Our Rich History

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Since the first subscriptions for the building of the College, in 1853, St Paul’s College has been the beneficiary of innumerable acts of generosity, large and small.

The College in 1870 – a photograph (detail) taken from the north, near Parramatta Rd, across the space now occupied by University No. 1 Oval. On the left is the Library, then used as the Chapel and since taken down, and in the centre is the bay window of the Steward’s quarters, removed to make way for the Garnsey Wing. Original in the Mitchell Library by an unknown photographer.

Original Subscribers There were apparently 228 original subscribers to the fund establishing the College. Their names, as we have them now, come from a list dated October 1856. Several were women, including Mrs Mary Anne Burdekin, of Burdekin House, Macquarie Street, who gave £100, and Mrs Rosetta Terry and her daughter-in-law Eleanor, who each gave £50. A large number were clergymen, who were remarkably generous given their typically small means. Many donors had sons who were later to live in College, or else they had reason to foresee that nephews, grandsons and so on might want to do so in due course. Most subscribers gave £50 or less. However, 40 gave £100, and eleven gave more than £100 (not counting the London-based Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, which contrinuted £250). The leading donor was Thomas Sutcliffe Mort, a man of varied talents and enthusiasms. In 1849 Mort had founded the Australian Mutual Provident Society together with several other men who were also to follow his lead in giving generously to the new College. The AMP and Paul’s were based on overlapping ideals, best summed up as participatory welfare or (in England) Christian Socialism. Mort’s friend and mentor, the Reverend W.H. Walsh of Christ Church St Laurence, was a leading light in both enterprises. Most subscribers belonged to the Church of England, but a few (pre-eminently Thomas Holt) belonged to other denominations. Some, such as Edward Flood and George Robert Nichols (“Radical Bob”), had a distinctly ambiguous attitude to religion and ecclesiastical authority. The eleven were: • THOMAS SUTCLIFFE MORT (1816-78) (500 guineas, or £525), of Greenoaks, Darling Point, entrepreneur, churchman (at St Mark’s, Darling Point, and Christ Church St Laurence) and philanthropist; a Fellow of the College 186266. [Australian Dictionary of Biography] • THE HON. THOMAS WARE SMART (181081) (£500), of Mona, Darling Point, entrepreneur, churchman (at St Mark’s, Darling Point) and art collector; associated with Mort in the founding of the AMP; a Fellow of the College 1860-81. [Australian Dictionary of Biography]\

• The Hon. Sir Daniel Cooper (1821-1902) (£500), of Woollahra House, merchant and philanthropist; a Fellow of the College 1855-62. [Australian Dictionary of Biography] • Charles Kemp (1813-64) (£300), former joint-owner of the Sydney Morning Herald, businessman and churchman (at St James’s, King Street); a Fellow of the College 1855-64. [Australian Dictionary of Biography] • Joshua Frey Josephson (1815-92) (£250), of Enmore House, barrister, collector of paintings and sculpture. [Australian Dictionary of Biography] • Thomas Holt (1811-88) (200 guineas, or £210), a Congregationalist, of The Warren, Marrickville, and Camden Villa, financier, politician and close associate of Mort in the founding of the AMP. [Australian Dictionary of Biography] • The Hon. George Robert Nichols (1809-57) (£200), lawyer and politician, one of the most active legislators and social reformers of his day. [Australian Dictionary of Biography] • Robert Ebenezer Johnson (1812-86)(£200), solicitor and politician; Fellow of the College 1855-66. [Australian Dictionary of Biography] • The Hon. Edward Flood (1805-88) (£200), pastoralist and politician (radical in some respects, conservative in others). [Australian Dictionary of Biography] • Michael Metcalfe (1813-90) (£150), businessman and churchman (at Christ Church St Laurence); a Fellow of the College 1859-88, and Bursar. [Australian Dictionary of Biography] • The Hon. Sir Edward Knox (1819-1901) (100 guineas, or £105), sugar-refiner and banker, founder of CSR, and churchman (at All Saints’ Woollahra), a friend of the Stephen family. [Australian Dictionary of Biography]

Founders of Scholarships and Prizes Apart from buildings, scholarships and bursaries have been the main reason why men and women have given money to St Paul’s College. The first donations of this kind were in the form of prizes rather than scholarships, and were not self-sustaining. The funders were particularly keen to encourage the study of Divinity, and in 1857 the solicitor Richard Johnson (Fellow 1860-70) and the businessman Michael Murnin gave e30 each for two Divinity prizes. In 1859 prizes were similarly awarded for English Verse and for Modern History. From 1869 to 1918 Council itself awarded more or less annual Divinity prizes. The lay Fellows, by regular personal contributions, also funded scholarships from 1866 to 1916, and two Wardens, Savigny and Sharp, were especially generous in financial support to students. The Reverend E.G. Hodgson, Vice-Warden 187882, was a major donor of prizes during his own time in College, as was the Reverend Henry Latimer Jackson, Fellow 1885-95. The only self-sustaining prize (as distinct from scholarships) until after World War Two was the Mitchell Prize for Divinity, for which e200 was given by James Mitchell MLC, an original Fellow, in 1859 (for the Arts student who, within twelve months of graduation, should pass the best College exam in “the Doctrines and History of our Church”). However, the money in that case was swallowed up for other causes and the prize was not awarded for many years. More recently a large number of annual prizes have been established, but only a few (the Portus Prize for exceptional results in History, Economic History or Philosphy, from the Revd Professor G.V. Portus), the Uther Prize for three yeras distingusihed results and service to College, by bequest from A.H. Uther, the Asimus Medal for Oratory, given by C.J. Asimus, and the McWilliam Prize for Law, given by B.I. McWilliam) have been by private benefaction.

Most College scholarships up to the 1920s were founded by women. For the first half of its history women were therefore among the largest benefactors to the College. In most cases they were either unmarried women or widows without children. From the 1920s women’s independent contribution to the College was more obvious in their capacity as fund-raisers, especially within the St Paul’s College Women’s Organisation. Note especially the contributions the Bundock family, based in north-east NSW. • ASPINALL: Mrs Sophia Ann Hall Aspinall founded the Edward Aspinall Scholarship in August 1864, in memory of her husband. There were no restrictions to its use. Mrs Aspinall was the College’s most munificent benefactor in its early years. She was born in 1810 in Nottinghamshire, where her father, Philip Palmer, was a landowner and her mother a banker’s daughter. On 20 July 1830, at her home village of East Bridgeford, Sophia Palmer married Edward Aspinall, who had lately arrived from Sydney. In 1831 her brother Philip Hall Palmer, a clergyman, married Edward’s sister. The Aspinalls were a Liverpool merchant family originally trading to North America (in slaves) but now also to New South Wales, the Sydney firm being Aspinall and Browne. Edward and Sophia were settled in Sydney by mid 1831. They had no children and Edward died, aged 37, on 1 January 1838. Another of Sophia’s brothers, William Hall Palmer, had followed her to New South Wales and became a Commissioner of Crown Lands. He gave ₤20 in the original subscription for the College, 185254, and she gave ₤25. Mrs Aspinall was a close friend of Sir Alfred Stephen’s family and also of James Mitchell, who gave the Mitchell Prize for Divinity. In April 1847 she, Mitchell and one of Mitchell’s daughters were involved in an accident in the city, when the horses in her carriage bolted after a collision with another vehicle (Sydney Morning Herald, 30 April 1847). She lived in Cumberland Street, overlooking the Harbour, and took a particular interest in the Destitute Children’s Asylum and the Female School of Industry. She also donated to Anglican Church causes. In the 1860s she took responsibility for one of the windows in the nave in the new St Andrew’s Cathedral (also in memory of her husband) and she gave money for the establishment of the Anglican diocese of Goulburn and for buildings at Moore College. Her annual dona-

tions for the Edward Aspinall Scholarship (usually ₤45) began in 1865, with William Purvis the first winner, and ended in 1872, when she gave ₤500 as a fund on which future scholarships were to be drawn. She was told that ₤900 would be needed to yield the same amount per annum, but the sum remained at ₤500 (Council minutes, 14 March, 10 October 1872; Cash Book 1864-1884, 7 September 1872). Mrs Aspinall died in Sydney on 1 August 1874. • KEMP: The Kemp Scholarship was founded in March 1880, with a bequest of ₤400 from Mrs Stella Kemp in memory of her husband, Charles Kemp, former joint-proprietor of the Sydney Morning Herald and an original Fellow (1855-64) (Council minutes, 4 March 1880, and attached letter). There were no restrictions to its use. Mrs Kemp was born Stella Christie (date and place unknown), and she married Charles Kemp in Sydney in November 1838. There were no children. Charles Kemp gave ₤300 in the original subscription to the College and he took a keen interest in its success. Towards the end of his life he was chairman of the Commercial Banking Company and of the United Fire and Life Insurance Company of Sydney. He was also one of the founders of Moore College and active in raising funds for the building of St Andrew’s Cathedral. He died in Sydney on 25 August 1864. Mrs Kemp died on 19 November 1879 also in Sydney (at her home, 175 Macquarie Street). The scholarship was first awarded in 1880 to Albert Bathurst Piddington. • PRIDDLE: The Augusta Priddle Memorial Scholarship was founded in July 1885 by the Reverend Charles Frederick Durham Priddle in memory of his wife, for the sons of clergymen intending themslves to take Holy Orders. The principal was ₤600, and was allowed to accumulate to ₤1000 before being awarded. The scholarship was to be tenable for three years (Council minutes, 9 July 1885, 8 May, 12 June 1890, 9 October 1891). Charles Priddle (1814-97) was a Fellow (187597). He had been trained for the priesthood at St James’s College, the Glebe, predecessor of St Paul’s, had subscribed ₤25 for the founding of St Paul’s, and was currently rector of St Luke’s, Liverpool. His wife was born Jane Augusta Norton, daughter of the solicitor James Norton, of Elswick, on 16 May 1828. Her father has helped to establish St James’s College, and subscribed ₤50 for St Paul’s College, and her brother James was

a Fellow 1869-1906. The Priddles were married 25 February 1851. She died 13 November 1883 at Liverpool and her husband on 12 February 1897 in Sydney, aged 72. They had two sons at College, Robert (1866-1950) and Alfred (1869-1940), and Robert, by his will supplemented the scholarship. The Priddle Scholarship was first awarded in 1887 to F.W. Reeve. • STARLING: In December 1885 the Council was notified of a gift of ₤1000 from an anonymous donor. This was later referred to as the Starling Foundation, and the donor’s purpose was to found one or two scholarships for candidates for Holy Orders. The donor was apparently Mrs Elizabeth Jane Starling, widow of John Penny Starling, of Norwood Hall, Marrickville, who had been manager for many years of W.H. Paling’s music warehouse and who had died on the previous 12 August, aged 51 (Council minutes, 17 December 1885, 11 March, 8 April 1886). Mrs Starling was born Elizabeth Jane Dudley and had married J.P. Starling in Sydney on 4 July 1866. Both were English-born. She died at Vaucluse, 3 September 1937, aged 88. The first Starling scholarship was awarded in 1888 to E.H.B. Pritchard (the son of a Primitive Methodist minister), who died in the same year, of typhoid. • ABBOTT: The Henry William Abbott Scholarship was founded in October 1885 by Thomas Kingsmill Abbott in memory of his son. T.K. Abbott bequeathed ₤1000 to the Bishop of Sydney for a scholarship for students training for Holy Orders, recommending that at least to begin with they should be resident at St Paul’s College (Council minutes, 15 October 1885). T.K. Abbott was the uncle of Sir Joseph Abbott (Fellow 18911900) and also of the Reverend Thomas Kingsmill Abbott (Fellow 1896-1902, Vice-Warden 1900-01). His son Henry was a solicitor who died unmarried at Milson’s Point on 8 October 1878, aged 26. T.K. Abbott, who had been secretary of the General Post Office, Sydney, died in London on 6 May 1885. The Abbott Scholarship was first awarded in 1889 to Cuthbert Blacket. • BURTON: The Burton Scholarship was founded in 1839 by Sir William Westbrooke Burton (1794-1888), judge of the NSW Supreme Court, for boys at the King’s School, with a sum of ₤1000 which had been raised by Burton’s admirers as a gift to him on his departure from the colony. Burton was born in England and was

• appointed to the Supreme Court of the Cape of Good Hope in 1827, and in 1832 to the court at Sydney. He was on leave in England 1839-41 and in 1844 he left Sydney to be judge at Madras. In 1857 he returned to Sydney and was President of the Legislative Council 1858-61. He married twice but had no children. The scholarship was refounded in 1891 for students going on from the King’s School to St Paul’s College (without restriction), and then in 1894 as two scholarships, one tenable at the College, as before, and the other at the school (Council minutes, 10 May, 12 July 1894, 9 May 1895). It has always been administered by the school. It was first awarded at the College in 1891 to William Jowers Cakebread, afterwards Rural Dean of Randwick and a Fellow of the College. • CANON STEPHEN: The Reverend Canon Alfred Hamilton Hewlett Stephen (1826-84) was the eldest son of Sir Alfred Stephen. He was born in Hobart on 24 April 1826. A graduate of Cambridge, he was was among the leading founders of the College, and was a Fellow from 1855 until his death, at Hunter’s Hill. 20 July 1884. His whole clerical career was spent at St Paul’s, Redfern, the church after which the College was named, but he was also a significant public figure, for instance as founding secretary and later president of the Society for the Relief of Destitute Children. When he died a public subscription was started in his memory, the dividends to support his widow, Rebecca Maria Stephen (born Cox), until her death and then to be used for a College scholarship. (The Warden, William Hey Sharp, had hoped that the money might be used to build the “Stephen Tower”.) Mrs Stephen died on 5 December 1901 and the Canon Stephen Memorial Scholarship was established, apparently with capital of ₤761, in 1902 (Sydney Morning Herald, 31 July, 2 August 1884; Council minutes, 12 December 1901 – 14 August 1902). It was first awarded to Duncan Robertson Barry. • PARNELL: Elizabeth Frances Parnell was born 20 April 1853. Her father, Edward Parnell, a Hunter Valley landowner (died 1908), was a synodsman in the Diocese of Newcastle and a generous donor to Christ Church Cathedral. Her mother, Caroline Parnell, was a sister of Charles Kemp, a Fellow of the College (see Kemp Scholarship, above). Before the War, Miss Parnell contributed to Anglican mission work in northern Western Australia and during the War she was

a donor to the Blue Cross League, “for wounded and suffering horses at the front”. In 1917 she gave ₤1000 to the College to found a scholarship, tenable for three years, for students intending to take Holy Orders and coming to the College from Sydney Grammar School, Shore, King’s, The Armidale School, All Saints at Bathurst, “or such schools, other than State schools, as the Council may from time to time determine” (Council minutes, 8 March, 12 April 1917; St Paul’s College Calendar 1925-26). She died in Newcastle on 5 December 1925, leaving an estate of ₤30,561, including ₤2000 to Christ Church Cathedral (Sydney Morning Herald, 26 February 1926). The first scholar, in 1918, was Alan Detlev Hingst, also of Newcastle, who immediately enlisted in the AIF and did not in fact become a clergyman. He was fatally hit by a cricket ball in March 1932. • OSBORNE: Kate Cunningham Moffatt was born on 7 April 1849, at Wollongong, the daughter of the Reverend Cunningham Atchison, a Presbyterian minister. Her mother, Isabella, was the daughter of John Osborne, of Garden Hill, Wollongong, a former naval surgeon, who died on 6 June 1850. Four of her mother’s cousins, Hamilton, John, Oliver and Duncan Osborne were at St Paul’s College in the 1880s and ’90s. On 25 August 1894 she married Thomas Helenus Moffatt, who had been one of the first settlers at Poona, near Maryborough, Queensland. They lived at Marley, Blue Street, North Sydney, and seem to have had no children. T.H. Moffatt died in 1917. Mrs Moffat died on 20 October 1918, at North Sydney. In her will she left ₤1000 for a bed in the Royal North Shore Hospital, and also ₤1000 to the University to establish a scholarship for a student in Medicine who was or had been resident at the College, to be known as the Dr John Osborne RN Scholarship, in memory of her grandfather. It was first awarded in 1920 to Leslie Ratcliff. • CAIRD: This scholarship was founded in 1923 with a bequest from Elizabeth Richardson Caird, of Melbourne. Miss Caird was born at Burwood on 16 July 1873, the daughter of George Sutherland Caird, a Sydney businessman (of Caird, Maxwell and Co., mine owners and agents) with university connections in Glasgow and Oxford. She died in Melbourne on 27 December 1922. “Miss Caird spent the latter years of her life quietly in Melbourne, but many charitable institutions, especially those connected with children,

both in Sydney and Melbourne, have benefited by her generous interest” (Sydney Morning Herald, 2 October 1922). In her will she left ₤1000 to Sydney University for a scholarship for medical students (men only), and ₤500 each to St Paul’s College and St Andrew’s College, for scholarships for students in Divinity. All were to be named G.S. Caird Scholarships, after her father. She also left a house in Sydney to the Congregational Church (Sydney Morning Herald, 17 November 1922; Council minutes, ). The scholarship at St Paul’s was first awarded in 1932 to Frank Rush, afterwards a canon of St Andrew’s Cathedral, Sydney, and a Fellow of the College. • W.C. BUNDOCK (see also F.F. Bundock, below): Four members of the Bundock family were in College between 1874 and 1916, including Charles Bundock (1875-76), son of Wellington Cochrane Bundock, a pastoralist at Wyangarie, Richmond River, northern New South Wales. Mary Ellen Murray-Prior, born 18 February 1845, was Charles Bundock’s elder sister. Through their mother they were cousins of William Frederick Ogilvie, in College 1884. In 4 August 1902, when she was 57, she married the Queensland pastoralist and MP, Thomas de Montmorency Murray-Prior, of Maroon, near Boonah. Her husband’s brother Hervey Murray-Prior had been in College with Charles Bundock, 1875-77. His sister was the Australian novelist Rosa Praed. Widowed after four months of marriage, Mrs Murray-Prior stayed in charge of Maroon. She was “a fearless horsewoman, and would ride for miles to set a broken limb or succour a settler in distress in that then sparsely settled district”. She was also a skilled anthropologist. Her meticulously documented collection of Aboriginal weapons and women’s artifacts is now divided between the Australian Museum, Sydney, and the Rijkmuseurn voor Volkenkunde, Lieden (Sydney Morning Herald, 23 April 1924; Isabel McBryde, “Miss Mary, Ethography and the Inheritance of Concern: Mary Ellen Murray-Prior”, in Julie Marcus, First in their Field: Women and Australian Anthropology.) She died on 9 April 1923, at Perth in Western Australian, on the way home from Europe. Her estate was valued at ₤39,697. In her will she left ₤2000 each to St Paul’s College and to the Women’s College, to establish the W.C. Bundock Scholarship and the Ellen Bundock Scholarship, in memory of her parents (Sydney Morning Herald, 2 June 1924; Council minutes ). The first W.C. Bundock scholar was

• STARKEY: Alfred Ernest Starkey was born in Sydney in 1869, the youngest son of John and Fanny Starkey. His father was a wealthy softdrink manufacturer and from the 1880s the family lived at Smithfield Grange, Coogee. A.E. Starkey seems to have been a bachelor. He died at his home, Gibbah Gunyah, Manly, on 11 December 1927, leaving ₤1000 to St Luke’s Hospital (at that time an Anglican establishment) and ₤1000 for the College. (In connection with the College the donor is sometimes wrongly called “James Starkey”). The estate was mainly in the form of city property and it took some time to realise. Funds began to arrive in 1932 and the A.E. Starkey Scholarship was then established. (Council minutes, 20 March, 20 July 1928, Pauline, 1932, p. 11). It was first awarded in 1933 to John Goulburn Radford, son of the fomer Warden, afterwards a medical practitioner. • GRAINGER: Edwin Grainger began employment with the Bank of New South Wales in the 1860s (by 1868). For 25 years he was branch manager at Inverell, during which time he began accumulating pastoral property around about. He had been born in England (probably Hereford), the son of John and Margaret Grainger He was a keen singer and organiser of musical occasions, and a promoter of local schools and other improvements. In 1905, at Lithgow, he married May (or Mary Greville) Reynolds. Her brother was rector at Walgett, near inverell, and her father a storekeeper at Bundarra. They used the name Greville-Grainger. Mrs Grainger’s nephew, Harry Scrivener, was in College in 1916. Edwin Grainger died in Darlinghurst on 15 July 1930, aged 80, leaving an estate valued at ₤78,672. Among a large number of benefactions, he left ₤4000 each and the residue of the estate (divided equally) to St Paul’s College, St Andrew’s College and Wesley College (Sydney Morning Herald, 17 July 1930, 8 October 1930, Argus, 16 January 1931) The estate became available for distrubition on the death of May Grainger, in Sydneyon 5 June 1937 (Sydney Morning Herald, 17 July, 14 August 1937). The Edwin and May Grainger Scholarships were first awarded in 1938. • STAPLEY EDWARDS: This was the first scholarship established by a former student at Paul’s. Alfred Stapley Edwards (known as Stapley) was born on 11 June 1904 at Neutral Bay, son of Clarence Edwards, afterwards managing director of David Jones, and his wife Rose (Stapley). He

went to Shore and he lived in College as a firstyear student, 1924. He graduated BSc in 1929 and then travelled to England and to the United States, where he joined Johnson & Johnson, at that time manfacturers of surgical dressings. In the early 1930s he led the establishment of the firm in Sydney and was appointed local managing director. In December 1936 he was married at Watertown, New York State, to Josephine Taggart, an American. They lived at Wahroonga. (Sydney Morning Herald, 3 April 1937). He died at Watertown, aged 41, on the way home from a business trip to Britain and the United States, on 18 January 1945 (Sydney Morning Herald, 20 January 1945). In his will he left ₤1000 to the College for the establishment of a scholarship, a sum supplemented by his father and widow. She and their two children returned to the United States, where she twice remarried. Their son, Byron Taggart Edwards, went to Harvard (Varsity Club, Fly Club, Hasty Pudding Institute) and became a munificent donor to the Republican Party. The first Stapley Edwards scholar was • WADDY: Richard Granville Waddy established the R.G. Waddy benefaction in 1966 for students of St Paul’s College, the Women’s College and Basser College at the University of NSW, stating at the time that “the principal qualifications … shall be financlal distress, misfortune and unexpected hardship and not necessarily brilliance of scholarship of academic qualifications”; “undergardautes shall be the main recipents of assistance, but neverhtheless, graduates carrying out resea4rch may also qualify”. The three colleges were to • WALLACE ANDERSON. William Wallace Anderson was the son of W.A. and Lillie Anderson, of Overthorpe, Double Bay. His father was of the firm of Charles Anderson & Co., hatmakers, contractors for slouch hats during World War One. He was born in Sydney, 10 January 1914. He was at school at King’s and went on to Jesus College, Cambridge, graduating MA. In 1939 he married Jocelyn Jean Josephson (whose grandfather Joshua Frey Josephson was one of the leading original subscribers to the College), and they had a daughter, born 1941. Anderson joined the RAAF and was one of the first pilots trained under the Empire Air Scheme to leave Australia for England. He rose to Flying Officer. He was reported missing, and was presumed to have been killed on 18 June 1941 (crashed near

Boulogne), aged 27, his body never recovered. (Sydney Morning Herald, 1 July 1941, 16 February 1942; W.W. Anderson, war service file, Australian Archives). In 1984, capital of $30,000 was given to the College for a scholarship in his memory, by his widow (since twice remarried, lastly to Frank Ritchie) and his two sisters, Jean Healey and Irene Ashton (Council minutes, 17 April 1984). (His mother’s family, the Sees, had similarly donated the Sydney See Scholarship for a boy from King’s going on to do Vet at Sydney University.) The first Wallace Anderson Scholar, in 1984, was Brian Tugwell (Council minutes, 17 April 1984). • F.F. BUNDOCK (see also W.C. Bundock, above). Frank Edward Bundock was born in 1891 near Charters Towers, son of Francis Forbes and Mary Ellen (Collings) Bundock. His father was in College (1874-76), as was his elder brother Harry (1905-07) and his younger brother Albert (1915-16). F.E. Bundock served with the AIF in France (Light Trench Mortar Battery), and in 1919 he married Ruby Parish. They managed and then owned Harvest Home, a cattle station near Charters Towers pioneered by his mother’s family (F.E. Bundock, war service file, Australian Archives; Townsville Daily Bulletin, 9 January 1930). Frank Bundock died 30 June 1986, aged 95, leaving money for a scholarship at the College, to be named the F.F. Bundock Scholarship, in memory of his father. He asked that it be given “preferably” to an applicant from The King’s School, with some consideration of financial need.

Major Donors to the College Library Key to academic life at St Paul’s is the college library which was established by and maintained through the generosity of our many benefactors. The following is a list of the Major Donors who made the library what it is today. • William Charles Wentworth (1790-1872) gave “200 books” in 1862 (Council minutes, 20 May 1862). Wentworth was one of the half-dozen most significant figures of the colonial period. He was a distinguished local barrister, the principal agitator for an elected legislature in New South Wales during the 1820s and ‘30s, a brilliant legislator during the 1840s and, in the 1850s, founder of Sydney University and author of the constitution which gave self-government to New South Wales. He was not among the original subscribers to the College. His gift of books was presumably a result of his breaking up his household at Vaucluse in preparation for a long sojourn abroad. He sailed in October 1862 and died in England. The donation included Law books dating from his period as a Law student in England. Other items included The Statutes of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 25 volumes (1763-1817), some or all volumes being stamped on an inside page in heavy black letters, “W.C.WENTWORTH”, and some being annotated; and Acts of the New South Wales Legislative Council, 1823-28. The Sydney Gazette, the first Australian newspaper, from 1804 (most of which is now in the Mitchell Library) was also probably part of this gift. • Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart, MD, FRSA, FRGS (1808-93), donated a large number of books, presumably before he left to live in England in 1862. He was a graduate of the University of Edinburgh who arrived in NSW in 1833. He was Speaker of Legislative Council 1846-56, a prodigious collector of rare books, antiquities, pictures and manuscripts, one of the founders of the University and its first vice-provost, its second provost and its first Chancellor. He was a keen supporter of the College in its early years, taking a particular interest in plans for the Chapel. His books can be identified by his bookplate. They include The Parliamentary

History of England, 22 volumes (1763) and The Literary Gazette, 12 volumes (1820-30). But it is very likely that many of the older volumes in the College’s collection, going back to the sixteenth century) include, came from Nicholson. • The Right Reverend Alfred Barry, MA, DD, DCL, Bishop of Sydney (1826-1910), donated to the Library “300 books” in 1884 (Council minutes, 15 August 1884). These had been bought from the collection of the late Percy Smythe, eighth and last Viscount Strangford (1825-69). Strangford was a linguist, who had learnt Arabic and Persian at Oxford, and went on to acquire “an extremely thorough knowledge of Turkish, modern Greek, Sanskrit, and oriental philology”. He also had some knowledge of Celtic and Romani. (Oxford Dictionary of National Biography). His donation includes A Dictionary of the Portuguese and English Languages (1805; inscribed “Strangford, Rio de Jano. 1811”); The Bridgewater Treatises on the Power Wisdom and Goodness of God as Manifested in the Creation, 12 volumes (1830s); James Archbell, A Grammar of the Bechuana Language (1837); W. Barnes, Se Gefylsta (The Helper): An Anglo-Saxon Delectus (1849) Henry Scott Riddell, The Song of Solomon in Lowland Scotch (1858); The Qoran, two volumes, in Arabic (1856,1861); W.H.I. Bleek, A Comparative Grammar of South African Languages, published 1862. • Arthur Todd Holroyd, MB, MD, FZS, FLS, FRGS (1806-87), bequeathed his library to the College. Hodgson was a graduate of Edinburgh and Cambridge, an English and New South Wales barrister and an original Fellow (1855-87). He was also a Middle-East explorer, a banker and a member of the NSW parliament. He died in debt on 15 June 1887 and his executors asked that the College buy the books for ₤190. Council declined. The collection was described at auction as a “very valuable old Library”, rich in early colonial works (Council minutes, 29 December 1887, 8 March, 12 April, 10 May 1888; Sydney Morning Herald, 24 November 1888). • The Right Reverend James Francis Turner, DD (1829-93), Bishop of Grafton and Armidale, gave “300 books” in October 1892 (Council minutes, 13 October 1892). Turner was a graduate of the University of Durham. He was

consecrated bishop in 1869 and was a Fellow 1872-75. He was trained as an architect before being ordained, and had a life-long interest in building design. He was “[c]learly High Church in outlook, … insist[ing] on the Catholic rather than the Protestant character of the Church of England, but … consistent in advocating less party spirit within the Church” (Australian Dictionary of Biography). The donation followed his resignation as Bishop. He died on way to England, on 27 April 1893. His books included XXX in rare Books; Tracts for the Times, six volumes (1839-40); Pusey’s Sermon on the Eucharist (1843; marked by Turner, “Original edition valuable”); and volumes of pamphlets, including now valuable colonial ones. • Adrian Consett Stephen, BA, LLB (1892-1918) was in College 1910-12. He was born 4 July 1892, at Darling Point, son of Alfred Consett Stephen, a solicitor (the balladist “Banjo” Paterson spoke of “wonderful capacity for finding inetrest and hunour in the every-day incidents of life … some gift of insiught which gave him the personal touch, rarely equalled by his contemporaries”), and great-grandson of Sir Alfred Stephen, Fellow). Adrain Stephen took after his father. He was a fine writer, especially of drama, and dedicated to making Australian audiences familiar with new plays (including Ibsen and Bernard Shaw). He graduated in Arts in 1913 and in Law in 1915, and edited the Pauline and Hermes. During World War One he rose to acting Major in the Royal Field Artillery, was mentioned in despatches and won the Croix de Guerre avec palme and the Military Cross. He was killed in France on 14 March 1918, and in his will left ₤50 to the College for the formation of a library of modern drama and fiction. • Lindon Helton Biddulph, BA, LLB (1890-1963) was in College 1907-09. He was born 7 March 1890, at Bourke, son of Philip Biddulph. He graduated in Arts in 1910 and in Law in 1913. During World War One he was a Captain in the 35th Battalion, AIF, anbd was awarded the Military Cross. He was afterwards a solicitor in Armidale (Mackenzie & Biddulph) and then in Sydney (Biddulph & Salenger). “Lin had a great zest for life; and his unfailing cheerfulness and his enthusiasm for whatver matter he took in hand made him a grand companion” (Pauline

1964). In 1963 he donated a large collection of books mostly having to war history. His bookplate, with its elaborate armorial bearings, commemorates his connection with the Biddulph baronets of Westcombe, in Kent. • Ralph Edwin Smith (1901-93) was in College 1921-25. He was born 21 October 1901. He studied Law but did not graduate. According to the Pauline, “His sumptuously furnished apartment in College – a combination of lounge and library – was the starting point of many mysterious exploit and no chapter of Edgar Wallace could outdo the thrills of his nocturnal adventures.” In July 1958 Felix Arnott visited his hiome at visit to his home at Darling Point, and saw his library, “a magnificent vcollection of several thousand volumes”, including numerous collectors’ items, and urged himn to leave it to the Coilege. It is not yet clear what he did with the rest of his life. He died 24 July 1993, at Darling Point. He donated a large number of miscellaneous books.

Fund Raising from the 1850s to the 1960s (A paper given by Alan Atkinson, with the title “Learning, Piety, Nostalgia: Why Men and Women Gave Money to St Paul’s College”, at the Sydney University colloquium on “University Philanthropy and Public Enterprise”, 8 June 2011.)

St Paul’s College was founded in the 1850s. From the beginning its role and position were ambiguous. It was to be a college within the new University of Sydney but also to exist “in connexion with” the Anglican Church. It was established with funds contributed partly by the colonial government and partly by private donation. Also, the moment of its foundation was one in which, in political terms, an old land-owning elite was on the point of giving way to an energetic liberal democracy, and in a strong sense the College was caught between the two. Again, the gold-rush of this period supposedly created a culture of crass materialism in New South Wales and Victoria. And yet, the mass of new money also nourished large visions, not only of national greatness (each colony being seen as an incipient nation), but also of moral, cultural and intellectual improvement. The University itself had been planned from the late 1840s, before the discoveries near Bathurst, but it was reconceived on much larger and more splendid lines thanks to gold, and underpinned by more elaborate ambitions. The College was also a direct product of a particularly fertile, contentious and ambitious period for the Anglican Church in Australia. For the ensuing century St Paul’s sat somewhere close to the centre of plans to give the Church a national significance in the antipodes, and to give the nation, whether New South Wales or Australia, a religious ­- even an ecclesiastical – dimension. Those responsible were a small but influential minority within the hierarchy of the Australian Church. The energy and range of these ambitions – a distinctive form of Australian conservatism – have never been comprehensively explored. [1] But they moved numbers of men and women to give money to the College. During the mid 1850s, the principal founder, Chief Justice Sir Alfred Stephen, spent considerable time on the bench scribbling pleading letters to friends and associates. Partly as a result, a total of £27,000 (half from government) was raised to build, or to

begin building, the College. A good number of benefactors were clergymen, whose generosity, given that they were not well paid, is testimony to the hopes held out for the College, as a bulwark of Anglicanism. The bulk, however, were laymen prominent in the councils of the Church. Some of these, including the very largest contributors (Thomas Sutcliffe Mort, Thomas Ware Smart, Robert Ebenezer Johnson), were clearly entranced with the idea of reshaping Anglicanism in the Antipodes, and of giving the local Church a deep Tractarian foundation. They envisaged St Paul’s as a home not just for Puseyite theology, for sacred art and sacred music, but also for related notions of the common good. It was to educate devout and high-minded statesmen.[2] Other subscribers were no doubt more concerned with ensuring that their sons could take advantage of Sydney University by living in a college of the Oxford-Cambridge type. Several in the southern highlands (J.W. Chisholm, William Pitt Faithfull, J.S. Futter) were men of large acres with offspring who did in fact come to St Paul’s in due course. On the other hand, contributors from around Bathurst, in the west, included a good number who probably gave because they had more money than they knew what to do with – Bathurst being then the epicentre of the New South Wales gold-rush. The gold-rush was fundamental to everyone’s generosity. But gold was not unlimited. By 1859, with building only half complete, the boom had ended and all donations ceased. During the rest of the nineteenth century, apart from a brief and successful campaign to build a home for the Warden, in 1885-86, there was no concerted effort to raise funds for the College. A few large sums came in from individuals for the foundation of scholarships, but at this point, wealthy Anglicans were relatively uninterested in making University education more accessible to the middle classes – less than Roman Catholics and much less than Presbyterians, judging from the scholarships available at the other two colleges, St John’s and St Andrew’s. St Paul’s was never deliberately exclusive, but nor was it deliberately inclusive either. However, Anglicans did see a need to keep up the numbers of their clergy and the influence of their Church, if necessary by making it possible for young men of slender means to train for Holy Orders. Of the scholarships and book prizes offered by the College at the turn of the century nearly all were for work in Divinity classes, typically taken by the Warden, and for students aspiring to be clergymen.[3]

All this changed as the College created its own numerous body of alumni, most of them laymen. This happened about the turn of the century. From 1882 there had been a steady increase in the numbers of students entering each year, so that by the early years of the twentieth century there was community of Old Paulines with their own strong sense of the main virtues and purpose of the College. The St Paul’s College Union, founded in 1891 for past and present students, helped the process, adding directly, for instance, to the number of former students elected to the College’s governing body. In 1910 a twice-yearly (later annual) magazine, the Pauline, was started, in an effort to keep the wider College community in touch with the achievements and needs of its alma mater. By 1920 the term “College tradition” was beginning to carry a peculiar weight and magic of its own, among both past and present men, and it affected nearly everything the College did. It was hard to argue for more buildings while numbers of students were uncertain, but by 1908 the demand for places in College was clearly outstripping supply, and Council now authorised the completion of the original plan, at an estimated cost of £10,000. The first instalment, costing about £5000, was to include the Tower, 24 new student rooms, eight bathrooms, two large lecture rooms and servant accommodation.[4] As the original government commitment had not yet been used up, part of the money was to come from the NSW Treasury. The leading figure in the fundraising campaign was the barrister David Merewether, who had been in College in the early 1890s and had only just been elected to Council. It was Merewether and men like him, former students now in their 30s and 40s, who were to set the tone for such efforts in future. Their ambitions were inward-looking and they appealed, not to sectarian, Christian or scholarly idealism, but to College loyalties, and an entrenched rivalry with other, newer colleges. Without more rooms, so their campaign leaflet said, many students would go elsewhere, “to the present and future detriment of St Paul’s”.[5] St Andrew’s College, already 50 percent bigger thanks to new buildings, was the main threat. [6] The Rawson Cup – the great prize for intercollegiate sport – had been awarded for the first time in 1907 and, unsurprisingly in view of their numbers, St Andrew’s was to hold it for most of the next four decades. This effort was to set the pattern for the remainder of the twentieth century. The leading theme was the

College experience, powerful in memory but limited in reach. Besides alumni, the main donors were to be their near relations, fathers, sisters, widows, who knew that experience at second hand. However, money was slow to come in. Though substantial compared with previous years, the alumni body was still small and relatively young. Many were men with growing families, who could not afford to be free with their money. The very rich were still scarce. After six years, at the start of World War One, only £800 had been collected, a fraction of what was needed.[7] Nevertheless the extension afterwards called the Radford Wing was complete in 1915. The effort was renewed in 1920 and the extension now called the Garnsey Wing was completed in 1921. By this time a new and remarkably ambitious building plan had been adopted, so as to accommodate nearly 200 students (the current number being 53). The campaign now concentrated on the increased size of the University’s student population, and on the perceived need to be able to offer a room in College to every student who applied for one. In short, the organisers seem to have believed that they had a responsibility to keep in step with the University as it responded to a twentieth-century national demographic, opening itself up to increasingly large numbers.[8] However, there was no hint of any larger idealism – of any need to make tertiary education itself more widely accessible. Certainly, the campaigners stated their regret “that numbers of Church of England men, through inability to pay the College fees, are compelled to forego the advantages of college life”. [9] But this was an argument incidental to the main campaign, aimed at individuals who might bequeath money for scholarships. Once again, the response was disappointing, even before the 1930s Depression intervened. Meanwhile, estimated costs rose sharply. By 1934, when ambitions had fallen back to accommodation for only 90-95 students, the immediate target was put at £25,000, with £25,000 more needed for a chapel and library. In 1938, when a more skilled and concerted campaign began, the aim was £80,000.[10] So, while alumni were multiplying and, presumably, getting richer as they got older (though the Depression had set many back), the sum asked of them was growing even more rapidly. Nevertheless, the Warden of the day, Arthur Garnsey, had very large intellectual ambitions for St

Paul’s, larger than any since the 1850s. His deep involvement with the University plus his BroadChurch idealism made him extravagantly hopeful about raising and spending money. He wanted to reconfigure the relationship between College and University, and to give a higher standing to residential learning. St Paul’s, he said, should have funds sufficient “to establish and maintain scholarships, lectureships and a strong tutorial staff; and it should command the means to promote research, both extensive and intensive, in some of the many subjects of study proper to a University, as well as the systematic exposition and defence of the Christian Faith, which alone would justify its existence as a Church University College”. With its Christian foundations thus strengthened, it would help “to assert the dignity of theological learning and to leaven the life of the University with the wholesome influences of sound religion”. By that he meant religion open to all the diversity of human experience and opinion.[11] Money-raising methods, though more sophisticated than hitherto, had no connection whatever with Garnsey’s idealism, which might as well have been left unstated. Alumni were still the main, and really the only hope, and campaigners appealed shamelessly to nostalgia and old fellowship. A number of former students volunteered to raise money among their contemporaries. Each man was to send out 25 form letters notifying his old friends of his own intention to donate a small sum annually for ten years on condition that ten others would do the same. The method was mechanical and the tone artificially cheery, with references to “the extension of our dear old buildings where we had such a happy and hectic time goodness knows how many years ago”. What a pity, went one variation on this theme, “that anyone should have to be turned away and so miss the good times we had at College”.[12]

lege alumni. A hesitant start having been made in 1952, two years later the accountant W.J. Southey Wilson took charge. It had always been standard practice to take donations by instalments. But Wilson had a flair for the business. As he explained afterwards, the sums coming in were mostly small, between $4 and $40, though a few were as much as $2000, and these undoubtedly made the difference. Wilson caught an historic wave. He took advantage of the economic optimism of the post-war decades and of the large numbers prepared to make their own contribution, big or small, to a great period of nation-building. And at last there were numbers of Old Paulines whose age (or the age of whose children) and whose bank accounts allowed them to be generous. Within two years Wilson had raised $8050, with about 250 subscribers sending contributions more or less regularly. The final total, raised between 1955 and 1963, was $43,400, which with considerable government help allowed for the extension of College numbers by 40 percent and the building of a very fine Chapel.[14] Wilson put his success down to two things. He was himself a Pauline, and therefore trusted by his fellows, but, on the other hand, he never made personal requests. Everything was done by generalised correspondence. He did so well that in the end donors did not want to stop. “[They] strongly urged me”, he said, “to organise another appeal for some other College project”.[15]

Alumni might well have been struck by the falsity of this approach. Certainly, one munificent alumnus, Mr Frank Albert, gave £500 and promised the same again if ten others did likewise.[13] But otherwise donations were not only small but also scanty. Besides, they were soon cut short by World War Two. Yet another effort was made in 1947, but it was short-lived and dominated by a single large benefactor, the newspaper proprietor Sir Hugh Denison, whose three sons had been to St Paul’s.

Considering this story over all, it is clear that between the nineteenth and the mid-twentieth centuries the College changed in the minds of benefactors from a public cause to a private one, from an institution of public significance to one which mattered mainly for what it had done for them at a crucial period in their own lives. Large-minded educational schemes such as that of Arthur Garnsey, though entirely consistent with the reasons for the College’s foundation, did not figure in day-to-day arguments for money. There were not seen as persuasive. And yet, the most effective attitudes to fund-raising shifted in the other direction, from the personal and direct (soliciting by private letter or even face-toface) to the detached and generalised. Gone were the published lists of donors, with precise sums against each name. Now it might even be hard to tell who gave and who did not.

Only in the 1950s do we see the beginning of a skilled, concerted and sustained campaign to raise money from the now considerable number of Col-

This was, of course, not the end of the story. The establishment of the St Paul’s College Foundation in 1977, while a natural outcome of Wilson’s work,

introduced a new dynamic into the business of fund-raising for the College, which I will not explore here. The Foundation has been enormously successful, raising over $15 million for the College. However, in keeping with established practice, its main focus has been on buildings and scholarships. Its brief extends to “state of the art student facilities”, but not to the kind of systematic educational initiatives sketched by Arthur Garnsey.[16] The idea that the Pauline community or anyone else might be tempted to fund “state of the art” education at the College has not yet been tested. During the twentieth century giving became a test of feeling, and the degree of feeling has been to some extent a private matter. This is consistent with what the great American sociologist-historian Richard Sennett has called “the fall of public man”.[17] Public rank, public manners, public idealism and public responsibility are no longer the main test of civic virtue. Private feeling and private virtue – common decency – the qualities that define us as family figures, and in this case as alumni and old friends, matter more. A university college can no longer be witness to religious attachment, as St Paul’s was designed at first to be. Money, once a means of demonstrating public virtue and public rank, is now more often a means of expressing feeling and reinforcing intimacy. St Paul’s College has benefitted, financially and in many other ways, from being a place of intense feeling. Within its own circle, it evokes deep loyalties. As the reference to Arthur Garnsey shows, it was difficult to connect those loyalties with ideas about the educational role of the College, as a place which could enlarge students’ minds in ways the University could not do. Increasingly during the twentieth century the motivation for giving was proprietorial. It was right and fitting that “our” college, our some-time home, should be maintained with our money, especially, from an individual point of view, as our children become less dependent on family resources. The great achievement of the St Paul’s College Foundation has been to build up that sense of on-going responsibility. This is in contrast with the motivation of the founders, and of men such as Arthur Garnsey, who thought of the College as an institution established for public purposes, which were to be worked out in collaboration with the Church and the Univer-

sity. According to the first view, the main aim of fundraising is to preserve, to improve on an existing model, to remember, to celebrate and to move incrementally forward. The second view is capable of re-envisaging. It can seem to threaten the existing model. It is open-ended. It was open-ended in the 1850s, it was open-ended in Garnsey’s day and it continues to be open-ended, in each case depending on the way the College can best meet the needs of its generation. [1] For example, see Peter Hempenstall, The Meddlesome Priest: A Life of Ernest Burgmann (Sydney 1993). [2] Benefactors of St Paul’s College (Sydney 1859) (in St Paul’s College Archives, hereafter SPCA); Hamish Milne, “The Origins of St Paul’s College”, BA thesis, University of Sydney 1995, p. 59; Alan Atkinson, Building Jerusalem: A History of St Paul’s College (forthcoming). [3] University of Sydney Calendar, 1900, pp. 327-8. [4] St Paul’s College Council Minutes, 14 March 1907, 18 June 1908, College Archives. [5] [6] Hamish Milne, “St Paul’s College: Another Fifty Years, 1900-1950”, MPhil thesis, University of Sydney 1997, p. 25. It will be clear that I owe a great deal to this thesis. [7] The Revd Dr L.B. Radford, Commemoration Day address (typescript), 21 May 1914, College Archives 77/14. [8] Milne, “St Paul’s College: Another Fifty Years, 1900-1950”, pp. 68-71. [9] St Paul’s College, Extension of College: Building Funds (Sydney 1920). [10] St Paul’s College Calendar, 1934, p. 47; Labour Daily, 16 June 1938. [11] St Paul’s College Calendar, 1938-39, p. 47; Appeal booklet 1938, College Archives 77/15. [12] Proposed form letter, minutes of meeting of appeal committee, 14 September 1938, College Archives 77/15. [13] Milne, “St Paul’s College: Another Fifty Years, 1900-1950”, p. 169. [14] A.P. Elkin, “St Paul’s College: An Historical Sketch”, St Paul’s College Calender 1964-65, pp. 1218; W.J. Southey Wilson, report, 19 November 1968, College Archives 77/19. [15] Wilson, report, 19 November 1968. [16] “St Paul’s College Foundation”, [17] Richard Sennett, The Fall of Public Man (New York 1977).

War Service

Great Achievements There have always been high achievers at St Paul’s College, though some periods in its long history have been more impressive than others. The last ten or fifteen years have been the best so far, and talents vary widely. The many University Medals won by Paul’s men in recent years have ranged from Maths and Physics to History and International Studies, and the College also has had a stream of top students in Music (together with a very fine Chapel Choir).

The medals of Osborn Trebeck, who served in the Sudan campaign 1885 and with the Canadian Expeditionary Force in World War One: Egypt Medal and bar (the latter marked “Suakin 1885”); British War Medal (1919); Victory Medal (1919), engraved SJT A.O.TREBECK C.A.M.C.; the Khedive’s Star; and Mayor of Sydney’s Silver Medal 1885, engraved “N.S.W. CORP A.O.TREBECK A.M.C.” These medals were offered at auction in 2006 and again in 2010.

Though large numbers of Paul’s men served in the two World Wars, not many have been professional servicemen and only a few have signed up to lesser conflicts. Harold McIntosh, who fought in the Boer War and in World War One, and who was a lieutenant-colonel of the 12th Light Horse when he was killed in Palestine in 1917, is one of a small number to have shown outstanding abilities of this sort. Sir Michael Bruxner, assistant adjutant and quarter-master general of the Anzac Mounted Division in the last years of World War One, was another. So was T.L.F. Rutledge, who commanded the 4th Pioneer Battalion in World War One and the 7th Light Horse Reserves in World War Two. All three appear in the Australian Dictionary of Biography.

Each period since the 1850s has had its distinctive flavour, but threaded through them, if sometimes very vaguely, has been a distinctive intellectual approach to spirituality, creativity and society, coming originally from the Church of England’s Oxford Movement. In the generation before World War One, the focus was on Arts, Education and Divinity. Several of students at that time, such as G.V. Portus, Ernest Burgmann and A.P. Elkin (see Humanities and the Church), inspired the rethinking of Australian Anglicanism after the war, especially in areas of social justice and Church-State relations. Elkin went on to be one of Australia’s great anthropologists. His success in giving a moral turn to the understanding of Aboriginal culture and ceremony is echoed in the pioneering work of another Pauline anthropologist, his student Kenneth Eyre Read, in New Guinea. For both, as for the Oxford theologians, ritual gave a moral fabric to communities. The 1920s and ’30s, when Canon Arthur Garnsey was Warden, the emphasis was more political – Paul’s housed two future prime ministers, McMahon and Whitlam, plus Donald Cameron, Nigel Bowen and Edward St John, similarly conspicuous as Federal parliamentarians, the remarkable State Labor minister Clive Evatt and the British Labour MP, Kim Mackay, a pioneer of united Europe (see Government, Law and Civil Rights). During Dr Felix Arnott’s wardenship (1946-63) the emphasis, at least in student achievement, was largely on Science, Medicine and Engineering. During the 1950s the College housed one future Fellow of the Royal Society (Michael Hall), and eleven men who, as scientists and medical doctors, were to b recognised at the highest possible level for Australians, as AC or AO. There were also four future judges, one High Court and the others Supreme Court. And yet

Arnott deliberately nourished poetry and drama, as a learned member of a new Church movement designed to reconnect faith with every variety of art. The theatrical careers of Michael Blakemore and Terence Clarke began in College in Arnott’s time, as did the architectural career of the late Tom Heath. Since about the mid-1990s life in the College has been coloured especially by an interest in what has been called social entrepreneurship – the combination of economics, problem-solving and philanthropy. This echoes the social justice concerns of Radford’s days, and even the Christian Socialism brought from England in 1856 by the first Warden, Henry Hose, and enthusiastically reinvented by Garnsey. For two great philanthropic enterprises founded by Paul’s men as students go to www.aimementoring. com (Jack Manning Bancroft’s Australian Indigenous Mentoring Experience) and www.180degreesconsulting.org (Nat Ware’s 180 Degrees Consulting). This new, or renewed, focus might explain why the College has done so well with Rhodes Scholarships because active humanitarianism now counts highly for the Rhodes. Throughout the twentieth century, a quarter of the male Rhodes Scholars from this University had lived or were living at Paul’s. Since 2001 the proportion has suddenly leapt to half. Also since 2001 half of the Presidents of the Student Union, the pinnacle of student leadership in the University, have been Paulines. And yet, this is a small College, housing 0.5 percent of the whole, and it spreads its favours evenly among a great range of interests and activities. In sport, achievements have been just as good. The College seems to have been the original base for the Sydney University Football Club, the oldest rugby club in New South Wales, in the 1860s, and in the 1880s the Sydney University Sports Union, a new invention in its day, was organised from one of the student rooms. Two of the VIII rowing in the 1912 Olympic Games in Stockholm were from Paul’s, and the boat belonged to the College. Again, Harrie Wood was central to the revival of rugby union in Australia after World War One. Before and since, rugby has always been the most likely way for Pauline sportsmen to reach national celebrity. In 1968-69 Tony Abrahams and Jim Roxburgh played in the same Wallaby scrum – and were two of the seven who withdrew from the tour to South Africa because Black players were excluded from the

Springboks. (See Sportsmen) [Criteria for “national significance”: knighthoods, CMGs, CBEs, ACs and AOs, judges in national and state courts (above District Court), bishops, ambassadors, fellows of national learned academies (FRS, FAA, FAHA etc), entries in the Australian Dictionary of Biography and in Wikipedia, obituaries in The Times, membership of national sporting teams, including Olympic and Commonwealth Games, etc. Lists are still incomplete, especially in the Arts and Sport.]