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1923 ASSOCI ATED NEW SPAP ERS, LIMITED CARMELITE HOU SE, LONDO N, E. C. 4


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CO NT EN TS Page T he W heel s of T ra de ...........................................................

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Attractio n the F irst E s s e n t i a l ....................................

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Attracti ng At t e n t i o n ................................................16,19

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I llustr ations

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T he T echn ical A spect of Advert ising N ew spa per P rint ing

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T he P ress R o o m ...........................................................

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L ay Out an Advert isemen t

Corre cting P roofs

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How Adve rti ser s’ B locks T he F ound ry

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PREFACE rJ ^ H

I S Hand book is repub lished with the idea of

its being kept fo r reference on two subjects : How and where to advertise a give n prod uct ; and what mecha nical processes are used in the prod uc­ tion of the prin ted advertiseme nt. The

variou s hint s and suggestio ns in

the

Hand book are offered with the pur pos e of as sis tin g advertisers to obtain better value fo r their mon ey in the selection and use of advert ising medi a. If , to an y ind ivi du al reader, some of them seem too elemen tary to have been set down, they wil l be excused or the groun d of their possib le use fuln ess to some colleague of smaller experience. Fiv e previ ous edition s have been issue d, and it is at the request of ma ny Adve rtise rs, Ad ve rti sin g Ag ent s, Ad ver tisi ng Man ager s, and their respective staf fs that the pres ent editio n has been brought up to date, show ing the latest type s, dis pla y rules, and borders at their dispo sal.


CHAPTER ONE

THE WHEELS OF TRA DE Modern Adverti sing an Exact Science in Busin ess -Building H E day is past when Ad vertis ing was an isolate d depart ment in a business house, charged solely with the du ty of creatin g general publ icity, more or less at haphazard . Unt il near ly a quar ter of a centur y ago, an advertise r worked in the dark . The most importa nt newspapers resolutely declined to tell him wha t he was gettin g for his money. None but a few of the most impo rtant had any really fixed scale of charges, and these papers were precise ly the most reticent of all on the sub ject of net sales.

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A manu factur er or merchant who adverti sed his goods made a guess (sometimes rather wildly) at the number of people who would see his announcement in a given paper, and relied upon his own acumen as a buye r to protect himself against the risk of pay ing more than his competit or for the space. Small wonder tha t his adver tising manager was satisfied to aim at produci ng a kind of general effect, har dly even attem pting to form an opinion of the results obtain able from any adverti sement or series of advert ise­ ments.

The Policy of the Open Book It is not claiming too much for A ssocia ted Newspapers, Limit ed, to say that the y were the first to publish two sets of figures— the certified net paid sales (or in other words, the e xact number o f copies of each paper act ual ly purchased by readers) and the fixed prices 5


The Ad ver tise r’s Handbook TH E PRO DUC T

Sales Department

Mail Order Department

Wholesale House

Retail Shop Department

Shopkeeper

I TH E CONSU MER

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TH E AD VE RT ISE ME NT

IWrite r

I JDaily WeeklyJ Paper Paper

Artist | J

Space-Buying Department

Copy Dep artment

Advertising Agency

AD VE RT ISIN G DE PA RT ME NT

6


The Adve rtiser ’s Handbook charged for space of every kind and in every position. The oldfashioned newspaper proprie tors would have received a shock if they h ad heard the suggestion th at a c harte red accou ntant who had inspected their ci rculation books should publish the figures in them. The Associated Newspapers, Limited, adop t precisely this, the only honest course. They tell an advert iser exactl y what he gets for his money—and prove it.

Linking Advert isemen t with Salesm anshi p This policy of the open book ha s enabled a dvertisin g to be linked far more closely tha n ever before wi th salesmanship. An adv ertising mana ger used to cast his message on the winds, leaving the sales dep artm ent to pick up results as and where it could, b y virt ue of a general knowledge on the par t of the public th at the goods were on sale. Now he boldly says to the sales-manager th at he has told his stor y to a definite number of families, distr ibute d over a specified area, at a cost exactly calculated. The travelle rs of the business house can promise retailers, or the wholesale houses by which shops are supplied, or the firm’s own retail manager s if it owns its own shops, that at a given date the whole country will hear of the goods. A sales-manag er can promise shopkeepers so ass ured a deman d th at the y will pu t into stock in anticipa tion of the adver tising campaig n a larger order tha n they would otherwise h ave given, and can obta in a wider distrib ution of his wares tha n has ever before been possible. When they know th at the goods are to be thus adverti sed, shopkeepers are anxious to handle them. It is now safe for a retai l advertis er, fixed in one spot, to advertise in the Daily Ma il alone to 1,800,000 households, the overwhelming m ajori ty of whom are too far away to be possible personal customers at the shop. Their orders unfailingly arrive by post, from every comer of the Kingdom, and a big Mail Order Business can be b uilt up. Efficient salesmanship watches the pat h of the produc t from factor y or warehouse to the eye of the consumer, where it meets the 7


1

The Adverti ser’s Handbook adv ertis eme nt, simila rly tra ced from the firm’s dep art me nt of adve rtisin g, thro ugh Copy de par tm ent and Adve rtisin g Agency, to the news paper which sells the goods to the public. A cha rt on page 6 shows the links betw een adv erti sing and salesm anshi p. Fro m this it will be seen th at adve rtisin g, at the pre sen t day, has be come as n ear ly as poss ible an exa ct science in busi ness- buildi ng. By this met hod of salesm anship the publi c dem and is cre ate d spon tane ousl y. The expense of adve rtisin g is more th an reco vere d thr oug h— (a) The redu ced facto ry-co st of goods prod uce d in large qu an ­ titi es at a regu lar rat e of ou tpu t ; (ô) The small er discou nts requi red by r etail ers, where the shop, by selling faster , is pu t to less sa les-expe nse ; (c) Dimi nishe d comp etitio n where the publ ic dem and s an adv erti sed bran d. It pay s a reta iler be tte r to hand le stoc k th at “ tu rn s over ” quic kly, by bein g sold for him thro ugh adv erti sem ent , an d the sma ller disc ounts allowed him do not reduce his prof it, beca use in unb ran ded merc hand ise his price is at the mer cy of any “ cu tti ng ” com pet itor ; while the price of prac tica lly all adv erti sed wares is ma int ain ed thr oug h the actio n of t he adv ertis er, who will no t allow cut ting .

Bringing Salesmansh ip to the Consumer In orde r to sell goods to the people who need, and can buy them , the messag e of the seller m ust be carr ied to the lar gest possib le publi c th at it is pra ctic abl e to reach . As it is possible to sell by word of mo uth only to a ver y smal l num ber of persons, the way to sell goods on the large scale is by pri nti ng the message. Tak ing 1,800,000 peo ple, observ e wh at it would cost to tell each of the m ver bal ly the sto ry th at sells the goods ! 8


The Adve rtiser’s Handbook Reaching Many Million Buyers There are three way s in which to tell the story in a complete manner— with description, illustratio ns, and selling argument— to 1,800,000 households. Yo u can print it and send it by post. Yo u can print it and cause it to be delivered by hand. Yo u can insert Let us see how these it as an advert isemen t in the Daily Mail. methods work out respe ctive ly.

Addres sing 1,800,000 by Post A t the present marke t price of print and paper, a book let weighin g (withou t envelope) one ounce (the limit of |d. postage) could not be cred itab ly produced at less than £2 a thousand. s. d. £ 3,600 о о 1,800,000 b ooklets at £2 per thousand 1,800,000 envelopes at 5s. per th ousand 450 0 0 Addre ssing 1,800,000 at 7s. 6d. per thousand 675 0 0 i8o о о Env elop ing and stamping at 2s. per thousand 3>75o о о 1,800,000 stam ps at |d. £8,655

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If the booklet s were delivered by hand the cost would be rath er lower, but this must be regarded as even a less sati sfac tory metho d than sending by post. There is no cer tain ty tha t the bookle ts act ual ly have been delivered as directed ; and if this could be guaran teed it is doubt ful how much atten tion the householder gives to printed mat ter pushed through the lette r box, assuming tha t he sees i t at all !

Advert ising in 1,800,000 Home s. Compare these two methods with the known selling power of newspaper advertis ing. The front page of the Daily Ma il brings the adve rtise r’s message to over 1,800,000 homes. It is proba ble 9


The Ad ver tise r’s Handboo k that every copy of the Daily Mai l is read by three persons at least. Bu t ignoring this fact, and placing the circulation at the guaranteed net sale figure of 1,800,000, it can be said that for appro xima tely one-seventh of the minimum cost of sending one and three-q uarter million books by post over 1,800,000 families are reached with the entire front page of t he Daily Mai l for only .. .. ..

£1,250

(Of course, the message could be convey ed at a smaller pro­ portionate cost by an advertiser who contented himself with an announcement of less e xtent than the entire front page— the premier advertise ment in the premier advertising medium of the Empire.)

A Concentrated Appea l. The last of the three methods, in addition to being the most economical, is the most efficient: for two reasons. The Daily Ma il method is, first of all, a concentrated appeal. An adverti sing manager seeks the line of least resistance ; just as the fact ory manager can buy most advan tageou sly in large b u lk s, and from a few sources, so an advertiser prefers to bu y circulati on once, b y the million, rather than ten times by th e hund red thousand. The large manufa cturer of any commodity can afford to sell it cheaper, and usual ly sells it of bette r qualit y, than the small man. The same is true of circulation. It is bought cheaper and better in large lots than in small. The test of newspap er-quali ty is influence. Only an influential paper can sustain a large circulation : only a large circulation is influential. The second reason why Press advertis ing is t he most efficient is this ; i.e., the difference between sending a circu lar to households and delivering the message through the columns of a strong newspaper 10


The Adv ertis er’s Handbook is not only a question of cost or even only a quest ion of th e ce rtain ty th at the message will be read. Announcemen ts in a newspaper of influence borro w from the newspaper something of its own -prestige. The ablest critics of adv ertising, and its best exponents, agree t ha t when all questions of price and net sale figures are ignored, no factor in the efficiency of a newspaper adverti semen t has the same import ance as the reader s’ confidence in the editorship of th e news­ pape r itself. Jud ged by the test proposed—tha t whatev er newspaper enjoys the fullest confidence of its readers is in propor tion to its sale the most efficient advertis ing medium—there is no need to advance in this place, any claim for the group of newspapers represe nted. Altho ugh indep enden tly edited, they stand for a school of tho ugh t which has be en accepte d by the public, and has borne fru it in na tion al affairs. To me ntion no others, the promotion of aircra ft, the sup ply of shells to the army, and other policies of the War which t he Daily Ma il influenced, sufficiently indic ate in such a test the position of the group to which it belongs. When it is remembered th at the Daily Mail, with its Overseas, Continental and Atl ant ic editions, the Evening News, and the Weekly Dispatch have an aggregate net sale of ap prox ima tely 17I million copies a week, the exte nt of thei r influence becomes unquestionable. They are able to deliver for the adve rtiser a sledge-hammer blow which is very nearly irresistible, if his copy a nd his merchandise are right.

Art of Mail Order Adverti sing Brief reference has been made to the remark able facilities provide d by the adverti semen t columns of the Daily Mai l for building up a Mail Order Business. In this direction there are vast potent ialitie s not realized by many firms whose enterprise is concen trated on bringing customers personally to thei r shops. It should be pointed out to these th at the Daily Mail enters simultaneously eighteen hundr ed thous and households in all pa rts of the U nited Kingdom. Advertising is now so exact t ha t business may II


F

*

The Ad ver tise r’s Handbook be done with hosts of these readers—actual purchasers of the Daily Mail— at a distance, with the same facility as if they were able to visit the central showrooms in person. Advertisers have proved the golden rule of demonstrating value for money as well as giving it in the actual transacti on. Goods are described in their announcements with a precision which enables the reader at a distance to visualize them ; illustra tive art goes farth er still and permits the reader to see in advance what he or she is going to get. On the top of it all there is the Daily Mail guarant ee th at the goods will equal the description in its columns or the money will be refunded. Firms in London and the provincial centres of business have upon their books hundreds of thousands of regular customers whom they have never seen, and who have never, to their knowledge, visited their premises—the link between them being t he advertis ing columns of the Daily Mail. Mail Order advertising is a specialized line of publicity . Its principles are perfectly simple. Remember th at while in other circumstances you might desire to whet curiosity in order to bring the reader to the shop or showrooms, this would not serve the purpose with readers who rarely travel to the Metropolis or to your parti cula r town. What you wa nt is to sell your wares r ight away. State precisely, then, what your wares are, whether the article is a p aten t device or one for household or personal use, tell all abo ut it, what it will do, and why it is well worth having. Tell nil this accurately, stat e the price, and whether this includes postage or not. Be prepared also to take the article back and refund the money if the purchaser is not satisfied. Never disappoint a Mail Order customer. Remember th at he or she, purchasing from you withou t the oppor tunity of seeing the goods, is placing implicit faith in your announcement—and in the newspaper which prints it. That is 12


The Adv ertis er’s Handbook wh y Mail Order adver tising should alwa ys be explic it. Tak e no risk of being misunderstood, and there can be littl e risk of dis­ satisf action on the part of the customer who puts faith in you.

“ Goo dwill ” Adve rtisin g. Before considering the presentati on of the selling appeal, a few words must be said about tha t kind of advert ising which does not seek only to sell goods. For well-recognized and sound reasons, a firm sometimes desires to make itself known to the world as a firm. Ther e ma y be a question of issuing, at some futur e time, new shares. Or the business transacted, the goods produc ed, or t he mer­ chandis e distr ibute d may be of a character wh ich is c onceiv ed not to require publ ic announcement, though it may be impo rtant tha t the firm should have public reputation. Circumstances ma y hav e arisen, or developmen ts taken place, which can best be brou ght to the notice of the public by le tting them know something of the firm, its methods, ideals, and resources. Some great public servic e in war, peace, or reconstruction may have been performed, of which it is felt tha t a published record should be made. There may , in any of these circumstances, be good reason for tak ing the world into the confidence of the firm, with out dire ctly asking anyone to purchase its wares. This is one of the cases for the form of “ goodw ill ” advertising . The aut hor ity of wide ly circula ted newspapers is valu able in goodwill advert ising. A new spaper is bo ught to b e read— not merely glanced through ; it is a news-paper. The kind of mat ter proper to be used in goodw ill ad verti sing is closely akin to the rea ding-m atter of newspapers, and ver y unlike the readin g-mat ter of other publi ca­ tions. The purchaser of a new spaper, at the moment of re ading it, is in the mood for such reading matte r. When he is dally ing with more 13


The Ad ver tise r’s Handbook litera ry topics his mind is out of tune with commerce. He may chance upon a similar announcement in a technical publication, or a trade paper. But the net of the newspaper is thrown so wide tha t there is hardly any danger th at anyone who, for special vocational reasons, ought to read the announcement, will miss it ; while an indefinite number of persons whom it would be of advanta ge to interest, will see in a newspaper mat ter which could not possibly reach them through a technological journal. In the Daily Mail large numbers of these goodwill adverti se­ ments, w ritten in the Service Department of the paper, have appe ared since the War. It is certain tha t the houses concerned have obtain ed from this medium publicity of a character and exten t th at could not have been secured in any other way. While some advertisers may regard letterpres s announce ments of this kind as primarily serving the purpose of building up goodwill, it is to be borne in mind t hat they are also extensively us ed as direct business-getters. Such advertisements are designed to create publ ic inter est not only in the firm but in the goods which are sold by th at firm. Many gr eat advertisers, having pro ved for themselves this dual effect of t he illust rated letterpress announcement, employ it as the opening feature of a publicity campaign. It prepares the way for the display announcements which are to follow. The purchasing public derive a feeling of confidence from the facts and circ umstances brough t to their notice in the narrati ve, and are in receptive mood to learn more about the specific goods offered when the display advertisem ents come along. Probably, for most classes of goods offered directly to the public, a judicious combination of letterpr ess and display, spread over a period, is the most effective form of pu blicity. 14


The Adv erti ser’s Handbook Examples of ill ustrate d letterpress advertisements : AÙJAJTVAkT A.VLCB M 4 40

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LIGHTING UP THE CONTINENTS.

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U« «* C—t-u*B fi l


CHAPTER TWO

ATT RAC TION TH E FIRST ESSENTIAL Main Principles of Display and Pictoria l Design In a newspaper, as elsewhere, it is useless to stat e the adva ntages of a produc t unless the reader’s atten tion is specially attr act ed to these statem ents in some way. Attra ction is achieved with efficiency thro ugh proper atte ntio n to two details—the copy and the mechanical presen tation of it. It may here Ъе pointed out that the Daily Mail advertisement pages and columns are made up fro m the point of view that is most pleasing to the eye ; the general tone of the advertising carried is very light, and heavy illustrations, dark backgrounds, and poster advertisements that are out of all proportion to the space, must be avoided. A design suitable for newspaper advertising will not commonly be th at adapte d to advertising in weekly periodicals, magazines, and the illustra ted papers. It is often a mistake to use the same designs or illustrations for b oth, either to save expense or with the idea t ha t a b etter cumul ative effect can be obtained when these are identical in the two sets of papers. At all events, the mechanical presentati on of the design mus t be differentiated. Remembering th at when a design or drawing has been made it can be reproduced as many times as may be desired, and in as many sizes as the different spaces m ay call for, it is false economy to save a little money in order to make one drawing suffice for two entirely different purposes, neither of which may, in consequence, be completely fulfilled. Compared with the price of space in a dozen, a score, or hundreds of papers, even a first-class drawing is 16


The Adver tiser’s Handbook cheap ; and ver y often it can be used more than once. The first consideration should be to make the best possible use of the space. To achieve this object, an experienced advertiser will ask himself the question, What do I want the design to do ? Accordin g to the class of papers in which it is proposed to advertise, the answer will be, to attr act attention and to explain the tex t of the advertisement. Speaking generally, a block goes with a newspaper advertisement to attrac t, and goes with an advertisement anywhe re else chiefly to convince, though it must also attra ct. Deco rativ e effects and striking borders (which cut off one ad­ vertise ment from its surroundings) should always be mecha nically produced in a wa y calculated to give a maximum of effect. The advi ce and help of those constant ly engaged in designing and block ­ maki ng for newspaper purposes can g ive great help to th e ad vertise r who avail s himself of them. The Ideas and Business Development Departm ent of the Asso ciate d Newspapers, Limited— the special service departm ent— is mainta ined with the sole object of giving service to advertisers. It brings no direct profit to the Company, and has no reason for existence excep t to make advertising more efficient. The commercial object with which it is maintained is, o f course, the belief tha t whatever makes advertising more efficient increases the amount of advertising space that can be sold.

What a Picture Should Illustrate A picture or design for newspaper advertising should be simple, strong, and significant. Tha t is to say, it must tell its story at a glance and te ll i t strongl y. If it is able to arouse curiosity, it will be ver y nearly ioo per cent efficient. If it attrac ts attentio n to itself, but does not draw the reader on to consider the text , it does no good. Should a picture represent the goods, or the use of the goods, or some idea connected with the goods ? In newspaper advertising в

17


The Ad ver tise r’s Handboo k it is ne arly always best tha t it should be connected with the product. The reader is in a serious mood. When w hat he has in his hand is a leisurely sort of paper, chiefly bought for its beautifu l or interes ting illustrations, its entertain ing stories, or its cultivat ed essays, he is in the right tune to be attr acte d by any striking picture, and, even though it be irrelevant, it will hold him long enough to ensure his seeing the name of th e advertised product. Tha t is about all tha t a picture which is meritorious but withou t selling-influence can be expected to accomplish. It appeals to an indolent mood. The pictures in a newspaper—which is bought to be read, not merely looked at —ought to be so contrived tha t they cause the argume nt to be read, too. Use of Bord ers and “ B ox es .” Regular use of a distinctive border may assist the cumulativ e effect of a series of advertisements. It forms a connecting link in the mind of th e reader. If it can be so designed as to imply some definite idea, its value is greatly increased. For example, if one were advertisin g a bicycle with a new kind of chain as its distinc tive selling-point, a border showing the pe culiarity of t his chain would be very useful. A series of advertisements about string or rope would have an excellent border ready made ; crochet-co tton could easily be adverti sed with a border mechanically produced from a narrow piece of crochet work. Where even a good deal of thou ght does not suggest an appro ­ priat e and distinctiv e border, a purely decorative design can be made ; and, cheapest of all, type founders sell ready-m ade fancy rule in great variet y, which costs very little. The Print ing Dep art­ ment of Associated Newspapers, Limited, keeps, for the service of advertisers or any of the papers there printed, a number of stock borders, proofs of which will be found at the end of this book. The more simple a border is in design, the more effective and charac teristic it is likely to be. Elabor ation is usually mischievous. Plain, or very nearly plain, rules can be used with great ad­ vantage in the midst of advertising copy, forming what printer s 18


The Adv erti ser’s Handbook term a “ b ox.” There is no surer way of calling atte ntio n to any imp orta nt and isolate d claim, provi ded it can be sta ted in a few words. Sparin g use, however, mus t be made of rules and boxes, especially when the y are wide. They cut up an adve rtisem ent and rob it of simplicity. Above all, when laying out an adver tisem ent, it is i mp ort ant to see t ha t rules are not so u sed as to divide it into shar ply- sepa rate d par ts, makin g it look like two or more adve rtise ­ men ts inst ead of one.

When There is No Picture If the adve rtise men t is neith er fairly large, nor very small, it xS often best to dispense with a pictur e altoget her. A smallish adv erti sem ent will be robbed of space in which to tell the sto ry if the pic ture is adeq uate to the purpose of at trac ting att ent ion ; and if th e p ictu re is n ot big enough t o be stri king, it is worse tha n useless, unless it is inse rted for its direct selling-nature. In oth er words, efficiency lies in dispensing with a picture whose only purpo se is to cat ch the eye ; but , of course, there are some small ad vert isem ents which would be incomplet e if unillu strated . The pict ure is the n real ly pa rt of th e selling copy, and only i ncide ntally a n eye-ca tcher. On the othe r hand , where an advert iseme nt is very small indeed, it ma y need a stron g simple picture , even with out sellingvalue, to avoid being overlooked. Sometimes an ingenious bord er is as useful as a pict ure ; bu t ingen uity is needed to contr ive one which will ma ke the small adve rtise men t stan d out.

Headl ines to Attrac t the Eye Some prod ucts are, in thei r own natu re, unsu ited for illus­ tra tio n ; and the copy-policy ado pted by some firms excludes pictur es. Here the headline is of grea t impor tance, and it mus t draw efficiency from two eleme nts—the words of which it is composed and the type in which it is set. Many examples of displa y-type s are given in the prin ting section of this Hand book. B2

19


The Ad ver tise r’s Handbo ok The attentio n-value of a headline may be as great as that of a picture, and according to one prominent writer on the subject the attentio n attra cted by a headline is of a more intense character than that attra cted by a picture. This is a matte r of opinion ; but words are more calculate d to lead a reader on, and cause him to read the text , than pictures. The same auth ority lays down the rule tha t a headline must be dignified, relevant , and sincere ; and that it must have the power to arouse interes t— if possible (he adds), curiosity. These requirements sum up the problem of how to write a headline. Change of copy all thro ugh has importance, where the advert ise­ ment is more than a mere announcement. The old idea of “ itera te and reiterat e ” has lost some of its force. Reite ration should be renewal of argument, not mere repetition of the same words to the point of tiresomeness. People read advertisemen ts with more atten tion than of old. The y read them more att ent ive ly eve ry year. The reason is that advertisements are bett er writt en as time goes on and the business of advertising develops new talen t.

20


CHAPTER THREE

THE TECHNICAL ASPECT OF ADVERTISING The Com posin g Room—Ins truct ions to Print er—Making a Lay- Out—Pro of-Re ading and Pri nte rs’ Marks—B loc kMakin g—The Foundry—The Machine Room Whe re an adve rtise r does not employ a Serv ice Ag enc y, the Ide as and Busin ess Deve lopm ent Depa rtme nt of the Ass oci ate d New spap ers, Lim ited , will present in outline comp lete adv erti sin g cam paig ns. Spec ial staffs will write and design adv ertis eme nts to the requ irem ents of clients, will provid e illust ratio ns and bloc ks, and sug gest follow- up system s and merchandi sing plans cal cul ate d to cons olid ate the benefits and inten sify the impetu s gen erat ed by Pres s adve rtisi ng. Le t us here, as brief ly as possible, endeav our to con vey an idea of the mec han ical side of the produc tion of the grea t nat iona l news ­ pape r, the Dail y Ma il. A workin g knowle dge of the succe ssive stag es thro ugh which an adv erti ser’ s announc ement must pass will be foun d of assista nce in plann ing the cop y and illu str ati ve effects.

The Compo sing Room “ Co py, ” which is the pri nte r’s name for manu scrip t to be put into typ e, is rece ived from the adve rtise r or his agen t by the Ad ­ vert isem ent Dep artm ent and, on being appr oved , is passed to the Hea d Adv erti sem ent Prin ter in the composin g room. Pho togr aphs or pict oria l designs are passed to a specia l staf f of artis ts in the Adv erti sem ent Dep artm ent if the y require atte ntio n in tha t respect, or the y ma y go stra igh t to the process depa rtme nt to hav e the block s made, as describ ed late r. 21


The Advertis er’s Handbook To deal with copy first. In the case of illustra ted letterpres s announcements (such as those instanced under the heading of Goodwill Advertising), or in other cases where there is a good deal of ma tter to be set in ordinary newspaper type, the copy is handed to the linotype operators. The linotype machines, which set up everythin g but big headings and “ display ” advertisements, have a keyboard resembling very closely th at of a typewri ter ; the Operator, touching one of the keys, causes a corresponding matri x or mould of a lett er to fall from the magazine where it is stored. When sufficient of these matrices have fallen to make a line of type of a length to correspond with the width of a column of the Daily Mail, they are carried autom atical ly into the casting wheel, molten metal is pumped in, and a slug or line of type is cast. The matrices being finished with, an arm descends and carries them away to be distr ibute d to their respective places in the magazine again, ready for use. The “ slug s” so cast are collected together, proofs are pulled, and the ma tter is ke pt in readiness for making up into a page. In the case of display advertisements, th e copy is gone over care­ fully by the Head Advertisement Printer, who chooses the various types and sizes of ty pe which will give the best display and effect. The types chosen are indicated by him on the copy, and th e adv ertise­ ment is then passed on to the compositors, who pu t it togeth er lett er by letter , line by line, according to the instruc tions marked. When completed, proofs are pulled and submi tted to the dep art­ menta l manager, and afterwards to the advertiser for his approval.

Instructions to the Printer For the guidance and convenience of advertisers, specimens of the display a nd body founts in the advertisement-cases of Asso­ ciated Newspapers, Limited, are printe d near the end of the handbook. Readers are reminded th at the composing staff of any good printing office or newspaper consists of highly-train ed men, and will c ontain men experienced in display. An a dvertiser should not deprive himself of the advantage s to be derived from their 22


The Adv erti ser’s Handbook skill by specifying too narro wly the sizes and face of typ e t o be used. Many times the exped ient of co unting the l ette rs in a displayed line is not a comple te guide to t he size of type which it will accommodate ; an M take s up fully thre e times the widt h of an I, for e xample, and a line th at is very full may not adm it the face of typ e chosen by the adve rtiser . The mas ter pri nte r should be allowed, in a general way, to exercise his discre tion as much as possible. He is a man of grea t experience , who knows from long pract ice how an anno unce ment can be displa yed to the grea test effect, and, in par ticu lar, to the gre ate st effect when prin ted in the Daily Mail. The poin t-sys tem of type measure ments—a ppro xim ately 72 poin ts maki ng an inch—is now adop ted in all newspa per offices in place of the plea sant old t radi tion al names. Thus : Pica is 12 po int ; Small pica is 11 poi nt ; Long primer is 10 poin t ; Bourgeois is 9 point (pronounced “ b urjoyc e ” ) ; Brevie r is 8 poi nt (pronounced ” bre veer ”) ; Minion is 7 p oint ; Nonpa reil is 6 p oint (pronounced “ n on' par rel ” ) ; Ru by is 5 point.

A thi n lead is a stri p of meta l placed betwee n lines to give ex tra space. Leads are measure d by points, the same as type. It may be useful to sta te the numb er of words (average word, five lette rs) per squar e inch, set “ solid ” (th at is with out leads) and, alte rna tely , with a 2-point lead, in an ordin ary face of Ro man type . Wo rds to th e Sq ua re Inc h

2-point Leaded. 5

Solid.

Type. 18-point 12-point io-p oin t 8-point 6-point

••

•• 23

7 14 21 З2 47

ii

.. . ••

16 23 34


The Ad ver tise r’s Handboo k Interv als between words are called by printers “ spaces ” ; intervals between lines are called “ leads.” Rules are pieces of lead or brass, type-high, measured in “ po ints” like type, to print a plain or a decorated line. The rules kept in stock in this office are shown on later pages. The term “ typehigh ” means the depth from face to base of a printers’ letter or block. Obvious ly, a rule that was not type-hig h would become a lead, and a lead tha t was too deep, or was locked up in the forme withou t being pushed down (as sometimes happens in a rough proof), a rule. The height of type is approx imatel y the diameter of a shilling.

Making a Lay-O ut A Lay -ou t is a sketch, given to the compositor, to indicate the choice and arrangement of type and rules desired, the position in which blocks are to be placed, and the general effect aimed at. It is not necessary to wr ite the whole of the copy on the l ay-o ut, and no t strictly necessary to draw the display-lines. The type writ ten copy is usua lly letter ed in ink, to enable the different paragra phs, etc., to be iden tified on the lay-ou t ; and the style, or ac tual part, of e ach portion will be presented, though it is best not to prescribe them too rigidly. Thus a lay-ou t need not contain any of the wording. Most advertisi ng managers, however, prefer to have the display lines drawn, and even the illustrations sketched in, to assist the imagination. It is easy, when this has been done, to form a fair ly exact idea of what the finished ad vertisement will look like. The following example shows how a complete lay-o ut is made, and what result it produces. The typew ritten copy, with proofs of the illustrations intended to be used, is sent to the printer with the lay-out. This lay-out , being correct ly interpreted by the printer, produces the finished result finally shown. 24


The Adv erti ser’s Handbook

Scotch Tweed Overcoatings

(o r Overcoats rea dy -to -w ea r) with the guarantee (und er stringe nt Board of Trade Regula tions) of the above mark. All materials thus marked have been

Made in Scotl and of Pure. Ne w Wool The y carry with them the age-long Scottish tradition of th oroug hness in quality and manufacture. laaucd b j Гha ScuMish W oo tlc a Tr ad e M ar ti Aaao ciau oa, U ta it o d

П Char lotte Squ are , Edi nbur gh

Th e fin ish ed advertiseme nt shows how accur­ ately the prin ter and block- maker have carrie d out the inst ruct ions on a good “ lay -o ut. "

A good “ la y- ou t" saves the adv erti ser' s tim et as revised p roo fs are rarely requir ed.

The names of the variou s type s may be tak en from the speci­ men pages at the end of this handbo ok. It would be preferable not to name the point-sizes of, at all events, the smal l-type ma tter . By keeping the Hand book where a handb ook ought to be—th at is to say, han dy—display typ e can be readi ly selected ; bu t if work 25


The Adverti ser’s Handbook has to be done awa y from the adv erti ser ’s office it is easy to tak e a copy of one or more of the pap ers and cut out a let ter or two of any desire d typ e, pas ting it on the edge of the lay- out. Some adv ertis ers mak e a prac tice of h avin g all the ir anno unce ­ me nts set out by a jobb ing prin ter, and elect rotyp es or “ stereos ” (stereo types) mad e to send to the paper s. Where pri nti ng facilities are no t good, this plan has some adv ant age s ; bu t an im po rta nt new spap er ought to be able to do its own sett ing.

The Printer’s Reader Ev ery thi ng destin ed for publicatio n in the news pap er is examin ed, aft er it is set up and a proof pulled, by the corre ctors of th e press, tec hni call y called “ re ader s.” To save time, the copy is rea d over to the m by a readi ng boy, who name s all the pu nc tua tio n ma rks in a rap id monot onous jargon , some what as follows : “ Dou ble-q uote yes comma close said Mr. Smit h hy ph en Willia ms com ma doub le-qu ote I said to him single -quote you are wrong com ma close and he adm itte d it stop close.” The copy thu s rea d would be prop erly set up as follows : “ Yes, ” said Mr. Smith-W illiams, “ I said to him ‘ y ou are wron g,’ and he ad mi tte d it .” In va ria bly the re are mist akes in a first proof, wrong lett ers being set up, let ter s from ano the r pa rt finding the ir way into the boxes wit hou t at tra ct in g the comp osito r’s att en tio n ; and techn ical errors in spacin g or leads creepin g in. Sometim es the accid enta l form atio n of lines produ ces an uncom ely effect, as where words in two or thre e successive lines hap pen to end at the same place, so th at ther e is a stre ak of white run nin g down the pap er, techn ically called a “ la dde r ” ; or words ma y be “ turn ed-o ver ” from one li ne to ano the r on s everal succ essive lines, maki ng wha t is cal led a “ sa w edge.” The pri nte rs’ read er att en ds to these and ma ny oth er 26


The Adv erti ser ’s Handbook techni cal details which an aut hor who was not a pract ical print er would overlook. The following e xamples, in parall el columns, indica te the effect of such t echni cal correction. Few people who are no t p rint ers would prob ably find any thin g wrong with No. I ; bu t when the improve ­ men ts are made, as in No. 2, the grea ter comeliness of the resul t is recognized at once. The early part of the nineteenth century, which saw the beginnings of numerous mechanical methods in use in the production of printed work and the materials on which the printer relies, first saw also the gropings in the attempt to use the action of light so as to give the exact reproduction of a design or image independently of the uncertaintie s of hand-work. The earliest attempts in this direction were made by Jo seph Neipce in 1813.

The early part of the nine­ teenth century, which saw the begin­ nings of numerou s mechanical meth­ ods in use in the production of pri nt­ ed work and the materials on which the printe r relies, first saw also the gropings in the attemp t to use the action of light so as to give the exact reproduction of a design or image independently of the un­ certain ties of hand-work. The ear­ liest attem pts in this direction were made by Jo seph Neipce in 1813. ,z

Correcting Proofs Almo st anyon e can correct a proof, so far as actu al mista kes go, by stri king out the wrong words and writing the correct ones in the mar gin ; and the same thing applies to wha t prin ters call “ au tho r’s corre ction s,” where the write r alter s his min d abo ut wha t he want s to say. Corrections in pun ctu atio n and style can also b e easily mark ed. If a piece of copy is inc orrec tly pun ctu ate d, the pri nte r’s read er will pu t in the righ t stops, unless the copy is mar ked “ Fo llow Au tho r’s poi nts. ” The reader , as a rule, knows bet ter how to pun ctu ate tha n most auth ors. He also has a useful hab it of inser ting a quer y (?) in the margi n if he thin ks th at the aut hor has made some mist ake in gram mar or fact. This is done in a spiri t of helpfulness, and the m ost experien ced write rs are those who most appr eciat e the unob trusi ve vigilance of the Correctors of the Press. 27


The Ad ver tise r’s Handbook Although, as sta ted, it is easy to m ake all necessary corrections without any knowledge of technical proof-reading, a great deal of time is saved, both to the writer and the compositors, if certain conventional marks are known. Corrections should be written on the margins, never over th e printe d words. Those occurring in the left-ha nd half of a line should be preferably written on the left margin, and vice versa. It is an old-fashioned rule, now often ignored, t ha t if a lette r or word is correct in itself—that is, does no t make a wrong word—but requires some alterati on, it should be underscored, and if it is wrong, it should be struck through. Thus, if a word is accidentally set in italics, when this mark of emphasis is not desired, th e word would be underscored, and “ R om.” writt en in the margin ; but if the printer has set up “ five ” when the auth or wrote “ tw o,” the word “ five ” would be struck out, and “ two ” writt en in the margin. In marking copy, words are underscored if intend ed to be set in italics. If, for any reason, the writer desires to employ the un­ comely device of printing a rule under the word, he should write “ un derline ” against it. A word with two fines under it will be set up in capitals and small capitals—always called and writt en “ Caps and small cap s/’—tha t is, with its initial in a capit al lett er of the same fount as the body of the matt er, and capitals one point smaller for the small letters. Words underscored three times are set up entirely in the capitals of the body par t, those underscored four times in capitals one point larger, and so on. Thus, when a word has been set up with a lower-case lett er and a capital l ette r is desired, the right way to correct the mistake would be to underscore th e le tter once and copy it in the margin with three fines under it—not two, as m any people do, though the compositor probably is too intelligent to be misled. Capital letters are called by printer s “ up per case ” and the others “ lower case,” because the two trays of type, divided into partiti ons called “ box es,” which form a pair of “ cases ” are arr anged on a compositor’s rac k one behind and above t he other. The small letters, being the more frequent ly required, are kept in the boxes of the lower case, and take its name. 28


The Adv erti ser’s Handbook The follow ing pages show a piece of ma tter conta ining mista kes of vari ous kinds, corre cted as a prin ter’s reader woul d do the job, and the meanin g of the various marks .

A Corrected Proof 1. 2. 3456. 78. 9io . и. 12. 13. 14. 1516. 1718. 19. 20. 21.

Yo u will see tha t a compre hensiv e knowl edge of an y arti cle require s clear and exh aus tiv e thou ght in relatio n to it. The inte llig ent and effe ctiv e pres enta tion of this knowled ge also demand s sys tem ati c Fin all y, there can be no clear tho ugh t, no prep arat ion, ade qua te expres sion of tha t thoug ht, for the purpos e of winn ing sales or con trac ts securing, with out the ment al work of ana lysi s and syn the sis in : first, realising the facts abou t the arti cle to be sold. Secon d, in arran ging these facts in their logic al or nat ura l order so th at the natu re, use, qualitie s, etc., af the artic le shall app ear rich er and more com plete than aver before ; andthird , in unfo lding in a gra phi c and logi crl styl e to the custome r's mind jus t such fac ts or poin ts abo ut the artic le or propositi od as will mak e the mos t at tra ct iv e sum mar y of its merits. As you stu dy synt hesis bewa re of the idea t ha t a l ogic al order of pr esenting points arri ved at in you r ana lysis , as wov en into the descriptio n or expos ition of a thing , has Tho se who its effec t onl y on on persons who unders tand logic. liste n to a log ical selling tal k ma y not know tha t the science of logi c exist s. Fo r al l th at, such peo ple are in evi tab ly m ore impres sed by the logi cal pre sen tat ion of the points which a salesma n puts forth . Th an by a rando m tal k or stat eme nt on the merits of the arti cle he desires to sell.

22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

Aga in, it must be evid ent th at the selling tal k should be logica l, becau se the inferen ce you wish the custo mer’ s mina to grasp can only then be reache d thro ugh a lodi cal order of thou ght from premise to conclusion, or else fro^| a nat ura l and logi cal grouping , or synthes is] of all the essentia ls tha t impel the desired conclusion, I will bu y it, or " I will sign the con tra ct.” 29


The Ad ver tise r’s Handbook У

1. 2.

<9 о

г/, У s л/ .

3456. 78.

910. 11. 12.

б)

*3*4« I 5i6.

17i8.

У

19го. 21. 22.

2324-

М; <t V

ff

V

2526. 27.

д You will see t hat a comprehensive knowledge of any article^j^quires o~v*clear and exhau stive thought in relation to it. The inte llig enî ^nd л л effective presentation of this knowledge also demands (Systemat ic preparation/ Fina lly, there can be no -clear thought, no adequate expression of that thought, for the purpose of winning sales orÇcontracts (securing) withou t the mental work of analysis and synthesis in : first, realising the fact^ about the article to be s o l d / ^ _ _ ^ < 0 $econd, in arranging these facts in their logical or natur al order so that the nature, use, qualities, etc., /f the a r t i c l e a p p e a r richer and more complete than ^ver before ; and^hird, in unfolding in a graphic and logic/1 style to the cus/omer’s mind just such facts or X points about the article or propositio^ as will make the most У attr acti ve summary of its merits. ^As you stud y synthesis beware of the idea t hat a logical order of presenting points arrived a t in y our analysis, as woven into the description or exposition of a thing, has its effect only on on* persons who understandyfbgic. Those who listen to a logical selling ta lk may not know that the science of logic exists. For all that, such people are inevita bly more impressed by the logical prese ntati on of the points which a salesman puts forth/— «У- (Г) ^h an by a random talk or statement on the merits of the articl e he desires to sell. c Again,

it must be evident that the selling talk should be logica l, because the inference you wish the customer’s min/ to grasp can only then be reached through a logical order of thought from raise to conclusion, or else frd|| a natural and logical grouping, or л synthesisf 7 of all the essentials that impel the desired conclusion, I will buy it, or " 1 will sign the contr act.”

4/ '

Pri nte rs’ Marks Expla ined Line. 1 . Firs t word to be indented, marking the opening of a paragraph . As the type is already crowded, the las t word has to be turned over to line 2. 2. The inverte d “ v ” called a “ caret,” means tha t the word turned over from line i is to be inserted. Las t word turned over. 3. Las t word turned over. 4. Insert full stop. The word “ clear ” has been struck out by mistake ; stet means “ let it stand. ” 5. No corrections. 6. Words transposed. the margin.

The letters “ trs ” are usually written in


The Adv erti ser’s Handbook 7. The lett er “ s ” “ turne d ” or is upside down ; the full stop set at the end is to be a semicolon. 8. — and, conse quen tly, the cap ital “ S ” must become a lower­ case (l.c.) lette r. The word “ logi cal ” to be set in italics. 9. “ Of ,” wro ngl y set “ af ” ; ital ic word “ shall ” to be set in Rom an. 10. Tur ned lett er.

Space needed betwee n the words “ and thir d.”

11. Le tte r “ r ” correcte d.

Bat tere d “ t ” to be replac ed.

12. Le tte r “ d ” correcte d. 13. Beg in new parag raph.

More often writ ten 5[.

14. Tur ned lett er. 15. No correct ion. are crooked.

The lines in margin indic ate tha t the Unes

16. A wor d deleted .

The lette r “ 1 ” is from a wrong foun t (w.f.).

17. No correct ion. 18. No correc tion. 19. Le tte r “ n ” requires to be put straig ht. end is to become a comma.

The full stop at the

20. — and, cons eque ntly, a lower-case “ t ” is needed. 21. Mat ter to b e “ run on

tha t is, with out brea king the par agra ph.

22. No correction . 23. Le tte r correcte d. 24. Le tte r corre cted ; word “ premise ” not to be begun. 25. The first three lette rs of “ premise ” to come on this line, as direct ed abov e. The lett er “ m ” has been put into the composing stic k face downwa rds. 26. A space which is too high must be pushed down. 27. Quota tion-m arks required. 31


The Ad ver tise râ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Handbo ok

TH E PROCESS DE PA RT ME NT Illustra tion now plays such an importa nt part in newspaper pub licit y tha t ever y advertiser w ill do well to acquire an e lementary knowledge of block-making. The process departmen t of a great nationa l newspaper is of considerable dimensions ; the work is high ly technical, and nob ody b ut a tr ained engraver can be expected to master it. Obvio usly, this intricate procedure cannot full y be described here, bu t sufficient m ay be ex plained to give the ad vertise r a v aluab le insight into the work, which will enable him the bett er to choose his illustrat ions and to estimate with some degree of accu racy how the y will appear in print. In deciding upon his illustrations, the adverti ser has the choice between half-tone pictures and line drawings. The half-ton e block is often more convincing than the line picture. It has the effect of a photograph , and where textures have to be represented it port rays the material with greater accuracy. Pictu res of great bea uty, even with the coarse 6o-line screen of the rot ary press, can be obtaine d by the photographic half-tone process. There are, however, great advantag es in the use of the line drawing. It is bold and clear, and its sharp outline is not liable to va ry under the conditions of rapid newspaper printing.

Hal f-To ne Illu stra tion s The use of illustration s produced mechani cally by the half-tone process, direct from photographs, has been an increasing feature of daily journalism during the last twen ty years. It has only been made possible by specialization, and the accumulation of plant and staff respec tively adapted and trained to this one purpose. A half­ tone block for newspaper printing is not made in the same way as a similar block at the commercial photo-etcherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; s. To obtain the most satisf actory results from blocks used in advertisements, these blocks must be prepared in the same w ay as those used to illustrate 32


The Adv erti ser’s Handbook

I

news. The services of the Associ ated Newspapers’ block- makin g depar tmen t are at the disposal of advert isers, who are strong ly advised to have block s intended for the Da ily M ai l in any of its editions, for the Ev eni ng New s, or for the We ekl y Di spa tch made by the papers themsel ves. Where the pictu re is to be made direct from the ob jec t, the Assoc iated Newspapers, Limi ted, will photog raph it to the bes t adva ntag e, retou ch the print , and make the block. Wher e the ob jec t is to be photog raphed with accessorie s— as where a blouse or costum e is shown on a model— the photo graphe rs’ prin t should be sent to the Dep artm ent, to be retouche d in the way th at will give the bes t effect s in the paper. Blo cks consi sting of a solid blac k ground with white lett erin g upon it are inca pab le of being sati sfac tori ly printed on a rot ary press with “ news ” paper, as the qua ntit y of ink th at would hav e to be fed to the rollers in order to produce the solid ground would over -ink the res t of the advert isemen t, and all the other typ e and block s on the page. Such blocks, therefor e, are not acce pted for inse rtion , and, if insiste d on, must be “ s cored ,” or “ l ine d,” as shown in the thre e illust ratio ns which follow.

• U se *

J acksons Floor

Polis h W hi te on black block as subm itted .

App eara nce o f the same block when pr int ed on news p ape r.

Th e same block imp rove d and made suita ble fo r pr in tin g.

Making a Block The raw mat eria l of the half -ton e etch er is a photog raph. The be tte r and sharper the photog raph, the more successfu l the results. Deta ils must be vigorous, the lines hard and bold ; the print, in c

33


The Ad ver tise r’s Handbook short, must be what photographers call “ pl ucky.” The harder or more “ co nt ra sty ” the subje ct photographed, the easier is the etche r’s task. (A bromid e-print on shiny paper, the more brillian tly glazed the bette r, is the best for the purpose.) Even where a photograph would ordinarily be reproduced as it stands, an artis t who specializes in illustrations for rotar y printing will usually be able to improve it by what is called retouching with black and white paint. Lines tha t are muzzy are made sharp ; shadows tha t are weak are strengthened. Air-brush work, when a fine stream of paint is blown upon the picture, gives soft effects tha t will nevertheless print well. The pictures appended give an idea of what happens. The first is a fine-screen half-tone of a photograph as it came from the printing-fram e. The second is the same photograph after being retouched. The third is made from the open-screen block which would be used in newspaper printing. If this block had been made from the first untouched photograph, the effect would have been very flat and lifeless. To illustrate it, a f ourth block is shown, made in newspaper style from the photograph in its original con­ dition ; and it must be remembered that the appearance of it in a newspaper would have been still flatter and more lifeless. After retouching, the picture is photographed again, a screen being placed between the plate and the lens. This has the effect of breaking up the subje ct into those littl e dots which are noticeabl e if one examines the reproduction of a photograph in a newspaper. A wet plate is used, and, after intensification and development, the plate is then dried and put into con tact with a piece of zinc previously prepared with a film of sensitized fish-glue. It is next exposed to an arc light, of intens ity which causes a print to be made on the zinc. The printing completed, the zinc plate is washed with water, and the film not affected by the action of the light is washed away. The zinc is now subjecte d to intense heat, which bakes on the film remaining, rendering it an acid resister. It is then etched in the etching machine, a nitrous acid solution eating away the zinc in 34


p ig

f t .— Ill us tr at io n o f pho tog rap h as received fr om ph oto gr ap he r. No te the lack o f deta il on the above.

Fi g. 3 .— Ill us tr at io n fr om hal f-to ne block made fr om retouched orig inal , bri ngi ng out more o f the details which are lacki ng in Fi g. 4.

Fi g. 2 .— Ill us tra tio n sho win g the str ik in g im ­ prov emen t effected on trea tme nt by “ D ail y M a i l " ar tis ts.

Fi g. 4 .— Th is pictu re shows a hal f-to ne block as used in the “ Da ily M a il " (6 0 screen) , made from the untouch ed ori gin al.


The Ad ver tise r’s Handbook those parts not protected by the film. Several etchings are often necessary for the purpose of bringing out the correct depth of tone, and between each etching an acid resister is applied to those parts where no further etching is necessary. This is termed “ stopping out .” The etching completed, a proof is taken, and the zinc mounted on a type-me tal base.

Choice of Scree ns The word “ screen ” has been used two or three times. A screen consists of two pieces of plate-glass ruled with straig ht lines at an angle of 45 degrees and sealed together so tha t the rulings are at right-angles to each other. The closeness of the dots in a half-tone picture depends upon the ruling of the screen by the crossed lines. There may be as many as 250 lines to an inch ; 200 is the finest screen in general use ; 180 is fine enough for any but exceptiona lly good printing, with very elaborate machines ; 150 or 120 should be within any prin ter’s range ; and for rotary printing 60 is the best. In the case of advertisers providing t heir own blocks, it cannot be sufficiently emphasized that good printing results can only be obtained in the publications of the Associated Newspapers, Limited, if the half-ton e blocks sent in are restricted to a screen of not more than 60. Elec tros or stereos from half-tones are not as a rule deep enough and have not the sharpness necessary to reproduce satis ­ facto rily. Owing to the duplicate printing in Manchester, two half-to ne blocks of each sub ject are required. Elec tros from woodcuts are not suitabl e for newspaper printi ng.

Reprod uction in Line For the reproduction of a line-drawing the process is slightly different. The illustratio n is photographed as before, but no screen is used. The zinc print, taken by arc light, is washed and burnt in, as described above. The plate is n ext given a short etch in nitrous ,1 36


The Ad ve rti se r’s Handbook acid and then rolled with an acid-resis ting ink, dust ed with a red powder known as “ D ragon ’s bloo d,” and heate d. This is done to prot ect the sides of the lines. The plat e is then re-etch ed in the acid, this process being repe ated unti l the necessar y dep th has been obtain ed. The large white spaces which have now been produce d are cut out with an electric drill, or “ ro ute r,” and the moun ting of the block finishes the process. It occasionally happe ns th at an all-line block may come out rat he r thin, for a pict ure nearl y all in line is liable to look a trifle poor. To overcome this defect, the blockm aker has intro duce d the device called vario usly “ Ben Day mediu m,” appliqués tint s, or mecha nical tin ts. These are littl e masses of shading in variou s designs which can be added to a line block wherever the y will do any good, stren gthe ning i t and giving sometimes almost the app ear­ ance of a half-to ne, with out any of its refractor iness in print ing. These tin ts are availab le in great variet y. All photo -etche rs have specime n-books or cards, and the part icul ar grain or pa tte rn only needs to be indic ated by a reference-number. In order to indic ate to the block make r th at a tin t is required, it is usual to pa int a light tin t of blue, in water-colour, over the par ts of the design inte nde d to be thu s shaded, or to draw lines across the m with a blu e pencil. As a phot ograp hic plat e is v ery nearly as sensitive to blue as to white, the colour does not come out in the pri nt which will be etche d ; bu t the t in t is ad ded by hand, with lithog raphic ink, the worker referri ng to the blue marks on the original to ascer tain the ar tis t’s wishes. It is not so essenti al th at line blocks be made specially for rotary -pres s prin ting and for the indivi dual requir emen ts of the Associated Newspapers, as half-ton es ; bu t the process dep artm ent will alway s make them if desired, and keeps the following selection of mec hanical tin ts at the disposal of advertise rs.

37


T he A d v e rt is e r’s H an db oo k E x am pl es of M ec ha ni ca l T in ts us ed in “ D ai ly M ail ”

No. 5

No . 6


The Adv erti ser’s Handbook Reduction of Sketc hes for Block -Mak ing The reproduction of sketches from a larger to smaller size often offers great difficu lty to the inexperienced. It must be borne in mind that a sketch cannot be reduced except proportio nately. For example, suppose the block is in the first instance 5 in. deep by 5 in. wide, and considerations of space will only allow a depth of 4 in. It is quite impossible to make from the same original another block 4 in. deep and still 5 in. wide. A simple means of finding the width of the block whose depth has been reduced by a given amount or vic e versa, is to be found in the following diagram : /

L et a b c c ! repre sent the or ig in al sk etc h. T o redu ce it dr aw dia go na l fr om c to b . I f * l A " b e the ext rem e hei ght o f the reduced blo ck , then “ A В ” w il l rep res ent it s w id th . A s w ill be seen fr o m the di ag ra m , the sam e pr in ci pl e ma y be app lied whe n it is des ire d to enl arg e the blo ck.

39


The Ad ver tise r’s Handboo k

TH E FOUNDRY In the final stage, advertisements and editorial matt er are collected t ogether, made up into pages, and locked up in steel frames known as “ ch ases.” Eac h page in this state is known as a “ forme.” Rapid newspaper printing being done from a continuous roll or web of paper, it is necessary tha t the printing surfaces should be cylindrical in order to secure rotar y printing. With this obje ct in view, the “ forme ” is passed into the Stereot ype Foundr y and on to the bed of the matrix-m aking machine. A sheet of speciallyprepared papier mâché, known as a “ flong,” is laid over the “ fo rme,” and on top of this are placed sheets of felt and rubber to faci litat e the takin g of an impression. The machine is set in motion and the “ fo rme,” togeth er with the “ flong ” and packing, runs under a steel roller, by which inten se pressure is applied. When they emerge on the other side of the machine, the “ flong ” bears a true impression of the type. This makes what is known as a mould or “ m atri x,” which, by reason of its flexibili ty, readily conforms itself to the concave surface of the casting box in the Autoplate Machine, into which it goes after a few seconds in a rotar y gas-heated drier. The Senior Autoplate Machine (of which there are five in Carmelite House) is an ingenious machine for the autom atic casting of ster eotype plates. Four plates of each page are required for each machine running on pu blication. The plates are semi-cylindrica l in shape (two plates making the circumference of the cylinders of the printing presses) ; they weigh approximately 50 lb. each, and are composed of an alloy of Lead, Antimony, and Tin. The Senior Autoplate Machine casts plates at the rate of 200 per hour, and each plate is automa tically trimmed and bored so as to fit accurate ly the printing press cylinders. The machine consists of a metal pot holding approximate ly 8 tons of the alloy, a metal pump, water-cooled casting box and casting cylinder, trimming saws, and a boring knife. Its operation consists of setting the 40


The Adv ertis er’s Handbook mould in the casting box, which closes on to the casting cylinder, leaving a space, between the cylinder and the mould in the box, equiva lent to the thicknes s of a stereo type plate. The meta l pump, submerged in the molte n alloy, has a valve which opens, takes a charge of metal an d pum ps i t in to t he casting box. In a few seconds the plat e cools, the box opens, and the cylinde r makes a half revo­ lution, bringing the plat e to the top. Carrier arms tak e hold of the plate, and draw it first along the machine thro ugh two circular saws, which rapid ly remove the rough “ he ad ” and “ t ail ,” then unde r the boring arch, where the boring knife shaves the concave of the plat e to its true circumfere ntial dimension. The plat e the n trave ls auto mat icall y to the delivery end of the machine, read y for the prin ting presses. In the Manchester office of t he Daily Mai l ther e is a complet e stere otyp e found ry, consisting of t hree Jun ior Auto plate Machines— smalle r machine s tha n the Senior Autoplates, and with a slightly different meth od of operation. It will be underst ood tha t the Daily Mai l is prin ted simul­ tane ousl y in London and Manchester. Each day moulds of ad ­ verti sem ent pages and stand ing feature pages are sent to Manchest er by dupl icate routes, and the News is t rans mit ted from London over priv ate telegr aph fines. A tape is perfora ted in Morse on a Creed M ac h in e, and afterw ards passed throug h a Whea tstone Tra nsm itter , which tran smi ts the message to Manchester at t he rat e of 140 words per minute . The Manchester office also con tains a c omplete photo- engrav ing pla nt similar to th at in the London office.

TH E PRESS ROOM The stereo type plates cast on the Auto plate machines are sent down to the Press Room, where prepa ratio ns have been made to receive th em and place them on th e cylinders of the rot ary presses. 41

D


The Ad ver tise râ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Handbook The Press Roo m at Carm elite Hous e cont ains 13 gia nt ro tar y presses, i.e. : 3 doub le sex tup le machin es, 5 octu ple machin es, 4 sex tup le machin es, I four- roll single wid th machi ne, the comb ined ca pa cit y bein gâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; 960,000 8-page pape rs per hour ; 924,000 12-pa ge pape rs per hour ; 660,000 16-pa ge paper s per hou r ; 444,000 24-page paper s per hour. The se mach ines hav e a tot al of 108 pla te cyli nde rs and, when fu lly clot hed , will tak e 832 ster eoty pe plate s, so th at ap pr ox im ate ly 21 tons of ster eot ype me tal woul d be nece ssar y to run a com plete edit ion in Lon don if all machin es were in commissi on.

'

Th e Press Roo m at Manchest er conta ins : 4 double sext uple presses ; 5 octup le presses ; i sex tupl e press ;

the com bine d ca pa cit y 864,000 816,000 648,000 408,000

being â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 8-page papers per hour ; 12-pa ge paper s per hour ; 16-pa ge paper s per horn ; 24-page paper s per hour.

The se mac hine s ha ve a to ta l of 94 pla te cylin ders , whic h, when ful ly cloth ed, tak e 752 ster eot ype plate s, or ap pro xim ate ly 18 tons of ster eoty pe meta l. Ea ch press uses a t a ti me from tw o t o s ix reels of pap er, accor ding to the size of the pub lica tion . A reel cont ains a conti nuou s web of pape r ap pro xim ate ly 5 miles in leng th, and 420 reels, weig hing 240 tons, are used ev ery da y on the prod ucti on of the D ai ly M a il in Lond on and Manch ester. 42


The Adv erti ser’s Handbook The wee kly consum ption of print ing ink is app roxi mat ely 20 tons, and it is handl ed in a specia l manner peculi ar to Assoc iated Newspaper s, L imit ed. The ink is d eliver ed in a ta nk w agon similar to a petrole um or o il-fuel wagon, and forced into storag e tank s by com­ pressed air. The storag e tank s are suspended from the Press Room ceiling, and are piped up to each ink- duct of the presses, the ink being forced round by compressed air. (The metho d common to most newspap er offices is to fill the ducts from the cans in which The Daily Ma il has two tank s of two tons the ink is delivered.) cap aci ty, moun ted on wagons, which are loaded at the ink works and mak e delive ries at Carmelit e House eve ry day. Al l the prin ting presses ar e elect rical ly driven and contr olled by a clev er syst em of push button s, the pressure of a finger being suffi­ cien t to star t, stop, and control the enormous press. The push­ bu tto n stati ons are locat ed at various points on the machines, and from each stat ion full control is obtained. A great degree of sa fet y is ensured, as each stati on has a “ Safe ” butto n, and, when an y such bu tto n is operat ed, the press cannot be start ed until this par ticu lar bu tto n has been released. So p erfect is th e control tha t i t is p ossible to get a mov eme nt so slight as one-eighth of an inch ! The paper s are deliver ed from each machine, folded, past ed if necess ary, and aut om atic ally counted into quires of twen ty-se ven. Fro m the deliver ies of the machine, the y are speed ily carried aw ay to elevat ors, whence the y qui ckl y ascend to the Publ ishin g Room for distri butio n to the variou s wholesale agents and Lond on rai lw ay termini. The conten ts bills are print ed on special machines at the rate of 12,000 an hour per machine , each machine being capab le of print ing bills in three colours. In additio n to the mecha nical plan t at Carme lite House and Manchester there is, on t he south side of Blac kfri ars Bridg e, London, a well-equ ipped stan d-b y plan t composed of seven Sex tupl e Presses, Ster eoty pe Fou ndry , Lin otyp e, etc. A Diesel engine and a gas л 43 4

B2


The Ad ver tise râ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Handbook engine are inst alle d for gen erat ing curr ent for powe r and ligh ting . Thi s is an eme rgen cy pla nt for use in case of serious brea kdow ns, or when the equi pme nt at Carm elite House is insuff icient to sa tis fy the deman ds made upon it.

A com plete Eng inee rsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Shop, equi pped wi th mode rn mach ine tools, qu ick ly remedie s an y trou ble th at m ay arise, so th at the issue of th e p ape r sh all n ot b e imp erille d b y an y b rea kdo wn of a m ech anic al nat ure .

44


BODY TYPES

s

PICA

MINION

One inch, solid, 6 lines, 30 words; leaded, 5} lines, 25 words. One column, solid, 13 2 lines, 66 0 words; leaded, 11 7 lines, 58 5 words.

One inch, solid, 10 lines, 67 words; leaded, 8 lines, 56 words. One column , solid, 22 0 lines, 1, 47 4 words; leaded, 181 lines, 1, 21 2 words.

The sym path y evinced by Queen Vict oria in all the pe r­ sonal sorrows of her people aris ing f rom the South African war had awakened, the let ter poin ts out, a warm and grat eful

The symp athy evinced by Queen Victo ria in all the perso nal sorrows of her people aris ing from the South Afri can war had awakened, the lett er poin ts out, a warm and gra tefu l response in the (hearts of the public , and it was resolved to give expres­ sion to thi s all-p ervad ing sent ime nt, and in some measu re resp ectfu lly to reci pro ­ cate the sympa thy whioh had been shown by estab lishi ng the per ma nen t memo rial The sy m pa th y evi nce d by Quee n Vi cto ria in all the per son al sor row s of he r peop le

LONG PRIMER One inch, solid, 7$ lines, 44 words; leaded, 6$ lines, 38 words. One colum n, solid, 158 lines, 92 4 words; leaded, 13 7 Unes, 83 6 words.

The symp athy evinced by Queen Vic toria in all the personal sorrows of her people arisin g from the South Afr ican war had awakened, the let ter points out, a warm and gra tef ul response in the hearts of the publi c, and it was resolved to give expression to this all-perTh e sy m pa th y evi nce d by Queen Vi cto ria in all the perso nal sorrows

BREVIER

NONPAREIL One inch, solid, 12 lines, 98 words; leaded, 9j lines, 77 words. One column, solid, 26 4 lines, 2, 11 2 words; leaded, 211 lines, 1, 68 8 words. The sym pat hy evin ced by Queen Vi ctor ia in all th e per son al sorr ow в of he r peopl e ar is in g fro m th e Sou th Afr ioa n wa r ha d awa ken ed, th e le tt er po in ts out, a war m and gr at ef ul res pon se in th e he ar ts of th e pub lic, and it was reso lved to give exp res sio n to th is all -pe rva din g se nti me nt , and' in some me as ur e res pe ctf ull y to rec ipr oc ate t he sy m pa th y wh ich ha d been shown by es ta bl ish in g th e pe rm an en t me mo ria l to he r la te M aje sty ’s gra ndson , Pr in ce C hr is tia n Vic tor. Al tho ugh th e cir cu ms tan ce s un de r whi ch th is tr ib ute would hav e bee n pai d ar e so sad ly alt ere d, th e love an d gra ti tu de of th e na tio n are . The sy m pa th y evin ced by Queen Vi cto ria in all the pers onal sorrow s of her peop le ar isi ng fro m the

PEARL

One inch, solid, 9 lines, 59 words; leaded, 8 lines, 53 words. One column, solid, 19 8 lines, 1, 29 8 words; leaded, 17 6 lines, 1, 16 6 words.

One inch, solid, 15 lines, 13 4 words; leaded, 1 1 | lines, 10 0 words. One column, solid, 33 0 lines, 2, 97 0 words; leaded, 24 3 lines, 2, 18 7 words.

The sy mp ath y evi nce d by Quee n Vic­ to ria in all th e pe rso na l sorro ws of he r peop le ari sin g from the Sou th Afr ica n wa r ha d aw ake ned , th e le tte r po int s out , a wa rm and gr ate ful res pon se in the he ar ts of th e pu bli c, and it was reso lved to give exp res sio n to th is all -pe rva din g se nt im en t, and in some me asu re res pe ct­ ful ly to rec ipr oc ate the sy mp ath y wh ich

tn all the Pho sym path y evinced by Queen Victori a the South personal sorrows of her people aris ing from poin ts out. a Afric an war had awakened , the let ter public, warm and grat eful response in the hea rtsn oftothethis alland It was resolved to give expressio lly respectfu measure some In pervadi ng sent ime nt and by to reciproca te the sym path y which had been shown to her late estab lishing the perm anen t memorial Although Maj esty ’s grandso n, Prince Chri stian Victor. ute would bave the circum atance s under which this trib gra t.tu de and love been paid are so sadly altered , the Intensified, and of th e nati on are, the let ter urges, onlygrea intere st th e fac t th at Queen Victo ria took the wastest one of he r it in the proposed memori al, and thaat nation cter. chara al last wishes th at it should be of

The sy m pa th y evin ced by Queen Vi c­ tor ia in all the per sona l sorrow s of her

The sy mp ath y evince d by Queen Victo ria in all the personal sorrows of her people arising from the South

45


CHELTENHAM No. 39

No. 31 6 Po in t 26 Le tte rs BEAUTY AND THE BEAST COVENT GAR

36 Po int

6 Let ters

BEAUTY

46 Le tte rs Bea uty and the Be ast Co ven t Gar den Prod uctio n to-nig ht

10 Let ters No. 33

10 Po int

18 Le tte rs

Beauty and t

B E A U T Y A N D T H E BE AS T C 29 Le tte rs

Beauty and the Beast Covent Gard en No. 34

12 Po int

No. 41

BE A

26 Le tte rs

7 Le tte rs

Beauty and the Beast Covent Gar No. 35

14 Po int

5 Le tte rs

BEAUI Beauty a

15 Let ters

BEAUTY A N D T H E

48 Po int

13 Let ters

BEAUTY AND TH E В 23 Let ters

Beau ty and the Beast Covent No. 36

18 Po in t

BEAUTY

11 Let ters

A N D TI

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7 Le tte rs

17 Let ters

Bea uty i

Beauty and the Beast No. 37

24 Po int

9 Le tte rs

BEAUTY A ND

No. 43

13 Le tte rs

30 Po int

3 Le tte rs

BEA Beauti

Beauty and the В No. 38

72 Po int

7 Le tte rs

6 L ett ers

BEAUTY A 12 Le tte rs

Beauty and the 46


BO LD No. 51

6-P oin t

CHELTENHAM

28 Le tte rs

No. 60

42-Point

6 Le tte rs

No. 62

60*Puint

4 Let ters

BEAUTY AND THE BEAST COVENT GARDE

39 Le tte rs Beauty and the Beast Covent Gardon Production

No. 52

8-P oin t

23 Le tte rs

BEAUTY AND THE BEAST COVENT 33 Le tte rs

Beauty and the Beast Covent Garden Prod No. 53

10-P oint

18 Le tte rs

BEAUTY AND TH E BEAST C 25 Le tte rs

Bea uty a nd th e Bea st Cov ent Ga No. 54

12-P oint

16 Le tte rs

BEAUT Y AND TH E BEAS 23 L et te rs

Beau ty and the Beast Covent No. 55

14- Poi nt

13 Le tte rs

BEAUTY AND THE Ð&#x2019; 18 Le tte rs Beauty and the Beast C No . 56

18-P oint

11 Le tte rs

BEAJ Beaut

BEAUTY AND TH Beauty and the Be 14 Le tte rs

No . 57

24-P oint

9 Le tte rs

6 L et te rs

BEAUTYAND Beauty and the 12 Le tte rs

No . 58

30-Poin't

7 Le tte rs

No. 63

BEAUTY A Beauty an d t 10 Le tte rs

No. 59

36-P oint

6 Le tte rs

BEAUTY Beauty an 8 Le tte rs

47

72-Point

3 Lett ers


BOLD No. 71 BEAUTY

CH EL TE NH AM

6-Poi nt AND

TH E

22 L ette rs BEAST

No. 80

COVEN

B e a u ty a n d th e B e a st C o v e n t G a rd e n

8-Po int

18 L ette rs

BEAUTY A N D TH E BEA ST C

e a u ti

B e a u ty a n d th e B e a st C o v e n t G 10-Point

14 L ette rs

B E A U T Y A N D T H E BE 18 L ette rs

B ea u ty a n d th e B ea st C No. 74

12-Poi nt

4 Let ter s

6 Let ter s

24 L ett ers No. 73

42-Poin t

BEAU

29 L ette rs No. 72

EX PA ND ED

No. 81

48-Point

4 Let ter s

No. 82

60-Poi nt

3 L ett ers

83

72-P oint

3 Le tte rs

13 L ette rs

BEAUTY AND TH E Ð&#x2019; 17 Le tter s

B e a u ty a n d t h e B e a s t No. 75

14-Point

11 L ette rs

BEAUTY AND TH 14 L ette rs B e a u ty a n d th e B e No. 76

18-Poi nt

9 Lett ers

BEAUTY AND B e a u ty a n d t h e 12 Let ters

No. 77

24-Poi nt

7 Le tte rs

BEAUTY A B e a u ty a n d 9 Le tte rs

No. 78

30-Poi nt

6 Le tte rs

BE AU TY Beauty as 8 Let ter s

No. 79

36-Poi nt

5 Le tte rs

7 Le tte rs

B ea ut yi 48


BO LD C H EL TE N H A M CO ND EN SE D No. 91

6-Point

No. 100

37 Let ters

BEAUTY AND THE BEAST COVENT GARDEN PRODUCTI

50 Le tters Beau ty and the Beaet Core nt Garden produc tion exem plif ies

No. 92

8-Point

30 Let ters

BEAUTY AND THE BEAST COVENT GARDEN P

41 Le tters Beauty and the Beast Covent Garden production ex

No. 93

10-Point

24 Le tters

BEAUTY AND THE BEAST COVENT G 30 Le tters

42-Point

7 Letters

BEAU Beauty and 9 Let ters

No. 101

48-Point

6 L ette rs

No. 102

60-Point

5 Lett ers

No. 103

72-Point

4 Letters

Beauty and the Beast Covent Garden p No. 94

12-Point

21 Letter s

BEAUTY AND TH E BEAS T COVE 27 Le tters

B ea ut y an d th e Be as t Co ven t Ga rd No. 95

14-Point

18 Le tters

BEAUTY AND THE BEAST C Be au ty an d th e Be ast Cov ent No. 96

18-Point

15 Letters

BEAUTY AND THE BEA Beau ty and the Beast Co Ko. 97

24-Point

12 Le tters

BEAUTY AND THE Bea uty a nd the Bea 15 Letters

No. 98

30-Point

10 Let ters

BEAUTY AND T Beauty and the Ð&#x2019; 13 Le tters

No. 99

36-Point

8 Le tters

BEAUTY AN 49


BOLD CHELTE NHAM ITALIC No. I l l

6-Poi nt

26 Let ters

No. 119

B E A U T Y A N D TH E B E A S T C O V E N T G A R B ea at y an d th e B ea st Co ven t Gar den Pr od uc tio n

8-Poi nt

8 Lett ers

22 L ett ers

BE AU TY AND THE BE AS T COVE N 31 L ette rs

Beau ty and the Bea st Cooent Garden Pr No. 113

10-Point

No. 121

17 L ette rs 24 L ett ers

Beau ty and the Beast Covent G 12-Poin t

21 L ette rs

Beaut y an d the Beast Coven 14-Point

No. 122

13 L ette rs

18 Let ters

Beau ty a nd the Beast C 18-Poin t

10 L ette rs

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BE AU TY AND T 14 L ette rs

Beauty and the Be No. 117

24-Poin t

60-Po int

4 Le tte rs

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5 Le tte rs

6 Le tte rs

15 L ette rs

BE AU TY AND THE BEA

No. 115

48-Point

BEA UI Beau ty

BE AU TY AND THE BEA ST

No . 114

6 Let ter s

BEA U TY Beauty an

39 L ette rs

No. 112

36-Point

9 Let ter s

No. 123

BE AU TY A N l Beauty and the

5 Let', ers

72-Poin t

3 Le tte rs

12 L ett ers

No. 118

30-Poi nt

7 L ett ers

4 Le tter s

BE AU TY A Beauty and t

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10 L ette rs

50


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BEAUTY

17 L ett ers

10-Poi nt

29 L ett er s

B ea ut y an d the B ^a st Cooent Garden No. 124

12-P oint

14 L et te rs

BE A U TY St NT) ЪН Е B E

Beauty and

B ea ut y and the Bea st Cooent Q No. 125

6 L ett ers

9 Le tte rs

24 L et te rs

14-Po in t

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No. 129

12 L ett er s

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19 L et te rs

No. 126

18-Point

10 L etters

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42-P oint

8 Le tte rs

15 L ett er s

(B ea uty an d the (ße a No. 127

24-P oint

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8 Le tte rs

(B E A U T Y SI N Beaut y and the В

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No. 131

13 L e tt e r s

No. 128

30-Point

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18-Po int

15Le tte rs

ge au ty and the No. 134

24- Poi nt

12Le tte rs

SJeauty and the No 135

30-P oint

4 L e tt e rs

7 L et te rs

11 L etters

12-Po int

48 -P oi nt

7 Letters

BE AU TY I No. 132

5 L et te rs

SC RI PT No. 136

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8 Le tte rs

SJeauty an No. 137

48-P oint

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BEA UTY AN D THE BEAST CO VEN 31 Lo tte re

11 L et te rs

Beauty and the Beast Cov ent Gar den P r

Beauty and th N o. 143

10 -P oi nt

17 L et te rs

BE AU TY AN D TH E BEAS T

No . 148

30 -P oi nt

7 L et te rs

BEA UTY A

25 L et te rs

Beaut y and the Beast Coven t Ga 10 L et te rs

No . 144

12-P oint

Beauty a nd t

15 Lett ers

BEAU TY AN D THE BEA

No . 149

36-P oi nt

6 L e tt e rs

21 Lett ers

BEA UT I

Beauty and the Beast Cove N o. 145

14 -P oi at

8 L et te rs

12 L et te rs

Beauty an

BEA UTY AN D THE 17 L et te rs

Beauty and the Beast No . 146

18 -P oi nt

No . 151

48 -P oi nt

4 L et te rs

BE AU

10 L et te rs

BEA UTY AN D T

6 L et te rs

Beaut у

16 L et te rs

Beauty and the Beas 52


HALLEY. No. 162

8-P oin t

No. 169

24 Le tte rs

BEAUTY AN D TH E BEAST CO VE NT C 36 Let ter s Beauty and the Beast Cov ent Car den Pro duc t

No. 163

10- Poi nt

19 Le tte rs

BEAUTY AND THE BEAST CO

36-Poi nt

7 Le tte rs

BEAUTY I Beauty and 9 Le tte rs

No. 171

48-P oint

5 Le tte rs

29 Le tte rs

Beauty and t he Beast C ovent Garden No. 164

12-Poinfc

7 Le tte rs

17 Le tte rs

BEAUTY AND THE BEAST 23 L ett ers

Beauty and the Beast Covent No. 166

18-Poi nt

Beauty i No. 172

60-P oint

4 L et te rs

No. 173

72- Poi nt

4 L et te rs

11 Le tte rs

BEAUTY AND TH 17 Le tte rs

Beauty and the Beast No . 167

24-P oint

9 Le tte rs

BEAUTY A ND 12 Le tte rs

Beauty and the i-.,.

.

'

No. 168

30-P oint

8 Le tte rs

BEAUTY AL 11 Le tte rs

Beauty and th 53

5 Le tte rs

Beaut


HAMISH . No . 13a

8-P oi nt

No . 191

30 L et te rs

30 Letters B eauty an d th e B east C oven t Ga rd en P ro d ucti on

10- Po int

6 L et te rs

BEAUTY

BEAUTY AMD THE BEAST COVENT GARDEN P

No . 183

48 P o in t

23 L et te rs

BEAUTY AND THE BEAST COVENT 29 L et te rs

Be au ty an d th e B ea st Co ve nt G ar de n

N o. 184

12 -P oi nt

21 L et te rs

BEAUTY AND THE BEAST COVE

Ko . 192

60 -P oi nt

5 L et te rs

No . 193

72 -P oi nt

4 L et te rs

25 L et te rs

B ea u ty a n d th e B ea st C ov en t Ga

No . 186

18-P oi nt

14 L et te rs

BEAUTY AND THE BE 17 L et te rs

Be au ty an d th e Be ast Ko 187

24 -P oi nt

11 Le tte rs

BEAUTY AND TH 13 L et te rs

Bea ut y an d th e Ð&#x2019; No . 189

36 -P oi nt

8 L et te rs

BEAUTY AN Be au ty and 9 L et te rs

54


WOODSTOCK O.S. No. 222

8- Po int

27 Le tte rs

No. 227

BEA UTY AN D TH E BEA ST CO VE NT GA RD

13 Le tte rs

Beauty and the Be ast Cov ent Gard en Pro ductio n ex

Ю-P oi nt

21 Le tte rs

BEA UTY AND TH E BEA ST CO VE 31 Le tte rs

No . 228.

Beauty and the Beast Coven t Garden Pr No. 224

12- Poi nt

30- Poi nt

11 Le tte rs

28 L et te rs

Beauty and th

Beauty and the Beast Covent Garde 14- Poi nt

15 Le tte rs

BE AU TY AN D TH E BE A

VICTO RIAN

23 Le tte rs

26 L et te rs 6-P oin t No. 231 BEAUTY AND THE BEAST COVENT GAR 31 L et te rs Ga rde n Pr t ven Co t as Be e th and. Be au ty

Beau ty and the Beas t Coven t No . 226

18-Po in t

8 L et te rs

BE AU TY AN

18 L et te rs

BEA UTY AND TH E BEA ST C

No . 225

9 Le tte rs

BEA UTY AND Beauty and the В

41 L et te rs No. 223

24-Poin t

11 Le tte rs

BEA UTY AN D TH

No. 232

8-P oin t

20 Le tte rs

B E A U T Y A N D T H E B E A S T CO V

17 Le tte rs

26 L et te rs

Beauty and die Beast

B e a u ty an d th e B e a s t C o v e n t G ar

LIGHT CHELTE NHAM GOND. No. 234

12- Poi nt

No. 237

22 L ett ers 29 Le tte rs

14 Le tte rs

Beauty and the Beast Covent Garden

No. 238 No. 235

14- Poi nt

11 L et te rs

BEAUTY AND T1 Beauty and the Be

BEAUTY AND THE BEAST COVEN I

24-P oint

17 Le tte rs

30- Poi nt

9 L et te rs

BEAUTY AND Beauty and the

BEAUTY AND THE BEAST

12 L et te rs

22 L et te rs

Beauty and the Beast Coven

No. 239 No. 236

18-P oint

36- Poi nt

7 Le tte rs

BEAUTY A Beauty and t

13 L ett er s

BEAUTY AND THE В

10 L et te rs

18 L et te rs

Beauty and the Beast C 55


WORCESTER Ko. 261

6-Point

31 Letters

BEAUTY AND THE BEAST COVENT CARDEN PR

39 L etters Be au ty and th e Be as t Covenfc Garde n Pr od uc tio n

Ko. 268

30-Point

8 Letters

BEAUTY AI 10 Letters

Ko. 262

8-Point

24 Letters

Be aut y an dt

BEAUT Y AND TH E BEA ST COVENT G

31 Letters B ea ut y an d th e Be as t Co ve nt Ga rde n Pr

Ko. 263

10-Point

18 Letters

No. 269

36-Point

7 Letters

BEAUTYI 8 L etters

BEAUTY AND THE BEAST C 24 Letters

Bea uty and the Beast Covent G

No. 264

12-Poiat

17 Letters

BEAUT Y AND THE BEAST

Ko. 270

42-Point

6 Lett ers

Ko. 271

48-Point

5 Letters

22 Letters

Be au ty and th e Be ast Coven

No. 266

18-Point

11 Letters

BEAUTY AND TH 15 Letters

Beauty and the Bea K a 267

24-Point

10 Letter s

BEAUTY ANDI 12 Letters

Beau ty and th e

BEAUT 7 Letters


PL AN TI N 22 Letters 8-Point No. 272 BE AU TY AN D THE BEA ST CO VE N 33 Le tters Beauty and the Beast Covent Garden Prod

No. 273

10-Point

17 Le tters

BEAU TY AND TH E BEAST 25 L etters

Beauty and the Beast Govent Ga No. 274

12-Point

14 Le tters

BEA UTY AND TH E BE 22 Le tters

Beauty and t he Beast Coven

No. 275

14-Point

No. 276

18-Point

No. 277

24-Point

12 Le tters

BEA UTY A ND TH E 17 L etters Beauty and the Beast 9 Le tters

D BEA UTY AN 13 L etter s Beauty and the Ð&#x2019; 8 L etter s

BEAUTY A I Be aut y an d th 11 Le tters

HOT SPU R No. 284

BEAUTY

12 Poin t

No. 288

14 Letters

A N D T H E BE 24 Letters

BEAUTY I Beauty and tli No. 289

18 Poi nt

B ea u ty and th e B ea st

No. 291

48 Poi nt

4 L etter s

BEAU

8 Let ters

B EA U TY A I

7 L etter s

B ea ut y t

13 Lett ers

Beauty and the t 57 E

6 L ette rs

9 L ette rs

17 Lette rs

24 Poin t

36 Poin t

BEAUT I Beauty and

9 Letter s

BEA UTY A N D

No. 287

7 Lett ers

11 Let ters

Beau ty and tKe Beast Cove nt G

No. 286

30 Poin t


DOLPHIN OLD STYLE. No. 301

6-Po int

No. 309

29 L ett ers

BE AU TY AN D TH E BE AS T C O V EN T GA RD EN

8-Po int

9 Let ter s

23 L ett ers

BEAUT Y AND THE BEAST COV ENT 33 L ett ers

Beauty and the Beast Covent Garden Prod No. 303

10-Poi nt

18 L ette rs

BE AU TY A ND T H E BE AS T G

No . 310

Beau ty and the Beast Cove nt Gard 12-Point

15 Let ters 23 L ette rs

Beauty and the Beast Covent 14-Point

13 L ette rs

BEA UTY AND THE Ð&#x2019;

No. 311

19 L ette rs

18-Point

10 L ette rs

BEAU TY AND T Beauty and the Bea 24-Poin t

8 Let ters

BEA UTY AN Beauty and the

No . 312

12 L ett ers

No. 308

30-Poi nt

5 L ett ers

6 Le tte rs

15 L ette rs

No. 307

48 Po int

BE AU I Beaut y

Beauty and the Beast Co No. 306

5 L e tt e rs

7 Le tte rs

BE AU TY AN D TH E BEA

No. 305

42 -P oi nt

BEAU T Beauty a

27 Le tter s

No. 304

6 Le tte rs

BEAU T Y Beauty and

44 L ett ers Beaut y and the Beast Covent Garden Produc tion exemp

No. 302

36-Point

60 -P oi nt

4 L e tt e rs

BEA T Beau t

7 Le tte rs

BEAU TY A Beauty and t

5 Le tte rs

10 L ette rs

58


CA MB RI DG E No. 313

10-Point

19 Let ters

No. 319

BEAUTY AND THE BEAST CO 25 L etter s

Beauty and the Beast Covent Ga No. 314

12-Point

17 L ette rs 23 Le tters

Beauty and the Beast Covent 14-Point

13 Le tters 18 Lette rs

Beauty and the Beast C 18-Point

11 Le tters

24-Point

48-P oint

5 L et te rs

BEAUI Bea uty 6 Le tter s

BEAUTY AND TH 15 Le tters Beauty and the Bea No. 317

BEAUT Y Beauty an No. 321

BEAUTY AND THE В No. 316

6 Le tte rs

8 Le tters

BEAUTY AND THE BEAST No. 315

36- Poi nt

9 Lett ers

BEAUTY AND Beauty and the 12 L etters

No. 318

30-Point

7 Lette rs 5 Lette rs

BEAUTY A Beauty and t

Beaut

10 Let ters

CA M BR ID GE IT A LI C No. 323

10-Point

No. 325

22 L etter s

14-Point

BEA U AN D THE BE AS T

ßEA UT Y AND THE BE AS T COVEN

20 Lett ers

27 Le tters

Beau ty and the Beast Cov

Be au ty an d the Be as t Cov ent Gard

No. 326 No. 324

12-Point

19 Le tters

18-Point

12 Le tters

BEAU TY AND THE

BEAU TY AND THE BEA ST CO

15 Le tters

24 Le tters

Beauty and the Bea

Beau ty and the Beast Covent G

59 E2

15 L etter s


FACE HEAVY

G A SL O N O LD No. 331 BEAUTY

6-Po int

No. 340

25 L ett ers 38 L ett ers

B ea u ty an d th e B ea st C ov en t G ar de n P ro d u et io

No. 332

8-Po int

21 L ett ers

BEAU TY AN D THE BEAST COVE

ea u ty r

Beauty and the Beast Covent Garden Pr 10-Point

BEA UTY AN D THE

17 L ett ers

BEAS T 24 L ett ers

No. 341

Beauty and the Beast Covent G No. 334

12-Poi nt

22 L ette rs

Beauty and the Beast Coven 14-Point

12 L ette rs 18 L ette rs

Beau ty and the Beast C 18-Point

4 Let ter s

6 Le tte rs

BE AU TY AN D TH E No. 336

48-Poin t

AU Beaut y

15 L ette rs

BEA UTY AN D TH E BEA No. 335

5 Le tte rs

7 Le tte rs

31 L ett ers No. 333

42-Point

BEA U I

A N D T H E B E A ST C O V E N T G A

10 L ette rs

No. 342

60-P oint

3 L ett er s

No. 343

72-Poi nt

3 Le tte rs

BEAUTY AND T 14 L ette rs

Beau ty and the Be Ho. 357

24-Poi nt

8 Let ter s

BEAUTY AN Beauty and th 11 L ette rs

No. 338

30-Po int

7 Le tte rs

BE AU TY R Beauty and 9 Let ter s

No. 339

36-Poi nt

6 Let ter s

BEA UT I Beauty an 8 Le tte rs

60


CASLON OLD FACE No. 345

14-Point

No. 351

15 Le tters

BE AU TY AN D T H E BEA Beauty and the Beast Covent 18-Point

13 Le tters

7 Letter s

BEAU TY AND TH EB

Beauty a

20 Le tters

Beauty and the Beast Cov No. 347

24-Point

5 Le tters

BEAU I

23 Le tters

No. 346

48-Point

9 Le tters

BEA UT Y AND 14 Letter s

No. 352

60-Point

3 Letters

No. 353

72-Point

3 Letter s

Beauty and th e Be No. 348

30-Poin t

8 Le tters

BEAU TYAN Beauty and th 11 Letters

No. 349

36-Point

7 Letters

BEAUTYI Beauty and 9 L etters

No. 350

42-Point

6 L etter s

BEAUT I Beauty an

4 L etter s

Bea t

8 Lette rs

6i


I

CASLON OLD FAC E ITALIC No. 355

14-Poin t

BEAU TY AND

No. 359

14 L ett ers

TH E BE 24 L ett ers

Bea uty an d the Bea st Gm ent G No. 356

18-Poin t

36-Poi nt

5 Let ter s

hei тг 9 Le tte rs

Bea uty and

12 L ett ers

B E A U T Y A N D THE No. 350

19 Le tter s

Bea uty an d the Beast Co No. 357

24-Poi nt

9 Le tte rs

Beauty a nd

14 Le tter s

Beau ty and the Be 30-Poi nt

5 Le tte rs

BEAUT

9 Let ters

BEA U TY A N D

No. 358

42-Point

No . 361

48 -P oi nt

5 L et te rs

BEAU T

8 Lette rs

BENUTYNL

8 Le tte rs

12 L ette rs

Bea uty an d the

Beauty an

ELSTREE No. 362

18-Point

No. 365

11 Letters

BEAUT Y AND TH No. 363

24-Poi nt

No. 367

30-Po int

42-Poi nt

5 Le tte rs

BEA UT

BEAUTY AND No. 364

6 Le tte rs

BEAU TY No. 366

9 Let ter s

36-Po int

48-Poin t

4 Le tte rs

BEAW

8 Le tte rs

BEAUTY AN Ô2


CHILDS No. 380

12-Point

No. 384

15 Lett ers

19 Lette rs

Çe au tÿ and th e Ç ea st Co 18-Point

7 Lett ers

релитуi Çeautÿ an

ÇGAUTp AND THE ÇEA

No. 381

36-Point

8 Letters

11 Lett ers

ÇEAUT y AND TH

No. 385

48-Point

5 Lette rs

No. 386

60- Poi nt

4 Le tte rs

14 Lette rs

Çeautÿ and the Çe No. 382

24-Point

9 Lette rs

6EAUTV ÂNI Çeautÿ and th 11 Letters

No. 383

30-Point

7 Lette rs

geA DTy A Çcautÿ and 9 Letters

6 Let ters

Reauti

OLD STYLE OUTLINE No. 387

18-Point

8 Lette rs

No. 388

24-Point

7 Lette rs

No. 389

30-Point

6 L ette rs

No. 390

36-Point

5 Lett ers

63

No. 391

48- Poi nt

3 L et te rs

No. 392

60-Point

3 Letter s


COLUMBU S 14-Poin t

No. 393

Ko. 396

10 Le tte rs

36-Point

5 Let ters

BEHU TY ÄND T 13 Let ters

Be au ty and the В 18-Point

No. 394

7 Le tte rs

8 Le tte rs

BEA UTY ÄN B ea ut y an d t 10 Le tter s

24-Poi nt

No. 395

7 Le tte rs

BEÄUTYÄ Be au ty an 8 Let ters

STIPPLE 18-Point

No. 398

11 Le tte rs

Ko. 400

30-Po in t

7 Le tte rs

Ko. 401

48-Point

5 Le tte rs

Ko. 404

36-Po int

5 Le tte rs

Ko. 405

48-Point

4 Le tte rs

BEAUT Y ДИВ TM 24-Poi nt

Ko. 399

8 Le tte rs

MOSAIC 24-Point

Ko. 402 S

Ko. 403

A

7 Le tte rs

TY A 30-Poin t

6 Le tte rs

AUTÏ 64


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Beauty and tl x Beast Covent 6a 23 Le tte rs

12-P oint

No. 408

10 L et te rs

Beauty and t

25 L et te rs

10-P oint

No. 407

30-P oint

No. 411

33 L et te rs 8-P oin t No. 406 Beauty and tl x Beast Covent Garden prod

Beauty and the Beast Covent 15 L ett er s

18-P oint

No. 409

Beauty and tfte Bea ■ ■■■ -

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No. 410

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24-P oint

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48- Poi nt

No. 413

7 L et te rs

. -

12 L ett er s

eautp and the HARBORO UGH No. 414

12-P oint

23 L ett er s

Be aut y and the Be as t Covent No . 416

18- Poi nt

13 L ett ers

Beau ty and the В No. 417

24- Poi nt

36-P oint

30- Poi nt

No. 423

72-P oint I ni ti al s

7 L ett er s

HAWA RDEN No. 424

48-P oint I ni ti al s

И L ett ers

Beau ty and th No. 419

No. 422

ITAL IC

No. 425

10 Le tte rs

36- Poi nt

9 Le tte rs

b ea u ty and t ff ie a u ty am 65


COLUMBUS OUTLINE ©

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48-Point

8 L ette rs

18-Point

No. 426

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No. 427

24-Point

7 Let ters

8 L ette rs No. 432

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No. 429

36-Point

REGINA No. 434-

No. 436

No. 43?

18 Po int

24-Point

3 Le tte rs

5 Lette rs

HAWARDEN OUTLINE

OUTLINE

12-Point

60-Point

21 Let ters

13 Let ters

11 Let ters

■auty m d 66


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10 -P oi nt

23 L e tt e rs

Bea uty an d th e Bea st Co ve nt No. 455

19 L e tt e rs

Bea uty an d th e Be ast Co

Beauty and the Beast Covent Garde

N o. 456

Beauty and the Beast

Beauty and the Beast Covent

No . 457

Beauty and t he В

Beauty and the Beast C

No . 457 10 L et te rs

8 L e tt e rs

10 L e tt e rs

15 L et te rs

Beauty and the Bea

N o. 458

24- Poi nt

24 -P oi nt (No . 2)

BEAUTY AN Be au ty an d t

BEAUT Y AND T

ft о 447

10 L e tt e rs

13 L e tt e rs

18 L et te rs

18 -P oi nt

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BEAU TY AND TH E В

N o. 446

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17 L e tt e rs

23 L e tt e rs

14 -P oi nt

18 -P oi nt

BEAUTY AND THE В

16 L e tt e rs

BE AU TY AND TH E BEAS

N o. 445

15 L e tt e rs

19 L e tt e rs

28 L e tt e rs

12 -P oi nt

14-P oint

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BEAU TY AND TH E BEAST CO

N o. 444

18 L et te rs

BEAUTY AND TH E BEAST C

38 L e tt e rs Beauty and the Beast Co ven t Ga rde n Produ ctio

N o. 443

12 -P oi nt

8 Le tte rs

30 -P oi nt

7 L e tt e rs

BEAUTY A

BE AU TY AN

9 L e tt e rs

12 L e tt e rs

Beauty and the Beauty and No. 448

20- Poi nt

No . 459

7 Le tte rs

36 -P oi nt

7 L e tt e rs

BEA UTY A BEAUTY I 7 L e tt e rs

10 L e tt e rs

Beauty and t B ea u ty a 67


H A W A R D EN

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24-Poi nt

14 Le tte rs

7 Le tte rs

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36-Poin t

No. 465 F No. 461

48-Poi nt

12 Le tte rs

5 Let ters

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V E N E T I A N (O u tlin e ) No. 466 No. 462

60-P oint

18-Po in t

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BE AU TY AN D T

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16 Le tte rs

Beauty and the Beas

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No. 467 fi

24-Poi nt

8 Le tte rs

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72-Po int

No. 468

30-Po int

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No. 469

36-Poi nt

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Profile for Stepan Chizhov

The Advertiser's Handbook (1923)  

While it isn't really a book about book arts, it gives some insights on printing and typography. And even while that's printing and typograp...

The Advertiser's Handbook (1923)  

While it isn't really a book about book arts, it gives some insights on printing and typography. And even while that's printing and typograp...