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Ver s i on1. 0 T hebookwa spubl i s hedbyGeor geBel l &S ons( 1893) . Oc t a v o, 261pp. Wel l i l l us t r a t edhi s t or yoft hepr i nt er s ' ma r ki nE ngl a nda ndi n c ont i nent a l c ount r i es . I nc l udesma nye x a mpl es , i nc l udi ngs ome f r om t heendoft he19t hc ent ur y . heendoft hi sPDFy ouwi l lnds omemor ephot osoft hebook . Att I fy ou nda nyOCRer r or s , pl ea s er ea c husa t : s @i book bi ndi ng. c om Mor ebook sa boutbookhi s t or y , booka r t sa ndbook bi ndi ngon ourwebs i t e: ht t ps : / / www. i book bi ndi ng. c om/ pdf book bi ndi ngc ol l ec t i on/ ht t ps : / / www. pa t r eon. c om/ i book bi ndi ng









PR IN TE RS â&#x20AC;&#x2122; MARKS.






Cum ^Jiutlegio Oenctüs 3fmp:effum uhmo $ 0 < Cï 3

Printers ’ Marks A Chapter in the History of Typograp hy by W. Roberts Editor of


Th e Bookworm ”

Lon don : George Bell & Sons, York Street, Covent Garden, & New York. Mdcccxciij.





PREFA CE. H E R E are few phases of typography open to the charge of being neglected. An unquestionable exception occurs, however, in relation to Printer s’ Marks. Th is subje ct is in many respects one of the most interestin g in connection with the early printers, who, using devices at first purely as trade marks for the protection of their books against the pirate, soon betran to discern their ornamental value, and, consequently, employed the best available artists to design them. Many of these examples are of the great est bibliographical and general interest, as well as of considerable value in supplementing an important class of illustrations to the printed books, and showing the origin of several typical classes of Book-plate s (E x-L ibr is) . Th e present Handbook has been written with a view to sup­ plying a readable but accurate account of this neglected chapter in the history of art and bib­ liograp hy; and it appeals with equal force to the artist or collector. Only one book on the subject, Berj eau ’s “ Ear ly Dutch, German, and Engli sh Printer s’ Marks,” has appeared in this

vi i i


country, and this, besid es being out of print and expen sive, is destit ute of descr iptive lette rpre ss. T he principle which determ ined the selec tion of the illustration s is of a threefo ld cha rac ter : first, the importanc e of the printe r ; second ly, the art isti c value or inter est of the Mark its elf ; and thirdly, the geogr aphica l importa nce of the city or town in which the Mark first appeared. Sin ce the tex t of this book was print ed, howeve r, two additions have been made to the liter atur e of its subje ct : Dr. Paul Kr is te lle rs “ D ie Ita lie ­ nischen Buchdru cker- und Ver lege rzei chen , bis 1525 ,” a very handsome work, worthy to ran k with the “ Elsäs sisc he Büche rmark en bis An fan g des 18. Jah rhu nd ert s” of Her r Paul Hei tz and Dr. Ka rl A. Bara ck (to whom I am indeb ted for much valuable information as well as for nearl y thirty illustrations in the chap ter on Germ an Pri nte rs’ Marks) ; and Mr. Alfred Poll ard ’s “ E ar ly Illus trate d Boo ks,” an admirable volume which, however, only deals inciden tally with the Pr int er’s Mar k as a side issue in the histor y of the dec ora­ tion and illustration of books in the fiftee nth and sixte enth centuries. Mr. Pollard reproduc es seven block s from Dr. Kr ist ell er s monogra ph on the Dev ices of the Italia n Print ers. In refe renc e to the state men t on p. 116 of this volume tha t the Mar k of Bade “ is the earli est picture o f a printi ng pres s,” Mr. Pollard refers to an unique copy of an edition of the “ D anse Mac abre ” printed anonymousl y at Lyo ns in Feb rua ry, 1499, eight years earlier, which contai ns cuts of the shops of a printe r and a bookse ller.



Th at this volume has consi derab ly excee ded its intended limit must be my e xcus e for not including, with a very few excep tions , any modern examp les from the Contin ent. Nea rly every Fre nch printer and publi sher of any note indulges in the luxury of a Ma rk ol some sort, and an inte resti ng volume might be writt en conce rning modern continenta l examp les. Th e pract ice of using a Pri nte r’s Mark is an extr em ely comme ndable one, not merely as a relic of antiq uity, but from an æsthe tic point of view. Nea rly ever y tradesman of importance in this coun try has some sort of trade mark ; but most prin ters agre e in regar ding it as a wholly unne cessa ry superfluity . As the few exception s indicate d in the last chap ter prove that the fashion has an arti stic as well as a utilitarian side, I hope that it will again becom e more genera l as time goes on. As regar ds my a utho rities : I have freely availed mysel f of nea rly all the works named in the “ Bib lio­ graph y ” at the end, besides such invaluable works as Br un et’s “ M anu al,” Mr. Quar itch’s Catalogues, and the monog raphs on the various printers, From Plantin, Elz evi r, Aldus, and the rest. Messrs. Dic kso n and Edm ond s’ “ Annals of Sco ttis h Pr in ti ng ” I have obtained not only some useful inform ation regar ding the Pri nte r’s Mar k in Scotla nd, but, throu gh t he c ourtesy of M essrs. Ma c­ millan and Bowe s of Ca mbridge, the loan of several blocks from the forego ing work, as well as that of Joh n Sibe rch, the first Cambr idge printer. I have also to thank M. Martin us Nijhoff , of the Hague , Her r Ka rl W. Hiers eman n, of Leipzi g, He rr J. H. c



Eel. Heit z, Str ass bur g, Mr, El lio t Sto ck, Mr. Ro be rt Hilto n, Ed ito r of the “ Brit ish Pri nte r,” and the Ed ito r of th e “ Ame rican Bo ok ma ker ,” for the loan eith er of block s or of original examp les of Pri nte rs’ Mark s ; and Mr. C. T . Jac ob i for seve ral useful works on typogr aphy. Mr. G. P. Joh nsto n, of Ed inbur gh, kindly l ent me the reduced facsim ile on p. 252, which arrive d too late to be included in its proper place. T he publis hers whose Mark s are included in the cha pter on “ Modern Ex am pl es ” are also than ked for the courtes y and readiness with which they placed elect ros at my disposal. Th e original idea of this book is due to my friend, Mr. Gleeso n Whit e, the gen eral edi tor of the series in which it appears ; but my than ks are especia lly due to Mr. G. R. Den nis for the grea t care with which he has gone throu gh the whole work. W . R. 86, Gros venor Road, S.W., October, 1893.


P r e f a c e ......................................................................


L ist of I l l u s t r a t io n s ...................................................................... xiii I n t r o d u c t i o n ................................................................................. S ome G en er a l A sp ec ts of t h e P r in t e r ’s Mar k


. .


T h e P r in t e r ’s M ar k in E n g l a n d .....................................


S om e F r en ch P r in t e r s ’ M a r k s ................................................100 P r in t e r s ’ M ar ks of G erm an y and Swi tz er la nd


S ome D ut ch an d F le m is h P r in t e r s ’ Mar ks . . . . P r in te r s ’ M ar ks

in I tal y and


139 178

S p a i n ..................................... 209

S ome M od er n E x a m p l e s ................................................................233 B ib l io g r a ph y ........................................................................................... 253 I n d e x ............................................................................................................255



L ie c h t e n s te in , P e tr u s .


B e ll , G e o r g e , a n d S o n s .


i A n d la u , G . U . V o n . . . . . . . t C o u te a u , G il le 4 D u P r é , G a ll io t . . . . 5 L e c o q , J e h a n ........................... 7 P e ti t a n d K e r v e r . . . . 9 11 . . . D u P u y s, Ja c q u e s 12 P a v ie r , T ....................................... J a n o t , D e n y s ........................... 16 F a q u e s , W il li a m . . . . .... S te e ls , J ...................................... 19 21 V é r a r d , A n to in e . . . . P la t e o f t h ir ty M a r k s u se d c h ie fl y b y th e I t a li a n 25 P r i n t e r s ................................. 28 C h a u d iè re , G u il la u m e . . 30 R o ff e t, J a c q u e s . . . . . . e d n a e 31 T o u rn es, J 33 B r e u il le , M a th u r in . 35 S n e ll a e r t, C ................................. 37 R a s t e ll , J o h n ........................... L e e u , G e r a r d . . . . 39 , l ö s 40 F u s t a n d S c h o e f le r . . . F r o b e n , J ...................................... 43 C r a ta n d e r ’s M a r k ( a tt r i. . b u te d to H o lb e in ) 45 46 C o x , T ............................................ D u ls s e c k e r , J o h a n n R e in 4 7 , 15 3, 154 . . . . h o ld 50 , 14 3, 14 4 . d r a h B e c k , R e in 51 G ol tz , H u b e r t ..........................

. . L y n n e , W a lt e r . . m a li il W , n to C ax S t. A lb a n s P r in te r , T h e D e W o rd e, W y n k y n P y n s o n , R ...................... . . N o ta ry , J u li a n . . . Faw kes, R . . . T r e v e r is , P e te r . . . S c o tt , J o h n . C o p la n d , R o b e r t . . W y er, R o b ert . . . H e s te r , A n d re w . . B e r th e le t , T h o m a s . B y d d e ll , J o h n . . . V a u tr o ll ie r, T h o m a s G ra ft o n , R ic h a r d M id d le to n , W il li a m . . . W o lf e , J o h n D ay, Jo h n . . . . A rb u th n o t, A . . . . S in g le to n , H u g h . . W ig h t, J o h n . . . . . H a ll , R o w la n d B y n n em an , H en ry . W o od cock , T h om as J a g g a r d , W il li a m K in g s to n , F e li x . . C re e d e , T h o m a s . . . . W a lt h o e , J o h n W a r e , R ........................... . . . S c o la r, J o h n S ib e r c h , J o h n . . . M y ll a r, A n d r o . . . . ' C h e p m a n , W a lt e r


55 56 58 60 61 63 64 65 . 6 6 , 68 69 . 70 71 • 72 74 75 • 76 • 78 . 79 • 81 . 83 • 84 . 85 . 86 . 87 . 88 . 89 • 90 .

• • • 59 ,


91 92

• • .

93 95 96



Li st of Illustrations.

Da vid son , Th om as Ch art eri s, H. . . Es tie nn e, F. . . Re mb olt , B. . . Vo stre , Simo n Ré gn aul t, Fra nç ois Ré gn aul t, Pie rre . Ma rch an t, Guy . De M ar n ef . . . Du Pré , J. . . . Le Roug e, Pie rre Le Noi r, Phi lipp e Kerv er, Th iel ma n Pig ouche t, Phi lipp e Pe tit, Je ha n . . Bad e, J .................. Ha rdo uy n, Gi lle t. Tor y, Geoffrey De Coline s, Simon Es tie nn e, Ro ber t 12o, Vido ue, P. . . . Cya neu s, Louis . Wé che l, An dré . Wé che l, Ch res tien Nive lle, Séb asti en and Mer lin, Des boy s Niv elle . . . To pie , M. . . . Tre sch el, J. . . Do let, E. . . . Hu gh es de la Po rte and A. Vin cen t . . Gry phe , Sé bas tien Colo mies , Jac qu es Mo rin, M. . . . Le Cha nde lier , Pie r re Th an ne r, Jac ob i . Gri inin ger , Jo ha nn Sc hot t, Ma rtin . . Kn obl ouc h, Jo ha nn Köpfe l, Wo lfg ang I4S, Milli er, Craf t (Cr ato Mylius) . . 147, Bie ner , M att hia s (A piar ius) Rih el, Th eod osi us ; Rihe l, Jos ias (und D ere n Er be n)



98 99 100 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 113 114 115 116 117 119 121 124 125 126 127 128 130 131 B2 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 146 149 148 150


Zetzne r, Laza rus . . . . Ber ger, Th ieb old . . . Sche r, Con rad . . . . Ha uth , D a v id ................ 152 Ans helm , Th om as . . . Kob ian, Va len tin . . . Ho ern en, A. Th er . . . Bum gar t, He rm an . . . Koelhoff, Jo ha nn . . . Caesar, Nic hol as . . . . Soter , J ............................ 162 Birc kma nn, Arn old . . . Oglin, E rh a rd ................ 164 Pfortz heim, Jac obu s de . H e n r i c p e t r i ................ 166 En dt er ’s, Wi lhel m Moritz, D a u g h t e r ................ 167 We isse nbu rge r, J. . . . Lott er, Me lchi or . . . . Sch uma nn, V.................. 170 Bau mga rten , Co nra d . . Fey rab end , J ................... 172 Guer bin, L....................... 172 Sta del ber ger , Ja co b. . . Gira rd, J e h a n ................ 174 Rivery, J .......................... 174 Fro sch ove r, C................. 175 Bryl inge r, N ................... 176 Le Preu x, F .................... 177 Vel den er, J ..................... 178 Joh an n of W es tph ali a . . Ma rten s, Th eo do ric . . Man sion , Col ard . . . . Th e Bro the rs of Com mon L i f e ............................182 Paffr aej, Alb ertu s . . . Van der Meer , Jac ob J a c o b z o o n ................. 186 Van de r Goes, Ma thi as . Van den Do rp, R. . . . Bac k, God efro y . . . 188, Cæs aris , A........................ 191 Hill eniu s, Mic hael . . . Bel laer t, J.........................193 Plenr ici, H ....................... 194 De stre siu s, Jo do cu s. . .

151 151 152 155 156 157 158 160 161 163 165

168 169 171 173

179 180 181 183 187 188 190 192 195

Li st o f Illustrat ions. PAGE

I96 Van der Noot , Th om as Gra pheu s, J .................... IQ? I98 Van den Keere , H e n ri . Wa esb crg he, J. . . . I99 200 Ha mo nt, Mich el de . . 201 Velpiu s, Ru tge r . . . 202 Hovii, J. M.................... Pla nti n, C....................... 203, 204 Elze vir Sage , Th e . . 2o6 Elze vir Sph ere, Th e 207 Jans sens , Guis lain . . 208 Fr ita g, A........................ 209 Rie ssin ger , Sixtu s . . 210 Bes icke n, J ..................... 21 I Ma rten s, Th ier ry . . 21 I Ra tdo lt, Er ha rd us . 212 Scot to, Ott avi ano . . 214 Sessa , Me lchi or . . . 216 Meie tos, P. an d A. . . 217 Ald ine Anc hor , Th e Fi rst 218 To rre san o, An dre a . . 219 Ald ine Anc hor, 1502-15 220 221 n 1546-54 222 ,, » 1555-74 223 ,» „ 1575-81 Giu nta, P ........................ 224 225 Giu nta, L........................ 225 Giun ta, Pb de . . . . Sabio , Th e Bro the rs 22Ó Leg nan o, Gian G iacom o di 227 228 Rizzard i, Gia mm ari a . Ros em bac h, Ju an . . 23O Fe rna nd ex , V. . . . 23I


PACK Kall ierg os, Za cha rias . . 232 Leg nan o, J. A. de . . . 232 Ving le, J. de, of Pi ca rdy . 232 Hu gu nt, M.......................... 232 Lo ngm an and Co. . . 233, 237 Sta tio ne rs’ Com pany , Th e 233 Riv ingt ons , Th e . . . . 235 Cla ren don Pre ss, Th e . . 238 Pic ker ing , Wil liam . . . 239 Pic ker ing , Basil Mon tagu . 239 Chisw ick Pre ss . . .24 0,2 41 Cha tto and W in du s. . . 243 Nu tt, D a v i d .........................243 Cass ell and Co........................243 Mac mill an and Co. . . . 243 Unwi n, T. Fi sh er . . 243, 245 Law renc e and Bullen . . 243 Keg an Pau l and Co. . . 243 Clark, R. and R..................... 244 Cons table , T. and A. . . 246 Morri s, Will iam . . . 247, 248 Appl eton, D., and Co. . . 250 Cush ing, J. S., and Co. . 250 Ha rp er B ro th er s. . . . 250 Lockw ood, PL, and Co. . 250 Berwi ck and Sm ith . . . 251 De Vinne, The odo re L., and Co............................. 251 Lipp inco tt, J. B., Co. . . 251 Nijhofif, M. . . . . . . 251 Nor ton, Wil liam . . . . 252 Bell, Georg e, and Sons . 261


Printers Marks.

wh ich we re gr an te d by king s, prin ces, an d sup rem e ponti ffs, we re usu ally ob tai ne d only by circ uito us ro ute s an d aft er th e ex pe nd itu re o f m uch tim e and mo ney . Mo reo ver , the co un ter fei t b ook w as rar ely ei th er typ og rap hic all y or tex tua lly cor rec t, an d was mo re ofte n tha n not ab rid ge d an d mu til ate d alm ost bey ond r eco gni tion , to the se rio us de tri m en t of the pr in te r wh ose nam e ap pe ar ed on th e titl epag e. Pla ces as well as ind ivi dua liti es suffe red, for ve ry ma ny boo ks wer e sold as pr in te d in Ven ice, wi tho ut ha vin g the lea st claim to th at dis tin cti on . T he Ly ons pr in ter s we re mo st un ­ blu sh ing sin ner s in this resp ect, an d Re no ua rd cite s a Mem oria l dra wn up by Al du s him se lf on th e sub jec t, and pub lish ed at Ven ice in 1503. But ap ar t f rom the f ore goi ng rea son s, it mu st be rem em be red th at ma ny of the ea rli est mo nu me nts of typ og rap hic ar t ap pe are d no t only wi tho ut the nam e of the pr in te r but also wi tho ut th at of th e loc alit y in which the y wer e pri nte d. A lth ou gh in suc h case s var iou s ex tra ne ou s cir cum sta nce s ha ve en ab led b ibl iog rap he rs to “ pl ac e” th es e boo ks, the M ark o f the pr in te r has alm ost i nv ari ab ly bee n the ch ief aid in thi s dire ctio n. T he Ps al te r of 1457 is the first boo k whic h has the nam e of th e plac e wh ere it was pri nte d, bes ide s th at of the pr in ter s as well as the da te ol the ye ar in whic h it was exe cu ted . But for a lon g tim e aft er th at da te bo ok s ap pe ar ed wi tho ut one or the ot he r of the se at tri bu te s, an d som etim es wi tho ut eit her , so th at th e im po rta nc e of the Pr in te r’s Ma rk hol ds goo d. A ve ry na tur al qu est ion now su gg es ts itself, “ W ho inv en ted th es e M a rk s? ” Lai re, “ In de x



L ib ro ru m " (S æc . xv .), ii. 146, in sp ea ki ng of a G re ek P sa lt er s ay s : “ H ab et si gn at ur as , re gi st ru m ac custodes, sed non m im er an tu /r /o ti a . L it te r ce pr in ci pa le s lig no incisez su nt , sic tit et in pr in ci pi o cu jus lib ct p s a lm i viti cul cc quce ga lli cé v ig ne tt es ap pe lla nt ur , q ua ru m u su m pr im u s exc og ita vit A Idus. T h e vo lu m e he re de sc ri be d wa s pr in te d ab ou t 1495, an d th e in ve nt io n th er ef or e ha s be en ve ry ge ne ra lly at tr ib u te d to Al du s. T h a t th is is no t so will be sh ow n in th e ne xt ch ap te r. W e sha ll co nfi ne ou rs el ve s for th e p re se n t to so me of th e va rio us po in ts wh ich ap pe ar to be m at er ia l to a pr op er u n d er st an d in g of th e su bj ec t. O ne of th e m os t im po rt an t an d in te re st in g ph as es in co nn ec tio n wi th P ri n te rs ’ M ar ks is un ­ do ub te dl y th e m o ti f of th e pi cto ria l em be lli sh m en t. Bo th th e pr ec is e or ig in an d th e ob jec t of m an y M ar ks ar e no w lo st to us, an d ma ny ot he rs are on ly ex pl ai ne d af te r a th or ou gh st ud y of th e life of t he p ar ti cu la r p ri n te r or th e na tu re of th e bo ok s wh ich he ge ne ra ll y pr in te d or pu bl ish ed . T h e m aj or ity , ho w ev er , ca rr y th ei r ow n p ri m a pac te ex pl an at io ns . T h e nu m be r o f ‘‘p u n n in g ” de vi ce s is ve ry la rg e, an d ne ar ly ev er y on e ha s a ch ar ac te r pe cu lia rly its ow n. T h e ir an ti qu it y is pr ov ed by th e fa ct th a t be fo re th e be gi nn in g of th e fif­ te en th ce nt ur y, a pi ct ur e of St . A n th o ny wa s bo ldl y, no t to sa y ir re ve re nt ly , us ed by A nt oi ne Ca ill au t, P ar is . A lo ng se rie s of p un ni ng de vi ce s oc cu r in th e bo ok s pr in te d by or for th e fif tee nt h ce nt ur y pu bl is he rs , on e of th e m os t st ri ki ng an d su cc ess ful is th a t of M ich el le No ir, wh os e sh ie ld ca rr ie s his ini tia ls, su rm ou nt ed by th e he ad of a


P ri nt er s M ar ks .

negre ss and sometim es supported by cantin g figures in full. Th is Mark, with variati ons, was also employed by Philipp e and Guillaum e le Noir, the work of the three men cove ring a period of nearly 100 years . Th e device of Gille s or Gill et Couteau, Paris, 1492, is apparen tly a double pun, first on his Christ ian name, the


trans ition from which to Ĺ&#x201C;i lle t bein g easy and expla ining the presence of a pink in fiower, and second ly on his surname by the three open knives, in one of which the end of the blade is broken . It was almost inevi table that both Den is Ro ce or Ross , a Pari s bookse ller, 1490, and Germa in Rose, of L yons , 1538, should employ a rose in their marks,

In tro du cti on .


and this they did, one of the lat ter ’s exam ples havi ng a dol phin twinin g aroun d the stem. Jac qu es and Es tie nn e Mai llet, whose works at Lyo ns ex ­ tended trom the last eleve n years of the fifteen th


centu ry to the middle of the sixte enth , give in the cen tre of t hei r shield a pictur e of a mallet. One of the bolde st of the e arly sixt een th century exam ples is that employ ed by Gal liot Du Pre, Paris, and in this we have a picture of a galley propelled with the aid of sails and oars, and with the motto “ Vog ue la gu ale e.” Th is devi ce (with


Pri nter s Mark s.

se ve ra l va ria tio ns ) wa s us ed by bo th fa th er an d son , an d po ss es se s an in te re st b ey on d th e su bj ec t o f P ri n te rs ’ M ar ks , for it gi ve s us a ve ry cl ea r ide a of th e dif fer en t bo at s em pl oy ed du ri ng th e firs t th re e qu ar te rs of t he si xt ee nt h ce nt ur y. A no th er st ri ki ng M ar k of ab ou t th e sam e tim e an d co ve rin g as ne ar ly as po ssi ble th e sa me pe rio d, wa s th at of th e fam ily D e La Po rte . T h e ea rli er ex am pl e us ed in Pa ris ab ou t 1508 was a sim ple do or w ay ; bu t th e el de r H ug ue s de la Po rte , Ly on s, an d th e su cc es so rs of Ay mo n De La Po rt e of th e sam e plac e, us ed se ve ral ex ce ed in gl y bo ld de si gn s in wh ich Sa ms on is re pr es en te d ca rr yi ng aw ay th e ga te s of Gaz a, th e mo tto on on e do or or gat e be in g “ lib er ta te m me am ,” an d on th e ot her “ me cum po rt o. ” T h e two pr in te rs of t he sa m e na me , Je ha n Le co q, who we re pr ac tis in g th e ar t co n­ tin uo us ly du rin g ne ar ly th e wh ole of th e si xt ee nt h ce nt ur y at Tr oy es , em plo ye d a M ar k on th e sh iel d of wh ich ap pe ar s th e fig ure of a co ck ; wh ils t an eq ua lly a pp ro pr ia te if mu ch mo re ug ly de sig n, wa s em pl oy ed b y t he e m in en t Ly on s fam ily o f Sé ba st ie n G ry ph e or G ry ph iu s : he ha d at le as t ei gh t “ g ri ff in ” M ark s, wh ich dif fer ed sli gh tly fro m on e an ot he r. Fr an ço is Gr yp he , wh o w or ke d in Pa ris , ha d on e M ar k wh ich was or igi na l to th e ex te nt of th e grif fin be in g su pp or te d by a to rto ise . J. Du Mo uli n, Ro ue n, em pl oy ed a lit tle pi ct ur e of a wi nd mi ll on his M ark , as di d Sc ot la nd ’s firs t pr in te r, A nd ro M yl la r; bu t Je ha n Pe tit , a pro lific fif tee nt h ce nt ur y pri nte r of Pa ris , co nfi ned his pu nn in g to th e wo rd s “ P et it à P et it ,” as is see n in th e re du ce d fac sim ile titl e, gi ve n on p. 9, of a

Intr odu ctio n.


book printed by him for T . Ke rv er. Math ias Apiariu s, Str ass bur g, used at leas t two Marks ex ­ pressing the same idea, namely, a bea r di scover ing a b ee’s nest in the hollow o f a tr ee—an obvious pun on his surname. T he latt er part of the sixte enth century is not nearly so fruitful in really good


or stri king devi ces. Guillaum e Bichon , Paris, employed a realis tic picture of a lap-dog (in allu­ sion to his surnam e) chas ing a hare, with the motto “ Nunc fugiens, olim pu gn ab o” ; and equally rea­ listic in anot her way is the Mar k of P. Chande lier, Caen, in which effect ive use is made of a candle ­ stick with seven holders, the motto bein g “ Lu cern is


P ri nt er s M ar ks .

fideliter minis tro.” Antoi ne Tard if, Lyons, em­ ployed the Aldin e anchor and dolphin, and also a motto, “ Fe sti na tard e,” which is identical in meaning, if not in the exa ct words, of that of Aldus. Guillaume De La Rivi ère, Arras , used a charming ly vivid little scene of a winding river, with the motto “ Madenta flumine valles ” ; and it is not difficult to distinguish the appropr iateness of the sprig of barley in the Mark of Hugu es Barbon, Limoges. Th e Mark of J acq ues Du Buys, Baris, was possibly suggested by the word pic its (or well), and of which Buys is perhaps only a form : the picture at all events is a repre senta tion of Christ at the well. In the case of Adam Du Mont, Orange, the Christian name, is “ taken of f” in a picture of Adam and Ev e at the tree of for­ bidden fruit ; and exac tly the same idea occurs with equal appropriateness in the Mark of N. Ev e, Baris, the sign of whose shop was Adam and Ev e. Michel Jov e naturally went to profane histor y for the subje ct of his Mark, and with a consi derab le amount of success. Amo ng the numerous other example s with mottoes derived from sacred history, special men­ tion, as showing the connection between the sign of the shop and its incorporation in the Mark, may be made to the following printers of Baris : D. De La Noue, who not only had “ Je su s ” as the sign of his shop, but also as his M ar k; J. Gueffier had the “ Amat eur D iv in ” as his sign, and an allegori cal interpr etation of the device, “ F er t tacitus, vivit, vincit divinus amato r,” as a M ar k; Guillaume Julian , or Julien, ha d“ A m iti é”

Z et te




Print ers Marks.

as his sign, and a personif ication of this (Ty pus Amicitiae) as his Mark , with the motto “ Nil Deus hac nobis majus c once ssit in usus ” ; Ab el UA ng eli er (and his widow after his death) adopted the sac ri­ fice of Abe l as the sub ject of his Sig n and Mark , with the motto “ Sacru m pinque dabo nec macrum sac rifi cab o” ; and the motto of both the first and the second Michel Sonni us was “ Si Deus pro nobis, quis contra nos ? ” A few punning devices occur amon g the early En glis h printers, but they are not always clev er or pictoriall y successful. Th e earl iest exam ple is that of Richa rd Grafton, whose pre tty dev ice repres ents a tun with a grafted tr ee grow ing th rough it, the motto, “ Susc ipite insertum verb um ,” bein g taken from the Epi stle to St. Jam es (i., ver se 21). Joh n Da y’s device, with the motto “ A rise ! for it is day,” is genera lly supposed to be an allusion to the Reform ation as well as a pun on his name ; traditio n has it, however, that Day was accust omed to awake his a pprentices, when the y had pr olonge d thei r slumbers beyond the usual hour, by the wholesome application of a scourge and the summons “ Ar ise ! for it is day.” W e may also mention the devices of Hugh Sing leto n, a single tun ; and of W. Middleton, a tun with the lett er W at bottom and M in the centr e of the tun ; of T. Pavie r, in which, appropr iately enough, we have a pavior paving the stree ts of a town, and surrounded by the motto “ Th ou shalt labour till thou return to dust. ” Tho ma s Wo odc ock em­ ployed a device of a cock on a stake, piled as for a Rom an funeral, with the motto “ Cantabo



Pri nte rs Mark s.

I eh ovæ quia ben efec it ” ; Andre w Lawr ence , a St. Andr ew cross. Althou gh not in any sense of a “ pu nn ing ” nature, the employ ment of a print ing press as a Mar k may con venien tly be here referr ed to. It was first used in this manner, and in more than one form, by Jos se Bade, or Badius, an emine nt print er of the first thirty -five years of th e six teen th c entury,

T . PA V1 ER .

and to whom full refere nce will be found in the chap ter on Fre nch Marks. A Fle mis h printer, Pie rre César, Ghen t, 1516, was appar ently the nex t to employ this de vic e; then carne Jeh an Baudouyn , Ren nes, 15 24 ; El oy Gibie r, Orlean s, 155fi î Jea n Le P reux, Paris and Switzerland, 1561 ; En gu ilb ert (I L ) De Ma rne f and the Bouch ets brothe rs, Poitie rs, 15 67 ; and, later than all, L. Cloquem in, Lyon s, 1579.

Int rod uc tio n.

N ex t to th e se ct io n of 11 p u n n in g ” de vi ce s, pe rh ap s th e m os t en te rt ai n in g is th a t wh ich de als wit h th e qu es tio n of m ot to es . T h e se ar e de ri ve d from an inf ini te va ri et y of so ur ce s, no t in fr eq ue nt ly lro m th e fe rti le br ai ns of th e p ri nt er s th em se lv es . T h ei r ap pl ic at io n is no t al w ay s cle ar, bu t th ey ar e ne ar ly al w ay s in di ca tiv e of th e vi ri li ty wh ich ch ar ac te ri ze d th e old pr in te rs . It is ne it he r de ­ si ra bl e no r po ss ib le to ex ha us t th is so m ew ha t in tr ic at e ph as e of t h e su bj ec t, bu t it will be ne ce s­ sa ry to qu ot e a few re p re se n ta ti v e ex am ple s. O cc as io na lly we g e t a sn at ch of ve rse , as in th e ca se of M ich el L e N oi r, wh os e m ot to ru ns th us : “ C’est mon désir De Dieu servir Pour acquérir Son doux plaisir.”

Al so in th e in st an ce of an ot he r ea rly pr in te r, Gi lle s D e G ou rm on t, wh o ch an t's — “ Tost ou tard Pres ou loing A le Fort Du fehle besoing.”

P er ha ps th e g re at es t nu m be r of all ar e th os e in wh ich th e p ri n te r pr oc la im s his fai th to G od an d his lo ya lty to his ki ng . O ne of th e ea rly Pa ris pr in te rs en jo in s us — in v er se — no t on ly to ho no ur th e k in g an d th e co ur t, bu t cla im s ou r sa lu ta tio ns for th e U ni ve rs it y ; an d al m os t pr ec is el y th e sam e se nt im en t find s ex pr es si on in th e M ar k of J. A le xa nd re , an ot he r ea rl y p ri n te r of Pa ri s. R ob i­ ne t or R ob er t Ma cé, R ou en , pr oc la im s “ U ng die u,


Printer s Marks.

ung roy, ung foy, ung loy,” and the same idea ex ­ presse d in identica l words is not uncommonly met with in Pri nte rs’ Marks . O f a more definitely re­ ligious nature are those, for example , of P. de Sar tièr es, Bourg es, “ To ut se passe fors di eu ” ; of J. Lam bert , “ A espoir en di eu ” ; of Pri gen t Calvarin, “ Deum time, pauperes sustine, finem re­ sp ic e” ; and severa l from the Psalms, such as that of C. Nourry, called Le Prince, “ Cor contritum et humiliatum deus non de spicies ” ; of P. De Sai nct eLucie , also called Le Prince, “ O culi mei semp er ad domi num” ; and of J. Tem por al (all thre e Lyon s printers) , “ Ta ng it montes et fumig ant,” in which the design is quite in keep ing with the motto ; in one case at least, S. Nivell e, one of the commandmen ts is made use of, “ Hon ora patrem tuum, et matrem tuam, ut sis longævu s super terra m.” Here, too, we may include the mottoes of B. Rigaud, “ A foy entière cœur vo la nt ” ; S. De Colines, “ Eripia m et g lorificab o eum ” ; and of Ben oist Bounyn, Lyons, “ Lab ores manum tuarum quia mand ucabis beatus es et be ne ti bi e rit .” W hil st as a few illustrati ons of a g eneral cha ract er we may quote Geoffre y To ry ’s exce edin gly bri ef “ Non plus,” which was contem poraneo usly used also by Oliv ier Ma llar d; J. Long is, “ Nihil in char itate vio len tia” ; Den ys Jan ot, “ T ou t par amour, amour par tout, par tout amour, en tout bi en ” ; the Fre nch rende ring of a very old prover b in the motto es of B. Aubr i and D. Roce , “ A l’aventure tout vien t a point qui peut at te nd re ” ; J. Bignon, “ Rep os sans fin, sans fin re po s” ; the motto used conj oint ly by M. Féz and at and R. Granj on, “ Ne



Printers Marks.

la mort, ne le ve ni n” ; and the motto of Etien ne Dolet, “ Sca bra et impolita ad amus sim dolo, atque perfolio.” Amon g the mottoes of early English printer s, the most not able, par tly for its dual source, and as one of our earlie st examples, is that of William Faqu es ; one sente nce, “ Melius e st modi ­

(M a jih W IL LI AM FA QU ES .

cum justo super divitias peccatoru m multas,” is taken from Psalm xxxvii. verse 16; and the second, “ Melio r est patiens viro forti, et qui dominât ,” comes from Prove rbs xvi., verse 32. Th e motto of Richard Grafton has already been quo ted ; that of John Reynes was “ Redempto ris mundi an na ” ; and John Wolfe, “ Vbique floret.” Th e employme nt of mottoes in Greek and

Introd uctio n.


Hebre w charac ters is a not unimpor tant feature in the earli er examples of Pri nte rs’ Marks , but it must suffice us here to i ndicate a few of the leading printers who used eithe r one or the other, and sometimes both. B. Rem bolt was one of the earlie st to i ncorpo rate a Gre ek phrase ; De Sale nson, Ghent , had a Gr eco -La tin motto on an open bible, which is the pi èc e de res ista nce of a pretty Mark, a similar idea occurr ing in the totally different Mark s of the broth ers Tre sch el, Lyon s ; anoth er Lyon s firm of printer s, the brothe rs Huguetan, employed a G ree k motto, and a phrase, also in Gre ek char acter s, occurs in one of the Mark s of Pet er Vidou e. Th e more notable Marks which contain Heb rew char acter s, which genera lly signify Jeho vah , are those of Joa nne s Knoblou chus, or Knob louch , Str ass bur g, in which we have not only Hebrew , but upper and low erc ase Greek, and a Latin q uota tion— “ V erum, quum latebr is delituit diu, emerg it ” ; and of Wo lfius Cæphalæus, also of Str ass bu rg ; and here again we have the Mark environed by quota tions in Gree k, Latin , and Hebrew. In a few in stan ces we have the unlucky lette r of the Gr eek alph abe t— th eta — forming a Mark with cons idera ble origina lity, as in that of Guillaume Morel, where this symbol of death is surrounded by two dragon serpe nts repre senti ng immortality. T he the ta was also employed by Eti enn e Prev ostea u. Th e sub ject of the spher e in Pri nte rs’ Mark s might profitably occupy a good deal of spa ce in dis­ cussing. It is gene rally conside red to be not only the pecul iar prop erty of t he Elz evir s, but th at books D


Printers Marks.

posse ssing it without havin g one or other of the real or assumed imprint s of this celebr ated family of printers are impudent frauds. But as a matter of fact, it was used by at least half-a-dozen printers many years before the Elz evi rs started printing. Fo r example , it was employed during the last de­ cade of the fifteenth centur y by Gille s Hardouyn, and early in the sixte enth by Hugu etan broth ers at Lyons, by P. S erg ent and L . Gr and ina t Paris, by J. Ste els, or S teels ius of Antwerp, and P. Lich tens tein of Ven ice. In these instances, however, it is en­ dowed, so to speak, with access ories. In the earli ­ est Mark it plays only an inciden tal part, but in the Huguet an example it forms the devic e its elf : it is held by a hand and is encircle d by a ring on which the owner of the hand is evi dently tryin g to balance a ball ; there is a Gre ek motto. I n a later and slightly different design of the same family, the motto is altered in position, and is in Lat in : “ Vniv ersit as rerum, vt Pvlis, in manv Ieh ov ae. ” Ea ch of the two Paris examp les is rema rkabl e in its peculiar way. In Gran din’s two Mark s the same allegor ical idea prevails, viz., one person seizing a complet e sphere from an angel out of the clouds, apparently to exch ange it for the broken one held by a second person : in the cruder of the two examples of these there is a quotation from the 11 7th Psalm. In Se rg en t’s bold and vigorous Mark, the sphere, which inclose s a figure of the crucified Christ, is fixed into the top of a dead trunk of a tree . It may also be mentioned that this device was frequ ently used by printers during the middle and latte r part of the sevent eenth

Introduct ion.


centu ry in this cou ntr yâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;it appea rs, for examp le, on sever al books printed by R. Ben tley , Londo n, during that period. T h e sphe re as an El ze vi r Mark will be referr ed to in the chap ter dealing with Dutc h examp les. An elem ent which may be gen eric ally termed


religious plays no unimpo rtant part in this subject . It will not be necess ary to ente r deeply into the motives which induced so many of the old printers and books ellers to s elect eithe r their devices or th e illustratio ns of their Mark s from biblical sources ; and it must suffice to say that, if the obj ect is fre­ quently hidden to us to-day, the fac t of the ex ten t of


Printe rs Marks.

thei r employm ent cannot be contr overte d. Th e incid ent of the Braze n Ser pen t (N umb ers xxi. ) was a very popular subje ct. One of the earlie st to use it was Conrad Neoba r, Paris, 1538 ; it was adopted by Reg inald Wolf e, who commence d printin g in this country about 1543, and its possessio n was consid ered of sufficient import ance to m erit s pecial mention among the goods beque athed by his widow to her son Rob ert. It was also the Mark of Wo lfe’s contem poraries, Mart in L ej eu n e, Paris, Jea n Bien -Né, of the same city, and of Je an Crespin, Genev a, the last-named using it in sever al sizes, in which the foot of the cross is “ continued ” into an anchor. Apar t from crosses in an infinite varie ty of forms, and to which refere nce will presen tly be made, by far the most popular form of religious devices consisted of what may, for conve nience sake, be termed angelic . Pict orial ly they are nearly always failures, and often ludicrously so. Th e same indeed miMit be said of the work of most artists who have essayed the imposs ible in this direction. An extrao rdina ry solemni ty of countenance, a painful samenes s and extre me ugli­ ness, are the three dominant features of the ange ls of the Prin ters ’ Mark. Th e sub ject offers but little scope for an art ist’s ingenuity it is true, and it is only in a very few excep tions that a tolerable exam ple presents itself. Th ei r most frequent occurr ence is in supporting a shield with the national emblem of Fran ce, and in at least one insta nce— that of Andr é Bocard , Pari s,— with the emblem s of the city and the Univ ersit y of Paris. Th is idea, without t he two latt er emblems, occurs in


Printe rs Marks.

the earlie st printe rs to adopt this form ; but a few excep tions may be mention ed where only one appears, namely, in the Mar k of Est ien ne Baland, Lyo ns (15 15 ), in which an angel is represe nted as confounding Bal aam ’s ass ; and in that of Vin cen t Portun aris, of the same place and of about the same time, in which an angel figures holding an open book ; in the four employed by G. Silvius, an Antwerp printe r (15 62 ), in three of which the figure is also holding a book ; in the elabo rate Mark of Philip Du Pré, Paris, 159 5’ a n c ^ in the excee ding rough Mark o f J an no t de Campis, of Lyons, 1505. Curiously enough, the sub ject of Christ on the cross was very rarely employed, an excepti on occurring in the case of Schaf feler, of Constance, or Boden see, Bav aria , 1505 . Th e same centre-piece , without the cross, was employe d by Jeh an Frello n, Paris, 1508, and eviden tly copied by Jeh an Burges, the younger, at Rouen, 1521, whilst that of Guillaum e Du Puy, Paris, 1504, has already been referre d to. Th e Virg in Mary occurs occasionally, the more notab le ex­ amples being the Marks of Guillaum e Anab at, Paris, 1505 -10, really a careful piece of work ; and the elder G. Ryverd , Paris, 1516, and in each case with the infant Jes us. St . Chris tophe r is a subj ect one sometime s meets with in Prin ters’ M ark s: in that of Gerv ais Chevallon , Paris, 1538, it however plays a compa rativel y subordinate part, and its merits were only fully recognized by the Grosii, of Leipzig, who nearly always used it for about two ce nturies, 152 5-1 732 ; the example beari ng the last date is by far one of the most

Introd uction .


absurd of its kind—the cowled monk with a modern lantern light ing St. Christopher on his way through the river is a choice piece of incongruity. Another phase of the religious element capable of considerable expansion is that in relation to the part played in Marks by saints and priests generally. Sometime s these are found together with an effect not at all happy, notably the two Marks of Jehan Olivier, Paris, 1518, which, with Jesus Christ on one side, a Pope on the other, and an olive tree, are sufficiently crude to present an appearance which seems to-day almost blasphemous. Th e last of the several religious phases of Pri nters’ Marks to which we shall allude is at the same time the most elaborate and com­ plicated. We refer to that of the Cross. The subject is sufficiently wide to occupy of itself a small volume, but even after the most careful in­ vestigation, there are many points which will for ever remain in the region of doubt and obscurity. Traditio n is proverbially difficult to eradica te; and all the glamour which surrounds the history of the Cross, and which found expression in, among other popular books, the “ Legenda Aurea,” maintained all its pristine force and attractiveness down to the end of the sixteenth century. 1 he invention of printing and the gradual enlighten­ ment of mankind did much in reducing these legends into their proper place ; but the process was gradual, and whatever may have been their private opinions, the old printers found it discreet to fall into line with the established order of things. Indeed, the religious sentiment was perhaps never


Printers Marks.

so alive as at th e time of the invention of printing, in proof of which some of the earliest and most magnificent typog raphica l monu ments m ayb e cited, —the Gut enbe rg Bible, the Psalte r of Fu st and Schoeffer, for example. Th e accompan ying plate will give the reade r a faint idea of the extra ordi­ nary variet y of crosses to be found on Prin ters ’ Marks used chiefly by the Italian printers. M. Paul Delalain has touched upon this ex­ ceedingly abstr act p hase of P rin ters ’ Mark s in the third fascicule his “ Inve ntai re des Marqu es d ’im ­ primeurs,” without, as he himself admits, arriv ing at any very definite conclusion. Th e cross, whether in its simplest form or with a complica­ tion of additional ornaments, has, as he points out, been at all times popular in connection with this subject. It appeared on the shield of A rnold Th er Hoernen, Cologne, 1477, a t Stockh olm in 1483, at Cracovia in 1510. Th at it did not fall entirely into desuetude until the end of the eight o eenth century is a very strikin g proof of what M. Delalain calls “ la persistan ce de la croix.” It has appear ed in all forms and in almost every conceivable s hape. Its presence may be taken as indicating a de ference and a submission to, as well as a respect for, the Christi an religion, and M. Delalain is of th e opinion that the sign “ eu pour origine l’affiliation à une confrérie religieus e.” Finally, in his introducti on to Roth- Schol tz’s “ Thesa urus Symbolar um ac Emblema tum,” Spoerl asks, “ Why are the initials of a prin ter or b ook­ seller so often placed in a circle or in a heartshaped border, and then surmou nted by a cross ?

1. Benedetto d ’Effore. 2. Bonino de Boninis. o Bernardino de Misintis. 54- Bernardino Ricci. 5- Bernardino Stagni no. 6. Baptista de Tortis. 7. Bernardinus de Vitalibus. 8. Bartholomeus de Zanis. 9- Dionysius Bertochus. 10. J 11. Dominicus Roc cociola or Ricbizolo. 12. William Schömberg. Iß- Christopher de Canibus. H Hercules Nani. *5- Giovanni Antonio de Benedetti.

16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. E

Samuel de T ournes (Geneva). The Somasclii. Justin ian de Ruberia. j. Treschel (Lyons). L. de Gerla, Gerlis or Gerula. Laurentius Rubeus de V alentia. Lazaro Suardo or da Suardis. Matth ew de Code ca or Capsaca. Nicholas de Francfordia. Dionysio Berrichelli. Octavianus Scottus. Peregri no de Pasqualibus . Philip Pinzi or Pincius. Caligula de Bacileriis. J. Sacer.

Pr int er s Ma rks .

Wh y at the extr eme top of the cross is the lateral line formed into a sort of triang ular four ? Why , without this inex plica ble sign, has the cross a number of cypher s, two, or even three, cross-b ars ? Wh y should the tail of the cyph er 4 itse lf be trave rsed by one or sometim es two perpend icular bars which them selve s would appea r to form anoth er cross of anot her kind ? Wh y, among the orname ntal access ories, do certa in spec ies of stars form s everal crosses, entang led or isolate d ? Why, at the base of the cross is t he V duplicated ? ” All these are problems which it would be exce edin gly difficult to solve with satisfa ction. W e do not propose offering any kind of expl anat ion for these singular marks ; but it will not be without inter est to point out that among the more inte rest ing example s are those used by Ber tho ld Rem bolt , André Bocard or Boucard , Geo rges Mittel hus, Jeh an Alexa ndre, Jeha n Lam bert , Nico le De La Barre, and the brother s De Marnef, all printe rs or booksell ers of Baris ; of Guillau me Le Tall eur, Rich ard Auzolt, of Rouen ; of Jaq ue s Hugue tan, Mathieu Husz, Fra nço is I7 radin, Jac qu es Saco n or Sacho n, and J eha n Du Pré, all of Lyon s ; of J eha n Grüninge r, of Stra ssbu rg ; of Law renc e Andrewe, and Andrew Hest er, of Londo n ; the unknown printe r of St. Alba ns ; of Leeu, of Antwe rp ; of Jac ob A bie gnu s,of Leip zig; of P edro Miguel, Ba r­ celo na; of Juan de Rose mbac h of Barce lona and other pla ces ; of the four “ ale ma nes " of Seville , and hundreds of others that might be mentioned. It is curious to note that, in spite of its grea t mediaeval popularity, th e subj ect of St . Georg e and



the Dra gon rarely ente rs into the subje ct of Pr int ers ’ Marks, and of the few exampl es which call for referenc e, those of Tho ma s Pér ier and Guill aume Bourgc at, of Paris and Tou rs resp ec­ tively, ar e a mong the b est bo th in design a nd exec u­ tion. Th e idea was also ado pted by Guillau me Auvr ay, of Pa ris ; and by M. de Hamon t, Brussels. Th e personif ication of Tim e and Peace were both popu lar ; and each has its successful ex­ One of the earli est instances of the amples. former is a pre tty little mark, execu ted with a consi derab le amo unt of vigour, of Robe rt De Gourm ont, Paris ; a large and vigorou s Ma rk—one of sev eral —emplo yed by Simon De Colines, Paris, in which it is inte res ting to note that the scythe is not inv ariab ly denticu lated ; two ve ry crude b ut very disti nct exam ples empl oyed by Michel Hillenius or Ho ogh stra te, Antw erp, 1514; and two, one large and the othe r small, of Guill aume Chaudière, Paris, 1564; whilst Jean Te mpo ral, of Lyons, 1550, used it as an evid ent play on his name. The emblem of Peace does not app ear to have been much em­ ployed until well on into the sixtee nth century ; N. Boucher, 1544, used as his motto, “ pacem vi ct is ;” Guillau me Julien, to whom reference has alread y been made ; as likewise Michel Clopejau, of a few ye ars later, who used the words “ I ypus amicitiæ ” on his mark, with the furth er legend of “ Quam spe rata victo ria pax certa melior ; ” these thre e lived in Paris, whilst by far the best deco rativ e Mar k in this connection was tha t adop ted by Julie n Ange lier, a bookselle r and prin ter of Blois, 1555, the centre of whose de-


Printers' Marks.

vice, besid es the words â&#x20AC;&#x153; Signu m paci s,â&#x20AC;? includes a dove bear ing <_> two olive branch es. T he fra ternal


device of two hands clasped may also be here alluded to : it is of special inter est from the fact that, it was employed by one of the earlies t to

Introdu ction.


practice printing in Paris— Guy or Guyot Mar­ chant, 1483, one of whose Marks gives us a view of two shoemakers working with musical notes representing So La (Sola ), and u fides fic it” in gothic type. Thoma s Richard, sixty years after­ wards, elaborated on a portion of this idea, and his Mark shows two hands holding a crowned sceptre with two serpents entwined around it. Designs much superior to these were employed by Bertramus of Strassb urg, at the latter part of the sixteenth century. Followin g the example of M ar­ chant, musical notes have occasionally been em­ ployed by later printers. Th e rebus of this printer evidently suggested that of Jehan and Anthoine Lagache, father and son, Arras, in 1517, the first syllable of whose name, La, is indicated by a musical note, and is immediately followed by “ gach e.” Pierre Jacob i, Saint-Nicholas- de-laPort, and Toulouse, 1503, adopted Marchant’s idea by giving “ Sola fides fic it” with a musical start, so to speak ; and a distinctly novel phase of the subject is employed by Jaco bus Jucundus, Strassburg, 1531, in which a goose is represented as playing on a violin. Printers’ marks in which the pictorial embellish­ ments partake of a rustic nature, such as bits of landscape, seed-sowing, harvesting, and horns of plenty, are numerous, and in many cases ex­ ceedingly pretty. J. Roffet, Paris, 1549, employed the design of the seed-sower in several of his Marks ; and of about a dozen different Marks used at one time or another by Jean De Tourne s the first, Lyons, 1542, one of the most sue-

Printer s Marks.

cessful is a clev er one having for its central figure a sower ; the same idea, in a very crude form, was contem porane ously employed also by De Lae t, Antwerp . Th e Cornucopia, or horn


of plenty, was a very favour ite emblem, and it appears in a manifold varie ty of designs, some­ times with a Caduceus (the symbol of Mercury) which is held by two clasped hands, as in the case of T. Orwin, London, 1596, in a cartouche with the motto : “ By wisdom peace, by peace

Introductio n.


plenty ; ” four of the eigh t marks used by Chre stien Wé che l, Paris, 1522, differ from Orwi n’s in bein g surmounted by a winged Pegas us ;

and André Wé che l, of the same city, 1535, em­ ployed one of the smaller devices of Chresti en, with variatio ns and enlarg ement s of the sam e; in the Mark of J. Chouet, Gene va, 1579, the c aduceus


Pr in ter s Ma rks .

is replaced by a serpent, the body of which is formed into a figure 8 ; in tha t of Gislain Manilius, Ghen t, the horns appear above two sea ted figures. In each of the foreg oing examp les two horns appear. Geor g Ulr ich er von Andlau, Stras sbur g, 1529, used the cornucopia, and in one of his Marks the figure is surrounded by an elabora te array of fruit and veg etab les ; single horns appear also in the clever and elabo rate marks of R. Foue t, Paris, 1597, whose des ign was a very sligh t devia­ tion from that of J. De Bord eaux, Paris, 1567. Th e oak-tree , shelt ering a reape r and with the motto “ S atis Querc us,” was employed by Geor ge Cleray, Vannes, 1545 ; and the fruit of this tre e— the acorn—by E. Schul tis, Lyons, 1491. Th e thistle appears on the marks of E sti en ne Gro ulleau, Paris, 1547 ; the Rose on the more or less elabo­ rate designs of Gilles Corrozet , Paris, 15 38 ; a rose-tre e in full flower occupies the centr e of the beautiful mark of the first Mathieu Guillemot, Paris, 1585 ; a solitary Rose -flow er was the simple and effective mark of Jea n Dalli er, Paris, 15 45 ; and a flowering branch of the same tree is one of the items on the charming little Mark on the opposite page of Mathurin Breuille , Paris. In the catego ry of what may be termed extin ct animals, the Unicor n as a sub ject for illustrating Prin ters ’ Marks enjoyed a long and exten sive popularity. Th e most remark able thing in con­ nection with these designs o f the U nicorn is perhaps thei r striki ng dissimilarity, and as nearly every one of the many artists who employed, for no obvious reasons, this animal in their Pri nte r’s Marks had



his ow n id ea of w ha t a U ni co rn o u tf it to ha ve be en lik e, th e re su lt, vi ew ed as a who le, is no t by an y m ea ns a ha pp y on e. Sti ll, se ve ra l of th e ex am pl es po sse ss a co ns id er ab le am ou nt of vi go ur an d ha ve a di st in ct de co ra tiv e eff ect ive ne ss. Bu t ap ar t fro m th is its ap pe ar an ce in th e M ar ks of t he old p ri nt er s is a ve ry st ri ki ng pr oo f of th e fac t


th at th e me dia eva l le ge nd s di ed ha rd . Cu rio us ly en ou gh , th e pr ov er bi al â&#x20AC;&#x153; lion an d un ico rn â&#x20AC;? do no t ofte n occ ur to ge th er . T h e fam ily of p rin te rs wi th wh ose na m e th e un ic or n is al m os t as clo sel y as so ­ cia ted as th e co m pa ss is wi th Pl an tin , is th at of K er ve r, for it ha s be en em pl oy ed in ov er a dozen dif fer en t fo rm s by on e or ot he r m em be rs fro m th e en d of th e fif tee nt h ce nt ur y to th e la tt er F


Printers Marks.

par t of the sixteen th. Sometimes there is only one Unicorn on the mark, at o thers there is a pair. Le Pet it Laurens, Paris, was using it contem ­ poraneou sly with the first Thie lman Kerve r, and possibly t he one copied the other. Sénant, Vivian, Kées, and Pierre Gadoul, Chapelet, and Chavercher, were other P aris printe rs who used the same idea in their marks before the middle of the sixtee nth century. It was long a fav ourite subject with the Rouen printers, one of the earliest in that city to use it being J. Richard, whose design is particularly original, inasmuch as the shield is suppor ted on one side by a Unicorn, and on the other by a female, possibly inten ded to repre sent a saint, an idea which was appa rentl y copied by Symon Vincent, Lyons ; th e Unicorn was also use d in t he marks of L. Martin and G. Boulle, both of Lyons ; and also in the very rough but original design employed by PL Hesk er, Antwerp, 1496 ; whilst for its quaint originality a special reference may be made to the Mark of Francois Pluby, Paris, of the latter part of the sixtee nth century, for in th is. a Unicorn is repres ented as chasing an old man. Th e origin of the Unicorn Mark is ess en­ tially Dutch. Th e editions of the Printer, “ à la licorne,” Deft, 1488-94, are well known to stude nts of early printing. Th e earliest book in which this mark is found is the “ Dyalogus der Creature n ” (“ Dialogu s Cre atu raru m”) issued at that city in November, 1488. Henri Eck ert de Plombergh and Chr. Snellaert, both of Delf, used a Unicorn in their Marks during the latte r years of the fifteenth century.

Intr odu ctio n.


Am ong othe r possibl e and impossibl e mons ters and sub ject s of profane history, the Griffin, the


Mermaid, the Phoenix, A rion and Herm es has each had its Mark or Mar ks. In the case of the first named, which, accord ing to Sir Tho mas Browne,


Printer s Marks.

in his “ Vulg ar Er ro rs, ” is emblem atical of watch­ fulness, courage, perse veran ce, and rapidity of executi on, it is not surprising that the Gryphius family, from the eviden t pun on their surname, should have conside red it as in th eir particu lar pre­ serves. As may be imagined, it does not make a pretty de vice, although under the circum stance s its employm ent is perhaps permis sible. Seb asti en Gryphius, Lyons, and his brot her Fra nco is, Paris, who were of German parent age, employed the Griffin in about a dozen va riation s during the first half of the sixt eenth centu ry, d he Griffin, however, was utilized by Ponc et Le Preux , Paris, some years before the Gryphius family came into no toriety, and it was employed contem porane ously with this by B. Aubri, Paris. Th e Mermai d makes a pret tier picture than the Griffin, but its appea rance on Prin ters ’ Marks is an equally fanta stic vaga ry of the imagination. In one of the earl iest Marks on which it occurs, that of C. Fra din , Lyo ns, 1505, the shield is supported on one side by a Mermaid, and on the other by a fully-arme d knigh t ; half a century after, B. Mace, Caen, had a very clever little Mark in which the Mermaid is not only in her proper element, but holding an an chor in one hand, and combin g her hair with the other. Durin g the second quarte r of the sixte enth century, the idea was, with variatio ns, used by G. Le Bret, Paris, and J . De J unt e, Lyons , as well as by Jo hn Raste ll, Londo n, 1528, whose shop was at the sign of the Mermai d. To summarize a few o f the less popular designs, it will suffice to give a short list of the vigne ttes


Introduction .


or marks used by the old printers of Paris (except where otherwise stated), alphabetically arranged according to subjects : Ab rah am , Pacard ; an ancho r, Christopher Rapheleng, Leyden, Chouet and Pierre Aubert, Geneva ; two anchor s crosswise, I hierry Martens, Antwerp, and Nicholas le Rich ;


one or more angels, Legnano, Milan ; Henaucl and Abel L â&#x20AC;&#x2122;Angelier, and Dominic Farri, Veni ce; Ar ion , Oporinus or Herlist, Brylinger, Louis le Roi, and Pernet, Basle, and Chouet, Geneva ; a Ba sil isk and the four elements, Rogny ; Be lle ­ rophon, the brothers Arnoul and Charles Angeliers ; Guillaume Eustace, and Perier, and Bonel, Venice ; a B u ll with the sign Taurus and the Zodiac,


Printers Marks.

Nich olas Bevila cqua, T u ri n ; a Ca t with a mouse in her mouth, Melc hior Se ss a and Piet ro Nicolini, de Sab io, Ven ice ; two Dov es, Jac qu es Quesn el ; an E ag le , Balt haza r Belle rs, Antwerp, Bladius, Rom e, G. Roui lle or Rovi lle, Lyon s, and th e same design— with the motto “ Re nov abit ur ut aquilae juve ntus mea ”— occurs in the books published in the early years of the seve ntee nth centur y by Nicolini, Raban i, Ren ner i and Co., Ve ni ce ; the personificatio n of Fo rtu ne , Ber tier , J. Den is (an elabo rate and cleve r design in which a youth is represe nted climbin g the tree of For tun e), and Adrian le Roy and Ro be rt Ballar d, Ber de and Rigaud, Lyons, and Giovan ni and Andr ea Ze nnaro, Ven ice ; a Fo un tai n, M. Vas cosa n, the second Fred eric Morel (with a Gr eek motto import ing that the fountain of wisdom flows in books ), and Cratander, Basle ; a H ea rt , Seb ast ian Hur é and his son-in-law Corbon ; He rcu les , with the motto, “ Vir tus non territ a monst ris,” Vitr é, Le Maire, Le yd en ; a L io n rampant, Arr y ; a lion rampant crowned on a red ground, Gun ther Zain er ; a lion led by the hand, Jacq ues Crei ghe r ; a lion sup­ porting a column, Mylius, Stra ssbu rg, and a lion with a hour glass, Hen ric Petri , Bas le ; a M ag pie , Jea n Ben at or Bienn e ; this bird also occurs among Ro be rt Es tie nn e’s Marks , and the same subje ct, with a serp ent twining round a branch was used (accord ing to Horn e), by Fre der ic Mo rel ; M erc ur y, alone or with other classic deities, David Douceur, Biagg io, Ly on s; Jean Rossy, Bo log ne; Verd ust, Antwerp, and Hervag ius, Ba sle ; a P el i­ can, N. De Guinguant, S. Nivelle, Girault and De

Intr odu ction .


Marnef, C. and F. Fran ceschîni, Venice; Mamarelli, Fe rra ra; F. Heger, Leyden ; E. Barricat, Lyons ; and Martin Nuyts and his successor who carried on business under the same name, Antwerp ; 2, Phoeni x, Michael Joli, Wyon, Douay ; Leffen, Ley den ; Martinelli, Rom e; and Giolito, Veni ce; a S al a­ mand er, Zenaro, Veni ce; St. Crespin and Senneton, Lyo ns; Duversin and Rossi, Rom e; a Sto rk, Nivelle and Cramoisv ; St. George an d t he Dra gon , Michel de H amont, Brussels ; a Swan, Blanchet ; whilst a swan and a soldier formed the Mark of Peter de Cæsaris and John Stoll, two German printers who were among the earliest to practise the art in Paris.







P R I N T E R ’S M A R K . F R O M what has alread y been stated, it will .be seen that the Pri nte r’s Mark plays a by no means unimp ortant part in the early histo ry of illustration, — whet her the phase be serious or gro ­ fust and scHOEFFER. tesque, sublime or ridiculous, we find here manifold examples, crude as well as clever. Althoug h it cannot be said with truth that the Mark as an instituti on reache d, like typography itself, its highe st degre e of perfectio n at its inception, some of the earl ier examples, neverthe less, are also some of the most perfect. Th e evolution from the small monogr am, gener ally in white on a black ground, to an e labor ate picture occupyi ng from a quarte r to a whole page, was much less gradual than is gene rally supposed. Th e unambitious marks of the first printers were clearly adopted in consonan ce with the trade rs’ or me rch an ts’ marks which began to be so general ly

Some General As pect s.


employed during the latte r part of the fifteenth century. Th e very natural question , Wh ich was the first Pri nte r’s M ark ? admits of an e asy answer. It was employed for the first time in the form of the coupled shield of Fu st and Schoe ffer, in the colo­ phon of the famous Psa lter printed by these two men at Mainz in 1457 - Th is book is remarka ble as bein g the cos tlie st eve r sold (a perfect copy is valued at 5,0 00 guin eas by Mr. Quari tch) : it is the third book printed, and the first having a date, and prob ably only a dozen copies were struck off for the use of the Ben edic tine Mona stery of St. Jam es at Mainz . It is, however, quite as remar k­ able for the ext rao rdin ary beauty of its initial lette rs, print ed in red and blue ink, the letters bein g of one colour and the ornam ental portion of the othe r. T h e Ma rk of Fu st and Schoeffer, it may be menti oned, con sists of two print er’s rules in saltai re, on two shields , hang ing from a stump, the two rules on the righ t shield forming an angle of 45° : the adopti on of a com posit or’s setting-r ule was very appr opria te. It was nearly twenty years before the introd uction of woodcuts into books became gene ral, Gun the r Zain er beginnin g it at Aug sbur g in 147 1-1 475 . Th e inception of this move ment was natural ly followed by a general improv ement , or at all even ts elaboration, of the Pr int er’s Mark , which, moreove r, now b egan to be printed in colours, as is seen in the Fu st and Sch oeff er mark in red which appears beneat h the colophon of Tu rre cre ma ta’s Comm entary on the Psalm s printed by Sch oeff er in 1474* Rev erti ng G


Pri nte rs Mark s.

for a momen t to the Psa lter which has been very properly descri bed as “ the gran dest book ever produced by Ty po gra ph y,” a very curious fact not at all gene rally known may be here pointed out. Altho ugh the few exi stin g examp les with two dates are of the same edition, there are severa l very curious varia tions which are well worthy of notice. It will be only necess ary, how­ ever, in this place to refer to the fact that the beautiful example in the Impe rial Lib rar y at Vie nna — which, from its s potless purity, Hei nek en calls the “ exempl aire v ie rg e”— differs from the others in being without the shield of Fu st and Schoef fer, a fac t which points to the prob abili ty of this copy having been the first struck off. By the end o f the fifteenth centu ry the Pri nte r’s Mark had assumed or was rapidly assumin g an importance of which its 'or igi na l introd ucers had very little conception. Indeed, as early as 1539, alaw, according to Dup ont, in his “ Hist oire de l’ Im ­ primer ie,” was passed by which the se m arks or arms of printers and bookse llers were prote cted. Un ­ fortunat ely the designs were very rarely signed, and it is now impossible to name with any degree of certa inty eithe r the artis t or - engra ver, both offices p robably in the major ity of cases being per­ formed by one man. Th er e is no doubt whateve r that Hans Holb ein designed some of the very gracef ul borders and title -pag es of Frobe n, at Basle , during the first quarte r of the sixtee nth century, and in doing this he included the graceful Caduceus which this famous pr inter employed. It does not n ecessar ily follow that he was the original

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Prudeös fimplicitas amorc# rcóti. J.



Printers Marks.

designer , although he was in intima te associatio n with Fro ben when the latt er first used this device. Th e distin ctive Mar k of Cratande r, or Cartand er, which appears in the edition of Plut arch ’s “ Opus­ cula ,” Basel , 1530, has also been confiden tly attri­ buted to the same artis t : if there is any foundation for this st atem ent Holb ein was guilty of plagiarism, for this Mark is a very sligh t modification on one used by the same printe r in 1519, and not only so dated but having; the art ist ’s initials, I. F. Th os e who have the opportunity of exam inin g the “ N octes Att icae ” of Aulus Gellius, printed by Cratan der in 15 19 , will come upon seve ral highly inte resti ng features in connec tion with this Mark, which is emblemat ical of For tun e : the elabo rately engrave d title- page contains an almos t exa ct miniature of the same idea on eith er side, and it is repeated in a larger form in the borde r which surrounds the first chapter. Th e Mark occurs in its full size on the last page of all. Th e title-p age, borders and Mark are all by the same artist, I. F . In the earlier example th e woman’s hair comp letely hides her face, whilst in tha t o f e leven years later it is as seen on the opposite page, and the whole design is more carefully finished. Dur er had In refer ence to dealt with the same subj ect. Fro ben , however, it should be pointed out that his Marks, of which there were several, show consid erable variation in their attend ant acce s­ sories, and that Holb ein could not possibly have had anythi ng to do with the majo rity of them. T o attem pt to identify the designe rs of even a selectio n of the best Pri nte rs’ Mark s would be but

Some General Asp ects.


to em ba rk on a wil d se a of co nj ec tu re . T h e in iti al s of th e en gr av er s, wh ich oc cu r mu ch mo re fr eq ue nt ly th an th os e of th e ar tis ts, ar e of ve ry lit tle as si st an ce to th e ide nt ifi ca tio n of th e la tte r.

c r a t a n d e r â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s m a r k .

(A tt ri bu te d to H ol be in .)

M an y of th em po ss es s a vi go ur an d an or ig in al ity wh ich wo uld at on ce st am p th ei r de si gn er s as me n of m or e th an or di na ry ab ili ty . F o r pi ct ur es qu e­ nes s, an d for th e ca re an d at te nt io n pa id to th e m in ut es t de ta ils , it ma y be do ub te d if ei th er


Pr in ter s M ar ks .

B. Pic art in Fran ce, or J. Pine in this country,

Th e examples of the has ever been excel led. former come perhaps more in the categ ory of vign ettes than of Pri nte rs’ Mark s, although the charming little pictures on the t itle-p ages of Sto sch ’s “ Pierres Antiq ues Gra vée s,” 1724, the “ Impos tures Inno cen tes, ” 1734, and the edition of Cice ro’s “ Ep isto læ, ” printed at the Hag ue by Isaa c Vaillant , 1725, — to mention only three of many—



may be convenie ntly regarded as Pri nte rs’ Marks. So far as we know, Pine only exec uted one exam ple,—-representing a Lam b within a clever ly designed cartou che—and this appears on the titlepage of Da le’s Tra nsla tion of Fr ein d’s “ Emm enologia,” printed for T. Cox, “ at the Lam b under the Roy al Ex ch an ge ,” 17 29 : in its way it is unquesti onably the most perfec t Mark that has ever been employed in this country. Any rule differe ntiatin g the Pri nte r’s Mark proper from a

Some General Asp ect s.


vignette is not likely to give gener al satisfa ction ; for a writer on the sub ject of vigne ttes will un­ failingly ap propriate many th at are Marks, and vice vers a. Th e presen t writer has found it a fairly safe rule, to ac cept as a Mar k a pictorial embe llish ­ ment (on a title-p age) to which is appended a

J . R. D U L S SE C K E R .

motto or quotation. Th e tempta tion to persuade onese lf t hat severa l of these vign ettes are Prin ters ’ Marks needs a good deal of resisting, especially when such an exqu isite example as that of Danie l Bartholom æus and Son, of Ulm, is in question. Th e same holds good with several of the dozen used by J. Reinhol d Duls secke r, Stras sburg , about


Printer s Marks.

the la tter part o f th e s event eenth and earli er part of the eighte enth centur y ; and v ery many othe rs that might be named. It is inte resti ng to note that the Pri nte r’s Mark preceded the introduction of the title- page by nearly twenty years, and that the first ornamental title known appeared in the '‘ Ca len da r” of Regio mont anus, printed at Ven ice by Pictor, Loes lein and Rat dol t in 1476, in folio. Neit her the simple nor the ornate title- page secured an immediate or general popularity, and not for many years was it regarded as an essenti al featur e of a printed volume. Its h istory is intima tely associa ted with that of the Prin ter’s Mark, and the progres s of the one synchronizes up to a certai n point with that of the other. In beauty o f design and engra v­ ing, the Print er’s Mark, like the Titl e-p age , attained its highest point of artis tic exce llen ce in the early part of the sixt een th century. Th is perhaps is not altog ether surpris ing when it is remembered that during the first twenty years of that period we have title- page s from the hands of Durer, Holbein, Wech tlin, Urs e Graff, Schauffe lein and Cra nach. In his exc ellen t work entitled “ Last Wor ds on the Histo ry of the Ti tle -P ag e,” Mr. A. W. Pollard observ es “ F rom 1550 onwards we find beaut y in nooks and corners. He re and there over som e spe cial book an ar tist will have laboured, and not in vain ; but save for such stray miracles, as decade succeeds decade, good work becomes rarer and rarer, and at last we learn to look only for careles sness, ill-tas te, and caricatu re, and of these are seldom disapp ointed. ” Th es e remarks

Some Gener al As pe cts .


apply with equal force to the Pri nte râ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Mark, although some excep tional ly beautiful examples appeared after that period. Th e position allotted to the Pri nte râ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Mark may not be of very grea t importance, but it offers some points of int erest. It appeared first in the colophon, in which the printer usually seized the opportunity not only of than king God that he had finished his task, but of indulgi ng in a little puff either of his own part of the transa ction or of the work itself. Th e appeara nce of the Mark in the colophon therefo re was a natural corollary of the printe râ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s vanity. It soon outgrew its place of confinement ; and when a pic torial effect was attempted it became promoted, as it were, to the title-pag e. In this position it was nea rly alwa ys of a primar y character , so to speak, but sometim es, as in the case of Rein hard Bec k, it was almost lost in the maze of decor ative borde rs. But it is found in various parts of the printe d book : in some cases, among which are the Ara bic works issued by Erpen ius of Leyd en, we find the Mark at what we regard as the begi nnin g of the book, but which in reality is its end. Som etim es the Mark occupies the first and last leave s of a book, as was often the case with the more impor tant works issued by Lrob en, by the brot hers Hugu etan and others. Th es e two M arks at the e xtre me portions of a book eith er differed from one anot her or not, accordin g to the fancy or conv enien ce of the printer. Th e Mark also appeared someti mes at the end of the index, or at the end of the prelimina ry matte r, such as list of conten ts or address of the author, H


Some General As pec ts.


and its position was gen eral ly determ ined by seve ral circu msta nces . Now and then we have what may be describ ed as a double Ma rk ; tha t is, of printer and book ­ seller, the one keep ing a sha rp look out to see that the oth er did not have more than his fair share of credit. Th is is th e case with severa l books printed by Jeh an Pe tit for Th ielm an Ke rve r, Paris, of which an ex amp le is g iven in th e prev ious chapte r ; Wy nk yn de W ord e used Ca xto n’s initials for a time on his Mar k, but the only motive which could have promp ted this was an affectio nate regard for his mas ter. So me of the book s which Jan not De Campis prin ted at Lyo ns for Sym on Vinc ent con­ tained not only the prin ter s, but two examples of the bo oks elle r’s Mar k. A V R E A



P R I N T E R ’S M A R K


EN GLA N D. T H E consi derat ion of the Pr in ter ’s Ma rk as an instit ution in this countr y is char acter ized by ext rem e simplic ity, both as to its origin and to its design. Fro m an WALTER LYNNE. entr y in one o f t he Bagford volumes (Ha rlei an M SS . 591 0) in the Brit ish Museum, we learn that “ rebus es or name devic es were brought into Eng land after Edw ard I I I . had conquered Fr an ce : they were used by those who had no arms, and if thei r names ended in To n, as Hatto n, Boulton, Luton , Graft on, Middle ton, Seto n, Norton, their signs or devic es would be a Ha t and a tun, a Bou lt and a tun, a Lut e and a tun, etc., which had no refer ence to thei r names, for all names ending in To n signifie th town, from whence they took their n ame s.” Ev en in Engl and, therefo re, the merc hant ’s trade device was the direct source of the Pri nte r’s Mark , which it ant e­ dated by over a century. It will be convenien t,

T he P r in te r s Aha r h in E n gl an d.


first of all, to expla in tha t t he first printin g-press in En gla nd was tha t of Wil liam Caxt on at W es t­ minster , whose first book was issued from this place No vem ber 18, 1477 J the second was that of The odo ricu s de Rood, at Oxfor d, the first book dated De cem ber 17, 14 78 ; the third was that of the unknown prin ter at St. Alban s, 1480, and the fourth was tha t of Joh n Let tou , in the city of Londo n, 1480, the last-n amed bein g soon join ed by Wil liam de Mac hlini a, who afterwards carried on the busin ess alone. Th e earlie st phases of wood -engr aving employ ed at one or other of these four dist inct houses were eith er initial letter s or borde rs around the page. At Cax ton’s press, as the late He nry Brad shaw has pointed out in a pape r read befo re the Camb ridge Antiqua rian Soc iety , Fe bru ary 25, 1867, simple initials are found in the Ind ulg enc es of 1480 and 1481 ; at the Oxfo rd press an elab ora te borde r of four pieces, rep rese ntin g birds and flowers, is found in some copies of the two book s printed there in Octobe r, 1481, and July , 1482 . O f illustratio ns in the text, we find a series of diagra ms and a series of eleven cuts illus trati ng the te xt of the first edition of “ T he Mir ror of the Wo rld ,” 14 81 ; a series of sixt een cuts to the second edition of “ Th e Game of Ches se Mor alise d,” 1483 ; and two works of the followin g year, “ Th e Fa bl es of Eso p ” and the first ed ition o f“ T he Go lden Leg end ,” each contains not only a larg e cut for the frontispi ece, but in the case of the former, a series of 185 cuts, and, in the latter , two serie s of eighte en large and fifty-two small cuts. At the Oxford press only two books


Printers Marks.

are known with wooclcut illustration s, in neithe r case cut for t he work ; at t he St. Alba ns press the only known illustratio ns in the tex t are the coatsof-arms found in the “ Book of Hawkin g, Hu ntin g and Coat- Armo urs,” i486 ; at the press of Lettou and W. de Machlinia there is no trace of illus­ trations. The se few introd uctor y facts, conden sed from Mr. Bradshaw’s pa per ab ove mentio ned, ha ve a dis­ tinct in terest to us as leadin g up to the employ ment of the Print er’s Mark. It is c ertainly curio us tha t at Caxton ’s press the ver y familiar device was only first used about Christmas, 1489, in the second folio edition of the Sarum “ Ordinale.” At first this bold and effective mark was used, as in the “ Ordinale,” the “ Dictes of the Philo soph ers,” a nd in the “ Histo ry of Rey naud the Fo x,” at or close to the beginning of th e volume. In Cax ton’s sub se­ quent books it is always found at the end. At the St. Albans - press the device with ' “ Sanctu s Albanus ” is found in two of the eigh t boo ks p rinted there, “ The Englis h Chronic le,” 1483, where it is printe d in red, and in “ Th e Book of Haw kin g,” etc., i486 ; it is formed of a globe and double cross, there being in the centre a shield with a St. An dre ws cross. So far as regar ds Caxt on’s device, it is ea sier to name the books in which it appe ared than to explain its exact meaning. Th e late William Blades a ccepts the common inte rpret ation of “ W. C. 74.” Some bibliog raphers argue tha t the date refers to the introdu ction of print ing in Engla nd, and quote the colophon of the first edition of the


Printers Marks.

“ Chess ” b ook in support of this theory . But the date of this work refers to the trans lation and not to the printing, which was execu ted at Bruge s, probably in 147b- Caxt on did not sett le at W es t­


minster until late in that year, and possib ly not until 1477 . In all prob abilit y the date, supposing it to be such, and assuming tha t it is an abb rev ia­ tion of 1474, refers to some landmark in our pr int ers career . Prof essor J. P. A. Madden, in his “ Le ttre s d’un Bibl ioph ile,” expre sses it as his

The P rinte r s Ma rk in Eng land.


opinion that the two small lette rs outside the “ W . 74 C ” are an abbr evia tion of the words “ S an cta Colon ia,’’ an indicati on tha t a notable even t in the life o f Ca xton occurred in 1 474 at Cologne . Ames, Her ber t, and other s have copied a device which Cax ton neve r used : it is much smaller than the genu ine one (which, in othe r respects , it closely resem bles) which we reproduce from Be rjea u. T he opinion tha t the inte rlac eme nt is a trade mark is, Mr. Bla des points out in his exhau stive “ Li fe, ” much stre ngth ened by the discove ry of its origin al use. In 1487 , Caxto n, wishing to print a Sar um Missa l, and not havin g the types proper for the purpose, sent to Paris, where the book was printe d for him by G. Maynyal, who in the colophon sta tes disti nctly that he printed it at the exp ens e of Wi llia m Caxt on of London. Wh en the print ed she ets reached Westm inster , Caxt on, wishin g to mak e it quite plain that he was th e p ublish er, e ngra ved his design and print ed it on the last page, which happene d to be blank. Mr. Blad es give s 1487 as the year in which this Missa l (of which only one copy is known) was printed, but Mr. Brad shaw puts it at 1489. Th e former enum erates twe lve books printed by Cax ton in which his device occu rs—all rangin g from the aforesa id Missa l to the yea r 1491, the date of his death. Wy nk yn de Wor de, a nativ e of Lorr aine, who was with Cax ton at Bru ges or Cologne, carried on the busin ess of his mast er at We stm ins ter until 1499, when he remove d to the sign of the Golden Sun, P'leet Str eet , Londo n. He had nine Marks,


Printers Marks.

the earli est of which is often descr ibed as one of Cax ton ’s, from the genuin e exam ple of which, as we have alread y stated , it differs in bein g smaller, with a different border, and in h aving a flourish in­ serted above and below the lette rs. T h e secon d is an elonga ted variat ion of No. 1, with the name Wy nky n de Wo rde on a narrow white space benea th the device. Th e ne xt four device s are more or less elabo ratio ns upon tha t of which we


give a reproduction ; the seve nth is th e Sag itta rius device in black with white cha rac ters : between the sagitta rii is seen the sun and flaming stars, and below the initials “ W C ” in Rom an letter s, with the name W ynk yn de Wo rde at the foot ; the eighth is a pictur esque Ma rk copied from one belong ing to Fro ben , with the omission of part of the backg round ; it cons ists of a semic ircula r arch, supported by short- wreath ed pillars, with foliated capitals, plinths and bases : on the top o f each is a

Th e P ri n te r s M ar k in E ng la nd .


boy hab ited like a soldier , with a spear and shield ben din g forward s ; a larg e carto uche Germ an shield is supp orted by thr ee boys. T he ninth Ma rk of this prin ter was a larg e and handsome one, bei ng a royal and heral dic device which Wyn ky n de W or de used as a front ispie ce to the Ac ts of Par liam ent , in the form of an upright para llelo gram which encl oses a speci es of arched


panel or doorway, forme d of thre e lines, imitatin g clus tere d columns and Got hic mouldings, and two larg e squ are shields , tha t on the left charge d with thr ee fleur s-de- lys fo r Fra nc e, and the oth er beari ng Fr an ce and En gla nd quar terly, each of which is surm ounte d by a crown. Fo r a very minute desc ripti on of thes e Mark s, and thei r variatio ns, the read er is refer red to Joh ns on ’s “ Ty pogr aphi a, and Big mo re and Wy ma n’s “ Bibli ograp hy of


Printers Marks.

Pri ntin g,â&#x20AC;? the former of whom enum erates 410 book s which issued from this press. Amon g the 20 0 odd books which Ric har d Pynson printed between 1493 and 1527, we find six Mark s (beside s varian ts), of which five are very similar, and of these we give two example s, th e sma ller b eing one of the earliest , in which it will be notice d tha t

R. PY N SO N .

the drawing is much inferior to the l arg er examp le ; the sixth Mar k is a singul ar one, cons istin g of a larg e upright parallel ogram surrounded by a sin gle stout line, within which are the scroll, support ers, shield and cypher, crest, helm et and mantling, and the Virg in and St. Cathe rine, and in many other particu lars differing from the othe r five examples . Ro be rt Redma n, who, after quar rellin g with

The Pri nter s M ark in England .


Richa rd Pynson, and appa rentl y succeeding him in business, employed a device almost identical with tha t which Pynson most frequentl y used, and to which theref ore we need not furth er refer. In chronological sequen ce th e ne xt Englis h p rinte r who e mployed a device is Ju lian Notary, who was prin ting books for a bout twenty years subseq uent


to 1498, first at Westm inste r, the n near Temple Bar, and finally in St. Pau lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Churchya rd. He had two devices (of which ther e are a very few variation s), of which we give the more important. Th e other has only one stout black line, and not two, an d it has also the Latiniz ed form of the nameâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Ju lianus Notarius . Abou t two dozen diffe rent works of this pri nte rar e known to biblio graphers. In conn ection


Pr in te rs M ar ks ,

with Notary , we may h ere conv enien tly refer to an interest ing, but admitt edly incon clusiv e articl e which ap pears in Th e L ib ra ry , i., pp. 102-5 , by Mr. E. Gordon Duff, in which tha t able bibli ogra pher publishes the discov ery of two books which would point to the exis ten ce of an unreco rded En glis h printer of the fifteenth century. One of these has the title of “ Que stione s Alb ert i de modis signi fi­ candi, n and the other, of which only a frag men t is known to exist, is a Sarum “ Ho rse,” whic h is d ated 1497. In the colophons of neit her does the name of the printer transpire, but his Mar k is give n in both— in the former book in black , and in the latt er in red. Th is mark is identical with No tar y’s, with this important exceptio n, that, whereas in No tar y’s device his name occurs inth e lo we rha lf of the dev ice, in these the lower half is occupied by the initia ls I. H., and the upper hal f b y the initials I N B, the I N being in the form of a monogra m, and not dis­ tinct. In 1498 this same block was used on the title-p age of the Sarum “ M issa l,” printe d by Notary, who altered it to suit his own requ iremen ts. W e cannot follow Mr. Gordo n Du ff in his con jec­ tures as to the proba bility of who this unknown printer may have been, b ut the matt er is one of grea t bibliogra phical interest. Will iam Fa qu es, who was the Ki ng ’s Printer , and who is known to have issued seven bo oks betwe en 1499 and 1 508, had only one Mark, which is totall y different from thos e of any of his predeces sors, as may be seen from the examp le given on page 16, where will also be found refer ence s to the sources of the scriptu ral quotatio ns on the white and blac k triangle s.

The P rinte r s Ma rk in En gland.


T h e ext rem e rarit y of this prin ter’s books will be bes t underst ood when it is stated that ther e are only two exam ples in the Brit ish Mu seu m; one of the se is a “ Ps alt er ,” 1504. Wit h W. Fa qu es we exh aus t the fifteen th centu ry printer s who em­ ployed mark s to distin guish the productions of the ir press es.


Notw ithst andi ng the simi larit y in their surnames it is not at all cert ain that Ric har d Faw kes (15 091530 ), who also appea rs as Fa uk es, Fa ke s, and Faq ues , was relat ed to the last-m entio ned printer. Hi s bo oks are now o f exce ssiv e rarity. I he unico rn (reg ard ant on e ithe r side of the dev ice) appears for the firs t t ime in an En gli sh mark. Hen ry Pepwell


Prin ters' Mar ks.

(15 05 -15 39 ), of the Ho ly Tr in ity in St . Pa ul s Churchyar d, was a boo ksel ler rath er than a pri nter, and all his ea rlier book s w ere printe d in Par is ; his Mark , in which occurs the heral dic devi ce repr e­ senti ng the T rin ity, was sugges ted by th e sign o f his shop. Th e most import ant exam ple of the thirt y


books which issued from the little- know n press of Pet er Tre ver is, who was appar ently puttin g forth books from 1514 to 1535, is “ T he Gr ete herball whiche geve th parfyt knowleg e and u n d e rs ta n d ­ ing of all maner of herb es,” etc., 1526, a finely printed folio (“ at the sign e of the Wo do ws ”), of which a second edition appeare d in 1529 . Th e earl ier edition contains, on the recto of the sixth

The Pr inter s Mark in England.


leaf, a fu ll- pa ge wo od cu t of th e hu m an sk el et on , wi th an at om ic al ex pl an at io ns , w hi lst th e la st le af co nt ai ns a f ull -p ag e w oo dc ut of t he p ri n te r’s M ar k, w ith th e im pr in t at th e foo t. H e rb e rt su pp os es th a t th e sig n of th e “ W od ow s, ” m en tio ne d by T re v er is in th e co lop ho n, m ig ht po ss ib ly be pu t for wo de ho m m es or wi ld me n, an d all ud es to th e


su pp or te rs us ed in th e de vic e. T re ve ri s pr in te d for se ve ra l bo ok se lle rs, no ta bl y Jo hn Re yv es , of St. P au l’s C hu rc hy ar d, an d for La w re nc e A nd re we , of F le et S tr ee t. In t hi s p ri n te r’s M ark , an d in fac t ne ar ly ev er y ot he r si xt ee nt h ce nt ur y ex am ple , th er e is a ve ry ev id en t F re nc h infl uen ce, wh ils t m an y of th e ex am pl es a re th e m os t tr an sp ar en t im ita tio ns o f M ar ks us ed by f or eig n pr in te rs . O f th e th re e us ed K


Printer s Marks.

by Jo hn S co tt or Sh ot, who was prin ting books from abou t 1521 to 1537, two were mere copies of the Marks used by Den is Ro ce of Paris. W e give an illustration of one exam ple ; the second is of the same design, but with a very rich stella ted bac k­ ground, and the motto, “ A l’aventu re, tout vient a


point qui peut atte ndr e.” Il is own d evice was an ex ­ ceedi ngly simple long strip, with the lette rs lohn Sk ot in ant ique Rom an char acter s. An exam ple of the last mark will be found in “ T he Go lden Let any e in E ng lys sh e,” printed by Sk ot in “ Fa us ter Land, in Sa yn t Leon arde s parys she ” ; but exam ples of this press a re ex cess ively rare, only one, “ Th yst ory of Jac ob and his X I I So ne s,” fourteen leaves, in

The Pr inte r s Mar k in E ngland.


verse, and printed about 1525, bein g in the Brit ish Museum, and anot her tract , “ T he Ro sar y,” 1537, bein g in the Alth orp Lib rar y now trans ferre d to Man ches ter. Ro ber t Copland, who was a b enefic iaire and pupil of Wy nky n de Wo rde , was a trans lator as well as a p rinte r and stati oner , and his s hop was at the sign of the Ro se Garl and in Fl ee t Str ee t. Although he carri ed on busin ess from 1515 to about 1548, only a few of his books are now known, none of which appear to b e in t he Bri tish Museum. Th e major ity were purely ephe mera l. T h e most inter estin g phase of this pri nte r’s care er occurs in connection with one or two book s printed by Wyn kyn de Wor de, nota bly “ T h e Ass em bly o f Fou les ,” 1530, at the end of which is “ Le nvo y of Ro ber t Copland bok e pry nte r,” one of the three verses runnin g thus : “ Lay de upon, shel fe, in leues all torne With Lett ers, dymm e, almo st defac ed cleane Th y hyllyng e rote, with wormes all to worne Th ou lay, tha t pyte it was to sene Bou nde with olde quayre s, for ag es all hoorse and grene Th y mat er end orm ed, for lacke of thy presen ce But nowe arte losed, go shewe forth thy sente nce. ”

Th e three Ma rks of Copland make allusion to the roses which appear ed as a sign to his shop. T he most elabo rate design is an upright parallel o­ gram within which appears a flourishing tree spring ing out of the earth, and suppor ting a shield suspended from its bran ches by a belt and sur­ rounded by a wreath of roses ; on the left-hand side is a hind rega rdan t collare d with a ducal


Printers Marks.

coro net stan ding as a suppo rter, and on the right is a hart in a simil ar position and with the same deco ration s ; ther e are four scroll s surrou nding the cent re-p iece , on th e top one is “ Meliu s est, on the right-h and on e“ nomen bonu m,” on t he botto m one “ q diuitie,” and on t he left-h and one “ multe. Prou, xxi i,” i.e. “ A good name is bet ter than much rich es.” Th e second device, of which we also


give an ex ample, is self- expl anat ory, and is perhaps the more original. It has a lso an addit ional in tere st from the fact that it was used by Wil liam Copland, 154 9-1 561 , who was probab ly a son of R obe rt, and who simply altered the mark to the ex ten t of sub­ stitu ting his own Ch ristia n name for tha t o f Rob ert in the scroll at the bottom of the devic e. Ove r sixt y books by this printe r are descr ibed by biblio ­ graphe rs, and many of them are in the Britis h Museum. Ro be rt Wy er, whose shop was at the

The Pr inter s M ark in England .


sig n of St . Jo hn th e E va ng el is t, in S t. M ar ti n’s pa ris h, in th e re nt s of th e Bi sh op of No rw ich , ne ar C ha ri ng Cr oss , wa s an ot he r pr in te r wh os e wo rk s we re m or e re m ar ka bl e for th ei r nu m be r th an for th ei r t yp og ra ph ic e xc ell en ce . H is e ar lie st d at ed w or k is th e “ E xp os it io ne s T er m in ar um Le gu m


A ng lo ru m ,” 1527, an d his la te st “ A D ya lo gu e D ef en sy ue for W om en ,” 1542, bu t as to ne ar ly si xt y ot he rs of h is w or ks n o d at e is at ta ch ed , he ma y ha ve co m m en ce d ea rl ie r th an th e firs t da te an d co nt in ue d af te r th e se co nd . T h e m ar ks of W y er co ns ist ed of two or th re e re pr es en ta ti on s of St. J ohn th e D iv in e wr iti ng , at te n d ed by an ea gl e ho ld in g th e in kh or n ; he is se at ed on a ro ck in th e mi dd le


Printe rs Marks.

of the sea intended to repr esen t t he Isle of Patmos. Laure ns, or Lawre nce, Andrew e, by Ame s stated to b e a n ative of Calais, printe d a few books during the third decade of the sixt een th centur y, and resided near the easte rn end of Fl ee t St re et at the sign of the Golden Cross. H is Mar k consis ted of a sh ield which is contai ned within a v ery rudely


H E ST E R .

cut parallelo gram ; the escu tche on is su pported by a wreath benea th an orn ament al arch, and between two curved pillars designe d in the early Italian style, with a backgrou nd form ed o f coarse horizontal lines. Th re e of his book s are in the Britis h Museum . Th e Museum posse sses only one book with the imprint of Andrew He ster , who was a boo ksel ler of the u W hi te Ho rse ,â&#x20AC;? St . Paul â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

The Printer 's M ark in Englan d.


Churc h Yar d, and this is an edition of Cov erda le’s Bib le, “ newly over sene and cor rec te,” which ap­ pears to have been printed for him by Fro sch ove r, of Zurich, 155 0. Am ong En glis h Mark s of the period, H es te r’s posse sses the merit of being original. o


One of the most prolific of the printers of the first hal f of the sixt een th centu ry was Tho ma s Ber thel et, who succe eded Pynso n in the office of K in g’s Printe r, at a s alary of / 4 yearly, and who (or his immedia te success ors, for he died at the end of 155 5) issued book s from 1528 to 1568, of which nearly 150 are known to bibliog rapher s, six ty being in the Bri tish Museum. His shop was


Pr in ter s Ma rks .

at the sign of the “ Luc reti a Rom ana ,” a charming engr avin g— the most carefully execu ted of its kind used in this country up to that time — of which, with his own name on a scroll, he used as a Mark . Sev era l of his books were printed in Paris . He issued a large number of works in classi cal lite ra­ ture, and among the more notable of his publica­ tions were Chal oner’s transla tion of Era sm us’s “ Prais e of Fo lly ,” f54 9, Gower s “ De Confes sione Am anti s,” and the “ Insti tutio n of a Chris ten


Man, ” with a woodcut bord er to the title by Holbei n. Joh n Byddel l, other wise Salis bury , 1533 -44, was anoth er prin ter whose Ma rk was derived from the sign of the shop in which he carried on business, namely, “ Our Lad y of Pit y,” nex t Fl ee t Bridg e, but he afterw ards removed to the Sun near the Conduit, which was probably the old resid ence of Wy nky n de Wor de, for whom he was an exe cuto r. T he Lad y of Pity is personif ied as an angel with outs tretc hed wings,

The Pri nte r s M ark in En glan d.


holding two eleg ant horns or torches, the left of which is pouring out a kind of stream term inati ng in drops, and is marked on the side with the word “ G ra ti a” ; that on the right contain s fire and is lette red “ C hari tas ” : the lower ends of the se horns are rested by the angel upon two rude heate r shields, on the left of which is inscribed “ Joh an Byddel l, Pri nte r,” and on the other is a mark which includes the pri nte r’s initials ; round the head of the figure are the words, “ Virtus beatos effi cit. ” Th is is merel y a copy of one of t he Marks used by J. Sac on, a Lyo nes e printer, 149 8-15 22. By dd ell’s book s were disti nctly in keepi ng with the serio usne ss of his sign, and among others we find such title s as “ News out of Hell, ” 1536, “ O lde God and the New e,” 1534, “ Common Place s of Scr ipt ur e,” 1538, etc., besides two “ Pri me rs.” Th om as Vaut rollie r, who printed books at Edi nbu rgh and Londo n from about 1566 to 1605, had four Mark s, in all of which an anchor is suspen ded from the clouds, and two leafy boughs twined, with the motto “ Anc hora Spe i,” and with a framework which is identical with that of Guarinus, of Bas le. Vau trol lier was a native of Fr an ce ; nearly all his books were in Latin . In 1584 he printed an edition of Giordano Brun o’s “ S pac cio de la Be sti a Tri on fan te, ” with a dedica­ tion to Si r Philip Sidne y, and for which he had to flee the country, for the imprint, “ Stam pato in Par igi, ” was an obvious and unsuccessful attem pt to hoodwink the authorit ies. In the following year he printed at Edin burg h “ A Decla ration of the Kin gs Maj estie s intention and meaning toL


Printers Marks.

ward the lait Actis of Parl iame nt.â&#x20AC;? J. Norton, 1 593-16 io, also used the same Mark.


Richard Grafton, 1537-72, who was a scholar and an author, is one of the best known of th e six-

The Prin ter s M ark in Eng land. te en th ce nt ur y pr in te rs , an d, al th ou gh he iss ue d a la rg e nu m be r of bo ok s, co nf ine d hi m se lf t o a sin gle M ar k, wh ich wa s a re bu s or pu n up on his na me . G ra ft on wa s for se ve ra l ye ar s in pa rt ne rs hi p wi th E d w ar d W hi tc hu rc he , an d als o wi th Jo hn Bu tle r. T h e m os t im po rt an t w or ks ac co m pl ish ed by th e tw o fir st na m ed w er e th e firs t iss ue of th e G re at


or Cr om we ll’s Bibl e, 1539, an d C ov er da le ’s v er ­ sio n of th e N ew T es ta m en t, 1538-9 , in La tin an d E ng lis h ; th e la tt er be in g pa rt ly pr in te d in Pa ris by R ég na ul t, an d co m pl ete d in Lo nd on : as ne ar ly th e en tir e im pr es sio n was bu rn t by or de r of th e In qu isi tio n, it is of g re at ra ri ty an d va lue . Gr aft on , who was pr in te r to E dw ar d VI . bo th b e­ for e an d af te r his acc ess ion to th e thr on e, iss ue d a

Pri nter s Mar ks. magni ficent edition of Ha lle ’s “ Chro nicle ,” 1548, and an “ Abr idge men t of the Ch ro ni cle s” by him­ self in 1562, which in ten years reach ed a fourth edition. Graft on found print ing a much more hazardous callin g than the gro cery busine ss to which he had been broug ht up, for he was con­ stantly in difficulties, which on o ne occas ion nearly


cost him his life. Th e idea which found exp res ­ sion in Gra fton ’s Mar k natura lly sugg ested itse lf to W illiam Middleton, or Mydd leton, 152 5-4 7, who succeeded to the business of Ro be rt Redm an, and issued b ooks from the sign of the “ Geo rge nex t to St. Dun stan ’s Church in Fl ee t St re et .” He had two devices, of which we g ive the larg er and more imp orta nt: in the smalle r the shield is supported

The P rinte r s Mar k in Engla nd.


on ei th er s ide by a n an ge l. A bo ut f ort y o f W ill iam M id dl et on ’s b oo ks ha ve be en de sc rib ed , on e of t he m os t no ta bl e be in g Jo hn H ey w oo d’s “ F o u r P ’s, a ve ry m er ry E n te rl u d e of a Pa lm er, a Pa rd on er , a Po tic ar y, an d a P ed le r. ” R eg in al d or Re yn ol d W olf e, 154 2-7 3, wa s th e K in g ’s P ri nt er an d a le ar ne d an tiq ua ry . W olfe w as pr ob ab ly of for eig n ex tr ac tio n, for th er e we re se ve ra l ea rly si xt ee nt h ce nt ur y pr in te rs of th e sa m e su rn am e in Fr an ce , G er m an y, an d Sw itz er la nd . H is pri nti ng -of fic e wa s in St . P au l’s C hu rc hy ar d, at th e sig n of th e Br az en Se rp en t, wh ich e m bl em he us ed a s a dev ice , a su bj ec t wh ich , as we ha ve al re ad y see n, was fr eq ue nt ly em pl oy ed for a sim ila r pu rp os e ab roa d. W olf e's ot he r de vic e, of wh ich th er e are t wo sizes, co ns ist ed of an el eg an t ca rto uc he Ge rm an shie ld, on wh ich is re pre se nte d a fr ui t-t re e and two boy s, on e of w ho m is dr aw in g do wn t he fru it with a stic k, wh ils t th e ot he r is ta ki ng it up off the gr ou nd . O ve r si xt y bo ok s ha ve be en ca ta lo gu ed as th e wo rk of R eg in al d W ol fe . Jo hn Wo lfe , ori gin all y a fish ­ mo ng er, st ar te d pr in ti ng ab ou t 1560, an d from th at ye ar un til 1601 we ha ve a n alm os t co nti nu ou s st re am of his bo ok s, on a ve ry gr ea t va ri et y of su bj ec ts. Li ke se ve ra l ot he rs of th e ea rly pr in te rs , he wa s in co ns ta nt wa rfa re wi th th e au th or iti es , wh os e ru les an d re st ric tio ns of th e pr es s we re a so ur ce of ev er -r ec ur ri ng an no ya nc es . H e ap pe ar s to ha ve ha d as mu ch diff icul ty in m an ag in g his “ a ut ho rs ” as wi th th e S ta ti on er s’ Co mp an y, for he is re fe rre d to m or e th an onc e in ve ry un co m pl im en tar y te rm s in th e M ar tin M ar pr el at e tra ct s of th e pe rio d. T h e M ar k he re


Printers' Marks.

reproduced from Ber jeau seedli ng supported by motto â&#x20AC;&#x153; Ubiq ue Fl or et .â&#x20AC;? undoubtedly one of the prolific of the sixt een th

repre sents a fleur-de-lys two savage s, with the Joh n Day, 154 6-8 4,1 5 bes t known and most centu ry printers, nearly


30 0 books havin g him as the ir foste r-fat her. He appears to have started in busines s at the sign of the Resur rectio n, a little above Holb orn Conduit, but removed in or abou t 1549 to Ald ersg ate St re et ; he had severa l shops in various parts of the town, where his liter ary wares might be dis-

The Pri nter s M ark in Engla nd.


po se d of, an d he is re m ar ka bl e in be in g th e firs t E ng li sh pr in te r who us ed Sa xo n ch ar ac te rs , wh ils t he br ou gh t th os e of th e G re ek an d Ita lic to pe r­ fec tio n. It is no t po ss ib le to gi ve in th is pla ce ev en a br ie f su m m ar y of D a y ’s ca re er , an d it m us t suff ice us to m en tio n th at A rc hb is ho p P ar ke r wa s am on g his pa tro ns , an d th at th e mo re im po rt an t bo ok s wh ich ap pe ar ed fro m his pr ess inc lud ed F o x ’s “ A ct s an d M on um en ts ,” 1563, an d th e


“ P sa lm es in M et re w ith M us ic ,” 1571 (for th e pr in ti ng of w hic h he re ce iv ed a pa te nt da te d Ju ne 2, 1568) . H is be st kn ow n de vic e, of wh ich we giv e an ex am ple , ha s a do ub le m ea ni ng ; firs t it is a pu n on his nam e, an d se co nd ly a n all usi on t o th e da wn of th e P ro te st an t re lig io n. H e u sed an ot he r M ark , w hic h is a la rg e up ri gh t p ar al le lo gr am , w ith in th e lin es of wh ich is a ve ry el eg an t G re ek sa rc o­ ph ag us be ar in g a sk el et on ly in g on a ma t. A t th e he ad of th e co rp se ar e tw o fig ur es st an di ng an d lo ok in g do wn at it, of wh ich th e ou te r on e is in


Printers Marks.

the dress of a rich citizen, havi ng his left hand on his sword, and the other , who is point ing to the body, is dressed like a doct or or a scho olm aste r : from his mouth issues a scroll rising upwards in eigh t folds, on four of which are engra ven in small Rom an capitals, “ E ts i Mor s in die s acc ele rat ,” and the remaind er of the sen tenc e, “ P ost Fv ne ra virtus vive t tam en,” appea rs in simil ar lette rs on anoth er scroll, which is eleg antl y twined round t he branche s of a ho lly pla ced behin d the sepulc hre, to indicate by a tree tha t bloom s at Chri stma s the evergr een nature of virtue ; the sarc opha gus, figures, and tree stand by the side of a river, with some distant vessels, on the left hand of which are rocky shores, with cities , etc., and in the uppei corner of the left is the sun bre aki ng out of the clouds ; the initials I D appea r on the lower left hand. Th is Mark is exce edin gly rare ; it occurs on the last lea f of J. No rto n’s tran slat ion of the Latin “ Catec hism,” 1570, and also at the end of Churt on’s “ C osmog raphic al Gl as s.” Th er e are severa l vari ations of th e Ma rk which we reprod uce on p. 79. Will iam Ser es, who was for some time ante rior to 1550 in part ners hip with Day (and at other times with An thon y Sco lok er, Ric har d Ke le, and Willi am Hill), printe d ove r 100 books, in many of which his monog ram serv es the purpose of a Mark. Lik e so many ot her of th e ear ly pri nters, Rich ard Jug ge, 1548 -77, whose shop was at the sign of the Bib le at the no rth door o f St. Pa ul’s,was a Un iver sity man, hav ing studied at Ki ng ’s Colleg e, Cambridg e. “ H e had a licen se from Gov ernm ent to print

A. A R B U TH N O T.



Printers Marks.

the New Te sta me nt in Eng lish , dated Janu ary, 15 50 ; and no print er eve r equalle d him in the richne ss of the initial lette rs and gen eral dispos i­ tion of the tex t which are displayed there in/’ On the accessio n of Eliz abe th to the t hrone, he printed the proclamation, Nov emb er 17, 155^- Abo ut seven ty books are catalog ued as com ing from his press. His elega nt Mar k cons ists of a massi ve archite ctural panel, adorned with wrea ths of fruit, and b earing in the cent re an oval within which is a pelican feeding her young, surroun ded by the mottoes, “ Lov e kepyth the Lawe , obe yeth the Kyn ge, and is good to the common wel the ,” and “ Pro Reg e Leg e et Gr eg e.” On the left of the oval stands a female figure havi ng a s erpe nt twined round her right arm, with the word “ Pr ude ntia ” underneath, whilst the second fema le figure, with a balance and a sword, is called “ Ju st ic ia ” ; in the bottom centre in a small carto uche panel is the name R. Jug ge in the form of a monog ram. Th is Mark was also used by J. Wi nd et and by A le x­ ander Arbuth not, of Edi nbu rgh , of which we Hug h give the examp le of the last named. Singl eton, 1548 -82, appears to have earned as much notori ety among his conte mpo rarie s for his “ rath er lo os e” principles as for the books which he printed. He was often in conflic t with the authorit ies, and very narrowly escape d * seve re punishmen t for printi ng one of Stu bb s’ outbur sts, for which the author and Pag e the publishe r had their right hands cut off with a butc her’s k nife and a mallet in 1581 ; Sin glet on was pa rdoned. Hi s Mark, of which there are variatio ns, is sufficien tly

The Prin ter s PIark in England.


self-explanatory, although it may be mention ed that for a time he dwelt at the Golden Tun in Creed Lane. Wal ter Lynne, 1547-50, who was a scholar and an author, had a shop at “ Somm ers Key near Billingsgate ” and printed about twenty sermons and other religious tracts in octavo, em­ ployed the device given as an initial to the pre­ sent chapter. John Wyght e, or Wight, resembled Singleto n somewhat in his facility for running


his head agains t establish ed customs, an d was on one occasion fined for keepin g his shop open on St. Luke ’s Day, and on anoth er for selling pirated books. His shop was at the sign of the Rose, St. Paul’s Churchyard, and his books—beginning with an edition of the Bible — range from the year 1551 to 1596. His device was a portr ait of himself, which varies considerably bo th in size and in other respects. Perhaps the most curious and interes ting work which he published was “ A


Printers Marks.

Boo ke of the arte and manner how to plant and graffe all sorte s of tre es, ” 1586 , tra nslate d from the Fre nch by Leon ard Masca ll, and dedic ated to Si r Joh n Paulet. Th e employ ment of the Ge nev a arms as a Prin ter’s Mark is confined, in this country, to Rowland Hall, who, at the death of Edw ard V I. ,


accompanied severa l refugee s to Gen eva, where he printed the Psalms, Bibl e, and othe r works of a more or less religious cha rac ter ; his book s range from 1559 to 1563, and ab out two dozen ar e known to bibliog rapher s, and hal f of this number are in the Briti sh Museum. His Mar k has a double inte rest ; first, from his resid ence in Gen eva, and second ly from the fact that the sign of his shop, “ T he H alf Ea gl e and K ey ,” was a still furthe r

Th e P ri nt er s M ar k in En gl an d.


ackno wled gmen t of the protect ion which he en­ joy ed in Genev a. Th is was not his only Mark , but it is the only one to which we need refer. Th e name of Rich ard To tte ll, 1553 -97, is much bet ter remem bered in conne ction with the epochmaking little book, “ Son ges and Son ette s,” 1557, the first miscell any of En gli sh verse, than eith er of the othe r seve nty or eigh ty publicati ons


which bear his imprint. His shop was in Fl ee t St re et at the sio*n Ö of the Hand and Star , the same e idea serv ing him as a Mar k : the hand and star in a circle, with a scroll on eith er side having the words “ cum privi legio ,” the whole being placed under an arch supported by columns orname nted in the Etr usc an style. One of the most curious of the large number of books which came from the press of Hen ry Bynnem an, 1567 -87, is “ Th e Mari ners boke, contai ning godly and neces sary


Printers Marks.

orders and prayers, to be obser ved in ever y ship, both for mariners and all othe r wha tsoev er they be that shall travail e on the sea, for thei r voy age, ” 1575 ; a still more curious production of his press has the following title, “ Of gho stes and spirit es walkyhg by night, and stra nge noyes, crac kes and sundry fore warnynges, which comm only happen before the death of men, gre at slaug hters , and alterat ions of kyngd omes,” 1572 . Byn nem an had served with Reyn old Wo lfe, and when he start ed


in business on his own acco unt met with much encoura gement from Arc hbis hop Par ker , who allowed him to have a shop or shed at the nort h­ west door of St . Pau l’s. He appea rs to have had two Mark s, one of which was derived from the sign of his shop, “ T h e Merm aid,” with the motto, “ Omnia tempus hab ent, ” and the other (here reproduced) of a doe passant, and the motto, “ Cer va charis sima et gratis simu s hinnulus pro.” Th om as, Woo dcoc k, 157 6-9 4, who dwelt at the sign of the Bla ck Bea r, in St . Paul ’s Churchyard,

The Printer s M ark in England .


wa s a bo ok se lle r ra th er th an a p ri n te r; his M ar k is an ev id en t do ub le pu n on his su rn am e. D ur in g th e la st ye ar s of th e si xt ee nt h ce nt ur y, an d th e firs t .thre e de ca de s of th e se ve nt ee nt h, th er e we re tw o Ja gg ar ds am on g th e Lo nd on p ri n­ te rs ; by far th e b et te r kn ow n is Isa ac, who , wi th


E dw ar d Blo unt , iss ue d th e firs t folio ed iti on of S ha ke sp ea re â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s pla ys ; he se em s to ha ve ha d no M ar k, bu t Wi llia m, 159 5-1 624 , us ed th e ra th er st ri ki ng de vic e (p ag e 88), wh ich is th us de sc rib ed : S er pe nt bi tin g his tail , coi led tw ice ro un d th e wr ist of a ha nd iss ui ng fro m th e clo ud s an d ho ld in g a wa nd from wh ich sp rin gs tw o lau re l


Pr in ter s Ma rks .

branc hes, and which is surmount ed by a port­ cullis (the We stm ins ter Arm s) ; in the last coil of the serpe nt the word “ Pru den tia. ” Equ ally dis­ tinct is the mark of Fe lix Kin gst on, or Kyn gsto n, who printed a very large numbe r of books from 1597 to 16 40 ; in this devise we have the sun


shining on the Parnassu s, and a laurel tree between the two con ical hills, with a sunflower and a pansy on eithe r side. Th e Mar k of Will iam Norto n, 157 0-9 3, whose shop was at the Ki ng ’s Arms, St. Paul ’s Chur ch­ yard, was in a double sense a pun on his name, consi sting as it did of a repres entati on of a Swe etWill iam growin g through a tun inscrib ed with the

The Printe r s Mark in England.


le tt er s “ n o r ” ; an d so m et hi ng of th e sa m e ki nd ma y be sa id of th at em pl oy ed by R ic ha rd H ar ris on , 1552 -62, wh ose M ar k is de sc rib ed by Ca m de n as “ an H ar e by a sh ea fe of R ye in th e Su n, for H ar ri so n .” In th is co nn ec tio n we m ay also he re re fe r to th e M ar k em pl oy ed by G er ar d


(o r Ge ra ld ) De we s, 1562 -87, wh os e sh op was at th e sig n of th e Sw an in St . P au l’s C hur ch ya rd ; th is is de sc rib ed by Ca m de n th u s: “ an d if you in re fe re nc e to th e pr ev ai lin g re qu ire mo re ta st e for pi ct ur e- w rit in g suc h as th e de sig ns of N or to n an d De we s] I re fer yo u to th e w itt y in ­ ve nt io ns of som e Lo nd on er s ; bu t th at for G ar re t N

Printers Marks.

Dewe s is most remark able, two in a gar ret cas t­ ing Dewes at dice .” In the same categ ory also may be included the Mar k of Chri stoph er and Ro be rt Bark er, the Qu een ’s Prin ters, who used a design of a man bark ing timber, with the couple t ‘k A Barke r if you will, In name but not in skill. ”


Fro m these and many other insta nces which might be cited, it will be seen that by the end of the six­ teenth century the Pri nte r’s Ma rk in En gla nd had declined into a very childish and feeb le play upon the names of the printers, and the sub ject th erefo re need not be furthe r pursued. Th e natural result, moreover , of this decline was, in the following century, followed by what prac ti­ cally am ounts to ex tinct ion ; and the few exception s, to which we shall refer, and which are to some ex-

Th e P ri nt er s M ar k in En gl an d.


tent selecte d at random, prove the truth of that theory. Tho ma s Creede, 158 8-1 618 , whose shop was at the sign of the Cath erine Whe el, near the Old Swan in T ham es Str eet , was one of the prolific printers of the period, and his most common Mar k is a personifica tion of Tru th, with a hand issuing from the clouds strik ing on her back with a rod, and encircle d with the motto, “ Ver itas vires cit vulne re.” Amo ng the numerous books which he printed was Hen ry Bu tte ’s “ Dig ets Dry Din ner, ”


1599, for Will iam Wood , a books eller whose shop was at the sign of Tim e, St. Pau l’s Churchyard, and whose Mark was an almost exa ct copy of one employed by Conrad Bade, a sixtee nth century printer of Paris and Gen eva (who had apparent ly adopted his from that of Knob louch of St ra ss ­ burg, which we give on anoth er page) : it repre­ sents a winged figure of Ti me helping a naked woman out of what appears to be a cave, with the motto, “ Tem pore patet occulat a verit as ” ; this Mar k follows the introduc tory matt er in the abovenamed work. Mak ing a leap of over h alf a century,


Printe rs Marks.

we com e across anot her ambit ious Mark, which in the prese nt insta nce serve d the addition al purpose of ä front ispie ce ; it was employed by Jo hn Alle n of the Ri sin g Sun, St. Pau l’s Churc hyard , and is dated 1656 ; it is rath er a fine devi ce of the sun rising behind the hills, with a cathe dral on •the left-hand side, and the inscri ption “ Ipsw iche and a coat- of-ar ms, app aren tly of tha t city. Althou gh not exa ctl y a pri nte r’s or pub lish er’s

R. W AR E.

Mark, the charmi ng littl e plate, eng rave d by Clark, which Joh n Wa ltho e, Jr ., inse rted on the title- page of “ T he Hiv e : a colle ction of the most celeb rated So ng s,” 1724 , is suffic iently near it to be worth reprodu cing here. T . Cox, a book selle r of “ T he La mb ,” under the Roy al Ex ch an ge , Cornhi ll, was fortun ate enough to have a Mark (see page 46), in which Joh n Pine is seen at his bes t : Cox was not only an emin ent boo k­ seller, but was also an exch ange -bro ker. . O f

The Printer s Mark in England.


much less delicate workmanship, but approp riate never theles s, is the Mark which we find on the title-p ages of the books printed for R. Wa re, at


the Bible and Sun in Wa rwick Lane , one of whose Impar tial Church man,â&#x20AC;? books, Dr. Wa rre nâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 1728, contains at the end of the first chapt er


Printe rs Marks.

anoth er Mark, an exce edin gly rough ske tch of a printing-of fice, with the motto, “ vitam mortuis reddo.” On books intend ed more or less for par­ ticular schools, the Pr in te rs Mar k usually take s the shape of the arms of the schoo ls them selve s, as in the case of We stm ins ter and Et on ; and the same may be said of books printed at Oxfo rd and Cambridge, in the former case a very fine view of the Sheld onian Th ea tre usually appe aring on the title-p age of books printed there . Jo hn Sco lar is an inter estin g figure among the very early printers of Oxford, and from 1518 he was the official printer of the Un ive rsit y ; in one of the books he issued there is cited an edic t of the Chancellor, under his official seal, enj oin ing t hat for a period of seven years to come, no person should venture to print that work, or even to sell copies of it elsewhere printed within Oxf ord and its precincts, under pain of forfe iting the copies, and paying a fine of five pounds sterl ing, and other penalties. Sc ola r’s Ma rk is one of the very few in which a book appears. Joh n Sib erc h, the first Cambridg e printe r, appa rentl y had two Marks, one of which— the Roy al Arms , w hich was the sign of the house he occu pied— appears on four of the eight book s printe d by him at Cam ­ bridge in or about 1521 ; of the second we give a facsimile from his first book, Galen, “ De Te m ­ peram entis.” T he Ma rk of the majo rity of eigh teen th centu ry book selle rs and printer s con­ sisted of a monogram formed eith er with thei r initials or names. Duri ng a portion of his care er Jac ob Ton son used a bust of what purported to

The Pri nte r s M ark in Engl and.


be Sh ak es pe ar e, pa rt ly from th e fac t th at for m an y ye ar s th e co py rig ht of th e gr ea t dra m at is t’s wo rk s be lo ng ed to him an d pa rt ly be ca us e on e of his sh op s ha d for its sign , “ T h e S ha ke sp ea re ’s H e a d .” T h e ea rli es t P ri n te rs ’ M ar ks of S co tti sh pr in te rs ar e no t of th e fir st im po rta nc e, bu t th ey ar e suf fic ien tly in te re st in g to m er it not ice . W al te r


Ch ep m an a nd A nd ro My liar w ere g ra nt ed a pa te nt for th e er ec tio n of a pr in tin g- pr es s at E di nb ur gh on Se pt em be r 15, 1507, th e fo rm er fin din g th e mo ne y an d th e la tt er th e kn ow led ge . E ac h ha d his di sti nc tiv e M ark , bo th of wh ich are of F re nc h or ig in — a th eo ry wh ich is eas ily pr ov ed so far as M yl la r’s is co nc ern ed from th e fac t th at it dis pla ys two sma ll sh iel ds at th e top co rne rs, eac h ch ar ge d


Print ers Marks.

with the fle ĂŽir -d e- ly s. My llarâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s device, in which we see a windmill with a miller ascen ding the outside


ladder, carry ing a sack of grain on his back, is an obvious pun on his name, and was, perhaps,


The Prin ter s M ark in En glan d,


sugg ested by the Mar k of Jeh an Moulin, Paris. Chep man â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s is a very close copy of that o f Pigou chet,


Paris, the male and female figures being carefully copied even to the small crosses on their knees ; the initials W C are elegan tly inte rlaced. Tho mas o



Printe rs Marks.

D av id so n is a ve ry in te re st in g fig ure in th e ea ily hi st or y of Sc ot tis h ty po gr ap hy ; he ap pe ar s to ha ve


be en th e firs t ki ng â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s p ri n te r of his co un try , an d on e of his e ar lie st wo rk s is â&#x20AC;&#x153; A d Se re ni ss im um S co to ru m Re ge m Ja co bu m Q ui nt um de su sc ep to R eg ni

The Printer's Ma rk in En gland.


Re gi m in e a diis fel ici ter om in at o S tr en a, ” circ a 1525 ; ab ou t te n ye ar s la te r ca me a tra ns la tio n of th e “ C hr on icl es of Sc otl an d," co mp ile d by Boe ce, an d “ tra ns lat ât be m ai st er Jo hn e B e ll e n d e n ;” D av id so n’s M ar k is of th e sa m e ch ar ac te r as C he pm an ’s, bu t is, if po ssi ble , ev en mo re ro ug hl y dr aw n an d en gr av ed ; wh ils t Ba ssa ncl yne co pie d th e de vi ce ol C re sp in of G en ev a, wi th th e ini tia ls T . B. in ste ad I. C. A rb u th n o t’s de vi ce of th e Pe lic an , wh ich he us ed in two sizes , an d th e M ar ks of T ho m as Va ut ro lli er , ha ve be en alr ea dy r ef er re d to. Co m in g do wn to th e la st tw en ty ye ar s of th e si xt ee nt h ce nt ur y, we find th e few bo ok s of H en ry C h ar te ri so f co ns id er ab le an d va rie d int ere st, an d his M ark , if b y no m ea ns c are ful ly dra wn and eng rav ed , ha s at all ev en ts th e m er it of b ei ng fair ly ori gin al.

H . C H A R T E R IS .



P R IN T E R S ’ M A RK S.

I T is rat her a curious fact, all thing s consid ered, that the introd uctio n of the print ing-p ress into Paris should have only ant e­ dated its appe aran ce in this coun try by four years ; such how ever is the case . It was at the com men cem ent of the year 1470 , the tent h of the reign of Loui s X I. , tha t Ulri ch Ger ing, Ma r­ Elusol eî quàni vùri. tin Kra ntz , and Miche l F ribu rger commenc ed F. E ST IE N N E . printi ng in one of the rooms of the Colle ge Sorb onne . Th ey had learn t thei r art at May ­ ence, and at the dispersal of the office of Fu st and Scho effe r had settle d down at Base l. Th ey were induced to tak e up their resid ence at the Sorb onn e by Je an Hein lin and Guillaum e Fic he t, two distinguis hed professo rs of that place. Th e

Some Frenc h Pri nter s Mar ks.


first book printed at Paris was the “ L et te rs ” of Gaspa rin of Berg amo, 1470, which contain s the following quatrain at the end of the work : “ Primo s ecce libros quos bæc indu stria finxit Fran coru m in terris sedibus atqu e tuis ; Michael, Uda lrich us, Mar tinu sque magister Ho s impre sseru nt, ac facien t alios.”

By the end of 1472 the three companions had issued thirt y works, appare ntly without indulging in the luxury of a Mark , but thei r patrons separa­ ting they had to leav e the Sorb onn e. Th eir new quart ers were at the sign of the “ Solei l d’O r” in the Ru e St . Ja cq ue s— the Pate rnos ter Row of Paris. He re they remain ed until 1477, when Ger ing was the sole proprietor. He was join ed in 148 0 by Ge org e Mainy al, and in 1494 by Ber tho lt Rem bolt , and died in August, 1510. Wit hin thirt y year s of the introduction of printing into Paris, the re were nearly ninety printers, who issued nearly 80 0 works betwee n 1470 and 1500. Rem bolt , who succe eded Ger ing and preserved the sign of his office, was one of th e earliest, if not the first to ad opt a Mark , of which indeed he used four more or less distin ct examp les. W e repro­ duce one of the rare st ; his bes t known is a highly decora tive pic ture, and has a shield (carryi ng a cross with th e initials B. R. in the lower hal f of the circle which envelopes the foot of the cross) suspended from a vine tree and supported by two lions. O f this Mark there are at leas t two sizes ; anoth er of his Mark s consiste d of an enlarged form of . o the cross to which we have referred.

Printers Marks.

10 2

Afte r Rem bolt , the inte rest of the Pri nte r’s Mar k in Pra nce diverg es into a number of direc­ tions. Th e most prolific printe r was, perhaps, Anto ine Vera rd, who, dying in 1530, issued books continuous ly for about forty- five years : he was also a calligra pher, an illuminat or, and a book ­


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IM ™ ,


7' ■ fi



se lle r; his Boo ks of Hou rs led the way for the beautiful productio ns of Simo n Vos tre, whilst his chi ef “ line ” consi sted of ro mances , of which there are over a hundred printe d on vellum and orna­ mented with beautiful miniatur es. He had two Mark s, one of which, cons istin g simply of the two lett ers A. V. , is accomp anied by the lines :

Some French Print ers Mark s.


“ Pour proquer la grand’ miséricorde, A tous pescheurs faire grâce et pardon, Antoine Vérard humblement te record e.”

Of the second we give an examp le on p. 21. Amon g his public ations may be mentioned “ L ’Art


de bien Mou rir,” 1492, which Gille s Couteau and J. Menard printed for him, whilst the punning Mar k of the former is reproduced in our first chap ter Fra nco is Régn ault, who printed a larg e (p. 4). number of books during the first half of the

tfp wm ww ttJ iK 02^ 4twnpo(e par teurwiö pere eu 9ic u ^u iffa utn e par (a pctiniffiot) 9tutti c iabie cuefquc öe ^ou rn ap /aß , 6c&e(atnrt & rtt tj e t c Q ancctt ie röe f o iö ie öe fa r & Ç o t fo tjb o itn itio tjb u c & G iC tp p e öcßourgongnc ^ uqv cf fouß^ fee55ccmg 9 c hwgnfirri/nrf a l u fl ic c appariet n a n e a t e fla t i>enobteffe(ont contenue fee fauf jdk t* tueufCtmaqnanuneefaicit, tantbce ttcfcfacfhcnnee rnat/o«eöcfrancc/ßoutgonqncrt ffanincequc baut tree rope et ptincee 9c fanno, et nouucöu te fta m e n t tiouucffcincntimpinnca pa cte ♦


55enöenf a th o ri er t) fa ru e fa in r t ^ u te a f e n f e i g n e fa i n c t < fa « 0 r ♦


Some Fren ch Pri nter s Mar ks.


sixt een th centur y, had six Mark s, chiefly var ia­ tions on the one here give n. li e usually placed at the botto m of his books : “ P arissi s, ex officina hon esti viri Fra nci ssi R ég na ul t" ; the accompa ny-


ing reduced facsimile of one of his title-p ages indicates the promin ent position allotte d at this early period to the prin ter’s Mark. A very re­ markabl e and elabo rate Mar k of this family of printers was that of Pier re Régn ault, who was putting forth books during nearly the whole of the p

io ó

Printer s Marks .

first hal f of the sixt een th century. T he Mar chan t family exis ted in Pa ris as prin ters for ove r 30 0 yea rs (1 48 1- 17 89 ). T h e first of the line, Guy, or Guyo t, who printe d books for Jeh an Peti t, Geoff rey De Mar nef, and others, had as Ma rk four varia tions of the ch an t g a il la r d repre sent ed by two notes, sol, la, with one faith repr esen ted by two hands join ed, in allusion to th e words, “ So la fides s ufficit, ” taken from the hymn, “ Pa nge ling ua.” Ben eath his Mar k he placed the figures of Sa int s Crispin


and Crispinian , patron s o f the l eat her -dr ess ers who prepar ed the lea the r for the binder , in which capa city Mar chan t acte d on sev eral occa sions for Fra nc is I. As was the case with his cont em­ porarie s, Ma rch ant ’s ear lies t book s poss esse d no mark, and one of the first of the publica tions in which it a ppear ed was th e “ C ompo st et Cale ndri er des Be rg ier s,” 149 6. T h e De Ma rne f family also mak e a big show in the annal s of Fr en ch typo­ grap hy, part icula rly in the way of Mark s, the variou s mem bers using, betw een 1481 and 1554,

Some Frenc h Pr int ers Mar ks.


nearly thir ty examp les, includi ng duplicate s, se vera l of which were designed by Geof frey To ry . Nea rly all these Mar ks had the sub ject of the Pelic an feeding her young as a cent re piece. Jero me, however, used a Griffin among his seve ral othe r exam ples, of which the two fines t of the whole

D E M A R N EF .

series are those numbered 746 and 812 in Si l­ vestre, and are the work of Je an Cousin at his best. Th e founder of the family, Geoffrey, used the accompa nying devic e in two sizes. Th e Ja no t family, of which the founder, Deny s, was t he most celebra ted, were issuing books in Paris from the end of the fifteenth to the middle of the eigh teen th


Pr in te rs Ma rks .

cent ury, and the more noti ceab le of their Mar ks cont ained the device : “ Am or De i omnia vin cit— amour partout, tout par amour, partou t amour, en tou t bi en ” (see p. 15). T he Mace family, which makes a good show with elev en Mark s, was also a long-li ved one of over 200 years, many of the

J . DU PR E.


memb ers resid ing at Caen, Ren nes , and Roue n, besid es Paris. T he same may be said to some ex ten t of the Dup re or Du Pré family, 1486- 177 5 ; the two first, Je an or Jeh an and Gallio t, were the most cele bra ted O f the dozen Mar ks employed by th is family, the most original, it bei ng t he ev ident pun on his name, has a Ga lio te, at the head of the

Some Fr en ch Prin ters Mark s.


mast of which is t he motto, “ Vog ue la G ual lee, ” o r someti mes “ Vog ue la Gua lee ” (see p. 5). Jeh an Du Pré the Lyo ns printer , used the accom panyi ng Mar k form ed o f his in itials. T h e first as well as th e most noted mem ber of the Le Rou ge family of print ers was Pier re, who resided at C hablis, Tro yes ,


and Paris, and who was the first to take the title of “ Lib rai re- Im pri me ur du Ro i,” ceded to him by Charles V II I. , and used in “ L a Me r des Hi sto ire s,” 148 8. App ropri ately enough, Miche l Le Noir, whose motto we have alrea dy quoted, may be here referr ed to. He issued a large numbe r of books, the most notable , perhaps , bein g “ L e



Printer s' Marks.

Roman de la Rose ,” 1513. He was succeeded by his son Philippe in 1514, one of whose most notice­ able publications was “ L e Blazon des Hérétiques ” (a satirical piece attributed to Pierre Gringoire), the figure or effigy at the head is signed with the


monogram of G. Tory . Th e five M arks of father and son differed only in minor details, and the above example of Philippe will sufficiently indicate the character of the others. Philippe Pigouchet, who was an engraver as well as a bookseller and printer, contented himself apparently with one Mark. He is distinguished for .the extreme care

Some French Pri nter s Ma rks.


with which he turned out his books, partic ularly the Boo ks of Hour s which he under took to pro­ duce in partn ership with Sim on Vo stre ; some of his works are freely copied by the publishe rs of to­ day, and migh t with adva ntag e be even more gene rally utilized than they are, for they posse ss

T H IE L M A N K E R V E R .

all the attrib utes of beautifu l books. Thi elm an Kerv er, a Ger man, was anot her p rinte r who worked for Simon Vost re, one of his most import ant pro­ ductions being a “ Brev iariu m ad usum Ec cle siæ Parisi ensis, ” 1500, in red and b lack. His shop was on the Pont St. Michel, at the sign of the Unicor n, which, as will be seen, he adopted as his Mark,

I 12

Printers Marks.

and of which ther e are two, which differ from one anot her only in minor details. Of Simo n Vo stre 1 himself, a whole book might be compiled. From about 1488 to 1528 he devoted him self exclusive ly to the publishing of books, and employed all the bes t p rinters : it was by his energ y combined with Pigo uche t’s techn ical skill that the two produced, in April, 1488, the “ He ures à T Usaig e de Rom e,” an octav o finely decora ted with ornam ents and figures ; the exper imen t was a comp lete success. It is gene rally assumed that the engr avin g was done in reli ef on metal, as the line in it is very fine, the backgro und stippled, and the borders without scratc hes : wood could not have resiste d the force of the impressio n, the relief s would have been crushed, the borde rs rubbed and badly adjuste d. Th e arti stic conn ectio n of Pigo uch et and Vos tre lasted for eigh teen years , and with them book production in Fr an ce may be said to have attain ed its high est point. By the year 1520 Vo stre had published more than 30 0 editio ns of the “ H ou rs ” for the use of differe nt cities ; he had two Mark s, of which we give the larger exam ple on p. 103. In many resp ects Je an or Jeh an Pe tit is one of the most rema rkab le of the early Fr en ch printer s, whilst from the time he start ed to the final ext inc ­ tion of his desc enda nts as print ers covers a space of 336 yea rs— a recor d which is probab ly un­ rival led in the histo ry of typogr aphy. Jeha n Pe tit kep t fifteen presse s fully employed, and found a gre at deal of work for fifteen others. T h e family as a whole makes a good show with


1 T4

Printer s Marks.

t h e i r m a r k s , in w h ic h th e f o u n d e r is m o re e x t r a ­ v a g a n t th a n a n y o f th e o th e rs , h a v in g u s e d , a t o ne


time or another , at least half-a-do zen more or less different examples. In addit ion to reprod ucing

Some F rench Pri nte rs Ma rks,

1 15

one of the finest, we give , on p. 9, also a reduced facsimile of a title -page of a book, the join t ve nture of Pet it and Ke rve r ; the combina tion of the two names on one title- page is distinc tly novel and curious. He was on several occasions associate d with others in produc ing a book, his connection



with Josse Bade exte ndin g from 1501 to 1536. Of Bade or Badius it will be necessary to give a few particulars . He was born at Asche, near Brussels, and was a schola r and a poet as well as a printer. Abou t 1495-7 he was engaged as a corrector of the press for Tres chel and De Vingle at Lyons. He left about 1500 for Paris, where he start ed a press in 1502, which he called â&#x20AC;&#x153; Prelum


Prin ters Mark s.

Ascensianum.” In reference to this term, “ the Ascension Press,” the word “ prelu m” was applied to the ancient wine presses, after which, in fact, the earliest printing presses were modelled. His.


Mark, which he first used in 1507, is the earliest picture of a printing-press. Thirt een years after, he adopted another device with the same subject, but differing in many important particulars. In the second, the composing-stick used by the figure in the act of setti ng type is changed from the right

Some French Prin ters Mar ks.


to the left hand ; the press shows improved me­ chanical constructio n, indic ating gre ate r solidity and stren gth. In the la tter exam ple also the figure sitt ing at the case on the righ t side of the engra ving is intended to repr esen t a woman, instead of a man as in t he earlier illustratio n. Conte mpora ry with both Peti t and Bade, Gilles or Gillet Hardo uyn,


1491-1521, was both a prin ter and a bookseller, and used two Marks, of which we give the more striking. Germain Hardo uyn, possibly a son of the prece d­ ing, confined himself more particu larly to selling books during the first forty years of t he sixte enth century. Geoffrey Tor y resemble d many others of the early printe rs in being also a schola r ; but he was


1 18

Printer s Marks.

also an arti st and an engra ver, takin g up and carr ying on the gre at work inaug urated by Vos tre and Vér ard . He was born at Bour ges in 1480, and one of his ear lies t works, which was published by Pe tit and printe d by Gill es De Gourmo nt, was an edition of the “ Ge og ra ph y” of Pomponius Mela, 1507, and betw een this time and his death he produced a numbe r of Boo ks of Hours , the decora tion of which can only be descr ibed as marvello us. One of the most beauti ful is un­ doubtedl y the “ Heu res de la Vi er ge ,” execu ted for Simo n De Coline s. W ha t int ere sts us most, however, is the Mar k which he adopt ed when he entere d into business as a prin ter and boo kse ller ; it is perhaps the most eleg ant tha t had been up to that time designed . Th is Ma rk of the broken pitcher, with the motto “ Non plus, ” first appeared at the end of a Lat in poem issued in 1524, is regard ed as a mem ento of the death of his little daught er in 1522, and is thus ex pla ine d: the broke n pitch er symbo lizes her car eer cut short ; the book with clasps her lite rary studie s ; the littl e winged figure her soul ; and the motto “ Non plus,” “ Je ne tiens plus à rie n.” He give s his own inter pret ation of this Mar k, howeve r, in that curious medley of po etry and philos ophy which he called “ Champ fieury ,” 1529. It may be menti oned tha t on some of th e bindin gs of his quart o volumes the brok en pitc her is tran sve rsed by the wimble or tor et— an obviou s pun on his name. T he Es tie nn e or Et ien ne family is proba bly the most impo rtant and inte res ting of the sixte enth cent ury prin ters of Pari s. Sil ve str e reproduces

Some Frenc h Pri nte rs Mar ks.


tw en ty M ar ks wh ich on e or ot h er of th e E st ie nn es em pl oy ed , an d a de sc rip tio n of th es e m ig ht ve ry wel l for m a di st in ct ch ap te r. Bu t a co nd en se d re vi ew of th e fa m ily as a wh ol e m us t suffic e. H en ry , th e firs t of th e na m e an d ch ie f of th e


fam ily, wa s bo rn at Pa ri s ab ou t 14 70 ; he st ar te d in 1502 a pr in ti ng an d bo ok se lli ng bu sin es s in th e R ue du Cl os -B ru ne au , ne ar th e Eco tes de D ro it ; he ad op te d th e de vic e, “ Pl us olei qu am vin i ” ; an d tw en ty -e ig ht wo rk s ar e ca ta lo gu ed as ha vi ng be en H e di ed in 1521, le av in g a pr in te d by him . wi dow an d th re e ch ild re n— Fr an ço is , R ob er t, an d



Printer s Marks.

Charles. Francois I. continued the profession in company with Simon De Colines, who had been associated with his father, and who married the widow of Henry : his Mark is given as an initial to this chapter. Rob ert I., the second son of Henry, was born in 1503, and is probably more

generally known as a Greek, Latin, and Hebrew scholar than as a printer. Fo r several years he, like his brother, was associated with De Colines ; he married Pétronille, daughter of Badius “Ascensius,” and was a Pro test ant ; in 1526 he established a printing-press in the Rue St. Jean-d e-Beau vois at the sign of the Olive. His editions of the Greek and Latin classics were enriched with useful notes,

Some Frenc h Prin ters' Mar ks.

I2 I

and promises of reward were offered to those who pointed out mista kes. He used the types of his fathe r and De Colin es until abou t 1532, when he obtaine d a more eleg ant fount with which he printed his beautifu l Lat in Bibl e. In 1552 he


retired to Gene va, when he printed, with his brother -indaw , the New Te sta me nt in Fre nch . He establi shed here anot her printin g-press , and issued a number of good books, which usually carried the motto : â&#x20AC;&#x153; Oliv a Ro ber ti Ste ph ani .â&#x20AC;? His Mar ks are at leas t ten in number, of which seven are variat ions of the Oliv e device, and three R


Pr in te rs Ma rks .

(in as many sizes) of the serp ent on a rod inter­ twined with a bran ch of a clim bing plant. With the exce ptio n of Fr an co is the othe r membe rs of the family used the Oli ve mark, some times how­ ev er alte ring the motto, and adding in some instan ces an overh ead deco ratio n of a hand issuing from the clouds and holdi ng a sick le or reaping hook. He died in 1559. T h e third son of the founder, Charl es, afte r rece ivin g his diplomas as a doct or o f medicin e, trav elled in Ger ma ny and Italy, retur ning to Pari s in 1553, and star ted in business as a printer. Am ong the ninety -two works which he printed, specia l mention may be made of the “ D iction arium histori cum ac poeticu m, omnia gentium , hominum, locor um,” etc. , Pari s, 1553, reprinte d at Gen eva in 1556 , at Oxf ord in 1671, and London , 1686. He poss esse d the oppos ite at­ tribute s of bein g the bes t prin ter and of hav ing the worst t emper of the family, and he alien ated him­ se lf from all his friends and rela tion s ; he was con­ fined in the Châ tele t in Paris, and died the re after two years in 1564 . He nry II ., son of Ro be rt I., was born in Pari s in 152 8 ; afte r leav ing college he travel led on the con tine nt and v isit ed Engla nd. He return ed to Pari s in 1552, w hen his fath er was leav ing for Gen eva . In 155 4 he star ted a printingpres s ; in 1566 he publi shed a tran slat ion of Hero dotu s by Valla , revi sed and corre cted , de­ fending , in the prefa ce, the Fa th er of Histo ry aga ins t the repro ach of credulity. Charles , bro ther o f Ro be rt I., esta blish ed a print ing-p ress in 1551, and died crip pled with debt s in 1564 . Ro be rt II ., seco nd son of Ro be rt I., was born in 1530 , and,

Some Fren ch Pr int ers Ma rks.


refusing to adopt the new r eligio n, was dis inherit ed by his fath er ; he start ed a print ing-p ress on his own accou nt when his fath er retire d to Gen eva, and issued fort y-ei ght books , some of which pos­ sessed the mark of the Oli ve ; he was t}ie royal printe r in 1561 , and died in 1575 . Fra nço is IL , third son of Ro be rt I., printed in Gen eva from about 1562 to 158 2. Ro be rt I I I ., elder son of Ro ber t II ., died in 162 9. Paul, son of Hen ry II ., was born in 1566, and, afte r a brillia nt schol astic career, trav elled on the contin ent, and starte d a printin g-press at Ge ne va in 1599, where he issued twent y-six editio ns of the class ics which were par­ ticularly nota ble for thei r corr ectn ess and notes. He died in 1627 , and his son Antoi ne, born 1594, establish ed him self at twen ty-si x years of age as a printe r in Paris , reve rted to Rom an Catholicism, was appoint ed prin ter to th e king and to the cl ergy, dying at the Ho tel Dieu in 1674. Th e number of editions which this cele brat ed family, start ing in 1502 and finish ing in 1673, issued, reach es the very large numb er of 1590, thus clas sifie d: theology, 239 ; jurisp rude nce, 79 ; scienc e and arts, 15 2; belle s lettr es, 8 23 ; and history, 297. Of the eleven memb ers of this family, one died in exile, five in misery, one in a deb tor’s prison, and two in the hosp ital— “ Lec teu r, que vous faut-il de plus ? ” Although in Fra nce , as elsewh ere, we have to l ook to the printer s of the fifteen th century for orig i­ nality and decor ative beauty, some excee ding ly intere sting Ma rks occur in the sixte enth , and are well worth studying. W e have only space for

12 4

Printers' Marks.

the enume ration of a few of the more importan t. Of these, Pie rre Vid oue come s well in th e f irst rank. H e was one of the most distin guish ed of the early Parisi an Gr eek typog raphe rs, beside s bein g a person of lear ning and eminen ce, and was issuing

P. V ID O U E .

books up to the year 15 44 ; his editio n of Ar is­ tophan es, 1582, publis hed by Gill es De Gourmo nt, is descri bed as “ a singu larly curious impr essio n,” whilst ten y ears late r he printed Guilla ume Po ste l’s “ L ingua rum X I I . cha ract erib us differentium A l­ phab etum ,” which is descr ibed by La Caille as

Some Frenc h Pri nte rs Ma rks.


th e “ firs t bo ok pr in te d in or ie nt al ch ar ac te r, ” a st at em en t, ho we ve r, wh ich is in co rr ec t so far as re la te s to th e H eb re w . H e ha d at le as t th re e M ar ks , all m or e or les s sim ila r, in on e of wh ich , ho we ve r, th e m ot to “ a rd en te s ju v o ,” is su pp le ­ m en te d by “ pa r si t fo rt un a la bo ri .” O f th e six Ro ffe ts wh o w er e p ri n ti n g or pu bl is hi ng bo ok s in Pa ris d ur in g th e si x te en th c en tu ry , th e m os t n ot ab le is pe rh ap s Pi er re , w ho se na m e fr eq ue nt ly oc cu rs


in th e bo ok bi nd in g a cc ou nt s of Fr an ci s I. ; of t he ir se ve n M ar ks , ne ar ly all m or e or les s of th e sa me “ ru st ic ” ch ar ac te r, th e m os t de co ra tiv e is th a t of Ja cq ue s (se e p. 30). In th ei r se pa ra te wa ys, th e M ar ks of M at hu ri n Br eu ille , 156 2-8 3 (p. 33), an d Lo ui s Cy an eu s, 152 9-4 6, ea ch po ss es se s a pl ea s­ in g or ig in ali ty , th e la tt er of wh ich is in sc rib ed wi th th e m ot to “ Te cu m H a b it a .” T h e tw o W éc he ls , A nd ré an d C hr es tie n, we re am on g th e m os t em in en t of th e si xt ee nt h ce nt ur y Pa ri si an


Printe rs Marks.

printers, and between them employed over a dozen marks. All those of And ré were vari a­ tions of one type, namely, two hands holding a caduceus between two horns of plenty sur­ mounted by Pegas us. This had also been used by Chre stien , of whose othe r Mar k a reprod uction is here given, and of'wh ich ther e were seve ral variations. Rég nau lt Cha udiè re’s shop was in the Rue St . Jac que s, at the sign of “ L ’homm e Sau va ge, ”


which he adopted for his Ma rk : this he appe ars to have chang ed for one emb lem atic al of Ti m e when he took his son into part ners hip, and which, Ma itta ire thinks, he may have borro wed of Sim on De Colin es, whose dau ghte r (and only child) he married. W e giv e the lar ges t of the exa mp les used by Guill aume Chau dière , 15 64- 98 on p. 28. Séb ast ien Nive lle, who was worki ng during the lat ter half of the sixt een th cent ury until the third yea r of these ven tee nth cen tury, is a very int ere sti ng

Some Fren ch Pri nte rs Mar ks.


figure in the typog raphic al annals of Paris. He was, at the time of his death at the age of eigh ty years, the doye n of th e trade. His books were, for the mo st part, beaut ifully printed. His shop was in


the Rue S t. Jac qu es at th e sign of the Tw o Sto rks , which he adopted for his exce edin gly beautiful Mark , the four medallion s repr esen ting scen es of filial piety. His daugh ter was the mothe r of Séb ast ien Cramoisy, “ typog raphu s regius, ” who inhe rited the estab lishm ent of his grand father .


Some F renc h Pri nte rs Mar ks.


O f the somew hat crudely drawn M ark — an e vide nt pun on his sur nam e— used in or about 1504 , by Guillau me Du buys, the sign of the shop bei ng the Sam arita n, a much more deco rative exam ple was used, in various sizes, by Jac qu es Du buys (p. 10), who was a book selle r, 1549 -91, rath er than a printe r. Eq ua lly fine in anoth er way is the tripa rtite exam ple, given on page 130, used by Guillau me Mer lin in partne rship with Guillaume Des boy s and Sé ba sti en Nive lle, in 1559, and also with the latt er in 1571. Th e Mar k is the inte rpre tatio n of t he four lines : Ven iet tempus meissioni s. Non oderis laborio sa opera. Hom o nascitu r ad laborem, Vade , piger, ad form icam .”

On the oppos ite page we reproduce the Mark N ivelle used for the book s which he produced alone. Aft er Paris, the nex t most importan t town in Fra nce , so far as print ers and their Marks are con­ cerned, is Lyo ns. T h e first book printed in this city is presumed to be “ Cardin alis Loth arii T ra c­ tatus quinqu e,” “ Lugd uni, Barth olomæ us Buyerius,” 1473 (in quart o). Th e same print er also published the first Fre nc h transl ation of the Bible , by Juli an Mach o and Pie rre Fe rg et, which was execu ted betwee n 1473 and 1474, from which date the art of printi ng in Lyo ns increas ed by leaps and bounds. Panze r notice s over 250 works execu ted (by n early fo rty printer s) here during the quart er of a century which followed. Th e most notable among these is perhaps Jos se Bade, to



Som e Fr enc h Pr in te rs M ar ks .


whom we have alread y referr ed. T he former of the two “ hon estes homes Mic hele t topie de pymont : & laq ues her emb erck dalem aigne ,” possess ed a Ma rk which may be regarde d as one of th e earlie st, if not actual ly the first, emplo yed at

M. T O P IE .

Lyon s. To pi e and Her em ber k printed the first edition of the “ Chron ique Scan dale use, ” about 1488, and Bre yd enb ach ’s “ Voy age à Jer usa lem ,” of about the same perio d— the lat ter of which con­ tains the first examp les of c opper -plate engra ving in Fra nce , the panorama of Ven ice alone bein g sixt y-fo ur inches in length . Conte mpor ary with


P ri nt er s M ar ks .

these, Johanne s or J ehan Tresc hel deserves notice not only as an eminent printer, but also as the father-in-law of one still more eminent— Bade. Tres chel’s illustrated edition of Teren ce, 1493, is described as forming “ the most striking and artistic work o f illustration produced by the early French school.” Th e most generally known of all

the Lyonese printers is Etien ne Dolet, who, born at Orleans in 1509, distinguished himself not only as a printer, but as a Latin scholar, a poet, and an orator ; he was burnt as an atheist in August, 1546. Dolet, as Mr. Chancellor Christie tells us in his exhaust ive monograph, adopted a Mark and motto which are to be found in all or nearly all the productions of his press. Th e Mark and the motto are equally allusive : the former is an axe of the

Some French Pri nters Marks,

13 3

ki nd kn ow n as dolo ire, he ld in a ha nd wh ich is is su in g ou t of a clo ud. Be low is a po rt io n of a tr un k of a tr ee ; it is us ua lly su rr ou nd ed by th e mo tto , “ S ca br a et im po lit a ad am us sim dolo at qu e pe rfo lia ” ; it is of ten als o su rr ou nd ed by an or na ­ m en ta l w oo dc ut bo rd er , as in th e ac co m pa ny in g


E. DO L ET .

ill us tra tio n ; an d in so me ca se s th e wo rd s “ s ca br a d o lo ” ar e pr in te d on th e axe . - T w o co nt em po ra ry Ly on es e firm s of pr in te rs , th e D e T ou rn es a nd De la Fo rte s, ap pe ar to ha ve riv al le d on e an ot he r in th e nu m be r of t he ir M ark s. Je an D e T ou rn es , 1542 -50, hi m se lf ha d no les s th an el ev en M ar ks , se ve ra l of wh ich ar e ex-


13 4

Printer s Marks.

ceed ingly graceful, one of the larg est and best of which repre sents a sower, and serv es as an exc el­ lent pendan t to the reape r of Jac qu es Roffe t, both of which appear in our first chapter. 1 he seven or eigh t membe rs of the De la Po rte family


used at least hal f a score Ma rks betwe en them. T he family, begi nnin g with Aym ĂŠ De la Port e in the last decade of the fifteen th centur y, and ending with S iby lle De la Port e, were in busin ess first as printers, then as books ellers , for ju st a centu ry ; and the punning devic e appa rentl y originate d, not

Some Fren ch Pri nter s Mar ks.


wi th th e fir st m em be r of t he fa mil y, b a t w ith J eh an , wh o st ar te d a bu si ne ss in Pa ris a bo ut 1508, an d in his M ar k th e sh iel d be ar s a ca st el la te d do or w ay ; th e pi ct ur e of t he bib lic al Sa m so n ca rr yi ng off th e ga te s wa s ap pa re nt ly fir st us ed by H ug ue s D e la Po rte , wh o wa s a bo ok se lle r at Ly on s fro m 1530 ;

SĂ&#x2030; B A ST IE N G R Y PH E.

th is wa s su pe rs ed ed for th e m or e pi ct or ia l an d co ns id er ab ly s m al le r ex am pl e, he re giv en , wh en h e en te re d int o pa rt ne rs hi p wi th A nt oi ne V in ce nt ab ou t 1559. A lt ho ug h th e Du Pr ĂŠs w ere Pa ris ia n pr in te rs , Je ha n of th at fam ily iss ue d se ve ra l bo ok s at Ly on s du ri ng th e la st few ye ar s of t he fif tee nt h ce nt ur y, and on e of his th re e M ar ks is giv en on p. 108.


Printers' Marks.

Sébastien Gryphe, or Gryphiris, who printed and published a large number of works during the second quarter of the sixteenth century, was also extravagant in the way of Marks, of which there are at least eight, all, however, of one common


type—the Griffin, sometimes quite without any sort of decorative attributes or motto, and some­ times r'' as r in the example J- here ogjven. So far as regards the Frenc h cities and towns, we have only space to refer briefly to a few of the more important. After Paris and Lyons, Toulouse was one of the earliest places in Franc e in which

Some Frenc h Pri nte rs Mark s.


a pr in ti ng -p re ss wa s se t up. A lt ho ug h no t th e first , Ja cq ue s Co lom ies wa s on e of t he firs t, as he wa s on e of t he m os t pro lifi c of th e ea rly p ri n te rs of To ul ou se , w or ki ng fro m 1530 to 1572. P ri n t­ in g wa s es ta bl is he d at Ca en in 14 80 ; bu t P ie rr e

M. M OR IN .

Ch an de lie r, wh os e pu nn in g M ar k we giv e, di d no t st ar t wo rk un til ei gh ty ye ar s af te r its fir st in tro du ct io n. A pu nn in g de vi ce (p. 7), als o is th a t of J eh an Le co q, wh o wa s pr in ti ng at T ro ye s fro m ab ou t 1509 to 1530. T h e on ly Ro ue n pr in te r to wh om w e sha ll re fe r is M ar tin M ori n, wh o ap pe ar s to ha ve be en at wo rk he re as a pr in te r fro m ab ou t


Printer s Marks.

1484 to 1518, and of his Marks we give one example ; another is formed of a large initial M, decorated with a variety of grotesque heads, with the surname Morin on the two central strokes of the letter.


P R IN T E R S ’ M A R K S O F G ER M A N Y A N D S W IT Z E R L A N D . ALTHOUGH th e ea rly hi st or y of the P ri n te r’s Mar k in G er m an y is ne ith er exte ns iv e in va ri et y no r st ar t­ lin g in su rp ris es , th er e ar e sti ll ve ry m an y fe atu re s of ge ne ra l in te re st. A nd if th e P ri n te r’s Ma rk, as we ha ve al re ad y see n, ha d its or ig in in Mai nz, its de ­ ve lo pm en t is ce rt ai nl y du e to th e S tr as sb ur g cr af ts ­ me n. A s no o th er cit y in G er m an y can sho w su ch a va rie d co lle cti on of be au tif ul Ma rks , ex am pl es of th e S tr as b u rg pr in te rs will pre ­ po nd er at e in th is ch ap te r. It is now ge ne ra lly ac ce pt ed th at th e ar t of p ri nt in g wa s ca rri ed on in S tr as sb ur g (A rg en tin a, A rg e n t- or atu m) , ei th er in 1459 or 1460, by Jo ha n M en tel in , wh o ap pe ar s to ha ve co nt in ue d in th e bu sin es s un til 1476 ; an d ab ou t six ye ar s af te r he ha d st ar te d, H ei nr ic h E gg es te in com me nc ed , an d co nt in ue d un til ab ou t T478. A cc ep tin g th e ar ra ng em en t of H e rr Pa ul

14 0

Pr in te rs M ar ks .

He itz and Dr. Ka rl Aug ust Bar ack in thei r very elabo rate “ Els ass isc he Büc herm arke n bis Anf ang<?> des i8 Jah rhu nd ert s,” the first Str asb urg printe r to use a Ma rk was J ohann G riini nger , who, after work ­ ing a t Base l for a ye ar or two, to ok up his resid ence in Stra ssb urg at the end of 1482. One of his first Mar ks appeared in Br an t’s “ Na rren sch iff,” 1494 ,



and of this our exam ple is an elabo ration . By the yea r 1525 he emplo yed no less than five distin ct examp les, the last of which, in Ptolemaeus, “ Ge o­ graphicae En arr ati on es ,” 1525 , differs comp letely from all the othe rs, the sing le let ter G occu pying the cen tre of the maso nic compa ss and rule. Griin inge r, it may be noted, was the print er of “ Cosm ogra phie Intr odu ctio ,” 15 09 ; the second

Germany a nd Switzerland .

14 1

edition of the famous book in which the name America was proposed and used for the first time. He is furth er noted for the numbe r of mispri nts which occur in the books issued by him. Th e last book which bears his imprin t is appa rentl y “ Geberi philosophi ac alchimistæ maximi, de Alchimia, libri tres ,” March, 1529. Martin S cho tt’s distinc t device is found in at least three books of


the date 1498, including Math eolus’ “ Ars memorativa, ” and was used by him until 1517. It was also used by his son, Joha nn Schott, about 1541, the same prin ter using seven or eight other Marks, all more or less distinct, at different periods. Th e first book bearin g Martin Sch ott’s name is dated 1491, an d he continued print ing until 1499 ; while his son was in business from 1500 to 1545. Equa lly distinct is the accompanying example—one of

14 2

Pri nte rs Mark s.

se ve ra l— us ed by Jo ha nn K no bl ou ch , wh ich is fo un d in th e m aj or ity of t he bo ok s pr in te d by him fro m ab ou t 1521 to 1526, no ta bl y se ve ra l wo rks by E ra sm us (e g. “ M or iæ E nc om iu m ,” 1522, an d


the “ Novum Te sta me ntu m, ” 1523). T he father start ed in 1497, and was succ eeded by his son, who contin ued the busine ss until 1558. Th e Mark , it may be mentioned , is a some what atroci ous pun on the own er’s name, which is the Germ an for “ ga rlic ,” with the seed pods of which the figure


14 4

Printe rs Marks,

em bl em at ic al ly re pr es en ti ng Ig no ra nc e as ce nd in g fro m da rk ne ss in to lig ht is en ci rc le d ; th is M ar k is ge ne ra lly su rr ou nd ed by m ot to es in Gr ee k, H eb re w , an d L at in .


A lt ho ug h R ei nh ar d, or R en at us , Be ck w as on ly in bu sin es s for ab ou t el ev en ye ar s, 15 11 -15 22, he ha d se ve ra l M ar ks , wh ich dif fe re d ch ief ly in th ei r ex tr an eo us or na m en t, as will be se en fro m th e ac co m pa ny in g ex am pl es . T w o bo ok s, sin e nota , w hi ch Mr . O ua ri tc h as si gn s to B ec kâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s pr es s,



Printe rs Marks.

of the date 1490 , are rem arka ble for the large number of woodcuts which they contai n, relat ing princip ally to plants, animals, gard enin g opera ­ tions, rural arch itect ure, so tha t the Mar k of “ ein wilder Mann ” is so far in keep ing with the natur e of his publica tions. Fo ur tee n or fifteen Marks , sever al of which are only varia tions of one type, have been identified as hav ing been used


by Wo lfga ng Köp fel (whose surnam e somet imes appear s in its Gr eek trans latio n of Cephalæu s) betwee n 1522 and 155 4 : the most rema rkabl e, of which we give a reprodu ction, appear s to have been used ve ry ra rely, nota bly in “ Zehn Serm one s ” of Lut her, 15 23 ; a much comm oner type is the sma ller exampl e, which appeare d in various books issued betwe en 15 26 -15 54 . Ge org Ull rich er von Andlau , 152 9-3 6, confined him self to one type (see p, 1), tha t of the Cornu copia or Hor n of

Hof tt'bu s hau d tergo, (èdfo rti pector e notus » CRAFT MÜLLE R (CRATO MYLIUS)

14 8

Printe rs Marks.

Plen ty, of which ther e are seven varian ts. Th e more elabo rate of the two Mar ks of Matt hias Bien er, or Apiarius , 153 3-3 6, appears in Oecola m-

gpvvevrirMy&t&zS , 07t ti v r ii ïj duwioy fcjcm. loan-5'

Omn ia probate,quo d bonum 'fuerit tenetG«s.Thds. y» MATT HIAS BIE NE R (AP IAR IUS ).

padiu s’. “ Co mm ent ari us” on the Pro phe t Eze kie l, 153 4, and is an evid ent pun on the prin ter’s sur­ nam e. Sev era l of the dozen Mar ks used by Craft

Alm a Spicifera Flaua CE RE S,

N i purges SI molas non comedes« CR AF T M ÜL LE R.


Printe rs Marks.

Müller, or Crato Mylius, 1536-62, are exceedingly bold and picturesque, although, with the exception of the Ceres, they are all variants of the leonine type : the Ceres wqs apparently used only in his first book, “ Auslegung oder Postilla des heil. Zmaragdi,” 1536.

TH E O D O SI U S R IH E L , JO SI A S R IH E L (U N D D E R E N e r b e n ).

Wendelin Rihel was the founder of one of the longest-lived dynasties of Strassbu rg printers, who were issuing books from 1535 to 1639 ; their eighteen Marks have all the same subject, a winged figure of Sophrosyne, holding in one hand a rule, and in the other a bridle and halter. Of Thiebold Berger, who appears to have been in business




Printers' Marks.

from 155 1-1 584 , very little is known, eith er of his books or his person ality ; his Mar k is, however, pretty, and unique, so far as S tra ssb urg is concerned. Lazar us Zet zne r and his succe ssors , whose works date from 1586 to 1648, and whose Ma rks number nearly thirty, all variants of the exam ple here given : it is a bust of Min erva suppor ted on a



short square pedestal, on which is inscr ibed the wo rds “ Sci ent ia im muta bilis .” Th is family printed a large number of works, from a Lut her an Bib le to Ar etin i’s “ Historiae Flor enti nae .” As an exam ple of a rare and dist inct Mar k we give one of two employe d by Conrad Sch er, 160 3-3 1, which was sub sequ entl y used by Joh ann es Reppiu s, also of Stra ssb urg . Curio sity is the only featu re of the solita ry exam ple of Dav id Haut h, 1635 .

Ge rm an y an d Sw itz erl an d.

15 3

But of all the S tras sbu rg printers, there can be no doubt that, from a strictly pictorial point of view, the Marks of Joh ann Reinh old Dulss ecker , 1696 1737, are by far the most beautiful. Indeed, in many respec ts they are the most char ming ex amples

J . R. D U L S SE C K E R .

to be found among the devices of any time or country. In some instanc es they partake much more of the chara cter of a v igne tte than a trade s­ manâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mark. Il is earlies t device is composed of his monogram ; and his first decorativ e Mark is the very beautiful little picture of an Eng lish X


Pr in ter s M ar ks

garden, in the central pathway of which occurs his initials. This Mark appears to have been used in only one book, “ M. Fabii Quinctiliani Declama­ tiones . . . ex recensione Ulrici Obrechti, ” 1698. A type of Mark very frequently used by him


occurs in Sch ilte rs “ Scriptores Rerum Germa­ nicarum,” 1702, with his motto of “ Dominus providebit,” and of this Mark we give an exces­ sively rare variant on p. 47. He had eleven Marks, his list includes books of all kinds, in Latin, German, and French . Of the other Alsatian printers we have only

Ge rm any an d Sw itz er la nd .


room to refer to two e xample s. Tho ma s Ansh elm (or Anshe lmi Bade nsis ) is perhaps the most eminent of the early Hagen au printers , his books dating from 1488 to 1522, the earlie st of which, however, were not printed at this place. His Marks all carry the initials T A B, the Hebr ew lette rs in the acco mpan ying examp le repres enting


the name Jeho vah ; in his most elegan t Mar k the same word is supported on a scroll by a cherub, whilst another cherub is supporti ng a second scroll on which is inscribed the word Jes us in Gre ek characte rs. Th e style and workmanship of this woodcut sugges t the hand of Hans Schau felein , and it is worth noting that in 1516 Anshe lm produced “ Doct rina Vita et Passio Jes u Chris ti,’’


Pr in ter s' M ar ks .


some of the illustra tions of which were by Schaufelein. Anshe lm issued a large numb er of books, incl udin gthe works of Pliny, Melancth on, Eras mus,

No n Aqirilæ grandi fociatum turgide Pauutrj ’ Gallepr emes tecum mox Leo uidus erit. V A LE N TIN K O BI AN .

Cicero, etc. Valenti n Kobian, 1532-42, insert ed an exceed ingly original and strik ing Mark in the edition of Era sm us’ “ H eroicu m Carm en,” 1536, the Peacoc k with one foot on a Cock and the othe r on a crouch ing Lion being highly effective.

Germany a nd Switzerla nd.



Printing- had not estab lishe d itse lf at Cologn e until four years late r than at Stra ssbu rg. Ulri c Zell, at the dispers al of the Mainz printers, settle d him self in this city, where he was prin t­ ing- from abou t 1463 to nearly the end of the

w a te tw o perfort o do qu ei iti fli ro o tp m to -bno ^ b e ta rt o tefctiu ecett <£aœUario ^l itn br iff iR ri b ur ia Ç K tie nf ig cy bw e rfot um tetm imH a ft •so luim mb ug contesta» pzopztjfa? ct iïf & ffl mam btjg k fo ie mqen ri rö fc n p to a t gn cc rt o^ ob m & Jgnas? 7%tttolb tï tbe t bozi ië büSiçtentifTtnie •jfrnp rcffa -Hm tn f ub q nm góo miit h f f i -cctcdyrm p bic Uri mo me uR g - Se qu o cnjbo m one fili o K r ô g ïo 2 ta ^ H e ^ O 2 u m fe a tî fl



A. T H E R H O E R N E N .

fifteenth century . He was clear ly not an innovator, for he never printed a book in German, and did not adopt any of the improv ements of his con fre res who had settle d them selve s in Ital y ; he “ rigidly adhered to the sever e sty le of Schoe ffer, printing all his books from three sizes of a rude face of a

(Çeknitfwpniviquüfo£jnCnUiefhi v»c* HER MA N BUMGART.

Germany and Switzerla nd.

15 9

round goth ic typ e.” It is not to him there fore that we can look for any thing in the way of P rin ter s’ Marks , the earl iest Cologn e printe r to adopt which was appa rently Arno ld Th er Hoe rnen , whose colophons, of which we give an exampl e, were often printed in red. His Mar k is a tri angle of which the two uprig ht sides are prolonged with a cross let ; in the cent re a star, and on eithe r side the goth ic lett ers T H, the whole being on a very small shield hang ing from a broke n stump. He r­ man Bum gart, one of whose books bears the subscrip tion “ Ged ruc kt in Coeln e up den Alden Mar t tzo dem wilden mann e,” and who was in Colog ne at the lat ter end of the fifteenth century, has a specia l inte rest to us from the probability that he was in some way conne cted with the early Sco ttis h print ers. Onc e star ted, the idea of the Mark was quickly taken up. Joh ann Koel hoff , 147 0-1 500 , the first printe r to use printe d signa tures (in his edition of Nyder, “ Pr ecep toriu m divinæ legis ,” 1472) , came out with a larg e but roughly drawn example, the arms of Cologn e, cons istin g of a knig ht’s helmet, with peaco ck feathe rs, crest, and e labor ate mantles, surmounting- a shield with the three crowns in chief, the rest of the escut cheon blank, and rabbi ts in the foreground. Ko elh off (who describes himse lf “ de L u be ck ”) was the printe r of the “ Cologne Chro ­ nicle ,” 1499, and of an ed ition o f “ Bar tholo mæu s de Propri etatibu s Rer um ,” 1481. Sev eral inter estin g Cologn e Mark s of the first years of the sixte enth centur y may be noted. Fo r instance, Euc har ius Cervicornu s, 1517 -36, used a caduceus on an


Germany an d Swi tzerlan d.


ornam ented shield, and printed amon g ot her book s what is believed to be the ear lies t edition of Ma ximilianus Tra nsy lva nus ’ “ D e Moln ccis Insu lis,” 1523, in which the disco verie s of Ferd inan d Ma ­ gell an and the earl iest circu mnav igatio n of the


Lik e Koelho ff, Nicola s glo be were announced. Cæsar, or Kai ser, who was e stablis hed as a printer at Cologne in 1518, used the Cologne arms as a Mark, which is sufficiently distin ct from the earlie r exam ple to be quoted here. Joh ann Sote r, 151 836, is anoth er exce edin gly inte rest ing perso nality in the early history of Cologne printing. W e give Y


Printers Marks.

the more elabo rate of the two marks used by him and reproduced by Ber jea u : the shield contains the Rosi cruc ian triple trian gle on the thresh old of a Ren aiss anc e door. Dur ing the latt er end of his care er at Cologne, So ter had also an estab lishm ent at Solin gen, where he printed “ sever al works of a


descrip tion which rendere d too hazardous the ir publica tion in th e form er city .” Arn old Birck man n and his succes sors, 156 2-9 2, used the accom pany ­ ing Ma rk of a hen under a tree. Af ter Gün ther Zain er, 146 8-7 7, who introdu ced printi ng into Aug sbur g, the most nota ble typo grap her of this city is perhaps Er ha rt Ratd olt, to whom refer ence is made in the chap ter on Itali an Ma rks . W e

Germany and Switzerl and.


giv e the rath er striki ng Ma rk— a white fl eu r- de -l is on b lack ground spring ing f rom a glob e—of E rh ar t Oglin , Augsb urg, 150 5-1 6, one of whose pro­ ductions, by Conrad Rei tter , 1508, is rema rkabl e as having a series o f D eat h-D an ce pictures ; Hans Hol bein was eigh t years of age when it appeared, and was then livin g in his nativ e town of Aug sbur g. Fo r typogr aphical purposes Switze rland may be


regarded as an integ ral portion of Germany, and it was to Bas le that Berth old Ro dt of Hanau, one of F list’s workmen, is assumed to have brough t the art about the year 1467. One of the first Bas le printers to adopt a Mar k was Jaco bus De Pfortzheinl, 148 8-1 518 , who used two very distin ct example s, of which we gi ve the more spirited, the left shield carry ing the arms of the city in which he wat working. It appears for the first time in


Printers Marks.

“ Grammatica P. Francisci nigri A. Veneti sacer­ doti oratoris,” etc., 1500. Th e second Mark is emblematical of the Swiss warrior. Th e most eminent o f the Basle printers was however Johann Proben, 1490-152 7, who numbered among his

E R H A R D O G LI N .

“ reade rs” such men as Wolfgang Lachner, Heiland, Musculus, Oecolampadius, and Erasmus. Very few, if any, German works were printed by him ; the first-edition of the New Test ame nt in Greek was printed by him in 1516, Erasmus being the editor. Fro ben ’s device (to which lengthy re-



Printer s Marks.

ference has already been made, and into a discus­ sion of the extremely numerous variants of which we need not enter here) led Erasmus to think that his learned friend did indeed unite the wisdom of the serpent to the simplicity of the dove (see p. 43).


Two other early Basle printers, Michael Furter, 149 0-1 517, and Nicholas Lamparter, 1505-19, used Marks one shield of each of which carried the arms of Basle, Henricpetri was a celebrated printer of Basle, 1523-78, and had a Mark of quite a unique character, representing Th orâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s hammer, held by a

Germany and Switzer land.


hand issuin g from the clouds, strik ing fire on the rock, while a head, symboli zing wind, blows upon it. To yet anoth er distingui shed Bas le printer, Cratander, refere nce is made, and his Mark given, in t he second chapter. Th e most famous, as he was one of the earliest, if not actually the first, printer s of Nuremb erg, or Nürn berg, Ant hon y Ko ber ger , does not appear to


have used a M ark. Indeed , the Prin ters ’ Marks of Nürn berg gen eral ly do not make anythin g like so good a show as those of Colog ne and other large German c ities. Th e earli est Mark of all is probab ly tha tof Wilhelm Moritz En dt er ’s daughte r, which re­ presents a rocky land scape, with a town in the bac k­ ground lig hted by the sun. En dt er ’s books, it may be men tioned, are ex cess ively rare. A much bet ter known printer of this place is Joha nn We isse n-


Germany an d Switzerland.


burger , who starte d here in i5°3 » a n c ^ continu ed until 1513, when he removed to Landsh ut, and remain ed there until 1531. He used the acco m-


panying Mark at both place s,—the precise sign ifi­ cation of the letter s H H on one side of the g lobe is not known. Mr. Quar itch descri bes a book ot z

j 70

Printers Marks.

Jac ob us Loc her, published by this printe r in 1506, which is rema rkab le as cont ainin g a number of woodcuts “ which, in their style and spirit, draw the book into close conn exion with the 1 S hip of Fo ol s.’ ” Sev era l of the Mar ks of the early printer s of Leipzig , into which printing was int roduce d in 1480, are of gre at inte rest and posses s quite a char acter


of th eir own. One of the earli est, for examp le, is that of Melc hior Lo tter , who issued alarme number of bo oks from 1491 to 153 6. T h e word “ L o tt e r” is equi vale nt to “ va ga bo nd ” in En gli sh, and the Ma rk herew ith cons ists of an emble m of a mend i­ can t in a half-su pplian t posture. Mel chio r Lo tte r jun ior was printing at W itte nb erg from 1 520 to 1524, where he printed anonym ously the first edition of Lu th er ’s Bi ble, with il lustr ation s by Luc as Cranac h,

Germany and Switz erlan d.


1522, wh ich an en th us ia st ic bi bl io po le ha s d e­ sc rib ed as “ on e of th e g re at w or ks of th e w or ld .” V al en tin Sc hu m an n, 150 2-3 4 (a nd pr ob ab ly m uc h la te r), is an ot he r em in en t L ei pz ig pr in te r, be in g th e firs t to at te m p t pr in ti ng in H eb re w ch ar ac ­ te rs in a H eb re w gr am m ar , 1520 . T h e in iti al s L D on his M ar k ar e ta ke n to sig nif y “ L ip si en sis


D em an de r ” or D am an de r, a ru de La tin iz at io n of Sc hu m an n wh ich he so m et im es use d. Su ffi cie ntl y qu ai nt als o is th e M ar k of J ac ob us T ha nn er , 150 121, wh ich for ms th e ini tia l to th e pr es en t c h a p te r By 1500 pr in ti ng ha d re ac he d to Olm iitz , w he re Co nr ad Ba um ga rte n wa s is su in g un til 1502 wo rk s chi efl y lev ell ed ag ai ns t th e Ch ur ch o f Ro m e ; fro m 1503 to 1505 th e sa me pr in te r ha d es ta bl is he d

17 2

Prin ters Mark s.

hi m se lf in Br es lau , wh ich he ag ain ch an ge d for F ra nk fo rt -a m -O de r, 150 7-1 4, re m ov in g ag ai n in th e la tt er ye ar to Le ip zig . T h e VV on on e of th e sh iel ds of his M ar k is th e ini tia l of W ra tis la u, th e Po lis h na m e of Br es lau , an d th e fem ale sa in t on th e ot he r sh ow s th e ar m s of th e tow n. It ap pe ar s to be un ce rta in w he th er pr in ti ng wa s in ­ tro du ce d int o F ra nk fo rt -a m -M ai n in 1511 or 1530 ; bu t th e on ly M ar k wh ich we ne ed qu ot e is th at



of Jo ha nn F ey ra be nd t, wh os e ch ie f in te re st to po st er it y lies in th e fac t th a t he p ri nt ed Jo st A m m on ’s “ K ün st lic he w oh lg er is se ne ne u F ig u re n vo n all er le y Ja g tk u n st ,” 15 92 : his M ar k is em ­ bl em at ic al of Fa m e, wi ng ed , bl ow in g a G er m an ho rn , an d en clo se d in a ca rto uc he . A nd re as W ec he l wa s pr in ti ng at F ra n k fo rt fro m 1573 to 1581, his M ar k be in g th e we ll- kn ow n on e of th e Pe ga su s. A lt ho ug h Ja co b St ad el be rg er , H ei de lb er g, wa s no t by an y m ea ns an em in en t pr in te r, his M ar k is w ell

Germany a)ui Switzerland.


w or th y of no te : it co ns ist s of th re e sh iel ds , th e ri g h t of w hic h be ar s th e ar m s of Ba va ria , th e lef t a lio n ra m pa nt , th e ar m s of H ei de lb er g, an d th at of th e m id dl e is su pp os ed to re pr es en t th e ar m s of Zu ric h.


A da m St ei ns ch aw er is sai d to be th e pri nt er of th e firs t bo ok is su ed a t G en ev a, in 1479 ; soo n af te r him ca me Gu er bi n, 1482, wh os e M ar k we g iv e af te r Bo uc ho t. F ro m ab ou t 1537 to 1554 J eh an G ira rd , or G er ar d, w as bu sy pr in ti ng bo ok s he re ; th e M ar k

17 4

P ri nt er s M ar ks .

herewi th comes from one of Calv in’s books, 1545, the Lat in motto bein g anglicize d thus : “ I came not to send peace, but a sword,” a very proper motto indeed for such an author. Girard used thre e othe r Mark s of this type. Th e position of Gen eva in litera ture is Fre nch rath er than Germa n, and this also holds good with regard to its typo ­ Th e accom pany ing Mar k of graphic al annals.

I f OW VJ EH J S A , '

arbre qui n ef a it p a i bon 1 TW* % ■ UH 3 1




g r



3 8



J. R IV E R Y .

Je an Riv ery, Gen eva, 155 6-6 4, is disti nct of its kind, and is the smal ler of the two exam ples used by this printe r ; in the larg er one, the same motto appears, but in roman type, not italic ; ther e are also only two trees, both nearl y leaf less ; the hand holdi ng an axe occurs in both examp les. Many Fr en ch prin ters, for vario us r easons, and at diff erent times, “ re tired ” to Gen eva , as, for example , the Es tie nn es ; the Mar ks of seve ral Fra nco -G ene va n print ers ther efor e will be found dealt with in the pre-

Germany an d Sw itzer land .



viou s cha pte r. Al tho ug h pr in tin g ap pe ars to hav e bee n i ntro duc ed into Z uric h in 1508, book s exe cut ed at this plac e pri or to 1523 are exc ess ive ly rare . Ch ris top he rus Fr os ch ov er, 1523-48, was by far the


mo st emi ne nta nd prolific of the ea rly Zu rich pr int ers ; to him has been att rib ut ed the pro duc tion of the first En gli sh Bible. Hi s Ma rk is a pu nni ng one, Frosch bei ng Ger ma n for “ fr o g ;” it is em ble ma ­ tical of a gig ant ic frog rid den by a child un der


Printers' Marks.

a tree, the “ large r growth ” bein g surrounded by O f other Swis s sever al of the normal size. printer s whose Mar ks we reproduce, but to whom we can make no furthe r referen ce, are Nicola s Bryli nger , Bas le, 153 6-6 5 (the accomp anying ex-


ample is take n from the title -pag e of “ Pa ntalo nis Hen rici, Proso pogra phiæ Hero um atqu e illustrium Viroru m totius German iae,” 1565 , a folio of thr ee volumes, full of fanciful ly drawn p ortra its, the s ame por trai t bein g often used for seve ral men), and F . Le Preu x, of Laus anne , Morg es, and Berne .

F. LE PR E U X .






P R IN T E R S ’ M A R K S. T H E introd uction of the art of pr int­ ing into the Low Coun tries, and th e rival claim of Cos ­ ter and Gu ten ­ berg , have proved a high ly fruitful J . VE LD EN ER . sour ce of litera ry It is not worth our quar rels and disputation s. while to enter, even briefly, into the merits of the argum ents eithe r for or aga inst ; and it will suffice for our pres ent purpose to regard Joh ann Velclener, 1473 -7, as t he first print er. He was pr o­ bab ly a pupil of Ulri c Zell, and, lik e many others o f the early Neth erla nd printers , he does not appear to have remaine d long at one place. Fo r exampl e, he was at Lou vain from 147 3-7 , at Utr ech t 147881, and at Culem berg, 148 2-4 . His only Mark appea rs to be that given herewith, in which his name in an abbr evia ted form occurs between the

Some Dutch and Flemi sh Marks. 179 two shields, on the righ t one of which appe ars the arms of Lon vain. His most notable publicat ions were two quarto editions of the “ Speculum ” in the Dutch language, one of which containe d 116 and the othe r 128 illustrations, “ printe d from the woodcuts tha t had been previously used in the four notable editions ; to make these broad woodcuts, which had been designe d for p ages in folio, Veldene r cut away the architect ural frame­ work sur round ing each illustration and then sawed £ ? ego Joha nne s uni ver sita te Lo va num d u x i opus hoc "ferme' tam Labori­ nd fin em usque Jito sign o consi g* p it e lib ri pa lam

pre not atu s alm a in ni esi n esidens dig * insi gne imme nsis bus quan t i mpe nsis perd uctu m meo so ­ nando huius in cafi er it


each block in two pieces.” He received from the Unive rsity the honora ry title of Maste r of Prin t­ ing, an honour which was also conferred on his more distin guished contemp orary, Johan n of W est ­ phalia, 1474-96, for whom in fact is claimed the priority of the introducti on of printin g into Louvain. Th e first of the lar^e number of books produced by the latte r is by Petru s de Cre scentiis, “ Incipit liber ruraliü cömodo rü,” 1474, its colophon being printed in red. The accompanying exceed­ ingly curious “ souscription,” with portra it of the printer, is given from Lam bine t’s “ Recherch es.’"


Printers M arks.

Th ier ry Mart ens, or Mer tens , or Martin dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Alos t (Th eod ori cus Mart inus) , may be regarde d eithe r as an early print er of Louva in, Antwerp, or Alost, for it is state d that he had presses workin g simul-


tane ously at the thre e place s ; but Alos t has the first claims, and it is said tha t he was printi ng here in 1473, althou gh as a matt er of f act he was only twenty years of age at this period. He was a distin guishe d scholar, and the friend of Barlan d

Some Du tch an d Fl em ish Ma rk s.

18 1

an d Er as m us , th e la tt er m ak in g th e fol low ing re fe re nc e to th e ac co m pa ny in g M ark , “ l’anc re sa cr ée ,” in th e ep ita ph he w ro te as a m em or ial of his fri en d : “ Hic Theodoricus jaceo, prognatus Alosto : Ars erat impressis scripta referre typis. Fratribus, uxori, soboli, notisque superstes, Octavam vegetus praeterii decadem. Anchora sacra manet, gratae notissima pubi : Christe ! precor nunc sis anchora sacra mihi.”

pnpumc aßmgeepavcofcrb inanfwi)fattetjour îieffufîlis

C O L A R D M A N SI O N .

Co la rd M an sio n, 147 4-8 4, th e firs t pr in te r wh o w or ke d at Br ug es , for an ex ha us tiv e ac co un t of wh os e co nn ec tio n wi th W ill ia m Ca xt on th e re ad er is re fe rre d to Mr . Bl ad es ’s mo no gr ap h, use d se ve ra l M ar ks , pr in te d in re d an d bla ck , an d sim ila r to th e ex am pl e he re giv en . In ma ny re sp ec ts th e “ Cl erc s ou F rè re s de la vie C om m un e” (F ra tr e s vi tæ co mm un is) , wh o we re pr in tin g at Br us se ls fro m 1476 to 1487, for m one of th e mo st in te re st in og fe at ur es in th e


Some Dutch and Fle mis h Marks. 183 early history of printin g in the Low Coun tries. T he types which they used resem ble very much those of Arno ld Th er Hoer nen, Cologn e ; and the only book, “ diligen tia impres se in famosa civi tate


Brux ellen , ” to which they put their name, is en­ titled “ Legendae Sanc toru m Henr ici Imper atoris et Kuneg undis Imp erat ricis ,” etc., 1484, and this is their only illustra ted book. “ Th eir pr oductions illustrate the stag e of transition between the ancie nt scribe and printer by showing how naturall y one


Print ers Marks .

succeeded to the othe r.” A full bibliographic al account of the Brot hers will be found in M. Madden’s “ Let tres d’un Bibl ioph ile.” Th e Mark here given is reproduced from the above-nam ed work : it consists of an Ea gle crowned and displayed, supporting a shield with the arms of B raban t quarterly, with river in bend, and star. Th e first Dev ente r printer wras Rich ard Pafifroed (the sur­ name has about thirty variatio ns) in 1477, who was either a pupil of Ulri c Zell or Th er Hoern en, and who continued there until the first year of th e sixtee nth century, and was appare ntly succeeded by his youngest son Alber tus, who was printing there up to about 1530, and whose Ma rk we give. So far as Gouda is co ncerned, Ghe rae rt or Gerar d Leeu and early printing are synonymous. He was a native of this place, and estab lished him self here as a printer in 1477 and continued up to 1484, when he removed his presses to Antwerp , where he was printing until the year of his death, 1493. His “ Dialogu s Crea turar um,” the first edition of which appeared in 1480, had run into over a dozen editions, in Lat in or Dutc h, by the first year of the sixte enth centur y. W hil st at Gouda Lee u used sever al marks, of which the smaller, given on p. 39, was printed in red and black ; at Antwe rp he used a much more ambitious example, cons istin g of the arms of the Cast le of Antwer p : a batt lem ent and a turret ed gate , with two smaller ones on eith er sid e; the two large flags bear the arms of the Germ an Em pir e and of the Arch duke Maxi milia n of Aust ria. Nico las Leeu, who was prin ting at Antw erp in 1487-8, was possibl y the



18 6

Printer s Marks.

bro ther of the more famous typogr apher, and his Ma rk consi sts of the lion (a pun on his surname, which is equi vale nt to lion) in a Go thic window holding two shields, with the arms of Antw erp on the left and the monogr am of Gh era ert Leeu on the right. Lik e Leeu and so many of the othe r early Dutc h printe rs, the first De lft typog raphe r, Ja co b Jaco bzo on Van der Mee r, 147 7-8 7, employed the arms of t he town in which he printe d on his


Mar k, the right shield in the pres ent insta nce carry ing three water-lily lea ves. In 1477 he issued an edition of the Dut ch Bibl e, and thre e year s late r the fi rst e dition of the Psal ter, “ Di e Duy tsch e So ute r,” which had been omitte d from the Bib le. Th e only othe r De lft print er to whom we need refe r is Christ ian Sne llae rt, 1495 -7, the only book to which he has placed both his name and his Mark bein g “ T heo bald us Physio logus de naturis duodecim animaliu m,” 1495 . His most re­ mark able productio n, however, is a “ M issal e

V ,. 7»


QWWlMxMM.amB»»«^urn»im.«tÀk»ÆJMA■»wramg<ffifl M<darTf«g

1 88

Print ers Marks,

secundum Ordin arium Tra jac ten se,” issued about 1497 ; this Mark, given on p. 35, was also used by He nri Ec ker t van Hom bergh , who was print ing at Antw erp from 1500 to 1519: the shield carries the arms of Antw erp ; in the arms of Sne llaer t this shield is blank, and this const itutes the only difference between the two Marks. If it could be proved tha t “ H et boeck van Tond alus visioen ” was, as has been stated , prin ted at Antw erp in 1472, by Math ias Van der Goes,



the claim of Antw erp to be rega rded as the first place in t he Low Countrie s in which prin ting was introduc ed would be irrefutable . Unfo rtuna tely ther e is very little doubt but tha t the date is an error, althou gh Goes is still righ tly regar ded as havin g introdu ced print ing into Antwe rp, where he was issuing books from 1482 to about 1494 in Dut ch and Latin. He had two large Marks, one of which was a ship, appa rentl y emblematical o f Pro­ gress or commercial enterp rise, and the other, a sava ge bran dishin g a club and bearin g arms of

Some Dut ch and F lemish Marks. 189 B ra ba nt ,— th e la tt er , fro m “ S er m on es O ua tu or N ov is si m or um ,” 1487, is he re gi ve n. R ol an t Va n de n D or p, 149 4-1 500 , w ho se ch ie f clai m to fam e is th a t he pri n te d th e “ C ro ny ke va n B ra ba nt ,” folio, A nt w er p, 1497, ha d as his m os t am bi tio us M ar k a ch ar m in g pi ct ur e of R ol an d bl ow in g his ho rn ; on on e of th e sh ie ld s (s us pe nd ed fro m th e br an ch of a tr ee ) is th e ar m s of A nt w er p, w hic h he so m eti m es us ed s ep ar at el y as his de vi ce . C on te m po ra ne ou sl y w ith V an de n D or p, 14 93-15 00, we ha ve Go de fro y Bac k, a bin de r wh o, on N ov em be r 19, 1492, m ar rie d th e wi do w of V an de r Go es, an d co n­ ti nu ed th e pr in tin g- of fic e of his pr ed ec es so r. H is ho us e wa s ca lle d th e V og eh ui s, an d ha d for its sig n th e Bi rd ca ge , wh ich he ad op te d as his M ar k ; th is he m od ifi ed se ve ra l tim es, no tab ly in 1496, wh en th e m on og ra m o f V an de r Go es w as re pl ac ed by his ow n. In th e ac co m pa ny in g ex am pl e (a p­ pa re nt ly br oke n d u ri n g t he pr in tin g) th e le tt er M is su rm ou nt ed by th e B ur gu nd y de vi ce — a wa nd up ho ld in g a St . A n d re w ’s cro ss. W e gi ve also a sm all ex am pl e of t he tw o ot he r M ar ks u se d by thi s pr in te r. A rn ol du s Cæ sa ris , l’Em pe re ur , or De K ey se re , ac co rd in g as his na m e ha pp en ed to be sp el t in L at in , F re nc h, or Fl em is h, is an ot he r of th e ea rly A nt w er p pr in te rs wh os e m ar k is suffi ­ ci en tly di st in ct to m er it in se rt io n he re. H is firs t bo ok is da te d 1480, “ H er m an ni de P et ra S e r­ m on es su pe r or at io ne m do m in ic am .” Mi ch ael H el le ni us , 151 4-3 6, is a pr in te r of th is cit y wh o ha s a sp eci al in te re st to E ng li sh m en from th e fac t th a t “ in 1531 he pr in te d at A nt w er p an an tiP ro te st an t w or k for H en ry Pe pw ell , wh o cou ld

i» '» i» u 11111 i

il II I


Som e Du tch a]id F lem ish M ar ks . 191 find no printer in Lond on with sufficient courag e to underta ke it .” He llen ius’ Mar k is emb lematic al of Tim e, in which the figure is standi ng on clouds, with a sick le in one hand and a serpen t coiled in a circle on th e left. T he Mar k of Jan Ste els , A nt ­ werp (p. 19), 153 3-7 5, is regarded by som e biblio ­ graph ers as the emblem of an altar, but “ from t he


entir e absen ce of any ritual access ories, and t he in­ troduction of incongruo us figures (which no inediæval artis t would have thoug ht of repres enting ), it would appear to be merely a sto ne tab le.” Jac obu s Bella ert, 1483 -86, was the first Haarl em printer, one of his earli est works bein g “ Dat liden ende die passie ons Hee ren Jes u Chr isti, ” which is dated Dec emb er 10, 1483. Be llae rt’s name does not


Printe rs Marks.

appear in it, but his Mar k at the end permits of an easy identifi cation, it bein g the same as that which appears in his Dutc h edition of â&#x20AC;&#x153; Glan villa de Prop rietat ibus Reru m," 14 85 : the arms above the


Griffin are those of the city of Haar lem. One of the most famous printi ng local ities of the Low Coun tries was Ley den (Lugdun um Bata voru m), where the art was practi sed so early as 1483, Hey nric us He nric i, 148 3-4 , bein g one of the


19 4

Prin ters Marks.

earlie st, his Mar k carry ing two shields, one of which b ears the cross keys o f L eyd en. Th e Pelican is an ex ceed ingl y rare e lem cnt in D utch and Fle mi sh Pri nte rs’ Marks , one of the very few exce ptio ns bein g that of J . Des tresi us, Yp res , 1553, the motto on the borde r readin g “ S ine sanguin is effusione non fit remi ssio. ”

H . H E N R IC I.

It will be conv enien t to group tog eth er in this place a few of the more rep rese nta tive examp les of th e Ma rks of the Dut ch and Fle mis h prin ters of the sixt een th century . O f Th om as Van der Noot , who was printi ng at Bru ssel s from about 150 8 to 1517, ther e is very lit tle of gene ral inte rest to state, but his large Mar k is well worthy of a place here. Pictu resqu e in anot her way also is the Mar k of J. Graphe us, Antwe rp, 1520 -61 ; the

So me D ut ch a n d F le m is h M ar ks . 195 exam ple we give is a distin ct improv ement on a very rou ghly drawn Mar k which this printe r s ome ­ times used, which is identical in every resp ect to this, exce pt that it has no borde rs. It is one of the few purely pictorial, as dis tinct from armorial, Mark s which we find used at A ntwe rp in the earlier half of the sixt een th centu ry. One of this printe r’s most


notable publicat ions is “ L e Nouueau Tes tam ent de nostre Sauflue ur Iesu Chr ist traslate selon le vray tex t en franch ois,” I5 3 2 > a duodecimo of xvii i and 354 folios, a rare impression of Le Lè vr e d’Eta pl es ’ Te sta me nt as it had been issued by L ’Em pere ur, in 1530, who had obtaine d the licenc e of the Em per or and the Inquis ition for this impression. Henr i Van den Kee re, a book-


Some D utch a nd Fle mish Marks. 197 seller and printer of Ghent, 1549-58, had four Marks, all of which resemble more or less closely



. * à-y aTzTM^rairra ßtytt •


the rather striking and certainly distinct example here given. Of the Bruges printers of the sixteenth century, Huber or Hubert Goltz, 1563-79, is


Printe rs Marks.

perhaps the most eminent, not so much on account of the typographical phase of his career, as because of his works as an author and artist. Th e “ Fast i Magistratum et Triumphorum Romanorum,” is one of his books best known rto scholars, whilst to

Van den. k ee re .


students of numismatics his work on the medals from the time of Julius Cæsar to that of the Empero r Ferdinand, in Latin, of which a very rare Fren ch edition appeared at Antwerp in 1561, is well known, and the original edition o f his works in this respect is still highly esteemed, although, as



Pr in te rs Ma rks .

Bru net points out, Goltz has suffered a good deal in reput ation since Ec ke l has demo nstrat ed that he included a numbe r of spurious example s, whilst some others are inco rrec tly copied. His inte rest ing typog raphic al Ma rk is given on p. 51. J. Wa esb erg he, of Antw erp and Rott erda m, had at leas t three Marks , of which we giv e the larg est examp le, and all of which are of a nautical charac ter, the centr e bein g occupied by a mermaid


carry ing a horn of plenty ; in the sma ller exam ple of the accom pany ing Mark , the backg round is take n up by a serp ent formi ng a circl e. Th e Mar k of M. De Ham ont, a print er and boo k­ sell er of Bruss els, 1569- 77, is worth quotin g as one of the very few instan ces in which the sub ject of St . Geo rge and the Dra gon is utilized in this parti cular by a prin ter of the Low Countr ies. R u tg er Velp ius appear s to have had all the wand ering proc livit ies of the early printer s ; for

Some Dutch and Flemi sh Marks.


instance, we find him at Louvain from 1553 to 1580, at Mons from 1580 to 1585, and Brussels from 1585 to 1614 : he had three Marks, of which


we give the largest. Of the Liege printers, we have only space to mention J. Mathiæ Hovii, whose shop was “ Ad insigne Paradisi Ter rest ris ” DD


Printe rs Marks.

du ri ng th e la tt er ha lf ol th e se ven te en th ce nt ur y, an d wh os e M ar k is of ra th e r st ri kin g or ig in al ity an d bo ld ne ss of d es ig n.

J . M. H O V II .

T h e two m os t di st in gu is he d na m es in th e an na ls of D ut ch an d Fl em is h pri nt in g ar e un qu es tio na bl y

Some Dutch an d Flemish Marks .


Plan tin and th e Elz evir s. A full descr iption of the variou s Mark s used by Chris tophe Plan tin alone would fill a small volume, as the number is not only very grea t, but the var ieti es somewh at con­ flicting in thei r rese mbl ance to one anoth er ; all of them, however, are dist inctl y trac eab le to thre e common types . Som e arc engr aved by Godefr oid Ballai n, Pie rre ilu ys , and othe r distingu ished

C. PLANTIN. (F ir st M ar k. )

c. PLANTIN. (S ec on d Ma rk. )

crafts men. His first Mar k appeared in th e second book which he printed, the “ Flo res de L. Anne o Se ne ca / 1555. His second Mar k was first used in the following year, and bears the monogram of Arnau d Nicolai. Of each of thes e examples we give reproduction s, as also of the fine examp le designed for Plan tin’s succe ssors either by Rub ens or by Era sm e Quellin, and engrav ed by Jea n Christo phe Jeg her , 1639, Plant in having died in 1589 . Th e most famous of all Plan tin’s Mark s is


Some Dut ch and Flem ish Marks.


of course that with the compa ss ancl the motto u La bo r et Co nst ant ia,” which he first used in 1557 . Plant in explai ns in the prefac e to his Pol yglo t Bib le the signif icatio n of this Mark , and sta tes that the compass is a symbolic al repr esen ta­ tion of his device : the point of the co mpass turning round signifie s work, and the stati onar y point con stan cy. One of the most curious combi nation s of P rin ter s’ Ma rks may b e he re alluded to : in 1573, Plantin , St ee ls and Nutiu s proje cted an edition of the “ D ecr eta ls, ” and the Ma rk on this is made up of the thre e used by thes e printers, and was design ed by Pie rre Va n der Borc ht. Nea rly eve ry volum e admitt edly printed by the El ze vir family poss essed a Mark, of which this family, from Louis , in 1583 , to Daniel, 1680, used four dist inct exam ples . T he founder of the dynasty, Lou is (1 58 3- 16 17 ), adopted as his sign or mark an Ea gl e on a cippus with a bundle of arrows, accom panie d with the motto, “ Co ncordia res parvæ cres cun t ”— the emblem of the device of the Bat avia n Re pu bli c— and as the year 1595 occurs on the primi tive type of this Mark, it might be concluded to date from that period. But Wil lem s points out tha t no book published by Lou is in the years 1595 and 1596 carrie s this Mark , which (he sa ys) figures for the first time on the Meursius , “ Ad Th eo cri ti idyllia Spic eleg ium ,” 1597. In 1612 Loui s Elz evi r reduced this Mark, and suppresse d the date above mentione d. Fo r some time Isaa c continued the use of the sign of his grandfa ther, and even after 1620, when he adopted a new Ma rk— that of the Sag e or H erm it—


Printer s Marks.

he did not compl etely repudiat e it. Bona vent ure and Abr aha m scar cely eve r used it exc ept for thei r catalo gues. T h e s econd Mark , which Is aac ( 1 6 17-2 5) adopted in 1620, it o ccurr ing for the first time in the “ Ac ta Syno di Nati ona lis,” is known as the So lita ire and some times as the He rmi t or Sa ge . It repre sents an elm around the trunk of which a vine, carry ing bunches o f grap es, is twine d ; the So lita ire and the motto “ Non so lus.” T h e expl anat ion of this Mark


is obvious, and may be s ummed up in the one word “ C on co rd ;” the solit ary individual is symb olica l of the prefe rence of the wise for solit ude— “ Je suis seul en ce lieu être s olit air e.” Th is Ma rk was the principa l one of the Ley den office, and was in cons tant use from 162 0 to 1712, long afte r the Elz ev irs had cease d to print. T h e third Elz ev ir Ma rk consi sts of a Palm with the motto “ Ass urg o pre ssa .” It was th e Ma rk of Erp eniu s, prof esso r of orien tal langu ages at the Un ive rsit y of Leyd en, who had estab lished a prin ting -pre ss which he superin tended him self in

Some Dutch an d F lem ish Marks .


his own house. At his death the Elz evi rs acqui red his mater ial, with the Mark , which occurs on the Elm acin us, “ H isto ria Sa rac en ica ,” and on the Syr iac Psa lter o f 1625, on the “ Meursi i arbore tum sacru m,” 1642, and on abou t seven other volumes. Th e fourth impo rtant Elz ev ir Mar k is the Miner va with her attri bute s, the breas tplate , the olive tree, and the owl, and the motto “ Ne ext ra solus,” which is from a pass age in the “ F ro g s ” of Aris toph anes . It was one of the principal Mark s T H E E L Z E V IR S P H E R E .



of the Ams terda m office, and was used for the first time by Louis Elz ev ir in 1642. Aft er Dan iel’s death this Ma rk becam e the propert y of Henr y We tste in, who used it on som e o f his books. It was also used by Th ibo ust at Pari s and The odo ric van Ack ersd yck at Utre cht. In addition to the foregoing, a number of other Mark s were employed by this firm of printers, the most important of the minor example s being the Sphe re, which occurs for t he first tim e on “ S phæ ra Joh ann is de Sa cro -B os co ,” 1626, printed by


Prin ters Marks.

B on av en tu rc a n d -A b ra h a m ; an d fro m th is tim e to th e en d of th e pe ri od of th e op er at io ns of th e El ze vi rs , th e S ph er e an d th e M in er va ap pe ar to ha ve eq ua lly sh ar ed th e ho no ur of ap pe ar in g on th ei r ti tle -p ag es . A m on g th e ot he r M ar ks w hic h w e m us t be co nt en t to en um er at e ar e th e fo llo wi ng : a ha nd wi th th e de vi ce of “ Æ q v a b il it a te ,” an an ge l wi th a boo k, an d a bo ok of mu sic op en ed , ea ch of wh ich wa s us ed oc ca sio na lly by th e firs t E lz ev ir ; an d on e in wh ich tw o ha nd s ar e ho ld in g a co rnu co pia , of Is aa c; th e ar m s of th e L ey de n U ni ve rs it y fo rm ed als o oc ca sio na lly th e M ar k of th e El ze vi rs es ta bl is he d in th a t cit y. T h e M ar k of G ui sla in Ja ns se ns , a bo ok se lle r an d pr in te r of A nt w er p, at th e en d of th e si xt ee nt h an d be gi nn in g of th e se ven te en th ce nt ur y, is bo th di sti nc t a nd pr et ty , an d is w or th no tic e if on ly f rom th e fac t th a t ar tis tic ex am pl es ar e by no m ea ns co mm on wi th th e pr in te rs of t hi s cit y.


P R IN T E R S ’





S P A IN . 1 T H E incu nabu la of Italy offer very little interest so far as re­ gards the Marks of their printers, and the adoption of these devices did not become at all general until the early years of the six­ teenth century. Conrad Sweynheim and Arnold Pannartz, who were the first to introduce print­ ing from Germany into Italy, first at the monastery of Subiaco, near Rome, in 1465, and to that city in 1467, appear to have had no Mark ; and the same may be said of several of their successors. We give the earliest 1

Th e rea der will find on page 25 a series of thirty redu ced repr odu ctio ns of Mark s used for the most part by the Itali an print ers. 'These are given after Orla ndi (“ Origine e Progressi della Stam pa,” 1722) and Ho rne (“ Intr odu ctio n to the Stu dy of Bibli ograp hy,” 1814), but several of t he name s are open to ques tion from the fact tha t the former auth or has given no acc oun t eithe r of the places at which they worked, or of the books which they printe d. E E


Printers Marks.

Roman example with which we are acquainted, namely, that of Sixtus Riessinger, and George Herolt, a German, who printed in partnership at Rome in 1481 and 1483. One of the books produced by this partnership was the “ Tr act a­ tus sollemnis et utilis,” etc., which contains u fullpage figures of the Sybils, fine initials, and an


interlaced border to the first page of text, all executed in wood engraving.” Th e next Roman typographers who used a Mark were, like Herolt, “ Alm anos ” or Germans, for as such Johann Besicken (14 84- 150 6) and Martens of Amsterdam describe themselves in the colophon of “ Mirabilia Romæ,” a' 241110. of 63 leaves, 1500. This work contains ten woodcuts, of which that on “ the

Mar ks in I ta ly and Spain.

21 I

rev erse of lea f 36 has at the bottom the words ‘ M a r’ and ‘ De Ams tdam ’ in black lett ers on white scrolls, and ‘ E r ’ imme diatel y bene ath the latter , in white lett ers on a black ground, showi ng tha t Mar tin of Am ster dam , one of the printe rs, was also the eng rave r. On the woodcut on the reve rse of lea f 25 also, ther e is a shield with the initials of both prin ters, ‘ I ’ and ‘ M ’ interlaced , in both larg e and small le tte rs .” Andr eas Fr ita g de Arg ent ina (or Str ass bu rg ), 149 2-96 , is anot her early Rom an prin ter who used a Mar k. Th e four

J. B E SI C K E N .


foreg oing Ma rks are given on the authorit y of J. J. Audiff redi, “ C at al og u s..............R omanorum Edit ionu m saeculi X V I ., ” 1783. Amo ng the early sixt een th centu ry print ers of Rome, one of the most disting uished was Zacha rias Kall ierg os of Crete , 150 9-2 3, who had starte d printing at Ven ice in 1499, and of whom Belo e has given an inte resti ng accou nt in the fifth volume of his “A necd otes of Lit era tur e.” A miniature of his device is given at the end of this chapter . Print ing was int roduced into V enic e by Jo han nes de Spir a in 1469, and, as showing the exte nt to which it was quickly carried, Panz er reckon s that


Print ers Marks.

up to the end of the fifteenth centur y, no fewer than 189 printer s had estab lished them selve s here,

Ă&#x2020;rbar&i KUtbolt foelfctaconfpfcefigna.


and had issued close upon 3,000 works . From 1469 to 1480, ove r six ty master printers were

Mark s in It aly a nd Spain.


found within the prec incts of the city. T he first of the superb series of early printed book s pro­ duced here is the folio edition of Cicero, “ Ep isto læ ad Fa mi liar es, ” 1469, althou gh the honour o f bein g the most magnif icent product ion appears to be equally divided betwee n the Liv y and the Virg il, 1470, exec uted by Jo hn of Sp ira ’s brot her and succe ssor Vind elinu s. So far as we know, neith er of the two brot hers, nor Nicol as Jens on, 147 0-8 8, many of whose beauti ful books rivalled the De Sp ira s’, used a Mar k. Erh ard us Ra tdo lt may be regarded as one of the earli est, if not actua lly the first Vene tian print er to adopt a Ma rk. Ero m 1476 to 1478 he was in partn ersh ip with Berna rdus Picto r and Petru s Los lein de Lan gen cen , but from the latte r year to 1485 he was exe rcis ing the art alone. (I t is not alto get her forei gn to our sub ject to mention tha t this firm printe d the “ Ca len da r” of Joh n de Mon tereg io, 1476 , which has the first ornamental title known .) In 1487 , Rat dol t was at Augsburg, and perhaps his claims as a printe r are German rath er than Ven etia n, but as his best work was exe cute d during his sojourn in Ven ice, it will be more conv enien t to include him in the presen t chapt er. Lik e so ma ny ot hers of the early printers, he regard ed his own perfor mance s with no little self-co mplace ncy, for in his colophons he describ es himself, “ Vir solertis simus, imprimendi arte no­ minatissimus, artis impressor iæ magi ster apprimè famosus, perpolitus opifex, vir sub orbe notus,” and so forth. T o him is attribu ted the credit of having invente d ink of a golden colour ; and he


P ri nt er s M ar ks ,

was the first to employ the “ flo urishe s,” (“ literæ flo ren tes ”) or initial lette rs formed of floral scrolls and orname nts borrowed from the Itali an manu­ scripts , and somet imes printed in red and som e­


times in black . Joa nn es and Greg orius de Gregoriis, 148 0—-1516 , and Gre gori us alone, 1516-28 , make a very good show in the way of printed books , one of the most notab le being the first quarto edition of Boc cacc io, 1516, and anoth er the

Mark s in I tal y and Spain. u

2 I5

Deu tsch Römi sch Br ev ier ,” 1518, which is printed in black and red Got hic lett er with numerous full-page woodcuts and border s. Con­ temp orary with thes e two b roth ers and als o famous as a prolific prin ter comes Ott avia no Sco tto , “ Civis Mo doe tiês is,” 14 80 -15 00 , and his heirs, 150 0-3 1, of whose Ma rk we giv e an exa ct reproduction. Bap tist a de To rti s, 14 81 -15 14, also issued a number of inte rest ing books, more particu larly folio editio ns of the classi cs, copies of which are still frequ ently met with, and of whose Mark we give a red uced exam ple on p. 25 ; and the same may be sa id o f Be rnar dinu s S tagn inus , 148 3-1 536 . Th e Mark , also, of Bern ardi nus de Vitalib us, 14941500, is suffic iently disti nct to just ify a reduced exam ple. Bar tho lom eus de Zanis, 148 6-15 00, was not only a prolific p rinte r onhis own acco unt,bu t also for Sco tto , to whom refer ence is made above. T he Mar ks, on a gre atly reduced scale of Dio ny­ sius Ber toch us, 14 80 ; of Laur entiu s Rubeu s de Vale ntia, 1482 ; of Nich olas de Fran cford ia, 147315 00 ; and of Per egr ino de Pasqualib us, 1483 -94, who was for a shor t time in partnership with Diony sius de Bert ochu s, are all intere sting as more or less disti nct varia tions of one common type (see p. 25). Of Petr us Liec hten stein , 1497 1522, who describes him self as “ Coloniensis,” and whose very fine Mark in red and black forms the frontis piece to the prese nt volume, it will be only neces sary to refer to one of his books, the “ Bib lij Czes ka,” 1506, which is the first edition for the use of the Huss ites. Of this excee ding ly rare edition, only about four copies are known. It is


Mark s in I tal y and Spain.


rema rkab le in not having been suppressed by the Church, for one exam ple of its numerous woodcuts (which are coloured) at once betr ays its char acter , viz., the engr avin g to the sixth chapt er of the Apoc alyps e, in which the Pope appears lying in hell. As illust rativ e of some of the more elabo-


rate and pictori al Mar ks which one finds in the book s of the Ven etia n printe rs during the sixte enth century, we giv e a couple of very distinct examples , the first bein g one of the Mark s of the Ses sa family, whos e works date from 1501 to 15 88 ; and the second exam ple disting uishing the books of the brot hers Paulum and Antoni um Meietos , who were printi ng books in 1570. F F

2 I8

Printers Marks.

T h e Ald ine family come at the head of the Ven etia n printers , not only in the extr eme beauty of thei r typog raph ical work, but also in the matte r of Mar ks. T h e first (and rare st) production of the founder of the dynasty, Aldus Manutius, 14 94 -1 515, was “ Musæ i Opusculum de Her one & Lea ndr o,” 1494, a small quarto, and his life’s work as a printer is seen in about 126 editio ns which


are known to have been issued by him. “ I have made a vow,” writes Aldus, in his prefa ce to the “ Gr eek Gram mar ” of Las cari s, “ to devot e my life to the public servic e, and God is my witness that such is my most arde nt desire . T o a life of ease and quie t I have prefe rred one of restl ess labour. Man is not born for pleasure , which is unworthy of the truly gener ous mind, but for honourab le labou r. L et us leav e to the vile herd the exi s­ ten ce of th e brutes. Cato has compared the life

Mark s in I tal y and Spain.

2 IÇ

of man to the tool of iron : use it well, it shines, ceas e to use it and it rus ts.” It was not until 1502 that Aldus adopted a Mark, the well-know n anchor, and this appear s for the first time in “ Le Te rze Rim e di D a n te ” (1 50 2) , which, bein g a duodecimo, is the first edition of Dan te in portab le form. Th is Mar k, and one or two others with very sligh t alte ratio ns which naturally occurred in the proces s of bein g re-en grav ed, was used up to


the year 1546 . In 1515 the original Aldus died, and as his son Paolo or Paulus was only three years of age, And rea Tor res ano , a distinguished prin ter of A sola, i nto whose possession the “ plant ” of Jen son had passed in 1481, and whose daughter married the first Aldus, carried on the business of his deceas ed son-in-law, the imprint running, “ In ædibus Aldi et Andr eæ Asula ni soce ri.” In 154 0 Paulus Manutiu s took over the entir e charg e of the business founded by his father. Th e Ancho r,


Pr in te rs M ar ks .

known as the “ Anc ora gra ssa ,” which he used from 154 0 to 1546, is more careful ly engraved but less char acte risti c than that of his fathe r ; whilst that which he used from 1546 to 1554 was usually but not invar iably surrounded by the decora tive square indicated in the accom pany ing reprod uc­ tion ; then he again modified his Mark, or more particula rly its border. Paulus Manutiu s died in

T H E A L D IN E AN CH OR , 1 5 0 2 -1 5 .

Apr il 1574. Aldus “ the youn ger,” 157 4-9 8, the son of Paulus and the last repr esen tativ e of the house, also used the anchor, the effect of which is to a gre at ext ent destro yed by the elabo rate coatof-arms gran ted to the family by the Em per or Max imili an. Aldus “ the y ounge r,’’was a precocious scholar, of the pedan t type, and under him the tradit ions of the family rapidly fell. He married into the emin ent Giu nta family of printers, and

Mark s in I tal y and Spain.

22 1

died at the age of 49 . T h e famous Mar k of the anchor had been sugg ested by the reve rse of the beautiful silve r medal of Vespasian , a specimen of which had been pres ente d to Aldus by his friend Cardinal Bem bo, the emin ent printer, adding the August an motto, “ F es tin a len te.” T he Mar k of

TH E A L D IN E AN CH OR , 1546-54.

the dolphin ancho r was used by many other printe rs in Italy , Fra nc e, Hollan d (Ma rten s, Era sm us’ printer, among the number ), whilst the “ Br itan nia ” of Camden, 1586, printed by Newbery, beari ng this distin ctive Mark, which was likewise employed by Pick erin g in the early part of the century ; and, as will be seen from the nex t chapter, is still employed by more than one printer.


Printers' Marks.

T h e Giun ta or Ju nt a family, member s of which were print ing at Flo ren ce and Ven ice from 1480 to 1598, may be conv enie ntly refer red to here. One of th e earl iest books in which the founder of the family, Filipp o, used a Mark , is “ Apulei i Meta morp hose os,” Flo ren ce, 15 12 ; our example,

T H E A L D IN E A N C H O R ,

1555-7 4.

which is identic al with tha t in Apuleiu s, is taken from ’07T7riaizou ‘A à u u t ix w iz (Opp iani de natura seu vena tione piscium), Flo ren ce, 1515, which was edited by Musurus. Fro m a typogr aphica l and art isti c point of view the books of Luca ntoni o Ju nt a (or Zonta ) are infinite ly superio r to those of Fili ppo . H e was both prin ter and engrav er, and many of the illustr ations which appear in the

Mark s in I tal y and Spain.


book s he printed were exec uted by him. His Mar k appeared as early as T495 in red at the end of an edition of Liv y which he appears to have exec uted for Philippus Pincius , Veni ce, and again in red, this time on the title-p age, in anoth er edition of the same author, done for Barth olom eus Ea ch of de Zanis de Port esio , Ven ice, 1511.

TH E ALD IN E ANC HOR , 1575-81.

thes e producti ons contai ned a large number of beautiful wo odcuts. Ea rly in the sixte enth c entury those “ vero honest i viri ” (as they modestly de­ scrib ed them selve s), Jac ob i and Fra ncis ci, were printi ng at Flo ren ce (“ et sociorum ei us ”), t he ac­ compan ying mark being taken from a comme ntary on Tho mas Aquina s, 1531. It will be noticed tha t in the three marks of different membe rs of

22 4

Print ers Marks.

the family the fle ur -de -ly s appears. Among the Venetian printers o f the beginning of the sixteenth century Johann es de Sabio et Frat res may be mentioned, if only on account of their Mark which is given herewith. Its explanation is cer­ tainly not obvious ; and Bigmore and Wyma n’s

suggestion that it is a punning device is not a correct one, whilst the statement that the cab­ bage is of the “ Sav oy” variety is also erroneous, for this variety has scarcely any stalks ; for “ Brasica ” we should read “ Brassi ca.” In 1534, “ M. Iwan Antonio de Nicolini de S abio ” printed “ Alas espesas de M. Zuan Batist a Pedreçan,” a

Mark s in I tal y and Spain.

22 5

rare and beautiful edition with woodcuts, and, in small folio, of “ Pr im ale on ” in Sp an ish ; and in 1535 Step han o da Sa bio issued a transl ation of “ La Conq uesta del Per u,” etc., of Fra nce sco de Xe res . Altho ugh not th e first print er either at C remona, where he starte d in 1492, or at Bres cia, where he



was printing from 1492 to 150 2 , Bernard ino de Missi ntis deserv es mention among the typograph ers of the fifteenth century . So far as regards the latte r place, the Mar k of Giamm aria Rizzardi, who was estab lishe d in this city during the latte r half of th e last century, is one of the most distinct, and was probably designed by Turb ini. Bonin o de Bonini s of Ragusa , was printing at Veni ce, 1478G G


Pri nte rs Mar ks.

1480 , at Vero na, 1481 -3, and afterwa rds removed to Bres cia, where he was print ing until about 1491. T h e earli est known book printed at Moden a (or Mut ine) is an edition of Virgi l, exec uted by Joh ann es Vu rst er de Campidon â, 1475 ; but one ■of the bes t known print ers of this city is Domi nico


Roco ciolo , or Richi zola, 1481- 150 4, who was in partne rship with Anto nio Miscom ini, 148 7-8 9. Prin ting was introd uced into Milan (Me dio la­ num) in 1469 or in the yea r following, and from the numerous pres ses estab lishe d in this cit y before the end of the -fift een th centu ry very many beaut i­ ful book s w ere issued. Gian Giacom o di Leg nano



Printer s Marks.

and his broth ers, whose highly decora tive Mark we reproduce, were w orking in this city from i 503 33 ; one of th eir most inte resti ng books is a Latin transl ation of the first edition (Vicen za, 1507) of the “ Paesi novam ente re trova ti, et Novo Mondo da Albe rico Vespu tio Flo ren tino intitu lato. ” Bologn a was also a busy printin g c entre from 1470 onwards ; but it must suffice us to give the monogram s of


thre e of the more noteworth y, namely, Herc ules Nanni, 14 92 -4 ; Giova nni Anto nio de Bene detti (or Joh ann es Anton ius Plato nide s de Ben edi ctis ), 1499, and Just inia n de Rub eria , 149 5-9 (see p. 25). T he Pri nte rs’ Mar ks of Spai n (includin g Po rtu ­ gal) need not detain us long. Th ey cannot in any case be descr ibed as othe r than archaic, and they are for the most part stri king on account of the coars eness of thei r design. A few exa mples are given in Fr ay Fra nci sco Men dez’s “ Ti pog rafi ca

Mar ks in I tal y and Spain.


Es pa no la, ” of which the first and only volume appear ed at Madrid in 17 96 ; and of which a second edition, corr ecte d and enlarg ed by Dio nisi o Hidal go, was publishe d at the same city in 186 1. As the latt er write r clear ly points out “ los del siglo X V ., y aun hast a la mitad del X V I. los mas eran estr anje ros, como lo demuestra n sus nombres y apellidos, y algun os lo declaran espre same nte en sus notas y esc udo s.” Th es e “ estra njero s ” were almo st withou t exce ptio n Germa ns. Va len cia (o r Va len tia Ede tano rum ) was the first place in Spa in into which the art of printin g was int roduce d ; the earl iest pri nters being A lfonso Fer nan de z de Cord ova and Lam bert Palomar (or Pal ma rt) a Germ an, whose names however do not appea r on any public ation (according to Cotton) ant eced ent to the yea r 1478. Although not the earl iest of the Se vi lle printe rs the four “ alemanes, y com pane ros,” Paulo de Colonia, Jua n Pegn icer de Nur emb erga , Mag no y T hom as, their com posite Ma rk is one of the first which appears on books printed in Spa in. It is of the cross type, with two circles, one within anothe r, the smaller divided into four compa rtmen ts, each of which encircles the initials of the four printer s, “ P ” (the lower part of which is con tinued so as to form an “ L ”), “ I M T .” Amon g other book s which they printed is the “ Vida s de los Var one s ilustres de Plut arco .” In 1495, Paulo de Coloni a appears to have left the partnershi p, for the Mark appeared with its inner circle divided into three compart ments in which the initials “ I M ” and “ T ” only appear. Th is firm continued printin g at Sev ille until the com-


Printers Marks.

Fed eric o men ceme nt of the sixte enth centurv. de Bas ilea (or, as his name appears in the imprints of his books, Fad riq ue Alem an de Basil ea) was busy p rintin g books at Burg os from the end of the fourte enth to the second decade of the fifteenth century ; his Mark, a cross rest ing on a V-sh aped


I ground, is a poor one, the motto bein g “ sine causa nihi l.” “ E n mushos libros de los que imprimió puso su escud o,” obse rves Mendez ; this prin ter posses ses an histor ic inte rest from the fact tha t he issued the first edition the unabridged “ Chro nicle of- the Cid,” 1512 — “ Cronic a del Fam oso Caual lero Cid Ru y Diez Campe ador,” a

Mark s in I tal y and Spain.


book of the gre ate st rarity. One of the early printe rs of Barc elona , Pedro Miguel, had a Mark , also of the cross type, the circl e surrou nding the

V. FE R N A N D EZ .

bottom of which is divided into three compa rt­ ments, in two of which occur his initials “ P M .” One of the most notew orthy names in the early annals of Spa nish printi ng is that of Juan de Ros emb ach de Hayd eller ich, who printed book s in Barc elona , 1493 -8, and again at the begin ning

Printers Marks.

23 2

of the sixt een th cen tur y; in Perpig nan, 15 00 ; in Ta rra go na, 1490, and in Mon tserr at. In 1499 he printed at Ta rra go na the famous “ M issal de aquel Arzob ispad o,” which Mendez declar es to be “ muy recom endab le por varia s circu msta ncias .” At Bar celo na he printe d in 1526 an edition of the “ O ficias de Cic ero. ” T he Mar ks o f t his printe r vary conside rably, but the exam ple here repro ­ duced may be regar ded as a rep rese ntat ive one. O f the early Lisb on printers , Val enti n Fern and ez “ de la Provi ncia de M or av ia” was proba bly the first to use a Mar k (her e reprod uced) , one of his publications being the “ Gl osa sobr e las Copias ” of Jo rg e Manrique, 1501.








4. M. HU GU NT.


____ a ___ löonooFtsa rrue-fnena




u ri n g the past few


years there has been a very evid ent revival in the Pr int er’s Mark as a modern device , but the intere st has much more largely obtained amon gpubl ishers than among printe rs. W e propose, there ­ fore, to include in this ch apter a few of the more i ntere sting exam ples of each class. On the score of anti quit y the Sta tio ner s’ . Company Founde d in 140 3— may be first menti oned. nearly thre e-q uar ters of a century before the in­ troductio n of prin ting — its first charte r was not receiv ed until May 4th, 1557> during the reign of Mary. T he numbe r of “ seditious and heretic al books, both in prose and ver se,” that were daily issued for the propag ation of “ very gre at and detes table here sies again st the faith and sound Catho lic doctrin e of Hol y Mot her the Churc h,” became so numerous, that the gove rnme nt were H H

2 34

Printers Marks.

only too glad to “ recog nize ” the Company, and to intrus t it with the most absolu te power. Th e char ter was to “ provide a proper remed y,” or, in othe r words, to chec k the fast -incr easin g number o f publica tions so bitt er in thei r oppositio n to the Court religion. But, stri nge nt and emphat ic as was this proclama tion, its effect was almost nil. On Jun e 6th, 1558, anot her rigorou s act was pub­


lished from “ our manor of St. Ja m es ,” and will be found in Str yp e’s “ E ccl esi ast ica l M em or ial s” (ed. 1822 , iii. part 2, pp. 130, 131 ). It had specific refe renc e to the illeg ality of seditiou s books im­ ported, and othe rs “ cove rtly printed within this realm ,” wher eby “ not only God is dishonoured, but also enco urag emen t is given to disobey lawful prince s and gov ern ors. ” Th is proclam ation de­ clar ed tha t not only those who possess ed such

Some Modern Exa mpl es.


bo ok s, bu t als o th os e wh o, on fin din g th em , do no t fo rth w ith re por t th e sa me , sh ou ld be de al t wi th as reb els . It will be s ee n, th er ef or e, ho w ea sy it was, in th e ab se nc e of an y fine de fin itio n, for bo ok s of w ha te ve r ch ar ac te r to be pr os cr ib ed . T h e re wa s no ap pe al ag ai ns t th e de cis io n of th e S ta ti o n er s’ H al l re pr es en ta ti ve s, wh o ha d th e po we r en tir el y in th ei r ow n ha nd s. A few m on th s af te r M ar y’s fut ile at te m p t a t ch ec ki ng t he f ree do m of t he p re ss , a di am et ric al ly o bj ec ti ve ch an ge oc cu rre d, an d wi th


E li za b et h ’s ac ce ss io n to th e th ro ne in No ve m be r, 1558, th e lic en se d st at io ne rs co nv en ie nt ly ve er ed ar ou nd an d w er e as in du st rio us in su pp re ss in g Ca th ol ic bo ok s as th ey ha d be en a few we ek s pr e­ vi ou sly in en de av ou ri ng to sta m p ou t th os e of th e T h e hi st or y of th e S ta ti on er s’ ne w re lig io n. Co m pa ny ho w ev er h as b ee n so fr eq ue nt ly to ld t h a t it ne ed no t be fu rt he r en te re d up on he re, an d it m us t suffic e us to sa y th at , af te r ma ny v ici ssi tud es, all th e pr iv ile ge s an d m on op oli es ha d be co m e ne ut ra liz ed by th e en d of th e la st ce ntu ry , till it


Printers Marks.

had nothin g le ft but the right to publish a common Lat in primer and almanac ks, and the right to the latt er monopoly was annulled after a memorable speec h of Erk sin e. Th e Compan y still continues to publish almanac ks, and uses the two Mark s or Arm s here reproduced . T he larg er examp le is the older, and is used on the County alman acks ; whilst the smalle r one is used on circu lars and notices. Of the existi ng firms of publish ers and printers, that o f Messr s. Long mans is the most memo rable ; vice the firm of Messr s. Rivi ngto ns, which has now become join ed to t hat of the Long man s. Th is gives us the opportunity to consi der briefly the Mark s of the two firms toge ther . In the year 17 11, Richa rd Chiswell, the print er of much of Dry den ’s poetry, died, and his busine ss passed into the hands of Charl es Riv ing ton , a nativ e of Chesterfield, Derb yshir e. Tho ugh tful and pious himself, Charles Riv ingt on threw him self with ardour into the trade for religiou s manuals, and not only succeed ing in persua ding Joh n We sle y to tran slate “ à K em pi s” for him, but also in publish ing the saintl y Bish op Th om as W ils on ’s “ Sh ort and Plain Intro ducti on to the Sac ram ent of the Lor d’s Sup per, ” the first edition of which bear s Char les Ri vi ng to ns name on the imprint, and which is still popular. T o the novelis t Rich ards on, he sugg ested “ Pa me la.” Dyi ng in 1742 , he left Sam uel Rich ards on as one of the exe cuto rs of his six children, but his sons, Joh n and Jam es, continue d to conduct the business. A few years later, it was deemed advis able for the

Some Modern Exa mpl es.


broth ers to separ ate, and while Joh n remained at the “ Bib le and Crow n,” St . Pau l’s Churchy ard, Jam es join ed a Mr. Pl etc he r in the same locality, and start ed afresh . One espec ially fortun ate ven­ ture was the publi cation of S mo lle tt’s continu ation of Hume, which brou ght its lucky publisher s upwards of / 10 ,0 00 , a larg er profit than had


previou sly been made on any one book. How­ ever, New mar ket had attra ction s for Jam es, and eventu ally disa ster set in ; he died in New Yo rk in 1802 or 180 3. His brother , meanwhile, had plodded on stead ily at home, and admitti ng his two sons, Fra nc is and Charles , into partnershi p. Abo ut this time there were numerous editions of the classics, the common propert y o f a syndica te of publishers, and it says much for Mr. Joh n Riv ing -


Printers Marks.

ton that he was appointe d manag ing partner. Ab out 176 0 he obtain ed the appoi ntmen t of pub­ lishe r to the So cie ty for Prom oting Christian Kno wled ge, a lucra tive post, held by the firm for upwards of two gen erati ons. By the year 1889, the two repr esen tativ es of this anci ent firm were Messr s. Fra nci s Hans ard Riv ingt on and Septi mus Rivi ngto n ; in this year the partn ership was dis­ solved, and the goodwill and stoc k were acquired Th ey used at various by Messrs . Longm ans. periods no less than eigh t Mar ks, the design of


which was in most cases based upon the ancie nt sign of their shop, “ Th e Bib le and Su n.” Th e history of Mes srs. Lon gma ns may be said to comme nce with the birth of Th om as Long man in 1699 . Th e son of a Bri stol gentl eman , he lost his father in 1708, and, eigh t years later, was apprenti ced, on Jun e 9, 171 6, to Mr. Joh n Osborn of Lom bard Str eet , Lond on. Hi s appren ticeshi p exp irin g (he had come into the possessi on of his prope rty two years earlie r), we find him, in 1724, purch asing from, his master, Joh n Osbor n (actin g with Wil liam Inny s as exec utor s), the stoc k in trad e of Wil liam Ta ylo r, of the Shi p and Bla ck Swa n in Pat ern ost er Row. Rea der s of Lo ng m an s

Some Modern Exa mp les.


M ag az in e turn to Mr. Andr ew La ng ’s genia l gossip, “ A t the Sig n of the Shi p,” without re-


calling the origin of the title. Hencef orward the Shi p carrie d the Long man fortunes as cargo, and


Printers Marks.

the prosp erity of the vessel is not yet ended. Mes srs. Long mans have used nearly a dozen Mar ks, all o f which have been sugges ted, like those of the Riv ingt ons , by the sign of t heir shop, which has now grown into a very im posing pile of buildings. O f thes e Mar ks we gi ve two of the most arti stic and inter estin g. As taki ng us back into a comp ara­


tive ly remote period in the histo ry of print ing and publis hing in Eng lan d, the Ma rk of the Clarend on Pres s, or, in othe r words, the arms of the Un ive r­ sity of Oxford, may be here cited. Th e “ Chisw ick Pre ss ” of Messr s. Whi tting ham and Co., is in seve ral resp ects a link with the long past, and, h avi ng been in e xis ten ce for more than a century , is one of the oldes t offices in Londo n. It


1 I


Printers' Marks.

has attain ed a world-wide cele brit y for the ex cel ­ lence of its work, the careful read ing and cor rection of proofs, and the appro priate applicat ion of its varied colle ction of ornam ents and initial lette rs. T he Chisw ick Pre ss was the first to revi ve the use of antiqu e type in 1843, f° r the print ing of “ Lad y Wil loug hby ’s D iary ,” publ ished by Mes srs. Lonpi nans. Sin ce tha t time its use has becom e universal. Th e founder, Char les Whi tting ham , was born on Jun e 16th, 1767, at Calledon, in Warw ick, and was appre nticed at Cov entry in 1779, working subs eque ntly at Birm ingha m, and then in London. He comm enced busine ss on his own accoun t in Fe tt er La ne in 179 0 ; and in 1810 he had removed to Chiswi ck, and sin ce tha t p eriod the firm has always been known as “ T he C hiswi ck Pre ss. ” In 1828 he bega n to exe cut e work for William Pick ering , the publisher , and his press quickly acquired an unriva lled reput ation for its collectio n of ornament al borders, head and tail pieces. Th e publisher Pick erin g, and the printe r Whit tingh am, had employe d abou t two dozen marks in their various books : the form er jus tly calling hims elf a discip le of Aldus, and using a large number of varia tions on the origin al Anc hor and Dolphin Mar k of the gre at Ven etia n printer. O f these we gi ve two examp les, one with, and one without a cartou che ; and also the mark of Basi l Mont agu Pick erin g, the son and succes sor of Wil liam Pick erin g. W e also reprodu ce three of the more strik ing Mar ks of the Chiswic k Press, the shield on one of which, it will be observed , carrie s the Ald ine Anc hor and Dolph in.







Printers Marks.

T he name of Casse ll take s us back to the era of Charl es Kn igh t and Joh n Cassell, and the inau­ guration of the noble results which thes e two pionee rs achiev ed on beh alf of cheap and healthy literat ure. Th e name of the former is no longer associ ated with eith er print ing or publishi ng ; but that of the latte r is still one of the most prolific firms of printer s and publis hers. Its Ma rk is u founded on the name of La Bel le Sa uv ag e”


Yard , Ludg ate Hill, in which the business has been located for a long series of years . Tw o Edin burg h print ers may be here con­ venie ntly refer red to. Mes srs. R. and R. Clark, whose busines s was star ted in Han ove r Str eet , Edin burg h, in 1846 , and remov ed to Brand on Str eet , in tha t city, in 1883 , a re well known for the exce llen ce of thei r printing . Mr. Aust in Dobs on thus sings, in Mr, Andre w La ng ’s Boo k on “ T he Lib rar y

Some Moder n Exa mp les.

2 45

“ 1 O f m akin g many boo ks, ’ ’twas said, ‘ Th ere is no e n d / and who there on Th e ever -run ning ink doth shed But proves the words of Solomon :

T. F IS H E R U N W IN .

Wher efore we now, for Colopho n, From Lo ndon’s City drea r and dark, In the year Eigh teen -eig hty- one, Re pri nt them at the press of Clark .”

Th e accomp anying Mark was designed by Mr.


Som e Mod ern Ex am pl es .


W alt er Cran e, and first used by Messrs . Clark in 1881. It is used in sever al sizes. O f the very handsome Mar k of Messr s. T . and A. Const able, the Qu een â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Prin ters, at the Uni vers ity Press , we may mention tha t the legen d is a hexa met er ; it was wri tten by Pro fess or Stro ng, and contain s two puns ; the ship is an old Cons table device. Th e


M O R R IS .

Mar ks of both Mes srs. Chat to and Windus (who succeeded to the busines s, starte d and carried on with such ener gy by the late Jo hn Camden Hot ten) and Mess rs. Macm illan and Co. (whose firm dates from the yea r 1843 ) are charact erized by the extr eme st possi ble simpli city. Th e finest of the sever al Mar ks used by Messr s. Geo rge Bell and Son s is given in two colours on


Some Modern Ex am ple s.


the title -pag e o f the pre sent volume, and is a play on the surname, the Aldi ne devi ce bein g added to the bell. An oth er exam ple will be found on pa ge 261. Mes srs. Ke ga n Paul, Tr en ch , Tr üb ne r and Co., Lim ited, origi nally a bran ch of the exte nsiv e An glo -In dia n firm of H. S. Ki ng and Co., first used the acco mpa nyin g devi ce in the autumn of 18 77 ; the drawing was exe cute d by Mrs. Orrin smith in acco rdan ce with Mr. Keg an Pau l’s sugge stions . Mes srs. Law ren ce and Bullen , like M essrs. Clark , called in the aid of Mr. Walt er Cran e in desig ning the ir charm ing little Mark. W e giv e two of the seve ral Mark s used by one of the most prolific of the younger publishers, Mr. T . Fi sh er Unwin , the one is simply his initials, and the more ela bor ate exam ple is a copy of a type not infr equ entl y met with among the marks of the six tee nth cent ury printers. Mr. David Nu tt’s devi ce is a quai nt and effective play on his surname . Th rou gh the court esy of Mr. William Morr is, we are enab led to give examples of both of the Ke lm sco tt Pre ss Marks , each of which was designed by Mr. Mor ris. As indi catin g the positio n of the printer ’s Mark in Ame rica, we group tog ethe r seven of the most inte resti ng exam ples of the leading printers and publish ers in the Un ited Sta tes . The eighth examp le is tha t of Mr. Marti nus Nijhoff, of the Hagu e ; the device , “ All es komt te re gt,” signifies “ All turns righ t,” o r some thing to that effect.

K. K









THE HAVEN OF HE AL TH : Chicfcly gather ed for the comfo rt o f Stu­ dents , and confcquently of all thofc th at haue a care of their health, amplified vpo nfi ue words o f ////»/><»cr4Zez, w ritte n £p td . 6 . L a b o r, C ib ut , 'Potio, Somnut, locutu : By iho ma j Coghau m af ter of Artes ,fit Bach eler o f P hificke . Her eun to it add ed aT re fe ru at io n from th eT ef ltl en ee , W ith a[hort Ce nfure o f the l ate fi ck le / at Oxf ord . Ealtfi tflittu, Ctf. yj. jo . By fur fet baue m an ic jx ri fl ie d : bur he th at diet eth him felfe pro lon ge th hi» life.

BI BL IO GR AP H Y. T he following books will be found helpful to those who wish to prosecute their studies further into the subjec t of the Prin ter’s Mark. Special information respecting the devices of the more eminent typographers, such as Plantin, Elzevir, and others, will be found in the monographs and bibliographies which have been com­ piled concerning these men and their works. H A V R E , G . VA N . Marques typographiques des im­ primeurs et libraires anversois, 2 vols. Avec plus de i o o o reproductions. Anv., 1884. H ei tz (P.) and B A R A C K (K. A.). Die Büchermarken oder Buchdrucke r und Verlegerzeichen. Elsässische Büchermarken bis Anfang des 18 Jahrhdts. Nebst Vorbemerkungen u. Nachrichten üb. d. Drucker. Mit 7b Holzschn. Tafel n. 4°* Strassburg, 1892. H ol tr op , J. W. Monuments Typographiques des Pays Bas au quinzième siècle. Fol. La Haye, 1868. H O R N E , R ev . T. H. Introduction to the Study of Bibliography. 8vo. London, 1814. H U M P H R E Y S , PI. N. Masterpieces of the Earl y Printers. Fol. London, 1870. I nv en ta ir e des marques d’imprimeurs et de libraires de la France. 4°. Paris, 1886-87. J ohn son , J. Typographia, 2 vols. London, 1824.


Printers Marks.

L ed ebo er , A dr ian Mar . Alfab etisc he lijst der Boekdrukke rs, Boekv erkoop ers en Uitgev ers in Nord Neder iand. Wit h 4 p lates of P rint ers ’ Marks. 4t o. Utre cht, 1876. LEMPERTZ, H ei nr ic h . Bilder Hefte zur Geschichte des Bücherh andels und der mit demselb en verwan dten Kün ste und Gewerbe. 11 Heft e mit 65 Taf., enthal t. Facs. Repro d. von Port raits berü hmt er Buchhän dler, auf den Buchhan del bezügl. Schriftst ücke, Initi alen , E x­ libris, Abbil den kuns tvoll er Einbä nde. Fol. Köln, 1853-65. L in d e , A. v. D. Geschicht e der Erfi ndun g der Buch­ druckerk unst. 3 Bde. 4°. 1886-87. Meer ma nn , G era rd . Origines typo grap hicæ , 2 vols. With 10 pL Prin ters’ Marks. 40. Hag. Com., 1765. Men de z , F ray F ran cisc o . Tip ogra phia espanola 0 historia de la introduccio n, propa gacion y progesos del arte de la i mpre nta en Espaha. Secon d editio n revised by D. Hidalgo . Madrid, 1861. O rl an di , P. A. Origin e Progr essi della Stam pa. 4°. Bolog. 1722. ROT H-S cilO LTZ , F. The saur us Symb olaru m ac Emblem atum, etc. Fol. Nüre mber g, 1730 (with repro ­ ductions of several hund red Marks). S ilv est re , L. C. Marqu es ty pog raph ique s ou recueil des monogrammes, chiffres, enseignes, etc., des libraires et imprimeur s qui ont exerc é en Fra nce depuis 1470, jus qu’à la fin du 16e siècle. Avec plus de 1300 fig. s. bois. Paris, 1853-67. T hi er ry -P oux , O. Prem ier Monum ents, etc., de l’imprimeu r en Fran ce au XV siècle. Fol. Paris, 1890. W eig el (T. O.) and Zest er ma nn (A. C. A.). Die Anfä nge der Dru cke rkun st in Bild und Schrift. An deren frühest en Erzeu gnisse n in der W eige’schen Sa mm ­ lung erlaü tert. Mit 145 F acs. u. viel. Holzschn. im Te xt. Folio. Leipz., 1866. 2 vols.

IN D EX . A BI EG NU S, J., 26. Ald ine family, Th e, 218223. Alex andre , j. , 13, 26. Allen , Joh n, 92. Andr ewe, W., 26, 65, 70. Angel ier, J., 27. Ansh elm, Tho ma s, 155, 156. Apiar ius, Mat hias , 7. App leto n and Co., 250. Ar but hno t, A., 81, 82. Aubr i, B., 14, 36. Auvray, G., 27. Auzolt, R., 26. Back, G., 188-190, Bade, C., 91. ------ J-, 12, US , 129Balan d, E., 22. Bap tista de Tor tis, 25, 215. Barack, Dr. K. A., 140. Barbon , H., 8. Barker, C. and R., 90. Barthol omæus, D., 47. Barth olom eus de Zanis, 25. Bassan dyne, T., 99. Baum garte n, C., 171. Beck, R., 49, 143, 144. Bellaert, Jacob us, 191, 195.

Bell (Geo.), and Sons, 247. Bene detti , G. A. de, 25, 228. Ben ede tto d’Effore, 25. Bentle y, R., 19. Berger, Thieb old, 150-151. Bern ardin o de Misintis, 25, 2 2 5Bern ardin us de Vitalibus, 25. Berrich elli, D., 25. Berth elet, T., 71. Bertoc hus, D., 25, 215. Bertram us, A., 29. Berwick and Smith, 251. Besicken , J., 210-211. Besson, J., 21. Bichon, G., 7. Bien- Né, J., 20. Bignon, J., 14. Birck mann, A., 162-163. Blades, W., 55. Blount , E., 87. Bocar d, A., 20. Bon inod eBo nini s, 25,225-256. Bouche r, N., 27. Bouc het, G., 21. ------J-, 21. Bouch ets Brothers, 12. Boulle, G., 34. Bounyn , B., 14.


Printe rs Marks.

Bourg eat, G., 27. Bouycr, J., 21. Bradshaw, Hen ry, 53. Breuille, M., 32, 33, 125. Brot hers of Comm on Life, 181. Brylinger , N., 176. Bumgart , Her man , 158-159. Burges, J., 22. Byddell, J., 72. Bynne man, IL, 85, 86. Cæsar, N., 161. Cæsaris, A., 189, 191. Caillaut, A., 3. Caligula de Bacileriis, 25. Calvarin, P., 14. Calvin, J., 174. Cartan dcr, see Crata nder . Cassell and Co., 243-4. Caxton, W., 53-57. . Cervicornis, Eucha rius, 159. César, P., 12. Chande lier, P., 7, 137-138. Charteris , H., 99. Cha tto and Windus, 243, 247. Chaudi ère, G , 27, 28. ------R. and G., 126. Chepma n, W., 95, 97. Chevall on, G., 22. Chiswick Press, The, 240-2. Chou et, J., 31. Chr isto phe r de Canibu s, 25. Clare ndon Press, The , 238, 240. Clark, R. and R., 244. Cleray, G., 32. Clope jau, M., 27. Cloqu emin, L., 12. Colines, see De Colines, S.Colomies, J., 137.

Colop hon, The , 49. Const able, T. and A„ 246-7. Copla nd, R., 67, 68. ------ W., 68. Corro zet, G., 32. Coute au, Gillet, 4, 103. Cox, T., 92. Cramoisy, S., 127. Cran ach, L., 170. Crane, Walter , 247, 249. Cra tand er, 44-45. Creed e, T., 90, 91. Cres pin, J., 20. Cush ing and Co., 250. Cyane us, L , 125. Dallier, J., 32. Davids on, T., 98. Day, Joh n, 78-80. De Bordea ux, J., 32. De Campis, J., 51. De Code ca, M , 25. De Colines, S., 14, 27, 118119, 120, 126. De Fra ncf ord ia, W., 25. De Gou rmo nt, G., 13, 118, 124. ------ J-, 21. ------ R., 27. De Ha mo nt, M., 27, 200. De la Barre, N., 26. De Laet, 30. Dela lain, Paul , 24. De la Nou e, D., 8. De la Port e, A. S. and H., I33-I 35------ H. and A., 66. De la Rivière , G., 8. De Ma rne f B rother s, The , 26, 106-107. Deni del, A., 21.

In de x. Deni s, J., 38. I)e Pfort zheim , Jac obus, 163, l6


De Sain cte- Luc ie, P., 14. De Salen son, G., 17. De Sartières, P., 14. Destre sius, J., 194. De Tou rne s, J., 29, 31, 133. ------S-, 25. De Vingle, 115, 232. De Vinne , Th., 151. De wes, R., 89. Dole t, E., 16, 132, 133. Dorp , R. van den, 188-189. Duff, E. Gor don , 62. Duls secker, J. R., 47, 50, I 53“ I 54Du Mon t, A., 8. Du Moulin , J., 6. Du Pré, Gallio t, 5. ------J., 26, 108, 136. ------ P., 22. Du Puys, J., 8, 10, 129. Eck ert de Ho mb erg h, H., 34. Egge stern , H., 139. Elzevirs, 17, 18, 205-208 . En dte r’s (W. E.) Daug hter, 167. Erasm us, 166, 18 1. Erpen ius, T., 49. Esti enne , Family , The , 100, 118-123. Eve, N., 8. Faqu es, W., 16, 62. Fawkes, R., 63. Fede rico de Basilea, 230. Ferna ndez , A., 229. ------ V., 231, 232. Feyr aben dt, J., 172.

2 57

Féza ndat , M , 14. Fou et, R., 32. Fra din . C., 36. ------ F., 26. Fran cfor dia, N. de, 215. Frel lon, J., 22. Frib urge r, M., 100, 101. Frit ag, A., 209-211. Fro hen , J., 42-44, 48, 58, 164-166. Frosc hove r, C., 71, 175. Fu rte r, M., 166. Fus t and Schoeffer, 40-42. Gering, U., 100, 10 r. Gerla or Gerlis, L., 25. Gibier, Eloy, 12. Gira rd, J , 173-174Giu nta Family, The, 222-225. Goes, M. van der, 187-188. Goltz, H., 57, 197. Gourm ont, see De Gourmo nt. Grafto n, R., ro, 74-76. Gran din, L., 18. Gran jon, R., 14. Graph eus, J., 194, 197. Gregoriu s, J. and G. de , 214. Grosii, The , 22. Groul ieau, E., 32. Grün inger , J., 140. Gryphi us, S., 6, 135, 136. ------Th e, 36. Guarin us, 73. Gueffier, J., 8. Guer bin, L., 172-173. Guillem ot, M., 32. Hall, Rowlan d, 84, 85. Hard ouy n, G., 18, 117. Ha rpe r Bros., 250. Harr ison, R., 89.



Printers Marks.

Ha uth , David, 152. Kin gsto n or Kyngst on, Felix, 88, 89. Heitz, P., 140. . Kno blou ch, J., 17, 91, 142. Hcll eniu s, M., 189, 191-192. Kob erge r, Anth ony, 167. Henr ici, H., 192, 194. Kob ian, Valen tin, 156. Hen ricp etri , 166. Koelhoeff, J., 159-160. Her emb ert, J., 131. Köp fel (or Cæpha læus), W., Hero lt, G., 210. Hesk er, H., 34. 17; I 45> t 46. Kra ntz, M., 100, 101. Hest er, A., 26, 70. Hille nius, M., 57. Holb ein, Hans , 42-45, 163. Hom berg h, H. Eck ert van, Lagac he, J. and A., 29. Lam bert , J., 14, 26. 188. Lam part er, N., 166. Hovii, J. M., 201-202. L’Angelier, A., 10. Huby , F., 34. Hug ueta n, Th e Brother s, 17, Laur ens, Le Pet it, 34. Law rence and Bullen, 243. 49. ’ Le Bret, G., 36. ------ K 26. Leco q, Jeh an, 6, 7, 137. Hug unt, M., 232. Leeu, G., 184-186. Husz, M., 26. ------N ., 184. “ Inv enta ire des Marque s d’ Le For estie r, J., 21. Imp rime urs,” 24. Legn ano, G. G., 226-228. ------ J. A., 232. Jacob i, P., 29. Le Jeu ne, M., 20. Jagg ard, Isaac and William, Le Noir, Miche l, 3, 13, 109. 87, 88. ------P. and G., 4, n o . Jan ot, W., 14, 15, 107, 129. Le Preux , F., 177. Jans sens , G., 208. ------ J-, 12. Jen son , N., 213. ------Po nce t, 36. Joh ann es de Spira, 211. Le Roug e, P., 109. Jove , M., 8. Le Tal leur , G., 26. Juc und us, J., 29. Lie chte nste in, P., 215. Jugge, R., 80, 82. Lip pin cot t and Co., 251. Lockw ood and Co., 250. Juli an, G., 8. Ju nta , see Giun ta. Longis , J., 14. Jus tini an de Rub eria, 25, 228. Lon gma n and Co., 233, 237 i 240. Losle in, P., 48, 213. Kallier gos, Z., 211, 232. Lott er, Melchi or, 169, 170. Kerve r, T., 7, 34, i n , 115. Lynne , W., 52, 83. Keyse re, see Cæsaris.

Inde x.


Macé, B., 36. Oglin, Erh art, 163-164. Olivier, J., 23. ------R-, 13------ Famil y, Th e, 108. Orwin, T., 30. Macm illan and Co., 243. Mad den, J. P. A., “ Lett res ,” 5 7. Magn o, 229. Paffraej, Albert us, 183-184. Maillet, J. and F., 5. ----- - Rich ard, 184. Mainyal, G., 101. P al omar, L., 229. Mallar d, O., 14. Pan nart z, A., 209. Maniliu s, G., 32. Pau lo de Colonia, 229. Mansi on, Cola rd, 181. Paul (Keg an) and Co., 243, Mar chan t, G., 29, 106. 249. Mar nef, see De Marne f. Pavie r, T., 10, 12. Martin d’Alost, T., 180, 210, Pegn icer, J., 229. 21 1. Pepwel l, H., 63, 189. Mar tin, L., 34. Pere grino de Pasqu alibus , 25, 2 I 5Meer, J. J. van der, 186. Meieto s, P. and A., 217. Périer , T., 27. Peti t, J., 6, 9, 112, 115. Men telin , J., 139. Mid dle ton , W., 76-77. Pfortzh eim, see De P fortzheim . Pic art, B., 46. ------ H.. 252. Picke ring, W., 239, 242. Miguel, P., 26, 231. ------B. M., 239, 242. Miscom ini, A., 226. Pigou chet, 97, 112, 113. Mitt elhus , G., 26. Pinciu s, P., 223. Morel, G., 17, 38. ' Pine, J., 46. Morin, M., 137. Pinzi, P., 25. Morris, William , 247-91. Plan tin, C., 203-205. Moul in, J., 97. Polla rd, A. W., 48. Müller, Craft, 147, 148, 149. Fort unar is, V., 22. Myllar, A., 6, 95, 96. Prevo steau , E., 17. Pri nte rs’ Marks : punning de­ Nani, H., 25. vices, 3, 10 ; mottoe s from Neob ar, C., 20. sacred history, 8; print ing Nijhoff, M., 251. press, 12; mottoe s, 13; Nivelle, S., 14, 126, 128, 129, T 3°. Heb rew and Greek mottoes , 17 ; the Sphere, 17, 207 ; Noir, see Le Noir. the Brazen Serpen t, 20; Nort on, W., 88, 252. Balaa m’s Ass, 22 ; Christ Notary , J., 61-62. on the Cross, 22 ; St. Ch ris­ Nourry, C. 14. topher, 22 ; Saints and Nu tt, David, 243.

2Ó 0

Printers Marks.

Priests , 23 ; Th e Cross, 2326 ; St. Georg e and the Dragon , 26; Tim e and Peac e, 27 ; musical notes, 29 ; rustic subject s, 29 ; the Corn ucopi a, 30 ; the Unico rn, 32-3 4; the Grif­ fin, 35 ; the Merm aid, 36 ; the Ancho r, 37 ; Angels, 37 ; Arion, 37 ; Beller o­ phon, 37 ; astrolog ical signs, 37 ; Cat, 3^ ) Eagle, 38 ; Port une, 38, 44 ; Fou ntain , 38 ; Hea rt, 38 ; Hercul es, 38 ; Lion, 38 ; Magpie, 38 ; Mercury, 38 ; Pelic an, 38 ; Phoenix, 39; Salama nder, 39; Swan, 39. Psalt er, Th e Mentz, 41. Pynson, R., 59-61. Rastel l, J., 36. Ratd olt, E., 162, 212-214. Régn ault, F., 75, 103-105. ------P-, i°5 Rem bolt, B., 17, 26, 101, 102. Reynes , J., 16. Ricci, B., 25. Richa rd, J., 34. ------T., 29. Riga ud, B., 14. Rihel, Wend elin, 150. Rivery, J., 174. Rivi ngto ns, The , 235-8. Rizzardi, G., 225, 228. Rocco ciola, D., 25, 226. Roce , D., 4, 14, 66. Rod t, Ber thol d, 163. Roffet, J., 29, 30. ------Fa mily, The , 125.

Rose, Germain, 4.

Rose mbac h, J ., 26, 230, 231-2. Rot h-S cho ltz’s “ T hes aur us,' 7 24. Rub eus de Valen tia, L., 25, 215. Ryver d, G., 22. Sabio Broth ers, The, 224-226. Sacer, J., 25. Sacon, J., 26, 73. Schäffeler of Bodens ee, 22. Schauf elein, Han s, 155, 156. Scher, Con rad, 152. Schöm berg, W., 25. Schot t, M. and J., 141. Schultis , E., 32. Schu man n, V., 170-171. Scolar, J., 93, 94. Scott, or Skott, J., 66. Scotto, O., 25, 214-215 . Sergent, P., 18. Sessa, M. 217-218. Siber ch, J., 94, 95. Silvius, G., 22. Single ton, Hugh , 82, 83. Sixtus Ries sing er, 210. Snellaer t, C., 34, 35, 186. Somaschi, Th e, 25. Soter, Joh ann , 161-162. St. Alban s Press, The , 54-56. Stade lberg er, J., 172-173. Stagnin us, B., 25, 215. Sta tion ers ’ Compa ny, The, 233-6Steels, J., 19, 191. Steinsc hawer, Adam, 173. Suard o, L., 25. Sweynheim, C., 209. Tardi f, A., 8. Tem pora l, J. 14, 27.

Index. Th ann er, J., 139, 171. Th er Ho ern en, A., 24, 157, 159, i 8 3Tho mas , 229. Titl e-pa ge, Th e First, 48. Ton son , J., 94. Top ie, M., 131. Torr esan o, A., 219. Tory, Geoffrey, 14, 117-118. Tot teil , R., 85. Tou rnes , see De Tou rnes . Tre ppe rel, J., 21. Tre sch el, J., 25, 115, 132. ------T he Brot hers , 17. Trev eris, P., 64. Unw in, T. F., 243, 245. Van den Kee re, H. 195, 198. Van der Noo t, T., 194, 196. Van Ho mb erg h, H. E., 188. Vautrol lier, T, 7, 73, 75. Vel den er, J., 178. Velpius, Rut ger , 200. Véra rd, A., 21, 102. Vidoue , P., 17, 124. Vinc ent, Simon, 34, 51.


Vin deli nus de Spira, 213. Vitali bus, B. de, 215. Von Andla u, G., 1, 32, 146. Vostre , S., 102, 103, m , 112. Vur ster de C ampid onâ, J., 226. Waesb erghe, J., 199. Walt hoe, J., 92. Ware, R., 92, 93. Wéchel , A .a nd C .,31, 125-127. Weisse nburger , J., 167-169. Whi tchu rche , E., 75. Whit tingh am, Messrs., 240-2. Wight, or Wyghte, J., 83, 84. Wind et, J., 82. Wolfe, R., 20, 77, 86. ------John, 77, 78. Woodco ck, T., 10, 86, 87. Wyer, R., 68. Wynkyn de Worde, 51, 57-59, 67. Zainer, G., 41, 162. Zanis, Barthol omeus, 215. Zell, Ulric, 157, 178. Zetzner , L., 151, 152.



BY THE SAME AUTHOR. H IS T O R Y O F E N G L IS H E A R L IE R THE B O O K S E L L IN G . Crown 8vo. Sampson Low and Co. 1889. C H R I S T I E â&#x20AC;&#x2122;S : A C ha pt er in th e H is to ry of Ar t. [Az the Press.











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Printers' Marks (W. Roberts, 1893)  

The book was published by George Bell & Sons (1893). Octavo, 261pp. Well illustrated history of the printers' mark in England and in contin...

Printers' Marks (W. Roberts, 1893)  

The book was published by George Bell & Sons (1893). Octavo, 261pp. Well illustrated history of the printers' mark in England and in contin...