. However, both aim to lead all language learners to their highest goal. Therefore, the exploration of the better or at least the friendlier lens to our learning context will certainly benefit language learning. The study is therefore to examine whether L1 use is accepted among university students in Thailand, a country with English as its foreign language. Though teachers may realize that the first language is examined and proved to facilitate students’ learning, especially in most foreign language contexts where grammatical and lexical explanations are involved (Nunan, 1996); voices from students are important and should not be ignored. The findings finally will reflect another perception from the learners who study English in an EFL context from Thailand. 184


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Materials and Methods The research was designed to use a mixed method type. A mixed method type is a research design that uses both quantitative and qualitative data to answer a particular question or set of questions (Hesse-Biber, 2010, p.3). The data collection procedure, therefore, was twofold: quantitative and qualitative. The quantitative part investigated university students’ attitudes in general about L1 use in English classrooms and the qualitative tool explored in more detail their beliefs and opinions as to why they agreed or disagreed with L1 use. The quantitative measurement assisted in collecting the massive data from a large group of participants while the qualitative approach appropriately dealt with the data that could not be simply obtained from the questionnaires. The selected approach offered the tools to get information from inside and to explore in more detail each issue from the participants. Thus a mixed method type was the best possible way to answer all of the queries in this study. The selected site of this study was a government university located in southern Thailand (here it was named under a pseudonym ‘Public University’). On the campus where the study was conducted, English in daily communication was rarely found. The students’ life outside the class was mainly based on their mother tongue only. All of the freshmen here were required to study and pass two English preliminary courses. In addition, the university provided several courses in foreign languages: English, Chinese, Japanese and German. All students were fully expected to be a splendid product of the university. Participants numbered 323 university students: 259 were female and 64 were male studying at their second, third and fourth year in the 2012 academic year. Freshmen were intentionally excluded as they had just begun their studies at university level and so had not gained much experience in studying English at this level. Moreover, the researcher selected the participants to be interviewed based on their English grade from a previous course; again, the freshmen did not meet this requirement of the study. The questionnaires were distributed to 323 students (164 language students and 159 non-language students: Industrial Management, Information

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Technology Business and Business Economics) who were enrolled in English courses in their first semester academic year 2012 at Public University. The total 323 participants were divided into 150 second year, 95 third year and 78 fourth year students. From the information provided by the students, there were eight students who got GPAX at 1.50 – 1.99, seventy-two got 2.00 – 2.49, a hundred and seventeen got 2.50 - 2.99, seventy students got 3.00 – 3.49 and thirty four got 3.50 – 4.00. In the group of all participants, there were 84 students who had been abroad and 238 students said no for this experience. Getting into more detail about their experience abroad, the questionnaires showed that 18.3% went abroad for traveling and 22% for educational purposes. The remainder did not state a reason. The most visited country by the students was Malaysia with most visits being short in duration. Another language experience that was asked in the questionnaire was about English proficiency tests. There were 11.1% who had taken English tests while 80.8% did not have this experience. In the number of 11.1%, one student had taken the TOEFL test, two students had taken IELTS tests, twenty-nine had taken TOEIC tests and the rest mentioned they had experience with other kinds of English tests. In addition, the participants were asked about their grade from their recent English class and the result showed that there were 47 students achieving A, 61 achieving B+, 78 B, 69 C+, 30 C, 24 D+, and 6 achieving D. There were three sources of data used in the study: a questionnaire measuring students’ attitudes, a semi-structured interview gathering further information on the students’ opinions and classroom observations supporting any other findings. These three methods facilitated the collection of rich and in-depth data from the participants. Questionnaire The purpose of employing questionnaires was to survey the students’ beliefs and attitudes towards L1 use in the language classroom from a large number of respondents. The questionnaire was divided into two parts. In the first part, the participants were required to fill in their information on gender, major of their study, GPAX and their language learning experience.

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In the second part, there were 34 statements written in a Likert scale type with the scale ranging from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree”. The value 4 was assigned “strongly agree”, 3 “agree”, 2 “disagree” and 1 for “strongly disagree”. The questions in the questionnaires were formed based on the inquiries of the study which were firstly, what are students’ beliefs and attitudes towards L1 use in the language classroom and secondly, for what purposes is L1 expected from the students. The data from the questionnaires was analyzed and measured by basic statistics: frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviation to find out the students’ attitudes about L1 use in the language classroom. A Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 17.0) software was used at this stage. Semi - structured interview This type of interview was selected to collect the data because it allowed the novice researcher to prepare structured questions beforehand while making it possible to ask other relevant questions to the objectives of the research if necessary. In other words, it ensured some basic information according to the structured questions and provided scope for collecting additional relevant information (Pawar, 2004). In this step, the data were drawn from twelve participants. The interviewees were purposely selected based on their major and their grade from a previous English course. The goal was to explore their initial beliefs and attitudes towards L1 use. Then the original data which was in Thai was transcribed and coded into categories. Later, they were translated and restated in English. The qualitative data: words, phrases and sentences obtained from the interviews were transcribed and organized into meaningful categories. Predominant themes related to the research questions were identified. The interview scripts were sent back to the participants to let them read and approve. Classroom observation Three classes of English were observed for a total nine hours. Classroom observation was selected to be one of the research instruments

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because it gave the researcher opportunities to observe the language use and interaction as it occurred through the lesson. The researcher used an observation task to help observe the target lessons. The observation task was a focused activity to work on while observing a lesson in progress (Wajnryb, 1992, p.7). This helped prevent the observer from paying attention to unrelated information. The observation task focused on the language used by the teacher and students during class time. The students’ verbal responses and facial expressions were fully noted down. All of the teachers’ real names were private to the researcher only; therefore the three names of the teachers mentioned in this study are pseudonyms. The data from classroom observation was coded for instances of L1 use and the students’ responses were to be supplementary to the findings of the study. The researcher finally examined all of the results together and out of these the interpretation of the findings was drawn. Results 1. Students’ beliefs and attitudes towards L1 use in English classroom 1.1 Affective filter The survey Based on the survey, the findings revealed that most of the participants (62.5%) agreed that using Thai could make them feel relaxed when talking to the teacher and most of them (54.5%) also agreed on this attribute when taking the exam. In addition, the participants (65.9%) were mainly pleased if their classmates also wanted the teacher to use some Thai in class. 61.6% of the participants agreed that using Thai provided a positive feeling about learning English and 53.3% said it motivated them to learn. When the classroom needed to deal with a boring topic, the participants (56.3%) also believed that Thai was helpful. The interview In this aspect, the data from the interview yielded two sides of opinions: supporting and standing against Thai use. Seven from twelve interviewees expressed rather negative attitudes about Thai use in English

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class. They claimed that it could lead to feelings of being unmotivated, disappointed and bored. On the one hand, Thai may cause a stressful situation to students as earlier stated, but on the other hand, it may also be considered in a positive way. Responses from the other five students indicated that Thai use was useful for reducing anxiety in the classroom. 1.2 Comprehensible input The survey Learning a foreign language is believed to be apparently involved with acquisition and language acquisition happens when learners understand language that contains structure a little beyond where they are (Krashen, 1982). This means learners could best acquire the target language when the input is meaningful to them. In one way, Thai use may be considered to be an alternative for some students. The findings from the survey revealed that L1 was perceived as a tool to make the lesson more understandable and accessible. Most of the participants (61.9%) agreed that the lesson was more understandable when the teacher used Thai. The participants (59.8%) also agreed that they learned new vocabulary better through a bilingual dictionary (English-Thai). When dealing with difficult exercises, most of the participants (53.6%) also agreed that the teacher should use Thai. If the teacher did not use Thai at all, it was possible that the participants (51.1%) could not follow the lesson. The interview The data from the interview also yielded results proving that eleven informants (91.6%) believed that Thai could help simplify the lesson, making it more comprehensible and accessible. The interviewees also expected that the teacher should facilitate the students by using Thai to make the lesson more comprehensible. It was added that Thai promoted the studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; comprehension in the difficult lessons. 1.3 Language preferences The survey The investigation demonstrated that 63.8% of the participants preferred Thai when asking a question in the classroom while 46.1% of the participants believed that Thai was not a barrier in language learning.

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Similarly, the participants (51.7%) agreed that seats in a course in which the teacher used Thai were quickly reserved; however, if they found that the teacher used only English in class, 46.1% of the participants’ would not drop the course. Simultaneously, the participants (54.8%) expected the teacher to use Thai only when it was necessary. The interview In this case, the data yielded that ten from twelve informants clearly stated that their language preference was English. Although they did not mean to use English for the whole lesson, they expected it to be used for most of the time. In contrast, one female informant mentioned that English only seemed to be impossible in Thai context. She claimed that “In my view, it couldn’t be English only because the teacher and students still use Thai and when some students don’t understand, the teacher also speaks Thai. I myself also prefer Thai because Thai is my language and I understand it better than English”. Similarly, one male informant asserted that, “I expect the teacher to speak English but also some Thai because if English is used for the whole lesson, I may get nothing”. 1.4 Language proficiency The survey It was believed among most of the participants (58.5%) that if the teacher used some Thai in explanation, it would help increase their score on the test. Also, if the teacher used Thai in teaching, 46.1% of the participants believed that it was a tool to better the students’ English ability. Thus, Thai was positively identified as a facilitator to enhance the language proficiency. The interview According to the data from the interview, there were two big groups of informants: one that believed in a benefit of Thai in developing English proficiency while the other was against this idea. However, Thai was believed to be the language the students needed in a tough situation.

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2. Purposes of L1 use in English classroom Purposes of L1 use that were mentioned by the participants are presented below. See table 6 for more information on statistical results. 2.1 Translation The participants (66.9%) agreed that they should be allowed to use Thai to translate vocabulary from English to Thai to prove that they understood. Similarly, 67.2% of the participants agreed that they should be allowed to use Thai to translate articles from English to Thai to prove that they understood. 2.2 Instruction Most of the participants (60.4%) agreed that the teacher should use Thai to give instruction. 2.3 Discussion The participants (67.2%) agreed that they should be able to use Thai when working in pairs or groups. In addition, they (67.2%) agreed that they should be allowed to ask questions related to the lesson in Thai if they did not understand. The participants (71.2%) agreed that the teacher and students should be allowed to use Thai in discussion. 2.4 Vocabulary Most of the participants (66.9%) agreed that the teacher should use Thai to explain new vocabulary. 64.1% of the participants also agreed that the teacher should use Thai for explaining the difference between the usage of Thai and English. In addition, 63.2% believed that they should be allowed to use Thai to ask how to say â&#x20AC;&#x153;.....â&#x20AC;? in English. 2.5 Grammar 67.5% of the participants agreed that the teacher should use Thai to explain grammar while 71.8% agreed that the teacher should use Thai to explain the difference between Thai grammar and English grammar. 2.6 Comprehension check Most of the participants agreed that both teacher and students should be allowed to use Thai to check listening comprehension (65.9%) and reading comprehension (68.4%).

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Discussion 1. The students’ beliefs and attitudes towards L1 use To provide an answer for research question one (What are university students’ beliefs and attitudes towards L1 use in the English classroom? If the students’ attitudes are negative, for what reasons do they reject L1 usage?), the results from the current study showed a consistency with many research studies (e.g. AL-NOFAIE, 2010; Campa & Nassaji, 2009; Carson & Kashihara, 2012; Khassawneh, 2011; Machaal, 2012; Macias & Kephart, 2009) in that L1 was perceived as a facilitating tool rather than a barrier in learning English. In the current study, the positive attitudes clearly dominated the negative voices regarding L1 use in English class among the informants. L1 was positively accepted for playing an important role in the affective filter domain. It makes the students feel more relaxed, motivated, and positive towards learning English. This result confirmed Ocak, Kuru and Ozcalisan (2010) that using L1 in the language classroom could be useful for it helped lower affective filters that might block the students’ learning. L1. As Schweers (1999) mentioned that using the students’ native language leads to positive attitudes towards the process of learning English and encourages students to learn more English. Thus, particular attention must be paid to how students feel as Lopez (2011, p.44) mentioned that when students have to deal with a difficult problem, but are relaxed while studying it, they are likely to have a positive outlook towards it and are willing to try more in the future. Additionally, L1 played a role in comprehensible input domain. Based on the previously presented findings, the majority of the participants agreed that Thai could make the lesson more understandable. These findings were in agreement with Horst, White, and Bell (2010) that L1 could be helpful as a link between the new knowledge and the existing knowledge the learners already have. More importantly, as Qian, Tian, and Wang (2009) suggested, the teacher should be aware that learners’ cognitive levels are far beyond their foreign language level. Thus, employing Thai at a suitable time could be a knowledge bridge for the students who studied English as a second or a foreign language.

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Furthermore, language preferences were mentioned in relation to the participantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; perceptions about L1 use in the English classroom. Based on the survey, the majority preferred Thai when asking a question in the classroom. This finding was supported by the other survey result that indicated that using mainly Thai was not perceived as a language barrier in learning English. Simultaneously, the survey result revealed that it was difficult to find available seats in an English class in which the teacher used Thai. This could be implied that this group of participants realized that teachers who are Thai share the same mother tongue as them, so they were certainly expected to use some Thai in the classroom. This is in line with a study in China that L1 appears to be inevitably and actively employed as a facilitating tool in L2 class, even when students have no difficulty in understanding (Song, 2009). Moreover, when the teacher and students share L1 in EFL context, at times interactions in L2 between them exhibited the interpersonal distance and a sense of artificiality (Nikula, 2005). However, they found that if the teacher used only English in teaching, they would not drop a course. This finding indirectly showed that although the majority held a positive attitude towards L1, they recognized the significance of English in their context. The majority from the survey also agreed that the teacher should use Thai only when necessary. Hence, teachers of English should be aware of the learnersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; need regarding language input in classes to best benefit them. As Nation (2003) stated that even though L1 use had its positive side for students, it was more helpful to encourage students to use L2 in class if they had a few opportunities to use the target language in real life. The next domain of L1 use regarding the informantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; voices was language proficiency. It was revealed that Thai was believed to help improve test scores and better English ability. This result was in agreement with Nation (2003) that to work with fluency development tasks, it needed language items that were familiar to the learners. Moreover, having the students use their own language means accepting who they are and developing their academic success (Sumaryono & Otiz, 2004).

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Even though the data mainly leads to a positive side of L1 use, it should be noted that there were some negative perceptions found from the interview section. This could be explained that in EFL context where learners have minimal chances to be exposed to English, they recognize the need of English as the input for their learning. Consequently, L1 should be taken into English class with the teacherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s careful consideration. As Weschler (1997) stated that L1 is just like any tool; it could be useful or misused depending on the goal and the procedures in the classroom. 2. Purposes of L1 use To provide answers to research question two (What are the purposes of L1 use in English class expected from the students?), the findings revealed six purposes based on the studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; voices. The first purpose was that L1 should be used in translation. Six interviewees also supported the notion that Thai was mainly used in class for translation; instances were also found in the field notes from class A and class C. This confirmed AL-NOFAIE (2010) that students used L1 for translating. In addition, it was in line with Raeiszadeh, Alibakhshi, Veisi, and Gorjian (2012) that students believed that the use of translation by employing L1 could help them improving their language skills. Next, most of the participants (60.4%) voiced through the survey that the teacher should use L1 for giving instruction. This result was supportively revealed by four informants from the interview who affirmed that Thai was purposely used in their class to instruct them what to do. The field notes were also evident that the teachers from class A and class B employed Thai in this purpose. This was in line with Campa and Nassaji (2009) that one of the most frequent purposes was related to giving activity instructions. Unlike Nazary (2008), who stated that there were only a few students who perceived L1 useful in giving instruction, the current study was evident that the participants in similar context hold different perspectives, for they agreed that L1 could be utilized in this purpose. Using L1 for discussion in class was another purpose approved by most of the participants. L1 was agreed to be used in discussion when working in pairs or groups, asking questions and talking about the teaching methods the teacher would apply in his or her teaching. These results generated a picture 194


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of L1 as a communicating tool for the teacher and students to interact with one another in varied situations. The interview also yielded the examples from two informants that their teacher used Thai for discussing strong and weak points after presentation and any issues irrelevant to the lesson. The evidence was also found through the observations in all three classes. Cook (2001) supportively stated that L1 might be used when all were more comfortable to discuss some topics. This result was also consistent with Ocak et al. (2010) that students were likely to use L1 in classroom interaction and the possible reasons were fear of making mistakes, avoiding criticism and effortlessness of speaking L2 as they were required to speak the target language while sharing the same language in the artificial environment. The next purpose was using L1 for vocabulary. The findings demonstrated that the teacher should explain new vocabulary and the difference about ways that words were used in each language in Thai while the students should be also allowed to use Thai when asking how to say â&#x20AC;&#x153;.....â&#x20AC;? in English. Three informants were more specific that Thai was used in class particularly for difficult words and technical terms. Two instances of using Thai regarding vocabulary were also found in the field notes from class A and C. This was evident that Thai was purposely used in English class for vocabulary. The findings confirmed Nation (2003) that in learning new words in a second language, there were several ways of conveying the meaning of an unknown word and using L1 was one of many possible ways. This was also in agreement with the other two studies (AL-NOFAIE, 2010; Saricoban, 2010) that teachers mainly used L1 when dealing with new vocabulary. Learning about grammar also required L1 to simplify its complexity. Most of the participants (67.5%) demonstrated that the teacher should use L1 to explain grammar and even more (71.8%) agreed that Thai should be used to explain the difference between Thai grammar and English grammar. In line with this result, three informants from the interview also mentioned grammar as one of the other purposes that their L1 was used for in the classroom. The field note from class A was evident that the teacher really used L1 to explain grammatical knowledge in class. The findings from the current study supported AL-NOFAIE (2010) that grammar was one of 195


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several areas that teachers mainly used L1 to explain. The result was also in agreement with Saricoban (2010) that some students affirmed their reasons for relying on their first language when dealing with difficult concepts. As grammar was considered difficult, so L1 was selected as a facilitator here. Moreover, students were likely to be more interested in learning when teachers used L1 in highlighting the differences and similarities between the students’ mother tongue and English as they could see some linguistic and cultural aspects in common with their native language (Jabak, 2012). The last purpose of L1 use that emerged in the current study was comprehension checking. The survey result showed high percentages of agreement (65.9% and 68.4%) regarding reading and listening comprehension checking respectively. Two interviewees also affirmed that L1 should be used in English class for this purpose. The evidence of this purpose of L1 use was found in class C where the teacher paused to ask her students in Thai whether they all were at the same pace. The findings confirmed Saricoban (2010) that students required L1 to recheck their comprehension towards what their teacher said. The study was also in agreement with Macias and Kephart (2009) that in language classrooms, if a teachers’ goal was to check students’ comprehension and assist students when they are struggling, L1 use could be helpful. 3. The students’ reaction towards L1 use Based on data analysis, there were found to be two phases of reaction from the students when L1 was employed in their language classroom. See diagram 1. Phase I: Being relaxed and motivated Based on the observations in three English classes, the students’ reaction to the lesson with L1 use was primarily positive. Phase II: Being passive and dependent The students’ reaction was remarkably changed at the later stage. Initially, most of the students were active and attentive to the lesson with L1 use but later, more students appeared to lose their attention and became dependent on being spoon-fed by the teachers.

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Conclusion The findings from the current study demonstrated a picture of positive attitudes among the majority of the participants towards L1 use in English classroom in the context of southern Thailand. It was widely confirmed that they saw positively important roles of L1 use in working against affective filter, making input more comprehensible and developing their English proficiency. Simultaneously, English is recognized for its importance in their context where they have few opportunities to be exposed to it outside the class. Hence, English class was the only place for them to practice and use English. Therefore, it is suggested that L1 should be carefully and pedagogically used to make the best of it. As El-dali (2012) supported, the overuse of the mother tongue could be a hindrance to language learning and the studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; fluency in the target language. Based on the current study, L1 was expected to be used in class for translation, instruction, discussion, vocabulary, grammar and comprehension checking. The teacher must use L1 with a careful plan and stay on purpose to avoid negative feelings from students. Although the students perceived L1 as a facilitator, they were conscious of its drawbacks if overused in EFL context. Acknowledgements I would like to express my deep gratitude to Dr. Adcharawan Buripakdi, my research advisor, for her time taken to read my work, for her constructive suggestions and for her enthusiastic encouragement. I would also like to thank Asst. Prof. Pragasit Sitthitikul and Dr. Wararat Wanjit for their advice and assistance in keeping my progress on schedule. In addition, to make certain that my paper is friendly to readers, thank you Mark J. Neale and peer readers. Assistance provided by my former colleagues was also greatly appreciated. Last but certainly not least, I would like to thank my family for their spiritual support and warmest encouragement throughout my study.

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198

Students should be allowed to ask questions related to the lesson in Thai if we do not understand.

Discussion Students should be allowed to use Thai in discussion when working in pairs or groups.

Giving instruction The teacher should use Thai to give instruction.

Students should be allowed to use Thai to translate articles from English to Thai to prove that we understand.

Translation Students should be allowed to use Thai to translate vocabulary from English to Thai to prove that we understand.

Statements

Table 1 Purposes of L1 use

69 (21.4%)

47 (14.6%)

35 (10.8%)

65 (20.1%)

56 (18.3%)

Strongly agree

217 (67.2%)

217 (67.2%)

195 (60.4%)

217 (67.2%)

216 (66.9%)

Agree

34 (10.5%)

50 (15.5%)

86 (26.6%)

37 (11.5%)

44 (13.6%)

Disagree

Frequency and percent

3 (0.9%)

9 (2.8%)

7 (2.2%)

4 (1.2%)

4 (1.2%)

Strongly disagree

3.09

2.93

2.80

3.06

3.02

Mean

.591

.639

.650

.602

.608

Std. deviation

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The teacher should use Thai to explain the difference between Thai grammar and English grammar.

Grammar The teacher should use Thai to explain grammar.

Students should be allowed to use Thai when asking how to say â&#x20AC;&#x153;.....â&#x20AC;? in English.

57 (17.6%)

56 (17.3%)

60 (18.6%)

63 (19.5%)

46 (14.2%)

Vocabulary The teacher should use Thai to explain new vocabulary.

The teacher should use Thai to explain the difference between the usage of Thai and English.

53 (16.4%)

Strongly agree

The teacher and students can use Thai to discuss a teaching method used in the classroom.

Statements

Table 1 Purposes of L1 use (Continued)

232 (71.8%)

218 (67.5%)

204 (63.2%)

207 (64.1%)

216 (66.9%)

230 (71.2%)

Agree

34 (10.5%)

47 (14.6%)

55 (17%)

50 (15.5%)

57 (17.6%)

34 (10.5%)

Disagree

Frequency and percent

-

2 (0.6%)

4 (1.2%)

3 (0.9%)

4 (1.2%)

6 (1.9%)

Strongly disagree

3.07

3.02

2.99

3.02

2.94

3.02

Mean

.527

.587

.638

.623

.605

.587

Std. deviation

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The teacher and students can use Thai to check reading comprehension.

Comprehension check The teacher and students can use Thai to check listening comprehension.

Statements

Table 1 Purposes of L1 use (Continued)

57 (17.6%)

64 (19.8%)

Strongly agree

221 (68.4%)

213 (65.9%)

Agree

43 (13.3%)

44 (13.6%)

Disagree

Frequency and percent

2 (0.6%)

2 (0.6%)

Strongly disagree

3.03

3.05

Mean

.578

.598

Std. deviation

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The lesson

Phase I

The lesson is partly in Thai.

Phase II

The lesson is mostly in Thai.

The studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; reaction

Pleased and satisfied Safe and relaxed

Passive and dependent

Diagram 1 Two phases of studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; reaction toward L1 use

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References Allwright, D. (1994) Focus on the Language Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. AL-NOFAIE, H. (2010) The attitudes of teachers and students towards using Arabic in EFL classrooms in Saudi public schools - a case study. Novitas-Royal, 4(1): 64-95. Arnold, J. (1999) Affect in Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Auerbach, E. (1993) Reexamining English Only in the ESL Classroom. TESOL QUARTERLY, 27(1): 1-18. Bateman, B. (2008) Student Teachers’ Attitudes and Beliefs about Using the Target Language in the Classroom. Foreign Language Annals, 41(1): 11-28. Bhela, B. (1999) Native language interference in learning a second language: Exploratory case studies of native language interference with target language usage. International Education Journal, 1(1): 22-31. Brooks, K. (2009) Adult Learners’ Perceptions of the Incorporation of their L1 in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning. Applied Linguistics, 30(2): 216-235. Bouangeune, S. (2009) Using L1 in Teaching Vocabulary to Low English Proficiency Level Students: A Case Study at the National University of Laos. English Language Teaching, 2(3): 186-193. Campa C. J. and Nassaji, H. (2009) The Amount, Purpose, and Reasons for Using L1in L2 Classrooms. Foreign Language Annals, 42(4): 742- 759. Carson, E. and Kashihara, H. (2012) Using the L1 in the L2 Classroom: The Students Speak. The Language Teacher, 36(4): 41-48. Cianflone, E. (2009) L1 Use in English Courses at University Level, a survey of literature on students and teachers’ perspectives. ESP World, 8(22): 1-5. Cook, V. (2001) Using the First Language in the Classroom. Canadian Modern Language Review, 57(3): 402-423.

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Crichton, H. (2009) ‘Valued added’ modern languages teaching in the classroom: an investigation into how teachers’ use of classroom target language can aid pupils’ communication skills. Language Learning Journal, 37(1): 19-34. Ellis, R. (1997) Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. El-dali, H. (2012) L1 and Second Language Learning: A Non-Stop Debate. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 1(2): 8-32. Ford, K. (2009) Principles and Practices of L1/ L2 Use in the Japanese University EFL Classroom. JALT Journal, 31(1): 63-80. Freeman, L. (2000) Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. New York: Oxford University Press. Gabrielatos, C. (2001) L1 Use in ELT: Not a Skeleton, but a Bone of Contention: A Response to Prodromou. TESOL Greece Newsletter, 70: 6-9. Hesse-Biber, S. N. (2010) Mixed Methods Research: Merging Theory with Practice. New York: The Guildford Press. Horst, M., White, J., and Bell, P. (2010) First and second language knowledge in the language classroom. International Journal of Bilingualism, 14(3): 331 - 349. Jabak, O. (2012) How to Make the Most of the Mother Tongue in an English Language Class? Journal of Advanced Social Research, 2(4): 191-201. Kachru, B. (1998) English as an Asian Language. Links and Letters, 5: 89-108. Kahraman, A. (2009) The Role of the Mother Tongue in Fostering Affective Factors in ELT Classrooms. English as an International Language Journal, 5: 107-128. Kavaliauskiene, G. (2009) Role of Mother Tongue in Learning English for Specific Purposes. ESP World, 8(22): 1-12. Khassawneh, S. (2011) The Attitudes of Students towards using Arabic in EFL Classrooms at Yarmouk University in Jordan. European Journal of Social Sciences, 21(4): 592-602. 203


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Krashen, S. D. (1982) Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Lightbown, P. and Spada, N. (1993) How Languages are Learned. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Lopez, M. (2011) The motivational properties of emotions in Foreign Language Learning. Colomb. Appl. Linguist J., 13(2): 43-59. Machaal, B. (2012) The Use of Arabic in English Classes: A teaching support or a learning hindrance? Arab World English Journal, 3(2): 194-232. Macias, A. and Kephart, K. (2009) Reflections of Native Language Use in Adult ESL Classrooms. Adult Basic Education and Literacy Journal, 3(2): 87-96. Montazer, M. (2009) The Practical Use of L1 in L2 Acquisition: a Tendency toward Changing the Iranian University Students’ Attitudes. Journal of Linguistic Studies, 2(1): 9-22. Nation, P. (2003) The role of the first language in foreign language learning. Asian EFL Journal, 5 (2): 1-8. NAZARY, M. (2008) The Role of L1 in L2 Acquisition: Attitudes of Iranian University Students. Novitas-ROYAL, 2(2): 138-153. Nikula, T. (2005) English as an object and tool of study in classrooms: Interactional effects and pragmatic implications. Linguistics and Education, 16: 27-58. Nunan, D. (1996) The Self-Directed Teacher: Managing the Learning Process. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ocak, G., Kuru, N., and Ozcalisan, H. (2010) As a classroom language, students’ attitudes towards speaking Turkish in English prep classes. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 2: 661-665. Pawar, M. (2004) Data Collecting Methods and Experiences: A Guide for Social Researchers. New Delhi: New Dawn Press Group. Qian, X., Tian, G., and Wang, Q. (2009) Codeswitching in the primary EFL classroom in China - Two case studies. System, 37: 719-730. Raeiszadeh, A., Alibakhshi, G., Veisi, E., and Gorjian, B. (2012) Iranian EFL learners’ Perception of the Use of L1 to L2 Translation Task in General English Classes. Advances in Asian Social Science, 2(2): 436 - 440. 204


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Richards, J. (2001) Curriculum Development in Language Teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press. Sarıçoban, A. (2010) Should native language be allowed in foreign language classes? Egitim Arastirmalari-Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 38: 164-178. Schweers, W. (1999) Using L1 in the L2 Classroom. English Teaching Forum, April - June, 1-13. Simsek R. M. (2010) The Effects of L1 Use in the Teaching of L2 Grammar Concepts on the Students’ Achievement. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education, 6(2): 142-169. Song, Y. (2009) An investigation into L2 teacher beliefs about L1 in China. Prospect Journal, 24(1): 30-39. Stapa, S. and Majid, A. (2006) The Use of First Language in Limited English Proficiency Classes: Good, Bad or Ugly?. Jurnal e-Bangi, 1(1): 1-12. Sumaryono, K. and Otiz, F. (2004) Preserving the Cultural Identity of the English Language Learner. Voices from the Middle, 11(4): 16-19. Vanichakorn, N. (2009) Re-examine the use of the students’ first language in the English as a foreign language classrooms: a cross-case analysis from undergraduate engineering students in Bangkok, Thailand. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 6(5): 1-16. Wajnryb, R. (1992) Classroom Observation Tasks. Great Britain: Cambridge University Press. Weschler, R. (1997) Uses of Japanese (L1) in the English Classroom: Introducing the Functional Translation Method. The Internet TESL Journal, 3(11). [Online URL: www.iteslj.org/Articles/WeschlerUsingL1.html] accessed on August 12, 2012.

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Characteristics of Culture in Thai Society and Virtual Communities Kumpol Buriyameathagul Faculty of Science and Technology, Assumption University of Thailand Corresponding author: Kumbu9@hotmail.com Abstract This study investigated the extent to which cultural characteristics of Thai society are evident in internet based virtual communities. Cultural characteristics were assessed using six dimensions of culture proposed by Hofstede and data collected by a questionnaire posted at web sites which satisfied the characteristics of a virtual community. Responses were obtained from a sample of 432 members of the target population of Thai individuals who were at least 18 years of age and were active in these virtual communities for at least an average of seven hours each week. It was found that three of the dimensions of culture (Individualism, Masculinity, and Indulgence) were significantly more evident in Thai society than in the context of a virtual community with no significant differences for the other three dimensions (Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, and Long Term Orientation) although there were a few components associated with these other three dimensions which were significantly more evident in one or the other of the different contexts. Given that Individualism, Masculinity, and Indulgence are not strong characteristics of Thai society it was concluded that the culture experienced in a virtual community was compatible with that experienced as a member of Thai society and based on the few differences that were found practical recommendations were made for bringing the culture of a virtual community into closer alignment with that of Thai society. Keywords: Culture; Thai society; Virtual community

Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts Vol.13 (2) : 207-270, 2013


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Characteristics of Culture in Thai Society

Introduction A virtual community is a social network of individuals and web-based social networking services that make it possible to connect people who share interests and activities across cultural, political, economic, and geographic borders in order to pursue mutual interests or goals. An understanding of culture is important to the design, development, and management of virtual communities. Some people believe that basically all people are the same and that the internet growth phenomena has created a global village culture referred to as one big world culture (Hofstede, 2011) or a cosmopolitan culture (Hongladarom, 1999a). Individuals are generally not aware of the cultures of other countries and tend to minimize cultural differences which in fact may play a vital role in managerial processes and may directly or indirectly influence the design, adoption, and use of information technologies. This lack of appreciation of cultural differences may lead to misunderstandings and misinterpretations among people from different countries. Despite the increase in communication between individuals from different cultural backgrounds supported by the internet cultural differences are still significant and it is important for these differences to be understood and accommodated in the context of successful virtual communities. Increases in the penetration of the internet and the popularity of social network sites in Southeast Asian countries are more than sufficient to make the study of cultural characteristics in the context of internet based communities an important issue. From a philosophical perspective, Hongladarom (1999a, 1999b, 2000) has raised an important theoretical question as to whether a local national culture will continue to prevail or whether a worldwide culture will emerge through the growth of virtual communities supported by the internet. He argues that the internet may not be successful in creating a single super culture which supplants most of the details and nuances of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s separate cultures, but those cultures will by no means be walled off from one another to the extent that they may have been in the past. Local cultures usually find ways to cope with the impact and are resilient enough to absorb it without losing their identity. According to Hongladarom (1999a), Thai cultural attitudes do

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affect computer-mediated communication in a meaningful way and the idea that the internet automatically brings about social change in line with developments in Western societies needs to be critically examined. As the internet is a many-to-many medium, it has the potential to create virtual communities built around shared assumptions and values. Culture has a powerful influence on information related behaviors not only at the most basic level concerning what is considered to be legitimate information but also at the national level (Hall, 1983). Studies often investigate the applicability of western-based theories in non-western settings and fail to replicate social and psychological findings in the context of different national cultures (Smith and Dugan, 1996). Hofstede theorized these cultural differences using dimensions to produce a general overview and an approximate understanding of other cultures, what to expect from them, and how to behave towards groups from other countries. His pioneer work over decades is well known but it has not been applied adequately in relation to the virtual communities which have been made possible by the rapid advancement of internet based technologies. Although Hofstedeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s dimensions of culture are referred to in numerous studies of social network sites, none of these studies have compared the extent to which these dimensions are evident in a national society and the society associated with a virtual community. In particular, there have not been any studies focused on assessing the relative importance of the characteristics of Thai culture in the context of virtual communities or social network sites. Culture has been studied at the level of a nation or society, an organization, and with regard to an individual (Hall, 1973; Triandis, 1995, 2004; Trompenaars, 1993, 1996, 1997; Schwartz, 1994, 1999, 2004; Hofstede and McCrae, 2004). This study was concerned with culture at the level of a society and used the popular quantitative approach to the assessment of cultural characteristics based on six dimensions developed by Hofstede (2011). The study was motivated by the question as to whether or not the cultural characteristics that define Thai society are also characteristic of the societies created by the internet in the form of virtual communities in which Thai people are active members. No other studies conducted in

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Thailand which addressed this issue directly were found although a study of the adoption of social networks in Thailand by Sombutpibool (2011) suggested that several of Hofstedeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s dimensions of culture were evident implicitly among the factors that motivated the use social network sites. Against this background, the research design and methodology for the study are presented next followed by a review of related literature and the formulation of research hypotheses. The next three sections describe; the methods used for the measurement of the components and the dimensions of culture; the procedures used for data preparation; and the results of data analysis. In the last two sections the findings of the study are discussed and conclusions are drawn. Research Design and Methodology The research was designed as a field study and it was partly basic and applied, partly descriptive and explanatory, and cross-sectional in time. The target population included Thai individuals who were at least 18 years of age and were active members of a virtual community for at least an average of 7 hours each week. The size of this target population in Thailand was unknown although it was expected to be large. Consequently, with a 95 percent confidence interval and a precision of 5 percent the minimum sample size was determined to be approximately 400 (https://edis.ifas.ufl. edu/pd006) and this sample size satisfied requirements which ensured the statistical validity of the study. A self administered structured questionnaire was designed in the English and Thai languages to measure the components of the six dimensions of culture and variables used to determine personal characteristics of the respondents. The questionnaire items were based on the established reliable and valid instrument and accompanying manual by Hofstede et al. (2008a, 2008b). Both language versions were reviewed by a focus group of five individuals with English and Thai language skills and expertise in questionnaire design. Their suggested modifications were included in revised versions of the questionnaire. The Thai language version was then administered in a pretest study with a sample of 10 suitable participants.

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Their responses and comments were noted and any modifications were incorporated into the final versions of the questionnaire. The Thai language version was then used in the full study. A notated version of the final questionnaire is included in Appendix A1. The questionnaires were created using the Google Document web service and were published at four popular virtual community web sites in Thailand (www.pantip.com/cafe/sinthorn/, www.pantip.com/cafe/ rajdumnern/, www.pantip.com/cafe/wahkor/, and http://board.thaivi.org/). Only participants who went into these sites could see the online questionnaire. They were informed of purpose of the questionnaire and given an assurance of anonymity for the respondents. The questionnaires were collected with no missing answers because the Google Document web service only allowed completed questionnaires to be submitted. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 460 Thai individuals who satisfied the conditions of age and hours of weekly experience in virtual communities. No data entry errors were found in a random sample of 10 percent of the questionnaires. However, there were 28 which contained at least one outlier value (i.e. a value for a variable which was 3 or more standard deviations from the mean) and in each case the corresponding questionnaire was removed from the sample leaving a final satisfactory sample of 432 respondents. Related Literature and Research Hypotheses The review of related literature begins with an overview of recent studies concerned with culture and the characteristics of virtual communities and social network sites. This is followed by an examination of the literature related to Hofstedeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s six cultural dimensions and six research hypotheses concerned with these dimensions which were suggested by the findings in previous studies. An Overview of Previous Studies Table 1 presents a summary of the nature of recent studies related to this study. They were mostly explanatory and used quantitative techniques to analyze data collected by questionnaire to examine culture especially in

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relation to various types of virtual community services (bulletin board, social network sites, and web blogs). In particular, they studied culture at the level of a nation or society and included a small number of studies specifically related to Thailand. Table 1 An overview of the nature of previous related studies References

Project Focus National culture and the value of organization employees

Smith and Dugan (1996)

Cross-cultural comparisons of online collaboration

Kim and Bonk (2002)

The effect of online community on offline community in Saudi Arabia

Al-Saggaf (2004)

Cross-national differences in website appeal: a framework for assessment

Blake and Neuendorf (2004)

Relationships between internet diffusion and culture

Nath and Murthy (2004)

Culture and the structure of the international hyperlink network

Barnett and Sung (2005)

Culture and computer-mediated communication: toward new understandings

Ess and Sudweeks (2005)

Cultural cognitive style and web design: beyond a behavioral inquiry into computer-mediated communication

Faiola and Matei (2005)

Culture and internet consumption: contributions from cross-cultural marketing and advertising

Hermeking (2005)

Using message analysis to look beyond nationality-based frames of reference

Hewling (2005)

Community networks where offline communities meet online

Kavanaugh et al. (2005)

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References

Project Focus Virtual community discourse and the dilemma of modernity

Matei (2005)

Computer-mediated relationship development: a cross-cultural comparison

Yum and Hara (2005)

Cultural differences in collaborative authoring of Wikipedia

Pfeil et al. (2006)

Traditional and online support networks in the cross-cultural adaptation of Chinese international students in the United States

Ye (2006)

Mapping diversities and tracing trends of cultural homogeneity/heterogeneity in cyberspace

Segev et al. (2007)

Studies Related to Thailand Global culture, local cultures and the internet: the Thai example

Hongladarom (1999a)

The internet and cultural differences

Hongladarom (1999b)

How Thai culture co-opts the internet

Hongladarom (2000)

National characteristics and sustainable or sufficiency for Thailand

Jhundra-indra (2009)

Adoption of social network sites in Thailand

Sombutpibool (2011)

Dimensions of Culture As evidenced in previous studies the following dimensions of culture were identified as important means of assessing characteristics of culture at the level of a nation or society. Power Distance is described by Hofstede (1983) and (1991) in terms of the prevailing norms of inequality within a culture as the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. It concerns the relationship between the higher-ups and lower-downs of a

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society and how differences in power and wealth are dealt with involving the degree of centralization of authority and the degree of autocratic leadership. Thai culture exhibits high power distance where there is considerable dependence on subordination to bosses and where subordinates respond by preferring such dependence in the form of an autocratic or paternalistic boss. The emotional distance between subordinates and their bosses is large and subordinates are unlikely to approach and contradict their bosses directly (Hofstede, 1991; Thanasankit and Corbitt, 2000). This tends to create respect for the leader as the father figure of the organization and only those at the top can and are obliged to make decisions. Thai society perceives the role of leader as a controller rather than a colleague and this is referred to as the superior-inferior concept, which is dominant in Thai society (Rohitratana, 1998); Thanasankit and Corbitt, 2000). Individualism versus Collectivism concerns the extent to which the identity of members of a given culture is shaped primarily by personal choices and achievements or by the groups to which they belong. That is, the extents to which members of a culture rely on and have allegiance to either their self or the group (Hofstede, 1980, 1983, 1991). This dimension is described in terms of the relationship of the individual to groups within their society. Thai society is collectivist as evidenced by a sense of long term responsibility to the group, the family, the extended family, or other extended social groupings. Loyalty in a collectivist culture is dominant, overriding many other communal rules and regulations and the society promotes strong relationships within organizations, such that everyone takes responsibility for each other. Thai society constructs its reality based on social interests rather than individual interests and this supports structures whereby people are born and live in extended families. Uncertainty Avoidance concerns the extent to which members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations (Hofstede, 1983, 1991) and is related to mechanisms used in different cultures to cope with the uncertainty of life (Casey, 2010). It describes the extent to which people feel anxious or uneasy in unfamiliar or unpredictable situations (Hofstede, 1991; Pfeil et al., 2006). People in high uncertainty avoidance cultures are

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more active, appear emotional, avoid confusing situations, and depend on obligations in their organizations and relationships to assist them to make situations clearer and more readily interpretable. Cultures with low levels of uncertainty avoidance are more tolerant toward others and toward alternative perspectives and display greater tolerance toward risk. Thailand exhibits high levels of uncertainty avoidance. Consequently, employees perceive risk and are resistant to change while executives and managers focus on short-term less strategic planning enabling executives to maintain a close watch on organizational performance (Bagchi et al., 2004; Erumban and Jong, 2006; Laosethakul and Boulton, 2007). In relation to uncertainties associated with politics and the economy Thai leaders seek security. Masculinity versus Femininity is based on the extent of the dissimilarity between women’s and men’s roles in a society Hofstede (1991). Men’s roles tend to exhibit: competition; assertiveness; and hardiness while women’s roles are orientated toward: people; home; children; and compassion. Femininity aims to maintain: good relationships with supervisors, subordinates, and colleagues; good working and living circumstances; and secure employment. Feminine cultures are likely to work against the dissimilarities between the genders and go beyond gender roles, while masculine cultures tend to resiliently maintain the dissimilarities (Marcus and Gould, 2000; Hofstede, 2001; Laosethakul and Boulton, 2007). Thailand has the lowest masculinity ranking among Asian societies, and this low level of masculinity suggests a society that has less competitiveness and assertiveness with little difference between the behaviors of males and females. Long Term versus Short Term Orientation concerns the extent to which a culture assesses its customs and the degree to which people concentrate on both their past and their future. Long-term orientation is identified by values such as changing customs in the face of new situations, persistence, and the concept that the most significant occurrences in life will take place in the future (Hofstede, 2001; Erumban and Jong, 2006; Gong et al., 2007; Bouaziz, 2008). An opposite short-term orientation counts on rapid outcomes and is based on esteem for the past, custom, and stability and is characteristic of Thai society. 215


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Indulgence versus Restraint concerns the pleasure of life and duty. An indulgent society allows relatively free gratification of basic and natural human drives related to enjoying life and having fun which is the opposite to restraint. Hofstede has only recently added this dimension to his dimensions of culture and this dimension seems likely to play an important role in understanding societies formed around social network sites. Table 2 displays: the six dimensions and their definitions; their values and ranks for Thai society; a comparison of their value in Thai society with their values in all Asian nations and the whole world; and their values in all Asian nations and the whole world. Four of the six dimensions are described by their two extremes (e.g. Masculinity versus Femininity) so in those cases in Table 2 one of the extremes has been identified as the label used to refer to the dimension in this study. Research Hypotheses Hofstedeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s six dimensions of culture have not been investigated in the context of virtual communities in Thailand. However, the study of motivations to use social network sites among individuals in Thailand by Sombutpibool (2011) suggested that there was evidence in online environments of the influence of five of Hofstedeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cultural dimensions (Collectivism, Femininity, Uncertainty Avoidance, and Short Term Orientation) but there was less evidence of the influence of the dimension of Power Distance. Also, the conceptual discussions by Hongladarom (1999a, 1999b, 2000) suggested that there were differences between the characteristics of culture in Thai society and the characteristics of the culture experienced on the internet. Consequently, the non directional research hypotheses presented in Table 3 were formulated for this study.

216


Power Distance

Label

64(1)

Value in Thailand (Rank in Thailand)

217

Masculinity versus Femininity

Masculinity

34(4)

Individualism Individualism 20(6) versus Collectivism

Power Distance

Dimension

Lower than for the world (50)

The extent to which there is a preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness and material reward for success.

Lower than in other Asian societies (54)

Higher than for the world (55) Lower than for the world (43)

Lower than in other Asian societies (71)

Comparison of Comparison of Thailand with Thailand with the all Asian Nations World (Value in the (Value in all Asian World) Nations)

The degree to which individuals are Lower than in other integrated into a group in which Asian societies (24) everyone is expected to look after themselves and their immediate family.

The extent to which the less powerful members of society accept and expect that power is distributed unequally.

Definition

Table 2 Hofstedeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s six dimensions for Thai society (Source: Hofstede, 2011)

Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts


32(5)

Long Term Orientation

Indulgence

Long Term Orientation versus Short Term Orientation

Indulgence versus Restraint

45(3)

64(1)

Value in Thailand (Rank in Thailand)

Uncertainty Avoidance

Label

Uncertainty Avoidance

Dimension

218

Lower than for the world (45)

Lower than in other Asian societies (71)

The same as the world (46)

The same as the world (64)

Higher than in other Asian societies (57)

Comparison of Comparison of Thailand with Thailand with the all Asian Nations World (Value in the (Value in all Asian World) Nations)

Higher than in other The extent to which a society allows relatively free gratification of basic and Asian societies (38) natural human drives related to enjoying life and having fun.

The extent to which member in societies believe that truth depends very much on situation, context and time evidenced by: an ability to adapt traditions to changed conditions; a strong propensity to save and invest; thriftiness; and perseverance in achieving results.

The extent to which the members of a society are uncomfortable in unstructured situations involving uncertainty and ambiguity.

Definition

Characteristics of Culture in Thai Society Kumpol Buriyameathagul


Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

Table 3 Research hypotheses Hypothesis For Thai individuals there is a significant difference between the values of: H1: There is significant difference between the values of Power Distance in Thai society and Power Distance in a virtual community. H2: There is significant difference between the values of Individualism in Thai society and Individualism in a virtual community. H3: There is significant difference between the values of Masculinity in Thai society and Masculinity in a virtual community. H4: There is significant difference between the values of Uncertainty Avoidance in Thai society and Uncertainty Avoidance in a virtual community. H5: There is significant difference between the values of Long Term Orientation in Thai society and Long Term Orientation in a virtual community. H6: There is significant difference between the values of Indulgence in Thai society and Indulgence in a virtual community. Note: Significance refers to statistical significance at a level of 0.05. Measurement of Components and Dimensions The measurements of the components associated with the six dimensions and the determination of the values of the dimensions followed the procedure specified in Hofstede et al. (2008a, 2008b). In summary: (a) There were four components associated with each of the dimensions as shown in Table 4 and each component was measured in the questionnaire (Appendix A1) by an item derived from Hofstede et al. (2008b) scored on a 5-point Likert scale with the scores treated a interval scale measures in subsequent analyses.

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Table 4 Components associated with the dimensions Dimension

Components (Labels)

Dimension

Components (Labels)

Power Distance

PD1,PD2,PD3,PD4

Uncertainty Avoidance

UA1,UA2,UA3,UA4

Individualism

IN1,IN2,IN3,IN4

Long Term Orientation

LT1,LT2,LT3,LT4

Masculinity

MA1,MA2,MA3,MA4 Indulgence

ID1,ID2,ID3,ID4

(b) For each dimension and for each respondent an index measure for the context of Thai society was computed using formulae provided in Hofstede et al. (2008a). For example, index measures for Power Distance were computed using 35(PD1 + PD2) + 25(PD3 + PD4) + CPD where CPD is a constant. The constants in the index formulae were determined by equating the mean values of the index measures in Thai society with the values for the dimensions published by Hofstede (2011). When all of the constants were determined then the index measures for both contexts were known and the mean values of these index measures were computed as the values of the dimensions. Data Preparation Construct Validity of the Components Principle Components factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity of the measures of the components for the six cultural dimensions. In the factor analysis the strength of the association between a component and a cultural dimension is represented by a loading which is considered to be significant if it has a magnitude at least 0.4 and an associated eigenvalue of at least 1 (Straub et al., 2004). The results of the factor analysis are displayed in Table 5.

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Table 5 Factor analysis of the components for the dimensions of culture in Thai society and a virtual community Dimension (Thai Society) Component

Long Term Orientation

Power Distance

Indulgence Individualism

Uncertainty Avoidance

Masculinity

LT4

.928

-.124

-.059

-.034

-.126

-.059

LT3

.908

-.094

-.124

-.059

-.130

-.089

LT1

.896

-.112

-.093

-.016

-.165

-.080

LT2

.869

-.153

-.064

-.027

-.149

-.114

PD1

-.103

.918

.044

.102

.015

.006

PD3

-.108

.917

.088

.060

.040

.005

PD2

-.140

.897

.078

.022

.111

.099

PD4

-.115

.886

.129

.012

.149

.051

ID4

-.122

.061

.922

.065

.008

.036

ID1

-.038

.064

.900

-.003

.063

.019

ID3

-.085

.136

.893

.084

-.007

.044

ID2

-.074

.067

.876

.050

.064

.130

IN1

-.050

.057

.027

.889

.052

.101

IN3

-.043

.015

.039

.875

.080

.095

IN4

-.031

.079

.004

.842

.086

.218

IN2

.000

.042

.123

.839

.020

.205

UA2

-.106

.013

.050

.002

.848

.103

UA3

-.086

.122

-.028

.073

.848

.132

UA4

-.144

.077

.089

.091

.824

.169

UA1

-.215

.096

.019

.083

.818

.150

MA2

-.075

.027

.083

.133

.119

.835

MA4

-.097

.030

.062

.141

.182

.833

MA1

-.061

.045

.041

.137

.132

.798

MA3

-.087

.048

.041

.196

.114

.793

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Equamax with Kaiser Normalization. Rotation converged in 6 iterations. Kaiser-MeyerOlkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy 0.870, Bartlettâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Test of Sphericity: Approx. Chi-Square 7955.988; Degrees of Freedom 276 Statistical Significance 0.000.

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Total Variance Explained

Percentage

Cumulative

of Variance

Percentage

6.508

27.116

27.116

3.359

13.995

Indulgence

2.974

Individualism

2.608

Uncertainty

Squared Loadings Percentage

Cumulative

of Variance

Percentage

3.446

14.357

14.357

41.111

3.412

14.217

28.575

12.393

53.504

3.331

13.880

42.455

10.868

64.372

3.119

12.994

55.449

2.082

8.674

73.046

3.006

12.524

67.973

1.691

7.045

80.090

2.908

12.117

80.090

Total Long Term

Rotation Sums of

Initial Eigenvalues

Dimension*

Total

Orientation Power Distance

Avoidance Masculinity

Dimension (Virtual Community) Component Masculinity

Long Term Power Uncertainty Indulgence Individualism Orientation Distance Avoidance

MA2

.879

.039

.211

.063

.204

.038

MA3

.878

.128

.175

.011

.210

.072

MA4

.867

.050

.206

.006

.234

.115

MA1

.824

.080

.109

.036

.158

-.052

LT3

.070

.905

.069

-.040

.031

.051

LT1

.038

.900

.064

-.023

.033

.062

LT2

.007

.898

.105

-.054

.036

.044

LT4

.177

.839

.177

.009

.162

.175

ID3

.196

.078

.875

.043

.118

.091

ID1

.088

.059

.871

.032

.035

.087

ID4

.202

.156

.854

.090

.090

.197

ID2

.198

.157

.840

.105

.155

.152

IN2

.038

-.011

.073

.921

.040

.100

IN3

-.061

-.025

.029

.892

-.082

.051

IN1

-.016

-.070

.028

.889

-.059

.055

IN4

.143

-.002

.101

.859

.019

.041

PD1

.093

.078

.020

-.017

.879

.015

PD3

.126

.070

.067

-.026

.873

-.047

PD4

.250

.045

.154

-.040

.831

.089

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Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

PD2

.374

.050

.163

-.012

.821

.127

UA4

.083

.095

.089

.079

.033

.888

UA1

.028

.083

.114

.095

.061

.858

UA3

.060

.128

.180

.040

.062

.850

UA2

-.021

.009

.083

.038

-.010

.830

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Equamax with Kaiser Normalization. Rotation converged in 6 iterations. Kaiser-MeyerOlkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy 0.875, Bartlettâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Test of Sphericity: Approx. Chi-Square 8309.134; Degrees of Freedom 276 Statistical Significance 0.000. Total Variance Explained Rotation Sums of

Initial Eigenvalues Dimension* Masculinity

Total

Percentage Cumulative of Variance Percentage

Squared Loadings Total

Percentage Cumulative of Variance Percentage

6.787

28.281

28.281

3.404

14.182

14.182

3.582

14.924

43.205

3.278

13.658

27.840

Indulgence

3.109

12.953

56.158

3.272

13.633

41.473

Individualism

2.337

9.739

65.897

3.225

13.439

54.912

Power Distance

2.045

8.522

74.419

3.163

13.180

68.092

1.601

6.671

81.090

3.120

12.998

81.090

Long Term Orientation

Uncertainty Avoidance

In Table 5 dimensions with eigenvalues less than 1 are not shown. These dimensions were not associated with any significant loadings (0.4 or more) of indicators and they explained only 19.91percent and 18.91 percent of the variance in the analysis for Thai society and a virtual community, respectively. From Table 5 it is seen that the measures of the components of the dimensions in both contexts have very satisfactory construct validity. Internal Consistency Reliability of the Components The internal consistency reliability of the measures of the components was determined using Cronbach alpha coefficients which are displayed in

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Table 6 and the all of the coefficients were interpreted as good or excellent using the heuristic recommended by George and Mallery (2003). Table 6 Reliability analysis of the components for the dimensions of culture Cronbach Alpha and Interpretation Context Thai Society

Masculinity .860 Good

Virtual .930 Community Excellent

Long Term Power Uncertainty Indulgence Individualism Distance Avoidance Orientation .946 Excellent

.921 Excellent

.902 Excellent

.940 Excellent

.885 Good

.921 Excellent

.923 Excellent

.917 Excellent

.907 .907 Excellent Excellent

Data Analysis Characteristics of the Respondents Appendix Tables A1(a), (b), (c), and (d) display the cross tabulations among the four profile variables (Gender, Age, Experience with Virtual Communities, Level of Education, and Work Position). From these tables it is seen that: the majority of the respondents (57 percent) was females; the average age of the respondents was 35.5 years with 23 percent and 27 percent in the age range 28-32 years and 33-37 years, respectively; on average the respondents were engaged in virtual communities for 4 hours per day and the majority (51 percent) were engaged for an average of 1-3 hours per day followed by 35 percent engaged for an average of 4-6 hours per day; 54 percent had a Bachelorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s degree and a further 34 percent had a Masterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s degree; and the two largest groups worked as officers (39 percent) or as a supervisors/managers (31 percent). There were only slight differences between males and females in the distributions of age, experience with virtual communities, level of education, and work position and t-tests showed no significant differences between the means of these variables for males and females at a significance level of 0.05 or less. On average males were engaged in virtual communities for 4.4 hours per day and females were engaged for an average of 3.8 hours

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per day and contrasted with the finding by Hargittai (2007) that men spend significantly more time online than women while women are more likely to use social network systems to engage in person-to-person communication. Those who were engaged in virtual communities on average for only 1-3 hours per day or, at the other extreme, for more than 9 hours per day were predominantly from the 33-37 year age group which accounted for 27 percent of the respondents. Those engaged in these activities on average for 4-9 hours per day were mainly from the younger 28-32 year age group which accounted for 23 percent of the respondents. Participants in the 33-37 year age group were more likely than those in any of the other age groups to have a Bachelor’s degree level of education or higher and to work in the positions of officer, supervisor/manager, and senior executive. The 23-27 year old group was the only other age group that exhibited a similar profile with respect to these characteristics. The majority (52 percent) of the respondents who were engaged in virtual communities for an average of only 1-3 hours per day had a Bachelor’s degree as their highest level of education while the next largest group (38 percent) had a Master’s degree. This pattern was also evident among the participants in all of the other categories of experience with virtual communities. Officers together with supervisors/managers accounted for 67 percent of the participants who were engaged in virtual communities for an average of only 1-3 hours per day and this pattern was also evident among the participants in all of the other categories of experience with virtual communities. Only six percent of the respondents had only a secondary/high school level of education as their highest level of education and about 32 percent of them worked in officer or supervisor manager positions. Only six percent of the respondents had a doctoral level degree and 42 percent and 33 percent of them worked in officer and supervisor/manager positions, respectively. Among the 34 percent with a Master’s degree as their highest level of education 27 percent, 33 percent, and 36 percent worked as senior executives, supervisors/managers, and officers, respectively. Fifty four percent of respondents had a Bachelor’s degree as their highest level of education and

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they were officers (44 percent) or supervisors/managers (28 percent) with the remaining 28 percent almost equally students or senior executives. Analysis of the Index Measures for the Dimensions of Culture For each participant an index measure was computed for each dimension using the values of the four components associated with the dimension and the formulae and procedures specified by Hofstede et al. (2008a). Table 7 displays the values of a range of descriptive statistics for the index measures of the dimensions of culture in Thai society and a virtual community. Although the values of the standard errors for skewness and kurtosis are not displayed in Table 7, in each case the magnitudes of skewness and kurtosis are less than twice the values of their standard errors and this validated the use t-tests in subsequent analyses. It is noted that the means of the index measures represent the values of the dimensions and as expected in the context of Thai society these values correspond exactly with Hofstedeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s published values. Table 8 describes the correlations between the four profile variables (Age, Daily Experience with Virtual Communities, Level of Education, and Work Position) and the index measures. In Table 8 significant correlations at 0.05 level or less (2-tailed) are represented by * and among those the Table 7 Descriptive statistics for the index measures of the six dimensions

Index Measure

Thai Society Mean

Standard

Skew-

Deviation

ness

Virtual Community Kurtosis

Mean

Standard

Skew-

Deviation

ness

Kurtosis

Individualism

20

99.32

-.578

-.012

-28.61

107.79

-.253

.056

Masculinity

34

87.86

-.572

-.351 -106.19

120.59

-.105

.074

64

111.16

.174

-.542

60.70

93.51

-.286

.547

45

131.17

-.671

-.194

10.06

126.55

-.341

-.287

64

89.69

-.254

-.525

64.60

93.22

-.074

-.916

32

119.76

-.393

-.375

44.29

108.83

.031

-.457

Power Distance Indulgence Uncertainty Avoidance Long Term Orientation

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Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

coefficients in shaded cells are negative while the others are positive. Blank cells correspond to correlations that are not statistically significant at a level of 0.05 or less. Correlations among the four profile variables are not shown in Table 8 and the only statistically significant correlations were positive and involved Age with Level of Education and Age with Work Position. Although the correlations among the components for the index measures are not shown here it was noted that the results for the correlations among the index measures shown in Table 8 were supported by the correlations among the components. Table 9 shows the results of using t-tests to compare the means for the index measures for Thai society with those for a virtual community for all of the respondents and for males and females separately. For the three highlighted dimensions in Table 9 there was a statistically significant difference, at a level of 0.05 or less, between the mean values of the index measure (i.e. the value of the dimension) for Thai society and a virtual community for all respondents as well as for males and females separately. In each case the mean for Thai society was significantly greater than the mean for a virtual community. For the other dimensions there was no significant difference between the mean values of the index measures in the different contexts for any of the groups. Table 10 shows the results of using t-tests to examine the differences between the means of the index measures for males and females in the context of Thai society and separately in the context of a virtual community. In Table 10 the three highlighted dimensions in the context of Thai society indicate that there was a statistically significant difference between the mean for males and females at a level of 0.05 and among those for Long Term Orientation the mean for the females was significantly greater than the mean for the males while for the other two the reverse was true. For all other cases the differences were not statistically significant. Table 11 shows the results of using t-tests to compare the mean values of the index measures with their neutral values which were computed by assuming that the mean value of each component was 3. A neutral value

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228

Virtual Community

Thai Society

*

*

*

Long Term Orientation (LT)

* *

*

*

*

Uncertainty Avoidance (UA)

Indulgence (ID)

Power Distance (PD)

Masculinity (MA)

Individualism (IN)

*

Long Term Orientation (LT)

* *

*

Uncertainty Avoidance (UA)

Indulgence (ID)

*

*

1

MA

Power Distance (PD)

*

IN

*

*

Work Position

*

*

Level of Daily Experience with Virtual EducaCommunities tion

Profile Variables

Masculinity (MA)

Individualism (IN)

Age

Correlations

Table 8 Correlations between profile variables and index measures

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

1

PD

*

*

*

*

*

1

ID

*

*

*

*

*

1

UA

Thai Society

*

*

*

*

*

1

*

*

*

1

*

*

1

*

*

*

*

1

*

*

*

1

LT IN MA PD ID

*

*

1

UA

*

1

LT

Virtual Community

1

Characteristics of Culture in Thai Society Kumpol Buriyameathagul


48.53

140.65

3.23

35.17

-.75

-12.20

Individualism

Masculinity

Power Distance

Indulgence

Uncertainty Avoidance

Long Term Orientation

Index Measure

Mean Thai Society – Mean Virtual Community

229 -1.53

-.14

4.48

.52

24.22

7.13

t

.127

.892

.000

.605

.000

.000

Sig. (2-tailed)

All Respondents

-20.84

.51

43.12

18.75

147.03

46.41

Mean Thai Society – Mean Virtual Community

-1.67

.06

3.42

1.87

16.39

4.25

t

Males

.096

.952

.001

.063

.000

.000

Sig. (2-tailed)

-5.78

-1.69

29.27

-8.28

135.90

50.10

Mean Thai Society – Mean Virtual Community

Table 9 Comparison of the means of the index measures in Thai society and a virtual community

-.56

-.24

2.94

-1.05

17.84

5.77

t

Females

.577

.814

.004

.294

.000

.000

Sig. (2-tailed)

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Kumpol Buriyameathagul

Characteristics of Culture in Thai Society

Table 10 Comparison of the means of the index measures between males and females Thai Society Dimension

t

Virtual Community

Mean Significance Males (2-tailed) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mean Females

Dimension

t

Mean Significance Males (2-tailed) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mean Females

Individualism

-.31

.755

-3.02 Individualism

.06

.949

.67

Masculinity

1.15

.249

9.85 Masculinity

-.10

.914

-1.28

Power Distance

2.40

.017

25.85

-.13

.896

-1.19

Indulgence

1.42

.155

18.16 Indulgence

.34

.727

4.31

Uncertainty Avoidance

2.08

.038

18.08

Uncertainty Avoidance

1.75

.080

15.87

Long Term Orientation

-2.75

.006

-31.77

Long Term Orientation

-1.58

.115

-16.71

Power Distance

for a dimension represents a situation where on average respondents have a neutral attitude to the importance of the dimension. The results are shown separately for all of the respondents, males, and females. In Table 11 for the highlighted dimensions the value of the dimension was significantly greater than its neutral value at a level of 0.05 or less. For the other dimensions the difference from the neutral value is not statistically significant. Table 12(a) shows the rank position of the value of each of the six dimensions where a rank of 1 (6) indicates the dimension with the greatest (least) value and tied ranks were treated in the conventional manner. The rankings by males, females, and all of the respondents are shown separately. Table 12(b) shows the rank order correlation coefficients used to compare the rankings. From Table 12(a) it is seen that for Thai society the ranking of the values of the dimensions from largest to smallest was as published by Hofstede with Uncertainty Avoidance = Power Distance > Indulgence > Masculinity > Long Term Orientation > Individualism. From Appendix Table A2 which shows the results of using t-tests to compare the values of the

230


231

Individualism Masculinity Power Distance Indulgence Uncertainty Avoidance Long Term Orientation

Individualism Masculinity Power Distance Indulgence Uncertainty Avoidance Long Term Orientation

Dimension

12.9

-35.45

-62.9

64.55

-94.8 -115.1

12.9

-35.45

-62.9

64.55

-94.8 -115.1

Neutral Value

Thai Society All Respondents Males Mean – Dimension Sig. Sig. t Neutral t (2-tail) (2-tail) Value 24.01 .000 114.72 Individualism 14.52 .000 35.38 .000 149.56 Masculinity 24.06 .000 Power -.11 .907 -.62 1.69 .093 Distance 17.13 .000 108.13 Indulgence 12.35 .000 Uncertainty 23.01 .000 99.29 17.30 .000 Avoidance Long Term 3.33 .001 19.18 .11 .912 Orientation Virtual Community 12.76 .000 66.19 Individualism 8.82 .000 1.53 .125 8.91 Masculinity .94 .347 Power -.61 .539 -.85 .392 -3.85 Distance 11.98 .000 72.96 Indulgence 8.03 .000 Uncertainty 16.27 .000 22.30 .000 100.04 Avoidance Long Term 2.60 .010 5.99 .000 31.38 Orientation Individualism Masculinity Power -4.53 Distance 75.43 Indulgence Uncertainty 109.15 Avoidance Long Term 21.79 Orientation

66.57 8.17

Mean – Dimension Neutral Value 112.98 Individualism 155.21 Masculinity Power 14.21 Distance 118.55 Indulgence Uncertainty 109.67 Avoidance Long Term .95 Orientation

Table 11 Comparison of the values of dimensions with their neutral values

.000 .000 .000

15.55 5.78

.552

-.59 8.87

.000 .227

.000

.000

.000

.091

38.50

93.28

71.12

-3.34

65.91 9.45

32.72

91.59

100.40

-11.63

Mean – Sig. Neutral (2-tail) Value .000 116.01 .000 145.36

9.28 1.21

4.27

15.71

12.01

-1.69

19.29 25.99

t

Females

Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts


20

34

64

45

64

32

Individualism

Masculinity

Power Distance

Indulgence

Uncertainty Avoidance

Long Term Orientation

Mean

232

5

1.5

3

1.5

4

6

Rank

Females

Males and

13.85

74.22

55.66

78.76

40.12

18.12

Mean

6

2

3

1

4

5

Rank

Males

Thai Society

45.62

56.14

37.50

52.92

30.26

21.21

3

1

4

2

5

6

Rank

Females Mean

Rankings of the values of the dimensions

Dimension

Table 12(a)

44.29

64.60

10.06

60.70

-106.19

-28.61

Mean

3

1

4

2

6

5

Rank

Females

Males and

34.69

73.71

12.53

60.01

-106.92

-28.22

Mean

3

1

4

2

6

5

Rank

Males

Virtual Community

51.41

57.84

8.23

61.20

-105.64

-28.89

Mean

3

2

4

1

6

5

Rank

Females

Characteristics of Culture in Thai Society Kumpol Buriyameathagul


.928 .696 .696 .696

Males

Females

Males

Females

233 .943

1.000

1.000

.543

1

All Respondents

Virtual Community

.600

.543

.543

1

Males

.943

1.000

1

Females

Thai Society

Context

Note: Highlighted correlation coefficients are statistically significant at a level of 0.05.

Virtual Community

Thai Society

.696

All Respondents

Virtual Community

1

All Respondents

Thai Society

All Respondents

Group

Context

Thai Society

Comparisons of the rankings of the dimensions

Spearmanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Rank Order Correlation Coefficient

Table 12(b)

.943

1

Males

1

Females

Virtual Community

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Kumpol Buriyameathagul

Characteristics of Culture in Thai Society

dimensions in Thai society and separately in a virtual community it is seen that for Thai society there was no statistically significant difference between the values of Uncertainty Avoidance and Power Distance both of which had values that were statistically significantly greater than all of the other dimensions. The only other statistically significant differences were between the value of Individualism and the values of Indulgence and Masculinity. For a virtual community the ranking was Uncertainty Avoidance > Power Distance > Long Term Orientation > Indulgence > Individualism > Masculinity and from Table A2 there was no statistically significant difference between the values of Uncertainty Avoidance and Power Distance but the differences between the values of all of the other dimensions were statistically significant. Discussion of the Findings Characteristics of the Participants The participants in this study were Thai individuals who were at least 18 years of age and were active members of a virtual community for at least an average of 7 hours each week. A profile of the participants was developed using information from the questionnaire concerned with the four variables Gender, Age, Experience with Virtual Communities, Level of Education, and Work Position. The analysis of these variables and their cross tabulations presented above indicated that participants had sufficient formal education, work experience, maturity, and experience with virtual communities to ensure that they were qualified to provide appropriate responses in the study questionnaire. Correlations among Profile Variables and Index Measures of the Dimensions of Culture Figure 1 summarizes the statistically significant correlations among profile variables and the index measures for the dimensions of culture in the context of a virtual community and Thai society. From Figure 1 it is seen that older (younger) individuals had higher (lower) levels of education, work positions with higher (lower) levels of responsibility, and low (high) index measures on Individualism

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Figure 1 Significant correlations between profile variables and index measures (Derived from Table 8). and Indulgence in the context of Thai society where those with a high (low) levels of education also had a high (low) index measure for Individualism. In particular, the insignificant correlations between Daily Experience with a Virtual Community and Age and Level of Education contradicted the findings by Kavanaugh et al. (2005) where an individualâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s level of education and age were significant in explaining an individualâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s involvement in internet communities and internet use. Individuals with a large (small) amount of daily experience with a virtual community were likely to have high (low) index measures on Masculinity, Indulgence, and Long Term Orientation in the context of a virtual community and high (low) index measures on Individualism, Masculinity, and Power Distance in Thai society. However, there were no significant associations between Age, Level of Education, and Work position and any of the six index measures in the context of a virtual community. Figure 2 summarizes the statistically significant correlations between the values of the index measures in Thai society and in a virtual community. In the context of Thai society all index measures were significantly correlated with each other and the same was true for a virtual community except for Individualism which was not significantly correlated with Masculinity, Power Distance, and Long Term Orientation (see Table 8).

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Figure 2 Significant correlations between index measures (Derived from Table 8). To illustrate the interpretation of the correlations in Figure 2 consider an individual in the study who has a low score on Individualism measured in the context of the Thai society where they live. Then it is likely that this same individual has a low score on the other five dimensions measured in the context of Thai society and a low score on all dimensions measured in the context of a virtual community where the individual is an active member except for Individualism for which their score cannot be predicted with confidence. In fact, if an individualâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s score on Individualism in the context of a virtual community is known to be high (low) then it is only possible to make a confident prediction that in the virtual community their scores on Indulgence and Uncertainty Avoidance are also high (low). However, knowing an individualâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s score on Individualism in the context of a virtual community does not enable confident predictions to be made about any of their scores on the dimensions in the context of Thai society. Comparisons among the Values of the Dimensions In the context of Thai society the only significant differences between the values of the dimensions for males and females concerned Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance, which were more evident among

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males than females, and Long Term Orientation, which was more evident among females than males. In a virtual community there were no significant differences between the values of the dimensions for males and females (Table 10). In the context of Thai society the values of all of the dimensions, except Power Distance, were significantly greater than a neutral value which represented a neutral attitude to the importance of the dimension and the value of Power Distance was not significantly different from the neutral value. The same result was true for females and males separately although for males Long Term Orientation was also not significantly different from than a neutral value. In the context of a virtual community the values of the dimensions, except for Masculinity and Power Distance, were significantly greater than a neutral value and the values of Masculinity and Power Distance were not significantly different from a neutral value. These results applied to all of the respondents and also to males and females separately (Table 11). Comparing the values of the dimensions in the context of Thai society with those in the context of a virtual community (Table 9) enabled decisions to be reached regarding the research hypotheses proposed in Table 2. These decisions as well as comments are shown in Table 13.

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Table 13 Decisions and comments for research hypotheses Research Hypothesis For Thai individuals there is a significant difference between the values of: H1: There is significant difference between the values of Power Distance in Thai society and Power Distance in a virtual community.

Decision and Comment Not supported. There is a statistically significant positive correlation between the index measures of Power Distance in Thai society and a virtual community.

H2: There is significant difference between the values of Individualism in Thai society and Individualism in a virtual community.

Supported. The value of Individualism in Thai society is statistically significantly greater than in a virtual community. There is no statistically significant correlation between the index measures of Individualism in Thai society and a virtual community.

H3: There is significant difference between the values of Masculinity in Thai society and Masculinity in a virtual community.

Supported. The value of Masculinity in Thai society is statistically significantly greater than in a virtual community. There is a statistically significant positive correlation between the index measures of Masculinity in Thai society and a virtual community.

H4: There is significant difference between the values of Uncertainty Avoidance in Thai society and Uncertainty Avoidance in a virtual community.

Not supported. There is a statistically significant positive correlation between the index measures of Uncertainty Avoidance in Thai society and a virtual community.

H5: There is significant difference between the values of Long Term Orientation in Thai society and Long Term Orientation in a virtual community.

Not supported. There is no statistically significant correlation between the index measures of Long Term Orientation in Thai society and a virtual community.

H6: There is significant difference between the values of Indulgence in Thai society and Indulgence in a virtual community.

Supported. The value of Indulgence in Thai society is statistically significantly greater than in a virtual community. There is a statistically significant positive correlation between the index measures of Indulgence in Thai society and a virtual community.

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From Table 13 it is seen that the values of only the three dimensions Individualism, Masculinity, and Indulgence had significantly different values in Thai society and a virtual community and in each case the value in Thai society was significantly greater than the value in the context of a virtual community. These results for all of the respondents were also true for males and females separately (Table 9). Consequently, in terms of the values of the six dimensions of culture the main difference between Thai society and a virtual community was that the three dimensions (Individualism, Masculinity, and Indulgence), which were not prominent characteristics of Thai society anyway, were less prominent characteristics in the context o f a virtual community where they represent the three least prominent characteristics. This was evident in the rankings of the values of dimensions in Thai society and a virtual community as illustrated in Figure 3. In Figure 3 it is noted that in Thai society the values of Uncertainty Avoidance and Power Distance were not significantly different but both had values that were significantly greater than all of the other dimensions and the only other significant differences were between the value of Individualism and the values of Indulgence and Masculinity. For a virtual community there was no statistically significant difference between the values of Uncertainty Avoidance and Power Distance but the differences between the values of all of the other dimensions were statistically significant.

Figure 3 The rankings of the values of the dimensions (Derived from Table 12(a)).

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The analyses have focused on the index measures and their mean values (i.e. the values of the dimensions). However, there were statistically significant differences between the mean values of some of the components in both contexts and in general these significant differences supported the findings concerning the index measures and the values of the dimensions and in particular the findings in Table 13. The values of the dimensions are based on index measures involving the mean values of the components and therefore significant differences between the mean values of some components in the two different contexts does not necessarily mean that the values of the dimensions will be significantly different in those contexts. However, it was considered instructive to identify the components which were significantly more important in the context of Thai society than in a virtual community and visa versa and these findings are presented in Table 14. In Table 14 the notations S (NS) were used to indicate that the component was supportive (not supportive) of the characteristics represented by the dimension. For example, for the dimension Long Term Orientation To persevere in pursuing goals, activities, and information definitely supported the notion of a Long Term Orientation while To protect oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;faceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; at all times did not support the notion of a Long Term Orientation and actually characterizes a Short Term Orientation. An examination of the first three dimensions in Table 19 and the support for them among their components in the context of Thai society confirms the findings that the values of these three dimensions were significantly greater in Thai society than in a virtual community. For the next three dimensions the support from the components confirms the findings that there were no significant differences between their values in the two different contexts. Figure 4 summarizes the significant rank order correlations among the rankings of the values of the dimensions by all of the respondents, males, and females. In each case the significant correlation was positive indicating that there was significant agreement about the rankings.

240


Components that are significantly more important in a virtual Community than in Thai society

241

To protect oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;faceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; at all times. (NS) To fulfill obligations to other people. (NS) To persevere in pursuing goals, activities, and information. (S)

Long Term Orientation

Nil

To have strict guidelines and rules for people to follow. (S)

Nil

To have leaders who consult you about decisions and your opinions involving your work. (NS) To have leaders who are respected. (S) To have subordinates who are not afraid to contradict their leaders. (NS) To be influenced by only one direct leader. (S)

To have leaders who have precise answers to questions. (S)

Nil

To have pleasant people with whom to interact and communicate. (NS)

To have time for fun. (S) To have freedom to do what one wants despite others. (S) To have a happy environment. (S)

To receive recognition from others. (S) To be assertive. (S) To have opportunities to be seen as a leader. (S)

Uncertainty Avoidance

Power Distance

Indulgence

Masculinity

To be loyal to others. (NS) Individualism To have the opportunity to pursue personal interests. (S) To have support and friendship from others. To have interesting activities, work, and interaction with others. (S) (NS)

Components that are significantly more important in Thai society than in a virtual community

Significant differences between the two contexts in terms of the components of the index measures

Dimension

Table 14

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Figure 4 Significant correlations among the rankings (Derived from Table 12(b)). From Figure 4 it is seen that in the context of a virtual community there was significant agreement among the three groups with respect to the relative importance of the dimensions but this was not the case in the context of Thai society where only males were in significant agreement with all of the respondents and both of these groups showed neither significant agreement nor disagreement with females. Conclusion In summary the main aspects of the findings were: (a) There were numerous significant correlations among personal characteristics of individuals and index measures within and between the two different contexts which meant that with very few exceptions given an individualâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s score on an index measure or personal characteristic in one of the contexts it was possible to make confident predictions for their scores on the other index measures and personal characteristics (Figures 1 and 2). (b) The three dimensions Individualism, Masculinity, and Indulgence had significantly greater values in the context of Thai society than in the context of a virtual community but there were no significant differences for the values of the other three dimensions (Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, and Long Term Orientation) (Table 9). In the context of Thai society Individualism, Masculinity, and Indulgence were ranked in

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positions 6, 4, and 3, respectively with values for Masculinity and Indulgence lower than in other Asian societies and the world and a value for Individualism which was higher than for other Asian societies but the same as the world (Table 2). In a virtual community Individualism, Masculinity, and Indulgence were ranked in positions 5, 6, and 4, respectively (Figure 3). Even though the values of these three dimensions were significantly less in a virtual community compared to Thai society their relative positions in both contexts indicated that they were not dominant characteristics of Thai society and they were even less so in the context of a virtual community. Consequently, it was expected that members of Thai society would find the culture associated with a virtual community to be similar to their experiences outside of the virtual community and therefore it was expected that they would feel comfortable engaging in the virtual environment. (c) The analyses based on gender revealed very few differences between all of the respondents, males, and females (Tables 9, 10, 11, and Figure 4). In the context of Thai society males had significantly higher values Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance compared to females but the reverse was true for Long Term Orientation (Table 10). In the context of Thai society the ranking of the dimensions by males showed significant agreement with the ranking by all of the respondents but the ranking by females showed neither significant agreement nor disagreement with these rankings (Figure 4). From a practical perspective the findings are of value to those who are responsible for the design, development, and management of virtual communities. Understanding the cultural characteristics of Thai society and the characteristics of the culture associated with virtual communities in which Thai people participate could be a part of training and education programs related to virtual communities and social network sites for professional, commercial, and entertainment oriented purposes. As noted above, the dimensions of Individualism, Masculinity, and Indulgence were more evident in Thai society than in a virtual community and there were particular components among the other dimensions which were more evident in one of the contexts than the other (Table 14).

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Table 15 Actions in a virtual community to make it more compatible with Thai society Actions in a Virtual Community

Dimension

 Increase the opportunity within the community to pursue personal interests.  Increase the amount of interesting activities, work, and Individualism interaction with others  Reduce any necessity for members to demonstrate loyalty to other members.  Reduce any necessity to have to seek support and friendship from other members.  Encourage members to acknowledge and recognize other members for their contributions.  Encourage members to be assertive. Masculinity  Provide public recognition for members who are displaying leadership within the community.  Try to ensure that unpleasantness between members is minimized.  Introduce activities that increase a member’s opportunity to have fun. Indulgence  Provide freedom for members to pursue their own interests regardless of the interests of other members.  Promote a happy environment.  Encourage leaders in the virtual community to consult other members about decisions and opinions.  Identify leaders who will be respected by the membership.  Encourage junior community members not to be afraid to contradict leaders in the community.  Try to assign or have members select a person who they consider to be their most important leader or mentor.

Power Distance

 Encourage leaders in the community to provide precise answers to questions from other members.  Maintain useful guidelines and reasonable rules for members to follow.

Uncertainty Avoidance

 Structure interactions and communications among members so that a member is able to protect their ‘face’ Encourage members to fulfill their obligations to other members.  Encourage members to persevere in pursuing goals, activities, and information.

Long Term Orientation

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Consequently, the findings identified aspects of the dimensions that may be changed in a virtual community in order to bring the values of the dimensions in both contexts into closer alignment and this would be expected to make Thai members of those communities even more comfortable with the community. Table 15 identifies actions in a virtual community that would bring it into closer alignment with the characteristics of Thai society. The findings provide insights into the relationships among and between the characteristics of a virtual community and the characteristics of Thai society and these insights should be noted in the design of applications and the adoption and use of information technologies especially if the virtual communities are important for economic and other beneficial developments for Thai users. Because this is the first study of this kind to be conducted in Thailand it is strongly recommended that the study be repeated in order to establish the external validity of the findings. There is also a possibility for future studies to consider cultural issues related to the concept of culture at levels different from the national or societal level which has been the focus in this study. At the level of an organization the cultural characteristics of organizations that operate in a bricks and mortar environment may be compared to the cultural characteristics of organizations that operate in a virtual environment. Also, at the level of an individual personality traits of individuals revealed by their behaviors in daily life may be compared to their personality traits revealed by their behaviors in virtual environments. It may also be useful to consider different age groups and males and females separately in these suggested investigations. Furthermore, from a completely different perspective, a question arises as to whether or not the characteristics of culture that were observed in a virtual community are becoming an international standard defined as the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;cosmopolitan cultureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; by Hongladarom (1999a, 1999b, 2000). Although this study has not addressed this question it has established that for Thai people the cultural characteristics that apply to Thai society as a whole do not appear to be greatly different from the cultural characteristics of the societies formed by virtual communities of Thai members. It seems evident that national cultural characteristics may certainly be transferred to and adopted within virtual communities where members are of that nationality. 245


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Appendix A1. Notated Questionnaire The questionnaire has been abbreviated and notated to show the labels for variables/indicators and the measuring scales. SECTION 1: 1. Age in years: (A) ¡ Less than 18 ¡ 18 - 22 (20) ¡ 23 - 27 (25) ¡ 28 - 32 (30) ¡ 33 - 37 (35) ¡ 38 - 42 (40) ¡ 43 - 47 (45) ¡ 48 - 52 (50) ¡ 53 - 57 (55) ¡ 58 - 62 (60) ¡ 63 - 67 (65) ¡ More than 67 (70) 2. Gender: (G) ¡ Female (1) ¡ Male (2) 3. What is your highest level of education? (E) ¡ Secondary/ High School (12) ¡ Bachelor Degree (16) ¡ Master Degree (18) ¡ Doctoral Degree (22) 4. Which category best describes your current work position? (W) ¡ Student (1) ¡ Officer (2) ¡ Supervisor/Manager (3) ¡ Senior Executive (4) 5. The average number of hours each day that you spend on activities in a virtual community (such as webboard and chat room) (EX) ¡ Less than 1 ¡ 1 - 3 (2) ¡ 4 - 6 (5) ¡ 7 - 9 (8) ¡ More than 9 (11)

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SECTION 2: Items were scored on a five point scale: Extremely Important (5), Very Imp Question Component In your everyday life and experiences how important is it to:

Question Component

in1

1. Be loyal to family and friends

id1

in2

2. Pursue personal interests

id2

in3

3. Have support from close family and friends

id3

in4

4. Have interesting work

id4

ma1

ma2

5. Have pleasant people to work with 6. Receive recognition for good performance at work

ma4

8. Have opportunities to be seen as a leader at work

14. Have time free for fun 15. Have freedom to do what you want despite other people 16. Have a happy life 17. Have strict guidelines and rules for people to follow

ua2

18. Have a workplace that is free of feelings of nervousness or stress

ua3

19. Have managers who have precise answers to employees’ questions about work

ua4

20. Have employees who never break an organization’s rules under any circumstances

pd1

9. Have a boss who consults you about decisions and your opinions involving your work

lt1

pd2

10. Have leaders who are respected

lt2

262

13. Display moderate behavior and few desires

ua1

7. Be assertive ma3

In your everyday life and experiences how important is it to:

21. Display the same personality at work (school/university) as at home 22. Protect one’s ‘face’ at all times


Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

Question Component In your everyday life and experiences how important is it to: pd3

pd4

Question Component

11. Have subordinates who are not afraid to contradict their bosses

lt3

12. Have only one direct boss at work

lt4

In your everyday life and experiences how important is it to: 23. Fulfill obligations to other people 24. Persevere in pursuing goals, activities, and information

SECTION 3: Items were scored on a five point scale: Extremely Important (5), Very Important (4), Moderately Important (3), Of Little Importance (2), and Of No Importance (1). Highlighted items were reverse scored. Question

Question

In virtual communities CompoComponent (e.g. webboards and nent chat rooms) how important is it:

In virtual communities (e.g. webboards and chat rooms) how important is it:

in1

1. To show loyalty to other members of the virtual community

id1

13. For members to display moderate behavior and few desires

in2

2. For members to be able to explore their personal interests

id2

14. To have opportunities for members of the virtual community to have fun

in3

3. To have friendship and support from other members of the virtual community

id3

15. For members to be free to do what they want despite other members

in4

4. To have activities and discussions that are interesting

id4

16. To have a happy atmosphere in the virtual community

ma1

5. To have pleasant people to communicate with in the virtual community

ua1

17. To have strict guidelines and rules to govern the members of the virtual community

ma2

6. To have recognition from other members for a good performance by a member

ua2

18. To have no feelings of nervousness or stress among the members

263


Kumpol Buriyameathagul

Characteristics of Culture in Thai Society

Question

Question

In virtual communities CompoComponent (e.g. webboards and nent chat rooms) how important is it: ma3

7. To be assertive in dealing with other members of the virtual community

ma4

8. To have opportunities to be seen as a leader among members of the virtual community

In virtual communities (e.g. webboards and chat rooms) how important is it:

ua3

19. To have community leaders who have precise answers to members’ questions

ua4

20. To have members who never break the virtual community’s rules under any circumstances

pd1

9. For a leader in the virtual community to consult you about decisions and your opinions

lt1

21. For members to display the same personality in the virtual community as at home

pd2

10. To have leaders in the virtual community who are respected by the members

lt2

22. For members in the virtual community to protect one’s ‘face’ at all times

pd3

11. Junior members of the virtual community who are not afraid to contradict the leaders

lt3

23. For members to fulfill their obligations to other members of the virtual community

pd4

12. For each member of the virtual community to be influenced by only one of the community leaders

lt4

24. For members to persevere in pursuing goals, activities, and information

264


265

1

63-67

184

4

58-62

Total

5

53-57

26

38-42

10

45

33-37

48-52

44

28-32

17

18

23-27

43-47

14

Frequency

18-22

Age (Years)

100.0

.5

2.2

2.7

5.4

9.2

14.1

24.5

23.9

9.8

7.6

Percent

Males

-

100.0

99.5

97.3

94.6

89.1

79.9

65.8

41.3

17.4

7.6

Cumulative Percent

248

0

4

11

14

25

27

70

55

25

17

Frequency

6.9

100.0

1.6

4.4

5.6

10.1

10.9

28.2

22.2

10.1

6.9

Percent

Females

Gender

Table A1(a) Cross tabulation of Gender with other profile variables

6.9

-

100.0

98.4

94.0

88.3

78.2

67.3

39.1

16.9

6.9

432

1

8

16

24

42

53

115

99

43

31

100

0.2

1.9

3.7

5.6

9.7

12.3

26.6

22.9

10.0

7.2

-

100

99.8

97.9

94.2

88.7

78.9

66.7

40.0

17.1

7.2

Cumulative Cumulative Frequency Percent Percent Percent

Males and Females

Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts


14

More than 9

266

70

12

Master Degree

Doctoral Degree

54

28

Supervisor/Manager

Senior Executive

184

80

Officer

Total

22

Student

Work Position

94

Bachelor Degree

184

8

Total

100.0

7.6

10.3

37.0

45.1

-

100.0

92.4

82.1

45.1

100.0

15.2

29.3

43.5

12.0

100.0

6.5

38.0

51.1

4.3

-

100.0

84.8

55.4

12.0

-

100.0

93.5

55.4

4.3

Mean 4.4, Std. Dev. 2.7

Secondary/High School

Level of Education

19

7-9

184

68

4-6

Total

83

1-3

Experience with Virtual Communities (Hours per Day)

Mean 35.4, Std. Dev. 9.4

100.0

4.0

6.5

33.5

56.0

248

49

81

90

28

248

12

78

138

20

100.0

19.8

32.7

36.3

11.3

100.0

4.8

31.5

55.6

8.1

-

100.0

80.2

47.6

11.3

-

100.0

95.2

63.7

8.1

-

100.0

96.0

89.5

56.0

Mean 3.8, Std. Dev. 2.4

248

10

16

83

139

Mean 35.5, Std. Dev. 9.2

100

5.6

8.1

35.0

51.4

-

100.0

94.4

86.3

51.4

432

77

135

170

50

432

24

148

232

28

100.0

17.8

31.3

39.4

11.6

100

5.6

34.3

53.7

6.5

-

100.0

82.2

50.9

11.6

-

100.0

94.4

60.2

6.5

Mean 4.0, Std. Dev. 2.5

432

24

35

151

222

Mean 35.5, Std. Dev. 9.3

Characteristics of Culture in Thai Society Kumpol Buriyameathagul


Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

Table A1(b) Cross tabulation of Age with other profile variables Experience with Virtual Communities (Hours per Day)

Age (Years) 2832

3337

38- 43- 48- 5342 47 52 57

1-3

13

21

44

71

27

21

12

9

3

1

222

4-6

14

19

38

29

19

16

6

5

5

0

151

7-9

3

1

13

5

4

2

6

1

0

0

35

More than 9

5862

63- Total 67

18- 2322 27

1

2

4

10

3

3

0

1

0

0

24

Total 31

43

99

115

53

42

24

16

8

1

432

Level of Education Secondary / High School

3

5

4

5

4

1

4

2

0

0

28

Bachelor Degree

27

32

51

52

23

22

9

10

5

1

232

Master Degree

1

6

38

49

23

16

9

4

2

0

148

Doctoral Degree

0

0

6

9

3

3

2

0

1

0

24

Total 31

43

99

115

53

42

24

16

8

1

432

Work Position Student

25

10

8

2

3

2

0

0

0

0

50

Officer

3

23

48

55

16

14

4

4

2

1

170

Supervisor/ Manager

1

7

26

35

29

17

12

5

3

0

135

Senior Executive

2

3

17

23

5

9

8

7

3

0

77

Total 31

43

99

115

53

42

24

16

8

1

432

267


Kumpol Buriyameathagul

Characteristics of Culture in Thai Society

Table A1(c) Cross tabulation of Experience with Virtual Communities with other profile variables

Level of Education

Experience with Virtual Communities (Hours per Day)

Total

1-3

4-6

7-9

More than 9

9

15

3

1

28

Bachelor Degree

116

82

17

17

232

Master Degree

84

44

14

6

148

Doctoral Degree

13

10

1

0

24

222

151

35

24

432

Student

28

17

4

1

50

Officer

87

58

12

13

170

Supervisor/Manager

60

55

14

6

135

Senior Executive

47

21

5

4

77

222

151

35

24

432

Secondary /High School

Total Work Position

Total

Table A1(d) Cross tabulation of Level of Education with other profile variables Level of Education Work Position

Secondary/ High School

Bachelor Degree

Master Degree

Doctoral Degree

Total

Student

5

35

6

4

50

Officer

8

103

49

10

170

Supervisor/ Manager

9

65

53

8

135

Senior Executive Total

6

29

40

2

77

28

232

148

24

432

268


-14.54 -44.00 -25.31 -43.92 -12.17 -29.47 -10.78 -29.38 2.37

Index Measure 2

Masculinity

Power Distance

Indulgence

Uncertainty Avoidance

Long Term Orientation

Power Distance

Indulgence

Uncertainty Avoidance

Long Term Orientation

Index Measure 1

Individualism

Individualism

Individualism

Individualism

Individualism

Masculinity

Masculinity

Masculinity

Masculinity

Mean Index Measure 1 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mean Index Measure 2

269 .30

-5.99

-1.53

-4.62

-1.55

-7.48

-3.42

-6.57

-2.84

t

.764

.000

.127

.000

.123

.000

.001

.000

.005

Sig. (2-tail)

Masculinity

Masculinity

Masculinity

Masculinity

Individualism

Individualism

Individualism

Individualism

Individualism

Index Measure 1

-116.25 -170.78 -150.48

Uncertainty Avoidance Long Term Orientation

-166.88

-72.90

-93.20

-38.67

-89.30

77.58

Indulgence

Power Distance

Long Term Orientation

Uncertainty Avoidance

Indulgence

Power Distance

Masculinity

Index Measure 2

Mean Index Measure 1 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mean Index Measure 2

Table A2 Comparison of the means of the index measures in Thai society and in a virtual community

-21.36

-24.88

-18.00

-31.13

-9.66

-14.71

-5.21

-12.81

10.31

t

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

(2-tail)

Sig.

Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts


270

.081 31.84 -18.61 13.15

Long Term Orientation

Uncertainty Avoidance

Long Term Orientation

Long Term Orientation

Power Distance

Power Distance

Indulgence

Indulgence

Uncertainty Avoidance 3.83

1.41

-2.56

3.58

.01

2.52

t

.000

.161

.011

.000

.990

.012

Sig. (2-tail)

Long Term Orientation Long Term Orientation

Uncertainty Avoidance

Uncertainty Avoidance

Long Term Orientation

Uncertainty Avoidance

Indulgence

Index Measure 2

Indulgence

Indulgence

Power Distance

Power Distance

Power Distance

Index Measure 1

20.31

-34.23

-54.53

16.41

-3.90

50.63

Mean Index Measure 1 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mean Index Measure 2

3.26

-4.94

-8.50

2.60

-.66

7.83

t

.001

.000

.000

.010

.511

.000

(2-tail)

Sig.

Notes: (a) For highlighted pairs of index measures there is a statistically significant difference, at a level of 0.05 or less, between the mean of index measure 1 and index measure 2; (b) Shaded cells identify pairs of index measures where the mean for index measure 1 is significantly less than the mean for index measure 2.

31.75

18.69

Indulgence

Uncertainty Avoidance

Power Distance

Index Measure 2

Index Measure 1

Mean Index Measure 1 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mean Index Measure 2

Characteristics of Culture in Thai Society Kumpol Buriyameathagul


A Mathematics Instructional Model by Integrating Problem-Based Learning and Collaborative Learning Approaches Supaporn Jaisook*, Somyot Chitmongkol and Sumlee Thongthew Faculty of Education, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand * Corresponding author: supasamui@hotmail.com Abstract According to several researches conducted by several organizations, such as Ministry of Education (MOE), Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology (IPST), and National Institute of Educational Testing Service (NIETS), it was found that most Thai students did not succeed in learning mathematics in terms of content and mathematics processes. This research results were consistent with the facts and findings of several surveys which were conducted based on the situation happening in real life. Therefore, problems in learning mathematics could be concluded in 3 significant points, including (1) mathematical problem solving ability, (2) mathematical communication ability, and (3) mathematical connection ability. The purposes of this research included (1) to develop a mathematics instructional model by integrating problem-based learning approach and collaborative learning approach to enhance mathematical problem solving, communication, and connection abilities of sixth grade students, and (2) to study the effects of the use of the instructional model. The research procedure included two steps. The first step was the development of instructional model and the second step was the experiment of the developed instructional model in classrooms. Integrating problembased learning approach and collaborative learning approach and also analyzing and synthesizing the related concepts, theories, and researches were brought to develop the model. The instructional model was further experimented with the sample group of sixth grade students. The samples

Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts Vol. 13(2) : 271-294, 2013


Supaporn Jaisook et al.

A Mathematics Instructional Model

consisted of two classrooms, one experimental group and one control group, in which there were 24 students each, at Wat Taranaram School under the Suratthani Primary Educational Service Area Office 2. The experimental period covered 38 hours conducted by using the research tools, including the lesson plans under the developed model, conventional lesson plans, as well as tests for mathematical problem-solving, communication, and connection abilities. Quantitative data were analyzed by using means of arithmetic mean ( ), standard deviation (S.D.) and t-test.The research results could be summarized as follows: 1. The developed instructional model included four elements which are (1) principles, (2) objectives, (3) steps of instructional process, and (4) learning assessment and evaluation. In addition, the instructional process consisted of four steps, including (1) encouraging studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; attention in encountering challenging problems, (2) practicing enthusiastically for searching knowledge, (3) collaboratively examining their knowledge and concluding by group consensus, and (4) applying the knowledge. 2. The developed instructional model was efficient and could be used to enhance studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; mathematical problem solving, communication, and connection abilities as follows: 2.1 Mathematical problem solving, communication, and connection abilities at the post-learning stage of the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group at the significant level of .05; and 2.2 Mathematical problem solving, communication, and connection abilities of the experimental group at the post-learning stage were significantly higher than those abilities at the pre-learning stage at the significant level of .05. Key Words: Collaborative Learning; Problem-Based Learning; Mathematical Problem Solving ability; Mathematical Communication ability; Mathematical Connection ability; Instructional Model

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Introduction The society in the era of globalization is full of economic, political, as well as science and technological competitions. The countries, which do not foster the national development, will not be able catch up with the rest of the world. One of the significant recommendations for national development is to provide alternative channels to access resources of knowledge and information, as well as encourage the social participation in all levels. Education is a fundamental base for this aforementioned development. In terms of human resources development, the Human Achievement Index (HAI) was used to assess the efficiency of human resources development. There were 8 compositions of this index, including (1) health, (2) education, (3) work life, (4) income, (5) residence and environment, (6) family and community, (7) transportation and communication, as well as (8) social participation (UNDP, 2007). In terms of education, the HAI assessment result indicated that Thailand must increase the average years of education per capita to 10 years and the education must focus on building studentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s knowledge and skills in mathematics and language learning (NESDB, 2006). From several researches conducted by various organizations, it was found that the majority of Thai students did not succeed in studying mathematics, in particular in the areas of content and thinking processes (Ministry of Education,2009; IPST,2008 and NIETS, 2008). This research results were consistent with the facts and findings of several surveys which were conducted based on the real life situations. Regarding the mentioned researches and survey results, the Thai studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; problems in learning mathematics could be divided in three areas as follows: 1) Mathematical problem solving ability: the majority of students could not effectively understand and analyze mathematics problems due to the lack of knowledge and skill in figuring out appropriate solutions to solve the problems. Therefore, they were unable to figure a correct answer or reversely analyze an answer back to a problem. This was consistent with Lynn (1993) who found that a reason why students could not solve mathematical problems was the lack of experience in various methods of 273


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problem solving. Therefore, the problem solving skills had to start from a skill to abruptly find methods or solutions to solve complicated problems which depends on individual intelligence (Polya, 1980) and basic knowledge which could be appropriately applied to solve unfamiliar problems (Krulik and Rudnick, 1993). In addition, Wilson (1993) mentioned that problem solving process was a dynamic process which could be implemented stepby-step and with flexibility. Lynn (1993) also found that factors impacting problem solving behaviors included group collaboration, social control, and social rules. 2) Mathematical communication ability: the majority of students could not write or represent their ideas by using appropriate language, mathematics symbols, and counting pictures. In addition, they were unable to interpret mathematics language by using the common language to effective communicate their thoughts and opinions as well as exchange the information and knowledge on mathematics with others (NCTM, 1989; Tomas, 1991). Therefore, Rowan and Morrow (1993) proposed an instructional guideline that teachers were recommended to use tangible examples to encourage students to describe things they found out, use content which is close to studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; lifestyle, use open-ended questions to allow students to communicate their thoughts, and use the collaborative learning approach. According to Johanningâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s research (2000), it was found that descriptive writing was one of many ways to encourage students to learn mathematics. Once students could communicate their thoughts to others by writing on the paper, they would gain more confidence in sharing opinions when collaborating with a group and be more eager to think and participate in mathematical learning process. 3) Mathematical Connection ability: The majority of students could not link their existed knowledge into mathematics content, as well as could not link mathematical content into other subject areas and their real life (Coxford, 1995; Kennedy and Tipps, 1994). In addition, Makanong (2004) mentioned that the mathematical connection was learnersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; abilities to link their mathematics knowledge and problems gained from classes to the current problem or situation with which they were dealing. NCTM (2000)

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explained the direction of mathematical connection as the Chaos Theory, in which the connection among real-life situations, the relation of mathematicsrelated subjects which are different from existed teaching subjects, and the relation of mathematical contents themselves are integrated. This paper is intended to exhibit some parts of the aforementioned research by focusing on the development of a mathematical instructional model by integrating problem-based learning approach and collaborative learning approach to enhance mathematical problem-solving, communication, and connection abilities of sixth grade students. Objectives 1) To develop instructional model by integrating problem-based learning approach and collaborative learning approach to enhance mathematical problem solving, communication, and connection abilities of sixth grade students; 2) To study the effects of the use of the instructional model developed by comparing the pre- and post-learning of an experimental group, as well as comparing an experimental group and a control group. Literature Review This research was conducted based on two significant principles, including problem-based learning (PBL) and collaborative learning (CL), as following details. 1. Problem-based Learning (PBL) Tan (2003: 30-31) mentioned 10 key thoughts of problem-based learning (PBL) as follows: 1) Problem is the start of learning process; 2) Existing real-life problems are complicated and can be developed into the real problem; 3) There are various perspectives to view each problem, and we need to use various fields of knowledge to solve it; 4) Challenging problem focuses on determining learning object and learning that object more;

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5) Students’ self-responsibility can be developed by leading themselves to learn by acquiring various kinds of information; 6) There are various forms and places of learning resources which are related to learning process; 7) PBL is collaborative learning which includes communication, cooperation, and work in a small group of students. Students’ ability can be developed by having high interaction between friends and presenting their ideas to the group; 8) The development of problem examining and solving ability is the center of knowledge apart from knowing knowledge enough to solve problems. Therefore, instructors should solely play role as a facilitator and advisor by raising questions to promote better understanding; 9) Learning should be concluded by synthesizing knowledge based on problem, then thoroughly integrated that knowledge to reflect ideas and review it further; and 10) Learning should be also concluded based on problem by conducting evaluation and reviewing learners’ experiences and learning processes. Regarding Tan’s thoughts on problem-solving learning, it could be concluded that problem was the start of learning processes when it existed in the real-life and was complicated as well as related to many fields of study. Problems challenged learners to determine what they wanted to learn and led them to acquire knowledge from various resources in order to further apply in solving problems. Students should learn collaboratively in a small group while teachers were recommended to solely guide and facilitate the learning. In addition, the Medical School at McMaster University in Canada (2010) also indicated that the learning processes should be driven by problems, and learners must solve problems by themselves and by collaborate with others in a group. Problems should be highlighted to encourage students to collaboratively figure out and conclude appropriate solving methods. Teachers should be a guide and a facilitator during the learning processes. The Medical School at McMaster University in Canada also proposed the

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five characteristics of PBL as follows: 1) Learning must be driven by open-ended questions which are challenging and flexible to answer; 2) Problem must be based on particular context; 3) Students must eagerly conduct the searching and solving process in a small group of 5 people by themselves; 4) The key problems must be identified and there must be a consensus on problem-solving approaches which will be further implemented; and 5) Teachers play an important role in learning by advising learning guideline and promoting learning- and searching-friendly environment. Furthermore, Savery (2011 : Online); Arends (2009 : 387); Howard (2003); Illinois Mathematics and Science Acadamy (2003); Savin (2000 : 17-18); Barrow (1996 : 5-6); and Savoie and Hunges (1998 : 73) agreed on the characteristics of PBL that it was necessary to be a challenging and complicated problem which content must be related to learnersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; existed experiences and must come from the integration of various subject areas. Problem must encourage learners to solve, and learners must have responsibility in self-learning. There were several approaches to solve a problem, such as communicating and interacting among classmates by having a teacher as a learning facilitator. In addition, Hmelo and Evenson (2000 : 4); Torp and Sage (1998 : 15); and Gijselaers (1996 : 13-14) consistently mentioned that PBL was related to learning theory, called constructivism, which was rooted from learning theory of Piaget and Vygotsky who believed that learning was a development process of intelligence which learners could develop this knowledge by themselves. The learning development process took place from the interaction between learners and environment, which led to the absorption of new experiences, and the adaptation of intelligence to the new environment. In this research, the PBL characteristics could be summed up that studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; learning mainly occurred through problem learning. Student could learn new knowledge from problem solving process by relating their

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existing knowledge with problematic situations and by acquiring new relevant knowledge to solve problems. The solutions for each problem could be various. 2. Collaborative Learning (CL) Lara and Brown (2011 : Online) compared this principle with the umbrella circle which had various forms of collaborative learning rooted from small group project. Arends (1994) mentioned that CL was the teaching process which groups students to collaborate in small groups, and everyone had joint responsibility with the same goal. They must also exchange views and create good relationship among one another. MacGregor and Smith (2011) mentioned that CL was the collaborative educational process among related people. This also included the collaboration among a group of students and teachers, in which there were not less than 2 people involved to study research, trying to understand the content’s meaning, and delivering something. This must focus on increasing students’ role in presenting knowledge to the class; while switching teacher’s role in conducting learning activities to designing learning activities and encouraging students to apply their knowledge. Swan (2006) mentioned 6 key ideas of collaborative learning (CL) as follows:- 1) CL leads to the creation of student’s knowledge, this means knowledge arising from the development of formative evaluation by applying appropriate techniques and improving teaching approaches based on student’s abilities and needs; 2) CL brings ambiguous issues to the discussion by organizing learning activities to exchange views on any debatable issues. The mentioned activities must be open to encounter and concluded by making consensus decisions based on results from the debate; 3) CL uses high-level questions which can help promote thorough description, analysis, and future application; 4) CL encourages the small group collaboration which helps encourage thinking and analyzing process, as well as positive discussion instead of arguments. The most important thing is to have a joint responsibility

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on the same goal among the small group members; 5) CL helps promote the provision of reasons instead of solely focusing on the answer correction. This is a deep goal of learning although students usually focus on what they have done and what they have learned in the past; 6) CL promotes various tasks which require the collaboration to achieve. This tasks can be generally found and further extended and they should be able to encourage the decision making, descriptive explanation, and creative thinking by using questions concerning “if… what” and “if… what not,”; 7) CL creates connections between related subject matters. In general, it is difficult for students to link each learning subject content to other particular contexts so that teachers play an important role in facilitating students to linking their knowledge; and 8) Technology is another alternative approach to promote CL. Interactive computer program can be used as a whiteboard to encourage students to learn by watching attractive motion pictures. Regarding Swan’s principle, CL characteristics could be concluded that CL took place based on ability of students in a small group which had responsibility on the same goal. The group discussed on some ambiguous issues, and the discussion further led them to the explanation among group members by using questions and expressing reasons in order to make other group members agree on the same thing. In this research, it was concluded that CL took place naturally in a small group of random students, including high ability, moderate ability, and low ability, when there were group explanation and discussion in order to solve problems. Group members used reasons to explain their ideas and discuss with others to make everyone agree on the same thing and has responsibility on the same goal. Conceptual Framework 1. Problem-based Learning (PBL) Principle PBL means challenging and real-life-related problems which

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encourage learners to pay attention on knowledge acquisition from various resources by relating the problems to problematic situation, as well as collaborating in solving the problems and exchanging views. There are 3 principles of PBL, including (1) the creation of challenging or reallife-related problems which encourage learners to acquire knowledge by relating knowledge to the problems, (2) learnersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; collaboration in analyzing problematic situation, eagerly acquiring knowledge, and using knowledge to solve the problems, and further apply, as well as (3) the communication during collaborative processes to exchange knowledge and views on various problem-solving methods. 2. Collaborative Learning (CL) Principle CL means a naturally learning process by letting learners, possessing different characteristics and levels of knowledge, collaborate in learning and reasonably discuss to reflect their ideas on problem solving methods and create deliverables. There are 4 principles of CL, including (1) grouping learners based on the different levels of abilities, (2) letting learners naturally collaborate in learning by arguing with reasons, (3) facilitating the discussion among learners in order to solve the ambiguous matters, and (4) creating mutual understanding among learners to build up the deliverables on which they have joint responsibility. 3. Principles rooted from the Integration of PBL and CL There are 4 principles of PBL and CL Integration, including (1) creating challenging or real-life-related problems, (2) grouping learners into 3 groups based on the different levels of abilities (high ability, moderate ability, and low ability at the ratio of 1:1:2) to determine their learning needs, (3) naturally collaborating in learning, and (4) communicating during learning process by exchanging ideas on problem solving methods. According to the analysis and synthesis of the results of studies regarding the principles and characteristics of PBL and CL, the researcher integrated both principles to develop steps of a mathematics instructional model which helped enhance studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; ability in problem solving, communicating, and mathematics connecting, The conceptual framework of this research could be depicted as the following diagram.

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Figure 1 Exhibits the research conceptual framework Methodology The research methodology on the development of a mathematics instructional model by integrating problem-based learning and collaborative learning approaches to enhance mathematical problem solving, communication, and connection abilities of sixth grade students included three implementation steps as follows: Step 1: Developed a mathematics instructional model which includes 3 processes, including (1) study needs and problematic situation, (2) study thoughts, theories, and researches regarding instructional model development, and (3) develop, test, and conduct an experiment on the appropriate mathematical instructional model. Step 2: Prepared the experiment of a developed model by developing tools and testing the quality of each tool as follows; 2.1 Created 6 parallel tests and their scoring criteria. The parallel tests included pre-learning and post-learning tests which had similar structure. However, as this research aimed to promote mathematical problem solving, communication, and connection ability and did not aim to necessarily evaluate the learned knowledge to represent such ability, the content of such parallel tests included (1) the same content as student learned in the class (2) If content was different, it should have been learned based

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on the content sequence or from the lower level classes. The details of the mentioned tests were as follows: l Test 1 Pre-learning Test for Mathematical Problem Solving Ability: 2 questions and 12 points each; l Test 2 Pre-learning Test for Mathematical Communication Ability: 3 questions and 9 points each; l Test 3 Pre-learning Test for Mathematical Connection Ability: 3 questions and 6 points each; l Test 4 Post-learning Test for Mathematical Problem Solving Ability: 2 questions and 12 points each; l Test 5 Post-learning Test for Mathematical Communication Ability: 3 questions and 9 points each; l Test 6 Post-learning Test for Mathematical Connection Ability: 3 questions and 6 points each; 2.2 Proposed the aforementioned 6 test and scoring criteria to the experts to assess their quality. The IOC values were equal to 0.84, 0.83, 0.87, 0.88, 0.87, and 093 respectively; 2.3 Tested students outside the sample group with the revised tests and scoring criteria twice and checked their points to test the testsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; quality. In this connection, the selection of difficulty had to be valued between 0.2-0.8 and the discrimination value had to be not less than 0.2 in order to deem the test validity. The details were as follows:l The first quality test of the tools: Used the pre-learning tests with 24 students at Ta-Khun School and used the post-learning tests with 40 students at Punpin Pittayakom School; l There were 3 questions for the Pre-learning Test for Mathematical Problem Solving Ability: the difficulty value was between 0.43-0.46 and the discrimination value was between 0.52-0.55; l There were 5 questions for the Pre-learning Test for Mathematical Communication Ability: the difficulty value was between 0.31-0.50 and the discrimination value was between 0.38-0.75; l There were 5 questions for the Pre-learning Test for Mathematical Connection Ability: the difficulty value was between 0.40-0.52 and the

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discrimination value was between 0.67-0.75; l There were 3 questions for the Post-learning Test for Mathematical Problem Solving Ability: the difficulty value was between 0.28-0.51 and the discrimination value was between 0.31-0.55; l There were 5 questions for the Post-learning Test for Mathematical Communication Ability: the difficulty value was between 0.35-0.40 and the discrimination value was between 0.43-0.58; and l There were 5 questions for the Post-learning Test for Mathematical Connection Ability: the difficulty value was between 0.39-0.55 and the discrimination value was between 0.35-0.55; and l For the second quality test of the tools, the Researcher deleted questions with low discrimination value based on the analysis results from the first test of the tools, and then used the revised pre-learning tests with 27 students at Ban Tham Niab School and used the revised post-learning tests with 43 students at Chaiya Wittaya School; l There were 2 questions for the Pre-learning Test for Mathematical Problem Solving Ability: the difficulty value was between 0.50-0.59 and the discrimination value was between 0.57-0.69; l There were 3 questions for the Pre-learning Test for Mathematical Communication Ability: the difficulty value was between 0.32-0.51 and the discrimination value was between 0.21-0.54; l There were 3 questions for the Pre-learning Test for Mathematical Connection Ability: the difficulty value was between 0.36-0.63 and the discrimination value was between 0.54-0.57; l There were 2 questions for the Post-learning Test for Mathematical Problem Solving Ability: the difficulty value was between 0.37-0.47 and the discrimination value was between 0.33-0.65; l There were 3 questions for the Post-learning Test for Mathematical Communication Ability: the difficulty value was between 0.37-0.44 and the discrimination value was between 0.39-0.51; and l There were 3 questions for the Post-learning Test for Mathematical Connection Ability: the difficulty value was between 0.41-0.45 and the discrimination value was between 0.35-0.61; and

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2.4 Used the aforementioned tests and their effective scoring criteria with the sample group of students. Step 3: Conduct an experiment on the application of a developed model in order to evaluate the quality of the model. For this research, the Researcher conducted an experiment of a developed instructional model with the sample group of sixth grade students. The samples included two classrooms, one experimental group and one control group, and 24 students for each classroom, at Wat Taranaram School under the Second Suratthani Primary Educational Service Area office 2. The experimental period was 38 hours. The Researcher taught both experimental and control group by herself. Regarding the selection of both experimental and control group, for this research the Researcher selected classes to be experimental and control group as follows: 1) Used results from the Mathemetical Assessment Test for the Academic Year B.E. 2554 of each class to calculate for their average, and then selected 2 classes which had close average score; and 2) Conducted variance test by using F-test in which it was found that the variance tests were indifferent, conducted the test for the difference of the average of mathematical assessment test results by using t-test in which it was also found the indifference, and then conducted the simple random to select such classes as experimental and control group.

Results The research on the development of the instructional model by integrating problem-based learning approach and collaborative learning approach started from conducting a study on needs and problem situation, and then studied relevant thoughts, theories, and researches regarding possible solutions to solve problems in terms of mathematical problemsolving, communication, and connection abilities. After that, the researcher thoroughly analyzed the importance of this problem and linked it to the solutions to promote those three abilities of students, including problembased learning (PBL) and collaborative learning (CL). The researcher also

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studied ideas and researches in the areas of problem-based learning and collaborative learning which can promote problem-solving, communication, and connection abilities in mathematical learning in order to synthesize and develop a conceptual framework and key characteristics. Therefore, this led to the development, examination, and experimentation of the instructional model created by the researcher. This model was also evaluated by the appropriate experts to examine the consistency between conceptual framework and the model. The evaluation of the developed model was conducted in 2 forms, including the examination of the instructional curriculum and the test on mathematical problem-solving, communication, and connection abilities which were provided with the scoring criteria. Once the researcher believed that the developed model can be effectively used, the model was further experimented with the sample group. The research results could be summarized into some significant points as follows: 1. The developed instructional model consisted of 4 key elements as follows: 1.1 Principles of the instructional model included the following characteristics: 1) Creating challenging problems or problems related to everyday life in order to encourage studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; interest in acquiring knowledge or finding solutions from various sources of information, leading themselves, and relating their existing knowledge with a problematic situation; 2) Dividing groups of students based on their various knowledge backgrounds, the same goal to be responsible for, and jointly collaboration in analyzing a problem by focusing what they wanted to learn and eagerly acquiring necessary knowledge to solve problem with various solutions; 3) Naturally learning together both in a group and across groups. The students were responsible for what they collaboratively learned, discussed, explained, and presented with reasons on challenging issues, argued to create better understanding on any matter, and utilized knowledge to solve a problem or to finish an assignment;

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4) Communicating and exchange of knowledge to gain ideas and guidelines to find an answer or solve a problem. 1.2 Objectives of the instructional model: This development of the instructional model aimed to promote the mathematical problem solving, communication, and connection ability. 1.3 Learning process of the developed instructional model included 4 steps as follows: 1) Drawing attention by encountering challenging questions: a. Organizing mathematics-friendly environment and introducing informational resources for classroom and outside-classroom learning; b. Using appropriate questions to encourage students to collaborate in finding answers; c. Dividing students into 4 small groups by mixing studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; ability level. There were high ability, moderate ability, and low ability at the ratio of 1:1:2, derived from the percentile of the mathematical assessment test for the academic year B.E. 2554; and d. Presenting challenging problems or real life problems to encourage students to solve the problems. 2) Eagerly conducting knowledge searching a. Encouraging students to analyze problem and knowledge to be used to solve problems. b. Assigning students in each group to collaborate in setting the working target, analyzing, and discussing on problem issues in order to determine what they want to learn, which could include (1) subject areas, (2) principles, and (3) problem-solving processes; and c. Assigning students in each group to eagerly and collaboratively conduct the searching process to seek for useful information which can be used to solve the problem. 3) Collaborating in evaluating knowledge based on group consensus a. Assigning each group to collaboratively exchange views and thoughts by (1) speaking or writing ideas with mathematics language

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and symbols such as charts, pictures, and symbolic sentences, (2) speaking or writing solutions based on mathematics principles, knowledge, and (3) systematically and completely presenting the thoughts and ideas; and b. Letting each group select a representative to solutions to the class. Encouraging other students to discuss and reflect their opinions with reasons and then letting the class make decisions which could be various. 4) Applying the developed instructional processes a. Providing other examples and situations so that students can practice to link their existed knowledge to solve the new problems and deliver a new task; and b. Monitoring students to use knowledge and experiences to solve the problem and deliver a task. 1.4 Learning assessment and evaluation For this research, the Researcher presented the developed instructional model by conducting a test through the use of learning management plan and testing for mathematical problem solving, communication, and connection ability of students, which included an experimental and a control group. The details were as follows: 1. Conducted a pre-learning test with both experimental and control group by using the tests for mathematical problem solving, communication, and connection ability of students in accordance with contents learned earlier including contents for fifth and sixth grade students which were taught during the first semester in order to assess studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; basic knowledge, such as the decimal number, square shape, triagle shape, circle shape, and their applications. 2. Conducted a post-learning test with both experimental and control group by using the parallel tests for mathematical problem solving, communication, and connection ability of students in accordance with contents for sixth grade students, such as the decimal number, square shape, circle shape, and their applications. 2. Regarding the effects of the use of the instructional model, there were significant findings as follows:-

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2.1 Students who had been taught with the mathematical instructional model which is developed based on problem-based learning and collaborative learning approach after learning had higher level of mathematical problem-solving ability than those who had been taught with traditional model at the significant level of .05 as appeared in Table 1. Table 1 The Comparison of the Average of Mathematical Problem Solving Ability after Being Experimented Between an Experimental Group and a Control Group (the Full Score was 24 Points)

*

N

X

SD

P

Experimental Group

24

13.75

5.152

0.014*

Control

24

10.83

3.608

Group

P < .05

2.2 Students who had been taught with the mathematics instructional model which was developed based on problem-based learning and collaborative learning approach after learning had higher level of mathematical problem-solving ability than before being taught at the significant level of .05 as appeared in Table 2. Table 2 The Comparison of the Average of Mathematical Problem Solving Ability after Being Experimented of a Control Group between pre and post learning (the Full Score was 24 Points) N

*

X

SD

P .000*

Pre-learning

24

9.46

4.606

Post-learning

24

13.75

5.152

P < .05

2.3 Students who had been taught with the mathematics instructional model which was developed based on problem-based learning and collaborative learning approaches after learning had higher level of

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mathematical communication ability than those who had been taught with traditional model at the significant level of .05 as appeared in Table 3. Table 3 The Comparison of the Average of Mathematical Communication Ability after Being Experimented Between an Experimental Group and a Control Group (the Full Score was 27 Points)

*

N

X

SD

P

Experimental Group

24

14.13

6.986

.020*

Control Group

24

10.42

5.053

P < .05

2.4 Students who had been taught with the mathematics instructional model which was developed based on problem-based learning and collaborative learning approach after learning had higher level of mathematical communication ability than before being taught at the significant level of .05 as appeared in Table 4. Table 4 The Comparison of the Average of Mathematical Communication Ability after Being Experimented of a Control Group between pre and post learning (the Full Score was 27 Points)

N

X

SD

P

Pre-learning

24

10.00

3.600

.001*

Post-learning

24

14.13

6.986

*

P < .05

2.5 Students who had been taught with the mathematics instructional model which was developed based on problem-based learning and collaborative learning approach after learning had higher level of mathematical connection ability than those who had been taught with traditional at the significant level of .05 as appeared in Table 5.

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Table 5 The Comparison of the Average of Mathematical Connection Ability after Being Experimented Between an Experimental Group and a Control Group (the Full Score was 24 Points)

*

N

X

SD

P

Experimental Group

24

9.75

4.406

.009*

Control Group

24

7.25

2.364

P < .05

2.6 Students who had been taught with the mathematics instructional model which was developed based on problem-based learning and collaborative learning approach after learning had higher level of mathematical connection ability than before being taught at the significant level of .05 as appeared in Table 6. Table 6 The Comparison of the Average of Mathematical Connection Ability after Being Experimented of a Control Group between pre and post learning (the Full Score was 18 Points)

*

N

X

SD

P

Pre-learning

24

6.08

3.501

.000*

Post-learning

24

9.75

4.406

P < .05

Conclusions This research had 2 objectives, including (1) to develop instructional model by integrating problem-based learning approach and collaborative learning approach to enhance mathematical problem solving, communication, and connection abilities of sixth grade students, and (2) to study the outcomes of the above-mentioned instructional model by comparing the pre- and post-learning of an experimental group, as well as comparing an experimental group and a control group. For the first objective, it was found that the

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developed instructional model had 4 key elements, including (1) principle, (2) objective, (3) learning process of the developed instructional model, and (4) learning evaluation and assessment. There were 4 steps of learning process of the developed instructional model as follows: 1) Drawing attention by encountering challenging questions; 2) Eagerly conducting knowledge searching; 3) Collaborating in evaluating knowledge based on group consensus; and 4) Applying the developed instructional processes. For the second objective, it was found that (1) mathematical problem solving, communication, and connection ability at the post-learning stage of the experimental group was significantly higher than those of the control group at the significant level of .05, and (2) mathematical problem solving, communication, and connection ability of the experimental group at the post-learning stage was significantly higher than those at the pre-learning stage at the significant level of .05. The outcome which teachers could gain from this research was the application of the mathematics instructional model developed by the integration of PBL and CL principles to an instruction either for mathematics or other subject areas, such as the creation of real life problems by integrating relevant subject areas, including Thai language, social studies, and science, for student in both elementary and secondary schools. The outcome which students could gain from this research was knowledge and ability in solving mathematics problems, as well as communicating and connecting mathematics knowledge. This helped enhance studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; knowledge and understanding in the mathematical concepts and processes, as well as helped entertain students, create social interaction, and enhance studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; self-confidence in expressing their ideas and opinions. Acknowledgements This research was funded by the Chulalongkorn University Graduate School Thesis Grant.

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References Arends, R. I. (1994 and 2009) Learning to Tech. 3rd & 8th ed. New York: McGraw - Hill. Coxford, A. F. (1995) The case for connections in P.A. House (Ed.) Connecting Mathematics across the Curriculum. Yearbook. Reston, VA: NCTM. Gijselears, W. H. (1996) Connecting Problem-Based Practices with Educational Theory in L. Wilkerson and W.H. Gijselears (eds.) Bringing Problem-Based learning to Higher Education: Theory and Practice. San Francisco: Jossey - Bass. pp.13 -21. Hmelo, C. E. and Evensen, D. G. (2000) Introduction Problem-based Learning Gaining Insights on Learning Interactions Through Multiple Methods of Inquiry. Mahwah. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 1-16. Howard, J. B. (2003) Problem-based Learning in Teacher Educational. School of Education. Elon University. [March, 2003] IIlinois Mathematics and Science Academy. (2003) Introduction to PBL. [Online URL: www.imsa. edu/team/cpbl/whatis/whatis/slide3.html] accessed on June 2, 2003. Johanning, I. D. (2000). An Analysis of Writing and Postwriting Group Collaborative in Middle School Pre-Algebra. Science and Mathematics 100, 3 (March 2000): pp.151-160. Kennedy, L. M. and Tipps, S. (1994) Guiding Children Learning of Mathematics. 17th ed. Belmont, Cailfornia: Wadsworth Publishing Company. Krulik, S. and Rudnick, J. A. (1993) Reasoning and Problem-Solving : A Handbook for Elementary School Teachers. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Lara, V. and Brown, L. (2011) Professional Development Module on Collaborative Learning. El Paso Community College [Online URL: mhtml:file://f: Collaborative Learning.mht] accessed on August 22, 2011.

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Lynn, C. H. (1993) Some Factors that Impede or Enhance Performance in Mathematical Problem Solving. Journal Research of Mathematics Education (March): pp.167-169. MacGregor, J. T. and Smith, B. L. (2011) What is Collaborative Learning. [Online URL: learningcommons.evergreen.edu/pdf/colab.pdf] accessed on February 22, 2011. Makanong, A. (2004) The Development of Mathematics Skills and Processes. Codification of Articles Principles and Guidelines for Mathematics Learning Management. Bangkok: Bophit Printings. pp.130. Ministry of Education of Thailand. (2009) Central Curriculum for Basic Education. Bangkok. Polya, G. (1973) How to Solve It: A New Aspect of Mathematical Method. 2nd ed. United State of America: Princeton University Press. Polya, G. (1980) On Solving Mathematical Problems in High School. Problem Solving in School Mathematics: Yearbook. Virginia: The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Rowan, T. E. and Morrow, L. J. (1993) Implementing the K - 8 Curriculum and Evaluation Standards Readings From the Arithmetic Teacher. Reston Virginia. Savery, J. R. Overview of Problem - based Learning : Definitions and Distinctions.[Online URL: http://docs.lib.purolue.edu/cgi/viecontent. cgi? article=1002&context=ijpbl] accessed on January 28, 2011. Savin, B. M. (2000) Problem - based Learning in Higher Education: Untold Stories. 1st ed. Buckingham: Published by SRHE and Open University Press, 2000. Savoie, J. M. and Hughes, A.S. (1998) Problem-based Learning as Classroom Solution in R. Fogarty (ed). Problem-based Learning : A Collection of Articles Frenchs Forest: Skylight-Hawker Brownlow, pp. 73-77. Swan, M. (2006) Collaborative Learning in Mathematics : A Challenges to our Beliefs and Practices. London: National Institute for Advanced and Continuing Education (NIACE); National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy (NRDC).

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A Community of Innovation: Technological Driven System Based on Participatory Rural Appraisal and Design Thinking Approach Papinya Thongsomjit1*, Jaitip Na-songkhla1 and Siriwan Silapacharanan2 Department of Educational Technology and Communications, Faculty of Education 2 Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Architecture, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand * Corresponding author: papinya.th@gmail.com 1

Abstract Community of innovation is the localized-driven system of community to create local innovation, which interweave inside noble wisdom with outside explicit knowledge. The aim of this research is to develop the technological system for driving communities of innovations based on the design thinking approach and participatory rural appraisal. The research applied qualitative methods by using content analysis and field studies. The research found that the four key principles of the system concept were (1) Collaboration: sharing, meaning, and diversity (2) Methods: insight, creation and action (3) Mindset: empathy, critical and compassion and (4) Inherent: moral, mental and wisdom. The system consisted of system goal, technological-driven toolkits, system environment, process, and system users comprising local wisdom, external experts, community leader and community developer. The system also composed of three subsystems, namely, Team Building System, Innovation Creating System and Evaluation System. The subsystems can be interpreted in three phases: (1) The creation of faith; creating of confidence in intellect, virtues and perseverance to access the truth (2) The creation of intellect; building body of knowledge with rationalism problem-solving process based on the natural truths and

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interrelating factors and (3) The investigation; evaluating development of innovation and self progress with a neutral view. Key Words: Community of Innovation; Design Thinking; Participatory Rural Appraisal; Local Innovation

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Introduction It is apparent that Thai society is adjusting itself following the changing context of economy, social, politics and others by creating economic opportunities based on knowledge, technology and innovation driven by wisdom. Nonetheless, wisdom that would bring about sustainable development has to be â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;noble wisdomâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; crafted by accumulated experience based on absolute understanding of nature and knowing of what going on as is. The noble wisdom is the ways to definitely solve any problem for individuals and the society. (Phra Brahmagunabhorn (P. A. Payutto), 2012; Amornvivat, 2011; Puntasen et al., 2006) Local innovation is one developed from the capital of creativity along with cultural richness and quality of life development. Innovative production process is a local innovation that carries on local wisdom derived from the noble wisdom. Its definition has been adjusted with local wisdom harmoniously and balance with the modern society. Its aim is to enable communityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s participation in any development via the explicit knowledge on external changes and harmonization of such understanding into the existing local wisdom under the social learning process. The effort is seen as change management through localization by community dwellers via their participation, creation and execution with full awareness to render positives changes within their own communities. Community of innovation is the concept to render innovation under the interdisciplinary system through group activities with high flexibility to weave together knowledge and skills. Design thinking is a thinking process to create innovation with a cluster of systematic thinking and myriad of executions under the creative atmosphere of the design science. Participatory Rural Appraisal is a process to open a new horizon of community dweller development with fast, facilitating and easy to understand methods. It can stimulate community to exchange their knowledge in broad and deep aspect. This research aims to create a system to drive the community with knowledge of the noble wisdom to create local innovation under the concept of community of innovation, design thinking and participatory rural appraisal. It also aims to promote learning process for change to break

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the culture of individualism to the state of networking which is the learning path to harmonize with changes in society, technology and the environment of the modern world. Related Literature Community of Innovation The community of innovation has been conceived by the conglomeration of three concepts namely social learning approach, creativity approach and social and economic approach. Ubiquitous communication in the present world society has stimulated collaboration and community based development of new idea, technologies and practices. Wherein the creativity can occur from interaction with both physical and digital worlds, under the world of interaction on high frequency technology networks at real time enabling swift cultural changes and the social and economic trends is based on innovation. (West, 2009; Proctor, 2005) Many scholars have developed the concept of the community of innovation and used various names to describe these communities, including communities of creation (Sawhney and Prandelli, 2000); innovative knowledge communities (Hakkarainen et al., 2004); creative organizations (Banahan and Playfoot, 2004); networked strategic communities of business (Kodama, 2005); knowledge creating communities (Bielaczyc and Collins, 2006); wisdom networks (Benton and Giovagnoli ,2006) and communities of innovation (Coakes and Smith, 2007; West, 2009). Meaning as a whole, the community of innovation is a supporting concept for team innovation development by the community, formed by members of differing skills who work together under the group process with high flexibility and efficiency to render innovation. The community of innovation focuses on mind opening and exchange of new ideas from outside. Such organization, nonetheless, does not necessary to begin with initial research and crystallize their idea until innovation is derived, solely by themselves. Instead it needs only courage thought to realize, analyze, evaluate and gather external knowledge and experience that may differ from those what the organization could have and integrate those

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knowledges together to create valuable innovation. The process is to create innovation in a new perspective with wider and more complex, moreover, lesser time consuming. Components and characteristics of the community of innovation consists of: (1) Team Members, who have open-mindedness, humbleness, determination, faith and have sense of ownership as well as cherish in value of their own community; (2) Team, that have diverse skills members, appropriate team size and a team leader as a center of faith who could weave together understandings with clear objective and understanding mutual goal; (3) Working Atmosphere, with high flexible team activity, role rotation, expertise exchange, friendliness, encourage freedom of thought, questioning and discussion, deliberative thinking and listening, provision the channel for feedback and verification, and combination of management methods to achieve conclusion from myriad of thoughts; and (4) Result, Innovation development. Design Thinking â&#x20AC;&#x153;Innovation is a more complex concept than many realize. Far more than principles, rules and procedures, it is a process most effective when imbued with attitudes and ways of thinking that have evolved over generations within the community of those who routinely practice creative invention and synthesis. Significant among these are ways of thinking from the design fields appropriately referred to as design thinkingâ&#x20AC;? (Oven, 2006) Design Thinking is a process to derive at innovation integrating human-center design concept by utilizing a set of methods with unique characteristics to seek, analyze and integrate all data available. The aim is to pursue knowledge and understanding of fact as per natural setting of lifestyle and environment of informants. The derived information is then be interpreted with a wider and deeper perspective via application of various methods from qualitative research, humanity and designing principles to yield innovation based on human need with academic, technological and business viabilities. (Kumar, 2009; Kelley and Littman, 2000; Young, 2010) In contrast to critical thinking which is a process of analysis and breaking things down, Design thinking involves building things up.

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(Kelly, 2010) The design thinking process is best described metaphorically as a system of spaces rather than predefined series of orderly steps. The spaces demarcate different sorts of related activities that together form the continuum of innovation. (Brown, 2008; Brown and Wyatt, 2010) Like any process, design thinking will be practiced at varying levels by people with different talents and capabilities. Designer can mix and match methods and techniques to suit the specific needs of the design challenge at hand. (Sato, 2009; Liedtka and Ogilvie, 2011) The principles of design thinking are as follows; (1) Humancentered design (2) Broader contextual view (3) Research-based approach (4) Collaborative and multi-disciplinary team (5) Iterative delivery and prototyping and (6) Essential innovating trait comprising empathy, optimism, experimentalism, integrative thinking and collaboration. (Brown, 2008; Young, 2010; Meinel and Leifer, 2011) Participatory Rural Appraisal Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) is the methodology for community development under an alternative paradigm to holistically view the world and society, focused on searching to understand behaviors and structures that pose as source of problems through cultural relationship and context. It also believes in value and pride of human with hidden potential and power to change and develop quality of life until achieving self-reliance. The role of a community developer is to change working paradigm to that of inside out methodology; to encourage freedom among community members empowering them to determine their way of life. The community developer ought to create trust, nurture balanced relation while adjust the role of giver and controller to that of facilitator, counselor and kindler who lays down conditions enabling the community to be inspired, responsible and capable to benefit the public at large. (Mascarenhas et al., 1991; Chambers, 1992; Samutkup and Kiti-Arsa, 2004) PRA has three main components which are (1) facilitatorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; behaviors, attitudes and mindsets linked with precepts for action (2) methods which combine visuals, tangibles and groups and (3) sharing without boundaries. The interplay of these resonates with theories of chaos, complexity,

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emergence and deep simplicity, especially self-organizing systems on the edge of chaos. (Chambers, 2007) The following key themes are proposed as constituting PRA in practice (1) Substantial use of indigenous knowledge (2) Interdisciplinary approach and teamwork (3) Rapid and progressive learning (4) Sharing of information and ideas (5) Self-critical awareness and responsibility (6) Facilitating-they do it (7) Triangulation (8) Exploratory and highly interactive research and (9) Flexibility and use of conscious judgment. In conclusion, PRA is a way to help people to participate together in learning, and then to act on that learning. Paradigmatically, this is the part of shift from things to people, from top-down to bottom-up, from standard to diverse and from control to empowerment. (Chambers, 2007) Local Innovation The meaning of local innovation was considering under the concept of wisdom and Buddhist economy. Wisdom is the crystallized body of knowledge through accumulation of human intellect resulted from systematic thinking under an intimate and sophisticated interaction between human, society, nature and culture. The derived wisdom is to solve problems and respond to human need to adjust and live in harmony with both physical and sociological surroundings. With this regard, the wisdom represents holism correlating with other systems within the society; contains diversity and constantly changes. (Na Thalang, 1997; Phongphit, 1993; Sirasoonthorn, 2009) Factors effecting the development of the Thai wisdom consist of integration of existing and new knowledge; accumulation and inheritance of such knowledge; comparison of existing and new experiences; existence of unsolvable problems; and Buddhist foundations. (Office of the National Education Commission, 1998) As culture, the context of origin of wisdom could be described hierarchically as follows (1) Fundamental Level: Truth that exists naturally (2) Intermediate Level: Ethics or principles of virtues which is the truth that human should follow in harmony with nature; and (3)Advanced Level: Culture which is norms or practices yielding result as per humanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s desire. It could be seen that truth and ethics are of permanent nature while culture is a substance of

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external forms with constant changes. Culture is the formation and principles requiring adjustment to suit the surrounding time and space. In that respect, the value of culture can be measured by the wisdom to appreciate the truth underlining such culture. (Phra Dhammapitaka (P.A.Payutto), 1996) Additionally, the process to produce and interpret value of wisdom also coheres with Buddhist economy which stipulates that production under the Buddhist economy is not driven by greed but intellect over capital, hence the term cognitivism. Consumption under the Buddhist economy is moderate as per required to sustain quality of life and as supporting basis for self development to achieve the goal of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;good and happy lifeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; which could be measured by means of benefits at three respective levels i.e. benefit to self, to others and to the society. (Phra Brahmagunabhorn (P.A.Payutto), 2011; Puntasen et al., 2006; Chiangkul, 2008) Therefore, the local innovation in this research represents new methods or products based on development of existing local wisdom that has been interwoven with new concepts to utilize the value of conventional wisdom in order to create new values for the development of good and happy way of life beneficial to self and the society as a whole. Research Methodology The system development was based on qualitative methods. The design analysis phase uses content analysis, interview, observation and field studies in 3 selected communities in Samutsongkram province to collect data for analyze the following aspect: attribute, behavior, activities, means and ends, flows, function, process, trend and perception. The design synthesis phase uses various design methods tools for forming, developing and managing ideas. Expert focus group was employed to validate the system. Result The analysis phase (1-2) was to find a body of knowledge in line with the changing world and to determine specific attribute that focus on userâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s needs regarding process and deliverable. The synthesis phase (3) was to generate system concept and to develop the system.

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1. Trend Analysis The researcher has studied global tendencies and possibilities in order to derive definition and value with a focus to develop the system with clarity and correctness. The effort was based on the studies of various situations, changing conditions of economic and social aspect, mode of production, creativity and innovation trend, development paradigm, qualitative research methodology and social learning theories dimensions. It was found that there are four trend patterns that are consistent in all dimensions namely (1) giving precedence to human intellect (2) holistic connectivity with interrelations (3) learning by practicing and (4) place importance on socio-cultural contexts and systems. (Puntasen, 2004; Nagavajara, 2009; West, 2009; Amornvivat, 2011; Walliphodom, 2011; Wasi, 2012; Sirasoontorn, 2013; NESDB, 2012) 2. User Analysis The insight related to the learning culture of local wisdom, the core system user, including internal and external factors as follows: Internal factors considered as foundation of local wisdom were mental and physical perseverance. The mental perseverance begins from having faith in individual, rules or other matters with supporting rationales. Such faith leads to believe in self esteem which is a driving force for determination and knowledge acquisition. Physical perseverance then leads to intellectual curiosity that was derived in various way either by self learning, discussion with knower, socialize with true friends, inheritance from ancestors, study from gurus, trial and error, observation, even by absorbing from the society and nature, all with righteous consent and brave and continuous perseverance. It was also found that amidst the myriad of learning methods, the heart of the matter are hand-on experience, self valuation and periodical improvement until such knowledge has been tested and proven by countless practices in accordance with natural and social surroundings. Furthermore, it was also found that majority of local wisdom following religious teachings in their way of life ranging from daily living with moral, mental training to understanding the truth of other natures by their wisdom. Religion and belief encourages them to make use of human intellect power.

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Considering factors relating to external world, local wisdom shows experience and pattern of relationship with the following five external factors (1) Cognitive; understanding the meaning of life as a whole, showing virtue and intellectual bravery, critical reflection, reverence for earnestness, optimistic (2) Social; living interdependently with others, join the activities that benefit the community, self-reliance (3) Culture; being trusted and respected by others, proud of own origin yet agreeable to harmonization of difference culture, learning through cultural traditions, rituals inherit ideology (4) Faith; adhering to life principles, religious teachings , the Kingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s initiatives â&#x20AC;&#x153;Philosophy of Sufficiency Economyâ&#x20AC;?, being compassionate to others (5) Physical; having time and space for dialogue and sharing knowledge, having a place to seek solitude or trying to maintain a sense of care freeness, comfort and contentment. 3. System Development The system metaphor could be said as a journey of team members sharing the same route and goal with correct and clear guiding map. Each member may embark on various vehicles to overcome obstacles in their respective routes while supporting each other to ensure timely arrival at the shared goal. Each member, at the same time, gains experience unique to their respective journey. The system association is the value of intellectual procedure to seek knowledge at two levels namely knowledge of natural truth and knowledge to yield benefits for life and society from such truth, which is the key feature of local innovation. The system attributes are focused on (1) collaboration to develop interdependent intellect comprising sharing, meaning, and diversity (2) mindset, which is the attitude toward the process comprising empathy, critical and compassion and (3) methods, which provide opportunities to dislodge hidden assumptions and uncover the influence of biases and heuristics comprising insight, creation and action process. Activities in the system consist of (1) technology-driven toolkits, that has been developed to expand thinking capacity of a user with easy to understand and substantially clear graphic, effective for group execution,

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enable participation so that the members could execute, think and evaluate, and flexible enough for use within the community (2) activity vibe encompasses interdependent, deliberation, consideration, understanding and acceptance towards each other as well as practice. The activities have to be flexible, lively, and friendly while base on trust and admiration in accordance with lifestyle and social attributes.

Figure 1 The Four Key Principles of the System Considering primary and secondary data based on inductive and holistic approach, the most compelling concept systems consist of four key principles namely: mindset, methods, collaboration, and inherent. The left framework represents the relationship between user attribute and system characteristics. The right framework shows its relationships through the local innovation development process. System elements, considering their relationship, consists of two main elements namely (1) system users which are local wisdom experts, external experts, community leader and community developer and (2) system itself includes system goal, technological-driven toolkits, process and system environment. Whereas the community developer is a main facilitator between the system and its users. It was found that the system elements are thoroughly interrelated both by direct and complex conditions. Therefore, the system design has to be carefully considered each element in detail of natures particularly that of the system users. In that respect, physical structure of the system has to be developed in such a way to accommodate the building up of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;energyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; for the users to drive the system forward. 305


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Figure 2 The Relationship of The System and The System User

Figure 3 The Overview of The System Component

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The system consists of three following subsystems: 1. Team building system: including 3 phases: (1) training of community developer team; (2) identifying target community; and (3) seeking innovation creating teams within and outside the target community. 2. Innovation creating system: including 8 steps: (1) open oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mind; (2) create innovative climate; (3) identify core direction; (4) analyze value and context; (5) integrate set of intellect; (6) deliberate concept; (7) prototype and test; and (8) execution plan. 3. Evaluation system: including 2 phases: (1) evaluating local innovation; and (2) evaluating community of local innovation. The system output consists of local innovation and community of local innovation, could be measured with the evaluation toolkit by system user.

Figure 4 The Unified Process of Technological System for Driving Communities of Innovations Based on the Design Thinking Approach and Participatory Rural Appraisal

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Discussion Regarding to the outputs of the research, the system development can be discerned by religious principle, which is the foundation of the local wisdom as follow: (1) Local innovation development process is based on truth-seeking of self, life and the environment via problem solving by way of rationale derived by oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s intellect. The process was in accordance with the Noble Truths principle governing human way of life which is universal and could be applied in all executions and life development. (Kraisarawut, 2012); and (2) Community of local innovation is both means and ends. It is a learning system that heightens human value through intellectual interdependency via community process and relativity in accordance with existence and relationship of human, society and natural based on goodwill and assistance. The development process was in accordance with the religious rules of practice that wisdom should be render with compassion. (Phra Brahmagunabhorn (P. A.Payutto), 2012) Thus the technological system for driving communities of innovations based on the design thinking approach and participatory rural appraisal is one system to create comprehensive knowledge that correct, penetrate and manageable, via a life journey led by intellect, started by the smallest unit in the society. Acknowledgements This research was funded by The 90th Anniversary of Chulalongkorn University Fund (Ratchadaphiseksomphot Endowment Fund)

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Reference Amornvivat, S. (2011) Teacher Education and Challenging Transformation. Bangkok: Faculty of Education, Chulalongkorn University. Attig, B. Y. and Tangcholthip, K. (2009) Analysis of Qualitative Data: Data Management, Interpretation and Meaning. Bangkok: Institute of Population and Social Research, Mahidol University. Brown, T. (2008) Design Thinking. Harvard Business Review, June: 84-92. Brown, T. and Wyatt, J. (2010) Design Thinking for Social Innovation. Stanford Social Innovation Review, Winter: 31-35. Buddhadasa Indapanno Archives. (2012) Belong-Liberation-Compassion. Bangkok: Buddhism printing of Thammasapa. Chambers, R. (2007) From PRA to PLA and Pluralism: practice and theory. Brighton, UK: Communication Unit, Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex. Chambers, R. (2007) Poverty research: methodologies, mindsets and multidimensionality. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex. Chiangkul, W. (2008) Solving the Economic Crisis by Buddhism. Bangkok: Saitharn Publishing. Coakes, E. and Smith, P. (2007) Developing communities of innovation by identifying innovation champions. The Learning Organization, 14(1): 74-85. Engestrom, Y. (2008) From Teams to Knots: Activity-Theoretical Studies of Collaboration and Learning at Work. New York: Cambridge University Press. Fuller J. et al. (2006) Community based innovation: How to integrate members of virtual communities into new product development. Electron Commerce Res: 57-73. Hakkarainen, K. et al. (2006) Design Principles and Practices for the Knowledge-Practices Laboratory (KP-Lab) Project. EC-TEL 2006, LNCS 4227: 603-608 Hall, E. T. (1990) The Silent Language. New York: Anchor books.

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Phongphit, S. (1993) Local Wisdom and Rural Development. Bangkok: Amarin Printing Group and Publishing. Phra Brahmagunabhorn (Payutto, P. A.) (2012) Buddhadhamma. Bangkok: Pli-Dhamma Printing. Phra Brahmagunabhorn (Payutto, P. A.) (2011) Buddhist Economics. Bangkok: Num-Aksorn Printing. Phra Dhammapitaka (Payutto, P. A.) (1996) Thai Culture Inheritance based on Educational Approach. Bangkok: Buddhadhamma Foundation. Puntasen, A. (2004) Buddhist Economics: Evolution, Theories and Its Application to Various Economic Subjects. Bangkok: Amarin. Puntasen et al. (2006) Buddhist Economics: Student and Public Issue. Bangkok: Dokya-Academic Printing. Samutkup, S.and Kiti-Arsa, P. (2004) From Rapid Rural Appraisal to Participatory Rural Appraisal. In Concepts and Methods in The Study of Rural Society. (Thongyoo, M.) Khon Kaen: Faculty of Humanity and Social Science, Khon Kaen University. Sato, S. (2009) Beyond Good: Great Innovations Through Design. Journal of Business Strategy, 30(2/3): 40-49 Sawyer, K. (2007) Group Genius: The Creative of Power. New York: Basic Books. Scardamalia, M. and Bereiter, C. (2006) Knowledge building: Theory, pedagogy, and technology. InK. Sawyer (Ed.). Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences, 97-118. New York: Cambridge University Press. Sirasoonthorn, P. (2011) Community of Practice: Concept, Technique and Process. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Press. Sirasoonthorn, P. (2013) Concept, Theory and Technique for Social Development Practice. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Press. Vygotsky, L S. (1978) Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Walaisathien, P. (2005) Learning and Knowledge Management Communities. Bangkok: The Thailand Research Fund. Walliphodom, S. (2011) Evolution of Thai Socio-Cultural. Bangkok: Muang Boran Press.

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Some Problems of Slab Box Stones at Ban Wang Prachop, Tak Province Pipad Krajaejun Department of History, Faculty of Liberal of Arts, Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand Corresponding author: pipad_k@yahoo.com

*

Megalithic culture is a common cultural phenomenon found throughout Asia (Kim 1982). This ritual practice had been descended from Neolithic period to the Iron Age. At present, some tribes in Indonesian archipelago still maintain the ritual of megalithic worship (Munandar, 2011). There are many main forms of megalithic such as menhir, dolmen, and slab stone box grave. Most of them were built on the purposes of burial, ancestor worship, supernatural spirit, and sacred space. In the year 2008, the writer found a lot of slab stone boxes at Ban Wang Prachop and Nai Sien archeological sites located in Wang Prachop Sub-district, Mueang District, Tak Province, Thailand. Slab stone box (like coffin-shaped) made of many phyllite sheets arranged in rectangular shape were found in both of these archeological sites. Some oblations (goods grave) were found inside but no human remains or bone ashes. Therefore, the writer call them â&#x20AC;&#x153;Slab box stoneâ&#x20AC;? in order to avoid confusing with the meaning of grave/coffin (Krajaejun, 2009). These slab box stones are categorized in megalithic culture. It was the first time the slab box stones found in Thailand, so they are the significant evidences worthy for discussion in many issues. Therefore, the main objectives of this article are to explain the slab box stones found in Wang Prachop Sub-district, Mueang District, Tak Province, the ritual practice of slab box making, chronology, and the nearby archeological sites where the slab box stones were also found. As

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Some Problems of Slab Box Stones at Ban Wang Prachop, Tak Province

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well as the relationship between the slab box stone cultures found in South-East Asian region. The Distribution of Archeological Sites There are 4 archeological sites located in the surrounding areas: Ban Wang Prachop, Nai Sien, Ban Kang Hin, and Ban Nong Rom. All of them located on the west bank of Mae Raka River Basin. This reflects some of the settlement forms; that is, the upstream of Mae Raka River comes from the mountains in the northern part of Tak Province while the downstream flows to Ping River in Kam Pang Pet Province. During the rainy season, there is so much water that causes the plains along both sides of Mae Raka river to flood. On the other hand, during the dry season, the water level is very low. In the past, local people had to dig very deep wells in order to get the water for use during the dry season. The underground water only found on the west bank of the river but on the east bank locals have to dig very deep wells. In term of geographical area, the west bank of Mae Raka river is lined with small mountains from north to south in parallel with the creek. In comparison to the east bank where there is no mountain and relatively dry, the west bank is more humid. Most of the local habitats are located on the west bank of Mae Raka river because it is more humid, the quality of the soil there is better than those of the east bank, and there is underground water. It can be assumed that the settlement choices of the ancestors are not much different from those of people at present time. The archeological sites for exploration and excavation can be divided into 2 types: habitats and rituals. All of them explicitly reflect that people in this culture have systematic landscaping. That is, Ban Wang Prachop and Nai Sien archeological sites are located close to each other and the slab box stones were found on both sites (see the map). Almost 100 percent of Ban Wang Prachop archeological site located in the community area which covered 72 square meters. 6 slab box stones were found, but successfully excavated only 5 and the array of stone sheets were also found. On the other hand, at Nai Sien archeological site which is located in

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Figure 1 Map of 4 archaeological sites are located at Wang Prachop district. community forest area, many slab box stones were found, but 2 were excavated with their bodies only.

Figure 2 Ban Wang Prachop archaeological site. Figure 3 Nai Sien site archaeological site.

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Figure 4 The Nai Sien archaeological site is located on Kao Noi hill slope. Other 2 archeological sites are habitats because no slab box stones were found. The first archeological site is called Ban Kang Hin. The finished and roughly shaped stone axes, pottery, and stone bracelets were found. Similar evidence was found at another site called Ban Nong Rom from three excavation holes. The evidence suggested that this area is residential area because items such as pottery sherds, stone bracelets, round stone ornaments, polished axes, whets, and terracotta beads were found but there was no iron tool. Ban Kang Hin archeological site might be the habitats of the community area on the north with Ban Wang Prachop and Nai Sien archeological sites as the ritual sites because they are very close by, just approximately 1 kilometer apart from each other. Ban Nong Rom archeological site has not yet found any ritual sites nearby. The thorough exploration is required in the future but it might be difficult because it is a forest area. One of the advantages of this archeological site is that it is located near the phyllite sources used to make slab box stones. It could be assumed that the phyllite sources used to make slab box stones might be moved from some areas near Ban Nong Rom which are located 10 kilometers from Ban Wang Prachop and Nai Sien. Apart from those 4 archeological sites, the writer has not found any other archeological sites that belong to this cultural group in nearby areas.

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The writer hereby groups these archeological sites and calls them â&#x20AC;&#x153;Wang Prachop Cultureâ&#x20AC;? because the slab box stones were found here first. According to the locals, over 50 years ago during the construction of Ban Nam Dip-Wang Prachop-Muaeng Road, the same kind of these slab box stones were also found as the tractors ploughed the land near Wang Prachop, but no one was interested in finding out what they were. Forms of Slab Box Stones and Antiques Found Slab box stones found in both Ban Wang Prachop and Nai Sien archeological sites were shallowly buried underground, so the rectangular outline made from phyllite stone sheets that composed together into a rectangular-shaped coffin can be seen. Both ends of the boxes were made of one stone slab each. The sides consist of various sizes of slabs lined along the length of the box. All of the slabs on the side of the box were made using cracking technique. The bottoms of the boxes were made of polished square-shaped slabs lined together. The tops were covered with pieces of phyllite remaining from cracking. The average size of 6 stone boxes/coffins is 220 centimeters. The longest stone boxes/coffins is 243 centimeters long found in Nai Sien archeological site, the average width is 64 centimeters and the height measured from the bottom to the top is 44 centimeters (see Table 1). Some big sized slabs were also used. The biggest one is 72.5 centimeters long. The big slabs were used for the bottoms and the sides. The estimated weight of 1 slab box stone can be as much as 300-400 kilograms. All of them face to the northeastern-southwestern side. Inside the boxes some antique items like pot and bowl-shaped pottery that were once in perfect condition were found collapsed because of the pressure from the soil. Stone bracelets were found in pieces as if they were broken intentionally. Some of the boxes like no. 3, 27 pieces of stone bracelets were found but many did not come from the same bracelet. Especially, inside the slab box stones of Nai Sien archeological site found spindle whorls and stone beads. These stone beads were made of ivory-white quartz with long slant cut-end cylinder shape. They might be local products

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Table 1 Sizes of the slab box stones and the number of stone sheets at Ban Wang Prachop and Nai Sien archeological sites Site

Slab Box Stone Number

Length Width (cm.) (cm.)

Height (cm.)

Number of Big Stone Sheets*

Wang Prachop Nai Sien

1

190

70

58

22

2 3 5 1 2

236 231 213 243 212

65 70 84 53 46

30 52 50 38 36

25 11 15 26 24

Average

-

220.8

64.6

44

-

Remarks Slab Box Stone No. 4 of Ban Wang Prachop archeological site was not excavated , *Number of Big stone Sheets means the stone sheets placed on both sides and at the bottom of the slab box stone.

Figure 5 The slab stone box was excavated the first soil layer out, at Ban Wang Prachop. Figure 6 After the excavation of the slab stone box, a lot of slab fragments and soil were removed. There were only the slab floor and pottery.

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or foreign products. The same kind of beads also found in Ban Wang Prachop but they were made of terracotta and dark brown stones. The difference in quantities of the antique items found in the slab box stones reflects the relatively different social status among the owners who made them. For example, in box no. 3 of Ban Wang Prachop 27 pieces of bracelets were found while in box no. 2 of Ban Nai Sien only 2 pieces of pottery and 1 piece of spindle whorl were found. (see Table 2) Table 2 Types and quantities of the antiques found in the slab box stones Site

Slab Box Pottery Stone bracelets Spindle Stone Number (Pieces) sherd whorls

Stone Round stone beads ornaments

Wang Prachop Nai Sien

1

4

1

-

-

-

2 3 5 1 2

5 2 2 10 2

2 27 - 1 -

- - - - 1

- - - 4 -

1 -

Total

-

25

31

1

4

1

Figure 7 The vessels were found outside the slab stone box at Ban Wang Prachop site. Figure 8 A bowl was found at Ban Wang Prachop site.

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Figure 9 The polished stone axes were found at Ban Wang Prachop site. Figure 10 Stone bracelets According to the aforementioned evidences, it shows that slab box stone making was done in community or clan level because many slab stones must be moved to the ritual sites and the specialists in selecting, cracking, extracting, and polishing slab stones were required. According to the excavated evidence, there was no iron tools found except the polished axes which were only one tool found in every archeological site. According to the thorough excavation in the slab box stones, no human remain was found. The soil getting from excavation were screened by the fine grid or put in the clothes and filtered in the water, but no human remain was found. The soil pH test also applied in order to find some bone ashes but the results always showed diluted acid. From box no. 3, one of the slab box stones of Ban Wang Prachop, some traces of excavation that damaged almost half of the bottom of the box were found. The top of the box covered with many pieces of phyllite as same as every slab box stone. The traces of excavation showed that it was not from grave looting. According to the above evidences, it was possible that there might be some rituals associated with excavating the slab box stones for burying something but it could not be assumed that these rituals were associated with the primary burial or the secondary burial because no human remain was found.

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Slab Lined Apart from the slab box stones, the excavation in Ban Wang Prachop archeological site also found 3 lines of slab lined. The slab lined face to the north-eastern side in parallel with the slab box stone line. The slab lined lines are divided into 2 forms. The first one is in parallel with the slab box stone line. Two lines of 2-3 slab lined were found. Slab discs were found under the first line and the bowl-shaped pottery were found under the second line (Figure 11).

Figure 11 The first form of slab lined. Figure 12 The second form of slab lined.

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The second form was found at only one place. Two slabs lined 1.80 meters apart from each other. The way of lining was similar to the slab on the width of slab box stone. The potteries were buried under the slab and 4 stone bracelets in perfect condition were put overlapping intentionally at the space in the middle. This slab lined was located on the southwestern part of the excavation site. They were lined with approximate gap of 250 centimeters. The way of lining can be interpreted in 2 ways. First, it might be some kind of sub-rituals. Second, it might relate to the status like the rich, the poor, or the gender of the builders. Distribution of Evidences and Ritual Practices Ritual is the common practice of the community which is accepted and performed by people in the society. They acknowledge the process, symbol system, meaning and sacred of such ritual. The slab box stones found in 2 sites, Ban Wang Prachop and Nai Sien archeological sites, show the common belief of people in this society. That is, choosing the specific areas for ritual practice separated from the habitation area as well as not far from the community. In term of ritual practice, slab box stone making and slab lined reflect the complexity of the existed belief system. In term of devoting personal belongings to the slab box stone, it can be divided into 2 types. The first type is devotion by putting things in the boxes and the second type is putting them outside the boxes. Types of items were similar but their conditions were not. That is, the pottery, stone bracelets, and terracotta beads were found in the devotion by putting things in the boxes at Ban Wang Prachop while the pottery, round stone ornaments, stone bracelets, spindle whorls and quartz beads were found at Nai Sien. The quantity of these things was approximately the same which represents the similar status of people. Interestingly, the stone bracelets were broken intentionally and put in the box in incomplete condition. This practice might relate to some kinds of belief like the devotion of things to the dead during the burial and taking some pieces back for remembrance of the dead but the writer does not know about this case.

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While putting things outside the boxes can be analyzed only at Ban Wang Prachop because it was excavated almost 100 percent. According to the distribution of the evidences, it was found that the areas in the middle and the southwestern part might be used for devotion and worship because they were empty spaces. The evidences found in this area were 15 groups of pottery. The direction of lining was relatively in order along the northeastern-southwestern. Most of the shapes of the pottery were the wide bowl with the base made by piece connecting technique (mold the body separately from the bottom and then connect them to each other). It should be noticed that most of the pottery found were broken stone bracelets and some of them can be put together completely. Moreover, the terracotta beads, stone beads and 4 polished axes were also found. These polished axes were used and their stone types and shapes were similar to those found in Ban Kang Hin and Ban Nong Rom archeological sites. All of the evidences were classified as the same soil layer but 2 different periods because the levels of antique items found were slightly different. This evidence showed that after the slab box stones building, there were some worships for some period of time before leaving the area. Chronology Among all of the archeological sites, only Ban Wang Prachop archeological site can be scientifically dated by standard radio carbon-14. 2 specimens were sent to the Office of Atoms for Peace, Bangkok for carbon dating. The results showed that the first specimen (OAP2446) aged 2350Âą260 years (BP) or 1,100 B.C to 400 A.D.by 2 sigma calculation which means that the possibility of accuracy is 95%. This specimen was found 20 centimeters under the soil surface together with the pottery, stone bracelets and polished axes. The second specimen (OAP2447) aged 2520Âą260 years or 1,200 B.C. to 300 A.D. (2 sigma). This specimen was found in the pole hole 26-36 centimeters under the soil surface. This pole hole was found in the soil layer of this culture. It can be noticed that both specimens were found outside the boxes

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because no organic matter was found except the pottery but they were not sent for carbon dating because of the limited budget. Only 4 specimens were found in the area outside the boxes, but 2 specimens were sent because they were the best and big. According to the carbon dating, it is possible that Wang Prachop Culture is dated to around 2,500-2,300 years ago. The problem is 2,500 years ago was the Iron Age in Thailand in overall. As a result, it is uncertain whether these slab box stones were made by people in the Iron Age Culture or not. Megalithic Culture in South East Asia Considering from the features of slab box stones and slab lined at Ban Wang Prachop and Nai Sien, they can be classified in sub group of megalithic culture which are found throughout Asia. Only slab grave coffins and slab box stones were found in India, China, Korea, Taiwan, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Even though the forms of slab box stones found in different sites are similar, when considering in details, the slab box stones of Ban Wang Prachop were very similar to those found in Taiwan, Indonesia, and Malaysia except for the stone types. More importantly, no human remain was found at Ban Wang Prachop. Peinan culture was found on the southeastern of Taiwan during Neolithic period (around 1,500-800 B.C.). The unique characteristic of this culture is slate coffin making. The human remains were put in the coffins during the secondary burial. Some of the coffins were found with complete human remains, some were found with only one tooth. Inside the coffins, there were some grave goods such as polished axes, stone bracelets, beads, human-shaped locket, pottery, ling-ling O stone earrings and etc. for devotion to the dead. (Bellwood 1997: 215-217; Chin-yung 2000; Tsang 2000; Scarre 2005: 286-287; Yeh 2006) One of the interesting evidences deriving from the excavation of Peinan archeological site is the tooth extraction ritual. According to Chao-mei Lien, the archeologist who did the excavation, this ritual was found in the south of China and Japan. In Thailand, it was found in Ban

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Koa, Kanchanaburi Province and Non Nok Tha, Khon Kaen Province. The latter evidence might be the indirect one that represented the migration of group of people in the past between South East Asia and East Asia Regions. Indonesia is classified in Iron Age. It related to slab grave coffin making as found in East Java as well as Bali, Sumbawa, Sumba except for Kuningan archeological site which is located in the western part of Java where no iron tools were found together with slab grave coffins. This remains a problem because it is not clearly verified whether any iron tools were found or not (Bellwood, 1997: 290). According to Agus Aris Munandar, the group of people who made dolmens had some relations with rice planting and worship culture. Dolmens were used in ancestor worship rituals (Munandar 2011). Granite coffins were found in Malaysia on the mountains on the south of Perak near Bernam, Sungkai and Slim Rivers or in Changkat Menteri District. These coffins were made of many slabs sized 2 meters long (Heng 2000: 65-72). Calling these coffins “slab graved” creates some confusion because the excavation done in 1936 or later never found any human or animal remains (Jeshurun 1982: 102; Bulbeck 2004: 321). Inside the boxes, there were glass beads and carnelians, bronze bowls, iron tools, earthenware and etc. It can be classified in Iron Age aged 400 B.C. – mid 7 A.D. Glass beads and carnelians represented the distance trade connection with India and many labor forces were required, so they were the elites of this society (Heng 2000: 65-72). Peter Bellwood assumed that coffin making rituals in Taiwan, Indonesia, and Malaysia were the cultural group relating to the migration of Austronesia-speaking people who originate in Taiwan. Later on, they migrated to archipelago zones like Indonesia, Peninsular Malaysia, and Malaysia respectively (Bellwood 1997: 215-217). Discussion There are 2 main problems of Wang Prachop Culture. Firstly, according to the carbon dating, Wang Prachop Culture aged around 2,5002,300 years ago which was the Iron Age of many communities in Thailand

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and other countries. But the evidences found in 4 archeological sites still used the polished stone axes as the common tools without any iron tools. According to the empirical evidence, Wang Prachop Culture should be classified in Neolithic period or Neolithic culture. But according to some traces of evidences like stone cracking trace, quartz beads including the dating value of Wang Prachop archeological site, it could be assumed that Wang Prachop Culture might be classified in Iron Age. Secondly, considering the distance of the sites near Wang Prachop where the slab box stones or slab grave coffins were found, Wang Prachop Culture was relatively far from slab grave coffins and slab box stones culture found in other places. The nearest site was located on the south of Perak connecting with Selangor in Malaysia. Interestingly, there was also no burial in these slab box stones but they were in later period that is 2,000 years ago and can be classified in Iron Age (Jeshurun 1982: 102; Heng 2000: 67; Bullbeck 2004: 322). The evidences that represented the relations between the slab box stones at Wang Prachop and Perak-Selangor were not enough but it could be assumed from chronology and technology that it was possible that there was another direction of migration that is from the western part of Thailand to the western part of Peninsular Malaysia. The direction of migration from the north to the south with the distance over 1,500 kilometers was represented by one of the important examples; Ban Kao culture. It was found that there was a migration from Kanchanaburi to Kuala Lumpur during 2,000-1,200 B.C. and the important evidence was the tripod pottery vessels (Bellwood 1993: 46-47). The hypothesis that the group of people who built slab box stone culture in Chankat Menteri District spoke Austronesian language had weak supported evidence (Bellwood 1993) because according to the distribution of Austroasiatic language, Chankat Menteri District occupied by Senoi who were Austroasiatic- speaking. They were the original group before the migration of Austronesianspeaking ones. Therefore, this article proposes that Wang Prachop Culture might be associated with people who speak Austroasiatic language which is a widely spoken language throughout the

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mainland and might be spread to the south of Malaysia. Conclusion Wang Prachop Culture is a culture with ritual practice of slab box stone making aged 2,500-2,300 years ago. According to the evidences found, it can be classified in Neolithic Period. The purpose of making these slab box stones is unclear but according to the ethnic information in Indonesia, they might be made on the purposes of ancestor worship or to be a medium for communicating with supernatural entities. Wang Prachop Culture is a common megalithic cultural phenomenon found throughout East Asia as well as South East Asia (Kim 1982) aged 2,500-2,000 years ago. Some important questions still have no answer. For example, how slab box stone making phenomenon occurred and why people from various cultures shared common belief including the additional evidences for providing explanation of the migration line from the north to the south. Acknowledgement The research was supported funding by Faculty of Liberal of Arts, Thammasat University. And I also special thank to the Fine Arts Department at Sukhothai, Thailand and the Wang Prachop Subdistrict Administrative Organization.

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References Bellwood, P. (1993) Cultural and Biological Differentiation in Penisular Malaysia: The Last 10,000 Years, Asian Perspectives, 32(1): 37-60. Bellwood, P. (1997) Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago. Hawaii: University of Hawaiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;I Press. Bullbeck, D. (2004) Indigenous Traditions and Exogenous Influences in the Early History of Peninsular Malaysia, In Southeast Asia from Prehistory to History, edited by Peter Bellwood and Ian Glover. London: Routledge Curzon. Heng, Leong Sau. (2000) Chronology of the Bernam Cist Graves in Peninsular Malaysia, Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Bulletin 19(3): 65-72. Jeshurun, C. (1982) The Megalithic Culture in Malaysia: A Survey of Megalithics and Associated Finds in Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak and Sabah, In Megalithic Cultures in Asia, edited by Byung-mo Kim. Seoul: Hanyang University Press, pp.99-126. Kim, Byung-mo. (1982) Megalithic Cultures in Asia. Seoul: Hanyang University Press. Munandar, Agus Aris. (2011) The Continuity of Megalithic Culture and Dolmen in Indonesia. Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Humanities, University of Indonesia. Tsang, C. (2000) The Archaeology of Taiwan. Taipei: Council for Cultural Affairs. Yeh, Chian-Jin. (2004) Digital Museum of the Peinan Site and Peinan Culture. Taiwan: Collection and Research Division Nation Museum of Prehistory. [Online URL: http://pnclink.org/annual/annual2004/2004%20Prroceeding /PDF/101926.pdf] accessed on October 29, 2006.

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​​​Book Review Human Rights and Gender Violence: Translating International Law into Local Justice, by Sally Engle Merry. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006, ISBN: 9780226520742, 264 pages, $27.50 Revie​wed by William J. Jones Social Science Division, Mahidol University International College, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand Corresponding author: william.jon@mahidol.ac.th This volume focuses on the human rights norm of gender discrimination and violence as embodied in the CEDAW, processes of building and international negotiation which produced the final CEDAW text, process of and problems associated with transferring CEDAW principles into local legal structures and national setting. There are two core arguments central to the author’s larger theme of law and gender violence: namely international gender norms of human rights are considered universal but in order to transcend abstraction, IHRL must be adopted and given localized frames which can become understandable to populaces and a tool for social change. Second is that international human rights norms face a myriad of obstacles when coming into contact with national/local culture, politics of power/aid/ funding/trade and must be contextualized without sacrificing its universal normative legitimacy to be effective in triggering changing conceptions of social justice locally. Merry uses a transactional framework to justify her thesis that international human rights norms, embedded in treaties are meta level frameworks that run into problems when transposed into localized settings. She considers three interconnected ways in which gender based human rights interact with culture thus negotiating the global to local dichotomy:

Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts Vol.13 (2) : 329-334, 2013


William J. Jones

Book Review

transnational consensus building associated with international legal instruments wording, issue inculcation and adoption, transnational program transplants of how human rights programming and/or initiatives are planned and undertaken and localization of cultural knowledge associated with how actors bring international experience to local environments (pp. 19-20). To substantiate her thesis the author draws on legal text analysis of four human rights documents; 1993 Vienna Declaration, CEDAW, 1995 4th World Conference on Women and Beijing +5, ethnographic analysis of global dispersion and understanding of gender based human rights, positivist participant observation and interviews. The authors’primary research question is: how do international gender based legal texts get translated and given effectiveness in localized settings to stop violence and change cultural norms via reform to international understandings of social justice? The author narrates international negotiations surrounding CEDAW showing contentious issues surrounding religious interpretations of sexual orientation (pp. 44), power politics and the innate power of international legitimacy embedded in HR documents brought by consensus decisionmakingand how this works as a dual mechanism of compliance and reform due to widespread support and civilizational prestige surrounding HR document ratification (pp. 47). Critical to the question of why states sign constraining legal documents may be found in rationalist calculations of international political economy where low cost-high opportunity calculations dictate engagement. Specifically, entering into HR treaties has low sovereignty cost in that there are no supranational compliance mechanisms while opportunities gained by being part of ‘civilized’ international society is high concerning aid, trade, investment and stature. The UN itself is shown to be contradictory in its treatment of NGO’s, a venue for power politics and central focus point for transnational international society. The author surmises that non-state actors access international power and gain influence discursively by exploiting the political space associated with human rights by using opportunity voice as epistemic communities (pp. 60).

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The authors’ conception of modernity is said to be key in understanding HR documents as being both a sign of modernity subject to post-colonialityand a point of conjecture where criticizing traditional practice is often construed as being critical of national culture, hence identity (pp. 99). Within this understanding culture is used as a tool of evading responsibility (pp. 88) and an excuse for failure to comply by states (pp. 99). As such modernity acts as a method to differentiate at the national level –the traditional—backward rural with a modern transnational urbanized elite culture. Transnational modernity is seen as a hypocritical dichotomy that frames an internal ‘other’ as well as national identity as sacrosanct creating dissonance and distance of culpability in poor performance. This can best be described as a socio-political semiotics of portrayal and acts surrounding post-coloniality and modernity presented at the UN especially with reference to the semiotic value and political veneer of HR accords. Violence is said to be ‘attributed to customary practices’ while law is said to be objective and in opposition to violence (pp. 93) but with culture itself dynamic and non-static (pp. 91) a distinct problem arises; HR regime is a global meta regime which doesn’t differentiate nor particularize for privilege but seeks to transplant norms to be instituted locally without distinction, stimulating reform and change in social justice. These norms are seen as neoliberal in nature which supports generalized individual choice but must come into contact with local contexts of history, nationalism and politics that often support communal or socialist basses for social justice. How can the generalized universal norms of HR treaties not be sacrificed for particularistic application? These problems are described clearly in the context of India and its personal laws relating to marriage which have a colonial lineage linked to customary law which provides a critical source of identity formation and point of nationalist/religious political contestation (pp. 106-107) which presaged communalist values that underpinned patriarchal systems. But when framed in nationalist political context changed the dynamics of even staunch women led gender based rights groups (pp. 105). Culture in the broadest sense is but practices and discrimination towards women is seen by the legal regime as detrimental, rigid, static and

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in need of abolishment with a one size fits all universal claim to justice. But social justice of the national and people are not always as stereotyped and when fluidly intermeshed with identity formation, communal maintenance, nationalism and politics becomes incompatible with the rights regime as practiced in theory. Thus, fundamental universality must lay claim to something which is why non-compliance is unpunishable. In answering the aforementioned conundrum the author uses a poststructuralist interpretation of multiple subjectivities of the individual as being a site of contradictions and multiple identity formations (pp. 184) as well as a layered conceptualization of rights and identity which lead to new subjectivities of the agent (pp. 179). The author sees this as a critical point of inflection where external agents of law enforcement, judicial actors, bureaucrats, advocates and social workers all play roles in mitigating or aggravating the shifting nature of identity with relationship to the law and its empowerment and/or subversion of the power of international legal processes to provided active subjectivity to women (pp. 182). It is stated that these factors affect both the woman and man in gendered relationships of power but it’s the of law that creates subjects which shift and change thus setting new norms and standards of conduct for regulating gender based violence providing law with power from a postmodern Foucaultian perspective (pp. 186). The localization of knowledge and translation of the international into an understandable form in law provides the words and expression needed to assist those most vulnerable to abuse and violence (pp. 219). The strength of the volume lies in the author’s ability to articulate very intricate details surrounding the construction of an international meta regime and the very real problems of “culture” that inhibit instituting and realizing gains for individuals. The author could have benefited by paying more attention to exactly how issues of framing explain how and why states pick and choose ideas, concepts and practices to institute nationally. The author suggest wholesale importation of legal regimes thus a zero-sum approach to social justice and change triggering reform but this cannot be the case as every circumstance was not taken into account during drafting of CEDAW.

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Hesitancy and partial implementation and success of norm entrepreneurs would have benefited by reference to Finnemore and Sikkink (1998), Sikkink (1998) ‘norm cascades’ which rest on resource appropriation, voice opportunity, rejection of the welfare state and politics of aid. In terms of the discursive application the author would have provided the reader with greater insight if wider sociological application was provided. The notion of power and discursive logic is felt by the writer to be key to understanding agenda setting, relationships of power through voice opportunity and how networks come together to provide stimulus and power to their ideas getting adopted. Closer to Merrys’work is Hemming and Piper (2004) study of Human Trafficking and Prostitution and CEDAW which demonstrates how transnational NGOs altered agenda’s and legislation of the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization which had huge impacts on public policy in countries such as Thailand due to foreign aid and criminalization of prostitution. The opinion of this writer is that human rights are indeed subject to discursive logics and it is also subject to law and its application which is in and of itself an extension of power. What came to mind while reading this text is that law emanates from centers with inputs from afar as the author states, correct, but if law is supposed to proscribe behavior according to prescriptive logic then shouldn’t it be based on descriptive logic to give it traction? Could this come from the fact that the norms embodied in CEDAW deviate from descriptive history, hence, logic thus in some respects nullifying its universal applicability of principled norm valuation?

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References Finnemore, M. and Sikkink, K. (1998) International Norm Dynamics and Political Change. International Organization, 52(4): 887-917. Hemming, J. and Piper, N. Trafficking and Human Security in Southeast Asia: A Sociological Perspective. unpublished  (2004) [Online: http://www.childtrafficking.com/Docs/piper_01_human_ asia_0708.pdf] accessed August 27, 2013. Sikkink, K. Transnational Politics, International Relations Theory, and Human Rights. (1998) Political Science and Politics, 31(3): 516-523.

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Instructions to Authors (Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts) Aims and Scope Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts is an international journal aiming to promote and distribute knowledge in the areas of Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities. Types of contributions 1. Research articles 2. Review articles 3. Short communications 4. Case studies Preparation of manuscripts 1. The text should be double-spaced on A4 and a font Times New Roman size 11 should be used. When using MS Word, insert all symbols by selecting “Insert-Symbol” from the menu and use the “Symbol” font. 2. Manuscripts should be organized in the following order: Cover page with title and authors’ names and affiliations Abstract (in English and Thai) Key Words Introduction Materials and Methods, Area Descriptions, Techniques Results Discussion Conclusion Acknowledgements References Tables and Figures


Authorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; names and affiliations Full names and affiliations (marked with superscript number)should be provided for all authors on the cover page, separately from the content. The corresponding author (marked with superscript asterisk) should also provide a full postal address, telephone and fax number and an e-mail address as a footnote on the cover page. Abstract First page of the content starts with Abstract, including title of the article on top of page. Provide a short abstract not more than 200 words, summarizing the question being addressed and the findings. Key Words Provide 3-5 key words or short phrases in alphabetical order, suitable for indexing. References In text references : Refer to the authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s name (without initials) and year of publication, e.g., Nunan, 1997 (for 1 author), Teeuw and Wyatt, 1970 (for 2 authors), or Sunthari Atsawai et al., 1990 (for more than 2 authors). Article references : References should be listed in alphabetical order of author(s). For journal, list all names of authors. Examples: Book Cohenn, A. D. (1998) Strategies in Learning and Using a Second Language. London: Longman. Journal article Herron, C. A. and Seay, I. (1991) The Effect of Authentic Aural Texts on Student Listening Comprehension in the Foreign Language Classroom. Foreign Language Annals, 24(6): 487-495.


Ariticle in press Hammerschlag, F. A., Bauchan, G., and Scorza, R. Regeneration of Peach Plants from Callus Derived from Immature Embryos. Journal of Natural Products (in press). Book chapter Cornell, S. (1990) Helene Cixous and Les Etudes Feminines. In The Body and the Texts Helene Cixous, Reading and Teaching, edited by Helen Wilcox and other, pp. 31-40. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf. On-line Conference article Laviosa, F. (1991) An Investigation of the Listhening Strategies of Advanced Learners of Italian as a Second Language. Paper Presented at the Conference on Bridsing Theory and Practice in the Foreign Language Classroom, Baltimore, MD. October 18-20. Retrived on July 27, 2001, ERIC database ED 345553. On-line Journal article Lee, K. (1999) Appraising Adaptaive Management. Conservation Ecology 3(2). [Online URL: www.consecolo.org/Journal/vol3/ iss2/index.html] accessed on April 13, 2001. Patent Yoshikawa, T. and Kawai, M. (2006) Security Robot. U.S. Patent No. 2006079998 Tables and Figures Tables: Number the tables according to their sequence in the text. The text should include references to all tables. Each table should be typewritten on a separate page of the manuscript. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Leave some extra space instead. Figures: Figures should be of high quality, in black and white only, with the same size as the author would like them to appear in press. Choose the size of symbols and lettering so that the figures can be reduced to fit on a page or in a column.


Submission of Manuscripts The submitted manuscript has not been published or is being considered for publication elsewhere. All information contained in an article is full responsibility of the authors, including the accuracy of the data and resulting conclusion. Authors are requested to send the manuscript on a CD labeled with the authors’ names and file names. The files should be prepared using MS Word only. Three copies of manuscript must be supplied. The editorial office will acknowledge receipt of the manuscript within 2 weeks of submission. The ‘accepted date’ that appears in the published paper will be the date when the handling editor receive the fully revised version of the manuscript. Paper may be returned to authors for revision. Authors will be given 2 month after receipt of the reviewers’ comments to revise the paper. Please submit the manuscript with a submission form to the following address: e-mail: pranee_aon1@hotmail.com Proofs Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author by e-mail (as PDF file) or regular mail. Author is requested to check the proofs and return any corrections within 2 weeks. Extensive corrections must be clearly marked on a printout of PDF file.


Learning Approaches Supaporn Jaisook, Somyot Chitmongkol and Sumlee Thongthew A Community of Innovation: Technological Driven System Based on Participatory Rural Appraisal and Design Thinking Approach Papinya Thongsomjit, Jaitip Na-songkhla and Siriwan Silapacharanan

Some Problems of Slab Box Stones at Ban Wang Prachop, Tak Province Pipad Krajaejun

Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

A Mathematics Instructional Model by Integrating Problem-Based Learning and Collaborative

Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts Volume 13 Number 2 (July-December) 2013 Task-Based Learning Approach Emphasizing Associative Memory Techniques for Chinese Character Recognition and Reading Narinchai Haphuriwat, Sumlee Thongthew, Suree Choonharuangdej and Prannapha Modehiran Digital Modeling of Buddha Sculptures Sawitree Wisetchat A Study of Language and Culture of “” (feces) of Lao-Wiang in Nong Kop Subdistrict, Ban Pong District, Ratchaburi Province Samiththicha Pumma

Book Review William J. Jones

Volume 13 Number 2 (July-December) 2013

www.surdi.su.ac.th, www.journal.su.ac.th, www.tci-thaijo.org /index.php/sujsha/index

Relationship between Religiosity and Prosocial Behavior of Thai Youth Sukhonta Mahaarcha and Sirinan Kittisuksathit The Effect of Virtual Distance on Determinants of Work and Organizational Commitment Puckpimon Singhapong Buddhist Sects in Lān Nā from the Reign of King Tilōk to that of Phayā Käo (1441-1525): Studies of Dated Bronze Buddha Images in Chiang Mai Surasawasdi Sooksawasdi L1 Use with University Students in Thailand: A Facilitating Tool or a Language Barrier in Learning English? Napapat Thongwichit Characteristics of Culture in Thai Society and Virtual Communities Kumpol Buriyameathagul

ISSN 1513-4717

Vol 13 no 2  
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