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SPRING FINISHES? Flashback: Concerning Spring Finishes 30 Is Plating a FourLetter Word? 33 Color Coatings 41 The Danger in Attempting to Rescue Rusty Springs 41 When Pre-Plated Wire is a Good Choice for Springmakers 43

A Publication of the Spring Manufacturers Institute / Vol. 58, No. 2

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President’s Message From Steve Kempf

Details Add Up to Excellence Yesterday, I overheard my wife speaking to our daughter who was finishing up a homework assignment: “God is in the details,” she said. “Your mom’s right,” I said, “except the expression is actually ‘the devil is in the details.’” After some heated exchange, we retreated to our trusty Wikipedia to learn that the two phrases were common, related and had similar meanings, but were applicable in different circumstances. As I reflected on the theme of Springs magazine before you, I realized that both phrases are appropriate for spring finishing. As one of the last, if not the very last, of the details in the spring manufacturing process and one that is often outsourced, it is no surprise that the “finishing” of springs is not given the attention it deserves. And having had electroplating, powder coating, ultrasonic cleaning, passivation, and many other such processes within Lee Spring’s facilities, I know that the finishing processes themselves have critical particulars not to be overlooked. The devil is in the details. In other words, ignore the details at your own peril. The idea here is that details are important because there are hidden nuances or complexities in the finer elements that, if not given proper effort or attention, might lead to problems. Broken springs from hydrogen embrittlement, mixed lots from a batch finishing process and premature failure from poor shot peening are just a few devils that have come back to haunt me. God is in the details. Put another way, the path to excellence lies in the details. There is a higher-level reward that will come from meticulous and thorough attention to the seemingly trivial task at hand. Satisfying a longtime customer by solving assembly issues with color coding and winning new business by adding a process to give significantly longer spring life come to mind as gratifying results from recent efforts. Finishing can add significant value to end users: improving resistance to corrosion (via passivation, plating, powder coating or e-coating), adding fatigue life (through shot peening, electropolishing or tumbling), or aiding identification (by color coding), or just enhancing cosmetic appearance through these or other processes. Together, it is the details that distinguish one business from another, one product from another. It is the many finer points of springmaking — through to finishing — that add up to quality. It is the details that add up to excellence.

Steve Kempf Lee Spring

SMI Executive Committee President: Steve Kempf, Lee Spring Vice President: Bert Goering, Precision Coil Spring Secretary/Treasurer: Dan Sceli, Peterson Spring At Large: Gene Huber, Jr., Winamac Coil Spring Past President: Mike Betts, Betts Company Executive Director: Lynne Carr, SMI

SMI Board of Directors Kelley Christy, Diamond Wire Spring • Dave Deerwester, The Yost Superior Co. • David DeVoe, Plymouth Spring • Joe Devany, Betts Company • Chris Fazio, Diamond Wire Spring • Linda Froehlich, Ace Wire Spring & Form • Ritchy Froehlich, Ace Wire Spring & Form • Brett Goldberg, International Spring • Agustin Estalayo Ibanez, RPK Mexico SA de CV • Don Jacobson III, Newcomb Spring • Don Lowe, Peterson Spring • Peter Mendel, Kern-Liebers USA • Tony Pesaresi, Winamac Coil Spring • Daniel Pierre III, JN Machinery • Chris and Jeff Wharin, Bohne Spring

Springs Magazine Staff Lynne Carr, Advertising Sales, Gary McCoy, Managing Editor, Dina Sanchez, Assistant Editor, Sue Zubek, Art Director,

Springs Magazine Committee Chair, Don Jacobson III, Newcomb Spring • Reb Banas, Stanley Spring & Stamping • Lynne Carr, SMI • Ritchy Froehlich, Ace Wire Spring & Form • Bud Funk, Fourslide Products • Brett Goldberg, International Spring • Tim Weber, Forming Systems • Europe Liaison: Wolfgang Herrmann, VDFI • Technical Advisor: Dan Sebastian, Honorary Member Advertising sales - Japan Ken Myohdai, Sakura International Inc. Head Office: 3F・4F ENDO Sakaisuji Bldg., 1-7-3, Bingomachi, Chuo-Ku, Osaka 541-0051, Japan Phone: 81-6-6624-3601 • Fax: 81-6-6624-3602 Tokyo Global Office: 5F Kamei No. 2 Bldg., 2-17-13, Kiba, Koto-Ku, Tokyo, 135-0042, Japan Phone: 81-3-5646-1160 • Fax: 81-3-5646-1161 E-mail: Advertising sales - Europe Jennie Franks, Franks & Co. 63 St. Andrew's Road Cambridge United Kingdom CB41DH Phone/Fax: +44-1223-360472 E-mail: Advertising sales - Taiwan Robert Yu, Worldwide Services Co. Ltd. 11F-B, No 540, Sec. 1, Wen Hsin Rd. Taichung, Taiwan Phone: +886-4-2325-1784 • Fax: +886-4-2325-2967 E-mail: Springs (ISSN 0584-9667) is published quarterly by SMI Business Corp., a subsidiary of the Spring Manufacturers Institute: 2001 Midwest Road, Suite 106, Oak Brook, IL 60523; Phone: (630) 495-8588; Fax: (630) 495-8595; Web site Address all correspondence and editorial materials to this address. The editors and publishers of Springs disclaim all warranties, express or implied, with respect to advertising and editorial content, and with respect to all manufacturing errors, defects or omissions made in connection with advertising or editorial material submitted for publication. The editors and publishers of Springs disclaim all liability for special or consequential damages resulting from errors, defects or omissions in the manufacturing of this publication, any submission of advertising, editorial or other material for publication in Springs shall constitute an agreement with and acceptance of such limited liability. The editors and publishers of Springs assume no responsibility for the opinions or facts in signed articles, except to the extent of expressing the view, by the fact of publication, that the subject treated is one which merits attention. Do not reproduce without written permission. Cover art: ©

2 / SPRINGS / Spring 2019

“You’re Invited.”


WAFIOS is proud to announce the 12th edition of its popular In-House exhibition in Wuppertal, Germany, where we will present numerous world premieres on more than 15,000 square feet of exhibition space.* • Separate halls for our wire and tube solutions • World premieres of the FMU 20, F2 Ultra, and F 30 • Also on demonstration: FMU 32 with UR robot and DOP unit, FTU 2.5 with insulation stripping device, FUL 16, FUL 36, and FUL 76 • WAFIOS proprietary technologies, including solutions and automation possibilities • Specialist lectures on E-Mobility, Smart Factory, and New Spring Technologies • Numerous co-exhibitors, partner companies and technologies • Detailed information and registration at (Eng./Ger. versions) *Exhibition program subject to alterations. Please, refer to web site for current information.

FMU 20 Technical Data Wire dia. Bend-back clearance (max.) Stroke, vertical table Stroke, linear unit Stroke, slide Infeed speed (max.) CNC axes upgrade (max.)

0.4 - 2.0 75 +60 / -100 320 54 120 24

mm mm mm mm mm m/min

.016 - .079 2.9 +2.4 / -3.9 12.6 2.1 394

in in in in in ft/min


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Wire Straightening, Cutting & End Working Machines

Tube Bending & Forming Nail, Fastener & Chain Machines Machines

Contents FEATURES 28 What’s New in Spring Finishes?


By Gary McCoy

30 Flashback

Concerning Spring Finishes

33 Is Plating a Four-Letter Word? By Raquel Chole

41 Color Coatings

By John Higgins

41 The Danger in Attempting to Rescue Rusty Springs By Jason Sicotte


43 When Pre-Plated Wire Is a Good Choice for Springmakers

The Need for Discipline: Misbehavior or Lack of Supervision? By Laura Helmrich-Rhodes

23 Dean of Springs

Magazine Springs Design Calculations By Dan Sebastian

27 Technically Speaking

ASTM Spring Standards By C. Richard Gordon

DEPARTMENTS 2 President’s Message

Details Add Up to Excellence

7 Global Highlights

46 Robust Educational Program Highlights 2019 eXpo in Pittsburgh

14 Regional Spring Association Report

50 What’s the First Line of Defense Against Cyber Criminals and Data Theft? It’s Called the Secure Internet Gateway

59 Springmaker Spotlight

52 Manufacturing Day 2019: Time to Put Your Plan Together 54 Controlling Residual Stress and Retained Austenite for Better Spring Life

4 / SPRINGS / Spring 2019

19 Be Aware Safety Tips

By Don Jacobson III

By Michael Mayes



Adapting to Demand Allows ThirdGeneration Business to Thrive By Fran Eaton

63 Book Corner 65 CTE News 67 Inside SMI 71 Committee Connection

By Beth Snipes, Will McAlexander, Dan Klawonn

73 New Products

57 Lee Spring Celebrates 100 Years

76 Snapshot

75 Advertisers’ Index David B. DeVoe, Plymouth Spring


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Global Highlights North America Jason Lay, vice president of engineering and safety team co-leader at The Yost Superior Co., was elected the 2018 Annual Safety Leader of the Year by the Springfield Clark County (Penn.) Safety Council. Lay was nominated by Mike Walsh, safety team co-leader at Yost. The following is a portion of the nomination letter:  “Jason has worked with The Yost Superior Co. for 25 years as both an engineer and safety advisor/team leader. He has a wealth of knowledge about machine guarding, OSHA standards, as well as reporting and accident investigation. Jason leads our monthly safety meeting where we address topics of concern to the company as well as OSHA updates and new advances in the safety industry. He takes part in a quarterly audit with the safety team in order to get out on the shop floor and address any issues that may arise and to provide an extra set or two of ‘safety conscious’ eyes. Overall, he has been an excellent leader and positive and helpful mentor to many here at The Yost Superior Co. We have seen a steady decrease in our injury rate since we re-established the Safety Team back in 2013 and haven’t had a lost time injury since 4/7/2015. Jason has been a steady force and encouraging leader to our workforce and an excellent example for our employees to look up to. While our safety team has only been re-established for the last few years, Jason has been the man entrusted with the mantle of safety for the last 25 years. In the ever changing and evolving workplace Jason has worked tirelessly to keep us up to date on many new changes such as the GHS switch, OSHA going to the digital 300 log reporting, and many other general safety practices. Jason has taken many courses over the years to increase his safety knowledge and to share them with his peers in the workplace. A few examples are first aid training, OSHA recordkeeping, machine guarding as well as countless webinars on safety topics ranging for SDS and Hazcom to OSHA’s top 10 most cited violations. Jason has shown a consistent pattern of always continuing to grow his safety knowledge to help inform our fellow employees in order to keep them safe and help them go home safely every night to their families.” Fox Valley Spring Co., LLC in Greenville, Wisconsin, is proud to announce that they are celebrating 30 years of custom spring and wireform manufacturing. The company’s humble beginnings started with just three employees and one coiling machine. Today, they have

Justin Hayes (left), chairman of the Springfield Clark County Safety Council Steering Committee, presents Yost’s Jason Lay (right) with the 2018 Annual Safety Leader of the Year award.

more than 80 associates operating in a 78,000 sq. ft. facility with advanced CNC spring and wireforming machines, along with a state-of-the-art grinding room. Customers experience benefits including 10-piece minimum orders, in-house design support, flexible stocking programs and rapid quote response. Fox Valley Spring’s quality system is certified to the ISO 9001 standard, encompassing the entire operation and ensuring a consistent level of quality in production. A key component of this system is the utilization of Statistical Process Control (SPC) on every production order. The Wire Association Inter­­national (WAI), Inc. announces the appointment of W.T. Bigbee as president of the association for a one-year term that commenced Jan. 1, 2019. Bigbee will serve as chairman of the board of directors and as the 66th president of the 89-year-old association, which is headquartered in Madison, Connecticut. A 31-year veteran in the wire industry, Bigbee joined WAI in 2011. In addition to his role as WAI president and his forthcoming second term on the association’s board of directors, Bigbee will serve on its conference programming committee, exhibition planning committee and oversight committee. Bigbee is vice president of operations at Encore Wire Corporation. His current role includes the oversight of technical and production operations and the development of new products and services. During his 21-year tenure at SPRINGS / Spring 2019 / 7

Global Highlights

Encore, he has served as director of technical operations and product engineering, plant manager and quality control, and process engineering manager. The Wire Association International, Inc. is governed by a network of volunteers from around the world. Joining Bigbee for the 2019 term will be members of the assoW.T.Bigbee ciation’s 2019 executive committee: first vice president, Jan Sørige, Enkotec Co. Inc.; second vice president, Tom Heberling, Southwire Co. LLC; executive committee members, Daniel Blais, Prysmian and James R. York, Insteel Industries; and immediate past president, Richard T. Wagner, Insteel Wire Products. Admiral Steel celebrates its 70th anniversary this year. Skilled craftsmen continue to rely on Admiral to deliver a wide range of high carbon, alloy, and specialty steels that meet tough quality standards, including aircraft-quality and AMS specs. Admiral Steel supplies specialty carbon steels, and offers a full array of processing services, including slitting, shearing, reflattening, edge conditioning, blanking, deburring and custom cut-to-length capabilities.

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Mark Tolliver, president of Admiral Steel, stated, “Providing unique steel solutions has been our focus from day one. Seventy years on, it is sharper than ever. We are deeply grateful for our customer relationships and the opportunity to be a trusted supply chain partner to a wide assortment of manufacturers.” Hines Corporation has transferred ownership of Michigan Spring & Stamping, LLC to KERN-LIEBERS. Michigan Spring and Stamping is now a member of KERNLIEBERS North America within the globally operating KERN-LIEBERS Group of Companies. KERN-LIEBERS is a global supplier for systems vendors to the automotive, textile and consumer goods industries. The group develops and manufactures precision products of the highest quality made from steel strip, wire, plastic composites and special materials at more than 50 operative subsidiaries worldwide. From their headquarters in Muskegon, Michigan, Michigan Spring & Stamping manufactures a wide range of technical springs, assemblies, precision stampings and wireforms used in a variety of industries, including medical, automotive, recreation, industrial and more. Together with KERN- LIEBERS, Michigan Spring will continue moving forward under the leadership of its president, Tim Zwit.

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8 / SPRINGS / Spring 2019

Global Highlights

“Watching this company develop and prosper over the past eleven years into a globally recognized leader of our products has been a positive force in our community,” said Larry Hines, president of Hines Corporation. “I am so proud of this team, the technical support staff and the manufacturing talent. It has been a privilege to have been a part of the organization for over a decade.” Hannes Steim, managing director of KERN-LIEBERS, said, “I’m very excited that Michigan Spring & Stamping is joining the KERN-LIEBERS Group. The company is well established and has been known in the industry for many years. I welcome the whole team into the KERN-LIEBERS Group and look forward to growing the business further with the leadership of the current management team.” Zwit added, “Michigan Spring & Stamping is excited to become part of the KERN-LIEBERS family of companies. We have a proud history of providing technical products to our multinational customer base out of three global locations. “Under the KERN-LIEBERS Group, the opportunities to service our customers by expanding our product capabilities, manufacturing technology and plant locations will help maintain and improve our business for the future.” The takeover by the globally operating KERN-LIEBERS group allows Michigan Spring and Stamping to make use of international growth opportunities and will open up new markets. At the same time, existing jobs and the company’s headquarters will be kept as a solid basis for future growth. “I look very much forward to work with the team of Michigan Spring and Stamping to leverage our synergies, and further expand the product portfolio on both sides,” says Peter Mendel, president and CEO of KERN-LIEBERS North America. Michigan Spring and Stamping has partnered with OEMs for 70 years, specializing in powertrain and transmission applications. Today, the company manufactures a wide range of technical springs, assemblies, precision stampings and wireforms. The company’s clients are from a variety of industries, including medical, automotive, recreation, industrial and more. Michigan Spring and Stamping is headquartered in Muskegon and also has operations in El Paso, Texas and Wuxi, China.

Obituaries Arata “Al” Kabeshita, 84, died Feb. 14, 2019, at Florida Hospital in Daytona Beach, surrounded by his loving family. He was born Aug. 19, 1934 in Shenyang, China to his Japanese parents Magoichi and Shigeko Kabeshita. After World War II, his family moved back to Japan and settled in the city of Nagoya. He excelled at academics and sports in his youth and was the captain of the basketball team at Asahigaoka High School; he went on to study business at Meiji University in Tokyo, Japan, becoming the first college graduate of his family in 1957. Upon graduation, Kabeshita started his career in international trade, which took him to Okinawa and Hong Kong. As he approached his late twenties his father introduced

him to Michiko “Michy” Matsuda, and they were married March 23, 1963. They began their life together in a small apartment in Tokyo where their daughter, Yoshie and son, Miko were born. After several years, he was rewarded for his work ethic and business abilities and was chosen by his company to open a branch of Sanko Trading Co. in Chicago in 1967. The family followed him to Chicago in 1968, where their second son, Yutaka, was born. Kabeshita decided to strike out on his own, becoming an entrepreneur and founding two companies, Riken Spring, Inc. (Now ARK Technologies, Inc.) and Altak Inc. in 1980. Always one to do the unexpected, Kabeshita became a private pilot in 1981 to more efficiently travel to his customers and he expanded his businesses quickly. ARK Technologies was founded in St. Charles, Illinois in 1993 and Kabeshita and Michy became Wayne, Illinois residents in 1994. He was president and CEO, then chairman of ARK and Altak until 2015. Al and Michy became U.S. citizens in 1998, and he was awarded “The Order of the Rising Sun” by the Emperor Akihito of Japan in 2010 in recognition of his accomplishments to promote business and community relations between Japan and the United States. Kabeshita was an active member of Baker Memorial United Methodist Church in St. Charles, and was involved in the Japanese Chamber of Commerce, serving as a director and advisor. In addition to getting a private pilot license, Kabeshita was an avid golfer, enjoyed boating, traveled the world, taught himself to play the violin, wrote his autobiography and was a sports enthusiast. He leaves his legacy of living the American Dream to all that were fortunate to know him. He is survived by his devoted wife Michy, daughter Yoshie (Brian), sons Miko (Tracy), Yutaka (Tomo) and 8 grandchildren—Natalie, Emily, Lena, Julia, Joe, Ann, Mae and Ken. Services were held in St. Charles; contributions may be made in memory of Kabeshita to Baker Memorial United Methodist Church, 307 Cedar Avenue, St. Charles IL 60174. Longtime CASMI member Virgil Ellis Knowland, 77, of Palatine, Illinois and Nokomis, Florida, died Feb. 28, 2019 surrounded by his family. Knowland was the beloved husband of Dorothy, nee Bilik for 56 years; proud father of Patricia Knowland, Gary (Lori) Knowland, Karen (Matt Golin) Knowland; loving brother of Marianna (Carl) Woodall and brother-in-law of Gwen Jacobs, Col. Robert (the late Lorri) Bilik, Edward (Mary) Bilik, Stanley (Natalie) Bilik and the late Sharon Bilik; and the cherished uncle of many nieces and nephews. He was preceded in death by his infant daughter Pamela. Knowland was the co-founder of High-Life Products, Inc. and was a former member of the Shriners Big Wheel Unit. Donations in Knowland’s memory may be made to Shriners Hospital for Children, 2211 N. Oak Park Ave., Chicago, IL 60707. Services were held; visit Knowland’s memorial at

SPRINGS / Spring 2019 / 9

Global Highlights

International Market-foresight advisory firm ABI Research has found that the adoption of smart manufacturing technologies is growing in almost all industries within the leading manufacturing countries such as the United States, Japan and Germany, and the automotive industry has been a pioneer for most technologies in each of them. “The automotive industry has been a pioneer in adopting many transformative technologies because it has more of a need and a demand to increase flexibility and agility,” explained Pierce Owen, principal analyst at ABI Research. These technologies include additive manufacturing (AM), artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML), augmented reality (AR), and collaborative robotics (cobots), as well as Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) platforms. Some of the leading automotive original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) including Audi, Volkswagen (VW), Ford, Honda, Daimler, and BMW have at least piloted and, in some cases, have scaled these technologies. In terms of overall automation, while most industries have automated 20 to 30 percent of their operations, the automotive industry has automated closer to 50 percent. This has resulted in more real-time operational data made available to automotive OEMs and their suppliers. Some of

the OEMs use the 3D printers for customized or low-volume production parts, a trend in line with demand for more customized, low-volume batches. Smart manufacturing vendors targeting automotive have already seen a surprising amount of progress. Dassault Systèmes has Honda North America using DELMIA to design and simulate its plant floors before building them, and works with Cummins on the execution side. Telit also works with Honda North America, connecting its equipment. In addition, Telit works with BMW as a client in its factories in Africa and the United States and has Ford as a client with factories spread around the globe. EOS sells 3D printers to BMW, Audi and Daimler, and Universal Robots sells cobots to 90 percent of all the OEMs, and even more to suppliers. But, to meet and exceed the complex demands of the automotive industry and scale adoption, smart manufacturing technology vendors need to understand the unique automotive industry challenges, offer solutions with obvious business cases and have a stakeholder management strategy for all involved parties. “As in many other industries, automotive manufacturing faces the challenges of bridging the gap between IT and OT and providing low-code or no-code tools for content creation, app development and logic configuration,” Owen explained. “Technology vendors targeting the automotive manufacturing industry need to understand that

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Global Highlights

while automotive shares many challenges with other industries, it often takes them to extremes. For example, while all industries struggle right now to deploy new technologies and integrate them with current processes, the magnitude and complexity in automotive manufacturing present greater risks. One minute of downtime in automotive can cost tens of thousands of U.S. dollars.” If smart manufacturing vendors hope to scale their solutions and platforms in automotive, they must guarantee and prove that they can provide value. “Automotive manufacturing deals with relatively high-value, high-volume and high-complexity products. Neither automotive OEMs nor their suppliers will take gambles on unproven technologies when it comes to their production lines. Vendors must define, prioritize, prove and present their business case before approaching this sector. If they can do so and show potential automotive clients exactly how to implement and integrate their technology without disrupting production, this market will adopt and scale the solution,” Owen concluded. These findings are from ABI Research’s Smart Manufacturing in Automotive report. This report is part of the company’s smart manufacturing service and smart mobility and automotive, both of which include research, data and executive foresights.

Established in 1948 on a small site in south London, European Springs & Pressings (ESP) has grown into a multimillion pound organization with factories, logistic centers and sales offices across the U.K. Facilities across their 7,000 sq. meter sites include stamping, coiling, multi-slide, heavy coiling, high speed stamping and assembly, as well as both high and low volume production capabilities. In 2007, the Lesjofors Group acquired the organization which has seen European Springs & Pressings reach new international markets, with turnover increasing by 700 percent in Cornwall over the last decade. To mark the 70th anniversary, European Springs & Pressings commissioned a timeline, a symbolic image showcasing the diversity of their products and all indulged in celebratory events across the company. Michael Gibbs, managing director of the Cornwall factories of European Springs & Pressings, concludes: “Our 70-year heritage has seen us survive eight recessions, swim against tides of manufacturing decline and diversify into markets which account for nearly every sector of every industry. “We’re really proud of our legacy and to be continuing to contribute to today’s thriving £6.7 trillion global manufacturing sector. Here’s to another 70 years.”

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SPRINGS / Spring 2019 / 11

Global Highlights

The Japan Society of Spring Engineers (JSSE) held its semiannual lecture meeting, including a poster session, and a ceremony of JSSE awards at Kyoto Tower Hotel Nov. 8, 2018. Eight general lectures and one special topic lecture were presented to 131 attendees. An opening speech was delivered by Haruhiko Shiba, vice-chairperson of JSSE and managing officer, member of the board of Chuo Spring Co., Ltd. General lectures and presenters included:

1. “Psuedo-Hydrogen Signal in GasChromatograph That Is Based on Generation Inside Gas-Chromatograph But Is Not Intruded Into Steel ~Phosphate-Coated Steel~,” by Dr. Yasuhide Ishiguro of JFE Steel Corporation. 2. “Nonlinear Analysis of Dynamics of Japanese Bows (Restoring Spring Cha racteristics a nd Dy na mic Behavior),” by Dr. Atsumi Ohtsuki of Meijo University. 3. “Effects of Shot Peening Strength on Eddy Current Response,” by


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12 / SPRINGS / Spring 2019

Yuichi Motoyama of National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology. 4. “Deforming Experiments of NonContact Spiral Spring,” by Takuro Aiki of Hayamizu Hatsujo Co., Ltd. 5. “Vibr at ion Suppr ession of a Structural Object Using a Small Vibratory Device (Derivation of an Exact Algebraic Solution of an Optimal Double-Mass Dynamic Vibrat ion Absorber),” by Dr. Toshihiko Asami, professor of University of Hyogo. 6. “A Young’s Modulus Measurement Method Based on Approximate Polynomial of Large Deflection of Beams (Cantilever and ThreePoint Bending),” by Dr. Tadashi Horibe of Ibaraki University. 7. “Increasing Quenching Severity, Improving Mechanical Properties a nd D e c r e a s i n g Q u e n c h i n g D i stor t ion by Au stemper i ng with Water-Added Molten Salt,” by Youichi Watanabe of Nihon Parkerizing Co., Ltd. 8. “Effect of Shot Peening on Hydrogen Entry into Tempered Martensitic Steel,” by Makoto Kawamori of Kobe Steel, Ltd. The Special Topic Lecture was “Internal-Combustion Engine Efforts for Next Generation in Mazda,” presented by Katsunobu Miyagoshi, program manager of Mazda Motor Corporation. Seven technical posters were displayed at the meeting. A brief explanation was given by a representative for each of the posters on the speaker’s platform for the lecture meeting, followed by a question and answer session at the posters. The top two posters were selected based on the participants’ voting. The First Place Poster: “Fatigue Strength Improvement of an Aluminum Alloy with a Crack-Like Surface Defect Using Laser Peening,” by Yuta Kogishi of Yokohama National University, et al.

Global Highlights

The Second Place Poster: “Study on Automatic Fractographical Feature Distinction by Means of Materials Informatics Technology,” by Kazuki Kajita of Ritsumeikan University, et al The awarding ceremony was held before the afternoon session of the lecture meeting. Ronbun-prize, (among papers submitted to JSSE): “Fatigue Property of High Strength Steel with Artificial Defects under Cyclic Torsion with a Shear Stress Ratio of 0.1,” by Mamoru Hayakawa, Shinya Teramoto, Shuji Kozawa, Yutaka Neishi and Taizo Makino of Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corp. Gijutu-prize, (among other papers or articles): 1) “Prediction of Fractu re St rengt h for Cera mics Containing a Surface Defect with Arbitrary Shape,” by Nanako Sato and Dr. Koji Takahashi of Yokohama National University. 2) “Hydrogen Uptake in High-Strength Steel Corroded in Actual Use Environment and in Laboratory Corrosion Condition and Interpretation of Diffusive Hydrogen in Thermal-Desorption-Spectroscopy-based Gas Chromatograph,” by Dr. Yasuhide Ishiguro, Kazuki

Fujimura, Shinji Ootsuka and Akio Kobayashi of JFE Steel Corporation. 3) “The Effect of Carbide Precipitation on Mechanical Properties of Tempered Martensitic Si-Added High Carbon Steels,” by Shinya Teramoto, Manabu Kubota and Jun Takahashi of Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation. A reception was held after the closing speech delivered by Dr. Yuji Nakasone, JSSE president and professor of Tokyo University of Science, in another hall. Toshio Kazama, vice-chairperson of JSSE and executive corporate officer of NHK Spring Co., Ltd. made an opening speech. This was followed by the guest speech by Masahiko Nakatani, executive director of Japan Spring Manufacturers Association (JSMA). Susumu Yamamoto, honorary member of JSSE, made a toast to the development of the spring industry and the participants’ good health. This was followed by the guest speeches delivered by the winners of the prizes. After plenty of mingling and exchanging of information, the reception was over with “iccho-jime,” a vibration that consists of a single clap in unison led by Kouji Tsutsumi, director of JSSE and of Suncall Corporation. n

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Regional Spring Association Report NESMA Leadership Change By Jim Mintun, Gibbs Th e Ne w E n g l a nd Sp r i n g a nd Metalstamping Association (NESMA) held t hei r a n nua l meet i ng Dec. 14, 2018. We elected new officers to guide the organization for the next three years. Lynnette Nadeau, president of Sout hington Tool & Manufacturing Co., Southington, Con nect icut, was elected president. Brian Fries, president, Atlantic Precision Spring, Bristol, will serve as vice president. NESMA also welcomes new board members: Tom Barnes, president, Riverside Investments, Bristol; Ryan Cutter, president, Fenn LLC, East Berlin, Connecticut; and Ryan Nadeau, operations manager, Springfield Spring, Bristol. We are confident these officers and board members will ca rry forwa rd the organization’s momentum and that NESMA will continue to thrive under their stewardship. NESMA bids a very fond farewell to outgoing president, Michael Brault, vice president of operations, Ultimate Wireforms, Bristol, who served in the role for four years. Michael leaves the organization much better than he found it and we all are grateful for his service and leadership. NESMA realized solid growth in membership, financial strength, and community service and workforce development programs expanded under his watch.  We remain hopeful that Michael will continue to provide advice and counsel to NESMA as he transitions back to devoting his full attention to his work at Ultimate Wireforms. Perhaps Michael’s legacy will be defined by an idea he had to drive more interest and participation of younger women and men from our member

14 / SPRINGS / Spring 2019

• Kara Loveland, MW Industries, Economy Spring Div., Southington

• Alyssa Palmieri, MW Industries,

Economy Spring Div., Southington

• Brian Zimmerli, Plastonics, Inc., Hartford

companies into NESMA’s events and activities.  He had a vision that these younger professionals would bring fresh ideas to NESMA and help to plan future events targeting their peers and serve as a conduit for their own professional development and potential future leadership roles within the organization.   The Vanguard Committee was formed in July 2018 and was quickly filled by young professionals nominated by member companies. The committee is chaired by Brian Fries and includes: • Meg Carbonell, Atlantic Precision Spring, Bristol • Brendan Schuch, Acme Monaco Corp., New Britain, Connecticut • Jessica Morgan, Fenn LLC, East Berlin • Melissa Barton, Gibbs Metals, Southington • Laurent Porter, Hardware Products Co., Chelsea, Massachusetts • Adam Jacobson, JN Machinery, East Dundee, Illinois • Ryan Kiblawi, Lee Spring, Brooklyn, New York

The committee was tasked with several projects, including the development of a major event that would bring revenue to the organization and be an attractive alternative to the traditional events NESMA annually hosts and to plan an event that would include volunteer work within the community.   “It has been exciting to see these young professionals work together outside the comfort of their own companies.  Since many members are from competitors within the spring and metalstamping industry, it has been surprising to me how well the team has collaborated from the outset,” said Fries. The committee has planned an evening at Dunkin’ Donuts Park, home of the Hartford Yard Goats, the Double A affiliate of MLB’s Colorado Rockies, on Wednesday, May 29, 2019.  Tickets will be priced to NESMA members at $15 each and are expected to sell out quickly. They are also planning a date in early summer to volunteer at Animal Rescue Foundation (ARF) in Bristol and encourage member companies to participate. Thanks to Michael for planting the seed and to Brian for nurturing the new committee into something very special. For more information on these and other NESMA events, please visit our new and improved website: www.

Regional Spring Association Report

CASMI Report By Michael Bandy, CASMI Co-Executive Director

CASMI’s 2019 Scholarship Program Is Open The Chicago Association of Spring Manufacturers (CASMI) is proud to announce the 2019 CASMI College S c hol a r s h ip P r o g r a m t o b e ne fit employees and children of the employees of CASMI primary (spring manufacturer) and associate (supplier) member companies.

In 2019, CASMI plans to award 19 $1,500 undergraduate scholarships and two $2,500 scholarships for postgraduate study (primary members only). Since the program’s inception, CASMI has provided $787,000 in scholarships to undergraduate and graduate students. CASMI would like to thank Rosemont Exposition Services, which funds the annual $2,500 Terry & Jerry Reese Postgraduate Scholarship, and to the Joseph H. Goldberg Family Foundation and International Spring Co., who


SMI is the community and Metal Engineering eXpo is the networking event. Dan Sceli, CEO, Peterson American Corporation

provided $2,500 in direct funding for one postgraduate scholarship in 2019. “A major reason why CASMI exists is to support and give back to the spring manufacturing industry,” says Tony Pesaresi, president of CASMI. “We can think of nothing better than to help young men and women through this scholarship program.” Details a re available on t he organization’s website at

Successful CASMI Holiday Event Provides Contribution for Those in Need Nearly 80 CASMI members and their guests attended the organization’s annual Holiday Event to celebrate the past year and look forward to 2019. It was held Dec. 13, 2018, at Carlucci in Rosemont, Illinois. For the fourth consecutive year, the organization accepted donations from attendees for the Mercy Home for Boys and Girls, a privately funded child care and residential home for abused, homeless and neglected children or children struggling with family issues. CASMI members contributed $1,520 (including one generous and anonymous contribution of $500) to support this organization’s mission.


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CASMI’s March membership dinner meeting focused on a presentation by Larry Oxenham, author and senior advisor, American Society for Asset Protection. Members who attended this session, “Don’t Kill Your Golden Goose—Protect and Perpetuate Your Business,” discovered tools a company can use to become invincible to lawsuits, save thousands in taxes, and achieve financial peace of mind. Oxenham is one of America’s top asset protection experts, having helped thousands of professionals

SPRINGS / Spring 2019 / 15

Regional Spring Association Report

achieve financial peace of mind by teaching them how to properly structure their assets for lawsuit protection and tax reduction. He has authored and co-authored several articles and books on the subject, including “The Asset Protection Bible” and “How to Achieve Financial Peace of Mind through Asset Protection.”

CASMI Golf Outing Will Take Place in June CASMI will host its annual golf tournament at the Bloomingdale Golf Club, Bloomingdale, Illinois, June 18, 2019. The course will welcome the average player and will challenge everyone. The day’s activities include lunch, shotgun golf tournament, cocktail hour and dinner. Various prizes will be presented throughout the evening. All CASMI members, SpringWorld 2020 exhibitors, and suppliers who are interested in exhibiting at SpringWorld

16 / SPRINGS / Spring 2019

are encouraged to attend this great industry event. Start putting together your foursomes today to join the compet it ion a nd for a rela xed

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Be Aware Safety Tips

The Need for Discipline: Misbehavior or Lack of Supervision? By Laura Helmrich-Rhodes, CSP, Ed.D.


iscipline is a broad topic with many facets. As a parent, teacher and business consultant, I literally think I could write for days on the subject of discipline! For now, I’d like to share some perspective on incidents that have arisen as a consultant to the spring industry, and also reflect on OSHA’s top 10 most frequently cited standards and the role consistent discipline plays in avoiding costly fines. It’s important to preface this discussion with the reality that the way in which discipline is carried out in the workplace is governed by law. Every company needs to create both hiring practices and a work culture where little discipline is necessary and complies with both state and federal regulations. As Jim Collins, author of “Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap and Others Do Not,” says, a business owner must get the “right people on the bus and the wrong ones off!” Getting “A-level talent” who fit (and will stay) on “the bus” can be a challenge in the current marketplace. A significant change in hiring practices that I have seen in the last decade, besides the extensive use of platforms and recruiting firms, is the widespread use of intentional “behavior-based interviewing.” The days of the interview focusing only on the application/résumé have evolved to questions that require the applicant to tell a story. This is popular because the questions focus on the applicant’s ability with problem-solving, work ethics, resilience and ability to work in teams. The interviewer is hoping for the applicant to respond with a description of a situation, task, action taken, and result of the situation described. Example questions are located in Figure 1. The key is to ask questions that get to the heart of a person who will fit with your culture and your workforce needs. I have found these questions to be helpful in finding transferrable skills. In other words, finding individuals who may not be in your specific industry but have the basic skills you want for your organization. From a safety standpoint, an interviewer can discern if the person being interviewed is one who will work toward the mission of the organization and take direction well. The ideal employee will need little or no discipline since s/he is mission committed, a compliant worker, and understands work rules, processes and expectations.

Examples of Behavior Based Questions • Tell me a time when you had to deliver bad news to someone. • Give me an example of a goal you set and how you reached that goal. • Tell me a time when you saw someone break a safety rule. • Describe a stressful situation at work and how you handled it. Figure 1

Just as communicating expectations to our children before they are faced with a problem is key, so it is for guiding employees through the decision-making process. A well thought out, signed and published safety policy that guides and inspires everyone can be a touchstone when any doubt arises. It guides everyone in the organization, as well as inspires them to move the safety, health and environmental culture forward. Several sample safety policies can be found online and molded to meet your mission. Sharing all work rules, especially safety rules, more than just at onboarding is also paramount. Regular review by supervisors helps employees to remember those expectations and reinforces the supervisors’ role. Tool-box talks, monthly safety reviews and department meetings are

Laura Helmrich-Rhodes, CSP, Ed.D., is an independent regulations compliance consultant to the Spring Manufacturers Institute (SMI). A former member of PA/OSHA Consultation, she is an associate professor in the Safety Sciences Department at Indiana University of Pennsylvania where she teaches graduate and undergraduate classes on topics such as OSHA standards, safety communications, workers’ compensation and human relations. Rhodes is available for safety advice and information. Contact SMI at 630-495-8588 or

SPRINGS / Spring 2019 / 19

all times when a supervisor can display their concern and command for the work being done and answer any concerns or questions. Front line employees often know how to improve productivity, quality and safety. The key is allowing a free flow of communication between supervisors and employees. Growing the supervisors personal listening skills can help them grow as a better leader and reduce the need for discipline due to miscommunication or making a miscalculated decision. Growing supervisor leadership is one subject that is too often neglected. It is my belief that if a company invests in the professional and leadership growth of its supervisors, tasks will be completed as expected and on time. When discipline is dispensed by anyone except the supervisor, his or her influence is circumvented. This is especially true for safety. I stress to my students that safety managers are not in charge of safety. As odd as that sounds, supervisors are the front line in instruction, observation, permission, and leadership of those in their care. When we intrude in that relationship as owners, upper management or safety/quality personnel, the supervisor’s power to lead is eliminated. Supervisors need to grow as individuals both personally and professionally to be highly effective. Can your leaders have difficult conversations and handle confrontation as a mature adult? Can they predict difficulties and head those off? Do they have the ability to recognize the best way their employees, as individuals, take direction? Do they

20 / SPRINGS / Spring 2019

review non-routine tasks with their workers prior to start to assure the safety and quality measures are taken? Can they investigate an accident and make meaningful recommendations for an engineering change, or do you often see “Tell employees to be more careful” in the recommendations? In the last month, I have had several questions about enforcement of the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). In fact, one company experienced four threshold shifts (work-induced hearing loss) in one year. Each of these four incidents must be recorded on the OSHA log, burdening the otherwise accident free employer with an increased incident rate. When faced with the question of PPE enforcement, my mind goes to several scenarios to consider. Just three of those include: 1) Could the hazard be engineered and/or eliminated? 2) Was there improper selection and/or use of the PPE? 3) Was there inadequate supervision? First, is PPE really the best solution to the problem? The first line of defense of any hazard is always engineering. Noise can, at least, be reduced through engineering and often employee exposure can be eliminated. Solutions for noise can be cheap to fix (preventative maintenance) or expensive (building a sound-reducing structure), while PPE associated with using hazardous chemicals (i.e., gloves, splash masks, respirators, aprons etc.) can be engineered out through substitution for less hazardous chemicals. In almost 31 years of safety experience, I’ve lost count of the number of times I am told “We can’t find an acceptable substitute.” The

reality is that with diligent and exhaustive research, many clients have found less hazardous chemicals, especially when the use was completely outlawed. The second scenario is the selection and fit of the PPE. Did the employees participate in the selection of the PPE? Often, employees choose not to wear an assigned PPE when it doesn’t fit well or is annoying when performing a task. This is especially true for tasks requiring extended time or even entire works shifts. Gloves and eyewear are examples of the need for comfortable fit. Improperly fitting gloves actually can lead to ergonomic issues such as carpal tunnel syndrome due to the forces needed to overcome the ill-fitting glove. In the case of the hearing protection mentioned, it must be selected with the Noise Reduction Rating (NRR) needed to bring down the noise to the level that will not cause hearing loss over the work shift. The last of my questions regarding the discipline needed for PPE is that of the strength and consistency of supervisors. Are the supervisors truly fulfilling their duties as leaders in the department? Many business textbooks define management in four parts: planning, leading, organizing and controlling. Are production demands well planned and organized, or are time pressures in the department impeding the use of PPE? Is the supervisor leading by example by consistently wearing appropriate PPE? Are they controlling fairly? In other words, are work rules consistently adhered to, or is a blind eye turned for some individuals or for some rules? One keynote speaker at an SMI annual meeting, Edgar Papke, author of “True Alignment: Linking Culture with Customer Needs for Extraordinary Results,” points out that “often leaders reinforce passively, thereby missing the opportunity to positively reinforce what is expected and failing to confront what is unacceptable, in which case the leader silently gives permission to and reinforces the negative behavior.” The consistent display of caring is key to being a strong and well-respected

supervisor who rarely needs to correct worker behaviors or attitudes. Let’s look at the most recent OSHA top 10 cited standards and consider for a moment what role discipline and, more importantly, the strength of supervision might play in these topics. The chart on page 22 shows the top 10 cited standards for the spring industry. The role of the supervisor in assuring that lockout/tagout procedures are followed cannot be stressed enough. It is likely the maintenance supervisor and not the department supervisor

who oversees this, since lockout/tagout applies to the service and maintenance of equipment. Often maintenance employees are scattered and work independently. The supervisor’s care and concern and dedication to the progressive discipline policy needs to be clear. The same is true for several on the list. Removal of machine guards and using equipment without guards in place is the supervisor’s responsibility. Each should be held accountable. The need for greater flexibility in guarding of springmaking equipment

SPRINGS / Spring 2019 / 21

Top 10 Cited Standards for the Spring Industry Standard









All standards cited for spring and wire product manufacturing.





The control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout).





General requirements for all machines.





Hazard Communication.





Respiratory Protection.









Mechanical power-transmission apparatus.





Occupational noise exposure.





Bloodborne pathogens.





Wiring methods, components, and equipment for general use.





Powered industrial trucks.

General requirements PPE.

is recognized here, but the bottom line is that no employee should be exposed to general machine guarding hazards. Assuring that portions of the Hazard Communications standard are adhered to is easily assigned to departments. Each supervisor needs to know what the emergency procedures are for the chemicals in their own workspace. In other words, they have up-to-date Safety Data Sheets (SDS), labels and a current inventory. If he or she is daily making sure that labels are in place and his employees know this is important, it will fall into place. As management guru Peter Drucker stated, “If it doesn’t get measured, it doesn’t get managed!” Unsafe use of forklifts might easily be thought of as an operator problem. When I note that an employee is not wearing a seat belt (this is actually a fatality hazard), should I immediately think this is a problem employee, or is it a sign of a supervisor oversight or even a safety culture problem? True, the operator has training and takes a test on this rule, but the supervisor sets the pace of the work, directs activities and should be monitoring the safety of operations. If failure to wear a seat belt is a common problem with a particular employee, then follow the established discipline procedure! If an OSHA inspector notes it, you will have a much easier time reducing or eliminating that citation with well-documented employee misconduct as a defense. Follow through to the dismissal stage if necessary! Under new guidance from OSHA, employers must be cautious that any discipline administered might be construed as retaliation for reporting an injury or illness. For example, you cannot suspend or assign points for simply reporting an accident. OSHA provides the following example: “An example of pretextual discipline is when an employer disciplines an employee who reported a work-related injury

22 / SPRINGS / Spring 2019

for violating a work rule, but fails to enforce the work rule against other employees who violate the same rule but do not report an injury or illness. This kind of disproportionate enforcement against reporting employees indicates that the real reason for the discipline was the reported injury, not the rule violation.” If your organization has not done well consistently enforcing work rules, then communicate clearly that a new emphasis and concern for employee safety has begun. A great way to begin that new era is a written safety, health and environmental policy statement signed by top management and perhaps all employees. Post it prominently for all to see! Then get down to business by adjusting the hiring practices by using behavior-based interviews and strengthening supervisors personal and professional skills and allowing the designated supervisor/leaders to do what they do best. It is very likely the need for discipline will diminish significantly. n

Helpful Resources Injury Tracking and Use of Disciplinary, Incentive or Drug Testing Programs (Retrieved January 2019) Methods for Estimating the Adequacy of Hearing Protection Attenuation standardnumber/1910/1910.95AppB John C. Maxwell, “Developing The Leader Within You” Edgar Papke, “True Alignment: Linking Culture with Customer Needs for Extraordinary Results”

Dean of Springs

Magazine Springs Design Calculations By Dan Sebastian


agazine springs derive their name from one of the most common uses for them: the force mechanism that delivers the bullets in rifles and pistols. They are also used Minor OD Minor ID in shelf displays or any application that uses a contained spring. The key to their use is that they conform to the container that supports the spring on the OD (outside diameter) and/or the ID (inside diamMajor ID' eter). The containment is critical, as they usually Major OD' have a large pitch and have a high tendency to buckle and/or bend during compression. They can exhibit large variablity in testing which Definitions: can produce a large hysteresis curve. Because Minor ID The smallest ID (inside diameter) of the unstable tendency of magazine springs, Minor OD The smallest OD (outside diameter) the producer and the end user should establish Major ID’ The largest ID’(inside diameter) a testing procedure and a common fixture. With Major OD’ The largest OD’(outside diameter) an agreed upon fixture and procedure, it is best Major D ID + OD/2 to run multiple tests on a number of different Major D’ ID’ + OD’/2 springs to achieve agreed upon tolerance specik spring rate fications as each spring and container design are G Modulus in Shear or Torsion (Modulus of Rigidity) unique. d Wire diameter The ability to calculate a load deflection curve P Load in lbs. with a high degree of accuracy can be difficult. f Deflection in inches During an extensive literature search, I came N Number of active coils across a series of equations developed by engiS Stress in psi neers at Hunter Spring in the 1950s. The equations Vk Stiffness Correction Factor Vk= (D’/D)-2.1 include a stiffness correction factor that uses the Kw1 Wahl Correction Factor for 2 percent set point ratio of the mean diameter to correct for the non 4C-1/4C-4 +0.615/C cylindrical shape of the spring. Wahl Correction Factor set removed 1+0.5/C Kw2 SMI, with the assistance of Newcomb Spring, Applicable Wahl Correction Factor R 1 conducted some experiments to test the validity C D/d of the equations. The springs tested were unsupported. The first measurements on the production spring proved inconclusive. When the springs were shortened, which reduced the large buckling factor, we got more than a 90 percent correlation to the equations. Dan Sebastian is a former SMI president and As indicated, you will need an agreed upon testing currently serves as a technical consultant to procedure and fixtures if you can expect to get measurthe association. He holds a degree in metalable parameters and Cpk control limits. lurgical engineering from Lehigh University and his industry career spans more than four The standard spring design calculations can be used decades in various technical and manageby adding a stiffness correction factor. Some additional ment roles. He may be reached by contacting definitions must be considered. SMI at 630-495-8588.

SPRINGS / Spring 2019 / 23

The design equation for magazine spring for rate is: k = (Gd4Vk)/(8D3N) The design equation for magazine spring for stress at a load is: S = (8PD’R1)/(πd3)

Keep in mind that it is common to have very high stresses because of the large amount of deflection that are commonly required. Use of residual stresses like set-out and/or heat setting can improve life. It is also important to test to determine the stress relaxation requirements if the spring will be loaded for long periods of time. The equations will provide a baseline for the load and rate characteristics. The interaction of the containment and the tendency to buckle will have significant effects on the actual spring parameters. n Please note: The design equations were derived from Hunter Spring's “Spring Design Data.”

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Advanced Spring Design ©1982–2011 by Spring Manufacturer’s Institute & Universal Technical Systems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Photos from quoted individuals and by Engeline Tan; used with permission.

24 / SPRINGS / Spring 2019


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Technically Speaking

ASTM Spring Standards By C. Richard Gordon


STM International, formerly known as American Society for Testing and Materials, was founded in 1898 by Charles Benjamin Dudley. The website is www. ASTM is a voluntary international standards organization that develops and publishes consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems and services. Thirty thousand volunteers from over 140 countries participate, with over 12,000 standards published. Conformance to standards is typically part of a customer’s order specification or requirements. For SMI member companies, it is important to reference the most current version of any standard. A list of ASTM spring standards is shown in the table to the right, including the most current volume number. ASTM standards are available in a hard copy book or online version This is a living document. There may be other ASTM standards that you are aware of that should be included in the list. Please let me know of any additional standards which should be included, and I will be happy to add them to the list. Standards can be purchased individually from ASTM or individual volumes can be purchased. Fourteen of the spring standards are contained in volume 01.03 Steel–Plate, Sheet, Strip, Wire; Stainless Steel Bar. The online annual subscription fee for volume 01.03 is $373. The price for the print version is $280. ASTM presents a unique opportunity to individuals who become participating members of a technical committee. The annual membership fee is $75 and includes a free volume of standards. When you become a participating member of subcommittee A01.03, not only can you provide technical input with regards to standards revisions, you can also realize significant savings for acquiring the standards. n

Rick Gordon is the technical director for SMI. He is available to help SMI members and nonmembers with metallurgical challenges such as fatigue life, corrosion, material and process related problems. He is also available to help manage and oversee processes related to failure analysis. This includes sourcing reputable testing labs throughout North America, forwarding member requests to the appropriate lab and reporting results and recommendations. He can be reached at or 574-514-9367.

ASTM Standard & Title


ASTM A125-96(2018) Standard Specification for Steel Springs, Helical, Heat-Treated


ASTM A227/A227M-17 Standard Specification for Steel Wire, Cold-Drawn for Mechanical Springs


ASTM A228/A228M-18 Standard Specification for Steel Wire, Music Spring Quality


ASTM A229/A229M-18 Standard Specification for Steel Wire, Quenched and Tempered for Mechanical Springs


ASTM A230/A230M-05(2011)e1 Standard Specification for Steel Wire, Oil-Tempered Carbon Valve Spring Quality


ASTM A231/A231M-18 Standard Specification for Chromium-Vanadium Alloy Steel Spring Wire


ASTM A232/A232M-18 Standard Specification for Chromium-Vanadium Alloy Steel Valve Spring Quality Wire


ASTM A313/A313M-18 Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Spring Wire


A401/A401M-18 Standard Specification for Steel Wire, ChromiumSilicon Alloy


ASTM A407-18 Standard Specification for Steel Wire, Cold-Drawn, for Coiled-Type Springs


A679/A679M-17 Standard Specification for Steel Wire, High Tensile Strength, Cold Drawn


ASTM A689-97(2018) Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Bars for Springs


ASTM A713-04(2017) Standard Specification for Steel Wire, HighCarbon Spring, for Heat-Treated Components


ASTM A764-07(2017) Standard Specification for Metallic Coated Carbon Steel Wire, Coated at Size and Drawn to Size for Mechanical Springs


ASTM A877/A877M-17 Standard Specification for Steel Wire, Chromium-Silicon Alloys, Chrome-Silicon-Vanadium Alloy Valve Spring Quality


ASTM A878/A878M-17 Standard Specification for Steel Wire, Modified Chromium Vanadium Valve Spring Quality


ASTM A1000/A1000M-17 Standard Specification for Steel Wire, Carbon and Alloy Specialty Spring Quality


ASTM B134/B134M-15 Standard Specification for Brass Wire


ASTM B159/B159M-17 Standard Specification for Phosphor Bronze Wire


ASTM B197/B197M-07(2013) Standard Specification for CopperBeryllium Alloy Wire


ASTM B593-96(2014)e1 Standard Test Method for Bending Fatigue Testing for Copper-Alloy Spring Materials


ASTM B637-18 Standard Specification for Precipitation-Hardening and Cold Worked Nickel Alloy Bars, Forgings, and Forging Stock for Moderate or High Temperature Service


ASTM B888/B888M-17 Standard Specification for Copper Alloy Strip for Use in Manufacture of Electrical Connectors or Spring Contacts


ASTM E855-08(2013) Standard Test Methods for Bend Testing of Metallic Flat Materials for Spring Applications Involving Static Loading


SPRINGS / Spring 2019 / 27

What’s New in Spring Finishes? By Gary McCoy

28 / SPRINGS / Spring 2019 ©



any years ago, my children desperately wanted a trampoline in the backyard. I told them if they raised the money, I would pay the sales tax (a foreign concept to young children!) and help put it together. My wife had a friend with access to a nearby research farm where they raised pumpkins. The good news for my kids: They could take home as many pumpkins as they wanted at no charge. I remember getting home that night to see a garage full of orange objects. Suddenly my children were entrepreneurs! With a great profit margin, they canvassed the neighbor selling the “free” pumpkins, and in short order they had raised enough funds to buy the trampoline. That trampoline still sits in our backyard, a bit tattered and weather worn. Most of the springs are still in pretty good shape, but there are a couple of outliers that show signs of rust. I honestly didn’t know what an extension spring was back then. Now years later, having worked in the spring industry for more than a decade, I know enough to be dangerous and to appreciate the importance of a quality spring finish!

What’s Old and What’s New This issue is dedicated to spring finishes. For a historical perspective on the subject, be sure to read a reprint of the article “Concerning Spring Finishes” on page 30 that appeared in the August 1936 issue of The Mainspring, a popular publication

produced by Associated Spring for many years. Raquel Chole, who has written several articles for Springs over the years, tackles the subject of plating springs. She talked to several springmakers and suppliers to gain insights and an understanding of how to improve the process. See “Is Plating a Four-Letter Word?” on page 33. The color coating of springs is often a way for a springmaker to provide a customer with a way to quickly tell their springs apart. Find out how Ace Wire & Spring Co. handles this in the article, “Color Coatings” on page 41 written by John Higgins, the company’s marketing manager. Corrosion is always a challenge, and Jason Sicotte from Associated Spring provides his perspective on the subject in “The Danger in Attempting to Rescue Rusty Springs” on page 41. Finally, on page 43, Don Jacobson III of Newcomb Spring looks at “When Pre-Plated Wire Is a Good Choice for Springmakers.” Jacobson reviews the material selection process that springmakers must go through when determining the best choice for their customers. He delves into the times when selecting a pre-plated wire can be the best choice for the springmaker and the customer. Secondary operations can sometimes be a difficult and exasperating challenge for springmakers. As you read the articles assembled in this issue, I hope you walk away with some new ideas that can help improve your finishing processes.

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Concerning Spring Finishes /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

much older than Springs magazine (which started in 1962). With the permission of the Barnes Group, we reprint this article from The Mainspring, a publication of The Wallace Barnes Company (the original name of the company). The article was first published in August 1936. The article was described as a further discussion of a previously published article, “The Plating of Springs,” from the June 1936 issue. The idea of this reprint is to provide a historical note on finishing processes used more than 80 years ago. The content is dated, because, among other things, it doesn’t mention powder coating and many other newer finishes. Keeping that in mind, please enjoy this look back at spring finishes from the 1930s.)

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(The article presented in this Flashback is


finish is usually applied to springs either to improve their appearance or as a protection against rust. What finish to use is so largely dependent upon conditions that it is almost impossible to set forth any general rules. A few case histories will indicate why the spring manufacturer wishes to obtain every bit of information available regarding service conditions before recommending any one of the many spring finishes at his disposal. Some time ago it was found that the springs in a scale shipped into a certain territory were failing through rapid corrosion. This is an unusual occurrence in springs of this type, since they are not subjected to a large number of repeated loadings in the sense that a valve spring would be and, ordinarily, no finish other than a light coat of oil is applied to them. Further investigation in this case revealed that the scales of which these springs were part of were used outdoors, and that previously trouble had been encountered due to a certain species of insects having generally agreed that these scales formed an excellent abode. As a consequence, the purchaser of the scales had sprinkled the instruments’ interiors with a liberal supply of insecticide, which unfortunately caused corrosion to proceed at 10 times its normal rate and did as much harm to the springs as to the insects who provoked its use. Recently it was found that helical springs used in the kneeaction assembly of motor cars were suffering unusually high casualties in some cities during certain seasons of the year. This proved to be the result of these municipalities’ employing a chemical for melting ice on their streets. This chemical, as in the case of insecticide cited, stepped up the ordinary corrosion rate to many times normal, introducing corrosion-fatigue conditions not ordinarily anticipated in ordinary vehicle suspension service. Generally, we may say that where a spring is subjected to corrosion-fatigue conditions, everything should be sacrificed for the sake of retarding corrosion. Under such conditions a rust resistant alloy or a .004 inch coat of cadmium plate on steel are likely candidates to fill the bill. Where the spring is not to be stressed so frequently and a brighter finish is desired, a coating of chromium over nickel on steel might be recommended, or even a coat of black japan. It should be noted at this point, however, that corrosion-fatigue conditions may be present where they are not, at first glance, obvious. In the preceding article on spring finishes, electrically deposited metal finishes applied to the coiled spring were discussed.

In addition to such finishes there are others, which, while not as important, are nevertheless worthy of brief mention.

Prefinished Materials

In some cases, the wire from which the spring is coiled is given a finish during the drawing process. This is invariably true in the case of music wire, which may be passed through baths of copper and tin salts or may be given a light coating of cadmium by this method. One of the reasons for treating the wire in this manner is to lubricate its passage through the drawing dies, and the light coating thus applied is not supposed to serve as a substitute for plating the finished spring. It should be further noted that springs coiled of such wire have no protective coating at the ends of the wire, or at the ground section when the ends are squared and ground.

Chemically Produced Finishes

Where steel is partially covered with a cathodic conductor such as mill scale (magnetic oxide of iron, Fe2O4), there is a tendency toward galvanic action and excessive pitting of the steel in localities adjacent to such coating. The ordinary oxide coatings produced by heat treating methods, such as black, blue or straw, are not intended as a corrosion retarding measure and may indeed cause corrosion to proceed at a more rapid rate. Phosphate coatings have been widely used for the surface protection of steel and unquestionably retard the spread of rusted areas. Such coatings are less cathodic than the oxides or iron and adhere better to the surface. They are applied by immersing the springs in a boiling hot processing solution. This solution is one of iron phosphate containing a definite ratio of ferrous to ferric iron. Since the ferrous iron tends to increase as the solution is used, this tendency is counteracted by the addition of manganese dioxide. Springs thus processed are usually given a subsequent application of neutral paraffin oil, lacquer or enamel, the insoluble phosphate coating produced by the process forming a good base for these finishes.

Enameling and Lacquering

Enamels and lacquers differ chiefly in their method of drying, lacquers being usually air dried and enamels baked. Both are used widely for general metal finishing and to some extent for the finish of springs, but for general spring work the only one used widely is a special form of enamel known as japan. Japanning differs from what are generally known as baking enamels in that the baking is carried on at a much higher temperature (350°F to 500°F for japanning against 200°F for baking enamels). It is a process of applying to metal a black lustrous mineral coating that deteriorates very slowly with age. Unlike air drying paints, which depend for their life upon the quality of drying oil used in their preparation, japan contains a drying oil which is completely oxidized during the baking process. Heat has no deleterious effect upon the pigment itself, which is a member of the asphalt family (gilsonite) but causes it to flow together in a very smooth and uniform film, resulting in an attractive and durable spring coating. The high temperature employed in the japanning process sometimes results in modifying not only the internal structure, but the outward dimensions of the finished springs, and this effect must be given careful considerations. It has been found in the manufacture of instrument springs that if the springs are coiled so that the hooks at the ends are parallel, the heat of the japanning oven will tend to make the spring coil up an additional quarter coil. This throwing of the plane of the end hooks out of parallel may render the springs useless for the purpose for which they are intended. By making due allowance for this effect when coiling the springs, this objection to black japanning may be overcome.

Oil Coatings

A neutral oil has been used successfully as a protection against corrosion where the springs have been stored indoors or even in outdoor use, where they are so located as to permit spraying at intervals. In some instances,


Japan Black and Henry Ford According to Wikipedia, “Japan black (also called black japan) is a lacquer or varnish suitable for many substrates but known especially for its use on iron and steel. It is so named due to the history of black lacquer being associated in the West with products from Japan. Its high bitumen content provides a protective finish that is durable and dries quickly. This allowed japan black to be used

extensively in the production of automobiles in the early 20th century in the United States. It can also be called japan lacquer and Brunswick black. Used as a verb, japan means ‘to finish in japan black.’ Thus, japanning and japanned are terms describing the process and its products.” Wikipedia also notes that japan black’s popularity was due in part to its durability as an automotive finish. However, it was the ability of japan black to dry quickly that made it a favorite of early massproduced automobiles such as Henry

Ford’s Model T. The Ford company’s reliance on japan black led Henry Ford to quip “Any customer can have a car painted any color that he wants so long as it is black.” “While other colors were available for automotive finishes, early colored variants of automotive lacquers could take up to 14 days to cure, whereas japan black would cure in 48 hours or less. Thus, variously colored pre-1925 car bodies were usually consigned to special orders, or custom bodied luxury automobiles.”

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springs so treated have withstood the corrosive attacks of the atmosphere for two years between applications of oil.

Summary of Most Widely Used Spring Finishes

• Corrosion Resistant Alloys such as monel metal and stainless steel—best of all as corrosion resistors, but in some cases not of high enough strength to permit their use. • Electrodeposited Coatings »» Cadmium – the best for springs where the finish (a dull silver) is acceptable. »» Nickel – not as good a protection but in some cases, appearance may be more acceptable than cadmium. »» Chromium – of no practical value as a protection over steel. In all electroplatings, brittleness as a result of occluded hydrogen must be carefully guarded against.

• Lacquering and Enameling

Black japan is to be preferred where its appearance is acceptable. It is durable and offers some protection against corrosion, although not as good in this respect as some of the electrodeposited finishes.

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Light color enamels and lacquers may be used for the sake of appearance but offer little resistance to corrosion. In the case of lacquers and enamels applied directly over the metal, there is no risk of brittleness as a result of occluded hydrogen as in the case of electrodeposited finishes. • Chemically Applied Finishes »» Oxides – for appearance only; offer no protection. »» Phosphates – better than oxides; prevent spread of rust areas and make good base for enamels. • Oil Coatings are cheap and offer some protection. The above summary of metal finishes is offered as a guide only. It must be remembered, for example, that in the case of electrodeposited finishes, much depends upon the manner in which the plating process is carried out. For this reason, a spring manufacturer will not guarantee the performance of springs which have been submitted to finishing operations after they leave the shop. Where a spring finish is desired, for the sake of appearance or to resist corrosion, the spring manufacturer should be consulted before the springs are coiled. The springmaker’s experience in this field is frequently as valuable to the spring user as his experience in the design and manufacture of the springs themselves. n


Is Plating a Four-Letter Word? By Raquel Chole


pringmakers have a secret that is no surprise to platers: they will do anything to find a way to fabricate parts sans outside post processing. That aversion can include heat treating, plating, peening, e-coating, powder coating or any other process that forces a fabricator to relinquish control of parts prior to shipping to a customer. While there are some vendors who everyone agrees are absolute gems, the consensus is: if something can go wrong, it eventually will. The springmaker will be the one to pay the price, since they will typically need to rerun the parts — and bear the expense until it can (hopefully) be recovered. Sometimes that involves breaking back into a fully-booked machine. Sometimes it means re-running a part with multiple secondaries. It could mean ordering specialized material that takes weeks to get because it’s, well, special. The customer is then (best case scenario) drumming fingers on a table or (worst case) incurring and passing on shut down costs down the supply chain from the user to the Tier I to the original equipment manufacturer (OEM). At the end of the day, a plating issue could involve lawsuits for parts with hydrogen embrittlement, making it to the point of being assembled without detection. This leaves the customer to discover the issue through a visit to a service center or a broken part issue. Ouch! All good reasons for springmakers to avoid post-production operations; however, not a great situation for platers who have to have sustainability regardless of springmaker fears. This article concept was spawned by a comment by a springmaker: “Plating is a four-letter word.” That’s a scary comment for post processers and also an alarming comment in general, because it does fairly accurately express springmaker sentiments across the board, yet there’s often no way of avoiding a post-production operation. Springs has talked to post production process players as well as springmakers to get some clarity on the topic and, perhaps, to find some middle ground.

Ron Curry, Gifford Spring Garland, Texas

“If you are gonna have a headache, it’s gonna be plating,” says Ron Curry, operations director of Gifford Spring in Garland, Texas. According to Curry, it all boils down to three basic problems: Physical problems: That includes hydrogen embrittlement, when formed metals become brittle and fracture due to the introduction and subsequent diffusion of hydrogen into the metal. Arcing is another issue that keeps Curry up at night; like hydrogen embrittlement, it is hard to detect until you’ve got a malfunctioning spring in an assembly. It is rare but can be devastating, as Curry has learned through firsthand experience. As the parts are tumbling when

they are being processed, where they come in contact with each other can result in a weld-like blemish that becomes a weak point for the metal. Curry cites a third physical problem: entanglement — put simply, parts are returned as a nest, a mess. There are ways to avoid nesting and entanglement, but sometimes spring end users will not permit the type of designs (i.e., closed ends) that prevent this sort of issue. Final operation syndrome: You’ve coiled it, ground it, etc. You’ve sent it to a plater and are now waiting for it to come back. First of all that process adds time. Beyond that, though, if something goes wrong, you’ve already got money in this part and there’s no turning back. Environmental issues: Plainly stated, it’s a “dirty, nasty industry,” according to Curry. “It’s a horrible environment. The


“If you are gonna have a headache, it's gonna be plating.” government took cadmium plating away due to environmental and safety issues but left us only with zinc to take its place; zinc is a poor substitute…I’m just saying…,” says Curry. “I’ve got springs in my conference room. They’re all broken, and I use them to talk people out of using plating or third-party operations. It works pretty well, especially since there are many alternatives I can help them choose from, whether it’s using a different material or just making the springs so they don’t need any outside ops,” says Curry.

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Example of arcing

“In the Dallas area one plater took care of everyone,” says Curry. “And once you get a really good plater who is willing to handle your product you’ve got a gem. It took a while, but they built a good business. And, these people in Dallas were good! But then last October they had a fire. All the springmakers were left out in the cold. As I said, these people were good, but it was June to August before they could get it up and running again. We found ourselves over a real barrel. It’s costly. So, it took a while for them to ‘get it’, they had built a good business and the springmakers for miles relied on them. All of us were in a pickle at that stage due to

fire that caused the shutdown. In fact, I talked to Newcomb Spring recently and they had the same issue due to this plater.” So, what is Curry’s strategy? “If we ever have a chance, we design plating out. Plating is just not something that works well within our industry. Then, if there’s a problem, we need to remake the part and replate it.” For example, he says, “Hydrogen embrittlement is a terrible situation. I’ve had springs break in half. You’ve got your money tied up because you make the springs and contracted the plating and you’ve got a plater who left your parts in the pickling too long while he goes out for a smoke. Then what do you have?!” He continues: “I’ve been in this business for 30 years and I’ve had good luck and bad. I’ll be clicking along just fine and then I’ll get a batch with grunge on them because someone didn’t clean the tanks or with color match issues. It’s all good, but the customer sees a difference and is concerned, causing a new set of issues.” “Here’s a story for you,” says Curry. “Twenty-five years ago, I was working for

another company and I visited a plater. We had sent parts there to get a special coating and when I picked them up, I walked into a mom and pop business situation. It was a nasty place. It would have been no surprise if the EPA shut them down and I think that’s exactly what happened: they went along, and they got shut down in the long run. Honestly, there were spills everywhere and I was wearing rubber soled shoes. I left and realized shortly after that the soles of my shoes had melted down to nothing. Scary.” “I know there’s a few springmakers who plate their own parts. We probably only send out 10 percent of what we do just to avoid the plating issue. We use an oil finish. There was a time we plated 75 percent of our parts, but that business has been gone for a while now,” concludes Curry. While Curry’s stories have evolved out of his decades-long experience in the spring industry, there are some post forming finishers that have found a way to work with springmakers to have long term, trusting relationships with vendors.

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Dan O’Keefe, Spectrum Industries Grand Rapids, Michigan

Dan O’Keefe, director of sales for Spectrum E-Coat, feels that when there is a problem, the key is getting the communication right between plater and customer. “We regard ourselves as a service company. When you start the day with that, the rest of the day goes well. This philosophy comes right from the top.” O’Keefe explains it this way: “At Spectrum E-Coat, our customers happen to be our raw material suppliers. We are an extension of their supply chain for any part they stamp, bend, form, shape, etc. We’re their next step in the process. We understand that we are frequently the last step for a part going for assembly.” Most of the parts finished by Spectrum E-coat end up in a car or an appliance. O’Keefe knows that when his customers’ raw parts don’t ship to Spectrum on a timely basis, he will need to accommodate an adjustment to the scheduling at Spectrum. “We are often asked to make up some of that timing deficit, so


Dan O’Keefe, director of sales for Spectrum E-Coat, feels that when there is a problem, the key is getting the communication right between plater and customer. we have to be capable of improving turnaround time when necessary. We’re willing to do overtime, weekends — ­ whatever it takes to get the part to the assembly line on time.” Regular lead time for Spectrum is up to five days; however, says O’Keefe, “We get critical care calls all day long and we have to find a way to be flexible with our schedule, so we can say ‘Yes, we’ll help you.’” To improve capacity and turnaround times further, Spectrum is in the process of introducing automation in their racking and packing operations. “We’re a privately held company, and the third generation is making the investment to incorporate automation and robotics in our processes,” explains O’Keefe. “Someone once asked me who is on our customer service team and I said ‘everyone’,” he explains.

“In my first weeks at Spectrum, I noticed an issue with raw parts over-stacked in a received container. I asked, ‘Who is on the safety committee?’ because I wondered if the issue could be a safety concern. The reply I got made complete sense. It was simply this: ‘Everybody.’ The ‘One Team’ philosophy really stuck with me. It is our company culture.” “We’re all on the customer service team…the president, the schedulers, the rackers and packers… everyone. We all have to be ready, willing and able to help with our customers’ needs.” What makes Spectrum E-Coat different from other e-coating operations? For O’Keefe, it starts with forward-looking ownership. For example, Spectrum has developed a customized program for employee retention. They developed this out of necessity; the Grand Rapids

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skilled labor pool is stressed due to the competition in the area for manufacturing employees, so if they get someone that has good potential, they need to be sure they can keep them with Spectrum for a long time. Because time spent in training each new employee is significant, it’s critical that both the trainee and Spectrum understand it as an investment in the future for both parties. They have an onboarding program for new hires, so they aren’t “thrown to the lions’ den,” followed by well-paced training from the first hour forward. The onboarding process started last year, says O’Keefe. “These people [new hires] have never held a spring or a stamping. They’ve never seen a coating rack before. They are completely unfamiliar with a manufacturing environment. We give them a break-in period to acclimate to a manufacturing situation. We can’t just give them a video to watch and say, ‘go do it.’” This process enables Spectrum to keep people beyond the early employment phase. To maintain high quality levels, Spectrum employees can earn quality award points. So, for example, a racker can call a ‘Quality Control Timeout’ if an issue is found on a raw part, prior to coating, and is rewarded for that vigilance. The points accumulate, and the employee can redeem them for something tangible — something more than just a pat on the back. Level-loading the schedule is key to throughput, per O’Keefe. “We can do X parts per day and there are X hours per day. We want to maximize our hourly efficiencies, so for high-volume items it helps to receive five days of parts if the customer wants a five-day turnaround. It makes life more manageable for us. Getting 100,000 pieces of a part in April, 10,000 in May, 50,000 in June and 100,000 in July makes us a warehouse and keeps us from setting realistic expectations for turnaround.” “I’ve been in manufacturing sales for 40 years, and the people I’ve been calling on in the spring and stamping industries are hardworking and honorable,” says O’Keefe. “Considering the turnaround pressure and demands of modern manufacturing, it’s cool how smoothly things go. We’re just part of that whole flow.”

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Kerry Cannon, Cannon Spring, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Like Curry, Kerry Cannon worries about post production done by outside vendors. As the owner of Cannon Spring (formerly Nyswonger Spring), he decided to install a powder coat line to have more control over the process. “There was one time,” he says, “when I had springs done outside and the powder started to flake off. That’s very dangerous in an engine application.” Since, historically, much of his business has been focused on making parts for race cars, it is critical that there are no failures in a high-speed situation for the end user. Cannon explains: “Plating of springs is problematic because of hydrogen embrittlement. There’s always a chance of that happening and I can’t risk a catastrophe in an automobile or a motorcycle because of a part I made. No one wants a broken spring, but they all want high tensile spring wire. We use a lot of chrome silicon, which has to be heated at high temperatures of around 850 degrees. So, we do this in-house to prevent any potential issues.” Cannon bases his business model on primarily low volume runs. “We make money on one pair of springs. We give price breaks at 10, 30 or 100 pieces, but mostly 10 pairs of springs will take a year for my customer to use.

Curtiss Wright HQ in Charlotte, North Carolina

Dave Breuer is part of the sales team for the Chicago-area Curtiss Wright plant, which is one of the five E/M Coating plants located in the U.S. There are additional plants in the U.K., Germany and China. E/M Coating uses a dip spin process to apply Teflon coating, which is a solid film lubricant coating used when ordinary wet oils/lubricants do not provide enough protection against the dreaded buzz/squeak/rattle (BSR) issues common in the automotive applications for which springmakers are constantly supplying parts. This

“For race cars, you have to be right on the money in every way: on spec, correct material, accurate coating. If someone wants a 5.2kg spring for a racing shock, you can’t be off by more than 1 percent or you’re in a different spring rate. Likewise, we need to do the powder coating ourselves because accuracy is so critical. This way we have control start to finish on a part.”

“We’re one of the best there is at motorbike fork springs, and we do some parts for rock crawlers [extreme off road, harsh terrain driving vehicles that are usually highly modified].” Cannon continues, “For race cars, you have to be right on the money in every way: on spec, correct material, accurate coating. If someone wants a 5.2kg spring for a racing shock, you can’t be off by more than 1 percent or you’re in a different spring rate. Likewise, we need to do the powder coating ourselves because accuracy is so critical. This way we have control start to finish on a part.”

process is often used for clock [aka power] springs. They also do shot peening, which can be have a number of outcomes depending on the purpose of the spring. Recently, E/M made major changes to their business model in order to better serve springmakers. “Springmakers want solutions and, ultimately parts,” says Breuer. “Spring engineers want technical support. Purchasing wants good pricing and customer service wants fast turnaround.” Breuer recognizes those needs and strives to do that so that E/M stays relevant in the market and is seen as offering a value-added service for metalforming customers.

Some of the parts E/M works with are critical applications, says Breuer. “If you look at the suspension springs under your car, these go up and down tens of thousands of times. Shot peening changes residual stresses. If we are at the quote stage, working with engineers, we start by testing parts. If we find springs fail in fatigue testing, we peen the parts to put the stress in another direction. For example, all valve springs are peened. These have to go for millions of cycles over 10 years or more. Peening can add years of life. “A trick of the trade is to put a lube on metal parts before assembly to avoid BSR. Most people outside the industry think of coating as something to make parts look pretty or to prevent rust. The majority of what we do is lubrication,” says Breuer. “It’s also a value-added service for fatigue prevention.” Joe Zielinski, technical sales manager, and Kevin Kobus, senior business unit manager, explain the worldwide reach of Curtiss Wright: “We have a vast variety of coatings and our sister company is Everlube Products in Peach Tree City, Georgia. They are a great resource. They make all our coatings; so, not only do we create the coatings, we have the ability to help springmakers find the right products to use in their applications.” “We like to provide a solution,” says Zielinski. “Especially for something that can be done in a dip spin, electrostatic or hand spray operation. Those are specialties for us.” “Recently,” says Kobus, “we had a major company with a ball valve they wanted to take into production. We were asked to run samples. This part will be used in a water potable situation, so the finish has

to be right for drinking; however, the samples didn’t look like the parts from the previous coater. “We went to the customer and showed them the difference after we dug into the specs to be sure we were doing the parts according to print. It wasn’t about proving we were right, it was about making sure the customer had the right process. We were acting in partnership with our customer to ensure a good outcome, and they ended up going with our coating and we earned a considerable amount of business,” says Kobus. E/M often makes recommendations on coatings based on where the part will be used or on the salt spray requirements. They do a lot of military and automotive applications, which can include springs, fasteners, pins, ball valves, buckles and hinges. “With a BSR or corrosion issue, we may make suggestions for an alternate solution to what is on the print,” says Zielinski. “We’ll often make samples with a quick turnaround so our customer can approach the end user for approval.”

Kobus explains, “We’re more investigative when we take on a new project…a little more technical, a little more progressive. We ask more questions during that process because we’ve often problem-solved this already for another springmaker.”


“With a BSR or corrosion issue, we may make suggestions for an alternate solution to what is on the print,” says Zielinski. “We’ll often make samples with a quick turnaround so our customer can approach the end user for approval.”

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Midwestern Rust Proof Company Chicago, Illinois

“If it’s a spring we’ll do it,” says Garth Davies, president. The team at Midwestern (MWRP) recognizes that, with the concentration of platers in the Chicago area, they’ve got to have an edge to stay on top. The Midwestern team strives to offer a variety of processes typical of spring applications accompanied with high level customer service and fast (as promised) turnaround. Springmakers are the bread and butter of MWRP’s book of business and MWRP is uniquely set up to serve that market. Phyllis Rozmus, director of sales, explains how she sees their niche: “Our competition has large barrels for plating stampings and fasteners. We have barrels that are designed to handle spring applications and avoid issues for our customers. We also have rack processes to handle more difficult parts. We know springs and we have set up procedures specifically for processing them.” Davies, agrees, “Our success is in our ability to provide reliable service. We have team members like Phyllis who have the experience and knowledge to process springs from a quote to a finished product the right way. Some customers say, ‘just give me a quote,’ but springs are not always plater friendly. Springs can have a lot of plating variables/ issues that we need to identify for our customer and then quote the proper process accordingly.”

“We’ve taken on a difficult industry,” says Davies. “If I am looking at a stamping or a widget, a plater can estimate a price pretty easily. With springs, tangling, long legs, multidirectional legs, and more could cause processing issues. There are also a lot of hidden requirements our customers rely on us to know, and that includes protecting against hydrogen embrittlement. “We have to identify problematic issues right from the drawing and we have to make sure our process will not damage delicate ends. We prefer to prototype when possible before we run production,” says Davies. “Then, once you start to make the parts there’s always a curveball. Because we’ve created options within our procedures, we can manage curveballs, including design changes. Plus, we identify customer specifications very well for salt spray, supplemental chromate and baking.” The team at MWRP is the strongest asset, says Davies. Most are long term employees with knowledge and experience processing springs. He challenges them to take ownership of schedules for production and especially new jobs. MWRP has a self-audit program in play so that each time a job is processed it is checked for potential process improvement, the need to change any aspect of processing or to simply confirm the process is working as planned. Davies explains, “As we have found the spring industry is good for MWRP,

as a result, we have tried to incorporate that intimacy with springmakers into our working processes. Like most successful companies, when we see a need, we fill a need. We now offer powder coating and e-coating to our spring customers.” “Several years back, one of our longterm customers expressed a need for phosphate and soap (Bonderlube®) on clock springs. We heard them and decided to look into it. The process fit well into our system. We made the investment and got it going. Word spread that we were offering the coating, and now it is one of our busiest processes,” says Davies. “Something similar happened with zinc plate and black trivalent chromate,” he says. “Many of our spring customers were not happy with the color and consistency they were getting for black chromates from their incumbent platers. At that time, we did very little of this work, so we asked our suppliers to collaborate on setting up a robust process. Again, we made the investment and we immediately began to receive new orders for zinc and black.” “Springs are an essential part of our business and they’re not your standard metal finishing process. You can’t simply stuff as many parts as possible into a machine and push a button,” continues Davies. “Knowing what types of springs can cause issues and need special attention is important. A lot of that knowledge can only come from experience.”


“We have to identify problematic issues right from the drawing and we have to make sure our process will not damage delicate ends. We prefer to prototype when possible before we run production,”

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SPRINGS / Spring 2019 / 39

Steve Moreland, Automatic Spring Products, Grand Haven, Michigan

Steve Moreland is president of Automatic Spring Products and many SMI members will recall his tenure as president of SMI. Like Curry and Cannon, Moreland prefers to keep the process under the Automatic Spring roof. “Our goal is to be as vertically integrated as we can with the product we make. “We do all the post treatment we can in-house for two very core reasons,” says Moreland. “First, when you process your own product internally, you reduce handling and, more importantly, we believe we end up with a higher quality result. We handle our parts like jewelry because we made them. We can reduce the risk of misformed parts, bad handling and missed delivery times. Plus, we have better technical control of the process. It’s a very strategic decision, so there are pros and cons in making it.” For a springmaker, there is significant increase in capital expenditures when

taking on metalforming processes. It also requires a team to handle the technical side, because the springmaker now must become an expert in all the processes offered even when they do not include the actual metalforming. “In a typical spring shop, your people know how to form parts,” says Moreland. “When you start doing heat treating and finishing, which are technically complex processes, you need another whole set of skills and knowledge.” Heat treating also presented a new issue for Automatic Spring: it required a significant amount of floor space. Moreland has devoted 20-25 percent of floor space to heat treating and finishing. They do oil quenching, tempering and austempering, as well as tumbling and phosphating. In addition, they have a heat setting process, which is a controlled time and temperature process for parts with extremely tight tolerances. This is used for heat treating Belleville washers. Automatic Spring does double disk grinding for super tight tolerances for the

spacers and shims used for on road/off road vehicles in places where there is an axial stack up between the casting and machined components. One process Moreland would like to bring in-house but can’t right now is electroplating. “We struggle to find decent quality electroplaters. We choose not to do it inside because of the EPA requirements.” For Moreland, first and foremost is having consistent quality as a result of good internal process controls. “We own it all. We control it all. If a customer engages with us, they will win,” he says confidently. “Because we have taken the processes in-house, the customer gets a more robust, lean manufacturing system when they come to Automatic Spring. “There is less handling damage when you process in-house and it fits with a lean manufacturing process. That covers the strategic side of the decision. It also becomes an important sales differentiator because the automotive guys know how much risk heat treating introduces.”

Confidence in The Processing is Key, Whether it is Done In-House or Not

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strip: cold rolled high carbon/pre-tempered spring steels, coated, low carbon stainless, copper based alloys and aluminum ultra-narrow width, close-tolerance slitting edging: round, square, semi-round, deburred, custom, etc. oscillate (traverse) and ribbon wound coils ISO 9001:2008 Certified 35 years experience for product and service excellence tel. 847.537.2881 Wheeling (Chicago), Illinois 60090 USA

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The common thread among springmakers is the confidence that bringing a process in-house brings to their business management. When the process cannot be brought into house, Plan B is to find a way to make the part sans outside processing. At the same time, there are a number of postprocessing houses that have found their niche in serving springmakers. Either their business model is focused on that from day one, or they have modified their business and targeted their business plan to focus on this unique market segment of the metalforming industry. Some of these successful processors are featured here but you can find others in your territory. n Raquel Chole is a frequent contributor to Springs magazine. With 23 years of experience in the industry, she has sent millions of springs to outside processors over the years, usually with great results but sometimes with major challenges.

Color Coatings ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// By John Higgins


he finish of a manufactured spring is one of many important steps toward the goal of solving a customer’s project needs. Secondary operations in manufacturing a spring can include plating, color coating and marking systems. At Ace Wire Spring & Form, we have established a color coating system that adds to a customer’s specific needs, helping with part identification and project completion. One category of color coating created is for a customer that wants the spring striped a certain way for inventory filing and grouping purposes. Another category is to have both end tips of the springs dipped into certain colors assigned to certain part number groupings. This creates a more efficient packaging and delivery process for Ace Wire Spring that carries over to the customer’s receiving system. A third category of color coating we perform is the painting of the entire spring. This is helpful in the final presentation of what the spring is used for by the customer. As a custom spring manufacturer, Ace Wire Spring must consider many different steps in the overall manufacturing process to create the end product needed by the customer. Color coating is one of these steps that can play a vital role to help produce the end result that satisfies the customer’s need. n Ace Wire Spring & Form Company ( has manufactured custom precision springs for diverse applications since 1939. The ISO Certified/ITAR registered company develops and manufactures a wide variety of compression springs, extension springs, torsion springs, and wireforms. John Higgins serves as the company’s marketing manager. He can be reached at 412-458-4830 or email


The Danger in Attempting to Rescue Rusty Springs By Jason Sicotte, Associated Spring


great deal of energy is required to convert iron ore (iron oxide) into the more useful metallic form of iron. While this does create a useful engineering metal, it is unfortunately not thermodyna­ mically stable. The net result is a situation with which we are all familiar — rust. Given the opportunity through exposure to oxygen and an electrolyte (most commonly simple water), steel will readily revert to its preferred low energy state, iron oxide.

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Water droplet

O2 OH-
















steel surface

Figure 1: Electrochemical corrosion cell on steel

During the high humidity of the summer months, it is very common for rust to appear on ferrous metals both during the manufacturing process as well as on the finished product. Product is most at risk when it is sitting without protection. Some spring manufacturing processes such as stress relieving or shot peening remove oils from the surface creating a high likelihood of rust initiation. The best, most cost-effective method of protection would be coating the surface with light oil. Rusting due to atmospheric moisture will typically affect a large percent of an exposed batch of springs, not just one or two parts. As such, the manufacturer is then faced with an all too common dilemma. Will these springs have to be scrapped? Will there be a significant cost impact caused by an attempt to add a rework operation? The severity of the rust will first need to be evaluated. Before attempting to assess the severity, it is useful to understand how the rust mechanism works. Figure 1 shows a classic electrochemical corrosion cell with a droplet of water on the surface. In this mechanism, iron is removed from the center of the cell and is deposited elsewhere on the surface. It is this deposited hydrated iron oxide that we see as red spots of rust on the part’s surface. Since it is a compound that

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Figure 2: Corrosion pits remaining after red rust has been shot peened away. This is not acceptable in high stress or safety critical spring applications.

is deposited, it is typically not well adhered to the surface and can be easily removed. Many small spring manufacturers without access to a stereo microscope might assume that if the red rust can be visibly removed, then the problem is gone and “all is good.� Unfortunately, this is often not the case because the pit, which was created at the center of the corrosion cell (where the red rust originated), is still present. The depth of this pit is dependent on many variables such as the amount of time

the corrosion cell was active, the conductivity of the electrolyte which facilitated the corrosion, and the corrosion resistance of the base alloy, to name a few. The electrolyte conductivity is influenced by the amount of free ions present in the solution, with salts being the most common contributor. Ty pica lly, ag g ressive spr ing manufacturing operations such as sandblasting, glass beading, vibratory deburring, or shot peening are attempted to salvage the parts. However, although these processes


With regard to “rusty springs,” an ounce of prevention is better than a pound of cure usually produce a surface which appears clean and rust-free to the naked eye, dangers often lurk below. Closer examination with a stereo microscope will reveal that pits are still present (Figure 2). Often, it is found that pits have rounded over edges which are then filled with finishing media. There will be virtually no reduction in the stress concentration magnitude as the deepest root of the pit will be entirely unaffected. Under a sufficiently high cyclic fatigue stress, this pit will act as a stress concentrator and initiate a crack despite the apparent cleanliness of the spring surface.

Conclusion — How do we disposition product affected by rust? Some applications may be more forgiving of microscopic rust pits. Applications such as those with a static or low cyclic applied stress or those which have a very low consequence of failure may not be affected by the pit. In the case of low stress spring applications, the stress concentration effect of the pit will be below the threshold needed to initiate a fatigue crack. However, certain applications which have a high consequence of failure should have no tolerance for allowable rust pits. An example of this kind of application includes safety critical springs, which could cause bodily injury or death in the event of a failure. Other examples are military applications, aerospace applications, or applications which could result in catastrophic mechanical failure, such as engine valve springs.

A successful rework operation is one that can completely remove the full evidence of the pit, not only the red rust. This is best evaluated using some magnification (ideally between 10-50x) to identify the worst-case area, and then inspecting the same area after rework to ensure success. Nevertheless, instead of scrapping or reworking corroded springs, it is best to avoid this situation altogether by investing in corrosion prevention processes. With regard to “rusty springs,” an ounce of prevention is better than a pound of cure. n Jason Sicotte is the new product and process engineering manager at Associated Spring while also directing the materials engineering laboratory at the company’s ITC (Innovation Technology Center). Sicotte has 25 years of experience in the spring industry ranging from failure analysis, engineering design, and new process development to supplier and customer collaborations and problem solving. He can be contacted at:


When Pre-Plated Wire Is a Good Choice for Springmakers By Don Jacobson III


aterial selection, in combination with the correct finish, is an important part of the spring manufacturing process. Material selection is based on the customer’s needs and requirements, and often requires an in-depth conversation with the customer on their wants and needs for the spring component. • Is this for decorative purposes? • Is the spring used in an indoor or outdoor application? • Will the spring be in a corrosive environment? • Is there concern for hydrogen embrittlement? • Does the part need to be conductive? • Will the finished part need to have a solderable surface? Once the basis for the spring’s environment is determined, it is time to start reviewing the type of material that will be used and if there is a need for a coating. We are going to review four different sub-groups of springs based on the raw material and plating finish. Both sections one and three are simply the raw material with no additional

1 2 3 4

Plain carbon steel spring wire like music wire and hard drawn

Pre-plated wire, including hot dipped galvanized, EPT zinc, nickel, tin, cadmium, copper, zincaluminum, silver and gold

Stainless steel and exotic spring wire like 302 stainless steel, 316 stainless steel, Inconel® and Hastelloy®

Post-plate finish, such as mechanical zinc, powder coat, or black oxide on top of a spring steel base

Figure 1: Spring material and coatings

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Actual Protective Layer of Pure Zinc

Eta (100% Zn) 70 DPN Hardness Zeta (94% Zn; 6% Fe) 179 DPN Hardness Delta (90% Zn; 10% Fe) 244 DPN Hardness

Partial Intermetallic Intermetallic Layer

Eta (75% Zn; 25% Fe) 250 DPN Hardness Base Steel 159 DPN Hardness

Figure 2: HDG. The hot-dip galvanized coating consists of four separate layers. The first three layers have a mixture of iron and zinc, and the external top layer is typically composed of 100% zinc.

finish. Sections two and four focus on adding an additional coating to the springs. Section two adds the coating directly to the wire before the spring is formed and section four adds the coating after the part is completed. The material in section two is the most controversial of all the spring and plating combinations. This section allows for some extensive customization of the raw material before forming. What exactly is a galvanized wire and why would we want to use that in the springmaking process? As Edward Daigle from CAP Technologies LLC explains, “Zinc coatings on carbon steels are used globally for corrosion protection due to their sacrificial nature. They are considered cost effective and environmentally friendly. The most common industrial method of zinc coating is hot dip galvanizing (HDG). The zinc coating deposited using HDG has four layers, which are 1) Eta (100 percent zinc) 2) Zeta (94 percent zinc, 6 percent iron) 3) Delta (90 percent zinc, 10 percent iron) and 4) Gamma (75 percent zinc, 25 percent iron). As coating thickness grows, the intermetallic layer growth exceeds the growth of the pure zinc. The presence of intermetallic layers affects the ductility of the coating on steel wires, especially during wire drawing or forming operations. This poor ductility causes the coating to break inside the die boxes or forming machines and leaves spots on the wire with a lesser amount of coating or coating completely missing. Once the intermetallic layer is stretched or bent greater than 10° to 15° the intermetallic cracks which can cause cracks in the pure zinc. The pre-plated wire is going to be the best choice for the springmaker and the customer when:

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1. Raw material pricing matters. A zinc-coated wire can be half the cost of a comparable sized stainless steel. 2. There are spring geometry issues. A barrel post-plating finish can cause a nightmare for the springmaker and the end customer. By nature, extension springs are notorious for wanting to hook and grab their friends while being barrel plated. This can turn an entire drum of parts into a fun game of “Barrel of Monkeys,” in which nobody wins. 3. Using a pre-plated wire allows the spring manufacturer to run the parts into appropriately-sized containers and minimize the parts tangling. 4. We can also look at using a pre-plated wire to avoid hydrogen embrittlement. The absorption of hydrogen atoms during a post-plating process can lead to material failures. A post-bake process will typically force all the hydrogen to bake out of the material and prevent any hydrogen pockets or bubbles from forming and embrittling the spring. Using pre-plated wire sounds like a cure-all, as it can be cheaper than stainless steel and offer corrosion protection greater than typical spring wire. There are a few drawbacks that we must review. 1. There are those pesky bare spots on the ends of each spring where the parts were cut off at the machine that can be prone to rust. 2, Plated wire is typically more expensive than plain wire. 3, A sharp radius and a poor coating will cause a pile of metal shavings to appear around the work center.

No intermetallic layers

Figure 3: Cross section of EPT zinc coating. No intermetallic layers are present, and the coating is solely pure metallic zinc.

4, Availability of the wire with the correct coating needed can be an issue. The team over at CAP Technologies LLC used their research into oil pipe corrosion resistance to come up with a slightly different pre-plated wire drawing process that helps eliminate the peeling issues associated with the hot dip galvanizing process. According to Edward Daigle, “All metal coatings deposited using the electro-plasma technology (EPT) process are different from hot dip processes in that it does not form any intermetallic layers in the coating and does not alter the tensile or mechanical properties of the substrate material. Loss of tensile is a byproduct of the hot dip process. Intermetallic layers formed in the HDG process create coatings with poor ductility. The absence of intermetallic layers in EPT gives coatings excellent ductility and eliminates the problem of a coating breaking off during drawing, forming, stranding or other mechanical working. The benefits of the plasma process are readily apparent during forming or stranding and eliminates the need for additional barrier coatings to extend the life of the formed products.” Having material that is prefinished can be very handy in a lean manufacturing environment. Pre-plated wire can also help where an order must be shipped right away, and you don’t want to have to deal with additional steps in the manufacturing process. There are some drawbacks when using pre-plated wire. The geometry of the part can cause flaking during the manufacturing process. The parts also won’t have 100 percent rust protection on the ends and is typically not recommended for compression springs that need to be ground.

I want to thank Edward Daigle from CAP Technologies LLC for being our technical expert for this article and his 217112 Syntech Casmi Ad 1_4 Page_26233 J&R Casmi Ad 1_4 Page 5/31/ extensive knowledge on galvanized and EPT coatings. n


A J O W I T T & R O D G E R S C O M PA N Y

SYNTECH Abrasives, a subsidiary of Jowitt and Rodgers Co., has been providing advanced superabrasive grinding products to the spring industry since 1986. Our focus has been and continues to be finding “creative solutions” for finishing ferrous as well as non-ferrous materials. We take pride in serving our customers in innovative ways to assist them in meeting their goals and objectives. We offer both resin and metal bonded diamond and CBN products. For more information contact Syntech Abrasives at 704-525-8030 or email to

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Robust Educational Program Highlights 2019 eXpo in Pittsburgh ®



ant to learn about tax reform and its impact on manufacturing? How to develop a 30-minute marketing plan? The role of human resources in business planning? How to begin utilizing additive manufacturing in your business? Those are just some of the subjects that will be covered during the two-day technical symposia that is a featured part of the 2019 SMI Metal Engineering eXpo™, Oct. 1–3 at the David L. Lawrence Convention Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The educational sessions will be held the mornings of Oct. 2 and 3 and provide attendees with the opportunity to choose among 24 presentation on business trends and best practices; manufacturing, technology and innovation; and materials and testing. Chris M. Fazio, general manager of the Pittsburgh plant at Diamond Wire Spring, is one of three individuals who are chairing the event. “Since the eXpo started in 2015 in Charlotte, springmakers have consistently raved about the quality and depth of material presented during the two-day technical symposia,” said Fazio. “The trade show committee, in conjunction with SMI’s technical committee, has worked hard to put together a strong lineup of speakers

46 / SPRINGS / Spring 2019

“Attendees will learn about the changes to the tax laws governing their business, as well as the impact on popular tax incentives, such as the R&D tax credit.” that will appeal to a wide variety of show attendees.” In addition to Fazio, the eXpo is chaired by Kelley L. Christy, director of sales/marketing and I.T., Diamond Wire Spring and Daniel Pierre III, president of JN Machinery in East Dundee, Illinois.

Tax Reform In late 2017, Congress passed, and President Trump signed into law the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, overhauling the U.S. tax code for the first time in over 30 years. Michael Devereux II, partner and director of manufacturing, distribution and plastics industry services, Mueller Prost, will address how this legislation impacts springmakers, metal stampers, wireformers and metal fabricators. “Attendees will learn about the changes to the tax laws governing their business, as well as the impact on popular tax incentives, such as the R&D tax credit,” explained Devereux.

The following topics will be addressed during “Tax Reform and Its Impact on Manufacturing,” scheduled for Wednesday, Oct. 2, at 8 a.m.: • Lower tax rates • Repeal of the AMT • 100 percent bonus depreciation and increased section 179 depreciation • Methods of accounting • The new pass-through deduction • New limitations on existing deductions • Research incentives

Fatigue Diagrams and Helical Compression Springs If you wa nt to dive deeply into technical details on the production of springs, you won’t want to miss two sessions from the Japan Society of Spring Engineers (JSSE). JSSE representatives will present “Study on Fat ig ue Diag ra ms on Helica l Com­pression Springs” at 8 a.m. on Wednesday, Oct. 2.

“Since the eXpo started in 2015 in Charlotte, springmakers have consistently raved about the quality and depth of material presented during the two-day technical symposia.”

“In order to investigate the validity of the current JIS fatigue design diagrams for round wire helical compression springs, fatigue tests were conducted for non-shot-peened and shot-peened springs made of piano wires and valvespring quality oil-tempered chromium silicon steel wires,” according to the authors of the study. “All the spring wires supplied for the testing were commercial ones and were processed in commercial spring manufacturing lines to coil springs. Fatigue tests were conducted at room temperature until fracture or 107 cycles, under various constant stress ratios from 0.1 to 0.7. Also, load loss of each non-fractured spring at fatigue test was measured. Using each load loss thus obtained, residual shear strain (shear stress relaxation divided by shear modulus) was calculated. It was found that the fatigue strengths obtained were all above the current JIS fatigue design diagrams and that the current JIS maximum design stresses were lower than those determined by the criterion that residual shear strain <= 0.05 percent is met. Comparison of current JIS standard with the corresponding SAE and EN standards were also made.”

Register Now Attendee registration is now available at the eXpo website www. Just click on the “Attendee Registration” button on the homepage. An eXpo-only registration pass to the exhibit hall is free for SMI members and $25 per person for non-members. An all-access pass to the eXpo includes access to the exhibit hall and all technical symposia sessions at a price of $50 per person for SMI members and $210 per person for non-members. The opening night reception, Tuesday, Oct. 1, 5:30 p.m. to 6:30 p.m., will be held on the floor of the convention center and is included in both registrations. Tickets to the Senator John Heinz Center Networking Event on Wednesday, Oct. 2 are $85 per person. SMI has negotiated discounted hotel rooms for Metal Engineering eXpo 2019 attendees and exhibitors through Orchid Events. Orchid Events is the only SMI-designated housing provider for this event. Beware of companies misrepresenting themselves as affiliated with SMI or Metal Engineering eXpo 2019. Two separate properties are available: • The Westin Convention Center Pittsburgh (eXpo headquarters hotel): $195 per night. • The Drury Plaza Pittsburgh Downtown: $184 per night. Visit www.metalengineering.expo and click on hotel reservations to reserve a room. To contact Orchid Events, call 801-505-4615 (International) or 877-505-0677 (North America) or email: help@

SPRINGS / Spring 2019 / 47

JIS representatives will be back the next day to present “Report of Research Committee on Height Reduction of Compressive Coil Spring.” That session is scheduled for 8 a.m. on Thursday, Oct. 3.

The Economy Bill Strauss, a popular presenter at past SMI events, will provide an update on the state of the U.S. economy and the manufacturing sector during his presentation on Wednesday, Oct. 2, at 8 a.m. Strauss, senior economist and economic advisor at the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, says he’s looking forward to joining eXpo attendees in Pittsburgh. “I believe we will still be in a growing economy that will be at a record level,” said Strauss about his October presentation. “In July we will be in the 11th year of an economic expansion, one in which we have never witnessed that length of growth in our economy. I’ll be in Pittsburgh to talk about the sustainability of that expansion and I’ll focus quite a bit on what that means for manufacturers.” Strauss says manufacturing has come off an exceedingly good year,

largely driven by the capital goods sector. “I think manufacturing should continue to be strong during 2019,” said Strauss. During his presentation in Pittsburgh he’ll talk about what to expect through the end of the year for manufacturing and look ahead to 2020.

Vince Bovino

Michael Devereux

Operational Excellence “The Road to Operational Excellence” was the theme of the Winter 2018 issue of Springs. One of the articles featured in that issue was written by Vince Bovino, founder of Bovino Consulting Group. Bovino will reprise some of the material he presented in his article during his appearance at the eXpo on Wednesday, Oct. 2, at 9 a.m. Bovino’s presentation is a fusion of his experiences, observed best practices and lessons learned from over 250 operating performance improvement assignments in major industrial settings. Attendees will learn how to design and implement four powerful systems that can improve a company’s operating performance and profitability.

“The presentation will inspire audience members to take action in their organizations to achieve new levels of operational excellence,” said Bovino. Bovino’s four systems for Operational Excellence are: 1) a two-tier performance measurement system 2) a gainsharing incentive pay system 3) a performance communication system and 4) a performance improvement team system. “The critical importance of linking and merging the four systems into a single plan will be highlighted,” explained Bovino. For the latest information and to register or exhibit at the eXpo, visit

The technical symposia will consist of two, 50-minute sessions per day (Oct. 2 and 3) from 8 to 8:50 a.m. and 9 to 9:50 a.m. Six presentations will be held concurrently during each session. A list of the 24 presentations can be found below and is subject to change.

Wednesday, Oct. 2

Technical Symposia Schedule

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Session 1 8 a.m. – 8:50 a.m. Tax Reform and Its Impact on Manufacturing Michael Devereux II, Partner and Director of Manufacturing, Distribution & Plastics Industry Services Mueller Prost Track: Business Trends & Best Practices

Servo Technology Goes Show Floor Max Linder, Technical Sales Director Bihler of America Inc. Track: Manufacturing, Technology & Innovation Economic and Manufacturing Outlook Bill Strauss, Senior Economist & Economic Advisor Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago Track: Business Trends & Best Practices

Bovino’s presentation is a fusion of his experiences, observed best practices and lessons learned from over 250 operating performance improvement assignments in major industrial settings. Attendees will learn how to design and implement four powerful systems that can improve a company’s operating performance and profitability.

Research Into the Limitations of Nitrided Spring Design and Future Research at IST Dr. Conor McCaughey Track: Business Trends & Best Practices

Study on Fatigue Diagrams of Helical Compression Springs Japan Society of Spring Engineers Track: Manufacturing, Technology & Innovation

New Developments for the Enhancement of Spring Production Dr. Peter Weigmann, Chairman of the Board WAFIOS Machinery Corp. Track: Manufacturing, Technology & Innovation

Coffee Break

The Role of Human Resources in Business Planning: Metrics, Measurements and Linking HR to Financial Objectives Bob Floreak, President Acuity Human Resources LLC Track: Business Trends & Best Practices

Accelerate Success With Business Alignment Vanessa Dodds, President & Founder Connections 4 Success Track: Business Trends & Best Practices

Bodycote Kolsterising Derek Dandy, Marketing Development Engineer, Kolsterising Track: Materials & Testing

Session TBA Max Linder, Technical Sales Director Bihler of America Inc. Track: Manufacturing, Technology & Innovation

The 30-Minute Marketing Plan Eric Keiles, Entrepreneur-In-Residence Square 2 Marketing Inc. Track: Business Trends & Best Practices Evaluation of Stress Concentrators and Their Effect on Fatigue Life Jason Sicotte, NPD Engineering Manager Associated Spring Track: Materials & Testing Coffee Break

8:50 a.m. _______________________________

Thursday, Oct. 3

Session 2 9 a.m. – 9:50 a.m.

Session 1 8 a.m. – 8:50 a.m.

Breaking Boundaries for Operating Excellence…A Quest for a Higher Performance Organization Vince Bovino, Management Consultant and Founder, Bovino Consulting Group Track: Business Trends & Best Practices

Session TBA Laura Rhodes, SMI Technical Committee Spring Manufacturers Institute Track: Business Trends & Best Practices

Crawl-Walk-Run Your Way Into Additive Manufacturing Dr. Timothy Simpson, Ph.D., Paul Morrow Professor of Engineering Design & Manufacturing Director, Additive Manufacturing & Design Graduate Program, Co-Director, Penn State CIMP-3D The Pennsylvania State University Track: Manufacturing, Technology & Innovation Accelerate Success with Business Alignment Vanessa Dodds, President & Founder Connections 4 Success Track: Business Trends & Best Practices

The New Dawn of Manufacturing in America Rosemary Coates, Executive Director Reshoring Institute Track: Manufacturing, Technology & Innovation Exit/Succession Planning for Baby Boomer Business Owners John “Jack” Ellsworth, Shareholder Cottrill Arbutina Track: Business Trends & Best Practices Report of Research Committee on Height Reduction of Compressive Coil Spring Japan Society of Spring Engineers Track: Manufacturing, Technology & Innovation

Theory of Stress Relaxation Behavior in Compression Springs Dan Sebastian, Technical Advisor Spring Manufacturers Institute Track: Materials & Testing

8:50 a.m. _______________________________

Session 2 9 a.m. – 9:50 a.m.

The New Age of Local Digital Marketing: User Experience and Digital Knowledge Management Dan Harmon, Vice President Higher Images Inc. Track: Business Trends & Best Practices New Developments for the Enhancement of Producing Wire Forms Dr. Peter Weigmann, Chairman of the Board WAFIOS Machinery Corp. Track: Manufacturing, Technology & Innovation Global Cost Drivers in the Wire Industry SMI Technical Committee Chairs Track: Business Trends & Best Practices Nitinol Shape Memory Alloy Dave Plumley, Nitinol Technology Development Manager Fort Wayne Metals Track: Materials & Testing

SPRINGS / Spring 2019 / 49


What’s the First Line of Defense Against Cyber Criminals and Data Theft? It’s Called the Secure Internet Gateway By Michael Mayes


he cyber bad guys are everywhere. They can come from organized crime syndicates, rogue nations, suburban rec rooms or a neighbor’s basement. These bad guys hack businesses of all sizes, including individuals, nonprofit agencies, our grandparents’ identities, data networks, laptop computers, mobile phones, “smart” refrigerators, even the doorbell on your house. Research shows that 91 percent of malware, botnets, phishing, ransomware, crypto-mining, crypto-jacking

50 / SPRINGS / Spring 2019

(pick your favorite flavor of cybercrime) live and breathe on the internet. What’s more, computers “have left the building,” apps are “in the cloud,” and, typically, “security is left behind.” So, who’s the most vulnerable? Anybody who uses the internet! Especially the internet user who leaves the confines of the company’s network with their laptop computer loaded with sensitive customer data. A big problem is that security platforms, like the old secure web gateways (SWG), were built to control users and

not secure the users and their data. Today, it’s a different world. Threat protection is now the highest priority because the financial impact of data theft and loss greatly outweighs any productivity or bandwidth loss. The world is way too mobile to control users. Security must now move to the cloud to fully protect data, apps and users — wherever they may go. A secure internet gateway (SIG) provides safe access to the internet anywhere users go, even if they’re off the virtual private network (VPN). A SIG provides the first line of defense and inspection because it uses the Domain Name System (DNS). DNS is a foundational component of how the internet works. When you click a link or type a URL, a DNS request initiates the process of connecting to the internet. Similar to how you look in your address book for your colleagues’ phone numbers, DNS was first developed to map domain names to IP addresses. DNS is used by every device — including laptops, servers, mobile phones and the Internet of Things as the first step in nearly every internet connection. DNS is also used by malware (the bad guys). Again, 91 percent of all malware, ransomware, phishing, etc., use DNS. The SIG stops the bad guys in their tracks by not allowing their request to reach your device’s IP address. The DNS request becomes the very first point at which a SIG can enforce security, by determining whether the domain or IP is legitimate or malicious. One of the most important aspects of any security solution is the threat intelligence behind it. The difference between a SIG and any other security product is the fact that it was “born” on the internet — giving it unique insight into the activity patterns from users and the ability to uncover where attackers are staging infrastructure on the internet for future attacks. Because it’s delivered from the cloud, a SIG has the horsepower to process billions upon billions of requests globally and uncover threats in real time.

A SIG can be deployed in minutes. When DNS is used as the main mechanism to send traffic to the cloud platform for analysis, deployment can be as easy as changing a configuration on your DNS or DHCP server to point traffic to the SIG. As a cloud delivered platform, a SIG should not require any hardware and should offer automatic updates for any software components. Ongoing operational management should be quite minimal. A SIG is all about securing access to the internet, but it’s imperative that it doesn’t add any additional latency for end users. In fact, a SIG may improve connection speeds. A SIG should be built into the foundation of the internet on a cloud infrastructure that is 100 percent reliable for the most effective service and protection. The SIG should also be priced very competitively. It should be a month-to-month “pay-per-use” model that should cost, literally, just a few dollars per user per month. So, where does one find a SIG and how is it implemented? Up until recently, a secure internet gateway has only been available to large enterprises that have the resources to employ very large staffs of dedicated technology experts, which point their multitude of pertinent devices through the SIG. Typically, these large companies would have direct business relationships with information technology companies like Cisco Systems, for example.

It’s no secret that even the smallest of businesses are every bit in need of security services as the largest ones. The challenge is reach. How can an enterprise-focused sales force like Cisco’s, reach small- and medium-sized businesses and make it cost effective? Through managed service providers (MSP). MSPs are the fastest growing technology sources for small and medium businesses. Since most MSPs provide cloudbased goods and services, a typical SIG only takes minutes to enable. The customers are on a monthly “pay-per-use” basis. The customer can add or subtract services as needed, or cancel them altogether. All SIG updates are included in the monthly fee and are implemented immediately. A secure internet gateway is the essential layer of cybersecurity for any business or individual that uses the internet, in any capacity. A SIG can reduce the number of malicious hacking attempts by as much as 96 percent, because it automatically uncovers attackers’ infrastructure poised for current and emerging threats before a connection is established. Remember, it’s not a question of “if” there will be a hacking attempt against you, it’s “when.” n Michael Mayes is the founder of Proserviant, a managed service provider (MSP) and partner of Cisco Systems. He is a 35-plus year veteran of the information technology community and a former executive of both Cisco Systems and OpenDNS (the company which created and developed Cisco’s secure internet gateway). Cisco acquired OpenDNS in 2016.

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Yost Superior Co.

Manufacturing Day 2019: Time to Put Your Plan Together 52 / SPRINGS / Spring 2019


oin with spring manufacturers across North America as they open their doors to show the public what modern springmaking looks like and to inspire the next generation of skilled workers. This year, the official date for Manufacturing Day is Friday, Oct. 4, but your company can choose any date that works for you and the students to hold your event. What requirements does your event need to meet in order to be an official Manufacturing Day event? According to the official website for

Manufacturing Day (, there are two things: • Must consist of a tour of a manufacturing facility, office, innovation center or other site; other creative student-invite type of event at a manufacturing or manufacturingsupporting site (e.g., design office, software company, etc.); school event about manufacturing; manufacturing-related jobs fair; manufacturing-related career day event; or manufacturing product expo or similar event. • Must be open to students, parents and/or educators.

One Company’s Experience According to Sharon Deerwester, co-owner of The Yost Superior Co. in Springfield, Ohio, the company was excited to take part in Manufacturing Day 2018 for the first time. Deerwester said teacher Rosie Matthies and 20 of her engineering students from Shawnee High School took a 90-minute tour of the company’s manufacturing facility to see firsthand the advanced technology involved in manufacturing today. “Students were able to see the complete process of springmaking, from blueprint to spring design software to watching springs being produced on various machines throughout the factory,” explained Deerwester.

“The students even produced their own spring on the Carlson hand coiler.” Matthies was able to talk with her students about how their classroom lessons could be applied to spring design. They were able to see how challenging problems at school could correlate to real world situations right in their own hometown. Matthies, in a post-visit discussion with Deerwester, said the students “were amazed about the amount of work and skill it takes to make a spring. They also mentioned the employees and how proud they seemed to be of their jobs and the springs that were being produced.” “We tried to make it as handson as possible,” related Deerwester. “The students really enjoyed talking with the employees and being able to participate in making springs. It made the process come alive for them and became more than a school lesson. It was an interactive experience that hopefully made a positive memory of how springs are made.” Deerwester said bringing students into the manufacturing environment opens their eyes to career opportunities that they never imagined. “Manufacturing Day is definitely a worthwhile effort that we hope to continue,” she said.

Get Help There are lots of great resources at the Manufacturing Day website to help you plan your company’s event; visit planning “I estimate it took approximately eight hours to prepare for our event,” said Deerwester. “Since this was our first time participating, I spent a fair amount of time researching online sites such as and I felt I needed to be better informed as to what would be involved for us to participate in manufacturing day before reaching out to one of our local high schools to see if there would be interest.” Deerwester contacted one of the high schools and “they were pleased to be invited.” The company put together a snapshot of the day and talked with company employees that would be directly involved. She concluded, “I finalized the plans with the teacher and her students, and we were ready!” The Yost Superior Co. is planning to hold its second Manufacturing Day event in October. n

SPRINGS / Spring 2019 / 53

Controlling Residual Stress and Retained Austenite for Better Spring Life Beth Snipes, Will McAlexander, Dan Klawonn


prings add a bounce to life â&#x20AC;&#x201C; until they donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t. Premature failures are often correlated to detrimental (usually tensile) residual stresses or less-than-optimal retained austenite content. Fortunately, residual stresses and retained austenite can be controlled during the manufacturing process. They can be verified using X-ray diffraction.

Residual Stresses Springs, by their nature, are subjected to cyclic stresses, or fatigue stresses. Theoretically, if the loading stresses stay below a fatigue stress limit, then the part will have an infinite fatigue life. The problem occurs when residual stresses are not factored into the equation. Residual stresses, the stresses that remain after all external loads are removed, add to loading stresses to give a total stress. Thus, compressive residual stresses typically reduce the total stresses while tensile residual stresses increase the total stress. There is a strong correlation between compressive residual stresses and improved fatigue life. Tensile stresses, on the other hand, almost always lead to premature failure.1 Putting compressive residual stresses into springs can be done during the manufacturing process. Shot peening, thermal treatments and work hardening techniques can be used to put beneficial compressive stresses at and near the outer surfaces to help prevent crack initiation and propagation. Stresses must balance through the thickness of a part. Low interior tensile stresses can be offset by the surface and near-surface compressive stresses. This stress profile represents an ideal stress state for good spring life. Shot peening is a common practice to improve spring life by imparting compressive stresses to the outer surfaces. The process puts a relatively high compressive stress at the surface and an even higher compressive stress just beneath the surface. These compressive stresses then fade to neutral and tensile stresses with depth into the interior. Properly done, shot peening improves spring life.2 How can we know that shot peening or other techniques have resulted in beneficial stresses? We can measure them using several techniques. Of these techniques, X-ray diffraction has many advantages. First, the X-ray diffraction technique is a direct measurement of strain. (Strain is converted to stress by multiplying by material constants.) Other techniques, except for neutron diffraction, are indirect techniques that measure the effects of strain/stress.

54 / SPRINGS / Spring 2019


Theoretically, if the loading stresses stay below a fatigue stress limit, then the part will have an infinite fatigue life. The problem occurs when residual stresses are not factored into the equation. Residual stresses, the stresses that remain after all external loads are removed, add to loading stresses to give a total stress. nnnnnnnnn

Secondly, the X-ray diffraction technique can quickly and nondestructively measure surface stresses. Sub-surface measurement and measurements on complex geometries may require material removal and/or sectioning. However, research has shown that relative compressive depths may be discerned nondestructively by comparing the residual stresses and associated diffraction peak widths.3

Retained Austenite Austenite is a phase in steel with different properties, compared to other phases in steel such as martensite. The different properties are due in part to the different crystal structures associated with the phases. Because of these crystal structure differences, a volume expansion occurs when austenite transforms into martensite. Thus, significant amounts of retained austenite are undesirable when dimensional tolerances are critical. Also, austenite has a lower yield stress compared to that of martensite or tempered martensite. Springs often require the superior mechanical properties associated with martensite, which can be improved through tempering. Tempered martensite retains much of the strength characteristics while being less brittle compared to martensite. Low retained austenite content is associated with better fatigue characteristics. Fine-grained austenite interspersed within tempered martensite prevents or retards nucleation/initiation of fatigue cracks until very high stresses are realized.4 Certain thermal treatments and mechanical processes like shot peening have been shown to reduce

SPRINGS / Spring 2019 / 55

retained austenite.5 Thus shot peening improves fatigue life by reducing retained austenite and imparting compressive residual stresses. Like residual stresses, retained austenite can be measured using X-ray diffraction techniques. In this case, the volume percentage of retained austenite is proportional to the integrated intensities of the diffraction peaks relative to the integrated intensities of the martensite peaks. ASTM E975 -13 Standard Practice for X-Ray Determination of Retained Austenite in Steel with Near Random Crystallographic Orientation describes the processes required for precise retained austenite measurements. The X-ray diffraction technique is the preferred method for low amounts (<15 percent) of retained austenite.6

The Bottom Line Fatigue is the prevalent failure mode in springs. Adding compressive residual stresses and reducing retained austenite have been shown to improve fatigue life in springs. These improvements can be accomplished in the manufacturing process. X-ray diffraction measurements are a popular method to verify successful manufacturing. Both residual stresses and retained austenite content can be determined using X-ray diffraction. These measurements can be made quickly, precisely and safely on the manufacturing floor, in the lab, or in a field environment.

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56 / SPRINGS / Spring 2019

Verifying the presence of compressive residual stresses and low amounts of retained austenite provides good return on investment by helping to prevent spring failures. In turn, springs with optimized properties operate at a superior level, allowing you to produce a superior product. n 1 Noyan and Cohen, “Residual Stress Measurement by Diffraction and Interpretation,” Springer-Verlag, 1987. 2 ”Shot Peening Applications,” Metal Improvement Company, Inc., 2001. 3 Matlock, Snoha, and Grendahl, “Using XRD elastic and plastic strain data to evaluate the effectiveness of different cold-working techniques in aerospace materials,” Powder Diffraction Suppl. 24, June 2009. 4 Smith, Debra Lynn, “The Effect of Cryogenic Treatment on the Fatigue Life of Chrome Silicon Steel Compression Springs” (2011). Dissertations (2009-), Paper 123, Marquette University. 5 Toshiya Tsuji et al, “Influences of Mechanical Properties and Retained Austenite Content on Shot-peening Characteristics,” Conference Proceedings 2011: ICSP-11, South Bend, Indiana 6 ASTM E975 - 13 Standard Practice for X-Ray Determination of Retained Austenite in Steel with Near Random Crystallographic Orientation. ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania

The authors are employed by Technology for Energy Corporation, Materials Testing Division in Knoxville, Tennessee where they research, design, and promote the use of portable X-ray diffraction systems for residual stress and retained austenite measurements. They can be reached at

Lee Spring Celebrates 100 Years


ee Spring, a manufacturer of stock and custom springs, recently celebrated its 100-year anniversary. The festivities were held Nov. 29, 2018 at one of Brooklyn’s most famous restaurants, The River Café. Steve Kempf, CEO, and Al Mangels, president, delivered speeches commemorating the success and longevity of Lee Spring. Kempf and Mangels also took time to mention employees both past and present, who have contributed to the success of the company. “A good time was had by all,” the company said in an announcement about the event. “Lee Spring is especially appreciative to their customers and suppliers who have made this achievement possible. As Lee Spring begins 2019, we look forward to starting in on the Al Mangels next 100 years!” n

SPRINGS / Spring 2019 / 57

©örn Meyer

Springmaker Spotlight

Adapting to Demand Allows Third-Generation Business to Thrive By Fran Eaton

(Editor’s note: Reb Banas, president of Stanley Spring & Stamping Corp. was recently featured in the January 2019 issue of the News Bulletin, a publication of the Technology Manufacturers Association. We reprint it here with permission. Banas served as president of SMI from 2008 to 2010.)


daptable,” “versatile,” “profitable,” “creative” — all words that describe manufacturers that survive and thrive from generation to generation. And those are the words that describe Stanley Spring and Stamping Corporation, a Chicago-based manufacturer that Reb Banas’ grandfather Stanley, a Polish immigrant, started up as World War II closed down. “My grandfather started in 1944 with a hand coiler in his garage while working for another spring company,” Banas told News Bulletin. “He then rented a three-flat with a manual elevator near where the Chicago Stadium now stands, before moving to this location on West Foster.” Banas’ father Ron and his uncle Stan took over the business in 1954. Today, as a third-generation member of the Banas family, Reb says he is proud Stanley Spring and Stamping is one of the largest family-owned producers of custom springs, stampings, wireforms and fasteners in the world, serving many different industries.

SPRINGS / Spring 2019 / 59

There’s a sense of accomplishment in buying materials, designing something, selling it at a specific price and making something people are buying. All that contri­butes to the economy while producing something ­— and actually making something and selling it at a profit,” Banas said. “That’s all rewarding. Add to that, working with people for years that show up every day to

do their jobs. It’s something you never take for granted.

Industry Changes Demand Versatility The business has thrived during some of manufacturing history’s most rapidly developing and dramatically-changing time periods. Starting with producing springs, Stanley Spring and Stamping added and changed its services to meet the industry’s demands. “As business turned, so did our customers,” Banas said. “At one time we were making wires for Zenith, RCA and Magnavox TVs, as well as washers and dryers. Then along came plasma and flat screens and that work went offshore, as did the customers. We had to adapt to the demands — as every manufacturer does.” Stanley Spring and Stamping boasts a large, diverse customer base — from electronics to consumer appliances to outdoor power equipment and seatbacks for chairs. “There are springs in your glove compartments, visors, trunk releases, gas cap releases,” Banas said. “There are springs on sidewalk-edging blades, in electronics behind electrical outlets, cellphone plugs — it’s hard for most people to appreciate where springs are.” Banas says all manufacturers face the challenge of winning and keeping customers, making their work profitable and finding skilled team members. “When we find good workers, they stay,” he said. “In the last year, we had three employees celebrate 50 years at Stanley Spring. Our average length of employment is 26 years. Their experience is valuable and crucial to the company’s success.” Stanley Spring’s team experience permits the company to offer important recommendations on print tolerances, materials and secondary operations — something every producer wants to keep costs low and production efficient. Banas says the future is bright for manufacturing as a whole, but some dark clouds on the economic horizon concern him. “I’m optimistic on the industry and our business, but I’m very pessimistic on the state government. It worries me more than anything. The state’s finances are in such disrepair,” he said, echoing concerns other Illinois manufacturers have voiced in recent months. Banas said being located in Illinois and also in Cook County and Chicago places three strikes against his

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company’s outlook. On one hand, his Chicago location has historically hosted a regional network of premier wire and metal producers. On the other hand, government demands on business owners by the state, county and city have caused Banas to reconsider and investigate the cost of moving to Wisconsin. He found that not only would such a move upend the company’s access to its 95 skilled employees, moving 500 pieces machinery and setting up a new facility would cost the company at least 40 days of crucial production. “For us, moving just doesn’t work,” Banas said. However, Stanley Spring expanded recently by setting up a facility in Fort Lauderdale, Florida that focuses on customized projects. When not overseeing the two Stanley Spring facilities, Banas is busy with his family. Two of his four children are currently in college and the youngest is in junior high school. He stays busy coaching baseball teams, golfing and swimming — a sport in which he competed while studying at Southern Methodist University. Banas’ office walls are lined with photos of teams, plaques and autographed sports memorabilia. He’s also active with charitable causes such as Misericordia, Evans Scholars Foundation and Loyola Academy.

Rewards of Leading A Third-Generation Business “There’s a sense of accomplishment in buying materials, designing something, selling it at a specific price and making something people are buying. All that contributes to the economy while producing something — ­ and actually making something and selling it at a profit,” Banas said. “That’s all rewarding. Add to that, working with people for years that show up every day to do their jobs. It’s something you never take for granted.” Evidence once again of Stanley Spring and Stamping’s cultural “adaptability,” “versatility,” “profitability,” “creativity”— and why companies like theirs will be around for generations to come. Stanley Spring and Stamping is located at 5050 West Foster in Chicago or on the web at n


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Book Corner ©

Gen Z @ Work: How the Next Generation Is Transforming the Workplace


orn between 1995 and 2012, at 72.8 million strong, Gen Z is a generation about to make their presence known. They’re different from millennials, yet no one seems to have been talking about them — until now. That’s where a new book, “Gen Z @ Work,” comes along, written by generations expert David Stillman (Gen X) and his 17-year-old son, Jonah (Gen Z). The book is an attempt to introduce the next influential demographic group to join the workforce. As evidenced by feedback from recent issues of Springs, many springmakers are probably still trying to figure out how to work with millennials! The authors define Gen Z as those born between 1995–2012 and argue that this new generation has a unique perspective on careers and how to succeed in the workforce. Here are the seven distinguishing traits they identify: • Phigital - The line between the physical and digital worlds for Gen Z hasn’t just been blurred; it’s been completely eliminated. Ninety-one percent of Gen Zers say that a company’s technological sophistication would influence their decision to accept a position with a firm. • Hyper-Custom - Gen Zers have always worked hard at identifying and tailoring their brands for the world to know. From job titles to career paths, the pressure to customize has been turned up! Fifty-six percent of Gen Zers want to write their own job descriptions. • Realistic - Growing up with skeptical Gen X parents in the aftermath of 9/11 and the Great Recession has created in Gen Z a very pragmatic mindset when it comes to preparing for the future. • FOMO - Gen Zers suffer from an intense fear of missing out on anything. The good news is that they will stay on top of all trends; the bad

news is that they will worry they’re not moving ahead fast enough. • Weconomists - From Uber to Airbnb, Gen Zers have only known a world with a shared economy. They will push to break down internal and external silos like never before. • DIY - Gen Z is the do-it-yourself generation. Its fierce, independent nature will collide head-on with so many of the collaborative cultures that millennials have fought for. • Driven - With parents who drilled into them that there are winners and there are losers, this demographic is one motivated group. Seventy-two percent of Gen Zers say they are competitive with people doing the same job. By understanding these seven traits, the authors argue “we can learn about what they are looking for in their careers. Where might we clash with Gen Z? Where will we click?” The publicity for this book boasts: “Based on the first national studies of Gen Z’s workplace attitudes; interviews with hundreds of CEOs, celebrities, and thought leaders on generational issues; cutting-edge case studies; and insights from Gen Zers themselves, ‘Gen Z @ Work’ is the first serious, comprehensive examination of what the next generation of workers looks like, and what that means for the rest of us.” I found the numerous CEO interviews quite interesting and insightful. This is a good nugget from Keith Alper, CEO and founder of Nitrous Effect (a company that specializes in marketing, digital, entertainment, events and employee engagement) about Gen Z being more prone to work independently, as opposed to millennials, who want collaboration. “In our business, we have been hiring a lot of Gen Zers,” explained Alper.

“One of the biggest differences we see with our Gen Z employees is that they are fine with the occasional team meeting, but when it comes time to rolling up their sleeves, they want their own private space. Many ask if they can work remotely. At first we thought that they didn’t like us, but we just had to adapt to the fact they want to work in new ways.” The interplay between father and son is an interesting dynamic that I’ve not encountered before. Jonah Stillman was a teenager when he wrote the book with his dad and provides the counterpoint to what his dad writes, and he usually does it in a quite humorous way. Enjoy this book if you are ready to move beyond millennials and take a deep dive into Generation Z. n

Have a favorite business book you would like to tell us about or review? Send your suggestions to Springs managing editor Gary McCoy at

SPRINGS / Spring 2019 / 63


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Global CTE News Highlights Robots Replacing Humans in Manufacturing? New Study Says Trained Workers Still Needed


espite the widespread fear that robots will be taking over the factory floor, new data recently released by A.T. Kearney and Drishti show that humans still perform 72 percent of manufacturing tasks. This data, from a survey of more than 100 manufacturing leaders, suggests that despite headlines about robots and artificial intelligence (AI) replacing humans in factories, people remain central to manufacturing, creating significantly more value on the factory floor than machines. Respondents also noted an almost universal lack of data in the activities that people perform in the factory. This analytical gap severely limits manufacturers’ ability to make informed decisions on capacity planning, workforce management, process engineering and many other strategic domains. It also suggests that manufacturers may overprioritize automation due to an inability to quantify investments in the human workforce that would result in greater efficiencies. “Despite the prominence of people on the factory floor, digital transformation strategies for even the most well-known, progressive manufacturers in the world remain largely focused on machines,” said Michael Hu of A.T. Kearney. “This massive imbalance in the analytics footprint leaves manufacturers around the globe with a human-shaped blind spot, which prevents them from realizing the full potential of Industry 4.0.” While manufacturing technology has seen increasing innovation for decades, the standard practices for

“Humans are going to be the backbone of manufacturing for the foreseeable future, and the companies that improve their human factory analytics are the ones that will be best positioned to compete in Industry 4.0.” gathering and analyzing tasks done by humans — and the foundation of holistic manufacturing practices like lean and Six Sigma — are time-andmotion study methodologies, which can be directly traced back to the time of Henry Ford and have not been updated for the digital age. “The principles underlying these 100-year-old measurement techniques are still valid, but they are too manual to scale, return incomplete datasets and are subject to observation biases,” said Prasad Akella, founder and CEO of Drishti. “In the age of Industry 4.0, manufacturers need larger and more complete datasets from human activities to help empower operators to contribute value to their fullest potential. This data will benefit everyone in the assembly ecosystem: plant managers, supervisors, engineers and, most importantly, the operators themselves.” Additionally, survey respondents noted the significant overhead needed for traditional data gathering methodologies. On average, 37 percent of

skilled engineers’ time is spent gathering analytics data manually. “Humans are the most valuable asset in the factory, and manufacturers should leverage new technology to extend the capabilities of both direct and indirect labor,” said Akella. “If you could give your senior engineers more than a third of their time back, you’d see immediate gains. Instead of spending so many hours collecting data, their attention and capabilities would remain focused on the most critical decisions and tasks.” The survey also revealed the flip side of human contributions to manufacturing systems. Respondents noted that 73 percent of variability on the factory floor stems from humans, and 68 percent of defects are caused by human activities. Perhaps as a result, 39 percent of engineering time is spent on root cause investigations to trace defects — another manual expenditure of time that could be reduced with better data. “The bottom line is that better data can help both manufacturers and human operators across the board,” said Hu. “Data helps illuminate opportunities for productivity and quality improvements, simplifies traceability, mitigates variability, and creates new opportunities for operators to add even greater value. Humans are going to be the backbone of manufacturing for the foreseeable future, and the companies that improve their human factory analytics are the ones that will be best positioned to compete in Industry 4.0.” To view the full report, visit www. n

SPRINGS / Spring 2019 / 65


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Inside SMI ©

SMI Welcomes Three New Board Members


MI is pleased to announce that Peter Mendel, president and CEO of Kern-Liebers USA in Holland, Ohio, Linda Froehlich, co-owner of Ace Wire Spring & Form Co. in McKees Rock, Pennsylvania, and Tony Pesaresi, president of Winamac Coil Spring in Kewanna, Indiana have joined the SMI board of directors. Mendel was named to his current position at Kern-Liebers in July 2018, after spending nearly four years at Putzmeister America, Inc. in Racine, Wisconsin. His stint there included 2 ½ years as president and CEO and as COO for nearly 1 ½ years. Mendel is no stranger to KernLiebers. He was vice president of operations for Kern-Liebers Inc. from July 2012 to February 2015; before that, he served for one year as operations manager for Kern-Liebers Texas. He started his career with the company at Resortes Kern Liebers in Río Bravo, Tamaulipas, Mexico as engineering manager for more than three years and for a year and a half as plant manager. Before coming to the U.S. and Mexico, Mendel worked for different companies within the Kern-Liebers Group in Germany. Ace Wire Spring & Form has been manufacturing compression, extension and torsion springs, as well as wireforms, since the company was founded in McKees Rocks in 1939 by the father and son team of Joseph Vodvarka Sr. and Joseph Jr. Today, Rich and Linda Froehlich are the second generation to run the business, and a member of the third generation, son Ritchy, is the general manager and chief design engineer for the company. Linda Froehlich previously served on the SMI board. She returns to

Peter Mendel

Linda Froehlich

head up the workforce development committee (formerly Dream It. Do It.). The work of the committee is to assist SMI members in their efforts to recruit the next generation of workers for the spring industry. The committee was started after SMI and The Manufacturing Institute issued a joint news release in 2017 to announce that SMI had joined the Institute’s Dream It. Do It. program. The program helps raise awareness of careers in manufacturing. Through this partnership, SMI and its members have access to market-tested materials targeting young people, parents, and teachers about a career in modern manufacturing. Froehlich says the Dream It. Do It. program continues to be an important element in SMI’s ongoing strategy to reach youth. The strategy includes organizing plant tours and school visits on Manufacturing Day and growing a network of industry “ambassadors” to lead youth activities in regions across the country.

Tony Pesaresi

“I’m excited to head up this effort, because workforce development is a passion of mine,” said Froehlich. “We already have a great committee of industry champions and I invite others to get on board to help us in this effort.” Established in 2005, Dream It. Do It. works to change the perception of the industry and inspire next-generation workers to pursue manufacturing careers. The initiative offers local manufacturers, schools, community-based organizations and other stakeholders the opportunity to partner with a respected national platform to promote manufacturing as a top tier career choice in the United States. For more information, visit http://www. Dream-It-Do-It/Dream-It-Do-It.aspx Pesaresi is a third-generation family member of Winamac Coil Spring. He has been actively involved in the business for nearly 25 years. He became president of Winamac Coil Spring in January 2015, even though he is

SPRINGS / Spring 2019 / 67

Inside SMI

much considered as a “plant rat,” two titles of which he is proud. Pesaresi is currently serving as the president of the Chicago Association of Spring Manufacturers (CASMI). In addition to his studies at Purdue University in business administration and management, general, Pesaresi earned an associate degree in fire science from Keiser University in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. He’s put that degree to good use, serving as member of the Kewanna Volunteer Fire Department since October 1992.

Current SMI Board of Directors SMI Executive Committee President: Steve Kempf (Lee Spring) Vice President: Bert Goering (Precision Coil Spring) Secretary/Treasurer: Dan Sceli (Peterson Spring) At Large: Gene Huber Jr. (Winamac Coil Spring) Past President: Mike Betts (Betts Company) Regional Board Members Mid-West: Tony Pesaresi (Winamac Coil Spring) - 2021 Mid-Atlantic: – TBD Connecticut: David DeVoe (Plymouth Spring) - 2020 Canada: Jeff Wharin and Chris Wharin (Bohne Spring) – 2020 Southwest: Peter Mendel (Kern-Liebers) – 2021 West: Agustin Estalayo (RPK Mexico) 2019

Pittsburgh/Ohio: Ritchy Froehlich (Ace Wire Spring & Form Co.) - 2019 Southeast: – Don Jacobson III (Newcomb Spring), Magazine - 2020 Michigan: Don Lowe (Peterson Spring), Membership - 2019 At Large Daniel Pierre III (JN Machinery), Associate Members, MEE 2019 co-chair – 2019 Joe Devany (Betts Company) - 2020 Linda Froehlich (Ace Wire Spring & Form Co.), Workforce Development - 2021 Chris Fazio/Kelley Christy (Diamond Wire Spring), MEE 2019 co-chairs – 2019 Dave Deerwester (Yost Superior) – 2020 Brett Goldberg (International Spring), Benchmarking - 2020

SMI thanks the following sponsors for their support of our Annual Meeting Platinum Sponsors

Gold Sponsors

Silver Sponsor

Bronze Sponsor

68 / SPRINGS / Spring 2019

Inside SMI

Calendar of Key Events for the Global Spring Industry 2019

Spring Design Training Program Continues to Move Forward SMI’s technical committee has been busy over the past two years putting together a training program to help educate new workers to the industry and those who are further along in their career. Led by Gene Huber Jr. of Winamac Coil Spring, the technical committee plans to have the two 100 level classes ready to present to the SMI board of directors for approval at the 2019 annual meeting in Austin. Huber says the second phase is to bring the 201, 202 and 203 classes to the point of being taught in October at the SMI Metal Engineering eXpo in Pittsburgh. “Our strong hope is that we will be able to teach one or two of the classes at the eXpo,” explained Huber. The first two courses are designed at a fundamental level and include: 101 – “Spring Fundamentals”* 102 – “Overview of Common Spring Manufacturing Processes” 103 – “Overview of Common Spring Materials”* *Being presented for approval in Austin

Classes three through eight are designed as basic courses: 201 – “Compression Spring Design” 202 – “Extension Spring Design” 203 – “Torsion and Spiral Spring Design” 204 – “Spring Washer Design” 205 – “Beam, Torsion Bar and Constant Force Spring Design” 206 – “Garter Spring and Snap Ring Design” 207 – “Production Process of Common Spring Materials” Content for the advanced courses will be completed later and will include: 301 – “Springs – Fatigue” 302 – “Springs – Heat Treatment and High Temperature Alloys” 303 – “Springs – Corrosion Resistant Alloys and Finishes” 304 – “Springs – Dimensioning, Tolerancing and Testing” The committee has designed the program so all courses will be available on the SMI website for easy access by SMI members. In addition to its work on the spring design training courses, the committee has helped develop topics and recruit speakers for the technical symposia that will be held in conjunction with the SMI Metal Engineering eXpo, Oct. 1–3, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. n

May 13–16 WAI InterWire 2019 Atlanta, Georgia Sept. 26–27 10th International Congress of Springs Hamburg, Germany Oct. 1–3 SMI Metal Engineering eXpo Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Nov. 14–15 ISO/TC 227 – Springs Nagoya, Japan

2020 March 6–10 SMI Annual Meeting Atlantis, Bahamas March 30–April 3 wire Düsseldorf International Wire and Cable Trade Fair Düsseldorf, Germany wire Sept. 14–16 International Committee on Spring Technologies – ICST – 2 Germany Oct. 7–9 SpringWorld Rosemont, Illinois Nov. (TBD) ISO/TC 227 – Springs Milan, Italy

2021 Nov. (TBD) ISO/TC 227 – Springs U.S.

SPRINGS / Spring 2019 / 69

Committee Connection ©

New ASTM International Group To Help Expand Additive Manufacturing Technology Applications


STM International’s committee on additive manufacturing technologies (F42) has launched a new subcommittee focused on creating standards that support the growing number of applications of the technology across various industry sectors. “The evolution of additive manufacturing technologies combined with sector-specific requirements demand us to create a broader portfolio of more detailed and stringent standards that support qualification of high valueadded parts and components. The new subcommittee will help broaden F42’s scope, helping meet these industries’ specific emerging needs and fill their technical gaps” says Mohsen Seifi, Ph.D., director of global additive manufacturing programs, ASTM. ASTM International member Shane Collins will chair the new applications subcommittee (F42.07). Collins says, “The point of the new subcommittee is to support specific industries where we need more and robust test methods, materials, processes, environment, health, and safety standards to address the many directions in which additive manufacturing is being used today.” According to Collins, “We are reaching the tipping point in many industries. More and more parts are manufactured efficiently using additive manufacturing instead of traditional manufacturing. By creating industry-specific standards, we can continue to support that innovation.” The new subcommittee intends to launch efforts in:

“The point of the new subcommittee is to support specific industries where we need more and robust test methods, materials, processes, environment, health, and safety standards to address the many directions in which additive manufacturing is being used today.” • • • • • • • • •

aviation; construction; consumer; electronics; maritime; medical and biological; oil and gas; spaceflight; and, transportation and heavy machinery.

“ASTM International continues to expand its decadelong footprint in additive manufacturing,” says Pat Picariello,

the committee’s manager. “This subcommittee will play a key role in keeping the committee on the cutting edge of standardization development, maintaining its responsiveness to a constantly-evolving set of needs.” This new subcommittee launches in the same year as ASTM International’s Additive Manufacturing Center of Excellence (www.amcoe. org), a global partnership aimed at supporting research and development activities that support standardization and related areas. n

SPRINGS / Spring 2019 / 71


Spring Testing

The Authority on Accuracy.


NEW Available with Basic or Advanced Software

Innovative Spring Testing Solutions The NEW Starrett L1 Line of versatile and easy-to-use force testers has joined the complete Starrett line of innovative force solutions for spring testing. A new, affordable high volume production testing solution is also introduced, available in basic software (S1) and advanced (S2).




For more information visit (978) 249-3551

spring inspection

New Products ©üseyin harmandaglı, morkeman, PeskyMonkey

FENN’s Automated Turn-Key Swaging Solution

At FABTECH 2018, FENN displayed an Automated TurnKey Swaging Solution, which included a FENN 3F Swager, a hydraulic feeder, integrated robotics, laser engraving and a cutting system. The system was focused on showing automation related to swaging, but systems can be developed for any of FENN’s product lines, including wireforming and shaping equipment, turks heads, drawbenches, swagers, spring coiler machines and rolling mills. In addition to designing brandnew systems, FENN can also retrofit an integrated system around an existing piece of FENN equipment. Dozens of add-ons and secondary operations are possible, such as feeding systems, laser engravers, cutters, buffing systems and welding systems, enabling the final product to be completely customized for its intended application. At FABTECH, FENN highlighted the benefits of its integrated automation systems, including improved equipment safety, reduced time in set up and production, and reduced operating costs by maximizing efficiencies. “Visiting the customer to really understand their business and production goals is an essential part of designing the right automated solution for our clients,” said sales manager Mike Geiger. “We work hard to fully understand the intended application of the machine, the process, the material to be used, and the desired start and finished product dimensions.” Learn more at or contact

SPRINGS / Spring 2019 / 73

New Products

New Pig Introduces PIG® Oily Water Cleanup Towels New Pig has introduced the PIG® Oily Water Cleanup Towels in Vac-Pack. Different from conventional oil-only spill products, these absorbent towels allow water to pass through during outdoor cleanups and oily tool wipedowns, capturing oils, fuels and hydrocarbons. Packaged in convenient and space-saving vac packs, the towels are ideal for use in outdoor, wet and rainy conditions to clean up and wipe down oily tools where oil has collected in cracks and crevices. The towels float to remove oil on water (even the sheen), and their white color shows absorbed oil to indicate saturation level.  The towels are constructed from lightweight yet durable material that conforms to irregular surfaces and are tough enough to scrub concrete, rocks and asphalt. They can be wrung out after use to reduce waste or for fuels blending or incineration. For more information, visit www. or call 800-HOT-HOGS.

Larson Electronics Releases New Spotlight and Disconnect Switch Larson Electronics, a Texas-based company with more than 40 years of experience spearheading the industrial lighting sector, has released an explosion proof 25-watt red LED warning spotlight designed for cranes. This safety spotlight is approved Class I & II, Division 1 & 2 and rated for use in wet and marine environments and produces 2,250 lumens of sharp red light while drawing on 2.09 amps from a 12-volt electrical system. Larson also announced the release of an explosion proof 200-amp nondiffused disconnect switch that provides overcurrent and short-circuit protection of service entrance, feeder or branch

74 / SPRINGS / Spring 2019

circuits, lighting, heating, appliance and motor circuits. This 3-poleswitch features an EHD frame and is suitable applications include hazardous locations such as petroleum refineries, storage areas and chemical processing plants. The EPNFDS-200A-3P explosion proof non-diffused disconnect switch is constructed of cast aluminum with stainless-steel cover bolts and hinges. This unit features a rectangular bolted cover design for uniform installations and has an external on/off lever that can be locked to ‘off,’ allowing room for up to three padlocks for maximum security. The internal circuit breaker handle is a sliding plate type mounted to the cover.

The circuit breaker itself is trip-free of the external handle. Larson Electronics’ non-diffused disconnect switch is rated for Class I, Divisions 1 and 2, Groups B, C and D; Class I, Zones 1 and 2, Groups IIB+ H2 and IIA; Class II, Divisions 1 and 2, Groups E, F and G; and Class III hazardous work areas. This unit is also NEMA 3, 4, 4X, 7 (B, C, D), and 9 (E, F, G) rated. This unit features an EHD frame with a 3-pole configuration and operates on a maximum of 600V AC with one cast 3" conduit hub on the top and one cast 0.5" conduit hub on the bottom. For more information, phone 888-3512363 or email

New Products

HTC CL Series of Spring Coilers HTC Spring Machinery and FSI announces the addition for the new HTC 60CL, 5 axes CNC spring coiler with a wire range of 2.2mm–6.0mm (.086"–.236"). This new design replaces the previous 4 axes 60CF machine. Features include 5 programmable axes including feed, O.D., vertical pitch, horizontal pitch and cutter. The touch screen interface simplifies programming, while the advanced coiling point system simplifies conversion from RH to LH coiling. The camless operation provides fast and efficient setup and operation. Both rotating and straight cutoff are standard on the HTC coilers. Additionally, the mandrel in/out movement is also programmable. This machine is also available in 8.0mm size. HTC currently produces CNC spring coilers for wire sizes ranging from 0.15mm to 18mm (.006"–.708"). For additional information, email info@ or phone 269-6793557. n

Advertiser's Index A & D Trading (440)563-5227. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Admiral Steel (800) 323-7055. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Advanced Spring Design (815) 963-2220. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Alloy Wire International (866) 482-5569. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 AIM Inc. (630) 458-0008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Central Wire (800) 435-8317. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Diamond Wire Spring Co. (800) 424-0500. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Dispense Works (815) 363-3524. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Fenn/Torin (860) 594-4300. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Forming Systems Inc. (877) 594-4300. . . inside front cover, back cover Gibbs Wire & Steel Co. Inc. (800) 800-4422. . . inside back cover Gibraltar (847) 383-5442. . . . . . . . . . . 17, 66

Industrial Steel & Wire (800) 767-0408. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Interwire Products Inc. (914) 273-6633. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 JN Machinery (224) 699-9161. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 John Evans’ Sons (215) 368-7700. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Jowitt & Rodgers/Syntech (704) 525-8030. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Kiswire (201) 461-8895. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Maguire Machinery (609) 266-0200. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Mapes Piano String Co. (423) 543-3195. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 NIMSCO (563) 391-0400. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 North American Spring Tool (860) 583-1693. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Proto Manufacturing (800) 965-8378. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Radcliff Wire (860) 583-1305. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

RK Trading (847) 640-9371. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Simplex Rapid (563) 391-0400. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Spring Manufacturers Institute (630) 495-8588. . . . . . . . 12, 15, 68 Starrett (978)249-3551. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Suzuki Garphyttan (574) 232-8800. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Tool King (847) 537-2881. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Ulbrich Stainless Steels (203) 239-4481. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 United Wire (800) 840-9481. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Vinston (847) 972-1098. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Vulcan Spring & Manufacturing Co. (215) 721-1721. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 WAFIOS (203) 481-5555. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Zapp Precision Strip (203) 386-0038. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

SPRINGS / Spring 2019 / 75

Snapshot © Ievgenii, nicholas belton

David B. DeVoe Plymouth Spring

Name: David B. DeVoe. Nickname: Dave. Company name and city: Plymouth Spring, Bristol, Connecticut. Brief history of your company: Plymouth Spring was established in 1959 and specializes in stamping (fourslide), coiling, grinding and wireforms. Job title: President. Spring industry affiliations: SMI board of directors, NESMA board of directors and Plymouth Spring board of directors. Current home: Bristol, Connecticut.

A really great evening to me is: Going out to dinner with Dawn and coming back home to watch a movie with the fireplace on, or anytime with the grandkids.

Family: Two children, two stepchildren, four grandkids and one more on the way!

The one thing I can’t stand is: People who pass the buck and don’t take responsibility for their actions.

What I like most about being a springmaker: Every day.

My most outstanding qualities are: Calm personality; I try to think before overreacting to problems.

Birthplace: Waterbury, Connecticut.

Favorite food: Pasta. Favorite books/authors: Any book that has a love story with a positive outcome. Favorite song/musician: Colbie Caillat. Hobbies: Golf. Favorite places: Anywhere tropical. Best times of my life: Now.

76 / SPRINGS / Spring 2019

People who knew me in school thought I was: Going to run a business someday. I knew I was an “adult” when: Someone asked to borrow money from me. If I weren’t working at Plymouth Spring, I would like to: Be a lawyer or stockbroker.

The most difficult business decision I ever had to make was: Letting a good person go. The decision was good for business, but heavy on the heart. I wonder what would have happened if: I had had more children. Would I have any hair left? Role models: My mom; anyone in life that has shown me that love in your heart for people overcomes any problem that life can give. I would like to be remembered in the spring industry for: Continuing to build our company, and working with great people in the spring organizations to make our industry a better place for the up and coming leaders in our industry. But people will probably remember me for: The guy who talks too much and loves his family.

Profile for Spring Manufacturers Institute

Springs, Spring 2019 Vol 58 No 2  

Springs, Spring 2019 Vol 58 No 2