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STAMPS COINS BANKNOTES MEDALS BONDS & SHARES AUTOGRAPHS BOOKS WINES

69 Southampton Row, Bloomsbury, London WC1B 4ET www.spink.com

R THE BENTLEY PRIORY BATTLE OF BRITAIN TRUST APPEAL CHARITY AUCTION R 6 SEPTEMBER 2012 R LONDON

© Copyright 2012

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THE BENTLEY PRIORY BATTLE OF BRITAIN TRUST APPEAL CHARITY AUCTION

6 SEPTEMBER 2012

LONDON


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GROUP CHAIRMAN AND CEO Olivier D. Stocker YOUR SPECIALISTS STAMPS UK - Tim Hirsch Guy Croton David Parsons Nick Startup Neill Granger Paul Mathews Dominic Savastano Tom Smith USA - Chris Anderson George Eveleth Andrew Titley Ed Robinson Rick Penko EUROPE - Guido Craveri Fernando Martínez CHINA - Anna Lee Johnny Sang COINS UK - Paul Dawson Julie-Morgane Lecoindre Richard Bishop William MacKay Barbara Mears John Pett USA - Stephen Goldsmith Matthew Orsini Normand Pepin CHINA - Mark Li BANKNOTES, BONDS & SHARES UK - Barnaby Faull Mike Veissid Andrew Pattison Tom Badley USA - Stephen Goldsmith Matthew Orsini CHINA - Mark Li ORDERS, DECORATIONS, MEDALS & MILITARIA UK - Mark Quayle Oliver Pepys BOOKS UK - Philip Skingley

SALE CALENDAR 2012/2013 STAMPS 24 August 12 September 13 September 13 September 22 September Early October 23 October 23 October 23 October 24 October 24 October 7 November 8/9 November 13/14 November 12 December 13 January 13 January

The Collector’s Series Sale The Chartwell Collection - GB King Edward VIII, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth II The Gavin Littaur Collection of British Postal History. Selected rare covers from the period 1840-53 Great Britain Stamps Specialised Sale Fine Stamps and Covers of South East Asia The Collector’s Series Sale Victoria Half Lengths - The John Barwis Collection The “Fordwater” Collections of Falkland Islands, Gibraltar and Malta Latin America, including the Tito Collection - Part II Queensland - The Alan Griffiths Collection The Collector’s Series Sale The Collector’s Series Sale The Collector’s Series Sale The Morgan Collection of Australian Commonwealth The Chartwell Collection - GB Line-Engraved Essays, Proofs, Stamps and Covers - Part IV The Mizuhara Collection of Korean Stamps Fine Stamps and Covers of Hong Kong and China

Hong Kong London London London Singapore Hong Kong London London Lugano London Lugano London New York London London Hong Kong Hong Kong

12033 12017 12045 12018 12019

The Collector’s Series Sale The Collector’s Series Sale Ancient, English & Foreign Coins and Commemorative Medals The Collector’s Series Sale Ancient, English & Foreign Coins and Commemorative Medals Fine Coins of Hong Kong and China The Collector’s Series Sale

New York Hong Kong London New York London Hong Kong New York

314 12033 12026 315 12027 13007 316

The Collector’s Series Sale The Collector’s Series Sale Charity Auction of Bank of England Notes World Banknotes The George Kanaan Collection of Banknotes of the Middle East The David Kirch Collection of English Provincial Banknotes - Part I The David Kirch Collection of Bank of England Notes - Part I The Collector’s Series Sale World Banknotes Banknotes of Hong Kong and China The Collector’s Series Sale

New York Hong Kong London London London London London New York London Hong Kong New York

314 12033 12037 12023 12047 12035 12034 315 12024 13005 316

The Bentley Priory Battle of Britain Trust Appeal Charity Auction Orders, Decorations, Campaign Medals & Militaria Orders, Decorations, Campaign Medals & Militaria Orders, Decorations, Campaign Medals & Militaria Orders, Decorations, Campaign Medals & Militaria

London London London London London

12044 12004 13001 13002 13003

The Collector’s Series Sale The Collector’s Series Sale The Collector’s Series Sale Bonds and Share Certificates of the World Bonds and Share Certificates of Hong Kong and China The Collector’s Series Sale

New York Hong Kong New York London Hong Kong New York

314 12033 315 12011 13006 316

The Collector’s Series Sale The Collector’s Series Sale The Collector’s Series Sale

New York New York New York

An Evening of Exceptional Wines An Evening of Exceptional Wines

Hong Kong Hong Kong

12042 12039 SW1003 12043 SW1004 12020 12046 12021 13008 13009

COINS 22/23 August 24 August 26/27 September 13/14 November 4 December 12 January 15/16 January

AUTOGRAPHS USA - Stephen Goldsmith WINES CHINA - Anna Lee YOUR EUROPE TEAM (LONDON - LUGANO) Chairman’s Office Dennis Muriu Monica Kruber Directors Tim Hirsch Anthony Spink Auction & Client Management Team Miroslava Adusei-Poku Sandie Maylor Charles Blane Luca Borgo Phillipa Brown Rita Ariete María Martínez Maurizio Schenini Finance Alison Bennet Marco Fiori Mina Bhagat Alison Kinnaird Shyam Padhiar Billy Tumelty IT & Administration Berdia Qamarauli Attila Gyanyi Liz Cones Curlene Spencer John Winchcombe Bobby McBrierty Tom Robinson Cristina Dugoni Giacomo Canzi YOUR AMERICA TEAM (NEW YORK - DALLAS) Chairman Emeritus John Herzog Auction Administration and Marketing & Design Rick Penko Patricia Gardner James McGuire Emily Cowin Clyde Townsend Finance & Administration Sam Qureshi Ingrid Qureshi Ed Robinson Auctioneers Stephen Goldsmith Tracy Shreve Andrew Titley YOUR ASIA TEAM (HONG KONG - SINGAPORE) Vice Chairman Anna Lee Administration Amy Yung Dennis Chan Raymond Tat Gary Tan

BANKNOTES 22/23 August 24 August 26 September 2/3 October 4 October 9 October 10 October 13/14 November 6 December 12 January 15/16 January

MEDALS 6 September 22 November 25 April 25 July 21 November

BONDS AND SHARES 22/23 August 24 August 13/14 November 28 November 12 January 15/16 January

AUTOGRAPHS 22/23 August 13/14 November 15/16 January

WINES September November

The above sale dates are subject to change Spink offers the following services: – VALUATIONS FOR INSURANCE AND PROBATE FOR INDIVIDUAL ITEMS OR WHOLE COLLECTIONS – – SALES ON A COMMISSION BASIS EITHER OF INDIVIDUAL PIECES OR WHOLE COLLECTIONS –

314 315 316


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THE BENTLEY PRIORY BATTLE OF BRITAIN TRUST APPEAL CHARITY AUCTION

6 September 2012 in London and on

SALE LOCATION

YOUR SPINK TEAM FOR THIS SALE

SPINK LONDON 69 Southampton Row, Bloomsbury London WC1B 4ET tel +44 (0)20 7563 4000 fax +44 (0)20 7563 4066 Vat No: GB 791627108

FOR YOUR QUESTIONS ABOUT THE SALE LOTS

SALE DETAILS Thursday 6 September at 2.00 p.m. In sending commission bids or making enquiries, this sale should be referred to as CAT’S EYES - 12044

VIEWING OF LOTS SPINK LONDON 69 Southampton Row, Bloomsbury London WC1B 4ET Tuesday 4 September 2012 10.00 a.m. - 5.00 p.m. Wednesday 5 September 2012 10.00 a.m. - 5.00 p.m.

Spink is pleased to continue to offer Spink Live, the internet bidding service which has revolutionized the way in which our clients bid at auction. To get started, feel free to contact us today for personal assistance. Attila Gyanyi is available by e-mail: agyanyi@spink.com or tel: +44 (0)20 7563 4090. Use this QR code to visit our online catalogue and leave proxy bids on Spink Live. You can download the QR Code Reader for iPhone, Blackberry and Android from App Store on your smartphone

Mark Quayle mquayle@spink.com +44 (0)20 7563 4064 Oliver Pepys opepys@spink.com +44 (0)20 7563 4061 John Hayward jhayward@spink.com +44 (0)20 7563 4049

FOR YOUR BIDS

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The Spink Environment Commitment: Paper from Sustainable Forests and Clean Ink For centuries Spink and its employees have been preserving and curating collectable items. We now wish to play a modest role in preserving our planet, as well as the heritage of collectables, so future generations may enjoy both. We insist that our printers source all paper used in the production of Spink catalogues from FSC registered suppliers (for further information on the FSC standard please visit fsc.org) and use non hazardous inks. We have further requested that they become accredited with the environmental standard ISO 14001. Spink recycle all ecological material used on our premises and we would encourage you to recycle your catalogue once you have finished with it.

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To purchase a catalogue: email: catalogues@spink.com tel: +44 (0)20 7563 4108 fax: +44 (0)20 7563 4037 For more information about Spink services, forthcoming sales and sales results visit the Spink Website www.spink.com


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THE BENTLEY PRIORY BATTLE OF BRITAIN TRUST APPEAL CHARITY AUCTION

FOREWORD BY LORD ASHCROFT, KCMG Bentley Priory is a national symbol of courage and a unique part of our heritage: it is entirely right that a decision has been taken to save it, restore it and convert it into a museum and education centre. However, there is still much work to be done if the £1.8 million appeal target, to preserve the former nerve centre of the Battle of Britain for future generations, is to be achieved. The Bentley Priory Battle of Britain Trust Appeal Auction that will take place at Spink on September 6, 2012 represents an important step forward in reaching that appeal target. Many people, including myself, are supporting the event and the quality and range of the medals, gallantry decorations and related items that have been included in this special auction is quite remarkable. I, for one, would like to thank Spink for its generosity in donating both the vendors’ and buyers’ premiums from each auctioned item to the appeal. I would also particularly like to thank those who have either given an auction item to be sold outright or who have decided to donate part of the sale price to the appeal. With this generosity in mind, I would urge all prospective bidders to bid strongly and to bid often! I have had a life-long fascination with the concept of bravery, in general, and gallantry medals, in particular. Over the past decade, I have done my best to champion the courage of our servicemen, including former and current members of the RAF. By chance, my fourth book on awards for gallantry will be published on September 13, 2012, and is entitled Heroes of the Skies. Having only recently learnt so much more about the gallantry of ‘The Few’, I am keener than ever that the Second World War headquarters of Fighter Command is restored as quickly as possible. I wish the Bentley Priory Battle of Britain Trust every success for this auction as well as for the rest of its fund-raising. The nation should feel relief and pride that Bentley Priory is now in such safe hands and that it is set to become a lasting memorial, not just to ‘the bravest of the brave’ from the RAF, but also to the triumph of freedom over tyranny. ______________________________________________________________________________

We are always eager to promote an appreciation of those who have helped to forge our nation throughout the years, and the stories that lie behind their medals. As a consequence, we are delighted to be able to hold this charity auction in aid of the Bentley Priory Battle of Britain Trust Appeal. The Priory, designed by Sir John Soane, is one of Britain’s most significant buildings in view of its architectural importance, the social history it represents, and, especially, its pivotal role in the Second World War. As the Headquarters of Fighter Command, it was from here that Sir Hugh Dowding directed his men in the Battle of Britain. For ‘The Few’, the Priory is their spiritual home. The medals in this sale cover all branches of the Royal Air Force, but it is fitting that the men of Fighter Command are especially well represented, and that their stories of bravery and courage are to the fore. We would like to thank those family members and other institutions that have decided to enter their awards and memorabilia in order to benefit Bentley Priory. Amongst those is the de Havilland Trust, which is selling the historically important medals and archive of John ‘Cat’s Eyes’ Cunningham, the legendary Night Fighter Ace of the Second World War. The vendor’s proceeds from the sale of this lot will be put towards flying scholarships for young people, an entirely appropriate move that ensures the legacy of such men is passed onto the next generation. This auction would not have been possible without the unstinting generosity and enthusiasm of Melissa John. Her tireless efforts on behalf of the Charity, in memory of her late brother Christopher, have been hugely appreciated. Christopher was an avid and knowledgeable collector of Royal Air Force honours and awards, especially those pertaining to the Battle of Britain, and has been sadly missed since his untimely death in September 2008. The entire proceeds from the sale of this auction, both the vendor’s commission and the buyer’s premium, will be donated by Spink to the charity appeal, which we trust will make a significant contribution to the £1.8 million appeal target. Spink Medal Department WWW.SPINK.COM

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September 6, 2012 - LONDON

FAMILY RECOLLECTIONS ‘I admire my father’s war record and his successful career, but it was the gentleman on the river bank I remember so well. Sharing a day’s trout fishing on the river Wissey in the battle area near Thetford, Norfolk, where he taught me to cast as a young boy. I remember his meticulous knowledge of knots when we were sailing, which to his despair I could never get right. I loved those moments when his humanity showed and he let his hair down over a wee dram. It was than his gentle Irish humour would emerge - for instance, the story of his dog Scruffy pursuing him unexpectedly into his aircraft during a hasty scramble; going to sleep on the cannon only to hit the ceiling when the guns went off as they engaged the enemy ... his description of Scruffy last being seen passing his navigator teeth snapping as he went never failed to make me laugh. I relish the memory of idyllic summers spent as a family at Crantock in Cornwall and Pa taking us crabbing on Chick Rock at the spring tide. I have an image of him puffing and blowing as he burst out of a breaking wave on his old fashioned surf board and the silent sunbathing in the sand dunes, deeply relaxing in the post war peace. If he was not on leave he would fly in from the sea low over the beach in his long nosed Meteor, waggling his wings, to the delight of his sons. Following a particularly cold visit to his beloved salmon fishing on the Tweed at Melrose he developed pneumonia with complications and his breathing became increasingly difficult. I remember his quiet courage. Dear Pa.’ Michael Hughes Scholes, son of Air Vice-Marshal F. D. Hughes (Lot 1)

‘Our father was a modest, fun loving, twinkly person who according to his sisters lacked self confidence, which we think make his achievements all the more remarkable. In the early days of the war he left for France to join No.1 Squadron equipped with his saxophone and golf clubs. In the chaos of retreat these were abandoned, but they remained passions for the rest of his life. We believe his medals attest to his courage and we take great pride in his exploits.’ Susie Pearse and Jillian Storey, daughters of Group Captain P.G.H. Matthews (Lot 12)

‘My husband Peter never “shouted” about what he could accomplish or sought recognition for what he had achieved, he simply got on with the job at hand; be it fighting for his country during WWII and the Cold War thereafter, formulating the basis for the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight whilst CO at Biggin Hill, or learning to speak fluent Spanish for our last tour of duty as Air Attaché in South America. Peter was driven by loyalty and service to King and Country and to his family. He was a thoughtful man always willing to help others when in need. He was a man of integrity wit and humour and we, his family, loved him dearly. Peter will remain in our hearts forever. The loss of many of his friends during the Battle of Britain and in Malta remained personal memories locked away and never talked about until 1985 when our much loved little dog Sheba suddenly died. Peter was digging a hole in the garden to bury her and I went out to console him. He was for the first time in his life in floods of tears as he recounted to me that the last time he had done this was to bury his friends in Malta. What Peter and so many other young men, then and since, have gone through to secure our ‘todays’, is today almost beyond imagining.’ Marie ‘Mimi’ Thompson, wife of Group Captain P.D. Thompson (Lot 13)

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THE BENTLEY PRIORY BATTLE OF BRITAIN TRUST APPEAL CHARITY AUCTION

THURSDAY 6 SEPTEMBER 2012 Commencing at 2.00 p.m. All Sales are subject to the Conditions of Business printed at the back of this catalogue Estimates The estimated selling price of each lot is printed below the lot description and does not include the Buyer’s Premium. Bidders should bear in mind that estimates are prepared well in advance of the sale and are not definitive. They are subject to revision.

1 The Important and Outstanding C.B., C.B.E., Second War D.S.O., D.F.C. and Two Bars, PostWar A.F.C. Group of Ten to Air Vice-Marshal F. D. ‘Hawk Eyes’ Hughes, Royal Air Force, Who Claimed His First Victories in Defiants During the Battle of Britain, and Added to His Score in Beaufighters in the Mediterranean and as a Squadron C.O. in Mosquitos Over North-West Europe; He Finished With A Personal Score of 18 Victories. As a Native of the Emerald Isle He Was Second Only to ‘Paddy’ Finucane in Confirmed Victories, and was Right On The Tail of John ‘Cat’s Eyes’ Cunningham As The Highest-Scoring Night Fighter Ace of the Second World War a) The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Military Division, Companion’s (C.B.) neck Badge, silver-gilt and enamel, with neck riband, in Collingwood, London, case of issue b) The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, 2nd type, Military Division, Commander’s (C.B.E.) neck Badge, silver-gilt and enamel, with neck riband, in Garrard, London, case of issue c) Distinguished Service Order, G.VI.R., silver-gilt and enamel, reverse of suspension bar officially dated ‘1945’, with integral top riband bar d) Distinguished Flying Cross, G.VI.R., reverse officially dated ‘1941’, and additionally engraved ‘R.A.F.V.R. 264 Sqdn. Desmond Hughes 4th April’, with Second Award Bar, reverse officially dated ‘1943’, and Third Award Bar, reverse officially dated ‘1943’ e) Air Force Cross, E.II.R., reverse officially dated ‘1954’ f) 1939-1945 Star, with Battle of Britain Bar g) Air Crew Europe Star, with France and Germany Bar h) Africa Star, with North Africa 1942-43 Bar i) Italy Star j) War Medal, nearly extremely fine, mounted court style as worn, with the following related items: - The recipient’s related miniature awards - The recipient’s Identity tags - Bestowal document for the C.B., named to Air ViceMarshal Frederick Desmond Hughes, C.B.E., D.S.O., D.F.C., A.F.C., and dated 3.6.1972 - Bestowal document for the C.B.E., named to Group Captain Frederick Desmond Hughes, D.S.O., D.F.C., A.F.C., and dated 1.1.1962 - Bestowal document for the D.S.O., named to Wing Commander F.D. Hughes, D.F.C., and dated 23.3.1945

Air Vice-Marshal F.D. Hughes - Commission appointing Frederick Desmond Hughes a Pilot Officer in the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, dated 7.10.1939 - (3) R.A.F. Pilot’s Flying Log Books, covering the periods 25.10.1938-7.7.1944; 8.7.1944-30.12.1965; and 19.1.1966-26.5.1972 respectively - R.A.F. Instrument Pilot Rating Card - The recipient’s Royal Aero Club Gliding Certificate - The recipient’s unfinished Memoirs, together with his various combat reports - Letter to the recipient from the Rt. Hon. Roy Mason, Secretary of State for Defence, on the occasion of the recipient’s retirement, dated 4.6.1974 - A selection of portrait and group photographs, many from his time at R.A.F. College Cranwell - Battle of Britain Memorial Dagger, by Wilkinson, London, the blade inscribed ‘Air Vice-Marshal F.D. Hughes, C.B.E., D.S.O., D.F.C., A.F.C., M.A.’, complete with scabbard, in wooden presentation box (lot) £60,000-80,000

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Air Vice-Marshal F.D. Hughes C.B. London Gazette 3.6.1972 Air Vice-Marshal Frederick Desmond Hughes, C.B.E., D.S.O., D.F.C., A.F.C., Royal Air Force. C.B.E. London Gazette 1.1.1962 Group Captain Frederick Desmond Hughes, D.S.O., D.F.C., A.F.C., Royal Air Force. D.S.O. London Gazette 23.3.1945 Acting Wing Commander Frederick Desmond Hughes, D.F.C. (74706), R.A.F.V.R., 604 Sqn. The Recommendation, dated 17.2.1945, states: ‘In the early part of the War this officer was a pilot in No. 264 Squadron operating under Fighter Command in the defensive night operations against the enemy over England. On one occasion in 1940 he shot down 2 Do.17s and on three other occasions he had 3 He.111s to his credit. For this he was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross in April 1941. In May 1941, whilst operating with the same Squadron, this officer damaged another He.111 and shot down a Ju.88. In 1942 he became a Flight Commander in 125 Squadron and in June of that year added one more Ju.88 and a half share in another to his growing list of victories. Early in 1943 he joined 600 Squadron as a Flight Commander, which was then operating in North Africa. During January 1943, in defensive operations against the enemy at night, he shot down 2 Ju.88s and the following month his score was increased by a Cant 1007. For these 6.5 victories he was awarded a Bar to his Distinguished Flying Cross in March of that year. No. 600 Squadron then joined the Desert Air Force, and in April 1943 Wing Commander Hughes shot down another Ju.88. The Squadron then moved to Malta and, whilst operating from there, he shot down a He.111 and a Ju.88, both in the month of July 1943. No. 600 Squadron then moved to the Italian theatre. In August 1943 this pilot shot down 3 Ju.88s in one night, and again in the same month he

destroyed another enemy aircraft- this time a Ju.87. For these 7 victories since his last award Wing Commander Hughes was given a Second Bar to his Distinguished Flying Cross in September 1943. In December 1943 he returned to England and joined No. 85 Group as a Staff Officer on the Air Staff. Although he made an excellent Staff Officer, his keenness to return to operational flying was apparent to all, and accordingly he was given command of No. 604 Squadron in July 1944. Since taking over command of No. 604 Squadron this officer has added 2 more victories to his long list of successes. In April 1944, whilst operating in conjunction with the 9th Air Defence Command, U.S.A.A.F. in France, he shot down a Ju.88. He was patrolling south-west of Avranches and notwithstanding the technical difficulties on this particular night the enemy target was recognised at a range of 1,000 feet with four bombs still in the bomb rack. From a range of 250 yards this pilot opened fire and the port engine of the enemy aircraft burst into flames throwing debris into the path of the Mosquito. The enemy aircraft was seen to dive to the ground and blow up, and shortly afterwards Wing Commander Hughes was compelled to return to base through engine trouble- the result of debris having pierced his starboard radiator. Finally, in the early hours of the 14th January 1945, whilst operating in the Scheldt area, an aircraft was seen taking evasive action from flak. When the target broke away a visual was obtained at 2,000 feet and it was seen to be a Ju.188. In spite of violent evasive action, Wing Commander Hughes put several bursts into the enemy aircraft from a range of 400 feet and it was seen to burst into flames and dive to the ground. Wing Commander Hughes, as a pilot, a Flight Commander, and a Squadron Commander, has displayed the greatest keenness and devotion to duty in operations against the enemy over a long period. His unrelenting zeal, efficiency, and determination in all operations against the enemy are outstanding and he is a magnificent example to the members of his Squadron and to all who come into contact with him. His leadership is outstanding and his personal record of 18.5 enemy aircraft destroyed speaks for itself. Since Wing Commander Hughes took over command, No. 604 Squadron have destroyed 30 enemy aircraft, probably destroyed 1, and damaged 2. I therefore recommend him in the strongest possible terms for the Immediate award of the Distinguished Service Order.’ Remarks of Air Officer Commanding: ‘Wing Commander Hughes is an outstanding character, possessing as he does a very strong personality and prowess of leadership quite out of the ordinary. I strongly endorse the above citation and very strongly recommend the Immediate award of the Distinguished Service Order.’ D.F.C. London Gazette 18.4.1941 Flying Officer Frederick Desmond Hughes (74706), Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, No. 264 Squadron. The Recommendation, dated 26.3.1941, states: ‘This Officer was in action with the Squadron and flew on all patrols at Hornchurch, Southend, and Manston from the 24th-29th August 1940. On the 26th August 1940 he and his gunner shot down 2 Do.17s by day. Since the Squadron turned over to night-fighting he has flown for 40 operational night flying hours. On the 15th October 1940 he and his gunner shot down a He.111k at night; on the 23rd November 1940 he and his gunner damaged a He.111 at night; and on the 12th March 1941 he and his gunner shot down a He.111 at night.’ Remarks of Air Officer Commanding: ‘Strongly recommended for the immediate award of the Distinguished Flying Cross.’ D.F.C. Second Award Bar London Gazette 13.4.1943 Acting Squadron Leader Frederick Desmond Hughes, D.F.C. (74706), Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, No. 600

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Hughes in his Defiant

Squadron [in a joint citation with Flying Officer Lawrence Dixon (awarded the D.F.C.)] ‘As pilot and observer respectively, Squadron Leader Hughes and Flying Officer Dixon have flown together on many night sorties in operations in North Africa. During these flights they have destroyed 3 enemy aircraft. Squadron Leader Hughes and Flying Officer Dixon have displayed great skill and keenness, setting a praiseworthy example.’ The Recommendation, dated 22.2.1943, states: ‘Since being posted to this Squadron on the 20th January 1943, this Officer has destroyed 3 enemy aircraft by night, 2 in one sortie. Also, since being awarded the D.F.C. in April 1941 this Officer has destroyed another enemy aircraft by night and 1.5 by day. Of the enemy aircraft destroyed by day one was 160 miles from the coast of South Wales off Southern Ireland on the 27th June 1942, and the second was destroyed by a Section which he was leading 150 miles off the coast of Scotland in the North Sea on the 4th November 1942. He is a Night Fighter Pilot of more than average ability and great keenness to engage the enemy. As a Flight Commander Squadron Leader Hughes is of exceptional ability and his powers of leadership and command are an example to all.’ Remarks by Officer Commanding Wing: ‘This Officer was in first the Sector, and then the Wing, which I commanded throughout all the period described above, except that by November 1942 on the date of his last kill in the U.K. I had joined Eastern Air Command and Squadron Leader Hughes was therefore not officially under my command. He has shown outstanding determination and keenness, and is a most capable and skilful Night Fighter Pilot. I strongly recommend him for a Bar to his D.F.C.’

night and the 7th in the half light of dawn. On the night of the 26th-27th April 1943 this Officer, with the help of his N/Rad., destroyed an enemy night fighter Ju.88 some 20 miles east of Tunis after a considerable dogfight. On the night of the 13th-14th July 1943 he destroyed a He.111 off the cost of Sicily. There was strong moonlight at the time and to approach the enemy unobserved, identify him, and withdraw to shoot him down, required a high degree of cooperation between the members of his crew. This skill was again shown on the 21st-22nd July 1943 when Squadron Leader Hughes destroyed a Ju.88 off Cap Passero in circumstances which were adverse to our night fighter. On the night of the 11th-12th August 1943, during a sharp raid by the enemy on landing grounds in eastern Sicily, he destroyed 3 Ju.88s in one sortie out of an d raiding force of 35 enemy aircraft. Early in the morning of the 18th August 1943, Squadron Leader Hughes destroyed another enemy aircraft Ju.87 a few miles east of Syracuse. In doing this he had to close with the enemy, who was far more manoeuvrable than himself, when it was already light. He destroyed the enemy aircraft by good deflection shooting achieved as a result of considerable practice and training, while the latter was taking strong evasive action. This Officer has been a flight commander in this Squadron since January 1943 and has completed approximately 120 hours’ operational flying during this period. His total enemy aircraft destroyed now amounts to 16.5 with 2 damaged. Of these, 13 have been destroyed by night and the remainder by day. His success in the air is well matched by his record on the ground where he is a flight commander of exceptional ability and keenness and who has raised the morale and efficiency of his flight, both in the air and on the ground, from the low level at which he took it over, to that of the highest order, the pilots of his flight having destroyed 42 enemy aircraft by night for the loss of one crew whilst he has been in command.’

D.F.C. Third Award Bar London Gazette 28.9.1943 Acting Squadron Leader Frederick Desmond Hughes, D.F.C. (74706), Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, No. 600 Squadron. The Recommendation, dated 1.9.1943, states: ‘Since being awarded a Bar to the D.F.C., Squadron Leader Hughes has destroyed 7 enemy aircraft, of which 6 were destroyed by

A.F.C. London Gazette 1.1.1954 Frederick Desmond Hughes, D.S.O., D.F.C. (74706), Royal Air Force.

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Desmond Hughes Air Vice-Marshal Frederick Desmond ‘Hawk Eyes’ Hughes, C.B., C.B.E., D.S.O., D.F.C., A.F.C., known as ‘Des’ to his family and friends, was born in Belfast on 6 June 1919 and, in common with other young men of his generation, was inspired by an early flight in an aircraft of Sir Alan Cobham’s Flying Circus, an interest keenly pursued in the University Air Squadron when he went up to Pembroke College, Cambridge, in October 1937, after attending Campbell College, Belfast. Called up in September 1939, after being enrolled as a Sergeant Pilot in the R.A.F.V.R., he graduated from the third war course at R.A.F. Cranwell with an ‘above the average’ pilot rating in May 1940 and, on being commissioned as a Pilot Officer, joined a Lysander Army CoOperation Unit. The Battle of Britain Then in June, having converted to Defiants, he was posted to No. 264 Squadron at Duxford, where he received a friendly reception from the unit’s battle-hardened veterans back from the recent operations in France. Teaming-up with Sergeant Fred Gash as his air gunner - ‘a cheerful Lancastrian with a bubbling sense of humour and an infectious laugh’ - Hughes flew his first operational sorties - convoy patrols - until, at the end of July, No. 264 was ordered to Kirton Lindsay. Shortly afterwards, after further patrols, the squadron was ordered to Hornchurch, from where Hughes and Gash claimed their first “kills”, namely a brace of Do. 17s over Manston in the morning of 26 August, after being scrambled with seven other Defiants under John Banham. Hughes takes up the story: ‘John had positioned us perfectly - on the Dorniers’ starboard beam, a little below and gently converging. Calmly

he told us to choose our targets and open fire when in range. Fred Gash took as his target the second Dornier and made no mistake - his de Wilde incendiaries twinkled all over it but particularly on its engine. It began to fall out of formation, a hatch was jettisoned, two parachutes streamed as little dark figures baled out and the stricken aircraft went down increasingly steeply with its starboard engine well alight. I then noticed that Banham’s aircraft was losing Glycol from its radiator and tried to warn him - twice - but I don’t think he heard me in the heat of battle. Meantime, Fred had been blazing away at another Dornier (which he later reported as having ‘brewed up’) but suddenly called out “109s coming down!”. Like a flash, I broke hard right into a maximum rate turn, slightly descending with 10 degrees flap until Fred said our tail was clear. And then...that astonishing phenomenon so often experienced, the total calm after the storm. One minute the aircraft vibrating as the guns chattered, friend and foe all around, engine bellowing at full boost and revs, ‘g’ greying out eyesight - and then neither sight nor sound of another aircraft. A few more orbits on the climb but no sign of other Defiants or Huns so, with fuel fairly low, a rapid drop down to earth at Hornchurch - where my rigger cheerfully pointed out about half a dozen bullet strikes of which neither of us had been aware.’ But flying Defiants in daylight at this stage of the battle was a perilous pastime. Hughes continues: ‘The fact was our Defiants were out-turned, out-climbed and out-gunned by the Messerschmitt 109s. In the last week of August, we lost nine gunners and five pilots. We’d lost a C.O. dead, the acting C.O. shot down injured, and both flight commanders shot down injured. When we were scrambled one day, there were only two of us with serviceable aircraft. The others had been lost or so shot up they had to be grounded for repairs. We just managed to find our way through the craters of the airfield, which had just been bombed. As we climbed up, it was interesting to be told that the two of us were being vectored against 30 plus. We climbed on. When we got to about 12,000 feet, the controller came through terribly apologetic. “Terribly sorry, old boy, but they’ve turned away.” I can’t say that Richard Stoker or I, or our gunners, wept when we heard that ... ‘ The squadron was returned to Kirton Lindsay, where it converted to night operations, the beginning of a chapter entitled by Hughes as ‘Groping in the Dark’, for indeed it was a long and frustrating period of operations - on one occasion Hughes chased his own aircraft’s condensation trail around on three successive occasions, convinced he was on the tail of an enemy bomber. But with a move to Luton, and after further training, the fortunes of No. 264 - and Hughes and Gash in particular - started to take a turn for the better. Thus their next victory on the 15-16 October: ‘The dark shapeless blob slowly grew into a long black line and then I picked up the incandescent glow of an exhaust. Shouting “Tally Ho!” on the R.T., I turned gently back to starboard, throttled back a little and slid into a wide formation on what was clearly a twin-engined aircraft. As I dropped down a little below it, some 50 yards on its beam, the unmistakeable wingplan of a Heinkel 111 was revealed. I told Fred to open fire and he made no mistake. A long burst with de Wilde twinkling brilliantly on its starboard engine and the Heinkel was a mass of flame. It slowly turned over to port and went down in a steep dive, trailing a plume of fire as it went. I started to follow it but it was obviously finished and I eased out of the dive. It crashed near open country with a mighty explosion - later found to be at Hutton, near Brentwood. Two of the crew of four had baled out.’ Landing back in misty conditions at Luton, Hughes overshot the runway and came to a grinding halt, nose down, with crumpled propeller and minus a wheel, but pilot and air gunner emerged unscathed.

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Visit of H.M. The Queen and H.R.H. The Duke of Edinburgh to RAF College Cranwell, June 1970 The Blitz and Beyond With the Blitz now in full swing, 264 moved to Rochford where the irrepressible Basil Embry had been asked to form a Night Fighter Wing, and Hughes and his fellow pilots quickly came under the great man’s spell - on one occasion, as the unmistakeable sound of a stick of bombs advancing across the airfield to the dispersal shattered the night, Embry remained seated at his desk writing a report, while his pilots dived for cover under assorted furniture: he was still there when they emerged with red faces. On the night of 23 November, Hughes and Gash damaged another He. 111 and, in the new year, having carried out further night patrols from Rochford and Debden, the Squadron moved to Gravesend, but it was not until it had relocated to Biggin Hill in March 1941 that they gained their next victory, an He. 111 destroyed on the night of the 12th-13th - ‘it was so hard-hit that I didn’t try to follow it down and it struck the ground with a big flash somewhere near Horsham but in open country.’ A couple of weeks later, Hughes was notified that he was to be awarded the D.F.C., while Fred Gash was awarded the D.F.M., the gallant duo duly celebrating the news with a few pints at their favourite pub in Bromley. Meanwhile, operations continued apace, and after damaging another He. 111 on 8 April, Hughes experienced ‘the most exciting night sortie’ he ever had in a Defiant, when, two nights later, he destroyed a Ju. 88 over Selsey Bay, after giving his aircraft a ‘bootful of right rudder’ and dropping to 100 feet to catch his prize - so low, in fact, that he was able to admire the expanding wave pattern left by his adversary’s final impact. Hughes continues: ‘This just about wound up our time at Biggin Hill for we were ordered to move yet again, this time to West Malling which is near Maidstone. I’m sure we were all sad to leave because there was something rather special about Biggin. You felt you were at the hub of things. It had become famous in the hectic days of the Battle of Britain - the most heavily bombed of all airfields. People in pubs would insist on buying you a drink if they heard you

were flying from it. Our operational flying was exciting and sharing the base with outstanding Spitfire squadrons such as 66, 74 and 92 was inspiring - whilst we were still on the defensive, they were beginning to carry the daylight battle to the enemy with sweeps across the Channel.’ Thereafter, until his next posting, Hughes had no serious encounters with the enemy, although he completed in excess of another 50 operational sorties in the period leading up to his transferral to No. 125 Squadron, a Beaufighter unit, in January 1942. Delighted to be transferred from West Malling to Aldergrove in Northern Ireland to carry out sorties in defence of his hometown, Belfast - his father was pleasantly entertained when Hughes ‘beat-up’ the family home from chimney height. Even happier was his marriage to Pamela Harrison, which occasion was marked by a low-level fly-past of three squadron Defiants and, on his return to England, his investiture with his D.F.C. at Buckingham Palace - ‘I presented the beautiful silver cross in its satin-lined box to Pamela after the ceremony’. As a recently promoted Flight Lieutenant in No. 125 Squadron, Hughes missed the ‘inimitable Fred Gash’, but he established good partnerships with other Observers and Radar Operators following his arrival at Colherne in the Spring of 1942. In fact Hughes, by now a Flight Commander, claimed another convincing victory, a Ju. 88 destroyed off Hook Head, on the 27 June, the squadron’s first success, and one which was celebrated in style with his station C.O., David Atcherly, twin of “Batchy” - a typically Atcherly-led affair that led to Hughes’ one and only experience of ‘flying under the influence’ the following day. Then on 4 November he shared in another Ju. 88, east of Stonehaven, with Pilot Officer Ben Gledhill as his Radar Operator, a memorable occasion on account of Hughes’ dog, “Scruffy”, being present on the same occasion. With a reasonable number of flying hours to his credit, “Scruffy” finally claimed a “kill” - and was duly rewarded by the addition of a small brass swastika to his collar.

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Hughes with H.R.H. The Prince of Wales at RAF Cranwell

The Mediterranean Theatre of War Posted to No. 600 Squadron, another Beaufighter unit, in the Middle East in January 1943, Hughes teamed up with Pilot Officer Laurie Dixon and quickly gained a “double-kill” on the 23rd - a brace of Ju. 88s over Philippeville on the Algerian coast. Hughes takes up the story: ‘A model interception followed with Laurie calling out “Contact” at two and half miles range. His north-country voice came through calmly and confidently and his instructions soon produced a ‘visual’ on a Ju. 88. Having identified it from dead underneath so that our aircraft would be against the darkest possible background, I throttled back very carefully so as to avoid a gush of flame from my exhausts and gently raised the nose. At about 150 yards range, the gunsight came up to the dark silhouette of the 88, and I pressed the gunbutton. The effect of the concentrated fire of the four cannon was awesome - H.E. strikes all over the fuselage and engines made the bomber sparkle like a giant firework. A huge fire set in and it peeled over to port and went straight down from 12,000 feet to the sea. I reported the kill and the controller replied: “Good show! I have a further customer for you. Vector 060 - same angels.” What followed was virtually a mirror-image of the first interception and combat. Laurie’s directions were quite first-class - I had chosen a winner! After the second 88 was in the sea, the controller said: “Well done! That seems to be all the customers this evening. Return to base and pancake. Steer 230. Good night!” A winner indeed and the the commencement of a highly successful partnership, and one which continued in spectacular style on 12 February when Dixon’s calm instructions and Hughes’s marksmanship resulted in the destruction of a Cant Z1007 bomber - ‘the whole fuselage brewing up with an internal fire until it looked like a ghastly Hallowe’en pumpkin lantern, the jagged holes shot through the plywood skin creating a bizarre pattern. It exploded in the air, breaking into two large pieces.’

Five days later, Hughes was handed a copy of a signal notifying him that he was to be awarded a Bar to his D.F.C., while Laurie Dixon was to receive the D.F.C. Remaining actively employed with No. 600 up until December, a period that encompassed moves to Malta, Sicily and Italy, he flew a further 40 or so sorties with Dixon, and claimed seven further confirmed victories, the majority of them around the time of the Sicily landings. First to be downed was a Ju. 88 east of Tunis on the 26 April, after a ‘tremendous night dogfight, round and round, and up and down ... the 88 exploded in a enormous mushroom of flame which starkly lit the adjacent countryside’. Having then gone down with enteritis, Hughes was cured after 10 days by a treatment the Squadron M.O. described as a mixture of ‘two of sand and one of cement’. Certainly he was back in form by the time the squadron moved to Luqa, Malta, at the end of June, he and Dixon downing a He. 111 over Augusta on 12 July, and, a little over a week later, a Ju. 88 off Cape Corranti. But his greatest claim to fame occurred on 11 August, when he destroyed three Ju. 88s over Catania. Hughes takes up the story: ‘I was on patrol north east of Catania when a determined attack was mounted on a clutch of Spitfire airstrips at Lentini. These were liberally scattered with incendiary and fragmentation bombs. Bill Pratley at the G.C.I. put us into contact with a Ju. 88 which never saw us was smartly sent down in flames. Pratley then put us on to another Ju. 88 which did see us and tried to evade; three of my cannon jammed but I was lucky enough to knock it down with a one second burst from the fourth cannon and the machine-guns, using a lot of deflection. We saw this crash and then Laurie re-cocked the cannon. He had no sooner got back to his tubes than he picked up a third Ju. 88 without help from the G.C.I. - this one was happily wending its way home after dropping its bombs. Laurie produced another copybook interception. I hit the Hun in the starboard engine but it refused to burn. The top gunner sprayed tracer around us hitting my starboard wing and

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Graduation of No.1 Graduate Entry, RAF Cranwell, August 1971 Hughes with H.R.H. The Prince of Wales engine air-intake as he dived away. I pushed the nose hard down (propelling Laurie sharply up into the Perspex dome!) and gave a very long burst, hitting him hard. He crashed into the sea, this being witnessed by Paddy Green who had arrived to join the fray ...’ Hughes gained his final victory in this theatre of war on 15 August, when he downed a Stuka off Syracuse - hit in the crank of its port wing, it turned over and crashed into the sea ‘with an enormous splash’. He also served in Italy, claiming to be the first pilot to land a Beaufighter on mainland Europe when he touched down at Monte Corvino on 25 September. But in October he went down with jaundice, quickly followed by malaria, and, but for the urgent attention of the medical staff at 95th Army Field Hospital at Salerno, may well have died. Even so, in moments of consciousness, he couldn’t help but laugh on being told to ‘lie to attention’ when the senior M.O. made his morning rounds. Awarded a second Bar to his D.F.C., he was invalided back to the U.K., where, after a period of recuperation, he took up an appointment at H.Q. No. 85 Group at Uxbridge - this his first real rest from operations since the outbreak of war.

Laurie Dixon at his side. Thus ensued a flurry of activity in support of the Allied landings in France - a dozen or so operations in the period leading up to the Squadron’s move to Predannak in September, during which he claimed a Ju. 88 over Rennes on 6 August. Then on 13 January 1945, while operating out of Lille, he claimed his last victory of the War, a Ju. 88 downed south of Rotterdam. He had now flown at least 200 operational sorties and claimed 18 confirmed “kills” and one shared destroyed. He was awarded the D.S.O. The Post-War Years Hughes served at Fighter Command H.Q. 1946-53, before going on to add the A.F.C. to his long list of decorations in 1954. Next employed on the Directing Staff at Bracknell, he was then employed as P.S.O. at the C.A.S. 1956-58, in which latter year he was advanced to Group Captain. Then between 1959-61 he commanded R.A.F. Geilenkirchen in Germany, and was awarded the C.B.E. Returning to the U.K., he served as Director of Staff Plans at the M.O.D. 1962-64, in which period he was also advanced to Air Commodore and appointed an A.D.C. to the Queen. And his next advancement, to Air Vice-Marshal in July 1967, occurred during his tenure as A.O.C. at H.Q. Flying Training Command. Having then served as Commandant of the R.A.F. College at Cranwell, he was appointed S.A.S.O. of the Near East Air Force, until his retirement in June 1974, after being appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath. Retiring to Lincolnshire, Air Vice-Marshal Hughes died in January 1992.

D-Day and Beyond Hughes subsequently served alongside John “Cat’s Eyes” Cunningham, who had been placed in charge of the planning night fighter cover for Operation Overlord and, on the night of the 5-6 June, watched the development of that memorable occasion at No. 11 Group’s Operations Room. Then in early July, with the fall of Cherbourg, he was ordered to France to get a mobile G.C.I. up to the enemy’s old radar at Cap de la Hague, an eventful ground operation that was duly accomplished. Immediately on his return to England, however, he took command, in the acting rank of Wing Commander, of No. 604 Squadron, a Mosquito unit operating out of Hurn, and was quickly back in the air with

Only 15 aircrew were awarded the combination of a D.S.O. and three D.F.Cs in the 1939-45 War. The addition of the recipient’s post-war C.B., C.B.E, and A.F.C., his fifth decoration, most probably make this a unique combination of awards.

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THE BENTLEY PRIORY BATTLE OF BRITAIN TRUST APPEAL CHARITY AUCTION 2 The Outstanding C.B., Second War D.S.O. and Bar, D.F.C. Group of Twelve to Air Vice-Marshal R.N. ‘Pinpoint’ Bateson, Royal Air Force, The Famous Mosquito Pilot Who Led the Spectacular Low-Level Raids on Gestapo Headquarters in The Hague, Copenhagen, and Odense, His Bombs on the Former Occasion Going ‘Bang Through the Front Door’ a) The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Military Division, Companion’s (C.B.) neck Badge, silver-gilt and enamel, with neck riband, in Collingwood, London, case of issue b) Distinguished Service Order, G.VI.R., silver-gilt and enamel, reverse of suspension bar officially dated ‘1944’, with Second Award Bar, reverse officially dated ‘1945’, with integral top riband bar c) Distinguished Flying Cross, G.VI.R., reverse officially dated ‘1941’ d) 1939-1945 Star e) Air Crew Europe Star, with France and Germany Bar f) Africa Star g) Pacific Star h) Defence and War Medals i) Coronation 1954 j) Denmark, Kingdom, Order of the Dannebrog, Commander’s neck Badge, C.X.R. (1912-47), 79mm including crown suspension x 40mm, silver-gilt and enamel, significant enamel damage, with neck riband, in Michelsen, Copenhagen, case of issue k) Netherlands, Kingdom, Distinguished Flying Cross, silver, lacquered, generally extremely fine, mounted Court style as originally worn, with the following related items: - The recipient’s related miniature awards - Bestowal document for the C.B., named to Air ViceMarshal Robert Norman Bateson, and dated 1.1.1964, together with various Central Chancery enclosures - Bestowal Document for the D.S.O., named to Wing Commander R.N. Bateson, D.F.C., and dated 28.4.1944 - Bestowal Document for the Order of the Dannebrog, Commander, named to Wing Commander Robert N. Bateson, and dated 19.12.1946, together with Danish Legation enclosure - Bestowal Document for the Dutch Distinguished Flying Cross, named to Wing Commander R.N. Bateson, D.F.C., and dated 20.4.1944, together with an English translation - Commission appointing Robert Norman Bateson a Pilot Officer in the Royal Air Force, dated 7.9.1936 - Central Chancery letter regarding the investiture of the D.F.C., dated 24.2.1945 - A complete copy of the recipient’s Flying Log Books, the originals being held in the Collection of the Royal Air Force Museum, Hendon - Royal Air Force Officer’s Clothing Card - Painting of the attack by the Mosquitos of No. 613 Squadron bombing the Gestapo Headquarters in The Hague, mounted in a glazed frame

Air Vice-Marshal R.N. Bateson

- Presentation photograph album commemorating the Annual Inspection of RAF Binbrook by the recipient, 17.5.1966 - Presentation photograph album commemorating the Annual Inspection of RAF Wattisham by the recipient, 25.4.1967 - A vast selection of photographs and newspaper cuttings (lot) £20,000-25,000 C.B. London Gazette 1.1.1964 Air Vice-Marshal Robert Norman Bateson, D.S.O., D.F.C., Royal Air Force. D.S.O. London Gazette 28.4.1944 Acting Wing Commander Robert Norman Bateson, D.F.C. (39054); Reserve of Air Force Officers, No. 613 Squadron ‘This officer has displayed the highest standard of skill and leadership throughout the many and varied sorties in which he has participated. In April, 1944, Wing Commander Bateson flew the leading aircraft of a formation detailed to attack a target in Holland. The operation, which demanded a high degree of courage and determination, was completed, with success and reflects the greatest credit on the efforts of this officer, whose leadership was outstanding. His achievements have been worthy of great praise.’ D.S.O. Second Award Bar London Gazette 22.6.1945 Acting Group Captain Robert Norman Bateson, D.S.O., D.F.C., R.A.F.O. ‘Since being awarded the Distinguished Service Order this officer has completed very many sorties and the successes obtained are a splendid tribute to his exceptional skill, great courage and unfailing devotion to duty. In March, 1945, Group Captain Bateson led a large formation of aircraft in an attack on the headquarters of the German Gestapo in

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‘Bang Through the Front Door’

Copenhagen. The operation called for the highest standard of skill as the target was small and well defended. Nevertheless, the attack was pressed home with a determination and accuracy which ensured success. In April, 1945, this officer led his squadrons in an attack against a similar target at Odense. In spite of opposition from the ground defences the attack was vigorously and accurately pressed home. By his brilliant leadership. Group Captain Bateson played an important part in the success of these notable sorties.’ D.F.C. London Gazette 14.1.1941 Acting Squadron Leader Robert Norman Bateson (39054), No. 113 Squadron ‘Squadron Leader Bateson has displayed great devotion to duty when leading his squadron during extensive operations during September and October, 1940. His leadership has in fact played a considerable part in forcing the enemy to abandon several of his military base ports. He has led operational formations on thirty-six occasions and often, after objectives have been attacked, he has had to force his way through superior numbers of enemy fighters. Squadron Leader Bateson has also carried out a long series of hazardous reconnaissances and has obtained vital information. Throughout the period of active operations he has displayed rare courage and devotion to duty.’

Danish Order of the Dannebrog, Commander London Gazette 25.1.1947 Wing Commander Robert Norman Bateson, D.S.O, D.F.C. Dutch D.F.C. London Gazette 9.5.1944 Acting Wing Commander Robert Norman Bateson, D.S.O., D.F.C. (39054), Reserve of Air Force Officers ‘In recognition of valuable services rendered in connection with the war.’ The original Dutch Citation, dated 20.4.1944, states: ‘In recognition of carrying out, at the special request of the Netherlands Government, an important and dangerous assignment in the occupied Netherlands, thereby rendering most important service to our national interest.’ Air Vice-Marshal Robert Norman ‘Pinpoint’ Bateson, C.B., D.S.O., D.F.C., was born at Barcombe, Chailey, Sussex, 10.6.1912, and educated at Hove High School and Watford Grammar School. He joined the Royal Air Force on a Short Service Commission in 1936, gaining his Wings at 2 F.T.S. Posted Pilot Officer to No.113 Squadron (Blenheims) in 1937, he moved with his Squadron in 1938 to the Middle East, and on the 11th June 1940, a few hours after Italy’s Declaration of War, he attacked El Adem aerodrome in what

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Air Vice-Marshal R.N. Bateson receiving his Dutch D.F.C. from Prince Bernhard

‘Bang Through the Front Door’ The most spectacular of all No. 613 Squadron’s Mosquito operations was undoubtedly the precision daylight raid made on the 11th April 1944 when Bateson, leading six aircraft, succeeded in destroying the Gestapo archives housed in the Kunstzaal Kleizcamp in the Hague. The operational requirement was for the destruction of the archive alone without harming the surrounding buildings, a feat which was virtually achieved by Bateson’s bombing run alone. Describing the celebrated raid for The Times he said: ‘l came down, and we went in on what was virtually a perfect practice bombing run. The building was a five storey affair - I should say about 90 feet high. We bombed from below the height of the building at about 50 feet. I was a bit worried about my port wing catching the spire of the Peace Palace. I could not see what happened myself, but my Number Two told me that he could follow my bombs all the way down, and that two went bang through the front door and the other two went through the two big windows on each side of the doorway. I was a bit worried about the two wing bombs: if any of us had been the least bit too much to port or starboard we should have hit one of the next door houses. We all bombed dead on, and the incendiaries did their stuff beautifully. Actually,

is believed to be one of the first strikes by an Allied Squadron against the Italians. During the Libyan Campaign he rose to the command of No.113 Squadron and was blown up by a booby trap, suffering corrosive acid burns to his face. At the end of 1941 he was appointed to the command of No.211 Squadron then destined for Singapore, but, when the island fell to the Japanese in February 1942, he commanded it instead at Sumatra until that too was overrun. Bateson then escaped via Australia, and in June 1942 was appointed to the command of No.11 Squadron in Ceylon. By the time he returned to the U.K. in 1943, the Mosquito had emerged as one of the fastest and most formidable weapons of the war, and after a stint at 13 O.T.U. he was promoted Wing Commander and given command of No.613 (City of Manchester) Squadron, equipped with Mosquitos at RAF Lasham. As part of No.2 Group, 2nd T.A.F., the Squadron under Bateson’s command opened 1944 with repeated lowlevel precision attacks in the ‘Noball’ offensive against V1 Flying Bomb sites in Northern France. On the 24th January he was holed by flak, and four days later he was holed in four places. By March 1944 he was frequently engaged in various Night Intruder Operations and a Day Ranger Sweep against Northern European targets.

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THE BENTLEY PRIORY BATTLE OF BRITAIN TRUST APPEAL CHARITY AUCTION by the time my Number Five or Six came along the building was not there and as we were bombing more or less horizontally, these bombs went straight through the gap and landed in a barracks just behind the house.” On this occasion Bateson’s customary prosaic Log Book style gave way to comparative exuberance: ‘Daylight Attack Leading 6 aircraft on single house in centre of The Hague. House completely demolished. Whoopee!’ Meanwhile, an Air Ministry bulletin acclaimed the Hague strike as ‘probably the most brilliant feat of low-level precision bombing of the War’. Following further valuable Night Intruder operations in support of the invasion of Europe, Bob Bateson, or ‘Pinpoint’ as he was now known, was posted to Basil Embry’s No.2 Group Headquarters in July 1944, but remained there only briefly being next posted to No.136 Wing as Wing Commander Flying, and then a month later in December 1944 to the command of No.140 Wing (comprising No.21 Squadron, R.A.F., No.464 Squadron, R.A.A.F., and No.487 Squadron, R.N.Z.A.F.), the low-level specialists whom ‘Pick’ Pickard had led in the celebrated Amiens Prison Raid of the preceding February. The Shellhurst Raid In early 1945 crippling Gestapo infiltration of the Danish Resistance prompted those still at liberty to send out the following urgent call for help on the 15th March: ‘Military leaders arrested and plans in German hands. Situation never before so desperate. Remaining leaders known by Hun. We are regrouping but need help. Bombing of S.D. Copenhagen will give us breathing space. If any importance is attached at all to Danish resistance you must help us irrespective cost. We will never forget R.A.F.’ The feasibility of attacking the Gestapo’s Copenhagen H.Q. housed in Shell Oil Company’s former head office - the Shellhuset - had been under consideration at No.2 Group Headquarters for some months, and now that there was clearly a desperate need for the operation it was given the green light. Bateson and his Navigator, Squadron Leader ‘Daisy’ Sismore, D.S.O., D.F.C., would lead 20 Mosquitos to the target, where 18 would make the attack and two, of the Film Production unit, would record it. An escort of 28 Mustangs was provided by No.64 Squadron and No.126 Squadron. On the afternoon of the 20th March 1945 the specially selected Mosquito crews were flown to Fersfield in Essex for a detailed briefing: ‘Briefings were provided by three of the four key individuals who had planned the attack - Group Captain Bob Bateson, D.S.O., D.F.C., Squadron Leader Sismore, Lead Navigator, and Major Truelson, whose local knowledge of and co-ordination of Danish help for shot down or force landed aircrews, should it be necessary, was so important. The fourth person, Air Vice-Marshal Embry, A.O.C., No. 2 Group, was also present at the briefing with his Navigator, Flight Lieutenant Peter Clapham. They would be flying in the operation and sat amongst the other selected crews listening to the details of what was now known by the codename of ‘Carthage’. The briefing stressed that as on previous occasions, the lives of prisoners were endangered by the attack but their probable deaths were a necessary sacrifice to achieve the required goal. For hours the crews studied the maps, photographs and plaster cast models before obtaining what sleep they could. Take-off was scheduled for the next morning at 08.40 hours so that the attack would take place at the height of the Gestapo’s morning work’. The proven vulnerability of Gestapo personnel whilst at work had caused them to take certain additional steps to protect themselves. At Copenhagen they had unimaginatively camouflaged the Shellhuset with green and brown paint, a measure well known at No.2 Group Headquarters and one which in the event of Bateson’s attack proved a useful recognition aid as the Shellhuset was the only office block in the city so decorated. Further to this and in keeping with their customary practices they let it be known that they had converted the sixth floor into a 22 cell prison for their most valuable Danish prisoners. The 21st March 1945 was a fine day and the take-off timetable was strictly adhered to. Within a quarter of an hour the whole force was airborne with Bateson and Sismore leading the first wave of six No.21 Squadron Mosquitos, and with Air Vice-Marshal Embry and his Navigator flying in the No. 3 position. The second and third waves consisted respectively of six Mosquitos each from No.464 Squadron and No.487 Squadron. Embry recalled rarely flying ‘behind a better leader than Bob Bateson’, and remembered a rough and boisterous flight across the North Sea at 50 feet. Over the countryside beyond he saw the Danish flag proudly flying over many homes: ‘We had now worked up to maximum cruising speed and were flying just above the ground in perfect formation, preparing for our final run up to the target. At times we had to pull up to avoid high-tension cables, trees and other obstructions, but our mean height was below tree-top level. It was an invigorating and satisfying sensation, especially as we were on our way to strike another blow at the evil Gestapo’. With Sismore navigating a perfect course to the target, check point after check point flashed past until over the streets in Copenhagen the Shellhuset raced into view. Sismore had the bomb doors open, and Bateson pressed the release. The incendiary from Bateson’s Mosquito thundered into the building between the first and second floors, followed by that of the second Mosquito and then by Embry’s. Few of the wrong sort survived the holocaust inside. Between 100 and 200 Gestapo workers perished, and yet only ten of the prisoners held on the sixth floor lost their lives. As Bateson set course for home and the dust began to settle, the Resistance moved in to comb the rubble and spirit away five safes and two filing cabinets containing among other much useful information, a complete list of Gestapo informers.

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Air Vice-Marshal R.N. Bateson, at the Annual Inspection of RAF Wattisham, April 1967 Less than a month after the Shellhuset Raid, Bateson led six aircraft on one last low-level daylight operation on the 17th April against the Gestapo’s sole remaining H.Q. in Denmark in order to ensure that they were unable to re-group. The target was situated on the Island of Odense and was completely destroyed though not bombed until the fourth run. There were no losses to the civilian population, nor the attacking aircraft or the Mustang escort, and 121 Gestapo were killed. The raid, like the Shellhuset operation, was filmed by F.P.U. Mosquitos. A week after Odense, Bateson flew his last operation of the War, a Night Intruder mission in the teeth of ‘considerable flak’, but during which he started an ‘enormous fire’ in a marshalling yard west of Flensburg. In May 1945 he made a pilgrimage to Denmark and was received as a hero. Several men, who had been undergoing torture in the Copenhagen H.Q. when his force had arrived overhead, told him personally that they owed their lives to him. He twice dined with the Queen and Crown Prince and on the 22nd May 1945 in a heart-felt and successful effort to safeguard the financial future of Danish child war victims, he climaxed a fund raising air show at Kastrup before a quarter of a million spectators by leading an exhilarating low-level Mosquito fly-past. Continuing in the R.A.F., Bateson was promoted Air Commodore in 1958 and Air Vice-Marshal in 1960. Post-War appointments included A.D.C. to the Queen, 1958-60, the command of Duxford, and three years as Chief Assistant of the Air Staff. From 1961 to 1962 he commanded No.12 Group, Fighter Command, and from 1963 was S.A.S.O. Fighter Command, until his retirement in 1967. ‘Pinpoint’ Bateson, a ‘stocky, quietly-spoken’ man who ‘brought a touch of inspired genius to attacking some of the most difficult targets of the whole War’, died 6.3.1986. PROVENANCE:

Aviation Collection, Spink, May 1998

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THE BENTLEY PRIORY BATTLE OF BRITAIN TRUST APPEAL CHARITY AUCTION 3 The Historically Important C.B.E., Second War ‘Immediate’ D.S.O. and Two Bars, D.F.C. and Bar Group of Nine to Beaufighter and Mosquito Pilot, Group Captain John ‘Cat’s Eyes’ Cunningham, Royal Air Force; The Highest Scoring Night Fighter Ace of the Second World War, With 20 Confirmed Victories; An AI (Airborne Interception) Pioneer, He Commanded Both 604 Squadron and 85 Squadron Before Being Promoted Group Captain, Night Operations, HQ No. 11 Group, Aged Just 26. A Night Fighter Ace of Almost Unrivalled Ability and a Much Loved Wartime Hero Amongst the Great British Public, He Moved Seamlessly into the World of Civil Aviation - Spending 32 Years Perfecting His Art As Chief Test Pilot at de Havilland. Breaking Both Height and Speed World Records He Also Oversaw the Development From Prototype to Production of the D.H. 106 Comet - The World’s First Jet Airliner. Cunningham Gave His Life to Aviation in Both Times of War and Peace, and Became a Legend During the Golden Years of British Aviation a) The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, 2nd type, Civil Division, Commander’s (C.B.E.) neck Badge, silver-gilt and enamel, with neck riband, in Collingwood case of issue b) Distinguished Service Order, G.VI.R., silver-gilt and enamel, obverse centre slightly loose, reverse of suspension bar officially dated ‘1941’, with Second Award Bar, reverse officially dated ‘1942’, and Third Award Bar, reverse officially dated ‘1944’, with integral top-riband bar, in Garrard & Co. Ltd case of issue, top additionally dated, ‘29.4.1941’ c) Distinguished Flying Cross, G.VI.R., reverse officially dated ‘1941’, with Second Award Bar, reverse officially dated ‘1941’, in Royal Mint case of issue, top additionally dated, ‘9.1.1941’ d) 1939-1945 Star, with Battle of Britain Bar e) Air Crew Europe Star f) War Medal, M.I.D. Oak Leaf g) Air Efficiency Award, G.VI.R. (Act. Sqn. Ldr. J. Cunningham. A.A.F.) h) United States of America, Silver Star, in case of issue i) Russia, Soviet Union, Order of the Patriotic War, First Class, 2nd type breast badge, with screw back suspension, silver, gold, and enamel, reverse officially numbered ‘53161’, generally good very fine with a large archive and associated career memorabilia, including: - The Segrave Trophy, obverse engraved ‘John Cunningham’, reverse engraved, ‘Segrave Trophy 1978, For Services to Aviation’, in leather presentation case - Royal Aero Club, Britannia Trophy, obverse engraved, ‘J. Cunningham 1948’ - Royal Aero Club, Britannia Trophy, engraved, ‘John Cunningham D.S.O., O.B.E., D.F.C., D.L., 1958’ - Royal Aeronautical Society Medal For Advancement of Aeronautical Science, white metal, edge engraved in ‘G/Capt. J. Cunningham, For Outstanding Achievements as a Test Pilot, 1951’, in presentation case

Group Captain J. Cunningham

- The Royal Aero Club Medal, silver-gilt, reverse engraved ‘J. Cunningham D.S.O., O.B.E., D.F.C., 1955’, in presentation case - The John Derry and Anthony Richards Memorial Medal For Experimental Flying, bronze, reverse engraved, ‘John Cunningham, 1965’, in presentation case - Guild of Air Pilots and Air Navigators, Sir Barnes Wallis Medal, white metal, reverse engraved, ‘J. Cunningham, 1997’, in Royal Mint presentation box - (3) Geoffrey de Havilland Trophy Medals, white metal, reverses engraved: ‘1948 John Cunningham Vampire 3’; ‘John Cunningham, D.S.O., O.B.E., D.F.C., D.L., 1957’ and ‘Group Captain John Cunningham C.B.E., D.S.O., D.F.C., 1965’, all in presentation boxes - (3) Geoffrey de Havilland Trophy Medals, bronze, all unnamed and in presentation boxes - Air League Founders’ Medal, silver-gilt, reverse engraved, ‘John Cunningham, 1979’, in Spink and Son presentation case - The Sir Peter Masefield Medal, gilt-metal, reverse engraved, ‘John Cunningham 1996’, in presentation case - The Daily Mail Initiative Prize Medal Awarded to the BEALINE Syndicate for the 1959 Bleriot Anniversary Air Race, white metal, reverse engraved, ‘J. Cunningham London-Paris-London 19 July 1959’, in presentation case

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- The Geoffrey de Havilland Flying Foundation, Seven Barrows Re-Dedication Commemorative Medal, 1986, bronze, in presentation case - Control Column Head, believed to have been salvaged from the wreckage of Cunningham’s RRobert - A Blade from a Ghost Mk 50 Turbine Engine which powered the World’s first Jet Airliner the D.H. 106 Comet, presented to Cunningham by the de Havilland Comet Heritage Trust, mounted on a wooden base - Cufflinks (9 carat gold), engraved with 604 Squadron’s crest and motto, and the initials ‘J.C.’, in D&J Wellby Ltd box; with another pair of decorative metal cufflinks - Silver Tankard (Hallmarks for Birmingham 1937), engraved, ‘To Wing Commander John Cunningham D.S.O. and Two Bars, D.F.C. and Bar, From the Aircrew and Officers of 85 Squadron on his relinquishing Command, February 1943 to February 1944’ - Presentation Salver, silver-plate, engraved, ‘Presented by Hawker Siddeley Group in appreciation of the services of J. Cunningham to Hawker Siddeley Aviation Limited’, in presentation case - Presentation Salver, silver-plate, engraved ‘Presented to Group Captain John Cunningham, C.B.E., D.S.O., D.F.C., British Aerospace Aircraft Group 1980’ - a large quantity of souvenirs and presentation gifts from Cunningham’s flights around the World, including: a Silver Cigarette Case, by Mappin & Webb (Hallmarks for Birmingham 1953); several lighters, tankards and commemorative plaques and shields - a large selection of de Havilland promotional items, including: a D.H. 125 Stick Pin (9 carat gold); a

Trident Stick Pin (9 carat gold); Trident Fork, silver (Hallmarks for London 1963), all by David Mappin and (2) D.H. Aircraft Tie Pins (9 carat gold) - a number of Model Aircraft representing the aeroplanes upon which Cunningham worked and flew in - Domed Flying Helmet, with visor; Air Ministry Stop Watch; in-flight note book; (2) pairs of white Overalls, both torn in places - White Silk Flying Scarf; a number of ties and shoulder insignia - Group Captain’s R.A.F. Cap, by Millhouse & Co., New Bond St., named inside rim ‘J. Cunningham’; with (7) other Caps from various airlines with which he flew, including B.E.A. and M.E.A. - (5) Airline Pilot’s jackets including M.E.A. and B.E.A., the latter with medal ribands attached, and a B.E.A. Long Coat - (4) R.A.F. Pilot’s Flying Log Books (27.10.193529.12.1939; 1.1.1940-30.7.1943; 1.8.194311.6.1952 and 13.6.1952-11.2.1963) - (4) Ministry of Transport and Civil Aviation Flying Log Books (20.4.1938-23.8.1939; 11.2.196329.11.1968; 2.12.1968-5.3.1969 and one unused) - (14) Note books listing Cunningham’s World flights, including delivery flights, crew training flights etc, with annotated notes and encompassing the period December 1960-October 1978 - Royal Aeronautical Society Certificate electing John Cunningham as an Honorary Fellow of the Society, dated 8.9.1997, glazed and framed - Royal Aeronautical Society Certificate electing John Cunningham as a Fellow if the Society, dated 17.3.1970

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Miller, 1980’, framed - a signed print of a D.H. Trident with BEA Markings, by Edmund Miller, annotated, ‘Presented by the Members of the Directors and Executive Mess to John Cunningham on his retirement after over 45 years with de Havilland, Hawker Siddeley and British Aerospace, September 1980’, with additional signatures of the Mess Members and employees, framed and glazed; (5) aircraft limited edition prints, all framed and glazed - a set of four glazed and framed portrait prints of Cunningham, Learoyd, Bader and Lacey, produced to celebrate the Diamond Jubilee of the R.A.F. Benevolent Fund, all numbered 4 out of a limited edition of 950 - approximately 150 books on military and civil aircraft, with a number of titles relating to personnel (lot) £140,000-180,000

- The Guild of Air Pilots and Air Navigators of the British Empire Certificate electing John Cunningham as a Full Member of the Guild, dated 8.4.1948; Copy of Freedom of the City of London - L’Academie Nationale de L’Air et de L’Espace Certificate electing John Cunningham a Honorary Member, dated 21.9.1983 - (5) Pilot’s Licences and Royal Aero Club Competitor’s Licence - a large quantity of photographs, mostly official relating to de Havilland, Cunningham’s career with the company, and the aircraft which he flew - a leather-bound presentation photograph album annotated, ‘John Cunningham This Album of Photographs is presented to you by the Members of the Directors and Executive Mess as a Cheerful Memento of over 45 years of association with Hatfield people and aeroplanes, September 1980’ - a painting of a D.H. Comet, in oils, signed ‘Edmund

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C.B.E. London Gazette 8.6.1963 Group Captain John Cunningham, D.S.O., O.B.E., D.F.C., D.L., Director and Chief Test Pilot, de Havilland Aircraft Company Ltd. D.S.O. London Gazette 29.4.1941 A/Squadron Leader J. Cunningham (90216), D.F.C., Auxiliary Air Force, No 604 Squadron The Recommendation (originally for an immediate Bar to his D.F.C.) states: ‘A/S/Ldr. J. Cunningham was awarded the D.F.C. on 3rd January 1941. Since his award he has continued to show the highest devotion to duty and has in combat with the enemy destroyed three, damaged three and probably destroyed one more. Both by his meticulous attention to the training of his radio operator and by his work in the air he is an inspiration to all the air crews in the Squadron. I recommend him for an immediate award of a bar to the D.F.C.’

Covering Remarks of Commander-in-Chief, Fighter Command: ‘Since the above recommendation was made Acting Squadron Leader Cunningham has destroyed five more enemy bombers at night. On the night of 8/9th April he destroyed two enemy bombers during the same patrol. On the night 15/16th April he destroyed three enemy bombers during three different patrols. He has now definitely destroyed ten enemy bombers at night, probably destroyed two more and damaged four others. Squadron Leader Cunningham’s courage and skill in attacking enemy bombers at night is an inspiration not only to his Squadron but to the whole of Fighter Command. I approve the Immediate Award of the Distinguished Service Order.’

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D.S.O. Second Award Bar London Gazette 24.7.1942 Acting Wing Commander John Cunningham, D.S.O., D.F.C. (90216), Auxiliary Air Force, No. 604 Squadron The Recommendation states: ‘A brilliant leader and a relentless pilot of matchless skill Wing Commander Cunningham has destroyed at least 16 hostile aircraft, many of them at night, as well as damaging several more. One day recently, Wing Commander Cunningham destroyed an enemy aircraft without firing a shot. He achieved his purpose by diving through cloud at great speed and drove the enemy aircraft down to the ground.’ Covering Remarks of Station Commander: ‘Cunningham has become almost a legend. His powers of leadership in one so young are outstanding. In addition to his astonishing skill as a pilot he is always anxious to engage the enemy and he often operates in weather which would be fatal to others. Quite recently he destroyed an enemy without even firing a shot by “driving it into the ground” in atrocious weather. This was only done by diving through cloud at great speed. His general behaviour is faultless and he is outstanding in every way.’ Covering Remarks by Air Officer Commanding: ‘In all this officer has destroyed 16 enemy aircraft, probably destroyed two and damaged 6, practically all at night. His recent successes of one damaged and another destroyed have both been in daylight, but in such difficult cloud conditions that few, if any other, pilots could have succeeded. I recommend the award on account of his outstanding personal ability and his brilliant leadership.’

D.S.O. Third Award Bar London Gazette 3.3.1944 Wing Commander John Cunningham, D.S.O., D.F.C. (90216), Auxiliary Air Force, No. 85 Squadron. The Recommendation states: ‘Already the holder of the D.S.O. and Bar and D.F.C. and Bar, Wing Commander Cunningham has, since his last award of a bar to the D.S.O., shot down four enemy aircraft at night, bringing his total up to twenty aircraft destroyed, of which nineteen have been destroyed by night. On 26th January, 1944, Wing Commander Cunningham completed one year as Commanding Officer of 85 Squadron, during which time it has been most successful and the total of enemy aircraft destroyed at night has risen from fifteen to fifty-six and a half, and on the night of 21st/22nd January the Squadron shot down its two-hundredth enemy aircraft of this war. It is almost entirely due to Wing Commander Cunningham’s magnificent powers of leadership, patience, organising ability and very wide knowledge of every aspect of night fighting that these excellent results have been achieved and caused 85 Squadron to deserve and enjoy its present very high reputation. Flying with F/Lt. C.F. Rawnsley, D.S.O., D.F.C. and Bar, D.F.M. and Bar, he shot down a F.W.190 which crashed at Wrotham on June 13th 1943. On the night of August 23rd 1943 this combination shot down another F.W.190 over Dunkirk after a thirty minute chase, and another F.W.190 off Aldeburgh on the night of 8th September 1943. Parts of the wreckage of this last F.W.190 hit Wing Commander Cunningham’s aircraft and pierced one of the radiators, forcing him to return to base on one engine.

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THE BENTLEY PRIORY BATTLE OF BRITAIN TRUST APPEAL CHARITY AUCTION On the night of 2nd January 1944 he destroyed an Me 410 over the French Coast. On the night of 7th October 1943 Wing Commander Cunningham, flying with F/Lt. Rawnsley, had a visual of a Junkers 88, but before they could engage the enemy opened fire and shattered the Wing Commander’s windscreen covering his face with particles of glass. Notwithstanding he was able to bring his aircraft safely to base.’ Remarks of Sector Commander: ‘Wing Commander Cunningham is a Night Fighter Squadron Commander of unique ability and unparalleled achievement.’ D.F.C. London Gazette 28.1.1941 Flight Lieutenant John Cunningham (90216), Auxiliary Air Force, No. 604 Squadron. The Recommendation states: ‘The above named officer has carried out during the past three months twenty-five night sorties and has flown a total of 34.54 hours operational night flying. In this period he has destroyed two enemy bomber aircraft and made seven AI interceptions. He has at all times shown the utmost enthusiasm to seek and destroy night raiders and has operated with confidence and success in weather conditions that have been far from easy. An accurate and reliable pilot and an example which has done much to raise the operational efficiency of his squadron.’ D.F.C. Second Award Bar London Gazette 19.9.1941 Acting Wing Commander John Cunningham, D.S.O., D.F.C. (90216), Auxiliary Air Force, No. 604 Squadron. The Recommendation states: ‘Wing Commander Cunningham continues to uphold and improve his outstanding record as a night fighter pilot. With his operator, Pilot Officer Rawnsley, brilliant tactics and perfect teamwork have been displayed in the pursuit of enemy aircraft at night. Since April, 1941, they have added a further four enemy aircraft to previous victories. Throughout the operations, Wing Commander Cunningham has been greatly assisted by Pilot Officer Rawnsley whose skill has been outstanding.’ Covering Remarks of Station Commander: ‘Wing Commander Cunningham continues to uphold and improve his outstanding record as a night fighter pilot. Recent operations have demanded a new and difficult technique in night fighting but by brilliant tactics and perfect team work with his Radio Operator, he has succeeded in destroying one enemy aircraft and damaging another besides obtaining a number of visual contacts under these conditions. Since being awarded the D.S.O. this officer has destroyed four E/A at night and damaged one other.’ U.S.A., Silver Star, Acting Group Captain John Cunningham, D.S.O., D.F.C. (90216), H.Q. The Recommendation states: ‘This officer has rendered excellent service in the field of night fighting. His record shows a combination of the very highest qualities of inspired leadership, of unexcelled personal example and a keen determination to destroy the enemy.’ U.S.S.R., Order of the Patriotic War, 1st Class, London Gazette 11.4.1944 Wing Commander John Cunningham, D.S.O., D.F.C. (90216) 85 Squadron The Recommendation states: ‘With the exception of a period of 3 months when he was serving with No.81 Group, Wing Commander Cunningham has been engaged on active operations since the war began. He has displayed brilliant leadership, outstanding courage and devotion to duty which, combined with exceptional knowledge of every aspect of flying, had made him one of the outstanding personalities of the Royal Air Force. Wing Commander Cunningham has destroyed 19 enemy aircraft, 18 of them at night.’

Group Captain John ‘Cat’s Eyes’ Cunningham, C.B.E., D.S.O., D.F.C., A.E. (1917-2002), born Croydon; son of Arthur Gillespie Cunningham, Company Secretary of The Dunlop Rubber Company; educated at Bowden House School, Seaford and Whitgift School, Croydon; in the summer of 1926, ‘when he was nine, John and one of his elder sisters had their first taste of the air in an Avro 504 biplane. It was half term at his prep school, and he persuaded his mother to let them go for a joyride... John’s baptism of the air was the result of a visit to Seaford from St. Austell, Cornwall, by Percival Phillips, D.F.C... John recalled sitting in the open air surrounded by the cockpit.... the excitement of lift-off having first broken the cord that bound one to Earth... But even on his first flight, John was more captivated by the aircraft and its behaviour, particularly recalling the smell of Castor oil from the rotary engine. Whenever he heard the sound of an aircraft engine he would look up to see what it was. This habit irritated his headmaster, who called out to him one day in class when he gazed out of the window: ‘Cunningham, I hope an aeroplane runs you over.’ (John ‘Cat’s Eyes’ Cunningham, The Aviation Legend, J. Golley, refers). Having left prep school he went to Whitgift; the latter’s proximity to Croydon Aerodrome (then the airport for London) was the perfect stimulus for Cunningham’s burgeoning interest in all types of aircraft; armed with his bicycle he regularly went to watch Handley Pages and de Havilland Moths amongst many others. Joining the de Havilland ‘Family’ With the end of school, and the age of 18 rapidly approaching Cunningham applied to join the apprentice scheme at the de Havilland Technical School; having got through the interview he was accepted to join the scheme based at the new de Havilland HQ at Hatfield; one of the other students who he shared digs with was J.P. ‘Phil’ Smith, who became Chief Designer during Cunningham’s later years as Chief Test Pilot; he started the three year course in August 1935, ‘during which he learned how to build the wooden airframes, the sequences of designing an aircraft, engine technicalities, and aerodynamics. When he had completed the course he was given work in a new branch of the D.H. operations. Captain de Havilland decided that he could utilise technical students with the production of the Moth Minor, a low-wing monoplane, which would lower production costs and over-heads.’ (ibid) Despite being busy with the construction of the T.K.2 monoplane prototype Cunningham decided that he wanted to increase his overall understanding of aircraft, and as a consequence embarked on learning to fly; he joined 604 Squadron, as part of the Auxiliary Air Force, 1935; based at Hendon the majority of the squadron were several years older than Cunningham and were well-heeled ‘week-end’ flyers; this did not deter Cunningham in his pursuit of mastering the Hawker Demon fighter biplanes that the squadron had just been re-equipped with; training in Avro 504Ns he first went solo, 15.3.1936 and gained his R.A.F. ‘Wings’ in the summer of the same year. The Start of an Extraordinary Partnership In 1937 when being ‘crewed up’, ‘a partnership emerged between John Cunningham and Jimmy Rawnsley which was to last for eight action packed years, and make them into national heroes as the most successful RAF Night Fighter Crew of World War II. It began when Jimmy became his air gunner, and commented that, ‘What with John’s blue eyes and his crinkly fair hair, his downy pink cheeks and slim, boyish figure, it was not altogether surprising that this young

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September 6, 2012 - LONDON Down To Earth With A Bump Work was progressing well at de Havilland and Cunningham was testing both the Moth Minor and the Hornet Moth; at the start of 1939 he had nearly completed flight-testing the Moth Minor and Cunningham asked the Chief Test Pilot to take it up for his opinion, ‘he reacted somewhat impatiently to John’s suggestion, saying that he was far too busy. However, John persevered, repeating that he was only a junior, and that Geoffrey ought to fly it himself before launching it into the world. Later Geoffrey acquiesced, and suggested that he should do the aft-centre-of-gravity spinning tests, with John accompanying him to provide a representative load... Having reached a compromise, the two test pilots climbed into the Moth Minor on 11th April 1939, to carry out spinning tests. The prototypes had had an antispin parachute fitted before spinning programmes were carried out, but recoveries had always been achieved without recourse to this safety device. The standard production machine they were flying, however, naturally had no such safeguard. They took off, with John in the rear cockpit, and climbed to about 8,000 feet, where Geoffrey initiated a left-hand spin, completing eight turns before the textbook recovery. They climbed back to 8,000 feet, where Geoffrey put her into a right-hand spin. During the first revolution the engine coughed and stopped, and simultaneously the nose reared up and she went into a flat spin. She whizzed round rapidly but with a slow rate of descent, like a sycamore leaf, resulting in a total loss of control. After a few turns of this unpleasant state of affairs Geoffrey spoke into the Gosport tube, the primitive intercom, saying that he was getting no response from the controls and asked John to try. John could not achieve anything and suggested that they both jump. Geoffrey agreed, and told him to go right away. The ground was revolving fast, and coming up to meet them when John hauled himself out of the cockpit. He watched Geoffrey get out and, he thinks, pulled his own ripcord while standing on the wing. The chute blossomed and whipped him clear of the aeroplane as, simultaneously, the Moth Minor dropped its nose and recovered from the flat spin! The propeller then started windmilling, which got the engine going because they had not switched off the ignition before baling out. The aircraft began turning around the descending pilots, with the danger of either of them drifting into it. Fortunately the Moth Minor was coming down fairly quickly and bade them adieu before crashing into a large oak tree near Wheathampstead and bursting into flames. John remembered coming down rather sharply... He landed near the rapidly burning wreckage, and, having collected himself, he fished out his camera, and took a photo of the wreckage, and of his parachute neatly laid out on the ground. Such a reaction from someone who had just baled out in dire emergency - few had in those days - was quite remarkable, and reveals what a cool, calm character he was. Collecting up his parachute, and tucking it under his arm, he saw a lady on a horse approaching and recognised Jean Paterson, daughter of the owner of the land. ‘Are you all right? Can I help?’ she asked. ‘No harm done - nothing broken’, he said. ‘I’m going to walk across the field to the road’. He knew that he would find Geoffrey in the nearby Crooked Chimney, so he thumbed a lift and a passing car took him there. Sure enough, there was Geoffrey surrounded by various colleagues. It was evident that the crowd had the same hunch as to where they would find Geoffrey, and a few drinks were consumed. After chatting about their good fortune, and the behaviour of the aeroplane, John recalls Geoffrey saying something like, ‘Oh God, now we’ve got a job to do. You’d better get on with it. That’ll keep you busy’. (ibid)

Pilot Officer should be nicknamed “Boy” by his fellowofficers. But the name did not stick. Young as he was, there was a certain quiet determination in his manner, and a steadfastness in the gaze of those blue eyes that soon made them think of him as more than just a boy.’ He won the respect of the men who serviced the aircraft. Here was a pilot who asked shrewd questions, and whose criticisms were always constructive. This young pilot officer was no flying-club-week-ender to be turned aside with smooth answers, or a bit of technical double-talk.’ (ibid) Rawnsley, then aged 32, had originally joined 604 Squadron as an Aircraft-hand; his dream had always been to be a member of aircrew; however, his advanced age and diminutive stature stood against him; he changed roles and through a lot of hard work became an air gunner in September 1937; as the junior air gunner in the squadron he was crewed up with the youngest pilot - this suited Cunningham and Rawnsley perfectly. At roughly the same time Captain de Havilland’s eldest son Geoffrey became the Company’s Chief Test Pilot, ‘at this time Geoffrey and his small test-pilot team of George Gibbins and Guy Tucker had an almost impossible workload. Production lines were turning out Tiger Moths, Queen Bees, Rapides and Oxfords... Captain de Havilland was well aware of John Cunningham’s growing flight experience, and that the Company was becoming seriously short of test pilots. He suggested to John that he’d like him to help out by testflying the Moth Minors. This machine was at the production stage, and John had done a considerable amount of work in developing the prototype... he realised that specialised design and engineering work were not for him. His ambition was to become involved in the manufacture of aircraft, or, better still, in flight-testing... He could not have wished for anything more than to have the opportunity of becoming the fourth member of the D.H. test team.’ (ibid) An Early Taste For Night Flying Prior to the outbreak of the Second War Cunningham took every opportunity to be airborne, ‘he enjoyed flying the Hawker Demon at night with his air gunner in the rear cockpit. They went up only when the weather conditions were good, and they could see the conurbation of London lit up like a giant Octopus, with the Thames running through the centre. ‘You could see where you were,’ he said, ‘picking up the river and identifying the major roads leading out. I could always spot the Edgware Road - originally built by the Romans, it was dead straight for miles - and then the paraffin flares just east of that road at the aerodrome. The demon was nice to fly at night, and it was the only time when a pilot had to attend to his instruments.’ (ibid) Rawnsley had been inspired by the Air Aces of the Great War, for Cunningham it was all about the aircraft and the engineering, not heroics but the machine itself and his dedication to improving the symbiosis between pilot and machine; having been mobilised at the time of the Munich Crisis, September 1938, Cunningham recalled that, ‘War was fast approaching, and we were given the Blenheim with a tray of four machine-guns underneath, where the bomb bay had been. “There you are”, they said, “you now have a night fighter.” We had no radar and, although the machine was pleasant to fly, I realised that we stood little chance in combat. We all knew how active the Germans had been in Spain, and how well the Messerschmitt Bf 109 had performed.’ (ibid)

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No.604 Squadron, North Weald, September 1939, Cunningham standing 604 Squadron and Mobilisation After the Munich Crisis it became apparent to Cunningham that War was imminent and as a consequence he would have to choose between carrying on as a test pilot or going to war, ‘he was well aware that test flying would become a vital war time activity, but recalled that at the particular moment when he was asked the question, ‘I didn’t hesitate. I simply told them that I would remain with the squadron. They had taught me to fly and I was one of them. Apart from that, I thought that I could be more useful in the R.A.F.’ (ibid) On 23.8.1939 Cunningham joined his squadron as general mobilisation was called; 604 Squadron were designated as a day/night fighter unit and moved from Hendon to North Weald the day before War was declared; they had to deal with fairly Spartan conditions, sleeping in tents whilst the Regulars occupied the buildings; conditions worsened as Winter progressed, ‘neither the Blenheims nor their flying suits were heated. Long daytime shipping patrols up and down the North Sea, as far as the Humber Estuary, and night patrols in bitterly cold weather, made life most uncomfortable! John recalled, ‘As one climbed, the temperature inside the cockpit dropped rapidly. The air was searingly cold to breathe, and seemed to bite the nose and the eyes, tending to make the eyes stream, and one could even end up with ice on the inside of one’s face mask... It required considerable concentration to stay awake and make sensible decisions.’ The night patrols proved hazardous... In Wartime, in the blackout, at night there were no landmarks, and wintry weather meant that one was flying blind. They had no homing beacons, no system of blind approach, and no way in

which they could be talked down on the final approach and landing. They also had trouble with blind flying instruments, and the radio was weak and had short range... It was hardly surprising that John lost a number of his friends as they carried out night patrols. Stalling after take-off, or becoming disorientated while turning at low speeds close to ground, were two common factors, and the accident rate continued to be alarmingly high.’ (ibid) Cunningham’s attention to night flying prior to the War stood him in good stead; concentration was key, ‘on one occasion during a four hour stint he got so stiff and cold that, in order to ease his frozen muscles, he moved over and sat in the navigator’s tip-up seat, keeping a hand on the wheel!’ (ibid) AI (Airborne Interception) Pioneer The aircraft instruments were notoriously temperamental at this stage and brief night-flying tests were carried out almost daily to ensure that the instruments were functioning correctly prior to a patrol; on 8.1.1940 Cunningham was ‘asked to do a circuit in a ‘long-nosed’ Blenheim IV, serial number P4847, with something secret on board. He was told that the box inside was the sort of thing that was being developed to make possible an interception with another aeroplane. ‘I thought at the time how bloody stupid it all sounded! But on 8 January I took a Sergeant Horder and an air gunner [Corporal Love] for an hour’s flight without realising that I was carrying the first purpose-designed AI (Airborne Interception) radar set ever installed in an aircraft.’ (ibid)

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September 6, 2012 - LONDON On the 16th January Cunningham moved with the squadron to Northolt; the squadron were engaged in sector reconnaissance, minelaying patrols and search-light cooperation, February-April 1940; then on 22.4.1940, ‘three of 604’s Blenheims flew to Hendon to escort a D.H. Flamingo to Le Bourget. John recalls that his tail-wheel tyre burst while taxying at Northolt, which was quickly dealt with. The Flamingo was carrying Winston Churchill (then First Lord of the Admiralty) and others for a meeting of the Supreme War Council in Paris, at the Quai d’Orsay, to discuss the serious situation in Norway, which was being invaded by the Germans. John smiled when he recalled that his gunner on that occasion was Leading Aircraftman Rawnsley, and that the Air Attaché looked after them. ‘We were put up that night in a splendid Paris hotel... The Blenheims escorted the Flamingo back to Hendon later that day, with a supply of good French wine in the Blenheims.’ (ibid) Having had one brush with Churchill, Cunningham spent May-June carrying out flying trials for the great man’s close friend Professor Lindemann; the latter was investigating bombs which could be detonated by photo-electric cells; Cunningham was sent with his Blenheim to Exeter to carry out the trials, working with an RAE (Royal Aircraft Establishment) team; although the trials were eventually abandoned this was to be the first of many forays for Cunningham into the experimental side of wartime flying and development.

to occur for Cunningham by winter 1940; in September Cunningham was promoted Squadron Leader and given command of B Flight, whilst Rawnsley became the Flight’s Senior Gunner; perhaps more importantly the squadron received the first of the new Beaufighters, and ‘during this period radar control from the ground had been on trial in the Middle Wallop sector... John had become involved liaising with the ‘boffins’ concerned, keeping them up-to-date with the pilots’ problems concerning the system they were developing, known simply as GCI (Ground Control of Interception). Gradually the system was able to direct a radarequipped fighter near enough to an enemy bomber to make first a radar, then a visual contact, and the Beaufighter had the speed to overtake it. All the night fighter Beaus were painted black, and were fitted with AI Mk IV, with a harpoon-like transmitter antenna on the nose and dipole receiver antennas ahead of the outer wings.’ (ibid) The Blitz began on the 8th September and Fighter Command reacted by giving full priority to developing radarequipped night fighters and the G.C.I. system; Cunningham was once again at the forefront regularly racing off to Bentley Priory for meetings with Air Marshal (later Marshal of the Royal Air Force) Sir Sholto Douglas; whilst carrying out his duties with the squadron he also took up student operators from the AI school, as well as carrying out stability checks and other tests on the Beaufighter; his test pilot background was already proving invaluable. At the start of November the Germans changed tactics and began systematically destroying cities across the Midlands and the North; apart from the all too obvious devastating results it was also crippling for public morale; the Germans were virtually unopposed at night and appeared to strike at will, ‘then on the night of 19/20th November John Cunningham, with John Phillipson as his radar operator, took off on a night patrol... There were enemy aircraft about, and John Cunningham was vectored by G.C.I. after one of them. A little later he saw a concentration of searchlights on the clouds and headed towards it. Phillipson was staring intently at his cathode-ray tubes, and suddenly he got a good firm contact. During the chase that followed he had problems with his micro-phone freezing up, but managed to clear it. Gradually he brought John into close range of the target. In the dark night ahead John caught a glimpse of a cluster of stars which seemed to be moving in a different direction from the others, and as he did so a dark shape formed around them, only to fragment as he looked directly at it. Climbing a little closer, a silhouette took shape. ‘Ok’, he called, ‘I can see it.’ John skilfully manoeuvred his Beaufighter below the contact and there was no doubt that it was a Ju 88, and at long last he had come to grips with the enemy. He throttled back, keeping below the Ju 88 until he was well within range, and fired his cannons. The Junkers went down and finally exploded when it dived into the ground. For the first time, an AI equipped Beaufighter had justified the faith of all of those who had worked for so long to prove that the system worked, and that now there was a major role for the radar-equipped night fighter. For the record, this interception had been preceded by two others, the first in July 1940, both achieved by F/O Ashfield flying a Blenheim from the Fighter Interception Unit, a research unit engaged in radar development. The splendid news was transmitted to Group Headquarters, Fighter Command, and to the Air Ministry. The initial optimism was fully justified when a few nights later the CO, Mike Anderson, bagged a He 111. At the time of John’s success there were only three crews in 604 Squadron who were operational on Beaufighters. More aircraft and further training of former Blenheim crews were badly needed. Even by the end of 1940 only six pilots and operators were available to allow the operational programme to proceed exclusively with Beaufighters.’ (ibid)

Night Fighter Having rejoined 604 Squadron Cunningham moved with them to Middle Wallop, Hampshire, 26.7.1940; operating from Middle Wallop they became a full-time night fighter squadron, ‘their Blenheims had been fitted with the secret ‘magic boxes’... There were a host of purely technical people, including signals mechanics, whose shop talk was incomprehensible. Then, a new breed of ‘operators’ appeared on the scene, classed as aircraftmen, and hardly knew one end of an aeroplane from the other. These were the chaps who were going to operate the ‘magic boxes’. Word soon got around that the box was known officially as AI, standing for Airborne Interception. When its existence was disclosed it was called radio location, but this term was later replaced by the American name ‘radar’. At the time, however, nobody referred to it at all, because it was secret. However, there was no doubt in everyone’s mind that Fighter Command was determined to develop the science of night fighting, and that 604 was to be part of it in their own particular way.’ (ibid) The airfield at Middle Wallop was a hive of activity with the Spitfire and Hurricane squadrons fully engaged in the Battle of Britain; by day Cunningham was carrying out NFTs and ops by night; this was the formative stage of Night Fighting carrying on secretly in the background whilst the Battle of Britain raged in the foreground; 604 Squadrons’ “Magic Box” operators were being vigorously trained and advanced ground-control systems installed; the squadrons existing air gunners, such as Jimmy Rawnsley, were given the choice of being posted elsewhere or retraining as radar operators; by late summer 1940, ‘it was mere groping in the dark, when the prime objective - being to track another aircraft while operating the ‘magic box’, until the pilot could see it - was utterly unattainable. Also, the business of night fighting in those primitive early-war conditions was an extremely hazardous occupation... The Grim Reaper took his toll, but he didn’t crack the spirit of those determined to make radarequipped night fighters work. John Cunningham pointed out, ‘You were at war. Night fighting was a highly specialised game. You had to set a standard to everybody around you. It had to be made to work, and we had to be the ones to master it and get it to work.’ (ibid) Working what was to become the standard pattern for night fighters - two nights on and two off - improvements started

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THE BENTLEY PRIORY BATTLE OF BRITAIN TRUST APPEAL CHARITY AUCTION A Brief Interlude With de Havilland And The Mosquito Prototype Shortly after his first ‘Victory’ Cunningham was asked to see Sir Charles Portal, Chief of the Air Staff, at the Air Ministry; having no idea what the meeting was about, ‘he was ushered in and was very relieved to learn that his former boss, Captain de Havilland, had asked Portal if he could have John’s services for a day to fly his new machine - the D.H. 98 Mosquito - and make a judgement as to its suitability as a night fighter.’ (ibid) On the 2nd of February 1941 Cunningham flew to his old stomping ground at Hatfield, ‘shortly afterwards he got his first glimpse of the Mosquito. ‘I was overjoyed’, he said. ‘It had a marvellous shape and was a typically elegant looking D.H. aeroplane following the lines of the D.H. Albatross... It was light on the controls, and lovely in the air’, he said. ‘Its performance matched its elegance, and I was convinced that it had great night fighter potential.’ Cunningham was the first Service pilot to fly the Mosquito, and the aircraft was subsequently taken to the Boscombe Down testing airfield for Service trials. ‘Cat’s Eyes’ - The Start Of A Legend 604 Squadron now altered their tactics and from December onwards tried to make contact with the German bombers whilst they were still out at sea; on the 23rd December Cunningham took off with Phillipson on one of these patrols, ‘at five o’clock, when it was already getting dark on the ground, they spotted a Heinkel 111 coming in about fifty miles out at sea. At 15,000 feet, however, it was still daylight. John calmly bided his time stalking the pathfinder, and then, firing his cannons, hit him squarely in the bombload. The Heinkel blew up like a gigantic firework display, with coloured flares and burning incendiaries showering out as the machine plummeted down in a near-vertical dive. Finally it disappeared through cloud with three parachute flares, which had fallen out, dramatically lighting the scene. John’s first kill, the Ju 88 on 20 November, had generated confidence amongst all those engaged in the night fighting business. The long suffering public, who were enduring constant bombing raids, needed some encouragement, and the fact that our night fighter force was at last achieving results was to become the subject of satisfying Press comment, to lift morale. However, neither the public nor even most of those in the Services knew anything about the ‘magic box’. It had to be kept secret. So a legend was created which boosted the public image of the night fighter, and effectively cloaked the secret. The Press were allowed to publish pictures of John Cunningham - the first night ace - whose night vision was said to be so miraculous that it enabled him to see in the dark, as with the eyes of a cat. Inevitably, from then on he was known throughout the country as ‘Cat’s Eyes’ Cunningham’. It was also said that he ate lots of carrots, whose Vitamin A content helped to maintain his supposed extraordinary night vision.’ (ibid) Despite being unpopular with the man himself, who was uncomfortable with being singled out from other pilot’s achievements, ‘the branding of John as ‘Cat’s Eyes’ Cunningham, the ace night fighter, achieved its object in making people aware that Great Britain actually did have a night fighter force, which was rapidly becoming an increasing deterrent to German night bombers. The public at that time were under severe strain and ready to accept any news which gave them a lift, such as the Cats Eyes and carrots explanation! The Germans must have known from their casualty figures - 604 Squadron destroyed thirty bombers in one two-month period - that the RAF was either improving its techniques or had something special. However it appeared that the Cunningham press comment had effectively cloaked the secret of the ‘magic box’. The introduction on the South Coast of the local GCI stations was also an important factor in starting to turn the

tide, ‘these enabled every night fighter to be vectored by a Controller, who could follow the entire course of an interception on a large cathode-ray tube, and who could direct the fighter until he had brought it within a mile or so behind the bomber’. (ibid) Cunningham And Rawnsley - A Permanent Partnership Up to this point in the War Cunningham had flown the majority of his successful operations with Sergeant Phillipson, and on 2.1.1941 they got another Probable, ‘Fighter Patrol - Dusk Patrol - intercepted He 111 in Lyme Bay - Probable’ (Log Book refers); this was to be their last success together as during the second week of January Rawnsley regained his partnership with Cunningham as his radar operator, ‘his long experience of flying with John from the Hawker Demon had enabled him to understand John’s manner and style in the air. John’s voice was even more brisk and economical while flying, and there was never any casual conversation. John’s patience and Jimmy’s honesty were essential ingredients in establishing a natural co-ordination between them. Jimmy always admitted liability for his mistakes, and did his best to eradicate them, while some of the other operators covered up by giving pseudo-technical reasons.’ (ibid) It did not take long for the pair to find their feet, scoring a He 111 damaged, 12.1.1941, before achieving their first victory together over Poole Harbour, 15.2.1941, ‘they reached their patrol point at 15,000 feet, some forty miles south of Lulworth, and began going up and down the line. Jimmy had his AI warmed up and tuned in, ready for a radar search.... he looked intently towards the south-west, from where the Heinkels would come. Minutes later the Controller told them that the first bandit was on its way flying at 12,000 feet, and right on his track. Then began the cat and mouse came in which John excelled. He dropped down to 11,500 feet into the misty obscurity that lay shorewards, leaving the enemy silhouetted against the luminous background. John made no move and continued on his beat as the minutes ticked by... Then Jimmy suddenly spotted the German visually high on the port quarter, a tiny black speck still miles away but easily picked out against the light sky. When he reported the bandits position, John turned the Beau smartly around on its wingtip. The Heinkel was coming fast, and was soon high overhead, and John kept vertically beneath it. He managed to stay in position by keeping watch through the roof panel as the bandit flew serenely on, blissfully unaware of what was lurking below. For ten minutes or more the two aircraft continued in company, while all the time night time was approaching. When the Dorset coast became visible the Heinkel started to circle and John followed him, glancing up to the bomber and down to his instruments. The German was biding his time, waiting for the cloak of darkness before he crossed into hostile territory. Round they went, with John maintaining station until the curve of Lyme Bay was close ahead... The night was descending fast when John pounced. He increased power, and the Beaufighter rose towards its quarry, so that the Heinkel grew ever larger above their heads. Jimmy was filled with a ridiculous sense of the need to go on tiptoe, as if he were stalking the enemy. He checked the AI, the safety catches on the Hispano cannon, and the air pressure in the firing circuit, and then he checked the sky behind and below. He told John that he was ready, and there was nothing behind. ‘Good’, John replied, ‘Here goes’. The Heinkel slowly sank into the line of fire as Jimmy anxiously waited, expecting a stream of tracer from a German gunner. Then John pressed the gun button and released an avalanche of 20mm shells... Then, just beyond the line of flame, there was an angry red explosion and they knew that the Heinkel had gone in’. (ibid) Cunningham piloted his Beaufighter like a predatory cat stalking his prey - as a consequence it would appear that his

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‘Jimmy and John’ newly acquired nickname was apt in at least one way; on the night of the 12th March the pair managed to damage both a He 111 and a Ju 88.

G.C.I. station] to give them instructions, John’s eyes caught a searchlight cone to the north, in the direction of Marlborough. Starlight was too busy to employ them, and gave them the ok to investigate. They reckoned that it was a bomber heading south on the way home. John wheeled around, but the blip on Jimmy’s cathode-ray tube rushed on and off before he could hold it. John responded by pushing the nose down and opening up the throttles, and Jimmy soon had the contact sliding down towards visual range. When they should have been getting close to the bandit, a number of long, straggly blips came swarming out of the Christmas tree at the top of the trace. Jimmy thought that they must be running into a whole gaggle of Luftwaffe bombers, but kept his eye on the original blip. Then he suddenly realised that they were approaching the Southampton balloon barrage. John caught sight of the bandit and, closing in to some 800 yards, gave it a burst and the Heinkel flicked over into a dive. They went after it, but at 9,000 feet John decided that the balloons were quite close enough, and eased out of the dive. A great red explosion from the ground revealed that the bomber had gone in. They headed back to base, and were soon over Middle Wallop and at 17,000 feet. John liked extra height when attacking bombers that had dropped their load. ‘Returned empties’, he said, ‘run light and dive fast for home’. Starlight had no fighters available, but had their eye on a home-bound customer, so they sent John north-west following a similar track taken by his last victim. Then, in superb style they swung him back on the tail of the bandit. John, however, was 6,000 feet too high, and, while Jimmy maintained contact, he gradually lost height until they found themselves back on the outskirts of Southampton again! Then he saw moonlight glinting on the windows of another Heinkel, and again closed in to 80 yards. The moonlight shone all along the Heinkel’s port side, and with a brief stab on the gun button, it burst into flames. Burning wreckage bounced off the Beaufighter’s nose as John broke away left and high. His third victim that night fragmented on the ground somewhere near Lymington.’

The Devil Is In The Detail By Spring 1941 the GCI system was functioning well and more crews were getting victories; morale was high and a competitive spirit within the squadron was beginning to be fostered, ‘But it was John Cunningham who was expected to define the techniques and lead the way. It hadn’t been easy for John to pin down the small details, but he had a natural touch, and a sense of the scale of things. Somehow he made it all seem simple and effortless, but nobody worked harder than John did to achieve that mastery. An example of that was in his attitude towards landings. If he ever made a landing, day or night, that was not to his satisfaction, he would always take off immediately and try it again. The others watched him closely, some with delight, some with envy, and in imitating his style they followed him with pride and affection. With blood and sweat, not to mention tears, they strove to acquire his easy mastery, and in doing so many of them, over the years ahead, fought their way to future leadership’. (ibid) This hard work paid off in April 1941, when Cunningham and Rawnsley went through somewhat of a ‘purple patch’ with four victories in quick fire succession: 3.4.1941, ‘He 111 Destroyed S.W. of Needles. Blew up & bits came back and dented the Beau’; 7.4.1941, ‘G.C.I. Patrol. He 111 Destroyed near Bridport - a flamer’; 9.4.1941, ‘He 111 Destroyed. Fell into sea in flames about 4-5 miles S of Bournemouth’; 11.4.1941, ‘He 111 Destroyed. Fell near Sherbourne. Burst into flames.’ (Log Book refers); they also managed a He 111 Damaged on the 9th and another Probable on the 11th. Hat-Trick On the 15th April Cunningham, ‘managed to put 40 rounds straight into the fuselage of a Heinkel over Monmouthshire, and after returning to base was sent off on a second sortie to reinforce the cab-rank. While waiting for Starlight [local

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Cunningham being introduced to H.M. The King, Middle Wallop, May 1941

By Royal Command Having bagged another He 111 on the 3rd of May Cunningham and Rawnsley barely had time to spare to don their ‘Sunday best’ for a Royal Visit; King George VI visited 604 Squadron at Middle Wallop on the 7th May; he was introduced to Cunningham and then ‘went on down the line and confronted Jimmy Rawnsley, asking him what his score was. Jimmy, somewhat taken-aback hastily did some mental arithmetic and replied, ‘Er-nine, Sir’. Whereupon, the King asked him to get another one tonight, especially for him.’ (ibid). Once the King’s car had departed 604’s crews rushed off to change before quickly getting into the air, ‘Although a little behind time, the first patrols climbed into their Beaufighters and headed for the Channel at full power. When John reached patrol height and was in position, he throttled back and called Starlight. The King had arrived, and the Royal Command Performance was about to commence. Obligingly, the Luftwaffe had provided a bandit, and it was ‘on with the show’. (ibid) The King had been driven off to Starlight (G.C.I. unit at Sopley) to be shown how it worked by Chief Controller Squadron Leader John ‘Brownie’ Brown, ‘the bomber was far out over the English Channel, but heading in the direction of the Royal Party. Brownie had plenty of time to stage-manage the opening sequence. He vectored John on to ‘three three zero’, and then ‘three one zero’. Jimmy’s eyes were glued to his cathode-ray displays, thankful for a clear picture, but there was no contact. Brownie gave John the final vector.... and told him that he was now three miles behind the bandit. John opened up the engines, and the time was rapidly approaching for Beaufighter R-Robert to take centre-stage. In the darkened caravan at Starlight, the King peered over Brownie’s shoulder at the glowing PPI tube... the players in this scene, came closer together as each crept slowly across the tube. Nothing broke the tense silence but an occasional crackle from the loud speaker. Finally, the blobs seemed to

merge into one. The audience waited, fascinated... John caught sight of the bandit. Now it was John’s turn to take centre-stage. The light was still too bright. The Moon was shining down behind them, and the sea shimmered silver. John considered that the bandit might spot them against the sea, so he decided not to go straightin. The coastline was coming up, and inland the ground would be black and would hide them. Accordingly, he planned to wait until the bomber was over the land. The Controller suggested to his audience that they might like to go outside, where there was a chance of witnessing the interception. As they were going down the steps from the caravan, they could hear the sound of aircraft engines high in the southern sky. The bandit played its part to perfection, seemingly oblivious of what was coming up behind. John positioned R-Robert just below and behind the target - a big black Heinkel. Slowly he pulled the Beau up until he was dead astern, and still slightly below. At that tense moment he brought the gunsight to bear, and still the Heinkel hadn’t noticed. Then he pressed the firing button. The crescendo of guns opened the final act as John pulled away, to avoid hurtling wreckage. A flickering glow lit the inside of the Heinkel, and - like most Heinkels when seriously hit - its wheels dropped down, the hydraulics shot through. Flying alongside, the Beaufighter crew watched the glow expand through the skin, as engulfing flames took over. Mortally wounded, the He 111 shuddered, and curved over into a steepening dive, flames streaming behind. The curtain had come down on this Royal Command Performance, leaving R-Robert to return home to have its twelfth Swastika painted on the tail fin.’ (ibid) Cunningham went to sleep that night only to wake the following morning to the news that R-Robert was no more; another crew had been scrambled in it during the early hours, they destroyed a Heinkel but had been shot up in the process; the crew baled-out and R-Robert crashed to the ground.

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Column Control Head, believed to have been salvaged from the wreckage of Cunningham’s R-Robert

A Leader Of Men In March Cunningham had been awarded the D.F.C., quickly followed by the D.S.O. the following month; he destroyed another Heinkel 111, 1.6.1941 and was promoted Wing Commander and CO of 604 Squadron in August of the same year; despite the growing number of his achievements at such a young age, his commitment and perfectionist approach to flying remained clear, ‘promotions and decorations were an achievement, but part of the job. They were nice to have, but didn’t make any difference to me. I had survived so far, and was grateful for the recognition. Lots of people were being killed, and one could not look ahead. Of course, I was thankful to be alive, but mastering the use of radar was a whole-time occupation, and left one little time to think of one’s career and decorations.’ (ibid) Cunningham continued to inspire the squadron with his record, when on the 22nd August he destroyed another He 111, during a ‘free-lance’ off Wells; however, he was to prove that he was mortal the same night; during an attack on another Heinkel, which he damaged, he took fire to his port engine; despite being out to sea he managed to limp home with one engine spluttering and the other on fire. Cunningham’s dedication to his men was obvious by the time that he personally put into training them - he not only wanted them to be in the best position to achieve, but also ultimately to survive, ‘when new pilots arrived on the Squadron from a OTU, and were confronted with the Beaufighter, they were invariably apprehensive. Word had got around that the awesome machine was a death-trap, and that an engine failure was inevitably fatal. John accordingly made a practice of taking every new crew for a demonstration trip in his own aircraft when they first arrived. The new pilot stood up behind John in the front, and his operator squeezed beside Jimmy in the rear.

John would take off loaded with four people, and as he climbed out across the boundary hedge he would cut one throttle right back, and complete a single-engined circuit with one prop idly windmilling. But the show was not over, because he would then take off in company with another aircraft, and demonstrate an interception and an attack. This would lead to a steep curved landing approach, with power in hand, which enabled him to keep a look out below and behind, before flattening out for touch-down. Such approaches were nerve-wracking to the young pilots, but John’s comment was, ‘It’s better to step out of the wreckage at the far end of the flare-path than to be dug out at the near end.’ Unquestionably, however, he proved the versatility of the Beaufighter this way, and generated a much greater eagerness and confidence in the aircraft on the part of his new crews to get on with their own flying.’ (ibid) Two ‘Aces’ - A Fight To The Death Cunningham and Rawnsley tried to stay at the forefront of every new advance with the A.I. system, spending large amounts of time interacting with the scientists of units such as the TRE (Telecommunications Research Establishment) and the FIU (Fighter Interception Unit); these commitments combined with the new German system of blind bombing which enabled the bombers to navigate to their targets, bomb it, and return without leaving cloud cover, lead to a temporary slowing of ‘trade’; the pair destroyed a Ju 88, 1.9.1941, and damaged a He 111 by day, 4.2.1942. On the 23rd May, ‘John had a unique and memorable duel with a Heinkel 111. Drizzling clouds covered hills, and layers of cloud went up to 20,000 feet. Having studied the weather reports, KGr. 100 [a specialist German bomber unit] decided to ‘have a go’. John was called, and took off at four o’clock in the afternoon, with the cloud base frighteningly low. Soon

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THE BENTLEY PRIORY BATTLE OF BRITAIN TRUST APPEAL CHARITY AUCTION after the undercarriage retracted the Earth vanished, and they were cocooned in white vapour. It was an eerie feeling, as if they were hanging motionless in a ghostly void, with only the needles of the instruments to tell them what was happening. Within minutes Starlight had vectored them on to a bandit, and soon between layers of cloud John had a Heinkel in sight 1,000 yards ahead. This was no sitting duck. Suddenly, the Heinkel whipped over into a steep left turn, enabling the gunners to fire a broadside as they flashed past about a hundred yards away on the Beaufighter’s beam. In a flash, John pulled round in a violent turn which put heavy ‘g’ on Jimmy, ramming him down hard into his seat. John instinctively knew that this German pilot knew his stuff, and his crew likewise. The Heinkel had already disappeared into the mist and Jimmy, dazzled by the glare outside, could not decipher anything on his radar displays. Almost a minute had gone by, and he had lost contact. John called Starlight for help. They had tracked the bandit flying north, near Shaftesbury. Jimmy was annoyed at his failure to maintain contact, and resolutely kept his head down, concentrating on his AI set. Starlight produced more vectors, and the chase continued. Suddenly John saw the Heinkel again, and closed in on him with ruthless determination. Jimmy, realising that this was going to be a duel between champions, put on his sunglasses, which he carried for daytime practice, so that he could see what was going on. He was just in time to see the Heinkel whip past, heeling over at a staggering angle, with the gunners blazing away off-target. John was saving his ammunition in his usual fashion until he was within lethal range. Jimmy turned back to his set, and now, when he removed his glasses, the blip showed up clearly. The Heinkel pilot straightened up, apparently thinking that he had thrown off his pursuers. He must have been amazed and shocked when John re-appeared behind him yet again a few minutes later. But he did not panic, and again turned to the attack, a sound tactic. The Heinkel’s engines were clearly at full power. This time John held his turn inside the bandit, determined not to give an inch. The turns became tighter and tighter, until the Heinkel seemed to be upside-down over their heads. The ‘g’ forces were becoming intolerable, and the tactics were becoming a ‘winding match’, John’s term for two aircraft trying repeatedly to out-turn each other. Eyeballs drag in their sockets, and neck muscles ache with the effort it takes to look at dials and instruments. Breathing becomes laboured, proving that the aircraft can take more ‘g’ than the crew. Relentlessly, John continued to haul the Beaufighter round the sky. Finding that he could not out-turn the Beaufighter, the Heinkel dropped the thwarted tactic, and resorted to twisting and diving... He would disappear under John’s wing, and then re-appear on the opposite track, flashing past at impossible angles. The contest had developed into a death-or-glory duel between two absolute masters of their machines. The entire fuselage of the Beaufighter vibrated, the sleeve-valve engines no longer making a soft booming sound but howling as airspeed built up. The needles of the altimeter raced backwards around the dial, while the blind-flying panel had gone crazy and the artificial horizon had gone haywire and ‘thrown in the sponge.’ John muttered, ‘Hm... this isn’t good enough’ very quietly, talking half to himself. Calmly, he looked at the instruments interpreting the message they were trying to tell him. ‘Now... let me see... left bank... that’s better.’ Jimmy suddenly saw the Heinkel again as it flashed past apparently heading straight downwards. A quick glance at the AI set told him that they were frighteningly close to high ground, which rose up to 900 feet. As he watched the blip from the Heinkel it disappeared in the foliage of ground returns. Starlight could do nothing, and the blip had vanished from their own cathode-ray tube.

Jimmy, exhausted, searched for a homing beacon on the AI set. John who could resist feeling exhausted, felt his way gently down through the clouds... It was a relief to get back to Middle Wallop after two-and-a half hours of highly charged flying. When they broke off the engagement, John had the Beaufighter at over 340mph indicated, which was very high in these blind low-level conditions with a toppled horizon. News soon came through that the Heinkel had ‘gone in’ on the high ground of the sodden slopes of Cranborne Chase. Apparently it had broken out of cloud cover at a few hundred feet, diving almost vertically, and failed by only a few feet to pull out in time. They found the wreckage close to the lonely village of Alvediston. Intelligence later discovered that the pilot had been Hauptmann Siegfried Langer, the Commanding Officer of 7 Staffel of KGr. 100. Throughout the battle John had not fired a single shot, so the encounter was truly a match between champions.’ (ibid) Definitely Time For A Rest A few weeks later Cunningham was told that he was due a ‘rest’, he had been on operational flying for the best part of three years straight; usually a rest posting was given after 18 months to 2 years in Fighter Command; Cunningham was to be posted to Headquarters, No. 81 Group - the training group of Fighter Command; just before leaving Middle Wallop he received a Bar to his D.S.O.; Cunningham was to be tasked with directing the work of all the night-flying OTUs; he decided that this was a job which required assistance, and as a consequence managed to pull a few strings to get Rawnsley posted with him; neither enjoyed their new desk job, and it was decided that it would be better to tour the various OTUs and have personal contact with the pupils and the instructors, ‘the only practical way of visiting them was by air. Initially they used the Group’s Oxford, but then John arranged with 604 Squadron to have his beloved Beaufighter on loan. Then they felt happy and free, flying above the weather and making their way from one radar beacon to another as they traversed the country to visit the OTUs. Instructors and pupils alike watched with awe John’s faultless touchdowns and short landing runs, and listened with even greater respect to his suggestions and advice.’ (ibid) 85 Squadron - Mosquitos At Last Thankfully for both Cunningham and Rawnsley their brief sojourn with paperwork was only to last six months; in January 1943 Cunningham was given the command of 85 Squadron, and Rawnsley was to go with him as the squadron’s Navigator Leader; Cunningham arrived at Hunsdon to find the squadron in need of a shake up; several of the existing crews were due for a rest and through his connections Cunningham managed to get some of the crews that he had worked with in 604 Squadron to transfer in; things started to look up when the Squadron was equipped with the improved AI Mk VIII in March 1943, and with the move to West Malling, Kent, in May, ‘This was a plum posting, because the Squadron would be defending the famous Biggin Hill sector, and there was plenty of trade coming in from the short and direct route on the southeastern approach to London from the Channel ports.’ (ibid) The Luftwaffe started to employ the Focke-Wulf 190, a new and very fast fighter-bomber, ‘these aircraft began carrying out hit-and-run raids by both day and night.... Having a small wingspan, the 190 was difficult to locate, and, particularly once it had dropped its wing tanks and large bomb which was carried under its belly, it was very difficult to catch. It had the advantages of speed, size and manoeuvrability, and a sudden dash across the narrow Strait of Dover was going to make it an extremely hard target. The modus operandi of night interception had been based on kills by stealth, but it would need great skill and luck to knock down 190s that way.’ (ibid)

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September 6, 2012 - LONDON the aerodrome, and that their CO was close behind. Once again John was to be on stage for a big show. Naturally they all rushed out, ears turning to pick up the sound of aircraft engines from the south... until the aircraft drew closer and their engine sounds blended into one. This was John’s cue as he identified the 190 and briefly touched the trigger. His guns coughed briefly and the bandit reared up on its nose, flicked over, and dived straightin. Those far below on the aerodrome heard the short bark of cannon and then the increasing sound from the 190 engine until it grew into a tortured scream, silenced by an exploding red flash that silhouetted the trees to the west, followed by a giant crump that shook the ground and rattled windows. This was the second occasion that John had performed on stage: for the King, he shot down a Heinkel, and then he bagged a 190 with his Squadron in the stalls.’ (ibid) Too Close For Comfort The 8th of September brought about Cunningham’s 19th victory in the shape of another FW 190; on the 1st of October whilst returning to base he and Rawnsley had a too close for comfort tangle with a new Ju 188, ‘he knew at once that the bandit was very close, and told John that something was coming in from the left. Even while Jimmy was speaking, the bandit flashed past in front of them almost at the same height. John turned tightly to come in about 200 yards behind it, and dropped down below it in his usual style. Jimmy put up his glasses and saw it was one of the new Ju 188s. John pulled up the nose of the Mosquito as the bandit began to sink into his line of fire. But the enemy crew were alert and before he could open up, the 188’s under-gunner fired straight back into their faces. Three big 13mm rounds came through the top-left hand side of the windscreen close to John’s head, and the whole of that corner was sagging. The windscreen was completely opaque, and John fired blindly, waving the nose of the aircraft around in the hope of getting a lucky hit. There was no sign of the Junkers through the side windows as John throttled back to reduce wind pressure, and headed towards land. Jimmy had donned his chute in case the windscreen collapsed, and John asked for an emergency homing. John had collected a face full of little bits of glass, while Jimmy could feel the powdered stuff working its way down the back of his neck. ‘You’d better have my googles’, Jimmy said after taking another look at the bulging windscreen. ‘All right’, John replied. ‘Stick them over my helmet. I think there’s a piece near my eye, but I don’t want to disturb it.’ They crossed the coast and John, looking out from the side window, did a curved approach and at the precise moment straightened out for a smooth and gentle touchdown. A ring of torches clustered around the ladder, everybody wanting to know whether they were all right, what happened, did they bag one? John descended after Jimmy, smiling ruefully at the anxious faces, and said ‘I was the victim of an unprovoked assault.’ The Medics carted them off to Sick Quarters where the MO, Flight Lieutenant ‘Rigor’ Mortimer, gently pulled the tiny fragments of perspex from John’s face with a pair of tweezers. One piece was embedded within a fraction of an inch of his left eye and, although John had been very conscious of it, he had refrained from rubbing it or touching it.’ (ibid) Winter 1943 brought fresh problems for 85 Squadron; despite the squadron notching up its 50th night victory in November the Germans had now developed a new rearwardbeamed radar and even faster aircraft in the shape of the Me 410; the old approach of stealth no longer worked and to make matters worse the squadron’s Mosquitos started to show signs of fatigue themselves; by the end of December the Squadron was equipped with new Mosquitos and had started to get to grips with the new AI Mk X.

On the night of 16.5.1943 Cunningham’s squadron managed to shoot down four F.W. 190s destroyed and one probable - these were the first 190s shot down; it was a good day for the R.A.F. as earlier on the same day 617 Squadron had undertaken the Dambuster Raid; both Squadrons were sent congratulations from High Command for their achievements. Another Performance For A Captivated Audience Cunningham’s new charges were starting to repay all his efforts with them, however, on a personal front he ‘did not crack his duck on the second tour until the night of 13th June, when he and Jimmy had gone off on patrol up and down the Channel off Dungeness just before midnight. They were flying at 23,000 feet, having plenty of height to build overtaking speed in a dive. ‘Sky-blue’, the Controller, tipped them off that a fast customer was on his way in, and timed their converging courses to perfection. Jimmy picked up the blip scuttling across his cathode-ray tube only a mile and a half ahead and well below them. John immediately opened the throttles, and Jimmy brought him around in a tight diving turn. The Focke-Wulf was going full bore, hell-bent for London. Thus, the range closed only very slowly, but the blip was as steady as the Rock of Gibraltar... the stage was set as they continued to creep up on the bandit. Unknown to them, the Sector Controller had telephoned the crew room to tell the chaps that there was a 190 approaching

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Cunningham’s new appointment meant that he was immediately thrust into the planning operations for the invasion of Normandy, ‘John was primarily concerned with the organisation of the night fighter force, which demanded a great deal of paperwork. This time, however, he didn’t mind labouring away at his desk with the enormous challenge of an invasion of Nazi-occupied Europe becoming a reality. It soon became evident that he needed somebody to do highspeed tours of night fighter stations, and to report on conditions, effectiveness, ideas, complaints, morale, and so on. Squadrons were being moved around so fast that the overall picture was changing from day to day.’ (ibid) Unsurprisingly Cunningham knew precisely where to find the perfect man for the job - strings were once again pulled, and the ‘partnership’ with Jimmy Rawnsley was once again renewed. Despite being primarily based at Uxbridge, and concentrating on top secret plans including co-ordinating attacks on V1 Rocket sites, Cunningham could not resist a test-flight; in March 1944, in company with Group Captain ‘Sailor’ Malan, he went to Farnborough and flew the RAF’s first de Havilland Vampire; he was tasked with reporting on its potential to be used as a night fighter, ‘this proved to be a momentous occasion for John, because jet propulsion was opening up a new era in aviation history, and John was a de Havilland man.’ (ibid) When Cunningham did manage to prise himself away from his desk, he was ‘making trips at home and across Europe visiting squadrons, and seeing for himself what was going on. Many of the pilots then flying the latest and even faster Marks of Mosquito had been selected and trained by John, when he commanded 604 Squadron. Both he and Jimmy between them had been a major force in building the structure of the night fighter business. They were now reaping the reward of all their dedication and hard work over those years since 604 was designated a night fighter unit. Neither would admit to anything other than that they had done the job required of them.’ (ibid) Paperwork Or Jets? After the briefest of attachments to the Far East, given the surrender of the Japanese virtually upon his arrival in the theatre, Cunningham ‘had been offered a Permanent Commission in the RAF, but was also aware that de Havilland wanted him back as a test pilot. He knew that if he stayed on in the Service that he would become involved in Staff Courses and Committees, and that gradually flying would become a secondary occupation. He didn’t have to ponder and think hard about making his conclusion.’ (ibid) Immediately after being demobilised in November 1945 he was straight back into the fold at de Havilland; in the time that he had been away the company had become truly international, with employees having risen from 5,000 to 38,000 and a turnover increase from £1.5million to over £25million a year; perhaps more important as far as Cunningham was concerned was that de Havilland were at the forefront of jet development. A Family Reunion Many of the people who had been working at de Havilland prior to the Second World War were still there, and Cunningham was welcomed back to Hatfield with openarms; he was appointed Chief Test Pilot of the de Havilland Engine Company, with Geoffrey de Havilland Jnr. still the Chief Test Pilot of de Havilland Aircraft; test-flying had always involved a high element of risk, however, this was greatly increased by the new aircraft speeds available whilst pioneering the jet era; Cunningham had left behind a human conflict to embark on a mechanical one.

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Cunningham stepping into a Ghost-Vampire, in which he set a World Altitude Record, 23.3.1948

Cunningham took over flight development of the company’s Goblin turbojet engine; by January 1946 a large contract had been signed to equip the Swedish Air Force with Vampire Jets; the latter also ordered additional Goblin engines to convert their Saab J.21 Fighter, ‘naturally John became involved in the introduction of the Vampire to Sweden... The Swedes were keen to have John. They were buying Vampires to defend their country, and the operation would require radar back-up. John’s exploits and experience in this field during the War were famous. They regarded him as the ideal choice to get their Vampires operational, and advise on the back-up system. Other neutrals had expressed similar interest in Britain’s wartime radar development, but this was classified information. Thus John had to get clearance from the Head of Intelligence, Air Marshal Sir Thomas Elmhirst, regarding any limitations on information he could impart. Fortunately, the powers-that-be were reasonably generous, or to put it more bluntly, they had to be condescending, because Britain desperately needed to earn money from exports. So, having clearance, John flew over to Sweden and spent nearly a month there...

John was well suited to his new and much wider role as international consultant, performer and ambassador. His natural charm and modesty, backed by his professionalism, made a great impact on the Swedes. Undoubtedly his RAF experience during the war, when he was able to meet a wide variety of senior people, ranging from scientists to highranking officers, and including people from countries all over the world, had enabled him to be ‘at ease’ wherever he went.’ (ibid) Having such a hectic schedule Cunningham needed to find time to relax, and the perfect opportunity arose when Switzerland put in a similar order for the Vampire, ‘a large number of Vampires were delivered by Hatfield pilots to the Swiss Air Force and it gave the opportunity to combine a short skiing holiday with business.... On one occasion John had got approval to have his skis strapped to the boom of a delivery aircraft - one to each boom. He had checked on a production flight that they made no measurable difference to drag and therefore range, which was quite tight without drop-tanks for the 1 hour and 20 minute flight. The Swiss thought it a splendid demonstration of the versatility of both the aircraft and the Chief Test Pilot.’ (ibid)

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de Havilland’s Chief Test Pilot Whilst Cunningham was on a trip to Switzerland in September 1946 he received the devastating news of the death of Geoffrey de Havilland Jnr.; he died carrying out a test flight of the D.H. 108, an aircraft which he had planned to try and break the world speed record in a few days later; when Cunningham returned from Geneva Captain de Havilland asked him to take over his late son’s role as Chief Test Pilot; in a time of grief for the company, Cunningham threw himself into his work, and went about reorganising his charges much in the same way as he had done during his command of 604 and 85 Squadrons, ‘apart from having to take over Geoffrey’s flying programme, John had to assess his team of test pilots, numbering over twenty. ‘I had to ensure that I had the right people, in the right place, and in the right job’, he said, ‘and I soon found that some needed weeding out.’.... Simultaneously, he had to become fully acquainted with the D.H. Enterprises’s huge and diverse design, development and production programmes. The export market was booming.’ (ibid) The company had to expand, with Cunningham overseeing production in more factories; on 31.8.1947 Cunningham achieved his first official FAI World Record, flying a Vampire I at a speed of 496.88mph over a 100km closed circuit at Lympne, Kent; he followed that up in March of 1948, achieving a World Height Record, also in a Vampire, later confirmed by the FAI as 59,446 feet; Cunningham had also secured the services of John Derry as a test pilot, and in September 1948 he became the first pilot to exceed the speed of sound in a British aircraft (D.H. 108); after his two records Cunningham was awarded the Royal Aero Club’s Britannia Trophy. With records came continued fame, despite the primary function of a test pilot being scientific rather than glamorous; their role was to carry out detailed and exhaustive testing of

aircraft from prototype to production; however, the danger aspect attracted large amounts of publicity, ‘they had become heroes of post-war aviation, in the quest for supersonic flight Jet Flights had captured the imagination of the public at large.... The aviation industry was earning Great Britain more money from exports than any other major industry, and the country had an overall position in jet technology unrivalled by any other nation. Test pilots symbolised this new age. The Press portrayed them in much the same dashing style as that given to wartime fighter pilots.’ (ibid) The D.H. 106 Comet - The World’s First Jet Airliner The production of the Comet was Cunningham’s main project; de Havilland had stolen a march on its’ worldwide competitors in the field of Civil Aviation; recognising the opportunities that would be offered to all types of aircraft by the introduction Jet engines, de Havilland started upon the production process of the Comet in 1942; The British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) had taken a keen interest in this visionary project from the start, and as a consequence were able to formulate their plans and requirements in consultation with de Havilland, ‘after completing the BOAC Constellation Pilot Conversion Course at Montreal’s Dorval Airport in December 1946, John had to gain experience of modern airline operations to prepare himself for testing the future jetliner. ‘This kind of experience I lacked’, he said, ‘I had to understand what an airliner had to face up to, and I wanted to absorb and study what actually went on in airline operations. I donned the BOAC Uniform and flew as co-pilot in Constellations on five return flights across the Atlantic, and two round trips to Australia’... John had an exceptionally heavy work-load through-out this period because, apart from his concentrated test-flying programme with D.H. 108, his airline activities and experimental work, he had to oversee all test-flying

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The D.H. 106 Comet

activities as Chief Test Pilot. The dedication and skill in handling the experimental Vampires day after day required maximum effort and self-control. John would never admit to being overstretched. For him it was all part of the job. When asked how many aircraft types he had flown he looked puzzled. ‘I’ve never counted them’, he said. One must believe it.’ (ibid) On the 27th July 1949 (both Cunningham and Captain de Havilland’s birthday) John Cunningham took the Comet for her maiden flight, ‘at Hatfield, the weather was good, and during the morning he had carried out a series of taxi tests, acceleration to over 90 knots and doing three short hops, checking elevator, aileron and rudder controls. As she had left the ground now and again, she was wheeled into the hangar and put up on trestles for numerous technical checks. It was a fine afternoon, and at about 4.30pm the Chief Inspector said to John, ‘All’s well. She’s all yours.’ John took his crew aboard straight away, comprising John Wilson co-pilot, Frank Reynolds flight engineer, Harold Waters electrics, and Tony Fairbrother, flight-test observer. They took off at 6.17pm and climbed to 10,000 feet, exploring the handling over a range of low and medium speeds. Then they flew along the runway at 100 feet in salute to a few hundred of their colleagues who had got wind of the flight, before landing after 35 minutes in the air. Looking back over those years John was asked whether that day was the most momentous of his life. One expected that he would betray some personal emotion about such an achievement, but there was a complete absence of anything personal when he recalled the maiden flight. ‘It was a single achievement,’ he said, ‘altering the shape of airline travel to come. The flight of the Comet had revolutionised civil

aviation - doubling the speed and altitude while enabling passengers to experience a smoothness in flight that they had never known before. All the new features which we worked on over the years were incorporated in the Comet; engine performance at high level, powered controls, reliability at higher speeds, all had come together in this great new move to change air travel as we knew it.’ (ibid) The emergence of the world’s first jetliner carried de Havilland’s name across the globe and that of John Cunningham with it; the Comet shattered world records, ‘compared with existing airliners, she could fly twice as high and twice as fast on projected airline routes, without the slightest vestige of competition. Three months after her maiden flight, and bearing civil registration G-ALVG, she made her first flight to an overseas airport, from London Airport to Castel Benito, Tripoli, and back... Then on 16 March 1950 ‘Victor-Golf’ set up her first world records flying from Hatfield to Rome and back. Her outward trip took 1 hour 55 minutes 37 seconds, establishing a C-1 (Class 1) point-to-point record with an average speed of 447.246mph. The return flight took 1 hour 48 minutes 4 seconds at an average speed of 453.296mph - another C-1 record. She had on board the Permanent Secretary at the Ministry of Supply, Sir Archibald Rowlands, together with other senior civil servants and Government officials, making it a first-class public-relations exercise! Later, the Comet was to attract the rich and famous to enjoy the experience of a lifetime flying in this remarkable machine, and to be photographed on the steps leading to its elegant fuselage. Today, millions of people travel by jet airlines without giving it a thought. Concorde is the only airliner to match the Comet’s fame.’ (ibid)

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H.M. Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother meeting Cunningham before embarking on her afternoon tour of Europe, 23.5.1952 Renewing Acquaintances In High Places Cunningham flew the Comet all over the world, on various trials and demonstration flights for airline executives; he personally flew the first delivery to BOAC, which opened the world’s first jet airline service, 2.5.1952, ‘all was going well on the Comet front as the weeks and months went by following its triumphant debut. On 23rd May 1952 there was a special Royal occasion when the recently widowed Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother, Princess Margaret and Lord and Lady Salisbury joined Sir Geoffrey and Lady de Havilland for an afternoon tour of Europe. John Cunningham took them on a four-hour flight around France, Switzerland, Northern Italy and home across the Pyrenees. John got out of his Captain’s seat on the way home to enable the Queen Mother to take the controls, with John kneeling beside her.’ (ibid) A Change In Fortunes Three years after their emergence into the world issues started to arise with the Comet aircraft in service; in October 1952 a BOAC Comet taking off from Rome failed to become airborne, and despite their being no casualties, the aircraft was damaged beyond repair; similar accidents were to occur at Karachi and Calcutta, with the crew of 6 and 37 passengers all killed during the latter accident; the BOAC Comet I Fleet were grounded in January 1954 when the first production Comet disintegrated at 35,000 feet off Elba. In April 1954 a similar disintegration took place over Stromboli and it was decided to test an entire Comet fuselage for fatigue in a water tank at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough; a fatal flaw of metal fatigue was found in a pressurised hull; Cunningham took it upon himself to rectify the situation, flying to Canada to bring back two RCAF Comet I As, and after their fuselages were rebuilt flying them home again; in each of the take off accidents it appeared that the nose of the aircraft had been lifted too high too early, greatly increasing the drag on the aircraft to damaging effect; the leading wing of the Comet was revised, along with

Cunningham’s flying instruction to purchasing company’s pilots. While all of the above was taking place Cunningham was also working tirelessly on the production of the Comet 2 and the Comet 3 series; the latter aircraft would be able to carry over twice as many passengers as the Comet I, ‘John’s hard work on the Comet 3 was crowned by a triumphant world tour. On 2nd December 1955, he took off from foggy Hatfield and set course for Cairo, followed by Bombay, Singapore, Darwin and Sydney, which he reached in a flying time of 24 hours and 24 minutes. Then he flew on to New Zealand, Fiji and Honolulu, crossed the Pacific to Vancouver and went on to Toronto and Montreal. He then headed home across the North Atlantic direct to London Heathrow, arriving on 28th December after covering the 3,350 nautical miles in 6 hours 8 minutes, less than half the best airline schedule. John said that he was extremely pleased with the wonderful reception he received wherever he landed, and with the aircraft’s flawless performance. His objective was to demonstrate the potential of the Comet 4, and to convince the world at large that de Havilland was very much back in business.’ (ibid) Recognition for his efforts followed, ‘on 23rd October 1956 John went to the USA where, from the hands of President Eisenhower, he received the Harman Trophy for his contribution to jet transport - with particular reference to having flown the first jet airliner round the world in 1955. This is the highest American honour for services to aviation’ (ibid); Cunningham was appointed to the de Havilland Aircraft Board, 1.12.1958, after nearly 25 years’ service with the company; Sir Geoffrey de Havilland described his prime asset as a ‘test pilot, demonstration pilot and ambassador all in one and he has made some sensational flights. He can do thousands of miles for many days and at the end of the flight can be charming, unruffled and apparently as fresh as ever when discussing points raised by a host of officials, Pressmen and others.’

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Cunningham being presented with the Harman Trophy by President Eisenhower, October 1956 A New Company - The Same Dedication In January 1960 de Havilland became a division of Hawker Siddeley; the latter had historically been involved with military aircraft but was anxious to have a strong presence in the Civil Aviation world; de Havilland brought with it the Trident aircraft, and thus secured a strong entry into the market; whilst the Trident was developing with British European Airways, Cunningham remained busy testing Comet versions; when the first Trident was completed in 1961 Cunningham returned to test fly it; he and colleagues carried out more than 1,800 hours of testing on it before the first Trident was certified airworthy in 1964 (he was awarded the C.B.E. in 1963, the Derry and Richards Memorial Medal in 1965, and the Seagrave Trophy in 1969). Both Pakistan and China made substantial orders for Trident aircraft, and once again the company’s figurehead was called into action - with Cunningham heavily involved in the delivery of the aircraft to Pakistan and the training of their pilots; China ordered 29 of the aircraft over a seven year period from 1972-79; Cunningham spent over a year in China to ensure the smooth running of the hand over of the aircraft, and Chinese technicians were trained at Hatfield. Chairman Mao’s China Cunningham’s task, ‘was basically to deliver Tridents one by one to Kwangchow, together with a team of technical experts, and get them accepted. Until the acceptance agreement was signed, the aircraft remained the property of Hawker Siddeley, but they were to be delivered with Chinese markings. It sounded quite simple for a man who had delivered aircraft worldwide and trained crews, but China was unknown territory and seemingly as remote as the Moon... there were very few aircraft going into the People’s Republic of China. Pakistan International, Aeroflot, and Air France were the only airlines allowed to fly there.’ (ibid) Cunningham went on to make over thirty trips to China, and he always had to do a test flight with a Chinese crew from

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Cunningham’s B.E.A. Uniform

Kwangchow to Shanghai; it was whilst working with the Chinese that he was to suffer his first air accident since 1939, ‘Lady Luck had flown with him. Even during the traumatic War years and in the quest for transonic flight, he never had a serious accident involving injury. He had always been able to control his aircraft, sometimes in very dangerous circumstances. Furthermore, he had enjoyed robust health throughout his life. It seemed to most aviation enthusiasts that this legendary figure was invincible.

Then on a winter’s day in 1975, just before dusk, at the Hawker Siddeley airfield at Dunsfold, south-east of Guildford in Surrey, the Finger of Fate beckoned him. Earlier he had flown a party of Chinese, including their Minister of Transport, from Hatfield. The Harrier had been performing in its inimitable fashion, creating a spectacular volume of noise which had sent flocks of birds scurrying from the airfield.

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Cunningham having just been presented with the Segrave Trophy at the R.A.C., November 1979

Cunningham with H.R.H. The Duke of Edinburgh at the unveiling of the de Havilland Memorial, July 1997

John had got the Chinese party together, and they boarded the 125 for the short return trip to Hatfield. Everything was fine as John took off, and at about 100 feet selected wheel-up. Then an extraordinary thing happened. Looking ahead he saw a huge flock of plover returning to the airfield and there was nothing he could do to avoid them. His engines ingested numerous birds, and power died. He had to push the stick forward and the aircraft touched down again at about 130mph. It hurtled beyond the runway, crashing through the boundary and shot across a public road, before coming to a standstill in a field. Then it caught fire, but everybody was able to get out. However, in crossing the road it had collided with a car, and the four occupants of the car were killed. John had hurt his back, and later found that he had two crushed vertebrae. He was able to return to flying in early 1976, and suffered no lasting effects. John was then 58 years old, and would normally have been retired. He had long since decided that he was not going to continue flying for the sake of keeping a licence going after retirement. This had been a difficult decision for him, because of his passion for flying, and the fact that he had been in the cockpit for all his working life. However, he was a man who would carefully consider any situation confronting him, make up his mind and stick to it. But again, fate had something in store for him. On this occasion it was to provide an extension of his career as Chief Test Pilot. When the Chinese got wind of John’s impending retirement, they made it plain that they required his services to fulfil the contract, and they were not going to accept a replacement. So, John was able to look forward to another three years as Chief Test Pilot, and more visits to Kwangchow and the concrete Transit Hotel!’ (ibid) Everything Has To Come To An End Cunningham remained as Chief Test Pilot after Hawker Siddeley merged into British Aerospace, with whom he was an Executive Director from 1978 until his retirement in 1980 (awarded the Air League Founders Medal 1979); having lived most of his adult life in a house not far from the former de Havilland airfield and factory in Hertfordshire, he spent a lot of his new found spare time devoted to aiding the nearby museum housing the prototype Mosquito and other important items from de Havilland’s past; Cunningham was also very active with fundraising for many organisations including the RAF Benevolent Fund and the de Havilland Flying Foundation; he was President of the 604 and 85 Squadron associations, a Liveryman of the Guild of Air Pilots and Air Navigators, and heavily involved with the Battle of Britain Fighter Association; Cunningham served as Deputy Lieutenant of Middlesex for 18 years, and when Middlesex became part of the Greater London Council he became Deputy Lieutenant of the GLC, retiring at the required age of 75. Group Captain John Cunningham, C.B.E., D.S.O., D.F.C., A.E., died in 2002, aged 84. He had given his life to aviation for his country in both times of war and peace. A night fighter ace of almost unrivalled ability and a much loved wartime hero he moved seamlessly in to civil aviation. He spent 32 years perfecting his art as a Chief Test Pilot. He was truly an aviation legend during the golden years of British aviation. Note: Owing to the large and heavy nature of this lot it is unsuitable for postage and we would recommend collection.

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THE BENTLEY PRIORY BATTLE OF BRITAIN TRUST APPEAL CHARITY AUCTION 4 The Second War ‘1942’ D.S.O., ‘Immediate’ Battle of Britain D.F.C. and ‘1941’ Second Award Bar Group of Seven to Spitfire Ace, Group Captain C.B.F. Kingcome, Royal Air Force, Who Led 92 Squadron From Biggin Hill On Over 60 Operations During The Height of The Battle, With The Squadron Acheiving The Highest Success Rate of Any Squadron in Battle of Britain. Shot Down and Hospitalised, 15.10.1940, He Returned to Fly With the Squadron Until Appointed to the Command of 72 Squadron, February 1942; He Led His New Squadron As The Fighter Escort of Esmonde’s Swordfish For the Ill-Fated Attack On The Prinz Eugen, 12.2.1942, During ‘The Channel Dash’. As One of the Youngest Group Captains in the R.A.F., Aged 25, He Commanded 244 (Spitfire) Wing, Providing Fighter Support For the Eighth Army From Africa to the Invasion of Italy. He ‘Has Destroyed a Total of 11 Enemy Aircraft, Probably Destroyed 5 And Damaged 13. His Claim’s Are Traditionally Modest... He is Practically the Last Operational Pilot of His ‘Vintage’ ‘ And Undoubtedly One of The Outstanding Characters of The Battle of Britain a) Distinguished Service Order, G.VI.R., silver-gilt and enamel, reverse of suspension bar officially dated ‘1942’, with integral top-riband bar, in Garrard & Co. Ltd case of issue b) Distinguished Flying Cross, G.VI.R., reverse officially dated ‘1940’, with Second Award Bar, reverse officially dated ‘1941’, in Royal Mint case of issue c) 1939-1945 Star, with Battle of Britain bar d) Air Crew Europe Star, with Atlantic bar e) Italy Star f) Defence and War Medals, M.I.D. Oak Leaf, generally very fine or better, campaign awards in original card box of issue, addressed to ‘W/Cdr. C.B.F. Kingcome, C/O Lloyds Bank Ltd, Cox & Kings Branch, 6 Pall Mall, London’, with enclosure slip and named Authority to Wear slip, and the following contemporary related items and documents: - The recipient’s related miniature awards, and riband bar for first three awards - R.A.F. Pilot’s Flying Log Book (22.4.194625.6.1948) - Bestowal Document for the Distinguished Service Order, dated 15.12.1942, with named enclosure slip - M.I.D. Certificate, dated 1.1.1946 - R.A.F., Biggin Hill, Operations Room Pass, as CO of 72 Squadron; Permit to Enter Fighter Operations Room Malta, dated 1.7.1943 - R.A.F. Identity Card, with photograph of recipient, dated 7.4.1950; Officer’s Pay and Allowance Book and War Time Services Railway Warrant - Letter from recipient to his mother, whilst serving with 244 Wing, D.A.F., dated 2.1.1944; D.A.F. Greetings Card to recipient from “Cocky” Dundas, annotated ‘Here’s to Sir Brian. As brave as a lion Cocky’ - Air Ministry letter of thanks upon conclusion of recipient’s R.A.F. service, dated 1.2.1954

Group Captain C.B.F. Kingcome

- Letter of Reference written by Air Marshal R. Atcherley, K.B.E., C.B., A.F.C., with accompanying personal letter to Kingcome - Programme for the unveiling of the Rolls-Royce Battle of Britain Memorial Window, 11.1.1949 - Savoy Hotel Notepaper with 14 signatures including those of Dowding, Kent, Aitken, Deere and Gleed - a number of photographs from during recipient’s service including a glazed and frame portrait photograph of him in uniform - Letter from Sy Bartlett of Melville Productions, Inc., Hollywood, dated 7.5.1956, and other ephemera (lot) £40,000-60,000 D.S.O. London Gazette 15.12.1942 Acting Wing Commander Charles Brian Kingcome, D.F.C. (33319) The Recommendation states: ‘Wing Commander Kingcome has lead the Kenley Wing on 22 offensive sweeps; including the Battle of Dieppe. He has made a total of 357 operational sorties, 207 of which were offensive sweeps, and has flown 535 operational hours. He has destroyed a total of 11 enemy aircraft, probably destroyed 5 and damaged 13. His claims are traditionally modest. Throughout the period of his command of this Wing, his coolness and ability in action - coupled with his natural powers of leadership has proved a great inspiration to the Squadrons. He is practically the last operational pilot of his ‘vintage’ and has displayed tremendous resolution and athleticism to remain on operations so long.’ D.F.C. London Gazette 25.10.1940 Acting Flight Lieutenant Charles Brian Fabris Kingcome (33319)

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4

The Recommendation states: ‘This officer has led his flight and during the last week, the squadron, with judgement and a really good offensive spirit. He has personally destroyed 6 enemy aircraft and probably 4 more, and by his leading has been responsible for the destruction of many others. He has infected the pilots he has led with his own determination and confidence and proved himself a most able Flight Commander.’

himself down, he decided to go for civil aviation... One sunny afternoon early in my first term, while I was still bemused by my new habitat, there came the drone of an aero engine overhead - not a common sound in the mid-1930s - and a small aircraft circled the school a couple of times at roof-top height. The whole school rushed out to watch spellbound as the tiny machine throttled back and, in that lovely burbling, swooshing silence that follows the throttling back of an oldfashioned aero engine, glided in to land in the park in front of the house. Out of the aircraft stepped Philip GordonMarshall, nonchalant in flying helmet and silk scarf, cutting every bit as romantic a figure as Errol Flynn in Dawn Patrol. ‘Is there a Brian Kingcome here?’ he asked. ‘Have I come to the right place?’ He had, and there was. My stock soared... Basking in the gaze of many envious eyes, I climbed aboard and a moment later found myself for the first time in a world that I never dreamed could exist - a world free from the drag of the earth’s umbilical cord, free to climb, swoop and dive, free of boundaries, free of gravity, free of ties, free to do anything except stand still... At that moment, in an instant, I understood Philip’s passion for flying... From that day onwards, ideas began to take shape about my own future direction in life’ (A Willingness To Die, B. Kingcome refers)

D.F.C. Second Award Bar London Gazette 29.7.1941 Flight Lieutenant Charles Brian Fabris Kingcome, D.F.C. (33319), No. 92 Squadron The Recommendation states: ‘This officer who received his D.F.C. last October at the time had 5 enemy a/c destroyed and probably 4 more. He has now increased his score to 10 destroyed 4 probably destroyed and 10 damaged, and during the past 9 months has on many occasions led the squadron with distinction. At all times he has shown real determination, judgement and courage and has set a very high standard to the other pilots which has reflected itself in the achievements of his squadron.’ Group Captain Charles Brian Fabris Kingcome, D.S.O., D.F.C. (1917-1994), born Calcutta, India; aged 2 he was sent to the UK with his elder sister; two years later he embarked on his educational career, which was to encompass nine different schools; whilst at Paxton Park his passion for flying blossomed due to an impromptu visit from Philip Gordon-Marshal, a friend from a previous school, ‘Philip was four years my senior, and our paths had barely crossed, but he had met my sister Pat when she visited me with my mother for a school function and I think was rather taken with her... He kept in touch... When he had left Allhallows he had tried for the Royal Air Force, but had failed his medical. This was a devastating blow to him. All his life he had known, without a shadow of a doubt, that the RAF was to be his entrée to a career in the sky... Once he had picked himself up, dusted

Almost Over Before The Start Whilst at Bedford School, aged 17, Kingcome saw an advertisement for examinations and enrolment at R.A.F. Cadet College Cranwell; he had left it late in the process, and managed to cram in the work required in eight weeks; despite the late charge he came 21st out of the top 25 applicants; he entered Cranwell in January 1936, but almost immediately had a serious car accident that nearly curtailed his flying career, ‘in those pre-war days it was an accepted fact that the services tended to provide a refuge for doctors and surgeons who were unable to earn a living in the competitive civilian world outside.

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THE BENTLEY PRIORY BATTLE OF BRITAIN TRUST APPEAL CHARITY AUCTION The ones who now set to work on me were prime examples. They cobbled my face together within the limits of their dubious skills, which fell far short of those of Dr. Frankenstein. Then they consigned me to the sick-bay for six weeks with my jaws wired together.... True to their reputation, the superannuated surgeons of the air force had more or less put my face back together back to front. The sinuses were rendered useless, the nose was flattened and inoperative. Worst of all, my left eye had floated halfway down my face, leading to double vision.’ (ibid) Fighter Command Fortunately for Kingcome he was subsequently operated on by Harold Gillies (later Sir Harold) a pioneer of plastic surgery and by Gillies’ cousin Archie McIndoe (later Sir Archibald), who was to become the founder of the world famous Guinea Pig Club at East Grinstead; after six months of recuperation Kingcome returned to Cranwell; towards the end of his final term he had to state his preference for posting, ‘I was already clear in my mind which command I was going to aim for. I had not joined the R.A.F. to make myself into a sitting target. If shooting there was to be, then I was determined that I would be among the shooters, not one of the shot at... I therefore put Fighter Command down as first choice, with Coastal Command listed second. Since there were only five vacancies in Fighter Command that year, several days of nail biting followed as I waited for the lists to be posted up. When the list was revealed I found to my deep content what my new home was going to be: No. 65 Fighter Squadron at Hornchurch, a front-line fighter station on London’s eastern rim.’ (ibid) Kingcome, a newly appointed Pilot Officer, initially flew Gloster Gladiators with the Squadron, ‘I remained at Hornchurch from the late summer of 1938 until the Dunkirk rescue operation in early summer of 1940... The most significant event at pre-war Hornchurch came about when we re-equipped from Gladiators to Spitfires, somewhere between six and nine months before the war began. As one of the first squadrons to be re-equipped, we gained the huge advantage that we were already experienced Spitfire pilots by the time we came to the outbreak of war, and most importantly by the time of the Dunkirk evacuation. Dunkirk was, indeed, the first occasion on which the home-based fighters saw any sustained action.’ (ibid) Tasked with home defence Kingcome was not sent out with the BEF, for the battle of France, ‘At Hornchurch the taste of war at last began to tingle our palates as we anxiously followed the desperate retreat of the Allied troops as they were slowly driven into a coastal trap around Dunkirk... My vantage point for the unfolding epic was in the air above the beaches... As I sat in the relative safety of my Spitfire cockpit, it was the clouds that were my main problem. Our orders had sent us in at 30,000ft, too high for the best of the action, whereas the Hurricanes were patrolling at 15,000 feet. Needless to say we cheated and kept slipping down to see what was happening... the task of providing air cover was hampered not only by the extent of the cloud cover but also by its nature. It stood in patchy layers from about 1,000ft upwards - ideal for marauding bombers but not for our purposes... allowing little time for interception... Nevertheless I managed to fire my guns in anger for the first time, and had the basic fact brought home which I tried to forget: namely, that while the aircraft in your sites was an inanimate object, the human beings it contained were frail flesh and blood. In those early days the German bombers carried little or no armour, and one of the first indications that you were registering hits (especially on the Heinkel 111) came with the spectacle of the guns arching suddenly upwards as the unfortunate gunners died and slumped forward on to their weapons.’ (ibid) On the 2nd June Kingcome shot down two Heinkels and damaged another over Dunkirk.

92 Squadron - My Squadron As a result of the rescue operations at Dunkirk 92 Squadron had lost their CO and two Flight Commanders, ‘Meanwhile Bob Tuck from 65 Squadron, who was a Flight Commander by this time, had been further promoted to Squadron Leader to replace Bushell as CO of 92 Squadron. It was through his invitation that I now went to fill the gap in leading 92’s A Flight that had been left by Paddy Byrne. To my mind 92 Squadron always had the special ingredient which sets certain people or groups apart from the rest - a small, indefinable quality in the alchemy that gives an edge, a uniqueness. This quality can never be duplicated or planned for, but somehow it comes into being and is aptly called ‘spirit’. It always begins at the top, and 92’s exceptional spirit undoubtedly had its origins in the outstanding personalities of the original squadron and flight commanders. It then continued to flourish in the fertile soil of the rich mix of characters who made up this exceptional fighting unit: determined, committed young men, intent on squeezing the last drop of living from whatever life might be left to them at the same time as they refused to take themselves or their existence too seriously. They came from all walks of life... there was Neville Duke and ‘Wimpy’ Wade, both outstanding airmen who survived the war with distinguished and much-decorated careers and became household names as test pilots. There was also Allan Wright, an ex-Cranwell cadet, extremely bright and professorial even in those far-off days, but a determined and successful pilot, and then the youngest of them all Geoff Wellum, aged 17 and known as ‘Boy’ because of his age. And there were Don Kingaby and ‘Titch’ Havercroft, two of the R.A.F.’s most successful NCO pilots, both of whom finished up as Wing Commanders, Don having a unique distinction in earning a D.S.O... and three D.F.M.s... Above all, there was Bob Tuck, extrovert and flamboyant... In the air he was a total professional, none was more highly respected.’ (ibid) In June 1940 Kingcome moved with the Squadron to Llanelli in Wales, for a rest and to look after the West Country ports and installations; the squadron remained in South-Wales until the end of August, by which time Kingcome had another shared destroyed Junkers 88 and one unconfirmed, ‘early one morning I was out on patrol leading a section of three of my aircraft from A Flight when we ran into a lone Junkers 88 on the approach to Cardiff, looking suspiciously as if it was on a photo-reconnaissance flight. It was a clear morning without cloud cover, and three Spitfires coming in on its rear end, the unfortunate German aircraft never stood a chance. We watched the pilot as he took his plane down in its terminal dive southwards, pulling up just before he hit the water and scraping the top of the cliffs on the north Devon coast, not far from Minehead, before crashing on to the headland above. He finished up on a fairly level stretch of scrub and grass, so after we had returned to base, I climbed into a Magister... and re-crossed the Bristol Channel to land in the field next to the devastated hulk... One of the crew still lay where he had died, an enormous young man... both blond and beautiful. So much of a type did he seem that I thought at once he must have come straight off Dr. Goebbel’s drawing board... The recent action over Dunkirk had borne in on me uncomfortably the human side of aerial warfare that I preferred to forget, hypocrite that I was: the signs of German air gunners collapsing over their weapons as my bullets hit home. Here, on the north Devon coast, the lesson should have been rubbed in even more vividly, yet whereas over Dunkirk I had felt genuine remorse for the lives I was taking and families I was bereaving, here I felt none. We had by this stage seen many newsreels of such young men in action, and here was this perfectly formed young demigod, apparently personifying all we had gone to war to fight... faced with this corpse, perhaps I should have brought myself to feel more Christian, more tolerant, more compassionate, I could not manage any of these qualities.’ (ibid)

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Kingcome introducing H.M. The King to the pilots of No.92 Squadron

Despite the above mentioned aerial activity the ‘rest period’ in Wales was not to Kingcome’s liking, ‘with all due respect to the Welsh (being a quarter Welsh allows me some leeway to criticise, I feel), the pubs in the Llanelli area in 1940 were appalling: utterly basic spit and sawdust hostelries with, around the walls, lines of chairs occupied by local ancients, who ached to burst into song and seized on the slightest pretext to do so.’ (ibid) Fortunately for Kingcome his flight was dispatched to operate from a temporary airfield outside of Bibury, a small village in the Cotswolds; co-incidentally a few miles up the road was an airfield owned by de Havilland and run by his old school friend Philip Gordon-Marshall; the de Havilland airfield at Witney was tasked with the repair of crashed Spitfires; Gordon-Marshall had several de Havilland Moths at Witney, ‘and somehow cajoled the company into putting one of them at my permanent disposal. The aeroplane was a Puss Moth, tiny, but with an enclosed cabin seating three, and capable of landing on the proverbial sixpence. We used it for pub crawling. From the air we would spot what looked a likely pub with a field adjacent, make a few passes to move any sheep or cattle and clear a landing space, then set down as close to the pub as possible. Once on the ground, we would tether the Puss Moth to the heaviest fence.’ (ibid) At the end of August the entire squadron returned to Biggin Hill; Bob Tuck had left to take up command of a Hurricane squadron, and his replacement Saunders suffered an accident, leaving Kingcome (as senior Flight Commander) to become acting CO; he commanded 92 Squadron for the next six weeks during the height of the Battle of Britain; he led the Squadron on over 60 operations, and the Squadron achieved the highest success rate of any squadron in the Battle of Britain; having been thrown into the Battle on the 9th September, the Squadron had claimed 127 German aircraft destroyed by the end of the year.

During the Battle Kingcome was scrambled virtually on a daily basis, and his record is as follows: 9th September Me Bf 109E, Destroyed (Probable), Canterbury 11th September Heinkel 111, Destroyed (Confirmed), Dungeness 14th September, Two Me Bf 109Es, Damaged, both over Canterbury 15th September, Dornier 17, Damaged, Hornchurch 18th September, Junkers 88, Destroyed (Shared), Isle of Sheppey 18th September, Heinkel 111, Destroyed (Probable), Southend 18th September, Heinkel 111, Damaged, Southend 24th September, Junkers 88, Damaged, Maidstone 24th September, Me Bf 109E, Damaged, Dover 27th September, Dornier 17, Destroyed (Probable), Maidstone 27th September, Dornier 17, Damaged, Maidstone 27th September, Two Junkers 88, Damaged, Sevenoaks 27th September, Junkers 88, Destroyed (Shared), Redhill 11th October, Me Bf 109E, Destroyed (Confirmed), Dungeness 12th October, Me Bf 109E, Destroyed (Confirmed), English Channel 12th October, Me Bf 109E, Damaged, Margate 12th October, Me Bf 109E, Destroyed (Confirmed), Cap Gris Nez 13th October, Me Bf 109E, Destroyed (Confirmed), Ashford The official score ‘for the ‘kills’ he made was always thought to be an under by his fellow airmen as well as by later historians. The final figure at the end of his active service stood at 18 enemy aircraft and included a number of German bombers. In part the uncertainty surrounding this figure may

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The ever-increasing score

be attributed to the scorn he felt for the idea of keeping a precise tally. ‘Of course I used up a lot of ammunition on 109s in the Battle of Britain - who didn’t - but I don’t remember claiming many kills’, he wrote. ‘In my experience there was usually too much going on upstairs to spend time following victims down to the ground for confirmation of a kill.’ (ibid) On the 15th October Kingcome’s part in the Battle of Britain was ended by an Me Bf 109, ‘We were scrambled from Biggin Hill, with myself leading 92 Squadron. We successfully intercepted the raiders over Maidstone in midKent, broke up their formation and turned them back after a fairly brisk encounter. It was a run of the mill operation, and since it had used up all of my ammunition I thought I would head for home. I looked around and found myself alone in the skies, apart from three Spitfires in the far distance... It was around noon, and the October day, as I have said, was glorious. I could see Biggin Hill in the distance, and began to think of my uneaten breakfast. This I had missed as a result of the German’s sadistic sense of humour, which led them to time raids to coincide with meals... I put my nose down to head straight for home... then thought I might as well kill two birds with one brick and decided to throttle back and practice a ‘dead stick’ forced landing; that is to say one with a simulated engine failure. It was breathtakingly stupid behaviour... The skies of Kent were at all times a hostile environment, whatever the illusion of emptiness, yet here was I, as operationally experienced as anyone, casually putting at risk my aircraft and my life... I had grown blasé... forgetting the fighter pilot’s golden rule to watch his tail however safe he thought he might be... I was sailing in a dream when my reveries were rudely haltered by an almighty thump to the back of the right leg... Worse was

to follow: a rattling clatter as if someone were violently shaking a giant bucket full of pebbles close to my ear. Still it took me a further moment or two to realise that this sound was the jarring impact of bullets striking in and around my cockpit. Glancing down at my leg, I saw blood welling out of the top of my flying-boot... The effect was devastating: one minute relaxed and carefree, in total control with nothing more dramatic in mind than a simulated forced landing and the day’s lunch menu; the next, inhabiting a doomed aircraft at 20,000ft losing blood at a rate that suggested consciousness might slip away at any moment with death following within minutes... I therefore decided to compromise, get rid of the canopy, undo the straps and give the stick an almighty shove forward. With luck I would then be catapulted out by centrifugal force. The trick might well have worked, but I never got as far as testing it. No sooner had I undone the straps than I was plucked violently out of the cockpit as if by a giant hand, hurled into a furious maelstrom of wind and storm and raging elements that whirled me head over heels, arms and legs windmilling uncontrollably, helpless as a ragdoll in a clamouring hurricane. The brutal blast of air assaulted me with all the solid physical force of a jackhammer, blacking my eyes and bruising my face with a ferocity of which I had never dreamed air to be capable... The ground, from which a short time before I seemed to be irrevocably separated, now rushed up to meet me. My wounded leg meant I landed heavily, permanently damaging a disc in my back before sprawling over and over, the breath knocked out of me.’ (ibid) Kingcome was rushed to the Royal Naval Hospital at Chatham, and after another ‘botched’ service operation he managed to get himself transferred to Orpington Hospital; at

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‘One for the Mess’

Orpington, not far from Biggin Hill, the bullet was successfully removed from between two shin bones, ‘six weeks later I was back with the squadron, though still hobbling from the massive damage inflicted by the naval sawbones on the back of my leg. Perhaps he would have found it easier to cope with a cannon ball or cutlass wound. A modern high-velocity bullet had clearly been too much for him. He had managed to do far more damage to me than any German, but at least I had escaped with my life. I also felt I had gained fresh insight into how it was that Nelson finished up with only one eye and one arm.’ (ibid)

His first action as soon as I returned to take up my old position as Flight Commander was to summon all the squadron’s pilots together for a pep talk. We were, he declared, a notoriously ill-controlled rabble and 92 Squadron had become a byword for indiscipline. The one thing we should therefore be sure about was that he, Johnny Kent, was about to change all of that. We were not going to know what had hit us. Kingcome in particular, he continued, had behaved disgracefully. It had been reported to him by the new B Flight Commander, who was technically in charge in my absence, that I had overridden his authority in commandeering an aircraft. What was more, I had been in breach of King’s Regulations by flying while still officially medically unfit. Make no mistake about it, he was certainly going to keep an eye on me, and one more serious breach of discipline would see Kingcome posted. The diatribe was greeted in stony silence. One might go even further and describe it as a silence heavy with resentment and antagonism. And, truth to tell, Kent’s remarks about 92’s lack of discipline were both misinformed and unjust. The squadron’s discipline in the air was immaculate. It had proved itself to be the most efficient killing machine in the Battle of Britain: as the air attack unit longest in the firing line, its record of success was unmatched. On the ground an outsider might have thought there was a lax air to be detected amid the general discipline, but the laid back attitude was superficial, a front: the usual small irregularities and assertions of individualism - silk neck scarves and longish hair. But 92 Squadron had stronger bonds of loyalty and solidarity, a fiercer pride in itself than existed in any other unit I came across before or after. Outsiders, as they sensed this, may well have felt excluded, but the only way for a new CO of Flight Commander to penetrate the protective wall of pride was to

A ‘Joy’ Ride During his convalescent period Kingcome received news that he had been awarded the D.F.C. for his actions during the Battle of Britain; however, never one to be inactive, ‘while still recuperating at nearby Orpington Hospital, I had got into the habit of hobbling over on crutches from time to time, to break the monotony and stay in touch. On one of these occasions I met up with Bob Tuck. It soon came to our attention that 92 Squadron was scheduled to patrol along the south coast later that afternoon, and, as one man, we thought it might be fun to joinin. To borrow a couple of aircraft was no problem... I jettisoned my crutches, was somehow hoisted into the cockpit by the ground crew, and away we went... By good fortune the patrol was eventless and everyone landed safely, but I had definitely over-d my fitness. Every time I exerted and ‘G’ I had felt most peculiar, and I should indeed have known better... Nature had not yet been given enough time to repair the damaged done by the scourge of Chatham Naval Hospital. It was while she was still finishing her work that Johnny Kent arrived as CO.

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THE BENTLEY PRIORY BATTLE OF BRITAIN TRUST APPEAL CHARITY AUCTION show he had qualities the squadron could respect. Leadership by example was the best method of winning such regard... After the war, Johnny went into print to claim that he had transformed 92 Squadron into a disciplined force out of an undisciplined rout. In fact the reverse was true. It was not Johnny who changed the squadron but the squadron that changed Johnny. Almost without being aware of it he absorbed 92’s unique spirit and, in a few short weeks, matured from being a chippy colonial into a relaxed, respected commanding officer.’ (ibid) Kingcome managed a further two victories with the squadron, both 109s (one confirmed and one probable), during sweeps over France; the end of his tour came up in August 1941, and he was posted for a rest as an instructor with No. 61 O.T.U. 72 Squadron and The Channel Dash Kingcome resumed operational flying when he was appointed CO of 72 Squadron (Spitfires), Gravesend, February 1942, ‘Bob Tuck, by then Wing Commander at Biggin Hill, had asked that I should take command of 72 Squadron when the post fell vacant, and this event had come to pass. By that February of 1942, however, we were on temporary detachment at Gravesend, one of Biggin’s satellite airfields, and on the 12th, because of murky weather, we had been stood down from a state of ‘readiness’ and put on ‘thirty minutes’ availability’... We spent the dreary morning of the 12th in our luxury pad at Cobham Hall... reading newspapers or snoozing to catch up on a bit of sleep. Shortly before midday the phone went and summoned us to a state of readiness... No sooner had we arrived than we were called to cockpit standby... There was, it appeared, some as yet undefined surface activity off Dover involving the navy, who were very probably going to need our support... During the next quarter of an hour I must have been summoned four times between cockpit and control tower, each time fastening and unfastening the straps and each time been given a set of different instructions, each set more confusing than the one preceding it. It became obvious there was not a soul, from Fighter Command downwards, who had a clue as to what was afoot in the English Channel. Eventually I emerged from this spin of activity with a set of instructions which at least looked positive and clear cut: 72 Squadron was to take off at once and fly flat out towards Manston. There we would find four other Spitfire squadrons already orbiting the airfield, and these were to form up behind 72. Kingcome was to take command of this scratch wing of five squadrons, at which point six naval Swordfish of the Fleet Air Arm, based at Manston, would be scrambled. The task of our Wing would be to escort them to the Straits of Dover, where some kind of fracas was in progress between a flotilla of German E-Boats and several of our own MTBs... The Swordfish were to do what they could to break up the EBoat flotilla while the Spitfires provided air cover and, air cover duties permitting, join in the attack.... At least my instructions from the control tower at Gravesend seemed clear at last. I sprinted back to my aircraft to clamber into the cockpit and take off before there could be any more changes of plan. We could muster only ten serviceable Spitfires and pilots, and my nine companions formed up behind me as we high-tailed towards Manston. There the six Swordfish were already airborne and orbiting the airfield, but we could see no more Spitfires anywhere in view. How long the Swordfish had been waiting was impossible to tell, but they were making their impatience obvious. The instant they saw us they straightened up and set course without hanging about for the rest of the escort to show up... the most immediate surprise they gave me was that, instead of flying south towards Dover, as I expected, they turned due east and at zero altitude, headed out across the North Sea, the surface of which was uninviting and threatening beneath a swirling cover of low cloud and rain. Undaunted, I took up station above and behind, deploying the ten aircraft to which the

promised five-squadron wing had evidently been reduced... The coast was hardly more than a few minutes behind us before the first attack came from enemy fighters. We managed to thwart them without sustaining casualties. Then, without warning, I found myself gazing at an astonishing sight as it materialised dramatically and magically out of the low cloud and tempestuous rain. I found I was sitting at masthead height above the most magisterial warship you could have imagined... Mentally I began to chalk up points of congratulation to the Royal Navy. At last, it seemed, they had made a dramatic move up-market and got themselves a real ship of battle for the present and future. The contrast between our lumbering patrol of Swordfish, wallowing sluggishly over the waves, and this magnificent vast flying fortress cruelly showed up the contrast between struggling museum relics and a sleek deadly product of the latest technology... In the midst of my reveries the marvellous fighting ship I was circling so admiringly opened up at me with every mighty gun barrel. I moved deftly away from the turmoil of shrapnel, aggrieved if not astounded. The Royal Navy was known among airmen for having this habit of firing first and asking questions afterwards. Then all at once the gunners on the great warship switched attention to the Swordfish, which were by now driving straight towards her in two ‘vics’ of three in line astern... It was impossible to think she might be German. Surely in that case we would have been briefed; and surely a major enemy warship could never have come so close to the English coast without triggering the nation’s alarm bells long before this... She lowered her big guns and fired salvos into the sea ahead of the approaching Swordfish. As the colossal walls of water and spray rose directly into their paths, I had the impression that one was brought down by the deluge. Somehow the others seemed to survive, however, and then the battleship raised her sights and let fly directly at the Swordfish with a fiery inferno. The brave ‘Stringbags’ never faltered, but just kept driving steadily on at wave-top height, straight and level as though on a practice run. They made the perfect targets as they held back from firing their missiles before closing to torpedo range. They were flying unswerving to certain destruction, and all we as their escort could do was sit helplessly in the air above them and watch them die. Mercifully our role as inactive spectators came to a dramatic close as, out of the murk and broken cloud, a swarm of German fighters appeared. We had expected nothing less. What we had not expected was that among the Messerschmitt 109s, Germany’s front-line, single-engined, single-seat fighter, there would be a strange new radialengined single-seater never before seen or even mentioned in advance intelligence warnings. As we discovered later, we had made our first contact with the Focke-Wulf 190... Goring’s most deadly answer to the Spitfire, and the air cover had been led by no less a person than Adolf Galland. Meanwhile there was not a split second free for speculation. We turned in towards the attacking fighters and did our utmost to intercept between them and the vulnerable Swordfish. The battle was was short, sharp and violent, and it probably lasted only a few minutes before the German fighters melted away. Of the Swordfish no trace remained, apart from floating wreckage and one or two life-rafts. There had been six aircraft and eighteen crew. Five survivors were later picked out of the water. I never knew how many of the Swordfish were shot down by the ship’s guns and how many by the attacking aircraft, but I hoped we had at least managed to protect them from the main brunt of the attack from the air. The rest became history.... The great ship I had so admired turned out to be the Prinz Eugen, the battle cruiser escorting the twin battleships, Gneisenau and Scharnhorst.... Thirteen men had died and six aircraft been lost on a doomed mission... With guns empty, the Spitfires of 72 Squadron made their way back to base, many shot up but none shot down.’ (ibid) Having returned to base Kingcome decided to investigate the

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244 Wing Mobile Operations Room new German aircraft which he had just fought against, ‘At about this time the new camera guns were being developed and an experimental one had been fitted to my aircraft... During the fracas over the Prinz Eugen I had got what I thought must be a number of particularly good shots of the new German fighters. Naturally I was agog to see the results and asked Snowy, my fitter, to do all he could to get the film developed as quickly as possible. Apart from the matter of my own satisfaction, the film could hold valuable information about these new combatants. Away Snowy trotted to unload the camera, only to return crestfallen and red-faced a few minutes later. ‘Very sorry, sir,’ he said. ‘I’m afraid I forgot to remove the lens cover.’ (ibid) On the 15th April 1942 Kingcome had a closer look at the Focke-Wulf 190, damaging one whilst taking part in a sweep over Boulogne; on the 27th May he returned to engaging his more conventional foe, the Me Bf 109F, damaging one (Probable) over St.-Valery-en-Caux; the following month Kingcome was promoted, and appointed Wing Commander Flying at Kenley Fighter Station; the Kenley Wing comprised of four Spitfire squadrons, all of which were Canadian and as such they became known as the ‘Canadian Wing’; at Kenley ‘I had two main tasks. The first was to lead my wing of four squadrons in fighter sweeps over France on sabre rattling expeditions to penetrate as far south and east as fuel allowed in the hope of luring German fighters into combat. The second was to provide bomber escort’ (ibid); Kingcome’s wing mainly escorted the Flying Fortresses of the USAAF; he spent seven months in this posting, during which time the ‘Canadian Wing’ provided air cover for the Dieppe Raid, 19.8.1942; eight days later Kingcome damaged another Focke-Wulf 190, over Boulogne.

to train operationally experienced pilots in the art of leadership in the air. Initially I had to go through the course myself in the role of ‘guinea pig’, and after that I looked forward to a lovely non-executive job with no responsibilities. It was not to be. The school’s CO, Wing Commander Paddy Woodhouse, promptly went down with an attack of jaundice. Kingcome, the wrong man in the wrong place at the wrong time, was made acting CO on the spot and took over the arduous task of overseeing the early formative courses that would shape the school’s policy and format.’ (ibid) Kingcome stayed at the Fighter Leaders’ School for five months, and was ‘ably and entertaining assisted by two wellknown stable-mates, Pete Simpson and P.B. ‘Laddie’ Lucas... In this company the health hazards grew to be considerable. Before long the Fighter Leaders’ School moved to Charmy Down in Somerset, from where the ‘watering hole’ of Bath lay within comfortable drinking distance.’ (ibid) Desert Air Force - 244 Wing In May 1943 Kingcome was posted to join the D.A.F. in the Middle East; he travelled by sea, the journey taking three months, ‘my initial destination was Cairo, HQ of the Middle East Air Forces. From there I was to be dispatched to wherever D.A.F. might be at the time. As yet I knew very little about the Desert Air Force other than that it was a completely mobile, utterly self-contained tactical air group whose task was to support the Eighth Army, and that it was having a very busy time as Rommel and Montgomery were slogging it out in North Africa. It was a tough, independent, battle-hardened group, experienced in mobile warfare and capable of moving anywhere at a moment’s notice without interruption to its activities... The official label tied to my posting was ‘Supernumerary Wing Commander Flying’, which, once translated, meant I would be attached to a fighter wing in a non-executive flying role pending an appropriate vacancy. By the time I caught up with D.A.F. it had arrived in Malta and was preparing for the invasion of Sicily and Italy... The bedroom of my billet, for instance, only had two walls... There was also half a bathroom... I did not have long to wait

Two Years of Continual Operations At the end of 1942, ‘it was decided I was overdue for an operational rest... The scenario was that I be posted in the New Year to the restful role of observer-cum-adviser at the newly founded Fighter Leaders’ School at Chedworth in Gloucestershire. It was a new unit and a new concept set up by Trafford Leigh-Mallory, the C-in-C of Fighter Command,

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Stick to planes - Kingcome after a jeep crash in Italy to shed my ‘supernumerary’ status. D.A.F was commanded at the time by Air Vice-Marshal ‘Broady’ Broadhurst (later Air Chief Marshal Sir Harry Broadhurst), a legendary air ace and an outstanding senior commander... but he was also notorious for surrounding himself with his coterie of people whom he already knew... Shortly before I reached Malta my old friend Ian Gleed, CO of 244 Wing, was shot down and killed. As a result Broady lost no time in sending for me as soon as he knew I had arrived. ‘Brian’, he announced, ‘I’m over a barrel. I need a replacement for Ian. Given freedom of choice I wouldn’t choose you. Nevertheless you qualify, you are here, and I can’t afford to wait. It’s only fair to warn you that I shall be watching you closely. If you put a single foot wrong you’ll be on the next aircraft back to Blighty.’ I thanked him for the warmth of his welcome, saluted and left the office. The rank of commanding officers of mobile wings had just been upped from Wing Commander to Group Captain, so Broady had not only been obliged to hand me an appointment for which anyone would have given their eyeteeth, he had also been unable to avoid including promotion in the package.’ (ibid) At the age of 25, this made Kingcome one of the youngest Group Captains in the R.A.F.; fortunately for both Kingcome and Broadhurst they fostered a fine and very trusting relationship over the next two years; 244 Wing consisted of five Spitfire squadrons, four were R.A.F. and the other was South African; when Kingcome took command, ‘the softening-up process in preparation for the landings on Sicily

was well under way. Within a few days we were covering the first wave of landings by the Eighth Army’s battle-hardened troops, flying out from our old bases in Malta... after only a couple of days the sappers of the Royal Engineers had scraped a landing-strip at Pachino, on the southernmost tip of the island, and 244 Wing had movedin. It was still winter, and one of the first things I wondered about was whoever had coined the slogan, ‘Sunny Italy’...’ (ibid) The D.A.F.’s main role was to provide protection and fighter support for the Eighth Army, and as a consequence ‘we needed to be based as close behind the ground forces as possible, which meant a move of base virtually every time the army advanced or retreated. During my time with 244 I recall eighteen such moves, including the two invasions involving sea crossings, first from Africa into Sicily and then on into Italy.’ (ibid) Another Dice With Death on the Ground Having conquered Sicily, ‘our first stop on the Italian mainland was at Bari, north along the coast from Brindis. I flew in ahead of our advance party to scout the ground and was met at the landing strip by an old friend, Dudley Honor. He was stationed with D.A.F.’s advance HQ and had been asked to collect me in his jeep so I could be briefed... His skills as a driver were of the kind that defy the laws of nature... Dudley accelerated from a standing start and, as the road worsened, went ever faster. The jeep began to dance on the loose surface, and the more it danced the faster Dudley

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No.324 (Spitfire) Wing, Zeltweg, Austria, 1946

drove... Faster and faster drove Dudley, higher and higher danced the jeep, till suddenly it had had enough. With no warning it uttered a final screech, leapt high in the air, shot off the road and rolled over several times, having fired me out like a bullet to land on my face in the middle of the bordering field. For a while I lay too dazed to move, which turned out to be a stroke of good fortune. I had been deposited between two rows of mines wired in such a way that if one blew they all blew. I never could remember being extricated, but the Sappers came to my rescue and worked their miracles. My face was badly lacerated, but fortunately no bones were broken, though as I had lain there, trying to recover my wits, my mind had flicked back seven years to make me yet again that Cranwell Cadet, lying in a shattered Clyno and listening to the first of these now familiar deafening silences.’ (ibid) As the Eighth Army progressed northwards through Italy Kingcome’s wing took part in battles such as Anzio and Monte Cassino, and the long-range cover of the penetration into the South of France.

Palestine, to the R.A.F. Staff College at Haifa, and we’ll see what they have to say about you.’ (ibid) Kingcome - The Air Gunner He stayed at Haifa until the end of January 1945, ‘When Slessor interviewed me again and said how gratified he was to find I could indeed write, but as I had never held a staff appointment, he continued, he now proposed to make me a Senior Air Staff Officer to a bomber group. How did I like the sound of that? Frankly, in my innermost thoughts, the answer was not at all, and my innermost instincts turned out to be correct. The posting to 205 Bomber Group at Foggia, in southern Italy, proved to be a shattering experience. For one thing, the bomber crews and I did not even speak the same language in airmen’s terms. In an attempt to find out what it was all about I went on a couple of trips as an air gunner, and each time wished I hadn’t. It was quite beyond me to know how the boys in the bombers had stood it and I came to appreciate my luck in having been in fighter aircraft. The war of the fighter pilot was a truly lovely experience compared with theirs, which struck me as suicidally dangerous. I was just getting the hang of the bombing scene at last when the war in Europe ended and our Lancasters and Liberators were converted into troop carriers to repatriate troops from the Allied armies to their homes all over the world. We were transferred to Egypt to operate from three airfields close to the Suez Canal and the Great Bitter Lake... Those of us who had been overseas for several years were subject to powerful pregnant urges for an occasional home comfort, and high on my list came the humble kipper. It should have been a happy day when a girlfriend sent me out a box of kippers... but alas, the kippers themselves did not enjoy their long hot journey

A ‘Staff Man’ By December 1944 Kingcome and his Wing were based near Rimini, close to the Yugoslav border, ‘the Italian campaign was set to rumble on for another six months until VE Day, but it was as good as in the bag. At this point my own participation came to an abrupt end in the wake of an official visit from the Deputy Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean and Allied Air Forces (MAAF), Air Chief Marshal Sir John Slessor. He took me aside. ‘Kingcome’, he said, ‘I’ve been looking at your record. I see that your entire service career has been spent with operational single-seater fighters. Your horizon is obviously limited. I don’t even know if you can write. I intend to find out. I’m sending you to

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‘An afternoon well spent’ through the Middle East. We were sure we had been able to smell them even when the carrier aircraft was still circling the airfield at 2,000ft. It was a tragedy. We gave the fish a decent funeral after the briefest period of mourning.’ (ibid) D.A.F. - 324 Wing In the Spring of 1946 Kingcome was posted as CO 324 (Spitfire) Wing, Zeltweg, Austria; finding himself at a posting which was situated approximately 20 minutes flying time from both Vienna and Venice he was delighted by this turn of events, ‘Yet again it was too good to last, of course. Just as the snows were beginning to fall at Zeltweg and I was looking forward to a few months of skiing, my nemesis Sir John Slessor stepped in once more and I was posted back to England. For the next two years I became an instructor (‘Directing Staff’ was the official title) at the R.A.F. Staff College at Bracknell... At no time did the transition from active to peacetime service present an easy adjustment. There was a stage when I tried to resign my commission, but this was turned down on the grounds that, as an ex-Cranwell cadet, I still owed my country a return on the investment it had made in training me. After Bracknell there followed a further two years at the Air Ministry itself, working in the Air Staff Policy branch, which was concerned with a range of tasks that included briefing the Chiefs of Staff... It came to an end in September 1950 when I contracted tuberculosis, a consequence of my bachelor life in London, drinking but seldom eating, never observing a sensible bedtime, never doing any of the things one ought to do to assure a healthy life.’ (ibid) A Brush With Fame, Recuperation and Reflection Discharged from hospital in June 1953 Kingcome was granted indefinite leave to decide whether to stay in the service or opt out, ‘one day, as I was drinking in Les Ambassadeurs, I was hailed by an American voice. It turned out to belong to Sy Bartlett, whom I had met in England

during the war when he was an aide to General Spaatz. Sy had recently written with Bernie Lay Jnr the script, based on their novel, for an extremely successful movie, Twelve o’clock High. Produced by Darryl F. Zanuck and directed by Henry King, it starred Gregory Peck and told the story of a US bomber group operating under severe psychological pressure. Now Sy had been sent to England by 20th Century Fox to get together the script for another. Several drinks later I had agreed to be his assistant, and on the same afternoon I went to the Air Ministry to hand in my resignation. The film that emerged was a disaster, but the decision was one I never regretted.’ (ibid) The above was not Kingcome’s first foray into films as he had in fact appeared in the First of the Few - ‘The Battle of Britain had been fought and won three months earlier, and Leslie Howard, the country’s best-loved, best-known film actor, was directing and acting his film... based on the life of R.J. Mitchell, the designer of the Spitfire. He himself played Mitchell, with David Niven taking the part of a fictional character called Wing Commander Crisp, who was a composite portrait of the test pilots who nursed and developed the Spitfire from its cradle, including the great Jeffrey Quill. All important roles were taken by professional actors, but Howard felt that a little authenticity might rub off if a few Battle of Britain pilots were to play themselves... I was one of the fortunate half-dozen or so pilots whose names came out of the hat, and the whole enterprise was the greatest fun, Our roles called for little more demanding than lolling about in flying clothes in a fake dispersal hut, going outside to look sombrely skywards from time to time, and delivering such daft lines as, ‘Good luck - they’ll need it,’ to cue in stock shots of Spitfires and German bombers flying overhead. Most of the stock shots in Second World War flying films include rapid frames of the interior of a Spitfire cockpit with a closeup of the pilot’s gloved hand holding the control column, thumb on gun button in readiness for the decisive burst before the montage cuts away to an external shot of an enemy

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September 6, 2012 - LONDON aircraft being brought to grief. The same stock shots are wheeled out regularly to support documentary and news items to do with the battles in the air of the Second World War. That thumb on the firing button, which must have been seen by more people than any thumb in history, is my claim to immortality. Reader, the thumb is mine.’ (ibid) Kingcome struggled with early post war business ventures, despite having initial success with a Rolls-Royce hire company in partnership with old friend and colleague Wing Commander Paddy Barthropp, D.F.C., A.F.C. Despite it being several years after the War he found himself still ‘newsworthy’, ‘I was subject of headlines I could have done without, though how it came to be regarded as a news item I will never understand. It happened when I embarked on married life, though the origins of the story were to be traced back over the years to the days of Biggin Hill in Kent in 1940. About seven miles from the airfield was the White Hart at Brasted, the pub known by 92 Squadron as ‘our pub’, and not far up the road from the pub their lived a pair of identical female twins, the daughters of Sir Hector Macneal, in the Red House. They were tall, elegant, sophisticated and beautiful young women, and as if that were not enough in itself, they were also rich... the twins had style in abundance. The elder, by ten minutes or so, was Moira. She had two children... Her husband was an Air Commodore who was then doing a stint in the Middle East. The younger twin was Sheila, who had been married to Squadron Leader Freddie Shute, a fighter pilot killed earlier that year... After Freddie’s death Sheila moved with their small daughter, Lesley, then not much more than a toddler, to join Moira in the Red House. There the twins, with their good looks, lavish generosity and captivating personalities became the centre of an elite coterie of fighter pilots, of which 92 Squadron inevitably formed the core. After the White Hart had reluctantly shut its doors at closing time, as often as not we decamped en bloc to round off the evening at the twins’. There was another bonus from this friendship in that it became possible for me to cover the seven miles of winding road between Biggin and the White Hart at Brasted in seven minutes with the help of a specially modified and tuned Jaguar SS100. This outstandingly beautiful car had belonged to Freddie Shute, who used to race it at Brooklands, and his widow, Sheila, let me have the loan of it. The Squadron was not stood down in the evenings until thirty minutes past last light, which could be alarmingly close to ‘last orders’. Every minute saved on the journey between airfield and pub was therefore vital and the car a godsend... I became very close to the twins at the Red House, till my posting to the D.A.F. in 1943, when I lost contact. I had also met their father several times at Biggin Hill. Sir Hector Macneal... known affectionately as the ‘Black Knight’, was a friend of Beaverbrook, who was given the task of overseeing aircraft production by Churchill... After the war was over Sir Hector moved into a flat in Piccadilly close to the Air Force Club and he and I started seeing quite a lot of each other as neighbours.’ Through this close geographical proximity Kingcome got reacquainted with the family, and one night Macneal threw a party in his flat, ‘the indefatigable ‘Black Knight’, by then in his mid-eighties, moved on to some night spot or other with the bulk of his guests, though I stayed behind, no doubt because I was too broke to go. Also staying behind to help with the clearing up was Sheila’s now grown up daughter Lesley, and as I sat there idly, glass of whisky in hand, I watched her restoring things to some sort of order. I had to admit I was staggered by the transformation in the interval of what seemed only a few short years. The toddler of just the other day had grown into a bewitching young woman capable of stopping London’s traffic. And my heart.’ (ibid) Kingcome proposed there and then and several weeks later they were married in St. Peter’s, Eaton Square, ‘The occasion was a huge success, and we stayed the night at a hotel on Monkey Island in the Thames near Bray, before leaving early

next morning for Heathrow, en route for Germany. As we relaxed in our seats in the aircraft, waiting for take-off, we casually glanced at the morning papers which the stewardess was distributing. The press had done it again: turned the facts upside down for the sake of a good story. The headlines screamed at us: “They Said He’d Marry Mother But Lesley Is The Bride.’ Memories of Biggin Hill, 1940-42 ‘What did you do in the War, Daddy?’ ‘Get drunk in the White Hart at Brasted, my son.’ Not all the time, perhaps, but it was certainly not unknown.... No doubt about it, of all the members of the fighting forces during the last war, the fighter pilot, had the most enviable of jobs..... The Spitfire pilot in 1940, charged with the defence of his homeland, faced a longish day of course - from half an hour before dawn to an hour after dusk - but he flew from a warm comfortable base with the most versatile of all fighter aircraft, and it being a single-seater he was more or less master of his own fate. I suppose at the height of the Battle of Britain we averaged three, sometimes four, sorties a day, but a sortie seldom lasted more than an hour, and we had the immense moral advantage of fighting over own territory. It’s surprising how fierce one’s protective instincts become at the sight of an enemy violating one’s homeland, and how comforting the knowledge that if one is shot down one at least has a chance of living to fight another day.... Of all the places from which to operate, as I did from August 1940 to June 1942, Biggin Hill was way out in front. It was superbly placed, both operationally and socially. Operationally we were just far enough inland from the main German approach lanes to give us time to climb flat out due north to the enemy’s altitude before turning south to hit him head on, by far the most effective and damaging form of attack, usually somewhere over mid-Kent. The social aspects of Biggin Hill exhausts me just thinking about them. When we were stood down half an hour after dusk there was the choice of either scooting up to London... an evening at Shepherds and the Bag of Nails... or the White Hart at Brasted, where five shillings kept us in beer until the local bobby moved us on at closing time. Then, with a few girlfriends, on to our billets... Where one of our pilots, a pianist... would play into the small hours, and we would finally snatch an hour or two’s sleep in arm chairs, fully dressed to save time and effort getting up for dawn readiness. Then at the dispersal hut with the unforgettable sound of Merlin engines warming up in the grey half-light, the squadron doctor dispensing his miracle cure (would that I had kept the recipe) from a tin bucket, occasionally a pilot, suffering more than usual, climbing into his cockpit for a quick rejuvenating whiff of neat oxygen. And then the inevitable stomach-churning ring of the telephone and the voice from Ops: ’92 Squadron, scramble. One hundred plus bandits approaching Dungeness at Angels Fifteen.’ The surge of adrenalin, the half dozen or so pilots, that were all we could normally muster, sprinting to their aircraft, the tiredness and the hangovers disappearing as though they had never been, the flat-out climb to 20,000ft, the mud on our flying boots freezing fast to our rudder bars in our unheated and unpressurised cockpits, the long shallow tension-building dive south to meet the enemy, sometimes seeing the sun lift over the horizon from 20,000ft and again, after landing, on the still darkened earth. The day only just begun and already behind us the savage, lethal action, death for some, and for those safely back on the ground the memory of two sunrises in one morning and thoughts quickly suppressed of friends not yet accounted for. And life, at least until the next telephone call. Adrenaline-filled life. One sustained electrifying high. I remember Biggin Hill with enormous affection.’

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5 The Second War 1944 Immediate ‘Low-Level Raid On Kiel Canal’ D.S.O., 1941 D.F.C. Group of Nine to Wellington and Mosquito Pilot Group Captain R.J. Gosnell, Royal Air Force a) Distinguished Service Order, G.VI.R., silver-gilt and enamel, reverse of suspension bar officially dated ‘1945’, with integral top riband bar b) Distinguished Flying Cross, G.VI.R., reverse officially dated ‘1941’ c) India General Service 1908-35, G.V.R., one clasp, North West Frontier 1935 (F/O. R.J. Gosnell. R.A.F.) d) 1939-1945 Star e) Air Crew Europe Star, with France and Germany Bar f) Africa Star g) Defence and War Medals h) Coronation 1953, good very fine, mounted court style as worn (9) £3,800-4,200

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D.S.O. London Gazette 17.11.1944 Wing Commander Robert Jerram Gosnell, D.F.C. (33002), R.A.F., 571 Sqn. [in a joint citation with Acting Squadron Leader William Craig Brodie, D.F.M. and Acting Squadron Leader Edward John Greenleaf (both awarded the D.S.O.); Acting Flight Lieutenant Kenneth Robert Triggs, D.F.C. (awarded a Bar to the D.F.C.); and Flight Lieutenant William Irving Drinkall, Acting Flight Lieutenant Andrew Wesley Lockhart, A.F.C., Flying Officer Richard Wortley Mclernon, and Flying Officer Joseph Ralph Wood (awarded the D.F.C.)] ‘One night in October, 1944, a force of bombers was detailed for an important low level mining mission, an operation requiring considerable skill and accuracy in flying. The target was strongly defended by heavy and light anti-aircraft guns, searchlights, and balloons. Undeterred by these hazards and the most adverse weather, the operation was completed successfully. The success achieved reflects the greatest credit on them.’ The Recommendation, dated 10.10.1944, states: ‘On the night of the 5th-6th October 1944 Wing Commander Gosnell was the pilot of a Mosquito aircraft detailed to lay mines from a low altitude in the Kiel Canal. The waterway is heavily defended by heavy and light anti-aircraft guns, searchlights, and balloons, demanding a high degree of skill and determination from those detailed for the task. Undeterred by these hazards, Wing Commander Gosnell brought his aircraft down to 300 feet at the correct speed and released the mine in the allotted area while under the close range fire of three anti-aircraft guns on the banks of the canal. As Squadron Commander, this officer was responsible for planning the operation in 571 Squadron and the success achieved is a reflection on his courage, skill, and sense of duty. Wing Commander Gosnell has completed 34 operational sorties of which 5 have been on Mosquitos. I strongly recommend the Immediate award of the Distinguished Service Order.’ D.F.C. London Gazette 8.4.1941 Squadron Leader Robert Jerram Gosnell (35002), No. 38 Squadron, Royal Air Force The Recommendation, dated 20.3.1941, states: ‘Squadron Leader Gosnell has commanded a flight in this Squadron since 14.8.1940 and has completed some 23 operational sorties. This officer has always shown determination, zeal, and keenness in operating against the enemy. Squadron Leader Gosnell has proved an excellent leader and has set a magnificent example to the younger pilots in his flight. On a recent operation on Rhodes Island Squadron Leader Gosnell attacked 4 separate targets, namely the aerodromes of Lindos, Maritza, Kattavia, and Rhodes Harbour. This attack, which was carried out with great determination, resulted in the destruction of 2 aircraft at Lindos and an ammunition dump at Kattavia.’ Group Captain Robert Jerram Gosnell, D.S.O., D.F.C., born Bangkok, Thailand, 1911; Commissioned Pilot Officer, Royal Air Force, 23.7.1932, he served initially with No.5 Squadron in Quetta, India for three years. Promoted Flying Officer, 23.1.1934; and advanced Squadron, 1.4.1939, Gosnell served during the Second World War with No.38 Squadron (Wellingtons), Marham- his first operational sortie was a raid over Frankfurt, 16.8.1940, followed by the end of the month with a raid over Berlin; targets in September of that year included Brussels (14.9.1940), Calais (20.9), Le Harve (24.9), and Berlin (30.9). The last of his ten sorties with the Squadron over northern Europe was over Kiel and Hamburg, 15.10.1940, before the Squadron moved to Shallufa in Egypt, from where he flew a further 19 operations over targets such as Tobruk, Tripoli, and Rhodes Island, the latter operation occuring 11.2.1941, for which he was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross, being invested with it by the King at Buckingham Palace, 10.3.1942. Promoted Wing Commander, 1.6.1941, in 1944 he was posted to No.385 Squadron (Mosquitos), a newly-formed light bomber unit of No.8 (Path Finder) Group’s Light Night Striking Force, and took part in a further five operational sorties with them, his last being a raid on the Kiel Canal, 5.10.1944, for which he was awarded the Distinguished Service Order. Promoted Group Captain, 1.1.1951, he retired in 1966 and died in 1993. PROVENANCE:

Spink, March 1994

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6 A Second War 1942 ‘Fighter Ace’s’ D.S.O., 1941 ‘Immediate’ D.F.C. Group of Eight to Blenheim and Beaufighter Pilot, Wing Commander A. Watson, Royal Air Force, Who, in May 1941, Having Witnessed His ‘Wing Man’ Shot Down Over Enemy Territory, Landed Some 20 Yards From The Burning Wreckage, Rescued His Comrade, And Took Off, All The While Being Under Enemy Fire a) Distinguished Service Order, G.VI.R., silver-gilt and enamel, reverse of suspension bar officially dated ‘1942’, with integral top riband bar b) Distinguished Flying Cross, G.VI.R., reverse officially dated ‘1942’, and additionally engraved ‘Squadron Leader A. Watson D.S.O., D.F.C., R.A.F.’ c) 1939-1945 Star d) Air Crew Europe Star e) Africa Star, with North Africa 1942-43 Bar f) Defence and War Medals, M.I.D. Oak Leaf, the campaign awards all contemporarily named ‘Squadron Leader A. Watson D.S.O., D.F.C., R.A.F.’ g) Belgium, Kingdom, Croix de Guerre, L.III.R., bronze, with gilt palm on riband, lacquered, extremely fine, mounted court style as worn, together with RAF Pilots wings, various photographs, and a copy of the Operations Log Book (8) £2,000-2,500

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D.S.O. London Gazette 4.12.1942 Acting Squadron Leader Anthony Watson, D.F.C. (41339), No. 272 Squadron (since missing.) ‘One day in November 1942, this officer led a formation of aircraft on a low-level attack on the airfield at El Agheila where at least 12 enemy aircraft were destroyed on the ground and many others damaged. During a patrol the next day, a Heinkel 115 was destroyed. On the third consecutive day, the squadron was detailed to attack an airfield in Tunisia. En route, a formation of 6 S.M.82’s was intercepted. In the ensuing engagement, all the enemy aircraft were shot down; Squadron Leader Watson destroyed 3 of them himself. This officer has led the squadron on shipping sweeps and convoy escorts and in numerous low-level attacks on enemy aerodromes, during which many enemy aircraft, vehicles, and E boats have been destroyed or damaged. By his high skill, courageous and inspiring leadership, Squadron Leader Watson has contributed materially to the splendid successes achieved. He has destroyed 11 enemy aircraft as well as a schooner.’ D.F.C. London Gazette 11.7.1941 Flying Officer Anthony Watson (41339), No. 203 Squadron ‘In May, 1941, this officer was the pilot of one of two aircraft which carried out an attack on the fort at Rutbah and enemy ground forces in the neighbourhood. Both aircraft made determined attacks on the fort in the face of heavy fire from the ground which was eventually silenced. Following an attack by his fellow pilot on some armed forces behind a hill, Flying Officer Watson’s attention was drawn to a column of black smoke on the ground. Although his aircraft had been hit in the petrol tank and fuselage he immediately dived towards the position and a moment later saw his fellow pilot, who had apparently been shot down, emerge from the smoke. Turning into wind and without waiting to apply the flaps Flying Officer Watson landed his aircraft less than 20 yards from the burning wreckage and, together with his air gunner and observer, rescued his comrade. In spite of fire from enemy armoured cars and bullets exploding from the burning aircraft, they attempted to find the remaining members of the crew. Failing to find any sign of them, they returned and took off with the rescued pilot. Throughout, Flying Officer Watson displayed great courage and skill as both landing and take-off were made under fire and on ground strewn with rocks and boulders.’ Belgium, Croix de Guerre with Palm London Gazette 18.6.1946 Squadron Leader Anthony Watson, D.S.O., D.F.C. (41339), R.A.F. ‘In recognition of valuable service rendered in connection with the War.’ Wing Commander Anthony Watson, D.S.O., D.F.C., Commissioned Pilot Officer, Royal Air Force, 29.8.1939; promoted Flying Officer, 3.9.1940; served during the Second World War with No.203 Squadron (Blenheims), based in the Middle East; operating over Iraq during the siege of the Habbaniyah base, he flew from an airstrip on the pipeline to Jordan in support of one of the relief columns. On the 9th May 1941, during an attack on the Iraqi-held fort at Rutbah, another Blenheim was shot down by ground fire. Watson landed alongside, and with his crew rescued the pilot from the wreckage, although the rest of the crew were dead, and then took off under fire from the approaching armoured cars. On the 14th May he flew a reconnaissance over Palmyra airfield in Syria, and spotted German aircraft there. Laying on an attack, he was joined by two further Blenheims and two Tomahawks, which resulted in several aircraft being bombed and destroyed, of which Watson’s personal tally was a share of 1 He.111 destroyed, 3 He.111s damaged, and 1 Ju.52 damaged. He returned alone on a reconnaissance the following day, and made a repeat strafing attack. Promoted Flight Lieutenant, 3.9.1941, in August 1942 he joined No.272 Squadron (Beaufighters), based in Egypt, and on the 8th September shot down his first enemy aircraft, a S-81 off the Libyan coast, following that up with 2 Ju.52s destroyed north of Tobruk, 25.10.1942, and a Ju.88 off the Libyan coast, 2.11.1942. Appointed a Flight Commander, he moved with the unit to Malta in early November, interdicting the supply lines between Sicily and Tunisia; by mid-November he had increased his tally to 11 enemy aircraft destroyed. Posted to the Command of No.227 Squadron, he was wounded by severe flak during a shipping attack near Lampedusa, 22.1.1943, and was hospitalised. Upon recovering from his wounds, he was posted to Air HQ, Malta, with the rank of Squadron Leader, 11.5.1943; finally leaving the Royal Air Force in 1947 with the rank of Wing Commander.

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7 A Second War ‘Transport Command’ M.B.E. Group of Four to Warrant Officer E.W. Burrow, Royal Air Force a) The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, 2nd type, Military Division, Member’s (M.B.E.) breast Badge, silver b) Defence and War Medals, M.I.D. Oak Leaf c) Royal Air Force Long Service & G.C., G.VI.R. (W/O. E.W. Burrow (505255). R.A.F.), extremely fine, with Buckingham Palace enclosure for the M.B.E.; and Record Office enclosure for the L.S. & G.C. (4) £250-300 M.B.E. London Gazette 13.6.1946 Warrant Officer Edgar Whittaker Burrow (505255), Royal Air Force The Recommendation states: ‘This Non-Commissioned Officer has held the post of First Class Fitter since March 1944 and has, from the first, contributed much to the efficiency of the unit. He contributed largely to its ability to produce a maximum number of serviceable aircraft for such glider-towing operations as D-Day, Arnhem, and the Rhine crossing. He has also made numerous flights in aircraft under test. Warrant Officer Burrow has invariably been chosen to proceed on mass glider flights and, in recent months, he was chosen a Squadron Airborne Halifax for Transport Command duties, a task which he accomplished successfully. He has at all times set a fine example to those working with and under him.’ Warrant Officer Edgar Whittaker Burrow, M.B.E., served during the Second World War from March 1944 with No.298 Squadron, Royal Air Force; previously Mentioned in Despatches (London Gazette 1.1.1941) - it is fair to speculate that, given the date, it was for his work as ground crew during the Battle of Britain; awarded L.S. & G.C. Medal 19.9.1949.

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8 8 The Second War ‘Military Division’ M.B.E. Group of Four to Flight Officer C. BabingtonSmith, Women’s Auxiliary Air Force, A Pioneer of Wartime Photographic Interpretation, Who Made the First Identification of a V1 Flying Bomb a) The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, 2nd type, Military Division, Member’s (M.B.E.) breast Badge, silver b) Defence and War Medals, M.I.D. Oak Leaf c) United States of America, Legion of Merit, Legionnaire’s breast Badge, gilt and enamel, the reverse engraved ‘CBS Dec. 1945 W.A.A.F.’, nearly extremely fine (4) £200-300 M.B.E. London Gazette 1.1.1945 Flight Officer Constance Babington-Smith (1512), Women’s Auxiliary Air Force. United States of America, Legion of Merit London Gazette 16.4.1946 Flight Officer Constance Babington-Smith, M.B.E. (1512), W.A.A.F. ‘In recognition of distinguished services in connection with the war.’ The original United States Citation states: ‘Recognised as the outstanding Allied authority on the interpretation of photographs of aircraft, she provided the Eighth Air Force with extremely vital intelligence for the strategic bombing and destruction of the German Aircraft industry and contributed materially to the success of the U.S.A.F. strategic mission to Europe.’ Flight Officer Miss Constance Babington-Smith, M.B.E., was born Putney, London, 15.10.1912, the daughter of Sir Henry Babington-Smith and Lady Elizabeth Babington-Smith, née Bruce, the daughter of the 9th Earl of Elgin, and educated at home; after a spell working in London for the milliner Aage Thasrup, she ventured into journalism, working first for Vogue magazine, and then for The Aeroplane magazine. Commissioned Assistant Section Officer, Women’s Auxiliary Air Force, 19.12.1940; she set up an aircraft interpretation section during the Second World War for the Royal Air Force’s photographic reconnaissance unit at Heston airfield, and was responsible for searching for secret weapons; promoted Section Officer, 1.7.1942, she made the first identification from a photograph of a German V1 flying bomb at Peenemünde on the Baltic coast in November 1943, an identification which enabled and led to the subsequent air campaigns that disrupted German plans for the mass launch of V1 and V2 rockets against the Allies. At the same time she was pursuing another vital brief- watching out for new types of enemy aircraft, and was responsible for spotting the Me.163, the He.280, and the Me.262 for the first time, the discovery of which greatly impressed Group Captain Frank Whittle, the inventor of the jet-engine, who was said to be ‘rather enamoured of this unusual WAAF officer’ (recipient’s Telegraph obituary refers). Promoted Flight Officer, 1.1.1944, after the surrender of Germany in 1945 she travelled to the United States and assisted in photographic interpretation for the war against Japan; following the end of the War she resigned from the Women’s Auxiliary Air Force, 26.2.1946, but maintained a keen interest in aircraft, especially the de Havilland Mosquito, which had played a large part in wartime photographic reconnaissance work, becoming a Founder Director of the de Havilland Museum Trust which preserved the prototype Mosquito. She died at home in Cambridge, 31.7.2000.

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9 A Fine Great War Pilot’s M.C. Group of Four to Major W.A. Grattan-Bellew, Connaught Rangers and No. 25, Squadron Royal Flying Corps, Who Was Awarded the Military Cross For Three Separate Combat Actions With Enemy Aircraft, April-June 1916, Forcing Two Down and His Observer Destroying Another; He Later Commanded No. 29 Squadron From September 1916 Until His Death From Injuries Sustained During A Flying Accident, 24.3.1917 a) Military Cross, G.V.R., unnamed as issued b) 1914-15 Star (2.Lieut. W.A. Grattan-Bellew R.F.C.) c) British War and Victory Medals, M.I.D. Oak Leaves (Major W.A. Grattan-Bellew), good very fine, together with a comprehensive file of research (4) £3,000-4,000 M.C. London Gazette 27.7.1916 2nd Lt. (temp. Capt.) William Arthur Grattan Bellow, Conn. Rang, and R.F.C. For conspicuous gallantry and skill on several occasions, notably the following: With three other machines he attacked and drove off eight enemy machines, forcing one to the ground. He attacked four Fokkers, forcing one down to 2,500 feet. Another was seen to crash to the ground during the fight. When on a bombing raid two of the machines got behind owing to clouds, and were attacked by Fokkers. Capt. Grattan Bellew returned and attacked three Fokkers, one of which his Observer shot down and the others made off. The Recommendation, dated 26.6.1916, states: ‘For skill and gallantry, especially on the following occasions: ó On 27th April 1916, he, with 3 other F.E.s attacked 8 Aviatiks and drove them out of Army Area. Captain Grattan-Bellew drove down one of them, which landed at Illies.

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Major W.A. Grattan-Bellew On 18th June 1916, in company with Second Lieutenant Armstrong, he attacked 4 Fokkers east of Lens and drove one down to 2,500 feet; during the fighting another Fokker was seen to crash completely. On 26th June 1916, Captain Grattan-Bellew led a bombing raid on Henin Lietard, two of the machines got rather behind owing to clouds and were attacked by Fokkers. Captain Grattan-Bellew went back to their assistance and diverted the Fokkers to himself. After a few minutes he was left alone against 3 Fokkers, one of which his observer shot down. It crashed behind the enemy’s lines, the others made off, and Captain Grattan-Bellew was left alone on the scene of the fighting.’

Captain and Flight Commander, 29.3.1916; awarded the Military Cross for three separate combat actions with enemy aircraft, April to June 1916; promoted temporary Major and appointed to the Command of No. 29 Squadron, 5.9.1916; the following day a young Flight Sergeant from his Squadron, Jimmy McCudden, shot down a Aviatik C at 14,000 feet over Houthem, the first of his 57 victories in a glorious fighting career; Grattan-Bellew shared in the shooting down of a two seater with McCudden, 2.2.1917: ‘Three DH2s tackled an enemy aircraft at 3000 feet. Second Lieutenant Pearson attacked first, then banked away to allow McCudden to fire in turn. The enemy aircraft fell away spinning- only to be attacked by a fourth DH2 which suddenly joined the fight. Its pilot was 29’s CO, GrattanBellew, out on a lone patrol.’ Major Grattan-Bellew died of injuries, 24.3.1917, and is buried in Avesnes-le-Comte Communal Cemetery, France: ‘He was one of the most gallant pilots and best beloved Commanding Officers in the Royal Flying Corps. He was another splendid example of the fighting Irishman and his death in an accident was as great a calamity to the Corps as Major McCudden’s. Major Grattan-Bellew took off at 12:45 hours to deliver the last DH2 to No. 2 Aircraft Depot, Candas, and side slipped into the edge of the Airfield. His injuries proved fatal and he died in hospital three days later, a tragic loss of a highly respected and courageous pilot.’ (Editor’s note taken from Five Years in the R.F.C. by Major J.T.B. McCudden, V.C., D.S.O., M.C., M.M. refers).

M.I.D. London Gazette 1.6.1917 Grattan-Bellew, Maj. W.A., M.C., Conn. Rang. and R.F.C. (died of wounds). Major William Arthur Grattan-Bellew, M.C., born September 1893, the third son of Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Henry Grattan-Bellew, Bt., and Lady Sophia Grattan-Bellew, of Mount Bellew, Co. Galway; educated at Downside and Trinity College, Cambridge; Commissioned temporary Second Lieutenant, Royal Flying Corps, 17.1.1915; served with No.16 Squadron on the Western Front from 9.4.1916; admitted to No.1 British Red Cross Hospital, Le Treport, 8.6.1915; re-joined the Royal Flying Corps with No. 25 Squadron as a Founder Member, 20.2.1916; Commissioned (permanent) Second Lieutenant, Connaught Rangers, ‘for seconding to R.F.C.’, 19.3.1916; promoted temporary

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THE BENTLEY PRIORY BATTLE OF BRITAIN TRUST APPEAL CHARITY AUCTION 10 A Fine ‘Immediate’ Battle of Britain D.F.C. and ‘1946’ Second Award Bar Group of Seven to Spitfire and Hurricane Fighter Ace, Squadron Leader C.O.J. Pegge, 610 Squadron, Royal Air Force, Accredited With At Least 5 Victories During the ‘Battle’, He Went On To Increase His Score To 9, Flying Over the Western Desert and Burma; Pegge Was Killed in a Flying Accident, 5.9.1950, Whilst Piloting His Meteor Jet In Formation Over The Wash a) Distinguished Flying Cross, G.VI.R., reverse officially dated ‘1940’, with Second Award Bar, reverse officially dated ‘1946’ b) 1939-1945 Star, with Battle of Britain Bar c) Air Crew Europe Star, with France and Germany Bar d) Africa Star, with North Africa 1942-43 Bar e) Burma Star f) Defence and War Medals, generally very fine, mounted as originally worn, with the following related contemporary documents and items: - Steel Ashtray, engraved with R.A.F. Crest and Motto, and the words ‘Never in the Field of Human Conflict was so much owed by so many to so few. Winston Churchill’, and ‘Made From A Rolls Royce “Merlin” Engine Piston As Used In The Battle Of Britain - August - October 1940’ - (3) R.A.F. Pilot’s Flying Log Books (30.8.193831.5.1944; 11.6.1944-29.10.1948 and 11.6.19449.5.1950), last two stamped ‘Central Depository 1 Jun 1950 Royal Air Force Death Presumed’, first with slightly damaged spine - (3) good war time photograph albums, well annotated by the recipient, portraying his career from 1940 onwards - (2) Scrap books both titled “HAVUCEENIT”, compiled by recipient, replete with photographs, letters and newspaper cuttings; the first commencing from 14.10.1944 with Pegge being appointed to the command of 131 Squadron; the second commencing from July 1948, including Pegge’s invitation to the unveiling of the Rolls Royce Battle of Britain Commemorative Window, with Programme, Lunch Menu and associated enclosure letters; and an additional ‘rough book’ filled with notes and ‘doodles’ (lot) £40,000-50,000 D.F.C. London Gazette 22.10.1940 Pilot Officer Constantine Oliver Joseph Pegge (41317) The Recommendation states: ‘This officer had his first combat on 8th July, when he was on convoy patrol off Dungeness, and destroyed a Me 109. On 12th August, he destroyed two Me 109. During a big raid on 18th August, Pegge destroyed two Me 109 and damaged a He 111; despite the fact that his aircraft was badly damaged and his windscreen rendered opaque by bullets and that he was suffering from an eye injury he brought his aircraft back to his base. On 30th August, whilst leading his section, Pegge made a head on attack on a large formation of He 111. He shot the leading He 111 down and caused the remaining aircraft of that section to break up. Since this officer joined his unit in June he has destroyed a total of 7 enemy aircraft and has never hesitated to engage very superior numbers of the enemy whether fighters or bombers, and has proved himself to be a fearless fighter pilot

Squadron Leader C.O.J. Pegge and section leader. His skill and initiative are a fine example to all.’ D.F.C. Second Award Bar London Gazette 29.1.1946 Squadron Leader Constantine Oliver Joseph Pegge, D.F.C. (41317), R.A.F., 607 Sqn. The Recommendation (originally for the D.S.O.) states: ‘Squadron Leader Pegge has had a long and outstanding operational career as a fighter pilot. His first tour of operations, in 610 Squadron, was a distinguished one in which he engaged in sweeps, bomber escort, patrols, scrambles, Rhubarbs and convoy patrols, including the Battle of Britain. It was followed by a second tour, in which he was first given command of his old Squadron and later was given command of 126 Squadron in the Middle East. He led his squadrons in scrambles, escorts, patrols, sweeps, convoy patrols and ground-attack. He returned from the Middle East, was given command of another squadron which, after further operational flying from England (mainly groundattack, long-range, bomber escort to the Ruhr, and sweeps) he took out to S.E.A.C. However, this squadron disbanded soon afterwards and he was given command of another, in Burma, in time to lead it in direct support of the Army, i.e. straffing and bombing, in the Battle of the Sittang Bend and the Breakout Battle; this squadron achieved a high reputation for dash and accuracy. S/Ldr. Pegge’s individual score is: 9 and 1/12th enemy aircraft destroyed (7 Me 109s, 1 He 111, 1 Ju 87, and 1/12th Do 215) 5 probably destroyed (4 Me 109s and 1 Ju 88) and 8 damaged (4 Do 215s, 3 Me 109s and 1 He 111 at night). He has also destroyed and damaged many trucks, armoured vehicles and men. As a commander S/Ldr Pegge’s cheerful personality encourages those under him to high effort, and they have followed him and his fine example with trust and admiration for his experienced leadership. I recommend that S/Ldr. Pegge be awarded the Distinguished Service Order.’

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10

Squadron Leader Constantine Oliver Joseph Pegge, D.F.C. (1914-1950), born Slough; joined the Royal Air Force on a short service commission, August 1938, and commenced his training at R.A.F. Sywell; carried out further training at No. 8 F.T.S., Montrose and No. 1 A.A.C. Unit; Pilot Officer, 28.8.1939; after training in Hurricanes with No. 6 O.T.U., he converted to Spitfires and was posted for operational flying to No. 610 Squadron, Gravesend, 16.6.1940.

Tangmere Wing After being very active in the early stages of the Battle, often engaging large enemy formations two or three times a day, No. 610 Squadron was moved from Biggin Hill to Acklington at the end of August for a rest; tasked with the defence of Newcastle the Squadron carried out convoy patrols and the occasional scramble; Pegge followed the Squadron back into the offensive when it joined the Tangmere Wing, December 1940; flying out of Westhampnett Pegge flew on Channel sweeps and Blenheim escorts, 26.2.1941, ‘Patrol Dungeness 28,000. Saw About 12 Me 109s. Attacked One (1650 Rounds!) Was Attacked Shoved Off. Grey’s A/C Hit Force Landing. Sgt Horner One Probable’, and 5.1.1941, ‘Dungeness Sweep Attacked By 4 109s. Missed Me.’ (ibid); now equipped with Spitfire IIb’s, he was back in business, 10.5.1941, ‘Night Layer. Attacked + Damaged He 111 At 18,500 N of Brighton’; posted as a Hurricane Instructor No. 56 O.T.U., Sutton Bridge, June 1941; Flight Lieutenant, 3.9.1941; returned to No. 610 Squadron, then based at Leconfield, as Officer Commanding, December 1941; posted to the Middle East in February 1942, and left England at the start of the following month.

Biggin Hill And The Battle After flying a mixture of offensive and reconnaissance patrols he moved with the Squadron to Biggin Hill, July 1940; he was not long waiting for his first ‘victory’, 8.7.1940, ‘Interception of Convoy Bombers, Do 215s. Shot Down 1 Me 109’ (Log Book refers); the following day he had another crack, ‘Do 215 Intercepted + Attacked’ and on a patrol later in the same day, ‘Attacked Me 109 (One of Four)’; on the 12th August he bagged another two destroyed whilst on patrol, the first over Hawkinge and the other over Dover, ‘Two Me 109s Attacked 23,000. 1 Smoking. 1 Spinning’ (ibid); six days later he claimed another Me 109 destroyed and a He 111 damaged (see D.F.C Recommendation), as his Log Book shows, ‘1 Me 109 Shot Down Near Base 1 He 111 Damaged. Own A/C Damaged By Me 109. Crashed In Bomb Crater On Landing’; despite suffering an eye injury he was back on patrol the following day; on 24.8.1940, ‘Attacked Me 109s Over London. One Damaged’ (Log Book refers); four days later he claimed another victory, ‘Patrolled Hawkinge + Dover. Shot Down One Me 109’; on the 29th he intercepted 12 Do 215s, with fighter escort, and damaged one of the bombers; and on the 30th August he claimed his final victory during the Battle of Britain whilst leading his section in an head on attack, ‘Intercepted Large Number Of Enemy A/C 200-300 Me 109s, Me 110s + He 111s. Leader Of He 111 Formation Shot Down.’ (ibid).

CO No. 127 Squadron - Hurricanes Over The Western Desert Upon arrival Pegge was appointed to the command of No. 127 Squadron (Hurricanes), June 1942; and was posted for action in the Western Desert operating out of Shandur; Pegge’s first impressions were, ‘Shandur On Suez Canal. Hot. Flies. Good Swimming.’ (ibid); the Squadron was heavily engaged in the fighting over El Alamein, and on the 8th July was involved in its first successful dogfight there, destroying 2 Me 109s, one of which was claimed by Pegge, ‘Patrol El Alamein Wing Leader. Attacked 20-30 109s + Macchi 202s. Got One 109 Confirmed By 1 SAAF’ (ibid); Pegge shot down a Ju 87 over the Alem el Halfa area, 2.9.1942, ‘Stuka Interception. Forced Them To Jettison +

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ashtray made from a Rolls Royce ‘Merlin’ engine piston as used in the Battle of Britain Destroyed One’; early in September the Squadron was moved to Cairo for a rest, but after six weeks it was hurried back to Alamein, 2.11.1942, ‘Top Cover To 80. 1 Hr. Battle With 4 & then 10+ 109s Head On Attack On One + Damaged It’ (ibid); after the activity around Alamein the Squadron flew convoy patrols from Mersa Matruh, before moving to Palestine and then on to Paphos; Pegge was posted to A.H.Q. Eastern Mediterranean, 20.4.1943, before being

posted back to the UK the following month; in August 1943 he was once again posted to No. 56 O.T.U., this time based at Kinnell, Scotland; subsequent postings included to No. 1 C.T.W.; No. 1 T.E.U. and as Officer Commanding No. 16 A.P.C. at Hutton Cranswick; after a posting to R.A.F. Portreath, Pegge went as a supernumerary Squadron Leader to No. 126 Squadron, Bradwell Bay, August 1944; returning to Spitfires he mainly flew bomber escorts.

At ease during the Battle, Pegge reclining in the foreground next to Sergeants C.A. Parsons and D.F. Corfe WWW.SPINK.COM

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Talking it over at Hawkinge, 1940 “Spits” In Burma Pegge was appointed to the command of No. 131 Squadron (Spitfires), Friston, 14.10.1944; he took his Squadron to India, arriving at Bombay, 12.1.1945, and was stationed at Amarda Road, Bengal, from February 1945; led the squadron until its disbandment in June, and then was posted to command No. 607 Squadron, Rangoon, Burma; he mainly flew on recces and straffing, 29.6.1945, ‘Recce + Straffing. Sittang R. Several Boats & Trucks + 1 Bullock’ and 20.7.1945, ‘Bombing & Straffing. Trying To Flatten The Japs’ (ibid); he commanded the Squadron until the Japanese surrender, and its disbandment at Mingaladon, 19.8.1945;

returned to the UK at the start of 1946 and was posted to No. 631 (Anti-Aircraft Co-operation) Squadron, Llanbedr; posted HQ No. 12 Group, March 1948; completed a Pilot Flying Refresher Course in March 1950, before being posted to the Day Fighter Leader School later the same month; while based at the latter he flew Meteors and Vampires; flying a Meteor 4, as number 2 in formation, he crashed into The Wash, 9.5.1950; the weather conditions were bad and visibility poor; he did not pull up in time and was tragically killed upon impact; Pegge is buried in East Raynham Churchyard, Norfolk.

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11

11 A Good Second War ‘Immediate’ Spitfire Pilot’s D.F.C. and Post War Balliol Aerobatic Pilot’s A.F.C. Group of Five Attributed to Flight Lieutenant B.L. Garner, Royal Air Force, Who Claimed Two Victories in the Air Over Italy, 1944, And Many More Successes on Ground Targets a) Distinguished Flying Cross, G.VI.R., reverse officially dated ‘1945’ b) Air Force Cross, G.VI.R., reverse officially dated ‘1951’ c) 1939-1945 Star d) Italy Star e) War Medal, good very fine, mounted as originally worn, with copies of various press cuttings regarding the recipient; sold with Auction sales invoice from Richardsons Auctioneers, Bourne, Lincolnshire, when the group was sold ‘on behalf of his family’, May 1996 (5) £1,800-2,200 D.F.C. London Gazette 12.6.1945 Flight Lieutenant Ben Loraine Garner (106649), R.A.F.V.R., 92 Sqn. The Recommendation, dated 13.4.1945, states: ‘Flight Lieutenant Garner completed his first tour in 92 Squadron at the end of July 1944, having then completed 275 hours operational flying. He had commanded a flight from March to July with outstanding success, personally accounting for 2 Me.109s destroyed. In June 1944, he played a prominent part in the change over to fighter-bombers, rapidly showing his aptitude for bombing. On one occasion on the 18th July he located a concentration of M.T. near Ostra and bombed and straffed so successfully that 8 M.T. were destroyed and several others severely damaged.

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September 6, 2012 - LONDON Since rejoining 92 Squadron as a Flight Commander, on the 10th January, 1945, he has displayed all his old dash and determination and his bombing and straffing have been of the highest standard of accuracy. On the 30th March, when doing a recce of the important barge routes, he located 6 barges near Loreo. He left his flight of 4 aircraft and in the face of intense light and heavy flak, went down alone to a very low altitude to investigate them. Having ascertained that they were undamaged and definitely in use, he rejoined his flight, and led them in the attack so successfully that 3 direct hits were scored, completely destroying 3 barges. Then still experiencing intense flak, he returned and severely damaged the remainder by strafing. On the 25th February he scored a direct hit on a bridge over the River Brenta, successfully destroying it. On the 1st April on a strafing recce he located and destroyed an armoured car, and severely damaged 2 staff cars, one 3-ton truck, and a motor launch. On the 2nd April, and again on the 6th April he scored a direct hit on and destroyed an enemy strong point. Throughout, Flight Lieutenant Garner has shown the highest qualities of leadership and initiative. His courage and his determination to engage the enemy, coupled with a complete disregard for his own safety, have been the outstanding features of a career marked by the utmost devotion to duty.’ Remarks by Officer Commanding Wing: ‘I most strongly endorse this recommendation. The operation cited above and led by Flight Lieutenant Garner on the 30th March demonstrated the greatest courage on his part, in that he recced the target alone, with his bomb on, at a low level altitude in the face of intense return fire, in order to ensure getting the best results from his ultimate attack. In addition to this Flight Lieutenant Garner has again distinguished himself in an operation led by him two days ago in support of the 8th Army’s offensive near Lugo. Under Rover control he attacked an Artillery H.Q. with bombs, scoring hits and severely damaging the target: he then spotted two S.P. 75mm guns, and attacked with front guns until his ammunition was exhausted; one of them exploded and caught fire, and the other was left smoking. Two days before this last attack Flight Lieutenant Garner was hit over his target and forced to bale out: despite a very bad experience in getting back to friendly troops he was operating again the following day, and his tremendous enthusiasm and great courage remain unabated. Flight Lieutenant Garner is strongly recommended for the Immediate Award of the Distinguished Flying Cross.’ A.F.C. London Gazette 1.1.1951 Flight Lieutenant Ben Loraine Garner, D.F.C. (106649), R.A.F. The Recommendation states: ‘Flight Lieutenant Garner has commanded a Flight at No. 7 Flying Training School for one year and nine months. During that period, he has, at all times, displayed an exemplary standard of efficiency and enthusiasm and, by his personal example, has ensured that his instructors have given their best. Not only has this officer always approached his duties with outstanding keenness, but he has taken every opportunity to improve his professional knowledge as a pilot and as an instructor. Recently he won the Flying Training Command aerobatic competition and was selected to give an aerobatic display at the Royal Air Force display at Farnborough. Flight Lieutenant Garner is one of the most outstanding Qualified Flying Instructors at No. 7 Flying Training School. By his enthusiasm and efficiency in his duties he has set an outstanding example to all other instructors.’ Squadron Leader Ben Loraine Garner, D.F.C., A.F.C.; born Spalding, Lincolnshire, 25.11.1918, and educated at Moulton Grammar School; after leaving school he joined the Metropolitan Police, and in September 1940 enlisted in the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve; served during the Second World War with No. 92 (East India) Squadron (Spitfires), serving in England, Africa, Sicily, and Italy; Commissioned Pilot Officer, 11.9.1941; promoted Flying Officer, 11.9.1942; Flight Lieutenant, 11.9.1943; whilst with 244 Spitfire fighter bomber Wing of the Desert Air Force engaged on low bombing operations in Italy under the command of Group Captain ‘Cockey’ Dundas he shot down a Bf.109 over Ortona-Gradiagrele, 10.1.1944, and another Bf.109 south east of Avezzano, 23.4.1944, and was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross after having completed 240 operational sorties; after the War Garner took a permanent Commission in the Royal Air Force, and served as a flying instructor at RAF Cottesmore; took part in the Royal Air Force display at Farnborough, as one of two pilots performing “on request aerobatics” in a Balliol, 7-8.7.1950- the air show was the first R.A.F. Pageant since before the War, and Garner was one of three pilots performing at the air show who was invited to take tea with H.M. The King; in the following New Year’s Honours list he was awarded the Air Force Cross, having completed a total of 2,110 flying hours. Promoted Squadron Leader, 1.7.1951; Garner retired from the Royal Air Force, 22.11.1957, and emigrated to Kenya, where he became a farmer. PROVENANCE:

Richardsons Auctioneers, May 1996

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12 The Second War Fighter Ace’s 1940 ‘Battle of France’ D.F.C. Group of Seven to Hurricane and Spitfire Pilot, Group Captain P.G.H. Matthews, Royal Air Force, Who Followed Up His Four Victories During the Battle of France With Three Damaged and One Destroyed in the Battle of Britain; A Squadron C.O. in North Africa, He Claimed Further ‘Flamers’ Before Being Shot Down Over the Mediterranean, 3.11.1942 a) Distinguished Flying Cross, G.VI.R., reverse officially dated ‘1941’ b) 1939-1945 Star, with Battle of Britain Bar c) Air Crew Europe Star d) Africa Star, with North Africa 1942-43 Bar e) Italy Star f) War Medal g) Coronation 1953, good very fine, mounted as originally worn together with the recipient’s Queen’s Commendation for Valuable Service in the Air emblem; with the following related items: - D.F.C. Royal Mint case of issue - The recipient’s three surviving Pilot’s Flying Log Book, covering the periods 27.6.1940-22.7.1952; 24.7.1952-12.9.1958 and 22.9.1958-2.9.1964 respectively, the first log book privately bound and annotated ‘Original Log Book lost during evacuation of B.E.F. from France on June 18th 1940’ - Commission appointing Peter Gerald Hugh Matthews a Pilot Officer in the Royal Air Force, dated 24.10.1937 - The recipient’s Commendation for Valuable Service in the Air Certificate, dated 2.1.1956 - The recipient’s Medical Certificates, Instructor Pilot Orders, Transition Certificates, Instrument Certificates, and Personnel Orders - The recipient’s Photograph Album, together with a large number of additional photographs of the recipient - A number of programmes for Wasps [Rugby] Football Club, featuring the recipient - The recipient’s Flying note-board, complete with card, together with his flying waist-coat - Various ties, badges, riband bars, rank insignia, and epaulettes - Various newspaper and magazine articles, including one from the Sunday Express magazine, 11.9.1988, featuring the recipient - Various invitations and programmes commemorating the 50th Anniversary of the Battle of Britain, 1990 (lot) £10,000-12,000 WWW.SPINK.COM

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Group Captain P.G.H. Matthews (on left)

D.F.C. London Gazette 13.5.1941 Flight Lieutenant Peter Gerald Hugh Matthews (40247) - No. 1 Squadron ‘This officer has been engaged on active operations against the enemy over a long period. He has displayed high qualities of leadership and exceptional tactical ability. He has destroyed at least 4 enemy aircraft.’ The Recommendation, dated 23.4.1941, states: ‘This Officer has been employed on flying duties in an operational Squadron since September 1939. He has destroyed 4 and probably 7 enemy aircraft. This is by no means a full measure of his outstanding qualities of leadership and organisation, nor of the confusion he has brought to the enemy through his tactical ability and inspired leadership of his Flight. He has assumed command on several occasions when his seniors became non-effective through various reasons, and held the Flight together; particularly so during the strenuous period when covering the evacuation from France, and later when there was considerable action during the Autumn of 1940.’

deserted nunnery at Le Harve. Promoted Flying Officer, 23.3.1940, his first notable contact with the enemy came on the 3rd April 1940: ‘Met 5 Me.109s near Thionville at 26,000 feet. After one diving attack 4 of them continued downwards and escaped. The remaining one was shot down. I did not get a chance to fire before the Me.109s ran away’ (retrospective entry in the recipient’s Flying Log book refers). Two weeks later, on the 16th May he finally got his chance: ‘6 Hurricanes sighted more than 200 German bombers escorted entering France near Vouziers- attacked 16 Me.110 escort fighters. 8 Me.110s shot down- 1 Hurricane lost. Shot both engines out of a Me.110 and killed a rear gunner, and pipped one engine in another. I Destroyed, 1 Probable.’ (ibid). On the 5th June he had further success: ‘12 Hurricanes intercepted about 150 bombers and escort fighters over Rouen. 8 enemy aircraft were destroyed...the bombers were turned and did not meet their objectives. Shot down 1 He.111 and badly damaged another probable’ (ibid). The Squadron returned to RAF Tangmere, 17.6.1940, and the following day, covering the evacuation of the British Expeditionary Force from St. Nazaire, Matthews chased and shared in the shooting down of a Ju.88, seeing the troopship Lancastrian sunk during the engagement. As he recalled many years later; ‘When the big Blitz started we got out in a hell of a hurry. I had to leave everything for the Germans- my saxophone, cameras, a very good record player with a wonderful selection of records, and my golf clubs’ (Article in the Sunday Express magazine, 11.9.1988 refers).

Queen’s Commendation for Valuable Service in the Air London Gazette 2.1.1956 Wing Commander Peter Gerald Hugh Matthews, D.F.C. (40247), Royal Air Force. Group Captain Peter Gerald Hugh Matthews, D.F.C., was born at Hoylake, on the Cheshire Wirrall, 8.5.1919, the son of Mr. H.T. Matthews, the Chief Veterinary Officer of Liverpool, and was educated at Quarry Bank School, Hoylake, and at Liverpool College, where he intended to train as a vet like his father. However, in August 1937 he joined the Royal Air Force, being commissioned Pilot Officer, 24.10.1937, and was posted to No. 5 Flying Training School, Sealand, before in June the following year joining the staff at No. 1 Air Armament School at Manby. Posted to No. 1 Squadron (Hurricanes), Tangmere, 20.8.1939, he went to France with the Squadron at the outbreak of the Second World War, and was billeted in a

No. 1 Squadron in the Battle of Britain Back on home shores at RAF Northolt Matthews was thrust straight into the Battle and on the 31st July: ‘Intercepted Do.17 eight miles south of Isle of Wight. Chased to within ten miles of the French coast. Damaged enemy aircraft but uncertain as to its destruction. Probable’ (Log Book refers). During the Battle of Britain he was to have further success,

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Group Captain P.G.H. Matthews (second from left, standing next to H.R.H. The Duke of Edinburgh) conducting Canadian cadets at Balmoral

claiming a damaged on the 15th August: ‘Encountered swarms of enemy fighters- Squadron split up, attacked 100 odd enemy aircraft...bombing Harwich and Martlesham. Attacked a Me.110, a Ju.88, and a He.111 in quick succession and chased a He.111 out to sea and emptied all rounds into him- one engine damaged’ (ibid). The following day he had his first victory of the Battle: ‘Squadron encountered enemy bombers and fighters in three waves of 30-40 each...Me.110s engaged and Squadron split. I got one Me.110 (Flamer). Total Squadron bag 8 enemy aircraft shot down, many damaged’ (ibid). On the 30th August he had further success, damaging a He.111 over Epping. Taking Command of ‘B’ Flight, No.1 Squadron, 2.10.1940, his final claim during the Battle was for half a Ju.88 Destroyed, 8.10.1940: ‘Intercepted Ju.88 at 27,000 feet over South Cerney, chased to sea level in Bristol Channel, fired two short bursts then lost in cloud...later confirmed shot down in sea’ (ibid). Away from the heat of the Battle Matthews enjoyed some rest and relaxation in London: ‘Northolt was a good place to be because you could be in a little club in Jermyn Street in half an hour or so. In fact I think the record was 33 minutes in an old Bentley. I owned a more sedate Singer Saloon. It came into its own as had a good back seat, which made it ideal for courting. I used to swap and drive all sorts of fast cars while the other chaps took girls out in mine’ (Article in the Sunday Express magazine, 11.9.1988 refers).

Flamers in North Africa Promoted Flight Lieutenant, 23.3.1941, Matthews was posted to No. 52 O.T.U., Debden, 29.4.1941 as ‘C’ Flight Commander, and awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross. His next operational posting was the command of No. 74 Squadron (Spitfires), Llanbedr, 3.11.1941, taking them out to the Middle East in April 1942, where, on the 3rd July 1942, flying a Hurricane of No. 73 Squadron he damaged a Ju.87 ten miles south west of El Alamein. Having been promoted Squadron Leader, 1.6.1942, he took command of No. 145 Squadron (Spitfires) in the Western Desert, 30.8.1942, and on his second day in the job he damaged a Bf.109 over Alam el Halfa. The following day, 2.9.1942, he had a probable Mc.202: ‘Got one squirt from 30 yards at Mc.202- large cloud of black smoke and prop stopped- he went straight down. Saw an aircraft hit the ground a few seconds later’ (Log Book refers), and then on the 11th September he destroyed a Me.109: ‘Jumped 9 Mc.202s and Me.109s west of El Alamein. Squirted at Mc.202- nothingfollowed a Me.109 up- burst of flame behind cockpit. Lots of black smoke- dived straight in’ (ibid). Matthews had further success before the month was out, claiming a share in a Ju.52 destroyed, 29.9.1942: ‘Shot down Ju.52 at ground level. I made the 1st attack, and then the 4th- a Flamer. Smoke visible 30 miles away’ (ibid). The end of October proved to be a busy and eventful time for Matthews, claiming a

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Matthews (front row, centre) with the Wasps Rugby Football team

probable Me.109 on the 21st October, following this up with a confirmed destroyed two days later, and finishing with a half share in another destroyed on the 27th of the month: ‘Jumped 2 Me.109s shadowing bombers. Had a crack- he went straight down- shot at another and he went down pouring white smoke...Had short burst on Me.109 from long range. He rolled over and dived pouring white smoke the whole way down- must watch them hit the deck...One Me.109 flew round Squadron and made head on attack at me. I fired head on and as he went over me turned towards him and did one turn of a spin, then fired at him on the way down. Straight in’ (ibid).

at the head of No. 111 Squadron, Desert Air Wing (Spitfires) in August 1943, and after a couple of months of near misses and ‘nothing doings’ had his final victory of the War on the 2nd December: ‘Terrific Battle in progress in Cassino area. Saw 3 Fi.156s in a valley north west of Pratola- the others shared one, I got one, and the third disappeared’ (Log Book refers). Later that month he was injured in a road accident in Italy, and returned to the U.K. in January 1944, where he was posted to Bentley Priory as Ops 1 at Fighter Command Headquarters for a year. A keen rugby player, he played for Wasps throughout the 1944-45 season on the left wing. Remaining in the Royal Air Force after the end of the War, he was posted as Group Intelligence Officer, Headquarters, 83 Group, in November 1945 and undertook various duties with BAFO until May 1946, when he returned to the U.K. for two years’ service at Headquarters, Reserve Command, becoming Officer Commanding, 21 Reserve Centre, Plymouth, in April 1949. Attached to No.245 Squadron from March to May 1952, he was appointed to the Command of No. 502 Squadron, Royal Auxiliary Air Force, July 1952, begin promoted Wing Commander, 1.7.1953. His final overseas posting was as Air Attaché in Prague for three years, before serving as Permanent President, Courts Martial, at RAF Stanmore for two years immediately prior to retirement. He retired from the Royal Air Force, retaining the rank of Group Captain, 8.5.1966, and subsequently worked as a Director of Olympia and Earls Court for 16 years. He died 2.10.1991.

Shot Down Over the Mediterranean On the 3rd November 1942, during an engagement with Ju.87s and Me.109s over the North African cost, Matthews’ luck ran out and he ended up in the Mediterranean: ‘Shot down over sea- baled out. Got into dinghy at 07:35 hoursthe boys came over at 09:00 hours and patrolled. Picked up by RAF rescue launch at 10:15 hours. Perfectly ok if a bit wet’ (ibid). The following month he ended his tour and was appointed C.G.I. at No. 71 O.T.U. at Carthago in the Sudan, and subsequently at Ismailia. It was in Egypt that his next saxophone, a replacement for the one surrendered to the Germans, came in handy: ‘Three of us were in Cairo and although we had our pay books we’d received no money. So we sold the sax for 25 quid in the bazaar, which paid the bills at the Shepherd’s Hotel’ (Article in the Sunday Express magazine, 11.9.1988 refers). He commenced his third tour

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THE BENTLEY PRIORY BATTLE OF BRITAIN TRUST APPEAL CHARITY AUCTION 13 A Fine Battle of Britain Pilot’s D.F.C. Group of Eight to ‘Hurricane Ace’ Group Captain P.D. Thompson, Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, Who Shot Down Three Enemy Aircraft At The Height of the Battle and Added to His Score in Numerous Combats During the Siege of Malta 1941-42, Twice Being Wounded and On One Occasion Baling Out of His Blazing Aircraft From a Few Hundred Feet; Whilst Station Commander of RAF Biggin Hill 1956-58, He Was Instrumental in Establishing the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight, And Flew With Johnnie Johnson and Jamie Rankin, in the Farewell Flight of the Last Three Spitfires in First Line Service a) Distinguished Flying Cross, G.VI.R., reverse officially dated ‘1942’ b) 1939-1945 Star, with Battle of Britain Bar c) Atlantic Star, with France and Germany Bar d) Africa Star, with copy North Africa 1942-43 Bar e) Italy Star f) Defence and War Medals, M.I.D. Oak Leaf g) Air Efficiency Award, G.VI.R. (Flt. Lt. P.D. Thompson. R.A.F.V.R.), good very fine or better, mounted court style as originally worn, with the following related uniforms, documents, photographs, and other ephemera &c.: - D.F.C. Royal Mint case of issue, together with Central Chancery letter regarding the investiture, dated 24.2.1945 - Caterpillar Club gold brooch badge, with ruby eyes, reverse engraved ‘S/Ldr. P.D. Thompson’, in original card box of issue, together with the recipient’s Caterpillar Club membership card and club tie - The recipient’s two surviving Flying Log Books, covering the period 1.5.1941-21.5.1957 and 22.5.1957-30.4.1972, the first log book privately bound and annotated ‘Previous Log Book destroyed in Bombing Raid on Halfar in April 1941’, the second slightly water damaged - The recipient’s Pilots’ Flying Manual - Commission Appointing Peter Douglas Thompson a Pilot Officer in the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, dated 30.9.1940, together with a Commission appointing the recipient’s father a Second Lieutenant in the Royal Air Force, dated 1.11.1918 - Mentioned in Despatches Certificate, dated 8.6.1944 - No. 64 Squadron Crest, mounted on a wooden shield - No. 129 (Mysore) Squadron Crest, hand painted on card, with 22 accompanying signatures, together with a signed portrait photograph of the Maharaja of Mysore, dated 1942 - The recipient’s full mess kit, comprising jacket with silver wire pilot’s wings, various shirts, blue and white waistcoats, trousers, and patent leather shoes - Tropical mess jacket in white, with Group Captain’s epaulettes and gold and silver wire pilot’s wings - Tropical No.1 Jacket, with Group Captain’s epaulettes, embroidered pilot’s wings, and medal ribands

Group Captain P.D. Thompson

- Tropical working Jacket, with Group Captain’s epaulettes, embroidered pilot’s wings, and medal ribands - Three No. 1 Uniforms, complete with RAF wings, and medal ribands, all with trousers - Various Badges, Buttons, Rank insignia, Pilot’s Wings, Ribands, cummerbunds, and other dress related ephemera - The recipient’s watch, the reverse engraved ‘“Tommy” 185(F) Squadron Malta 1941-42’, lacking strap and no longer in working order - Silver plated tankard, engraved ‘Presented to Wg Cdr. P.D. Thompson by the Engineering Officers RAF Tengah November 1969’ - Silver salver, with applied bronze crest, engraved ‘Al Group Captain RAF Peter Thompson, Agregado de Defensa de Gran Bretana en el Peru, Lima, 18 de Abril 1975’ - Silver cigarette box, the inside engraved ‘La Asociacion de Agregados Castrenses Acreditados ante el Gobierno de Peru, Al Coronel Peter Thompson, Lima, Abril 1975 - Silver gilt Peruvian winged badge, in case of issue, together with another, mounted on a shield, with a plaque inscribed ‘Al Coronel RAF Peter D. Thompson Del Tnte. Gral. Fap Jorge Debernardi Leon’ - Twelve souvenir pennants

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- A most comprehensive archive of books, letters, newspapers, magazines, maps, and journals, many relating to both the Battle of Britain and the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight - Portrait drawing of the recipient by Cuthbert Orde, dated 21.1.1945 - The recipient’s Photo album, with photos from both during and after the Second World War, together with a large collection of official and personal photographs, including many from his time at RAF Biggin Hill and his involvement on the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight (lot) £12,000-15,000 D.F.C. London Gazette 30.1.1942 Flying Officer Peter Douglas Thompson (84697), Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, No. 185 Squadron. The Recommendation states: ‘This officer has been continuously engaged on operational flying for the past 12 months. He has destroyed at least 6 enemy aircraft, 3 of which he shot down in the Battle of Britain. Flying Officer Thompson has set an excellent example of keenness, efficiency and skill.’ M.I.D. London Gazette 8.6.1944 Flight Lieutenant P. D. Thompson, D.F.C. (84697), R.A.F.V.R. Group Captain Peter Douglas Thompson, D.F.C., A.E., was born in East Ham, London, 7.9.1920, and was educated at East Ham Grammar School for Boys. His father having served with the Royal Flying Corps during the Great War, Thompson decided at the time of the Munich Crisis in 1938 to enlist in the reserve forces and, ‘with an aversion to mud and not being a strong swimmer’, decided to join the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, to which he was called up on the outbreak of hostilities in September 1939.

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THE BENTLEY PRIORY BATTLE OF BRITAIN TRUST APPEAL CHARITY AUCTION the leg, 6.5.1941, when his Hurricane was shot up by a Me.109: ‘Myself Badly Shot Up, 3 109s Shot Down’ (Recipient’s Log Book refers), he went on to claim a shared Z.1007bis on the 25th July with Sergeant Forth, the latter stating in his combat report that he saw pieces fall away from the enemy aircraft after Thompson attacked it, while another squadron pilot saw the aircraft fall burning into the sea 20 miles off Malta. Having then claimed a Macchi 200 confirmed on the 26th July, he shared in a S-79 on the 27th July, and ended the year with a probable Me.109 on the 29th December: ‘Mix up with 6 Me.109s. I confirmed destroyed. Shot up by A.A. and landed on one wheel’ (ibid). Promoted Flying Officer, 24.8.1941, Thompson had a more serious encounter with the enemy at the start of 1942, when, on the 25th January, after having damaged a Ju.88, he was jumped by three Me.109s: ‘Wing was split up at 18,000 feet by 12 Me.109s. On my own at 15,000 feet. Spotted 4 Ju.88s over Hal Far. Attacked and probably destroyed one. Was attacked by 3 Me.109s. Engine Packed up at 3,000 feet. Tried to force land but caught fire at 500 feet and baled out. Hit ground with a hell of a bump!!!’ (ibid). Admitted to Tarfa Hospital with shrapnel wounds, where, on the 30th January, he learnt of the award of his D.F.C., he was discharged at the beginning of February and evacuated to Egypt.

Group Captain P.D. Thompson, by Cuthbert Orde The Battle of Britain Commissioned Pilot Officer, Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, 24.8.1940, Thompson was posted to No. 32 Squadron (Hurricanes), based at Acklington, in September 1940, where he undertook his first operational sorties, before moving south to No. 605 Squadron (Hurricanes) at Croydon early in the following month, where he first came into contact with the Luftwaffe. Under the command of Squadron Leader C. R. “Gerry” Edge, D.F.C., No. 605 Squadron patrolled on a daily basis over Kent and Surrey at the height of the Battle. On the 20th October Thompson damaging a Me.109 southeast of Ashford, before returning to base with a badly shot up propeller. He next damaged two more Me.109s in combats over Faversham and Folkestone on the 1st and 13th November, and gained a Do. 17 probable off Orfedness, 26.3.1941. Embarking for Malta in H.M.S. Ark Royal in the following month, his flying log book recorded a tally of ‘three and a half destroyed, three probables and three damaged’ at this time. Malta 1941-42 Piloting one of 24 Hurricanes that took off from Ark Royal, 27.4.1941, to provide desperately needed additional fighter cover for Valletta harbour, Thompson was posted to No. 261 Squadron after his arrival at Hal Far but, a few days later, he transferred to No. 185 Squadron (Hurricanes) under Squadron Leader P. W. “Boy” Mould, the commencement of a protracted period of active service in which he flew well in excess of 150 sorties, the majority in the immediate defence of the island, but others, too, on offensive sweeps against Sicily and Italy. Slightly wounded by a shell splinter in

Third and Fourth Operational Tours Having served as an instructor at an Operational Training Unit (O.T.U.), Thompson embarked on a lengthy period as a test pilot on Kittyhawks and Tomahawks in Ismailia, following which, in March 1943, he returned to an operational footing as a Flight Commander with No. 601 Squadron (Spitfires) in the Western Desert, and completed at least another 30 operational sorties - largely as escort to Kittyhawk and Bostons units, before sustaining burns on crashing on take-off on the 26th April: ‘Crashed taking off at Mellaha!! A trifle burnt.’ (ibid). Returning to the Squadron three months later, now based at Lentini West in Italy, his first flight back was a ‘Shopping expedition to Malta’ (ibid), before completing another 50 operational sorties by the end of the year, many of which were long range straffes, and on the 3rd November he was credited with destroying a brace of S-79s on the ground at Ancona airfield: ‘Ancona Aerodromeself 2 SM.79s Destroyed’ (ibid). Returning to the United Kingdom, Thompson attended a course at the Fighter Leader School at Milfield and on one occasion a week after D-Day flew a Spitfire IX as escort in a strike by 220 Lancasters on Le Havre: ‘Terrific Bombing’ (ibid). In July 1944, with nearly 600 hours operational flying under his wing, Thompson was appointed to the command of No. 129 (Mysore) Squadron (Mustangs), operating out of Brenzett, a command that required him keeping the Maharajah of Mysore abreast of the unit’s activities, the latter having paid for 18 Spitfires when No. 129 Squadron was formed. This, his fourth operational tour, commenced with a flurry of “Diver Patrols” (anti-V-weapon sorties), in which he claimed three as destroyed and two more as shared. He also flew “Ranger” operations over occupied France: ‘Paris looked just the same!!’ (ibid), and in support of the Arnhem operations in September: ‘Escort 1st Airborne Army. AntiFlak for Gliders but Hun Gunners kept very quiet. Thousands of A/C- Magnificent!!...Dropping supplies to Paratroopers at Arnhem. Filthy weather...Bombing Arnhem. Big dog fight with 50+ Fw.190s and Me.109s’ (ibid). Thompson married Miss Marie-Kathleen Allman, 2.12.1944, and after a brief honeymoon in Sussex was back to escorting Lancasters on bombing raids over Germany, as the Allied advance into North-West Europe continued apace, right up until his participation in the Rhine crossing in March 1945, by which stage he had added over 60 more sorties to his wartime tally, had amassed over 760 hours of operational flying, and been mentioned in despatches.

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Biggin Hill and the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight Awarded the Air Efficiency Award, 24.1.1946, Thompson was granted a regular commission in the Royal Air Force after the War and was advanced to substantive Squadron Leader, 1.1.1949, commanding No. 81 Squadron from January 1949 to September 1951. On advancement to Wing Commander, 1.7.1956, he was appointed Station Commander of RAF Biggin Hill, probably the most famous Battle of Britain aerodrome of all. Here, appropriately enough for a veteran of the Battle, he envisaged and formed the nucleus of what became the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight, part of which was collected when, on the 11th July, 1957, he flew in the farewell flight, along with Group Captains Johnnie Johnson

and Jamie Rankin, from Duxford to Biggin Hill, the last three Spitfires in first line RAF service. As he wrote many years later, ‘I did have a hand in collecting the aircraft that in due time formed the nucleus of what is now the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight’ (Foreword to the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight brochure 1999 refers). Today, based at RAF Coningsby, the flight operates six aircraft types, and is famous the world over. Thompson’s last appointment was as Air Attaché at the British Embassy in Lima, Peru, and, having learned Spanish as part of this assignment, he settled with his family in Menorca on his retirement with the rank of Group Captain, 7.9.1975. He died on the 2nd March 2003, aged 82.

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14 A Second War 1945 ‘Bomber Command’ Lysander and Lancaster Air Gunner’s D.F.C. Group of Five to Warrant Officer H. Dutton, Royal Air Force, Who Flew in At Least 44 Operational Sorties, Many of Them Over Heavily-Defended German Targets, And Shot Down an Me.109 During a Daylight Raid Over Essen, 18.7.1842 a) Distinguished Flying Cross, G.VI.R., reverse officially dated ‘1943’, and contemporarily engraved in upright sans-serif capitals ‘534538 Warrant Officer Harry Dutton Bomber Command R.A.F.’ b) 1939-1945 Star c) Air Crew Europe Star, with France and Germany bar d) Defence and War Medals, good very fine, with the following related items: - D.F.C. Royal Mint case of issue, together with Central Chancery letter regarding the investiture, dated 11.6.1945, and two Buckingham Palace investiture tickets, dated 22.6.1945 - Card box of issue for the Second War awards, addressed to H. Dutton, Esq., D.F.C., 30, Wagg’s Road, Congleton, Cheshire - R.A.F. Observer’s and Air Gunner’s Flying Log Book, covering the period 2.3.194126.7.1944 - The recipient’s unofficial Flying Log, covering the period 27.7.1940-31.5.1942, the inside cover inscribed ‘Previous Log Book commencing October 1937 and containing over 450 flying hours was lost in fire at Bekesbourne Aerodrome, Kent on 25th May 1940’ - R.A.F. Service and Release Book, and Identity Card - The recipient’s Permanent Passes to RAF Manby and Waddington; and Royal Air Force Pocket Book 1932 - Framed and glazed group photograph of the Aircrews of the 44th (Rhodesia) Heavy Bomber Squadron, Royal Air Force, in front of a Lancaster Bomber, taken August 1942 - Various photographs of the recipient, including one of him outside Buckingham Palace having received his D.F.C. (lot) £1,600-2,000

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Warrant Officer H. Dutton, outside Buckingham Palace having received his D.F.C., 22.6.1945

D.F.C. London Gazette 14.9.1943 Warrant Officer Harry Dutton (534538), Royal Air Force, No. 44 Squadron. The Recommendation states: ‘This Warrant Officer has completed two tours of operational duty involving more than 300 flying hours. During his second tour he has attacked targets such as Bremen, Essen, and Cologne and has encountered much intense opposition. Warrant Officer Dutton has, at all times, displayed great keenness and efficiency setting a fine example to the other air gunners of the Squadron.’

Essen, 1.6.1942; others sorties including: Bordeaux; Bremen (3), including 1000 Bomber Raid, 25.6.1942; his first Daylight raid was again over Essen, 18.7.1942: ‘Attacked by Me.109s. 1 E.A. claimed as probable, Sgt. Newton rear gunner wounded, & rear turret u/s; 2nd E.A. damaged’ (recipient’s log book refers); Duisburg (3); Hamberg (3); Saarbrucken; Dusseldorf (3); Osnabruck (2), including 17.8.1942: ‘Attacked by Me.110’; Mainz; Frankfurt (2); Nuremberg; Cologne; St. Nazaire; he completed his tour with operations over Berlin, 1.3.1943, and the Krupp’s Works at Essen, 5.3.1943, and was awarded the D.F.C.; after undergoing a Wellington conversion course, April to August, 1943, served as an Instructor with No. 1661 Conversion Unit; returned to operational flying with No. 61 Squadron (Lancasters), Skellingthorpe, 21.6.1944, and flew in 13 sorties, including Gelsencerchen; Culmont-Chalindrey, 12.7.1944 ‘Combat with Ju.88’; Caen (Daylight); Thiverney (Daylight), 19.7.1944 ‘Damaged by flak’; and St. Cer, Paris (Daylight); discharged, 13.11.1945. Dutton’s home town of Congleton produced one Victoria Cross recipient during the Second World War, Company Sergeant Major G.H. Eardley, V.C., M.M., King’s Shropshire Light Infantry. Meeting him after the War, Dutton asked him to sign his Log Book, and his signature appears under that of Dutton’s former C.O. and fellow V.C. recipient, Wing Commander Roderick Learoyd, V.C.

534538 Warrant Officer Harry Dutton, D.F.C., born Congleton, Cheshire, 7.7.1912; enlisted in the Royal Air Force, 7.9.1936; served during the Second War with No. 2 (Army Co-operation) Squadron (Lysanders), and took part in his first operational sortie in October 1939; soon after the outbreak of the War No. 2 Squadron moved to France as part of the British Expeditionary Force’s Air Component; the Lysanders spotted for the Artillery and bombed front line positions and troop concentrations- No.2 Squadron stayed in France until the Dunkirk evacuation. Having completed his first operational tour transferred to No. 44 (Rhodesia) Squadron (Lancasters), Waddington, under the Command of Wing Commander Roderick Learoyd, V.C., February 1942; flew in at least 31 operational sorties with the Squadron, his first action being taking part in the 1000 Bomber Raid over

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15 15 A Good 1944 ‘Immediate’ Coastal Command Beaufighter Pilot’s D.F.C. Group of Five to Squadron Leader M.H. Exton, Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, His Aircraft Was Hit and Turned Upside-Down Whilst Flying on an Anti-Shipping Strike To Egero, 9.10.1944, ‘By Sheer Strength and Throttle Manipulation He Managed to Right The Aircraft And Carried Through the Attack, Scoring A Torpedo Hit on One of the Merchant Vessels. He Then Flew His Badly Crippled Aircraft Back To Base, And Made a Successful Landing’ a) Distinguished Flying Cross, G.VI.R., reverse officially dated ‘1944’ b) 1939-1945 Star c) Atlantic Star, with copy France and Germany Bar d) Defence and War Medals, traces of lacquer, very fine, with the following related items: - D.F.C. Royal Mint case of issue - The recipient’s related miniature awards; badge; RAF wings; and various buttons - (2) R.A.F. Pilot’s Flying Log Books, covering the periods 11.12.1941-12.9.1942 and 26.11.1942-28.3.1958 respectively - The recipient’s Memoirs - Three photograph albums, covering the period 1941-1949 - The recipient’s Ray Ban sunglasses - Various newspaper articles (lot) £2,400-2,800 D.F.C. London Gazette 28.11.1944 Flying Officer Maurice Herbert Exton (133665), R.A.F.V.R., 144 Sqn. The Recommendation, dated 11.10.1944, states: ‘Flying Officer Exton was flying No.2 to the leader of the torpedo force of four aircraft in the attack on an enemy convoy of five merchant vessels and five escort vessels off Egero on the 9th October 1944. Owing to the small size of the anti-flak force, many guns on the escort and merchant vessels were not silenced, with the result that all the torpedo aircraft met intense and accurate heavy and light flak on the run in. Flying Officer Exton’s aircraft was hit by an explosive shell in the port wing, doing considerable damage and jamming the port aileron down, causing the aircraft to roll over the vertical. By sheer strength Flying Officer Exton managed to right the aircraft, which by this time was almost unmanageable. In spite of this and not knowing how much longer his aircraft would stay in the air, he flew on, lined up a merchant vessel in his sight, and, when flying straight and level, released his torpedo. His aircraft was again coming out from attack. By brilliant airmanship and dogged determination, Flying Officer Exton brought his badly crippled aircraft back to base, a distance of over three hundred miles. He displayed courage and devotion to duty worth of the highest praise.’ Remarks by Station Commander: ‘Flying Officer Exton has at all times displayed great gallantry and fine airmanship. On this particular occasion his aircraft was hit and turned upside down by the jamming of the ailerons. By sheer strength and throttle manipulation he managed to right the aircraft and carried through the attack, scoring a torpedo hit on one of the merchant vessels. He then flew his badly crippled aircraft back to base, and made a successful landing. Strongly recommend for the Immediate award of the Distinguished Flying Cross.’ Remarks of Air Officer Commanding: ‘A courageous and determined attack pressed home in spite of severe damage to his aircraft. Strongly recommended.’

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Squadron Leader M.H. Exton Flying Officer Maurice Herbert Exton, D.F.C., born and grew up in Sydney, New South Wales; enlisted in the Royal Air Force, 11.8.1941; after initial training including at Camp Borden, Ontario, was Commissioned Pilot Officer, Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, 6.10.1942; promoted Flying Officer, 6.5.1943, and posted to No. 301 Ferry Training Unit, RAF Lyneham, September 1943, and flew in 8 operational Ferry Flights (Beauforts, Dakotas, and Beaufighters) with various Ferry Units up until April 1944, when he was posted to No. 132 O.T.U., East Fortune; posted to No.144 Squadron (Beaufighters), Strubby, 4.8.1944, for operational flying with Coastal Command, and flew his first operational sortie with his new Squadron four days later- a reconnaissance trip over the Frisian Islands. Flying mainly patrols and anti-shipping operations his first strike with the enemy came over Stonge Fjord, 19.9.1944: ‘Patrolled Utvaer-Bremanger and back before sighting. 144 went in first. Targets were trawler and two supply ships northbound and one ship just outside the fjord southbound. Self attacked 1400 ton “Lynx”. Obtained cannon hits amid ships: “Lynx” later went aground. Other ships left burning. Moderate amount of accurate heavy flak from shore batteries’ (Log Book refers). His next major action occurred near Egero, 9.10.1944: ‘Took off in darkness at 05:00hrs and formed up at first light 10 miles off Utsire...Carried fish and went in on attack on convoy just north of Egero. 5 Merchant

Vessels of 5,000 tons, 3 of 1,500 tons, and a Dutch coaster; 5 Enemy Vessels including 2 “M” Class types but slightly larger. Terrific flak from every ship, own aircraft hit by heavy flak in port wing leading edge, port wing and fuselage by heavy machine gun fire, and elevator and tail plane by 20mm shell. Flipped almost on back- deuce of a job getting back. Claims: 2 Merchant Vessels sunk by torpedoes, 1 escort by anti flak, and 1 large Merchant Vessel left well afire. Final assessment: 4 ships sunk altogether’ (ibid). For this action Exton was awarded an Immediate D.F.C. Promoted Flight Lieutenant, 6.11.1944, continued to fly Rover Patrols over Scandanavia, before taking a torpedo refresher course at Turnberry, December 1944; returning to the Squadron for operational flying in the New Year; his final operational sortie of the War was over the Vadheim Fjord, 6.4.1945: ‘Went on sighting mistook landfall at Utvaer and went north to Gulens then south at 7,000 feet to target- 3 Merchant Vessels, 1 Enemy Vessel- very steep dive could not let RP go. Cannon attack only. Led force northwards towards bandits. Mustang escort claimed two destroyed probable. Results of attack: 2,500 tons of Merchant Vessels left burning, 1,500 tons damaged. Tug (own target) slightly damaged’ (ibid). After the War Exton remained in the Royal Air Force and by 1949 was serving with No.13 Squadron based at Fayid on the Suez Canal. Promoted Squadron Leader, 1.1.1952, he retired 3.5.1959.

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16 16 A Superb and Well Documented Second War Polish Cross of Valour and Two Bars, 1944 ‘Fighter Reconnaissance’ Spitfire Pilot’s D.F.C. Group of Ten to Flight Lieutenant M.S. Andruszko, Polish Air Force, A Veteran of 3 Air Forces on 3 Different Continents, He Was Shot Down Twice and Had Many Near Misses a) Poland, Republic, Cross of Valour, with Second and Third Award Bars b) Distinguished Flying Cross, G.VI.R., reverse officially dated ‘1945’ c) Poland, Republic, Air Force Active Service Medal d) 1939-1945 Star e) Africa Star, with North Africa 1942-43 Bar f) Italy Star g) Defence and War Medals h) France, Republic, Combattant’s Cross i) France, Republic, War Medal, no clasp, generally good very fine, with the following related original items and documents: - Three Polish Flying Badges, R.A.F. Cloth Wings, riband bar - Royal Air Force Pilot’s Flying Log Book (covering the period 28.9.19404.2.1946) - Certificate for the award of the Cross of Valour - Certificate for the award of the Air Force Medal for Active Service - R.A.F. confirmation of the award of British Campaign Medals to recipient - R.A.F. Officer’s Medical Record Card; named Inoculation Certificate - Discharge Certificate from the Armee de L’Air, dated 9.5.1945 - Various photographs of recipient from various stages of military career - Recipient’s hand written manuscript notes of his service life and brief experiences whilst serving with the Polish Air Force in Poland, the French Armee de L’Air and the Polish Air Force, Great Britain; and an extensive and comprehensive file of research (lot) £4,000-4,500

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Flight Lieutenant M.S. Andruszko D.F.C. Approved 20.2.1945 P.1199 Flight Lieutenant Michal Stanislaw Andruszko, No. 318 (Polish) Squadron. The Recommendation, dated 26.11.1944, states: ‘Flight Lieutenant Andruszko commenced his operational tour on 6.5.1944, and completed it in October, 1944, after doing 99 sorties in 151.25 operational hours. During this period, he proved to be a most efficient Tac/R pilot who always displayed great determination and set an excellent example to all who flew with him. On 19.7.1944, during a Tac/R mission IESI area, he observed some horse-drawn transport moving along a road. Diving low in the face of intense and accurate anti-aircraft fire, he attacked and, although hit, he successfully continued his reconnaissance from low altitude. Eventually, he had to make a forced landing just inside our lines and received head and arm injuries which necessitated his removal to hospital. On 18.8.1944, soon after discharge, Flt. Lieut. Andruszko undertook a detailed and difficult Tac/R in the Fano area. In order to obtain accurate observation, he came down to 4,000 feet in the face of anti-aircraft fire which holed his petrol system. Even so, he completed his mission and returned to base with valuable information. Ten days later, on 28.8.1944, he undertook an artillery recce in the area south of Pesaro. Encountering constant anti-aircraft fire at all heights, his task became extremely difficult but, displaying keenness and determination he repeatedly climbed to 8,000 feet and dived down to within a few hundred feet of the ground to observe the strikes of our artillery. In this way, the three targets given him were soon occupied. Later, he discovered two more targets in the same area and, directing fire with skill and precision, all five targets were destroyed in spite of difficult conditions. During 30 sorties undertaken in the face of light and heavy anti-aircraft fire, Flt. Lieut. Andruszko displayed great courage and devotion to duty and obtained a great deal of information of real importance. For such consistently good work, I strongly recommend that he be granted the non-immediate award of the Distinguished Flying Cross.’ Flight Lieutenant Michal Stanislaw Andruszko, D.F.C., born Wolkowysk, Poland, 1917; after leaving school he undertook compulsory Military Service in the Polish Army, from June 1936; whilst at Cadet Officers’ School he volunteered for transfer to the Polish Air Force and was posted for a three year course as an Officer Cadet to the Aviation Training Centre at Deblin, December 1936; towards the end of his three years he also completed a Fighter Pilot Course, June-July 1939; commissioned Second Lieutenant III/5th Air Force Regiment, Eskadra 151, 1.8.1939; on the invasion of Poland, 1.9.1939, Eskadra 151 was sent to

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THE BENTLEY PRIORY BATTLE OF BRITAIN TRUST APPEAL CHARITY AUCTION the front; Andruszko’s Eskadra consisted of 10 PZL7a aircraft, commanded by Lieutenant Jozef Brzezinski; the Eskadra moved very quickly from base to base until leaving Poland for Romania at the end of September; Andruszko offers the following insight, ‘On my first operational flight there was a large German bomber passing. Excitedly I followed to his tail, pressed the trigger. After two or three rounds both machine guns jammed. Another day on reconnaissance flight watching a German troop concentration, a shell burst in front and gashed the petrol tank. I made myself ready to parachute out but had to get away from that lot as far as possible. The aircraft was trimmed a bit nose heavy. Holding the map in my left hand I left the stick to turn on the emergency fuel tank. The plane went down and I was left floating in the air. Maybe just as well. I would probably attempt to crash land and with a fixed undercarriage that could have been fatal. I landed on the other side of the river amongst some Polish units torn to pieces. My road back to the unit was on the other side of the river, so I grabbed a horse and let him carry me across the river. At the first village I traded him for a bicycle. A lorry heading in my direction picked me up. Arriving at the destination in the dark I heard my name called. It was the very last lorry leaving’; faced with overwhelming odds of 4 to 1 aircraft against, Polish Air Force Personnel were evacuated to either Romania or Hungary having lost 90% of their operational aircraft in action; here Andruszko was interned in camps before being able to leave Romania for Lyon the following month; in France the Polish Government and Polish Armed Forces had reformed under General Sikorski; Andruszko was drafted as Navigator into the French Armee de L’Air at the start of 1940 and was stationed at the Base Aerienne de Toulouse; he was not impressed, ‘in charge of a tiny detachment I was posted for the air defence of Toulouse. There were two or three aircraft, more obsolete than the Polish, that had never seen a pop gun near them, never mind armaments’; he did not have to wait long for a move, however, as France fell shortly after his posting, ‘Soon it was evacuation again. A lot of us gathered at the small port in the south (Port Vendres). Amongst all that lot was the ex Commander of the Polish Air Force. Somehow, he secured a passage on a French merchant ship. He could take two of us as adjutants, but lots had to be drawn. A friend of mine and myself were lucky. We landed in North Africa (Oran)’; from Oran the Polish Airmen went to Casablanca and from there in spite of torpedo and air attacks the convoy reached Britain; upon arrival Andruszko was posted as a Pilot Officer to the Ground Training Centre of the Polish Air Force, Blackpool, ‘Soon we were under the wings of the Royal Air Force. A wonderful, caring service in which I was proud to serve’; posted to No 15 FTS, Carlisle, 26.9.1940 and undertook further training at O.T.U. Aston Down and at I.T.S. Hucknall before being posted for operational service as Pilot with Transport Command to 271 Squadron (Harrows), Doncaster, 14.5.1941; the squadron was primarily tasked with moving men and equipment of Fighter Squadrons from station to station; posted to No 13 F.T.U., Lyneham, April-May 1942, before being posted as part of a Polish Detachment to No 1 Aircraft Delivery Unit, Middle East, July 1942; this unit was responsible for ferrying aircraft from Takoradi on the Ivory Coast of West Africa to airfields near Cairo; this was the main route for reinforcing the Middle East - aircraft would arrive via the sea terminal at Takoradi, be unshipped and assembled and then flown 4,000 miles across Africa; Andruszko comments, ‘A number of us were sent to an Aircraft Delivery Unit.... Africa was nice. Flying was exciting across jungles and deserts. We had casualties. Some went down in the jungles, some died in the deserts’; as Andruszko’s Log Book shows, he flew in a vast assortment of aircraft during this posting, including Hurricanes, Beaufighters, Hudsons, and Falcons; posted to No. 3 A.D.U., Casablanca, Morocco, 3.5.1943; serving with this unit until 21.1.1944, he added Spitfires to his collection; undertook an artillery course and was posted to 74 O.T.U., Petah Tiqva, Palestine, February 1944, in preparation for a posting to an operational Fighter/Reconnaissance Squadron in Italy; posted to 318 (Gdansk) Fighter Reconnaissance Squadron, (Spitfires) Quassassin, Egypt, 4.4.1944, and flew with the squadron to Madna, Italy; his first operational sortie with the squadron was 6.5.1944, in support of the British 8th Army’s drive into Central Italy; he was shortly to be transferred in the same capacity to 225 Fighter Reconnaissance Squadron, Lago; he flew in 25 sorties with the latter before returning to 318 Squadron, Trigno, June 1944; he recommenced Artillery Recce and Photo/Tactical Recce sorties; by 11.10.1944 he had completed 99 such sorties; promoted Flight Commander, August 1944, ‘our main duty was co-operation with the Army Reconnaissance, Artillery Direction or Photo. There were plenty of targets on the ground. The Spitfire was well armed, so I never brought the ammunition back to base... On one of the assignment flights I saw a German staff car coming on a rather exposed road. It got the taste of four machine guns and two cannon (next day it was reported that the General commanding that Sector was killed). As I pulled out the artillery shell hit me. Miraculously it hit the thick under carriage bar and exploded there. Splinters tore up the oil tank. Being deadly scared of prison camp I headed towards our lines. The engine was getting red hot and grinding. Had to switch it off - too late to parachute out - nowhere to land, only hills and mountains. First slope of a hill had to do - hit the mound of earth, somersaulted and ploughed on the back the rest of the way. Apart from the cockpit handle buried in my left arm and a few pebbles in the skull I was ok, hanging upside down on the straps and trapped’; with the end of his operational tour Andruszko returned to the UK, and was posted on a refresher course to 286 Squadron, Western Zoyland, Somerset; he completed the course, 19.3.1945, and after two more training courses was posted to India, 11.9.1945, and on to No 36 Staging Post, Ferry Flight, ‘One day I delivered an aircraft to the Maharaja of Jodhpur. I boarded the passenger collecting Dakota due for New Delhi. I don’t know how but somehow the pilot missed the message that New Delhi Airfield was closed. We were approaching to land, I happened to look out of the window, there were cyclists and a car heading towards us. Suddenly the engines revved up wildly, big bang, and we were in the air again. The pilot had mistaken the broad, well lit avenue for a runway. With the wing half sheared off we landed at the next airfield.’ Andruszko returned to the UK in February 1946, and was finally released from the Polish Air Force on 3.12.1946, after having served a total of 10 years, spanning service in the Polish Air Force, the French Armee de l’Air and the Polish Air Force, Great Britain. Tragically in 1987, a year after the death of his wife, Michal Stanislaw Andruszko was found drowned in a river near his home in Bungay, Suffolk.

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Captain W.A. Shirlaw

17 The Great War A.F.C. Group of Three to Elephant Fighter Bomber Pilot Captain W.A. Shirlaw, Royal Flying Corps, Late Highland Light Infantry a) Air Force Cross, G.V.R., unnamed as issued b) British War and Victory Medals, M.I.D. Oak Leaves (Lieut. W.A. Shirlaw. R.F.C.), the last two partially officially reimpressed, extremely fine, with the following related items: - A.F.C. John Pinches, London, case of issue - The recipient’s related miniature awards, in Spink, London, case - Commission appointing William Allan Shirlaw a Captain in the Royal Air Force, dated 1.12.1918 - The recipient’s British Empire Aviator’s Certificate - Silver presentation cigarette case (Hallmarks for Birmingham 1917), R.F.C. crest on front, and inscribed ‘From A Flight 18th T.S. to their Flight Commander Capn. Allan Shirlaw Xmas 1917’ - Silver lighter casing, inscribed ‘WAS’ - Silver identity bracelet, the obverse engraved ‘W. Allan Shirlaw, R.F.C. Pres.’, the reverse suggestively engraved ‘Ethel’ - Section of windscreen from the recipient’s Avro - The recipient’s Kodak camera, in leather carry case - The recipient’s Apollo binoculars, in leather carry case - The recipient’s King James Bible - Rosary beads and crucifix - Two family photograph albums, one compiled by the recipient, and one compiled by the recipient’s wife - A collection of wartime photographs showing H.M. The King touring the country - A large number of portrait photographs of the recipient (lot) £1,200-1,600 A.F.C. London Gazette 3.6.1919 Capt. William Allan Shirlaw (H.L.I., T.F.) ‘In recognition of distinguished services rendered during the war’ Captain William Allan Shirlaw, A.F.C., born Glasgow, May 1895, and educated at Allan Glen’s School, Glasgow; after school he served as an apprentice locomotive engineer with the Glasgow and South Western Railway Company, Kilmarnock; Commissioned Second Lieutenant, 8th (Lanark) Battalion, Highland Light Infantry, 25.11.1914; promoted Lieutenant, 1.6.1916; seconded for duty with the Royal Flying Corps and appointed Flying Officer, 29.7.1916; served with the British Expeditionary Force from July 1916, attached to No. 27 Squadron (Martinsyde Elephants), Fienvillers, France, and flew over 200 hours in the skies above the fighting area: ‘On one occasion, at a height of 5,000 feet, he had his engine shot clean through, and fortunately was able to land in the barbed wire in front of a French trench. On another occasion, after a running fight of forty minutes, having managed to rid himself of his opponents, he was forced to find a suitable landing place, and on reaching the ground was promptly taken prisoner, but fortunately for him it was by a very aged French Sergeant.’ (The recipient’s obituary, in Beardmore News, refers). Promoted Flight Commander, with the temporary rank of Captain, 13.8.1917, he returned to the U.K. and commanded ‘A’ Group Flight, No.2 Training Depot Station, Chester, training up Scout pilots; following the end of the War he was appointed Second-in-Command, RAF Montrose, before retiring from the Royal Air Force, 7.6.1919. Captain Shirlaw married Miss Florence Barnes, 20.8.1919, and died 15.12.1926.

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18 18 An Early 1940 Second War ‘Bomb Disposal’ G.M. Group of Four to Sergeant K. Lythgoe, Royal Air Force a) George Medal, G.VI.R. (515738. Sergt. Kenneth Lythgoe, R.A.F.) b) 1939-1945 Star c) Defence and War Medals, extremely fine, with the following related documents &c.: - Central Chancery letter regarding the investiture of the G.M., dated 12.5.1941 - Nine photographs of the recipient, including one group photograph (lot) £4,000-5,000

be too badly damaged to be extracted, so the bomb was removed to a safe place and destroyed. In all, nine bombs have been handled by this party, all of whom, and especially these three airmen, have faced constant danger with the utmost courage.’ 515738 Sergeant Kenneth Lythgoe, G.M., born Wolverhampton, 4.12.1910; served during the Second World War with the Royal Air Force as part of their Bomb Disposal unit, based at Upper Heyford, Oxfordshire; died 1981.

G.M. London Gazette 21.1.1941 515738 Sergeant Kenneth Lythgoe [in a joint citation with 1300504 Aircraftman 2nd Class Richard Nicholson and 998918 Aircraftman 2nd Class Arthur Simpson] ‘These airmen, as members of a demolition party, have handled enemy bombs with great courage and disregard for their personal safety, on various dates during July, August, and September, 1940.’ The joint Recommendation states: ‘These airmen, as members of a demolition party, have handled and rendered harmless enemy bombs, with great courage and disregard for their personal safety, on various dates during July, August, and September. This has frequently necessitated long and difficult digging. Once they had to dig for eight days to a depth of 40 feet to expose the top of a bomb which they exploded in situ. On another occasion they dug 7 feet down to an unexploded bomb near a cottage. When the bomb was withdrawn by the demolition van, driven by Sergeant Lythgoe, it was found to be fitted with a type of fuse which they had been instructed not to remove. As the bomb could not be transported in the van, owing to the roughness of the ground, Aircraftmen Nicholson and Simpson carried it some five or six hundred yards to a suitable place for demolition. When a third bomb had been excavated with such difficulty, and withdrawn by towing cable and van, its fuse was found to

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19 A Rare Second War Bomber Command D.F.M., A.F.M. Group of Seven to Manchester and Lancaster Air Gunner/ Wireless Operator Flight Sergeant later Flight Lieutenant E. Preston, No. 97 Squadron, Who Took Part in the 1st (Cologne), the 2nd (Essen), and the 3rd (Bremen) 1000 Bomber Raids; the Trondheim Fjord Low Level Attack on the Tirpitz and Other Warships 1942; and Anti-Terrorist Sorties over Malaya a) Distinguished Flying Medal, G.VI.R. (1057166. F/Sgt. E. Preston. R.A.F.) b) Air Force Medal, G.VI.R. (1057466. F/Sgt. E. Preston. R.A.F.) c) 1939-1945 Star d) Air Crew Europe Star e) Defence and War Medals f) General Service Medal 1918-62, G.VI.R., one clasp, Malaya (Fg. Off. E. Preston. R.A.F.), very fine and extremely rare, one of only seventeen D.F.M., A.F.M. combinations ever awarded, with the following documents &c.: - R.A.F. Observer’s and Air Gunner’s Flying Log Book, covering the period 25.2.1941-31.10.1952 - R.A.F. Flying Log Book for Navigators, Air Bombers, Air Gunners, and Flight Engineers, covering the period 23.2.19539.9.1957 - Letter to the recipient from the Parliamentary Under Secretary of State, Air Ministry, on the occasion of the recipient’s retirement, dated 22.4.1963 - Various photographs and newspaper cuttings featuring the recipient (lot) £6,000-8,000

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Flight Lieutenant E. Preston

D.F.M. London Gazette 11.6.1943 1057466 Flight Sergeant Ewart Preston 97 Squadron. The Recommendation, dated 15.4.1943, states: ‘This N.C.O. has taken part as a Wireless Operator/ Air Gunner in many successful attacks on the most heavily defended German towns and on Italian and other objectives. On one occasion, he also attacked Brest in daylight. Flight Sergeant Preston’s coolness and courage have been an inspiration to all.’ A.F.M. London Gazette 1.1.1944 105466 Flight Sergeant Ewart Preston, D.F.M., No. 29 O.T.U. The Recommendation states: ‘This airman is an instructor in the Conversion Flight and has worked hard and set an example of outstanding devotion to duty at all times, and his keenness and enthusiasm are most praiseworthy. He is a Wireless Operator/ Air Gunner Instructor of first class ability who has been engaged on this work for over a year. Much of his flying has been spent instructing in circuits and landings and, for certain periods, he has been intensively employed on this important work. It is considered that this airman is most worthy of an award of the Air Force Medal for the contribution he has made in the training of new crews to continue the war effort.’

Flight Lieutenant Ewart Preston, D.F.M., A.F.M., was born in Nelson, Lancashire, 26.9.1915, and enlisted in the Royal Air Force in 1940. Posted to No. 97 (Straits Settlements) Squadron (Manchesters), Waddington, 15.10.1941, he converted to Lancasters with them when the Squadron moved to RAF Coningsby, and took part in 38 operational sorties with the Squadron including the attack on the Tirpitz and other German warships in Trondheim Fjord, 28.4.1942, when the force of 31 Halifaxes and 12 Lancasters each had to singly enter the narrow fjord, and once they had negotiated the gun emplacements, had to drop to 200 feet before releasing their cargo of specially adapted mines. Five aircraft were lost in the raid (The Bomber Command War Diaries refer). He also participated in the first ‘Thousand Bomber Raid’ on Cologne, 31.5.1942; in the second on Essen, 2.6.1942; and in the third on Bremen 25.6.1942. Having completed his tour of 38 operations, 12.10.1942, and been promoted Flight Sergeant, Preston served for the remainder of the War as an Instructor with No. 29 O.T.U. Commissioned Pilot Officer, 14.8.1943, after the Second War he served in two operational tours in Malaya (1949-51 and 1955-57), during which he flew on anti-terrorist sorties (Lincolns) and on Army supply drops (Valettas). Promoted Flying Officer, 10.10.1949, and Flight Lieutenant, 8.5.1953, Preston retired, 14.5.1963, and died in September 1992. PROVENANCE:

Tavender Collection, Spink, April 2006

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20 A Good Beaufighter D.F.M. to Air Gunner Sergeant V.R. Marsh, No.105 Squadron, For His Courage in the Low Level Daylight Raid on Bremen Port, 7.7.1941, When All The Aircraft Were Hit and the Commander of His Squadron, Wing Commander Hughie Edwards, Was Awarded the V.C.; The Low Level Attack Nine Days Later on Rotterdam Docks which Damaged 22 Ships; And, When Operating from Luqa, Malta, The Lampedusa Harbour Raid, 1.8.1941, When His Aircraft Crashed, He Was Wounded, And Taken Prisoner by the Italians a) Distinguished Flying Medal, G.VI.R. (971254. Sgt. V.R. Marsh. R.A.F.) b) 1939-1945 Star c) Air Crew Europe Star d) Africa Star e) War Medal, extremely fine (5) ÂŁ3,000-3,500

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THE BENTLEY PRIORY BATTLE OF BRITAIN TRUST APPEAL CHARITY AUCTION D.F.M. London Gazette 23.12.1941 971254 Sergeant Vernon Richardson Marsh No. 105 Squadron. The Recommendation, dated 26.7.1941 states: ‘Sergeant Marsh has flown on some highly successful raids. Besides taking part in the daylight raid on Bremen on 4th July, 1941, when his aeroplane was considerably damaged by flak and in the daylight raid on the docks at Rotterdam where his crew obtained direct hits on a ship of 8,000 tons in the stocks, Sergeant Marsh has participated in attacks on four ships totalling 14,000 tons as follows: 16.5.1941 - M.V. of 2,500 tons off Norway. Two hits forward; 2.6.1941 - Collier of 1500 tons in Kiel Canal. Results unobserved; 7.7.1941 - M.V. of 4,000 tons in convoy off Ijmuiden. Three bombs believed hit; 19.7.1941 - M.V. of 6,000 tons in convoy off The Hague. Two hits amidships. During both the attacks on convoys, his aeroplane came under heavy fire. Throughout these operations, Sergeant Marsh has displayed great courage and coolness under fire, using his twin guns with good effect against the enemy and also obtaining some excellent photographs. His devotion to duty and marked display of the offensive spirit have been a most valuable asset to his squadron.’ Sergeant Vernon Richardson Marsh, D.F.M. (1920-90), born in Wigan; flew with 105 Squadron (Blenheims), Swanton Morley, Norfolk, 1941, in operations including: the Bomber raid led by Wing Commander Hughie Edwards over Bremen Port, 4.7.1941, ‘12 aircraft carried out a determined low-level raid on Bremen despite the lack of any cloud cover: 4 of them were shot down. For his leadership on this raid, Wing Commander Hughie Edwards, the Australian Commander of 105 Squadron, was awarded the Victoria Cross (The Bomber Command War Diaries, refer). This raid was undertaken at a height of little more than 50 feet at times, against one of the most heavily defended towns in Germany. Passing under high tension cables and carrying away telegraph wires, the Blenheims pressed on. All of the twelve aircraft were hit, and despite losing a third of their number, the remaining aircraft successfully carried home the attack. On 7.7.1941 Marsh was once again in a select group, as eleven aircraft attacked a convoy between Hague and Ijmuiden, ‘The convoy consisted of eight Merchant Vessels of 2000 to 4000 tons, escorted by four Flak ships and one “E” Boat. Two hits were registered on one 4000 tons Merchant Vessel and another 4000 tons Merchant Vessel received three direct hits, burst into flames and sank. One 2000/3000 ton Merchant Vessel was hit, causing an explosion and clouds of black and then white smoke amidships’ (Operations Records refers). The vessel that sank, received three direct hits from Marsh’s Blenhiem IV 6373, piloted by Pilot Officer Broadley. Nine days later Marsh took part, with a force of 36 Blenheims, in a low-level attack on shipping in the Rotterdam docks. Broadley and his crew, once again achieved direct hits, with Dutch reports giving twenty-two ships damaged as a result of this raid. Four Blenheims were shot down by intense flak. On the 25th July 1941 Marsh moved with a Detachment of 105 Squadron to Luqa, Malta (Blenheims), for targets in the Mediterranean and North Africa. Seven days after the move, three crews were detailed to attack Merchant Vessels in Lampedusa Harbour. Flight Lieutenant Broadley, with Marsh as his Air Gunner, led the attack, ‘although hit by A.A. in the starboard engine, he managed to drop his bombs on either two Merchant Vessels at which he was aiming or a Destroyer which was close to them for there was a cloud of smoke and ship’s debris was thrown into the air following the explosion of the hit, and Sergeant Bendall’s 500 lbs bombs. His aircraft was seen to fly away from the port under control but losing height very rapidly. It eventually dived nose first into the sea half a mile from the shore South East of the island. The crew got out of the aircraft and swam around with Mae Wests inflated for an hour before being picked up by an Italian rescue boat. All the crew of Blenheim IV Z9605, Flight Lieutenant Broadley, Pilot Officer A.S. Ramsay and Sergeant Marsh received wounds in the crash, Ramsay’s proving to be mortal. Marsh reported Ramsay’s last words to be, ‘I’m going, fellows. Cheerio and Good luck.’ (Letter from the Chairman of the Red Cross Society to Ramsay’s Mother, refers). The remaining two crew members were taken to hospital to have their wounds attended; three days later Marsh was released from hospital to be interned in an Italian prisoner of war camp, eventually being transferred to Germany where he spent the remainder of the war. Ramsay was awarded a posthumous D.F.C. PROVENANCE:

This lot has been donated in its entirety from the Collection of Lord Ashcroft, K.C.M.G.

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21 completing training posted for operational flying to No. 104 Squadron (Wellingtons), Driffield, April 1941; flew in at least 37 operational sorties including: Wilhelmshaven, 8.5.1941: ‘Only us on the target’ (Log Book refers); on a subsequent mission, 17.7.1941: ‘engaged 2 Me.109s over Frisian Islands. Claimed as probables’ (ibid), before the daylight attack on Brest Harbour, 24.7.1941: ‘Nine German fighters seen, hit by flak, returned safely’ (ibid). In August 1941 Williams took part in a raid on Dortmund, and had to contend with more than the usual flak: ‘Bombing successful. Struck by lightning on return. Fired on by British Navy. Hit in rear turret and port engine. Made forced landing at Cranwell. Port engine on fire. Missed death by two inches.’ (ibid). This was followed up by a night raid on Duisburg, 28.8.1941: ‘Encountered very heavy search light belts and held in two cones, came down to 2,500 feet in second cone and shot out three search lights, sprayed others, and all went out. Used all my ammo, and attacked by fighters’ (ibid). When returning from a raid over Brest, 3.9.1941, his Wellington’s port engine caught fire, and he crashed into a corn field near RAF Leeming, resulting in an extended stay in Harrogate Hospital. After a period of recuperation he moved with the Squadron to Malta, and operated out of Luqa, in raids over Italy and North Africa, including Tripoli, 22.10.1941 ‘After ships in the Harbour. Came down to 2000 feet. Good shooting at searchlights- think I got one. Sprayed ground troops. Saw them fall like flies’ (ibid); El Mallehah Aerodrome, 5.11.1941 ‘Diversion raid went in at 1,300 feet but came out damn smart through accurate light flak. Starboard engine stopped but Captain got it going again. Went down again gun straffing, made the rats sit up and think fired 2,000 rounds’ (ibid). Further sorties included operations over Naples, Benghazi, Castel Benito, and Tripoli, 26.12.1941: ‘ First stick of bombs seen to hit warehouse on Spanish mole starting big fire. Second stick fell alongside ship, must have hit it or very near miss. Best bombing trip ever been on. Saw Axis troops so had some fun. 1,000 Rounds, left lorries on fire’ (ibid). He completed his tour, 7.3.1942: ‘Now for Blighty and a rest’ (ibid). Subsequent Instructional postings included No. 1 A.A.S., RAF Manby, and No. 7 A.G.S., RAF Stormy Down. Commissioned Pilot Officer, Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, 17.2.1944, he was promoted Flying Officer, 17.8.1944, and following the end of the War was awarded the Air Efficiency Award, 23.5.1946. Promoted Flight Lieutenant, 26.9.1954, Williams relinquished his commission, 25.11.1960.

21 A Second War 1942 ‘Wellington Rear Gunner’s’ D.F.M. Group of Seven to Flight Sergeant, Later Flight Lieutenant, G. Williams, Royal Air Force, Who Shot a Me.109 Down Over the German Frisian Islands, 17.7.1941 a) Distinguished Flying Medal, G.VI.R. (818176. F/Sgt. G. Williams. R.A.F.) b) 1939-1945 Star c) Air Crew Europe Star d) Africa Star e) Defence and War Medals, M.I.D. Oak Leaf f) Air Efficiency Award, G.VI.R. (Plt. Off. G. Williams R.A.F.V.R.), nearly extremely fine or better, with the following related documents &c.: - (2) R.A.F. Observer’s and Air Gunner’s Flying Log Books, covering the periods 10.10.1940-3.9.1941 and 15.10.1941-26.4.1944 respectively - Air Council enclosure for the Second War awards - Buckingham Palace ticket for the Investiture of the recipient’s D.F.M., dated 15.12.1942 - A small and incomplete collection of Player’s Cigarettes Cards ‘Aircraft of the Royal Air Force’ (lot) £2,200-2,600 D.F.M. London Gazette 15.5.1942 818176 Flight Sergeant George Williams, Auxiliary Air Force, No. 104 Squadron. The Recommendation states: ‘This air gunner has taken part in 37 operational sorties. His devotion to duty is such that he has often volunteered to undertake sorties in the place of air gunners who have been sick. On one of these occasions, he shot down an enemy fighter which attempted to attack his aircraft after it had been damaged by anti-aircraft fire. In an attack on Brest, in daylight, Sergeant Williams rendered valuable assistance to his formation leader by giving accurate directions to evade numerous enemy fighters. Throughout his operational career this airman has displayed a high standard of morale. He has rendered excellent service to his squadron gunnery leader.’ Flight Lieutenant George Williams, D.F.M., A.E., enlisted in the Royal Air Force and whilst carrying out initial training with No. 15 O.T.U., Harwell, took part as a Wellington tail gunner in his first operational sortie, 17.1.1941, ‘Nickel Raid, Paris, Lille, Amien’; after

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22 A Good 1943 Bomber Command ‘Immediate’ D.F.M. to Lancaster Navigator Sergeant, Later Flight Lieutenant, L.C.A. Dowdell, Royal Air Force, For His Gallantry In Pressing Home A Raid Over Leipzig, 20.10.1943, and Subsequent Safe Return, Despite His Lancaster Having Been on Fire For Over Four Hours Distinguished Flying Medal, G.VI.R. (1395833. Sgt. L.C.A. Dowdell. R.A.F.), extremely fine, in named card box of issue, with the following related items: - City and Guilds of London Institute Technological Examination Prize Medal, the edge inscribed ‘Leslie Charles Andrew Dowdell, First Prize, Electrical Installation Work, Course C, 1954.’ - Postagram to the recipient from Air Chief Marshal Sir A.T. ‘Bomber’ Harris congratulating him on the award of his D.F.M., dated 30.10.1943 and signed ‘A.T. Harris’ - Letter to the recipient from Air Vice-Marshal E.A.B. Rice congratulating him on the award of his D.F.M. - Two newspaper cuttings regarding the incident for which Dowdell was awarded the D.F.M. - Eight group and individual photographs of the recipient £1,800-2,200 D.F.M. London Gazette 16.11.1943 1395833 Sergeant Leslie Charles Andrew Dowdell, Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, No. 100 Squadron [in a joint citation with Warrant Officer Claude Edward White (awarded the C.G.M.)] ‘One night in October, 1943, Warrant Officer White and Sergeant Dowdell were pilot and navigator respectively of an aircraft detailed to attack Leipzig. Soon after leaving the airfield, the intercommunication system became unserviceable, and later after crossing the enemy coast, one of the bomber’s engines became defective. Before the propeller could be feathered, the engine burst into flames. An extinguisher failed to put out the fire completely and it burned sufficiently bright to illuminate the fuselage and tailplane. In spite of this, Warrant Officer White flew on to the target and bombed it. On the homeward flight, Sergeant Dowdell displayed exceptional skill and resource and, in spite of great difficulties, unerringly guided his pilot to base. The defective engine was still alight when the airfield was reached but Warrant Officer White effected a masterly landing. As the bomber touched down the flames from the engine shot upwards and threatened to envelop the bomber but Warrant Officer White coolly ensured that his crew safely disembarked whilst he attended to the switches and petrol cocks. In serious circumstances, this gallant pilot displayed skill, coolness and tenacity which inspired all, while Sergeant Dowdell proved a valuable member of aircraft crew and supported his captain valiantly.’ The Recommendation, dated 21.10.1943, states: ‘On the night of the 20th-21st October 1943, Sergeant Dowdell was the Navigator of a heavy bomber which carried out a singularly resolute attack on Leipzig. When still well over 100 miles from the target, the port outer engine caught fire. In spite of such a misfortune, his inspiring influence was instrumental in pressing home an attack. On the return journey severe icing and electrical storms were again encountered but by careful and accurate D.R. navigation he maintained the track required. As the port outer engine was unserviceable and continually bursting into flames and thereby rendering his navigational equipment noneffective, he displayed unusual initiative and technical knowledge in connecting up leads to another source of supply, thus enabling him to have the full use of the equipment on the return journey. Sergeant Dowdell has continually shown the greatest interest and initiative in the technical aspects of his work and has proved of great value in training new crews in the use of special apparatus. He has now completed 25 successful sorties and it is recommended that such a fine record of achievement, combined with his enthusiasm and determination to inflict the maximum damage on the German centres of industry be recognised by the immediate award of the Distinguished Flying Medal.’

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September 6, 2012 - LONDON Remarks by Station Commander: ‘The outstanding initiative and resourcefulness displayed by Sergeant Dowdell on the night of the 20th-21st October, 1943, is worthy of the highest praise, especially when the adverse weather conditions and stiff enemy opposition which prevailed throughout the flight are taken into account. Sergeant Dowdell has proved himself to be a skilful and conscientious Navigator throughout his tour and it is considered that the many successes achieved by his crew have been made possible largely by the accuracy of this N.C.O.’s work coupled with his coolness and courage when harassed by enemy ground and night fighter defences. The Squadron Commander’s recommendation for the immediate award of the Distinguished Flying Medal is strongly endorsed.’ Flight Lieutenant Leslie Charles Andrew Dowdell, D.F.M., born Torvil, Maidstone, Kent, 21.7.1922; served during the Second World War in the Royal Air Force with No. 100 Squadron (Lancasters), based at Waltham, Lincolnshire; took part in the raid on Leipzig, 20.10.1943, the 25th sortie of his tour: ‘All except one of a Lancaster squadron had returned from the raid on Leipzig on October 20th. The station ground staff were “waiting up” for the missing bomber when a Lancaster of another squadron, out of petrol, asked permission to land. Just then a glow appeared in the sky. It was the missing bomber- Lancaster B2- on fire. It had been on fire for four hours. That was the end to a remarkable sortie in which Lancaster B2 was in trouble almost from the take-off. While still over base the “intercom” went dead and the crew had to fall back on an emergency system. Over Germany the Lancaster ran into icing cloud and severe electrical storms. One engine seized and caught fire. The pilot feathered the propeller and used the emergency extinguisher, but the flames, where the oil and glycol were burning, went on. The flames lit up the fuselage and tailplane and made the bomber an easy mark for fighters and anti-aircraft guns, but the pilot pressed on towards the target. The electrical storms upset the navigator’s watch, and he went badly off course and lost time. The Lancaster lost

Flight Lieutenant L.C.A. Dowdell height, but still she pressed on towards Leipzig. They were twenty minutes late for the attack, but still managed to drop their biggest bomb and a large number of incendiaries on the target. A searchlight cone held her. She escaped and reached the Dutch coast. The fire still burned. Finally she made it back to her home base.’ (account in the Daily Express, annotated by the recipient, refers). Dowdell was Commissioned Pilot Officer, Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, 10.12.1943; promoted Flying Officer, 10.6.1944; and was invested with his D.F.M., 28.11.1944; finally being promoted Flight Lieutenant, 10.12.1945. After the War he became a lecturer in electrical engineering at Maidstone Boys’ Technical College, retiring in 1985. He died in Maidstone, 12.12.2011.

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23 A Scarce 1950 A.F.M. Group of Eight to Pilot 1, Later Master Pilot, S. Goodyear, Royal Air Force a) Air Force Medal, G.VI.R. (1145998. Plt.1. S. Goodyear. R.A.F.) b) 1939-1945 Star c) Africa Star d) Italy Star e) Defence and War Medals f) General Service 1962-2007, two clasps, Borneo, Malay Peninsula (M.Plt. S. Goodyear (M1145998) R.A.F.) g) Royal Air Force Long Service & G.C., E.II.R., with Second Award Bar (M.Plt. S. Goodyear (1145998). R.A.F.), good very fine and better (8) £1,800-2,200 A.F.M. London Gazette 8.6.1950 1145998 Pilot 1 Sidney Goodyear, R.A.F. The Recommendation states: ‘Pilot 1 Goodyear has been in British Air Forces of Occupation since January, 1947, and has been in No. 14 (Mosquito) Squadron since October, 1947. During this time he has flown 600 hours in the Squadron, including 67 hours night flying. He has, at all times, displayed an unfailing keenness to achieve his aim. He has set an excellent example of loyalty, courage, and devotion to duty, and he has also played a large part in training new and inexperienced arrivals in his squadron. Although Pilot 1 Goodyear has only carried out 88 hours flying in the last six months, much of this has been on meteorological ascents and night flying. The meteorological ascents, in particular, are a regular daily commitment in the command, and make a notable contribution to the meteorological service. They are carried out in all conditions of weather, and seldom fail. This pilot has made a notable contribution to the service. The flying carried out to complete successful meteorological flights over a continuous period must always be of an arduous and sometimes hazardous nature. Pilot 1 Goodyear has completed 67 successful meteorological flights and, in doing so, has set a fine example of courage and determination to the whole Squadron, which has been largely responsible for the satisfactory results obtained by the Squadrons.’ Master Pilot Sidney Goodyear, A.F.M., served with the Royal Air Force during the Second World War, and with the British Forces of Occupation from January 1947, flying some 1200 hours prior to his posting to No. 14 (Mosquito) Squadron, October 1947, based at RAF Station Wahn n Koln; while with the Squadron he was involved with low and medium level bombing practice and exercises, as well as meteorological flying. Awarded L.S. & G.C., 6.7.1959; he subsequently served in North Borneo and the Malay Peninsula with No. 209 Squadron, flying casevac operations in Pioneers. One of only 23 A.F.M.s awarded to men with the rank of Pilot 1.

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24 A Military Division B.E.M. Group of Four to Chief Technician, Later Squadron Leader, R. Murphy, Royal Air Force a) British Empire Medal, Military Division, E.II.R. (569693 Ch. Tech. Ronald Murphy. R.A.F.) b) Defence and War Medals c) Royal Air Force Long Service & G.C. (569693 Ch. Tech. R. Murphy. R.A.F.), good very fine, mounted as worn, with the recipient’s related miniature awards (4) £250-300 B.E.M. London Gazette 31.5.1956 569693 Chief Technician Ronald Murphy, Royal Air Force. Squadron Leader Ronald Murphy, B.E.M., (1920-92); educated at the Grammar School, March, Cambridgeshire; enlisted in the Royal Air Force, August 1936; awarded L.S. & G.C., 25.8.1954; Commissioned Flying Officer, 14.3.1957; promoted Flight Lieutenant, 14.3.1960; Squadron Leader, 1.7.1965; retired, 5.5.1973.

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THE BENTLEY PRIORY BATTLE OF BRITAIN TRUST APPEAL CHARITY AUCTION 25 Air Efficiency Award, G.VI.R. (Act. Flt. Lt. L.C. Thompson. R.A.F.V.R.), extremely fine, in named card box of issue £100-140 Squadron Leader Lawrence Cyril Thompson, A.E., Commissioned Pilot Officer, Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, 17.9.1941; promoted Flying Officer, 1.10.1942; awarded Air Efficiency Award, 6.3.1947; promoted Flight Lieutenant, 24.10.1947; retired, with the rank of Squadron Leader, 10.2.1954.

26 Canadian Forces Decoration, E.II.R. (F/L G.W. Hynes), good very fine £40-50 27 Three: Lieutenant O.T. Walton, Royal Flying Corps, Late South Lancashire Regiment, Killed in Action, 12.4.1917, When His Plane Collided With and Destroyed A 9 Victory German Ace During Aerial Combat 1914-15 Star (2.Lieut. O.T. Walton. S.Lan.R.); British War and Victory Medals (Lieut. O.T. Walton.), nearly extremely fine (3) £240-280 Lieutenant Oswald Thomas Walton, born Crofton-onTees, North Yorkshire, the son of the Rev. John Walton, of Langton-on-Swale, Northallerton, North Yorkshire; educated at Worksop College and Oxford University; Commissioned Second Lieutenant, South Lancashire Regiment, 22.4.1915; served with the 3rd Battalion during the Great War on the Western Front from 8.10.1915; transferred to 18th Squadron, Royal Flying Corps; killed in action during aerial combat over Baralle, northern France, with the German Ace Lieutenant Adolf Schulte, when his F.E.2d collided with the German’s Albatross D.III, 12.4.1917- both men’s planes were destroyed, claiming each other as their final ‘kill’; Walton is buried in the H.A.C. Cemetery at Ecoust-St. Mein, France.

28 Pair: Lieutenant P.E. Mercer, Royal Air Force British War and Victory Medals (Lieut. P.E. Mercer. R.A.F.), nearly extremely fine (2) £140-180 Lieutenant Percy Edward Mercer, born September 1892; Commissioned Second Lieutenant, General List, 22.11.1917; served during the Great War with No.35 Squadron, Royal Air Force in France from 23.4.1918; wounded whilst piloting an Armstrong Whitworth on patrol over Ephey, northern France, when his plane was struck by an enemy anti-aircraft shell, 9.9.1918; promoted Lieutenant, 13.7.1919; discharged from hospital, 7.11.1919; relinquished his Commission on account of ill health, 13.1.1920.

29 Pair: Second Lieutenant H.W. Mitchell, Royal Air Force British War and Victory Medals (2/Lieut. H.W. Mitchell. R.A.F.), BWM rubbed and prepared prior to naming, very fine (2) £80-120 Second Lieutenant Hodgson William Mitchell, born 18.1.1900; Commissioned Second Lieutenant, Royal Air Force, 28.9.1918; served during the Great War on the Western Front as an Observer with No.59 Squadron from 6.10.1918; wounded in the leg by a Machine Gun fired from the ground whilst on counter attack patrol duty, 9.11.1918; transferred to No.6 Squadron and served in Mesopotamia, 30.4.1919; discharged, 17.12.1919; during the Second World War served as a Second Lieutenant in the Royal Army Ordnance Corps from 14.3.1942.

30 Pair: Second Lieutenant A.J.M. Ozmond, Royal Air Force British War and Victory Medals (2. Lieut. A.J.M. Ozmond. R.A.F.), surname officially corrected on both, very fine British War Medal (2. Lieut. F.E. Green. R.A.F.), nearly extremely fine Victory Medal (2. Lieut. A. Carter. R.A.F.), good very fine (4) £120-150 Second Lieutenant Francis Edward Green, born 18.1.1900; enlisted as 37706 Private in the East Surrey Rifles and served with them during the Great War; Commissioned Second Lieutenant, Royal Air Force, 18.8.1918, and served with No.218 Squadron; crashed on landing after a bombing raid, 18.10.1918; retired, 9.8.1919. Second Lieutenant Alan Carter, born Fulham, London; served during the Great War with 8th Squadron, Royal Air Force; killed whilst flying, 25.6.1918, and is buried in St. Riquier British Cemetery, France.

31 Pair: Second Lieutenant I.M.M. Perman, Royal Air Force, Late Balloon Section, Royal Naval Air Service British War and Victory Medals (2. Lieut. I.M.M. Perman. R.A.F.), good very fine (2) £80-120 Second Lieutenant Ian Mackintosh Myrie Perman, born County Clare, Ireland, September 1895; educated at Fettes College, Edinburgh; served with the R.N.A.S. Airships Balloon Section during the Great War; Commissioned Second Lieutenant, Royal Air Force, 1.4.1918; posted to Airship Station, Uxbridge, 19.10.1918; retired, 5.9.1919; died, 3.5.1958

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32 Pair: Second Lieutenant L.F. Roswell, Royal Air Force British War and Victory Medals (2. Lieut. L.F. Roswell. R.A.F.), nearly extremely fine (2) ÂŁ140-180

33 Pair: Airman First Class T.N.E. Sawyer, Royal Flying Corps British War and Victory Medals (15788. 1.A.M. T.N.E. Sawyer. R.F.C.), extremely fine, with two fabric Royal Flying Corps shoulder titles (2) ÂŁ60-80

Second Lieutenant Lionel Frederick Roswell, born July 1899; enlisted in the Royal Flying Corps, 8.8.1917; Commissioned Second Lieutenant, Royal Air Force, 23.5.1918; served during the Great War with No.9 Squadron as an Observer; wounded by Machine Gun fire from the ground, 16.8.1918; discharged, 21.3.1919.

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34 A Second War ‘Battle of Britain’ and ‘Western Desert’ Hurricane Pilot’s Campaign Group of Six to Squadron Leader R.A. Kings, Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, Who Flew With No. 238 Squadron and Claimed 1 Destroyed and 1 Damaged During the Battle; He Baled Out Over The Isle of Wight, 26.9.1940, His Aircraft Having Been Set On Fire In His Moment of Victory 1939-1945 Star, with Battle of Britain Bar; Air Crew Europe Star; Africa Star, with North Africa 1942-43 Bar; Defence and War Medals, M.I.D. Oak Leaf; Air Efficiency Award. G.VI.R. (Flt. Lt. R.A. Kings. R.A.F.V.R.), good very fine, with the following related items: - The recipient’s related miniature awards, these lacking the Defence Medal - (2) R.A.F. Pilot’s Flying Log Books, covering the periods 1.8.1938-30.10.1942 and 1.11.19425.4.1945 respectively - The recipient’s Mentioned in Despatches Certificate, dated 8.6.1944 - The recipient’s well annotated photograph album, covering the period 1940-47 - The recipient’s Flying Jacket (lot) £4,000-5,000 M.I.D. London Gazette 8.6.1944 Acting Squadron Leader R.A. Kings (82953), R.A.F.V.R. Squadron Leader Robert Austin Kings, A.E., born 22.10.1914; enlisted in the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, July 1938, carried out initial training at No. 29 F.T.S., Luton, taking to the skies for the first time, 1.8.1938; flying his first solo 25.8.1938, and awarded his Wings 9.5.1939, re-mustered to the rank of Sergeant Pilot. Commissioned Pilot Officer, Royal Air Force Volunteer

Reserve, 3.8.1940, and posted to No. 6 O.T.U., based at RAF Sutton Bridge, for conversion to Hurricanes; Kings joined No. 238 Squadron, St. Eval, 31.8.1940, for service during the Battle of Britain. His first contact with the enemy during the Battle came on the 15th September: ‘Large claim of enemy aircraft destroyed made today. Squadron dived on He.111s all firing- then shambles- screaming R/T, balloons, parachutists, fire on ground. I finally spotted another He.111 limping away- chased him- we both dived into cloud and lost sight. Finished up out to sea somewhere!’ ( Log Book refers). On the 25th September Kings claimed one He.111 Damaged: ‘I attacked one of the rear enemy aircraft and fired from about 300 yards quarter attack developing to astern 4 seconds. Then when I was astern another very long burst of 6 seconds. Closing right in I experienced Hun fire from enemy aircraft all the time.’ (Combat Report refers). The following day he intercepted ‘80 bandits’ taking part in a raid on Southampton: ‘I He.111 Destroyed. Self set on fire and landed by parachute on Isle of Wight’ (Log Book refers). Four days later, on the 30th September, he baled out again, after a mid-air collision at 18,000 feet over Shaftesbury, and was badly injured in a heavy landing owing to a damaged parachute, and spent the next three weeks in Shaftesbury Military Hospital. Posted to No. 238 Squadron (Hurricanes), November 1940, on the 18th May 1941 Kings embarked with the Squadron onboard the carrier H.M.S. Victorious, en route for the Middle East; whilst on board Victorious was tasked to take part in the hunt for the Bismarck; the latter was sunk before her arrival, allowing Kings to resume his journey- eventually he flew off Victorious 30 miles south of Majorca, 14.6.1941, for Malta. After re-fuelling, the he with eight other members of his Squadron moved onto Egypt for service in the Western Desert. Finally arriving at his posting, attached to No. 274 Squadron, he flew out of El Gerawla. Promoted Flying Officer, 3.8.1941, on the 26th November he was involved in a sweep on the Tobruk Area: ‘Crash landed, having been hit by Me.109 at Bir el Sansenna: wheels up. Picked up and spent the night with 22nd Armoured Brigade. Crept into Tobruk

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Squadron Leader R.A. Kings

by night, part of convoy of 300-400: Leader blew up on mine and another car hit by shell. Plenty of “bods” en route! (ibid). Having been entertained by the Army on this occasion, on the 20th February 1942 he was involved in a patrol over Matruh: ‘Landed in Matruh harbour owing to a sand-storm- entertained by the Navy!’ (ibid). On the 30th April 1942 Kings was posted to the A.D.U. in the Delta, and remained with it until May 1945. Promoted Flight

Lieutenant, 3.8.1942, at the end of the War he was awarded the Air Efficiency Award, 10.5.1945. In November 1945 he was posted to India, serving at RAF Poona and Calcutta, before returning to the U.K. shortly after India achieved Independence; Appointed to the Aircraft Control Branch, 24.11.1950. He retired with the rank of Squadron Leader, 27.10.1964.

Squadron Leader R.A. Kings

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35 A Second War Group of Four to Lancaster MidUpper Gunner Flight Lieutenant J.A. Walker, Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, Who Flew in 28 Operational Sorties, Including the Famous Peenemunde Raid, 17.8.1943, And to Berlin and Back 5 Times 1939-1945 Star; Air Crew Europe Star; Defence and War Medals, extremely fine, with Air Council enclosure, in named card box of issue addressed to F/L. J.A. Walker, ‘The Outpost’... rest of address illegible, with the following related items: - R.A.F. Flying Log Book, covering the period 27.2.1942 - 7.6.1945 - The recipient’s Air Gunner’s brevet - Active Service Edition New Testament Bible - The recipient’s two identity dog-tags (4) £250-350 Flight Lieutenant John Angus Walker, enlisted Royal Air Force, December 1942, and carried out initial training at No. 4 A.G.S., Morpeth, and No. 81 O.T.U.; Commissioned Pilot Officer, Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, 20.2.1943; posted for operational flying to No. 12 Squadron (Lancasters), Wickenby, May 1943, and during his first tour took part in 28 Operation Sorties including: Dortmund; Wuppertal; Essen; Oberhausen (2); Gelsenkerchen (2); Cologne (2); Turin; Hamburg (2); Genoa; Mannheim (2); Nurmberg; Peenemunde, 17.8.1943; Leverkusen; Berlin (5); Hannover (2); Frankfurt; Leipzig; and Dusseldorf. Promoted Flying Officer, 20.8.1943, having completed his first Operational Tour with a raid over Berlin, 2.1.1944, posted for Instructional duties, No. 83 O.T.U., Peplow, March 1944. Promoted Flight Lieutenant, 20.2.1945, and posted to No. 90 Squadron (Lancasters), Tuddenham, February 1945; transferring to No. 186 Squadron, April 1945; resigned his Commission, 17.2.1947.

36 A Well-Documented Second War ‘Caterpillar Club’ Group of Three to Ventura Navigator Flight Lieutenant P.C. Middleton, Royal Air Force, Shot Down Over Occupied France, 3.2.1943, He Spent the Rest of The War as a Prisoner in the Infamous Stalag Luft III 1939-1945 Star; Air Crew Europe Star; War Medal, extremely fine, with the following related items: - The recipient’s Caterpillar Club brooch Badge, silver-gilt, the reverse engraved ‘F/O P.C. Middleton’, with related Membership Card and two letters from Leslie L. Irvin - Air Observer Brevet - Bomber Command Commemorative Medal 193945 - The recipient’s Prisoner of War Identity tag - Various telegrams and letters, both official and personal, to the recipient’s family, informing them that the recipient was Missing in Action, 3.2.1943, and had subsequently been made Prisoner of War - Copies of letters written by the recipient to his wife whilst a Prisoner of War, describing life and conditions in Stalag Luft III - Copy of the recipient’s account of the evacuation of Stalag Luft III, 27.1.1945 - Various photographs of the recipient, both in uniform and as part of the Stalag Luft III theatre company (lot) £400-500

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Flying Officer Philip Charles Middleton, born 11.10.1912; Commissioned Pilot Officer, Royal Air Force, 13.7.1942; served with No.464 Squadron (Venturas), and took part in Operation Oyster, 6.12.1942, the attack on the Phillips Radio works at Eindhoven, Holland; promoted Flying Officer, 13.1.1943; shot down during an attack on St. Omer airfield, in the second stage of Operation Circus 258, 3.2.1943, when the crew of four all baled out, ‘my life was saved by an Irvin ‘chute, when I had to bale out over France at 10,000 feet on Feb 3rd. If you could recommend me for the Caterpillar Club I should be very grateful’ (letter from the recipient to Leslie Irvin refers). Middleton and his skipper, Roy Roberts, were taken prisoner of war and transferred to Stalag Luft III, where he remained for the rest of the War, and was present in the camp during the ‘Great Escape’, 24.3.1944; Promoted Flight Lieutenant, 13.7.1944; retired, 11.10.1957.

Flight Lieutenant P.C. Middleton

Flight Lieutenant P.C. Middleton (second from left) with the Stalag Luft III Theatre Company, September 1943 99


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38 37 Three: Pilot Officer W.A. Saunders, Royal Air Force, Killed in Action 14.6.1940 1939-1945 Star; Air Crew Europe Star; War Medal, all contemporarily impressed ‘P/O. W.A. Saunders. R.A.F.’, minor correction to surname on last, extremely fine, with named Air Council enclosure (3) £180-220 Pilot Officer William Anthony Saunders, of Reading, Berkshire; Commissioned Pilot Officer, Royal Air Force and served during the Second World War with No. 21 Squadron (Blenheims), Bodney, March 1940; his first operational sortie was an attack on German patrol vessels off the German-Danish coast, 31.3.1940; the following month he took part in two missions against enemy warships at sea, and a strike against Wilhelmshaven, 5.4.1940; his 22nd operational sortie was a strike against Merville aerodrome, 14.6.1940: ‘Level bombing attack delivered from 9,000 feet. Slight AA fire and fighter attack experienced P/O Saunders, Sergeant Eden and Sergeant Webb seemed to be in trouble with AA fire and fell out of formation, and was then followed by Enemy Aircraft. Fate unknown’ (Operations Record Book No. 21 Squadron refers). In all probability, Saunders gallantly stayed at his controls as his Blenheim was chased by a Me.109 to allow his two crew members to bale out, for the latter were both taken Prisoner of War. His body was never recovered, and his name is commemorated on the Runnymede Memorial. PROVENANCE:

Campion Collection, September 2003

38 Five: Flight Sergeant J.C. Savill, Royal Air Force 1939-1945 Star; Africa Star, with North Africa 1942-43 Bar; Defence and War Medals; Royal Air Force Long Service & G.C., G.VI.R., with Second Award Bar (565417 Act. F. Sgt. J.C. Savill. R.A.F.), good very fine (5) £140-180

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39 Six: Sergeant S.L. Varnham, Royal Air Force 1939-1945 Star; Italy Star; Defence and War Medals; General Service 1918-62, E.II.R., one clasp, Malaya (1108637 Act. Sgt. S.L. Varnham. R.A.F.); Royal Air Force Long Service & G.C., E.II.R. (1108637 Sgt. S.L. Varnham. R.A.F.), good very fine (6) £140-180 40 Five: Flying Officer F.G. Wigmore, Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve 1939-1945 Star; France and Germany Star; Defence and War Medals; Air Efficiency Award, G.VI.R. (Fg. Off. F.G. Wigmore. R.A.F.V.R.), good very fine (5) £120-150 Flying Officer Francis George Wigmore, A.E., Commissioned Pilot Officer, Balloon Branch, Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, 5.11.1941; promoted Flying Officer, 1.10.1942; awarded the Air Efficiency Award, 13.1.1949; retired, 31.1.1959.

41 Four: Leading Aircraftsman J. Horton, Royal Air Force Burma Star; Defence and War Medals; General Service 1918-62, G.VI.R., one clasp, S.E. Asia 1945-46 (1250387 L.A.C. J. Horton. R.A.F.), good very fine (4) £80-100

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42 42 Three: Flight Officer V.S. Hynes, Women’s Royal Air Force Defence and War Medals; General Service 1918-62, E.II.R., one clasp, Malaya (Flt. Off. V.S. Hynes. W.R.A.F.), good very fine (3) £240-280

43 Three: Squadron Leader G.H. Evans, [M.B.E.], Royal Air Force Defence and War Medals; General Service 1918-62, E.II.R., one clasp, Cyprus (Flt. Lt. G.H. Evans. R.A.F.), minor edge bruise to last, very fine (3) £120-150

Flight Officer Vera Stevens Hynes, appointed a Section Officer, Women’s Auxiliary Air Force, September 1942; Commissioned Flight Officer, Women’s Royal Air Force, 9.3.1949; retired 27.6.1960.

M.B.E. London Gazette 11.6.1977 Squadron Leader George Henry Evans (163346), Royal Air Force Squadron Leader George Henry Evans, M.B.E., Commissioned Pilot Officer, Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, 24.2.1945; promoted Flying Officer, 24.2.1946; Flight Lieutenant, 17.7.1955; Squadron Leader, 17.7.1973; retired, 11.5.1979.

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44 45 Pair: Chief Technician D.B. Burley, Royal Air Force General Service 1918-62, E.II.R., one clasp, Arabian Peninsula (4029390 Snr. Tech. D.B. Burley. R.A.F.); Royal Air Force Long Service & G.C., E.II.R. (J4029390 Ch. Tech. D.B. Burley. R.A.F.), nearly very fine, mounted as worn (2) ÂŁ80-120

44 Three: Flight Lieutenant C.H.F. Palser, Auxiliary Air Force Defence and War Medals; Air Efficiency Award, G.VI.R. (Flt. Lt. C.H.F. Palser. A.A.F.), nearly extremely fine (3) ÂŁ140-180 Flight Lieutenant Clement Henry Ford Palser, A.E., Commissioned Pilot Officer, Auxiliary Air Force, 4.8.1939, serving with No.933 (Hampshire) Squadron, Balloon Branch; on the 12th August 1940 the enemy launched a fierce daylight raid on the barrage balloons of 933 Squadron at Gosport, which resulted in the death of ten airmen and two civilians; promoted Flying Officer, 3.9.1940; Flight Lieutenant, 1.3.1942; awarded the Air Efficiency Award, 15.7.1948; retired, 10.10.1954.

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46 Three: Flight Lieutenant M.W. Rickard, Royal Air Force General Service 1962-2007, one clasp, Air Operations Iraq (Fg Off M W Rickard RAF); NATO Service Medal, one clasp, Former Yugoslavia; Jubilee 2002, extremely fine, mounted court style as worn, with the following related items: - Operation Northern Watch Certificate of Appreciation, named to Flying Officer Mark Rickard, in glazed display frame - NATO Bestowal Document for the NATO Medal for service in Kosovo, named to Flight Lieutenant M W Rickard - Cloth and rank insignia - Operation Northern Watch recognition flash - Group photograph of the recipient (3) ÂŁ1,000-1,200

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Flight Lieutenant Mark Wolfe Rickard, Commissioned Pilot Officer, Royal Air Force, 6.10.1994; promoted Flying Officer, 6.4.1997; served in Operation Northern Watch as part of the R.A.F.s Operation Warden detachment during the summer of 1998, and posted to HQ Command Task Force Base, Incirlik, Turkey, as part of the mission to enforce the No Fly Zone in Northern Iraq; received a Certificate of Appreciation ‘For outstanding contributions in support of the Northern Iraq security and humanitarian relief effort

during Operation Northern Watch Operation Warden’; served in Operation Joint Guardian in Former Yugoslavia in command of the RAF Mobile Administration Support Team in Croatia, Macedonia, and Kosovo, as part of NATO’s Allied Rapid Reaction Corps, 16.4.1999-8.7.2000, and took part in the famous rush to Pristina Airfield under the command of Major General M. Jackson, June 1999; promoted Flight Lieutenant, 6.4.2001; retired, 1.9.2003.

Flight Lieutenant M.W. Rickard (front row, third from right) outside the H.Q. Command Task Force Base at Incirlik, Turkey, during Operation Northern Watch 105


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Medals and Memorabilia to the Baxter and Gray Families

47

Second Lieutenant E.F. Baxter

47 The Great War Pair to Second Lieutenant E.F. Baxter [V.C.], Liverpool Regiment British War and Victory Medals (Lieut. E.F. Baxter.), nearly extremely fine, with the following related items and documentation: - The recipient’s related miniature awards, comprising the Victoria Cross, British War Medal, and Victory Medal - An emotive leather-bound scrapbook, containing contemporary newspaper cuttings regarding the recipient, his death, and the award of the V.C. - A large number of original letters from the recipient to his mother and sisters, covering the period 9.1.1916-12.4.1916, all signed ‘Felix’ - Various portrait photographs of the recipient - The recipient’s ‘motorbike’ notebook, and various photographs of the recipient and his motorbike - Invitation to Mrs. Baxter to Their Majesties’ Afternoon Party, Buckingham Palace, 26.6.1920 - Correspondence from Mrs. Baxter to her mother following the death of her husband, regarding receiving the Victoria Cross from the King, and visiting her husband’s grave - Portrait photographs of the recipient’s wife and daughter - Correspondence and photographs from the Imperial War Museum regarding the presentation of the recipient’s Victoria Cross to the Museum, AugustNovember 1988 (lot) £5,000-7,000

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September 6, 2012 - LONDON conspicuous gallantry he was awarded the Victoria Cross. As Baxter’s Commanding Officer wrote to his widow after the action: ‘The raid was successful, due to a great extent to the gallantry and resource of your husband. The men say his gallantry and coolness were marvellous. He has not been with us very long, but we had realised what a splendid fellow he was. I have lost one of my best officers; no words of mine can express my admiration of him. The whole Battalion is very upset over his loss.’ Baxter’s Victoria Cross was presented to his widow by King George V in a private ceremony at Buckingham Palace, 29.11.1916: ‘The Victoria Cross is really beautiful and I am so very proud of it. I wasn’t the least bit nervous and King George is awfully nice- he didn’t make any stiff speech, just chatted and asked me how long I had been married. He is charming.’ (letter from the recipient’s widow to her mother refers). He is buried in Fillievres British Cemetery, France. Following his death his widow re-married in October 1922 Alexander Gray, the future Air Vice Marshal. Baxter’s Victoria Cross was donated to the Imperial War Museum by his family in August 1988, and now forms part of their permanent collection.

V.C. London Gazette 26.9.1916 2nd Lt. Edward Felix Baxter, late L’pool R ‘For most conspicuous bravery. Prior to a raid on the hostile line he was engaged during two nights in cutting wire close to the enemy’s trenches. The enemy could be heard on the other side of the parapet. Second Lieutenant Baxter, while assisting in the wire cutting, held a bomb in his hand with the pin withdrawn ready to throw. On one occasion the bomb slipped and fell to the ground, but he instantly picked it up, unscrewed the base plug, and took out the detonator, which he smothered in the ground, thereby preventing the alarm being given, and undoubtedly saving many casualties. Later, he led the left storming party with the greatest gallantry, and was the first man into the trench, shooting the sentry with his revolver. He then assisted to bomb dugouts, and finally climbed out of the trench and assisted the last man over the parapet. After this he was not seen again, though search parties went out at once to look for him. There seems no doubt that he lost his life in his great devotion to duty.’ Second Lieutenant Edward Felix Baxter, V.C., was born in Stourbridge, Worcestershire, on the 18th September 1885, the son Charles and Beatrice Baxter, and was educated at Hartlebury Grammar School and Christ’s Hospital, before working as a tutor at Skerry’s College, Liverpool. A keen motorcyclist, whose favourite machine was a Rex, he competed in both track racing and road trials with much success, and in 1910 competed in the Isle of Man Tourist Trophy. In February 1906 he married Miss Leonora Mary Cornish, with whom he had one daughter, Nora. At the outbreak of the Great War he volunteered as a Royal Engineer motor-cyclist despatch rider, and was attached to the Mersey defences, before being Commissioned Second Lieutenant, 1st/8th (Irish) Battalion, The King’s Liverpool Regiment in September 1915. Embarking for France on the 10th January 1916, he tried to get secondment to the Royal Flying Corps: ‘I am still waiting and hoping for my transfer to the R.F.C., apparently I shall need a large store of patience’ (the recipient’s last letter to his mother, dated 12.4.1916 refers), but was instead trained as the Battalion’s Bombing Officer. On the 16th April 1916 he joined a raiding party of some 40 men, led by Captain Mahon. For two nights they were involved with wire-cutting close to the enemy trenches near Blairville, south of Arras. On the morning of the 18th April, the wires cut, he led the storming party into the enemy’s trenches- having shot the sentry with his revolver, assisted in bombing the dug-outs, and finally assisted the last man over the parapet, he fell in his moment of victory, his body never seen again. For his most

Second Lieutenant E.F. Baxter leads a raiding party into a German Trench, where he shoots the sentry, taken from Deeds that Thrill the Empire.

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48 48 Uniform and Documentation Relating to Air Vice-Marshal A. Gray, C.B., M.C., Royal Air Force - The recipient’s No. 1 Uniform, showing the rank of Air Vice Marshal, complete with RAF wings, and medal ribands, with trousers - R.A.F. Pilot’s Flying Log Book, covering the period 30.11.1923-4.11.1941 - Bestowal Document for the C.B., named to Air Commodore Alexander Gray, and dated 8.6.1944 - Two Mentioned in Despatches Certificate, dated 25.11.1943 and 14.1.1944 - Various photographs of the recipient, including ones showing the recipient separately with Montgomery and Churchill - Various letters to the recipient, including one from Lord Mountbatten of Burma, dated 16.10.1947, and a hand-written one from Field Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck, dated 6.12.1947 - Invitation to the recipient for the Fiftieth Anniversary Celebrations of R.A.F. Marham, 31.8.1966, with souvenir programmes - The recipient’s R.A.F. Wings, together with various badges and buttons - Two books from the recipient’s library: Monoplanes and Biplanes; and The Official History of the Indian Armed Forces in the Second World War - Photograph of the recipient with H.M. King George VI and Queen Elizabeth - Photograph of HM Queen Elizabeth inspecting members of the Women’s Auxiliary Air Force at RAF Mildenhall (lot) £300-500 WWW.SPINK.COM

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Air Vice-Marshal A. Gray

C.B. London Gazette 8.6.1944 Air Commodore Alexander Gray, M.C., Royal Air Force.

transferred to the Royal Flying Corps in early 1916, serving with No.55 Reconnaissance Squadron. Twice wounded, by a shell splinter to the right hand, 14.1.1917, and by a gun shot wound to the right hand, 1.3.1917, in December 1917, having been awarded the M.C., Gray was appointed Flight Commander of the Squadron. In October 1922 Gray married Mrs. Leonora Mary Baxter, the widow of Second Lieutenant E.F. Baxter, V.C., with whom he had two daughters. The following year he was posted to No.12 Squadron, based at RAF Northolt, before moving to Malta in November 1928, where much of his flying for the next year was testing aircraft for the Fleet Air Arm at Hal Far and the seaplane base. At the start of the Second World War he was promoted Group Captain and appointed to the Station Command of RAF Manston, a front-line airfield in the Battle of Britain. Subsequently, as Air Commodore, he was posted to India in 1942, where he also visited the forward areas of Burma. After the War he was appointed, in April 1947, Air-Officer Commanding Air Headquarters at Habbaninyah, Iraq, with the rank of Air Vice-Marshal. He retired from the Royal Air Force in 1949, and died 16.5.1980.

M.C. London Gazette 27.10.1917 2nd Lt. (T./Capt.) Alexander Gray, Arg. & Suth’d Highrs., and R.F.C. ‘For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. He took part in many successful operations over the enemy’s lines, in over twenty of which he acted as leader. On one occasion, when leading a bombing raid, his formation was heavily attacked by enemy aeroplanes. He shot one of them down, and brought back the whole of his formation safely. He also led a successful raid on an enemy aerodrome, and on several occasions obtained valuable photographs. He has accounted for two enemy aeroplanes with his front gun, and always showed great coolness, ability, and resource.’ Air Vice-Marshal Alexander Gray, C.B., M.C., born Coatbridge, Lanarkshire, September 1896, and educated at Glasgow Technical College; on the outbreak of the Great War he declined a Commission and enlisted as a Private in the Highland Light Infantry, as ‘that was my best chance of seeing some quick fighting.’ Commissioned Second Lieutenant, Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, he

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49 Two Portrait Photographs, of H.R.H. The Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, and H.R.H. Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester Two black and white photographs, each 205mm x 150mm, of the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester, by Dorothy Wilding, London, the photographs signed ‘Henry’ and ‘Alice’ respectively, and both dated ‘1948’, the Duke of Gloucester in General’s uniform, with riband bars; the Duchess of Gloucester in evening dress wearing the sash and Star of the Order of the British Empire, and the Badges of the Crown of India and the Royal Family Orders of King George V and King George VI on bow ribands, both unframed, together with a letter addressed to Mrs. Gray from the Duchess of Gloucester, dated 28.2.1948, thanking her ‘for your kindness and hospitality to us on our way to and from Ceylon’, and signed ‘Alice’ (2) £300-400

50 Two Portrait Photographs, of Lord and Lady Mountbatten of Burma Two black and white photographs, each 220mm x 170mm, of Lord and Lady Mountbatten of Burma, the mounts signed ‘Mountbatten of Burma’ and ‘Edwina Mountbatten of Burma’ respectively, the latter additionally dated ‘1948’, Lord Mountbatten in full Viceregal insignia wearing the Collar, Badge, and Mantle Star of the Star of India, and the Stars of the Order of the Garter, the Order of the Star of India, the Order of the Indian Empire, and the Royal Victorian Order; Lady Mountbatten in evening dress wearing the sash, Badge, and Star of the Order of the British Empire, and the Badges of the Crown of India and the Royal Victorian Order on bow ribands, both in frames with gold-tooled personal cyphers at the top, together with a letter addressed to Air Vice Marshal A. Gray from Lord Mountbatten, dated 26.11.1947, thanking him and Miss Gray ‘for putting us up on our way back from India. It was great fun seeing you again and having a chance to gossip over the old Burma days’, and signed ‘Mountbatten of Burma’ (2) £700-900

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51 Air Marshal W.A. ‘Billy’ Bishop’s [V.C., C.B., D.S.O., M.C., D.F.C.] Commission Commission appointing William Avery Bishop a Lieutenant in the 9th Mississauga Horse, Canadian Militia, dated 20.4.1915, and signed ‘Arthur’ by the H.R.H. The Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, Governor General of Canada. £200-300

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THE BENTLEY PRIORY BATTLE OF BRITAIN TRUST APPEAL CHARITY AUCTION V.C. London Gazette 11.8.1917 Captain William Avery Bishop, D.S.O., M.C., Canadian Cavalry and Royal Flying Corps ‘For most conspicuous bravery, determination and skill. Captain Bishop, who had been sent out to work independently, flew first of all to an enemy aerodrome; finding no machine about, he flew on to another aerodrome about three miles south-east, which was at least twelve miles the other side of the line. Seven machines, some with their engines running, were on the ground. He attacked these from about fifty feet, and a mechanic, who was starting one of the engines, was seen to fall. One of the machines got off the ground, but at a height of sixty feet Captain Bishop fired fifteen rounds into it at very close range, and it crashed to the ground. A second machine got off the ground, into which he fired thirty rounds at 150 yards range, and it fell into a tree. Two more machines then rose from the aerodrome. One of these he engaged at the height of 1,000 feet, emptying the rest of his drum of ammunition. This machine crashed 300 yards from the aerodrome, after which Captain Bishop emptied a whole drum into the fourth hostile machine, and then flew back to his station. Four hostile scouts were about 1,000 feet above him for about a mile of his return journey, but they would not attack. His machine was very badly shot about by machine gun fire from the ground.’ C.B. London Gazette 8.6.1944 Air Marshal William Avery Bishop, V.C., D.S.O., M.C., D.F.C., Royal Canadian Air Force. D.S.O. London Gazette 18.6.1917 Capt. William Avery Bishop, Can. Cav., and R.F.C. ‘For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. While in a single-seater he attacked three hostile machines, two of which he brought down, although in the meantime he was himself attacked by four other hostile machines. His courage and determination have set a fine example to others.’ D.S.O. Second Award Bar London Gazette 26.9.1917 Lt. (T./Capt.) William Avery Bishop, V.C., D.S.O., M.C., Can. Cav., and R.F.C. ‘For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty when engaging hostile aircraft. His consistent dash and great fearlessness have set a magnificent example to the pilots of his squadron. He has destroyed not fewer than forty-five hostile machines within the past five months, frequently attacking enemy formations single-handed, and on all occasions displaying a fighting spirit and determination to get to close quarters with his opponents, which have earned the admiration of all in contact with him.’ M.C. London Gazette 26.5.1917 Lt. William Avery Bishop, Can. Cav. and R.F.C. ‘For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. He attacked a hostile balloon on the ground, dispersed the crew and destroyed the balloon, and also drove down a hostile machine which attacked him. He has on several other occasions brought down hostile machines.’ D.F.C. London Gazette 3.8.1918 Capt. (temp. Maj.) William Avery Bishop, V.C., D.S.O., M.C. (formerly Canadian Cavalry). ‘A most successful and fearless fighter in the air, whose acts of outstanding bravery have already been recognised by the awards of the Victoria Cross, Distinguished Service Order, Bar to the Distinguished Service Order, and Military Cross.

Air Marshal W.A. Bishop For the award of the Distinguished Flying Cross now conferred upon him he has rendered signally valuable services in personally destroying twenty-five enemy machines in twelve days- five of which he destroyed on the last day of his service at the front. The total number of machines destroyed by this distinguished officer is seventy-two, and his value as a moral factor to the Royal Air Force cannot be over-d.’ France, Legion of Honour, Chevalier London Gazette 2.11.1918 Lieutenant-Colonel William Avery Bishop, V.C., D.S.O., M.C., D.F.C., Canadian Cavalry and Aviation Service ‘In recognition of distinguished services rendered.’ France, Croix de Guerre avec Palme London Gazette 2.11.1918 Lieutenant-Colonel William Avery Bishop, V.C., D.S.O., M.C., D.F.C., Canadian Cavalry and Aviation Service ‘In recognition of distinguished services rendered.’ The Mississauga Horse was a Canadian Army Militia Cavalry Regiment. It was originally formed as the Toronto Mounted Rifles at Toronto, Ontario1.4.1901, by combining J and K Squadrons of the Canadian Mounted Rifles with three newly raised companies. In 1903 the regiment was renamed to the 9th Toronto Light Horse and in 1907 it was renamed to the 9th Mississauga Horse, named after the native tribe that inhabited the area before European settlement. Billy Bishop was the Regiment’s most notable and highly decorated member. Bishop’s complete medal group, including his Victoria Cross forms part of the Canadian War Museum’s permanent collection.

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September 6, 2012 - LONDON 52 Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir Arthur ‘Bomber’ Harris’s Final Log Book Pilot’s Flying Log Book, inscribed on front cover in Sir Arthur’s hand ‘A.C.M. Sir A.T. Harris’, the inner page similarly named; the entries on the following pages state: ‘July 1944’ [Aircraft Type] ‘Stinson Sentinal 45’, [Pilot or 1st Pilot] ‘Sir A.T. Harris, A.C.M.’; [Duty] ‘HQBC Lacey Green - Air HQ Bentley Priory, return daily’; [Total Hours] ‘17:10’; with similar entries for ‘August- 17:05’; ‘September- 2:00’; and ‘October- 0:45’- on this last occasion a ‘Messenger M38’ was used. £600-800 Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir Arthur Travers ‘Bomber’ Harris, Bt., G.C.B., O.B.E., A.F.C., was born at Cheltenham in 1892, and served in South West Africa as a Private with the Rhodesia Regiment on the outbreak of the Great War. Returning to England in 1915, he learned to fly at Brooklands, earned his licence, and joined the Royal Flying Corps as a 2nd Lieutenant. He served in France and returned to England in 1918 to command a Home Defence Unit where he pioneered night fighting, and received the Air Force Cross later that year. Granted a permanent commission after the War as a Squadron Leader in the Royal Air Force, Harris was given the command of No.3 Squadron in India in 1921, before being appointed to command No.45 Squadron in Iraq. In 1925 he was appointed to command No.58 (Bomber) Squadron, and was created an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in 1927. Employed on staff duties in the Middle East from 1930, in 1932 he commanded the R.A.F. long distance flight from Cairo to East Africa and back. During these early days he always took the opportunity to advocate the use of aircraft for aerial bombing thus displacing the historically based warship for defensive purposes. On the advent of the Second World War Harris commanded No.5 Bomber Group until being appointed Deputy Chief of Air Staff in November 1940. In May the following year, now advanced to Air Marshal, he led the R.A.F. Delegation to the United States of America and in February was appointed head of Bomber Command- now was the time for Harris to test his theories. His first initial objective was to organise the 1,000 Bomber Raids on Germany, the first being on Cologne, the second on Essen, and the third on Bremen. Each of these raids caused varying destruction and dislocation of the German Military, Industrial, and Economic systems, and assisted in the undermining of the German people. In just under a year Bomber Command, under the leadership of Harris, almost destroyed seventeen towns and cities, and severely damaged an equal number. Harris was created a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath in 1945, and was advanced to Marshal of the Royal Air Force in January 1946. It may be stated that Bomber Command’s contribution to the War effort under Sir Arthur Harris considerably hastened the end of the Second World War. During April 1944, Bomber Command was diverted from its strategic bombing offensive over Germany to support the preparations for the D-Day landings in Normandy, a role that

Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir A.T. Harris

it shared with the USAAF 8th Air Force. Overall responsibility for the air campaign in support of the landings in France was Air Chief Marshal Sir Trafford Leigh-Mallory, the Air Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Expeditionary Air Force. Planning for the air aspects of D-Day operations was carried out at Bentley Priory, the Headquarters of Air Defence of Great Britain (Fighter Command). The various air commanders of the participating commands met regularly during the planning phase. These meetings became increasingly frequent as D-Day approached and in the period following the invasion. To allow easier, and more secure, travel an airstrip was constructed in the grounds of Bentley Priory which could accommodate light communications aircraft such as the Auster, Stinson, and Messenger. The nearest airfield to HQ Bomber Command was some distance away so some agricultural land was commandeered at Lacey Green, just a few hundred yards from Harris’s headquarters. Over the next few weeks he made regular flights from the strip to the various Allied Headquarters in the south-east of England, in particular to Bentley Priory. One report stated, ‘The usual procedure was daily flights with a 10.30 am take off, returning about 1 pm with ACM Sir Arthur Harris at the controls of his personal aircraft, which was a Stinson high wing mono-plane’. In mid-September, Bomber Command was formally released from control by the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force when it reverted to Air Ministry control.

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53 A Framed Print of Flight Lieutenant Bill Reid’s Lancaster Bomber A ‘Presentation Copy’ painting of a Lancaster Bomber of No.61 Squadron, Royal Air Force, piloted by Flight Lieutenant W. Reid, under attack from a German Fw.190 en route to Dusseldorf, 3.11.1943, on the occasion that he was awarded the Victoria Cross, 640mm x 400mm, signed ‘Bill Reid V.C.’, mounted in a glazed display frame Accompanied by an Invitation from the Trustees of the Bentley Priory Battle of Britain Trust to the Opening of the Bentley Priory Museum, on Saturday 14th September, 2013, to include a flying display by a Spitfire and a Hurricane £150-250

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V.C. London Gazette 14.12.1943 Acting Flight Lieutenant William Reid (124438), Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, No. 61 Squadron ‘On the night of November 3rd, 1943, Flight Lieutenant Reid was pilot and captain of a Lancaster aircraft detailed to attack Dusseldorf. Shortly after crossing the Dutch coast, the pilot’s windscreen was shattered by fire from a Messerschmitt 110. Owing to a failure in the heating circuit, the rear gunner’s hands were too cold for him to open fire immediately or to operate his microphone and so give warning of danger; but after a brief delay he managed to return the Messerschmitt’s fire and it was driven off. During the fight with the Messerschmitt, Flight Lieutenant Reid was wounded in the head, shoulders and hands. The elevator trimming tabs of the aircraft were damaged and it became difficult to control. The rear turret, too, was badly damaged and the communications system and compasses were put out of action. Flight Lieutenant Reid ascertained that his crew were unscathed and, saying nothing about his own injuries, he continued his mission. Soon afterwards, the Lancaster was attacked by a Focke Wulf 190. This time, the enemy’s fire raked the bomber from stern to stern. The rear gunner replied with his only serviceable gun but the state of his turret made accurate aiming impossible. The navigator was killed and the wireless operator fatally injured. The mid-upper turret was hit and the oxygen system put out of action. Flight Lieutenant Reid was again wounded and the flight engineer, though hit in the forearm, supplied him with oxygen from a portable supply. Flight Lieutenant Reid refused to be turned from his objective and Dusseldorf was reached some 50 minutes later. He had memorised his course to the target and had continued in such a normal manner that the bomb-aimer, who was cut off by the failure of the communications system, knew nothing of his captain’s injuries or of the casualties to his comrades. Photographs show that, when the bombs were released, the aircraft was right over the centre of the target. Steering by the pole star and the moon, Flight Lieutenant Reid then set course for home. He was growing weak from loss of blood. The emergency oxygen supply had given out. With the windscreen shattered, the cold was intense. He lapsed into semi-consciousness. The flight engineer, with some help from the bomb-aimer, kept the Lancaster in the air despite heavy anti-aircraft fire over the Dutch coast. The North Sea crossing was accomplished. An airfield was sighted. The captain revived, resumed control and made ready to land. Ground mist partially obscured the runway lights. The captain was also much bothered by the blood from his head wound getting into his eyes. But he made a safe landing although one leg of the damaged undercarriage collapsed when the load came on. Wounded in two attacks, without oxygen, suffering severely from cold, his navigator dead, his wireless operator fatally wounded, his aircraft crippled and defenceless, Flight Lieutenant Reid showed superb courage and leadership in penetrating a further 200 miles into enemy territory to attack one of the most strongly defended targets in Germany, every additional mile increasing the hazards of the long perilous journey home. His tenacity and devotion to duty were beyond praise.’ Flight Lieutenant Bill Reid’s Victoria Cross and other campaign medals were sold at auction at Spink, 19.11.2009, for the World Record price to a British recipient of £348,000. PROVENANCE:

Bill Reid, V.C. personal collection.

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54 A Framed Portrait Print of Warrant Officer Norman Jackson, V.C. A ‘Presentation Copy’ portrait of Warrant Officer N.C. Jackson, V.C., pictured in front of the No.106 Squadron crest, 550mm x 360mm, signed ‘Norman Jackson’, mounted in a glazed display frame Accompanied by an Invitation from the Trustees of the Bentley Priory Battle of Britain Trust to the Opening of the Bentley Priory Museum, on Saturday 14th September, 2013, to include a flying display by a Spitfire and a Hurricane £150-250

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V.C. London Gazette 26.10.1945 905192 Sergeant (now Warrant Officer) Norman Cyril Jackson, R.A.F.V.R. 106 Squadron ‘This airman was the flight engineer in a Lancaster detailed to attack Schweinfurt on the night of 26th April 1944. Bombs were dropped successfully and the aircraft was climbing out of the target area. Suddenly it was attacked by a fighter at about 20,000 feet. The captain took evading action at once, but the enemy secured many hits. A fire started near a petrol tank on the upper surface of the starboard wing, between the fuselage and the inner engine. Sergeant Jackson was thrown to the floor during the engagement. Wounds which he received from shell splinters in the right leg and shoulder were probably sustained at that time. Recovering himself, he remarked that he could deal with the fire on the wing and obtained his captain’s permission to try to put out the flames. Pushing a hand fireextinguisher into the top of his life-saving jacket and clipping on his parachute pack. Sergeant Jackson jettisoned the escape hatch above the pilot’s head. He then started to climb out of the cockpit and back along the top of the fuselage to the starboard wing. Before he could leave the fuselage his parachute pack opened and the whole canopy and rigging lines spilled into the cockpit. Undeterred, Sergeant Jackson continued. The pilot, bomb aimer and navigator gathered the parachute together and held on to the rigging lines, paying them out as the airman crawled aft. Eventually he slipped and, falling from the fuselage to the starboard wing, grasped an air intake on the leading edge of the wing. He succeeded in clinging on but lost the extinguisher, which was blown away. By this time, the fire had spread rapidly and Sergeant Jackson was involved. His face, hands and clothing were severely burnt. Unable to retain his hold, he was swept through the flames and over the trailing edge of the wing, dragging his parachute behind. When last seen it was only partly inflated and was burning in a number of places. Realising the fire could not be controlled, the captain gave the order to abandon aircraft. Four of the remaining members of the crew landed safely. The captain and rear gunner have not been accounted for. Sergeant Jackson was unable to control his descent and landed heavily. He sustained a broken ankle, and his right eye was closed through burns and his hands were useless. These injuries, together with the wounds received earlier, reduced him to a pitiable state. At daybreak he crawled to the nearest village, where he was taken prisoner. He bore the intense pain and discomfort of the journey to Dulag Luft with magnificent fortitude. After 10 months in hospital he made a good recovery, though his hands require further treatment and are of only limited use. This airman’s attempt to extinguish the fire and save the aircraft and crew from falling into enemy hands was an act of outstanding gallantry. To venture outside, when travelling at 200 miles an hour, at an incredible height and in intense cold, was an almost incredible feat. Had he succeeded in subduing the flames, there was little or no prospect of his regaining the cockpit. The spilling of his parachute and the risk of grave damage to its canopy reduced his chances of survival to a minimum. By his ready willingness to face these dangers he set an example of self-sacrifice which will ever be remembered’. Warrant Officer Norman Jackson’s Victoria Cross and other campaign medals were sold at auction at Spink, 30.4.2004, for the then World Record price of £230,000.

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55 Medals Awarded to J.P. Smith, Esq., Director and Chief Engineer, Hawker Siddeley Aviation Ltd. a) Royal Aeronautical Society Silver Medal, 40mm, silver, the obverse featuring a bird of prey in flight with a balloon above, the edge engraved ‘J. P. Smith ‘For outstanding contributions to Aircraft Design’ 1966’, in fitted John Pinches, London, case of issue b) Tanner Cup Shooting Medal, 32mm, silvered, the obverse featuring crossed rifles, the reverse inscribed ‘Tanner Cup 1932 J. P. Smith’, in Phillips, Aldershot, fitted case of issue c) Tanner Cup Shooting Medal, 45mm, bronze, the obverse featuring a soldier standing firing arquebus, the reverse inscribed ‘Tanner Cup 1933 J. P. Smith’, in Phillips, Aldershot, fitted case of issue d) Royal Marines Football Medal, 32mm, bronze, the obverse featuring men playing football, unnamed, in Phillips, Aldershot, fitted case of issue; together with a Royal Drawing Society Medal, the reverse inscribed ‘H. Smith, 1897’, in fitted Elkington, London, case of issue, generally extremely fine (5) £100-150 The Royal Aeronautical Society’s Silver Medal is usually awarded annually ‘for work of an exceptional nature leading to major advances or contribution’. The medal was first awarded in 1909, and 87 awards have been made to date. Mr J.P. Smith, a Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society, was awarded the Society’s Silver Medal in 1966. He was latterly Director and Chief Engineer, Civil, of Hawker Siddeley Aviation Ltd.

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56 101 Troop, No. 6 Commando Arm Badge An extremely rare example, blue cloth with embroidered red numerals and white swordfish, very slight mothing and glue marks to the reverse ÂŁ200-300

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57 Nimrod Landing Gear Control and Column Control Head The landing gear control from a Hawker Siddeley Nimrod, mounted on a wooden base for display and presentation purposes, the accompanying brass plaque reading ‘To Group Captain B.K. Burridge Station Commander RAF Kinloss 1990-1992 from The Officer Commanding and Personnel of Engineering and Supply Wing. “Power is Always Available”’ The column control head from a Hawker Siddeley Nimrod, mounted on a wooden base for display and presentation purposes, the accompanying brass plaque reading ‘To B.K.B. from all on 206 (Jock Jumping) Sqn on his Departure from RAF Kinloss 10 Sep 92’ (2) £200-300 PROVENANCE:

Presented to Nimrod Pilot Air Chief Marshal Sir Brian Burridge, K.C.B., C.B.E., Commander-in-Chief R.A.F. Strike Command 2003-06.

57

57

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58

58 A Second World War Scramble Bell A fine-quality Air Ministry pattern scramble bell, engraved with a crown and ‘A.M. 1942’, 255mm in height, 270mm in diameter, complete with clapper £400-500 PROVENANCE:

Probably from one of the airfields in the Kentish area. Note: Owing to the large and heavy nature of this lot it is unsuitable for postage and we would recommend collection.

THE END OF THE SALE

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TH IS EXQ UISI TE LIMI TED EDI T ION BAD GE IS EXCLUSIVELY FOR CONTRIBU TORS TO THE BENTLEY PRIORY BAT TLE OF BRI TAIN TRUST APP EAL.

E N T L E Y P R I O R Y was the headquarters of Fighter Command in the summer of 1940. From here Air Chief Marshal, Sir Hugh Dowding, directed operations during the four month Battle of Britain. This handsome house, designed by Sir John Soane and set among beautiful gardens, is no longer required by the Royal Air Force. It is to become a museum and a centre of education that will attract a wide range of visitors when it opens in 2013. A

B

permanent exhibition will be created to inform visitors about the great events that played out at the Priory; in particular the huge debt that all of us, who enjoy freedom today, owe to those who took part in the struggle of 1940. This worthy project is in the final straight of its fund raising run, having already raised £12 million. The Trust needs to raise a further £1.8 million to complete the appeal. Each lapel pin will represent

one of ‘The Few’ Battle of Britain pilots, to be worn with pride and as recognition of having contributed to the appeal. The badge, which measures 22mm in diametre and comes in a beautiful presentation box with certifcate, can only be bought by making a donation to the Bentley Priory Battle of Britain Trust Appeal. To own one of these rare badges please telephone 0207 580 3343 or e-mail the appeal directl y at bentleypriory@btinernet.com

The cost of designing and manufacturing the lapel badges has been kindly donated by Melissa John in memory of her brother Christopher John.

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69 Southampton Row, Bloomsbury, London WC1B 4ET tel: +44 (0)20 7563 4020 fax: +44 (0)20 7563 4037

NAME ______________________________________________________

THE BENTLEY PRIORY BATTLE OF BRITAIN TRUST APPEAL CHARITY AUCTION

WRITTEN BIDS FORM

This form should be sent or faxed to the Spink auction office in advance of the sale. ADDRESS ____________________________________________________ References for new clients should be supplied in good time to be taken up before the sale. Bids received later than ____________________________________________________________ one hour before the start of the sale may not be processed.

____________________________________________________________ 6 SEPTEMBER 2012

YOU CAN ALSO BID IN REAL TIME ON SPINK LIVE.

POSTCODE ___________________________________________________

LONDON

JUST VISIT WWW.SPINK.COM TO REGISTER

SALE TITLE

DATE

CODE NAME

SALE NO.

The Bentley Priory Battle of Britain Trust Appeal Charity Auction

Thursday 6 September 2012 at 2.00 p.m.

CAT’S EYES

12044

I request Spink, without legal obligations of any kind on its part, to bid on the following Lots up to the price given below. I understand that if my bid is successful the Purchase Price payable will be the sum of the final bid and a premium as a percentage of the final bid (together with any VAT chargeable). The Rate of Premium is 20% of the final hammer price of each lot. All bids shall be treated as offers made on the Terms and Conditions for Buyers printed in the catalogue. I also understand that Spink provides the service of executing bids on behalf of clients for the convenience of clients and that Spink will not be held responsible for failing to execute bids. If identical commission bids are received for the same Lot, the commission bid received first by Spink will take precedence. Please note that you will not be notified if there are higher written bids received. If you require such notification then this is available on bids made via Spink live bidding service.

BIDDERS PLEASE NOTE OUR EXTENSION CLAUSES ON PAGE 2 PLEASE PRINT CLEARLY IN BLOCK LETTERS AND ENSURE THAT BIDS ARE IN STERLING

Lot Number (in numerical order)

Price Bid £ (excluding Buyer’s Premium)

Lot Number (in numerical order)

Price Bid £ (excluding Buyer’s Premium)

Lot Number (in numerical order)

Price Bid £ (excluding Buyer’s Premium)

–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––



––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––

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TEL. HOME

______________________________________________

TEL. OFFICE ____________________________________________

____________________________________________________

E-MAIL ________________________________________________

SIGNATURE _______________________________________________

VAT NUMBER ___________________________________________

FAX

Please indicate the type of card:

V ISA

V ISA DEBIT

MASTERCARD

SWITCH

AMERICAN EXPRESS

PAYMENT MADE BY MASTERCARD OR VISA ARE SUBJECT TO A 2% SURCHARGE AND AMERICAN EXPRESS 4% CARD NO: SIGNATURE

START DATE: EXPIRY DATE

ISSUE NO:

SECURITY CODE:

NAME (ON CREDIT CARD)

Please charge all purchases to my card Do not charge my card. I will arrange to send payment. (Spink will only charge your card should you default on the payment terms agreed) Please hold my purchased lots for collection

Continued ...


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DATE

SALE NO.

Thursday 6 September 2012 at 2.00 p.m.

12044

PLEASE PRINT CLEARLY IN BLOCK LETTERS AND ENSURE THAT BIDS ARE IN STERLING Lot Number (in numerical order)

Price Bid £ (excluding Buyer’s Premium)

Lot Number (in numerical order)

Price Bid £ (excluding Buyer’s Premium)

BIDDING INCREMENTS Bidding generally opens below the low estimate and advances in the following order although the auctioneer may vary the bidding increments during the course of the auction. The normal bidding increments are: Up to £100 £100 to £300 £300 to £600 £600 to £1,000

by £5 by £10 £320-£350-£380-£400 etc. by £50

£1,000 to £3,000 £3,000 to £6,000 £6,000 to £20,000 £20,000 and up

by £100 £3,200-£3,500-£3,800-£4,000 etc. by £500 Auctioneer’s discretion

Lot Number (in numerical order)

Price Bid £ (excluding Buyer’s Premium)

VAT is chargeable on the hammer and the premium of daggered (†) and (Ω) lots at the standard rate (currently 20%), and on lots marked (x) at the reduced rate (currently 5% on the hammer and 20% on the premium). VAT on Margin Scheme lots is payable at 20% on the premium only.

REFERENCES REQUIRED FOR CLIENTS NOT YET KNOWN TO SPINK

TRADE REFERENCES

BANK REFERENCES

________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________


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TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR BUYERS These conditions set out the terms on which we (Spink and Son Limited of 69 Southampton Row, Bloomsbury London WC1B 4ET (company no. 04369748)) contract with you (Buyer) either as agent on behalf of the Seller or as principal if we are the Seller. You should read these conditions carefully. 1

DEFINITIONS The following definitions in this condition apply in these conditions.

2

3

Auctioneers’ Margin Scheme

means a VAT margin scheme as defined by HM Revenue & Customs;

Buyer’s Premium

means the charge payable by you as a percentage of the Hammer Price, at the rates set out in clause 5.1 below;

Certificate of Authenticity

means a certificate issued by an Expert Committee confirming the authenticity of a Lot;

Expert Committee

means a committee of experts to whom a Lot may be sent for an extension in accordance with clause 3.4.3;

Forgery

means a Lot constituting an imitation originally conceived and executed as a whole with a fraudulent intention to deceive as to authorship, origin, age, period, culture or source where the correct description as to such matters is not reflected by the description in the catalogue and which at the date of the auction had a value materially less than it would have had if it had been in accordance with the description in the catalogue. Accordingly, no Lot shall be capable of being a Forgery by reason of any damage and/or restoration work of any kind (including re-enamelling);

Hammer Price

means the amount of the highest bid accepted by the auctioneer in relation to a Lot;

Lot

means any item deposited with us for sale at auction and, in particular, the item or items described against any Lot number in any catalogue;

Reserve

the amount below which we agree with the Seller that the Lot cannot be sold;

Seller

means the owner of the Lot being sold by us;

Spink Group

Spink and Son Limited, our subsidiaries and associated companies.

VAT

value added tax chargeable under VAT and any similar replacement or additional tax; and

VAT Symbols

means the symbols detailing the VAT status of the Lot details of which are set out at the back of the catalogue. the first session of the sale. If accepted by us, such request shall have the same effect as notice of an intention to question the genuineness or description of the Lot for the purposes of clause 5.13 (Refund in the case of Forgery) of these Terms and Conditions and the provisions of clause 5.13 (Refund in the case of Forgery) shall apply accordingly.

SPINK’S ROLE AS AGENT 2.1

All sales undertaken by us either at auction or privately are undertaken either as agent on behalf of the Seller or from time to time, as principal if we are the owner of the Lot. Please note that even if we are acting as agent on behalf of the Seller rather than as principal, we may have a financial interest in the Lot.

2.2

The contract for the sale of the Lot will be between you and the Seller.

3.4.2 Notice of a request for an expert opinion or Certificate of Authenticity must give the reason why such opinion is required and specify the identity of your proposed expert which will be subject to agreement by us. We reserve the right, at our discretion, to refuse a request for an expert opinion or Certificate of Authenticity including (without limitation) where the proposed expert is not known to us.

BEFORE THE SALE 3.1

3.2

Examination of goods You are strongly advised to examine personally any goods in which you are interested, before the auction takes place. Condition reports are usually available on request. We provide no guarantee to you other than in relation to Forgeries, as set out in clause 5.13 of these Terms and Conditions.

3.4.3 If we accept a request for an expert opinion or Certificate of Authenticity we will submit the Lot to the Expert Committee. You acknowledge and accept that the length of time taken by an Expert Committee to reach an opinion will vary depending on the circumstances and in any event is beyond our control.

Catalogue descriptions 3.2.1 Statements by us in the catalogue or condition report, or made orally or in writing elsewhere, regarding the authorship, origin, date, age, size, medium, attribution, genuineness, provenance, condition or estimated selling price of any Lot are merely statements of opinion, and are not to be relied on as statements of definitive fact. Catalogue illustrations are for guidance only, and should not be relied on either to determine the tone or colour of any item or to reveal imperfections. Estimates of the selling price should not be relied on as a statement that this price is either the price at which the Lot will sell or its value for any other purpose. 3.2.2 Many items are of an age or nature which precludes their being in perfect condition and some descriptions in the catalogue or given by way of condition report make reference to damage and/or restoration. We provide this information for guidance only and the absence of such a reference does not imply that an item is free from defects or restoration nor does a reference to particular defects imply the absence of any others. 3.2.3 Other than as set out in clause 5.13, and in the absence of fraud, neither the Seller nor we, nor any of our employees or agents, are responsible for the correctness of any statement as to the authorship, origin, date, age, attribution, genuineness or provenance of any Lot nor for any other errors of description or for any faults or defects in any Lot.

3.3

3.4

Your Responsibility You are responsible for satisfying yourself as to the condition of the goods and the matters referred to in the catalogue description. Extensions – Stamps only 3.4.1 If you wish to obtain an expert opinion or Certificate of Authenticity on any Lot (other than a mixed Lot or Lot containing undescribed stamps) you must notify us in writing not less than forty-eight hours before the time fixed for the commencement of

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3.4.4 We will not normally accept a request for an extension on account of condition. Any Lot described in the catalogue as having faults or defects may not be returned even if an expert opinion or Certificate of Authenticity cites other faults or defects not included in the catalogue description, other than in the case of a Forgery. 3.4.5 Should Spink accept a request for an extension under the foregoing provisions of this paragraph, the fact may be stated by the Auctioneer from the rostrum prior to the sale of the Lot. 3.4.6 It should be noted that any stamp accompanied by a Certificate of Authenticity is sold on the basis of that Certificate only and not on the basis of any other description or warranty as to authenticity. No request for an extension will be accepted on such a stamp and the return of such a stamp will not be accepted. 4

AT THE SALE 4.1

Refusal of admission Our sales usually take place on our own premises or premises over which we have control for the sale, and we have the right, exercisable at our complete discretion, to refuse admission to the premises or attendance at an auction.

4.2

Registration before bidding You must complete and sign a registration form and provide identification before making a bid at auction. Please be aware that we usually require buyers to undergo a credit check. Some lots may be designated, prior to the auction, as “Premium Lots”, which means a deposit may be required before placing a bid on the item for sale. Information will be posted on our website in such an event.


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4.3

Bidding as Principal When making a bid (whether such bids are made in person or by way of telephone bids operated by Spink, commission or online or email bids), you will be deemed to be acting as principal and will be accepting personal liability, unless it has been agreed in writing, at the time of registration, that you are acting as agent on behalf of a third party buyer acceptable to us.

4.4

Commission Bids If you give us instructions to bid on your behalf, by using the form provided in our catalogues or via our website, we shall use reasonable endeavours to do so, provided these instructions are received not later than 24 hours before the auction. If we receive commission bids on a particular Lot for identical amounts, and at auction these bids are the highest bids for the Lot, it will be sold to the person whose bid was received first. Commission bids are undertaken subject to other commitments at the time of the sale, and the conduct of the auction may be such that we are unable to bid as requested. Since this is undertaken as a free service to prospective buyers on the terms stated, we cannot accept liability for failure to make a commission bid. You should therefore always attend personally if you wish to be certain of bidding.

4.5

On-line Bidding We offer internet services as a convenience to our clients. We will not be responsible for errors or failures to execute bids placed on the internet, including, without limitation, errors or failures caused by (i) a loss of internet connection by either party for whatever reason; (ii) a breakdown or problems with the online bidding software and/or (iii) a breakdown or problems with your internet connection, computer or system. Execution of on-line internet bids is a free service undertaken subject to other commitments at the time of the auction and we do not accept liability for failing to execute an online internet bid or for errors or omissions in connection with this activity.

4.6

Telephone Bids If you make arrangements with us not less than 24 hours before the sale, we shall use reasonable endeavours to contact you to enable you to participate in bidding by telephone, but in no circumstances will we be liable to either the Seller or you as a result of failure to do so.

4.7

Currency Converter At some auctions, a currency converter will be operated, based on the one month forward rates of exchange quoted to us by Barclays Bank Plc or any other appropriate rate determined by us, at opening on the date of the auction. Bidding will take place in a currency determined by us, which is usually sterling for auctions held in London. The currency converter is not always reliable, and errors may occur beyond our control either in the accuracy of the Lot number displayed on the converter, or the foreign currency equivalent of sterling bids. We shall not be liable to you for any loss suffered as a result of you following the currency converter.

4.8

Video images At some auctions there will be a video screen. Mistakes may occur in its operation, and we cannot be liable to you regarding either the correspondence of the image to the Lot being sold or the quality of the image as a reproduction of the original.

4.9

Bidding Increments Bidding generally opens below the low estimate and advances in the following order although the auctioneer may vary the bidding increments during the course of the auction. The normal bidding increments are: Up to £100 by £5 £100 to £300 by £10 £300 to £600 £320-£350-£380-£400 etc. £600 to £1,000 by £50 £1,000 to £3,000 by £100 £3,000 to £6,000 £3,200-£3,500-£3,800-£4,000 etc. £6,000 to £20,000 by £500 £20,000 and up Auctioneer’s discretion

4.10 Bidding by Spink 4.10.1 We reserve the right to bid on Lots on the Seller’s behalf up to the amount of the Reserve (if any), which will never be above the low estimate printed in the auction catalogue. 4.10.2 The Spink Group reserves the right to bid on and purchase Lots as principal. 4.11 The Auctioneer’s Discretion The auctioneer has the right at his absolute discretion to refuse any bid to advance the bidding in such manner as he may decide to withdraw or divide any Lot, to combine any two or more Lots and, in the case of error or dispute, to put an item up for bidding again. Spink Uni (07/11) (20)

5

4.12 Successful Bid Subject to the auctioneer’s discretion, the striking of his hammer marks the acceptance of the highest bid, provided always that such bid is higher than the Reserve (where applicable), and the conclusion of a contract for sale between you and the Seller. 4.13 After Sale Arrangements If you enter into any private sale agreements for any Lot with the Seller within 60 days of the auction, we, as exclusive agents of the Seller reserve the right to charge you the applicable Buyer’s Premium in accordance with these Terms and Conditions, and the Seller a commission in accordance with the terms of the Seller’s agreement. 4.14 Return of Lot Once your bid has been accepted for a Lot then you are liable to pay for that Lot in accordance with these Terms and Conditions. If there are any problems with a Lot then you must notify us within 7 days of receipt of the Lot, specifying the nature of the problem. We may then request that the Lot is returned to us for inspection. Save as set out in clause 5.13, the cancellation of the sale of any Lot and the refund of the corresponding purchase price is entirely at our sole discretion. We will not normally exercise that discretion if the Lot is not received by us in the same condition that it was in at the auction date. AFTER THE AUCTION 5.1 Buyer’s Premium In addition to the Hammer Price, you must pay us the Buyer’s Premium at a rate of 20% of the final Hammer Price of each Lot. 5.2 Value Added Tax Other than in respect of Zero-rated Lots (o) (see VAT Symbols for details), VAT is payable on the Buyer’s Premium and on the Hammer Price, if the Lot has been marked with a sign to that effect in the catalogue (see VAT Symbols for details). 5.3 VAT Refunds General 5.3.1 As we remain liable to account for VAT on all Lots unless they have been exported outside the EU within 3 months of the date of sale, you will generally be asked to deposit all amounts of VAT invoiced. However, if a Spink nominated shipper is instructed, then any refundable VAT will not be collected. In all other cases credits will be made when proof of export is provided. If you export the Lot yourself you must obtain shipping documents from the Shipping Department for which a charge of £50 will be made. 5.3.2 If you export the Lot you must return the valid proof of export certificate to us within 3 months of the date of sale. If you fail to return the proof of export certificate to us within such period and you have not already accounted to us for the VAT, you will be liable to us for the full amount of the VAT due on such Lot and we shall be entitled to invoice you for this sum. 5.3.3 To apply for a refund of any VAT paid, the proof of export certificate must be sent to our Shipping Department clearly marked ‘VAT Refund’ within 3 months of the date of sale. No payment will be made where the total amount of VAT refundable is less than £50 and Spink will charge £50 for each refund processed. VAT Refunds - Buyers from within the EU 5.3.4 VAT refunds are available on the Hammer Price and Buyer’s Premium of Daggered (†) and Investment Gold (g) Lots. You must certify that you are registered for VAT in another EU country and that the Lot is to be removed from the United Kingdom within 3 months of the date of sale. 5.3.5 Where an EU buyer purchases a Lot on which import VAT has been charged, no refund of VAT is available from us. It may be possible to apply directly for a refund on form VAT 65 to HM Revenue & Customs Overeseas Repayment Section, Londonderry. VAT Refunds – Buyers from outside the EU 5.3.6 Where a Lot is included within the Auctioneers’ Margin Scheme and evidence of export from the EU is produced within 3 months of the date of sale, the VAT element included within the Buyer’s Premium may be refunded. 5.3.7 Where the Lot is marked as a Daggered (†) or Investment Gold (g) Lot the VAT charged on the Hammer Price may be refunded where evidence of export from the EU is produced within 3 months of the date of sale. A refund of VAT charged on the Buyer’s Premium can also be made on receipt of proof of business as a collectibles dealer. 5.3.8 Where the Lot is marked as an Omega (Ω) Lot or an Import VAT (x) Lot and evidence of export from the EU is produced within 3 months of the date of sale, the VAT charged on both the Hammer Price and Buyer’s Premium may be refunded. Where required, we can advise you on how to export such Lots as a specific form of export evidence is required. Where we advise you on the export of the Lots, please be aware that the ultimate responsibility in respect of obtaining a valid proof of export certificate will lie with you and we will not be responsible for your failure to obtain such certificate.


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Payment 5.4.1 You must provide us with your full name and permanent address and, if so requested, details of the bank from which any payments to us will be made. You must pay the full amount due (comprising the Hammer Price, the Buyer’s Premium and any applicable VAT) within seven days after the date of the sale. This applies even if you wish to export the Lot and an export licence is (or may be) required. 5.4.2 You will not acquire title to the Lot until all amounts due have been paid in full. This includes instances where special arrangements were made for release of Lot prior to full settlement. 5.4.3 Payment should be made in sterling by one of the following methods: II(i) Direct bank transfer to our account details of which are set out on the invoice. All bank charges shall be met by you. Please ensure that your client number is noted on the transfer. i(ii) By cheque or bank draft made payable to Spink and Son Ltd and sent to Spink at 69 Southampton Row, Bloomsbury, London WC1B 4ET. Please note that the processing charges for payments made by cheques or bank drafts drawn on a non-U.K bank shall be met by you. Please ensure that the remittance slip printed at the bottom of the invoice is enclosed with your payment. (iii) By Visa or Mastercard. A charge of 2% will be applied. Payments exceeding £5,000 can normally only be made by the card holder in person whilst on our premises. 5.4.4 Payments should be made by the registered buyer and not by third parties, unless it has been agreed at the time of registration that you are acting as an agent on behalf of a third party. 5.5 Invoices Invoices may consist of one or more pages and will show: Zero rated Lots (o); no symbol Lots sold under the Auctioneers’ Margin Scheme; Lots marked (g) special scheme Investment Gold; Daggered Lots (†), imported Lots marked (x) and (Ω), (e) Lots with Zero rated hammer for EU VAT registered buyers. 5.6 Collection of Purchases 5.6.1 Unless we specifically agree to the contrary, we shall retain items sold until all amounts due to us, or to the Spink Group, have been paid in full. 5.6.2 Unless we notify you to the contrary, items retained by us will be covered in accordance with our policy which is available for inspection at our offices from the date of sale for a period of seven days or until the time of collection, whichever is sooner. After seven days or from the time of collection, whichever is the earlier, the Lot will be entirely at your risk. 5.6.3 Our policy will not cover and we are unable to accept responsibility for damage caused by woodworm, changes in atmospheric conditions or acts of terrorism. 5.7 Notification We are not able to notify successful bidders by telephone. While Invoices are sent out by mail after the auction we do not accept responsibility for notifying you of the result of your bid. You are requested to contact us by telephone or in person as soon as possible after the auction to obtain details of the outcome of your bids to avoid incurring charges for late payment. 5.8 Packing and handling 5.8.1 We shall use all reasonable endeavours to take care when handling and packing a purchased Lot but remind you that after seven days or from the time of collection, whichever is sooner, the Lot is entirely at your risk. Our postage charges are set out at the back of the catalogue. 5.8.2 It is the responsibility of the Buyer to be aware of any Import Duties that may be incurred upon importation to the final destination. Spink will not accept return of any package in order to avoid these duties. The onus is also on the Buyer to be aware of any Customs import restrictions that prohibit the importation of certain collectibles. Spink will not accept return of the Lot(s) under these circumstances. Spink will not accept responsibility for Lot(s) seized or destroyed by Customs. 5.9 Recommended packers and shippers If required our shipping department may arrange shipment as your agent. Although we may suggest carriers if specifically requested, our suggestions are made on the basis of our general experience of such parties in the past and we are not responsible to any person to whom we have made a recommendation for the acts or omissions of the third parties concerned. 5.10 Remedies for non-payment or failure to collect purchases 5.10.1 If you fail to make payment within seven days of your stipulated payment date set out in your invoice, we shall be entitled to exercise one or more of the following rights or remedies: 5.10.1.1 to charge interest at the rate of 2% per month compound interest, calculated on a daily basis, from the date the full amount is due; 5.10.1.2 to set off against any amounts which the Spink Group may owe you in any other transaction the outstanding amount remaining unpaid by you; 5.4

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5.10.1.3 we may keep hold of all or some of your Lots or other property in the possession of the Spink Group until you have paid all the amounts you owe us or the Spink Group, even if the unpaid amounts do not relate to those Lots or other property. Following fourteen days’ notice to you of the amount outstanding and remaining unpaid, the Spink Group shall have the right to arrange the sale of such Lots or other property. We shall apply the proceeds in discharge of the amount outstanding to us or the Spink Group, and pay any balance to you; 5.10.1.4 where several amounts are owed by you to the Spink Group in respect of different transactions, to apply any amount paid to discharge any amount owed in respect of any particular transaction, whether or not you so direct; 5.10.1.5 to reject at any future auction any bids made by you or on your behalf or obtain a deposit from you before accepting any bids. 5.10.2 If you fail to make payment within thirty-five days, we shall in addition be entitled: 5.10.2.1 to cancel the sale of the Lot or any other item sold to you at the same or any other auction; 5.10.2.2 to arrange a resale of the Lot, publicly or privately, and, if this results in a lower price being obtained, claim the balance from you together with all reasonable costs including a 20% seller’s commission, expenses, damages, legal fees, commissions and premiums of whatever kind associated with both sales or otherwise, incurred in connection with your failure to make payment; or 5.10.2.3 take any other appropriate action as we deem fit. 5.11 Failure to collect Where purchases are not collected within seven days after the sale, whether or not payment has been made, you will be required to pay a storage charge of £2 per item per day plus any additional handling cost that may apply. You will not be entitled to collect the Lot until all outstanding charges are met, together with payment of all other amounts due to us. 5.12 Export Licence 5.12.1 If required we can, at our discretion, advise you on the detailed provisions of the export licensing regulations. Where we advise you in relation to export licensing regulations the ultimate responsibility in respect of any export will lie with you and we will not be responsible for your failure to apply for any necessary licences. 5.12.2 If the Lot is going to be hand carried by you, you may be required to produce a valid export licence to us or sign a waiver document stating that a licence will be applied for. 5.12.3 You should always check whether an export licence is required before exporting. Export licences are usually obtained within two or three weeks but delays can occur. 5.12.4 Unless otherwise agreed by us in writing, the fact that you wish to apply for an export licence does not affect your obligation to make payment within seven days nor our right to charge interest on late payment. 5.12.5 If you request that we apply for an export licence on your behalf, we shall be entitled to recover from you our disbursements and out of pocket expenses in relation to such application, together with any relevant VAT. 5.12.6 We will not be obliged to rescind a sale nor to refund any interest or other expenses incurred by you where payment is made by you despite the fact that an export licence is required. 5.13 Refund in the case of Forgery 5.13.1 A sale will be cancelled, and the amount paid refunded to you if a Lot (other than a miscellaneous item not described in the catalogue) sold by us proves to have been a Forgery. We shall not however be obliged to refund any amounts if either (a) the catalogue description or saleroom notice at the auction date corresponded to the generally accepted opinion of scholars or experts at that time, or fairly indicated that there was a conflict of opinions, or (b) it can be demonstrated that the Lot is a Forgery only by means of either a scientific process not generally accepted for use until after publication of the catalogue or a process which at the date of the auction was unreasonably expensive or impracticable or likely to have caused damage to the Lot. Furthermore, you should note that this refund can be obtained only if the following conditions are met: 5.13.1.1 you must notify us in writing, within seven days of the receipt of the Lot(s), that in your view the Lot concerned is a Forgery; 5.13.1.2 you must then return the item to us within fourteen days from receipt of the Lot(s), in the same condition as at the auction date; and


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5.13.1.3 as soon as possible following return of the Lot, you must produce evidence satisfactory to us that the Lot is a Forgery and that you are able to transfer good title to us, free from any third party claims. 5.13.2 In no circumstances shall we be required to pay you any more than the amount paid by you for the Lot concerned and you shall have no claim for interest. 5.13.3 The benefit of this guarantee is not capable of being transferred, and is solely for the benefit of the person to whom the original invoice was made out by us in respect of the Lot when sold and who, since the sale, has remained the owner of the Lot without disposing of any interest in it to any third party. 5.13.4 We shall be entitled to rely on any scientific or other process to establish that the Lot is not a Forgery, whether or not such process was used or in use at the date of the auction. 6 LIABILITY Nothing in these Terms and Conditions limits or excludes our liability for: 6.1 death or personal injury resulting from negligence; or 6.2 any damage or liability incurred by you as a result of our fraud or fraudulent misrepresentation. 7 COPYRIGHT 7.1 We shall have the right (on a non-exclusive basis) to photograph, video or otherwise produce an image of the Lot. All rights in such an image will belong to us, and we shall have the right to use it in whatever way we see fit. 7.2 The copyright in all images, illustrations and written material relating to a Lot is and shall remain at all times our property and we shall have the right to use it in whatever way we see fit. You shall not use or allow anyone else to use such images, illustrations or written material without our prior written consent. 8 VAT You shall give us all relevant information about your VAT status and that of the Lot to ensure that the correct information is printed in the catalogues. Once printed, the information cannot be changed. If we incur any unforeseen cost or expense as a result of the information being incorrect, you will reimburse to us on demand the full amount incurred. 9 NOTICES All notices given under these Terms and Conditions may be served personally, sent by 1st class post, or faxed to the address given to the sender by the other party. Any notice sent by post will be deemed to have been received on the second working day after posting or, if the addressee is overseas, on the fifth working day after posting. Any notice sent by fax or served personally will be deemed to be delivered on the first working day following despatch. 10 ADDITIONAL PROVISIONS The following provisions of this clause 10 shall apply only if you are acting for the purposes of your business. 10.1 Limitation of Liability Subject to clause 6, we shall not be liable, whether in tort (including for negligence) or breach of statutory duty, contract, misrepresentation or otherwise for any: 10.1.1 loss of profits, loss of business, depletion of goodwill and/or similar losses, loss of anticipated savings, loss of goods, loss of contract, loss of use, loss of corruption of data or information; or 10.1.2 any special, indirect, consequential or pure economic loss, costs, damages, charges or expenses. 10.2 Severability If any part of these Terms and Condition is found by any court to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, that part may be discounted and the rest of the conditions shall continue to be valid and enforceable to the fullest extent permitted by law. 10.3 Force majeure We shall have no liability to you if we are prevented from, or delayed in performing, our obligations under these Terms and Conditions or from carrying on our business by acts, events, omissions or accidents beyond our reasonable control, including (without limitation) strikes, lock-outs or other industrial disputes (whether involving our workforce or the workforce of any other party), failure of a utility service or transport network, act of God, war, riot, civil commotion, malicious damage, compliance with any law or governmental order, rule, regulation or direction, accident, breakdown of plant or machinery, fire, flood, storm or default of suppliers or subcontractors. 10.4 Waiver 10.4.1 A waiver of any right under these Terms and Conditions is only effective if it is in writing and it applies only to the circumstances for which it is given. No failure or delay by a party in exercising any right or remedy under these Terms and Conditions or by law shall constitute a waiver of that (or any other) right or remedy, nor preclude or restrict its further exercise. No single or partial exercise of such right or remedy shall preclude or restrict the further exercise of that (or any other) right or remedy. 10.4.2 Unless specifically provided otherwise, rights arising under these Terms and Conditions are cumulative and do not exclude rights provided by law. Spink Uni (07/11) (20)

10.5 Law and Jurisdiction 10.5.1 These Terms and Conditions and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with them or their subject matter, shall be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the law of England and Wales. 10.5.2 The parties irrevocably agree that the courts of England and Wales shall have exclusive jurisdiction to settle any dispute or claim that arises out of, or in connection with, Terms and Conditions or their subject matter.

Postal Charges Prices for books (items sent by this method are not covered by insurance) Weight

UK

EU

Rest of the World

Up to 1kg

£8 for any weight

£12

£15

Up to 2kg

£8 for any weight

£18

£25

Prices for all other items including postage and packaging Invoice Value

UK

EU

Rest of the World

Up to £1,500

£10

£15

£20

Above £1,501

£20

£30

£40

Shipments of more than 2kg or volumetric measurement of more than 2kg have to be sent by courier. Certain countries may incur extra charge when courier services are required by our insurance policy. For lots sent by courier please contact Auctionteam@spink.com for calculation of any further relevant cost in addition to the above charges. Value Added Tax (VAT) Charging of (VAT) at Auction The information shown on this page sets out the way in which Spink intends to account for VAT.

i.

Auctioneers’ Margin Scheme 1. Where possible, we will offer Lots for sale under the Auctioneers’ Margin Scheme. Such Lots can be identified by the absence of any symbol next to the Lot number in the catalogue and will not be subject to VAT on the Hammer Price. 2. Where Lots are sold using the Auctioneers’ Margin Scheme to VAT–registered businesses, the VAT included within the Buyers’ Premium is not recoverable as input tax. Upon request on sale day, we will issue invoices that show VAT separately on both the Hammer Price and the Buyer’s Premium. This will enable VAT-registered businesses to recover the VAT charged as input tax, subject to the normal rules for recovering input tax.

ii.

Zero-Rated Lots Limited Categories of goods, such as books, are Zero-rated (o) for VAT in the United Kingdom. Such Lots are offered under the Auctioneers’ Margin Scheme. In these circumstances no VAT element will be included within the Buyer’s Premium.

iii.

Daggered Lots Lots which are Daggered (†) in the catalogue are subject to VAT at 20% on both the Hammer Price and the Buyer’s Premium.

iv.

Starred and Omega Lots Lots which are marked (x) in the catalogue are subject to VAT at 5% on the Hammer Price and 20% on the Buyer’s Premium which is shown as inclusive of VAT. Lots which bear the Omega symbol (Ω) are subject to VAT at 20% on the Hammer Price and on the Buyer’s Premium. Such Lots bear VAT because the Lot is liable for VAT at this rate on importation into the EU.

v.

Investment Gold Lots Lots marked (g) in the catalogue are exempt from VAT on the Hammer Price and are subject to VAT at 20% on the Buyer’s Premium. A refund of VAT charged on the Buyer’s Premium can also be made on receipt of proof of business as a collectibles dealer.

vi.

Imported Lots Lots which are marked (x) and Lots which bear the Omega symbol (Ω) have VAT charged on the Hammer Price and Buyers’ Premium because they have been imported into the United Kingdom from outside the EU. In these cases we have used a temporary importation procedure, which in effect means that the point of importation is deferred until the Lot has been sold. At this point the Buyer is treated as the importer and is liable to pay the import VAT due. We will collect the VAT from you and pay it to HM Customs and Excise on your behalf.


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GROUP CHAIRMAN AND CEO Olivier D. Stocker YOUR SPECIALISTS STAMPS UK - Tim Hirsch Guy Croton David Parsons Nick Startup Neill Granger Paul Mathews Dominic Savastano Tom Smith USA - Chris Anderson George Eveleth Andrew Titley Ed Robinson Rick Penko EUROPE - Guido Craveri Fernando Martínez CHINA - Anna Lee Johnny Sang COINS UK - Paul Dawson Julie-Morgane Lecoindre Richard Bishop William MacKay Barbara Mears John Pett USA - Stephen Goldsmith Matthew Orsini Normand Pepin CHINA - Mark Li BANKNOTES, BONDS & SHARES UK - Barnaby Faull Mike Veissid Andrew Pattison Tom Badley USA - Stephen Goldsmith Matthew Orsini CHINA - Mark Li ORDERS, DECORATIONS, MEDALS & MILITARIA UK - Mark Quayle Oliver Pepys BOOKS UK - Philip Skingley

SALE CALENDAR 2012/2013 STAMPS 24 August 12 September 13 September 13 September 22 September Early October 23 October 23 October 23 October 24 October 24 October 7 November 8/9 November 13/14 November 12 December 13 January 13 January

The Collector’s Series Sale The Chartwell Collection - GB King Edward VIII, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth II The Gavin Littaur Collection of British Postal History. Selected rare covers from the period 1840-53 Great Britain Stamps Specialised Sale Fine Stamps and Covers of South East Asia The Collector’s Series Sale Victoria Half Lengths - The John Barwis Collection The “Fordwater” Collections of Falkland Islands, Gibraltar and Malta Latin America, including the Tito Collection - Part II Queensland - The Alan Griffiths Collection The Collector’s Series Sale The Collector’s Series Sale The Collector’s Series Sale The Morgan Collection of Australian Commonwealth The Chartwell Collection - GB Line-Engraved Essays, Proofs, Stamps and Covers - Part IV The Mizuhara Collection of Korean Stamps Fine Stamps and Covers of Hong Kong and China

Hong Kong London London London Singapore Hong Kong London London Lugano London Lugano London New York London London Hong Kong Hong Kong

12033 12017 12045 12018 12019

The Collector’s Series Sale The Collector’s Series Sale Ancient, English & Foreign Coins and Commemorative Medals The Collector’s Series Sale Ancient, English & Foreign Coins and Commemorative Medals Fine Coins of Hong Kong and China The Collector’s Series Sale

New York Hong Kong London New York London Hong Kong New York

314 12033 12026 315 12027 13007 316

The Collector’s Series Sale The Collector’s Series Sale Charity Auction of Bank of England Notes World Banknotes The George Kanaan Collection of Banknotes of the Middle East The David Kirch Collection of English Provincial Banknotes - Part I The David Kirch Collection of Bank of England Notes - Part I The Collector’s Series Sale World Banknotes Banknotes of Hong Kong and China The Collector’s Series Sale

New York Hong Kong London London London London London New York London Hong Kong New York

314 12033 12037 12023 12047 12035 12034 315 12024 13005 316

The Bentley Priory Battle of Britain Trust Appeal Charity Auction Orders, Decorations, Campaign Medals & Militaria Orders, Decorations, Campaign Medals & Militaria Orders, Decorations, Campaign Medals & Militaria Orders, Decorations, Campaign Medals & Militaria

London London London London London

12044 12004 13001 13002 13003

The Collector’s Series Sale The Collector’s Series Sale The Collector’s Series Sale Bonds and Share Certificates of the World Bonds and Share Certificates of Hong Kong and China The Collector’s Series Sale

New York Hong Kong New York London Hong Kong New York

314 12033 315 12011 13006 316

The Collector’s Series Sale The Collector’s Series Sale The Collector’s Series Sale

New York New York New York

An Evening of Exceptional Wines An Evening of Exceptional Wines

Hong Kong Hong Kong

12042 12039 SW1003 12043 SW1004 12020 12046 12021 13008 13009

COINS 22/23 August 24 August 26/27 September 13/14 November 4 December 12 January 15/16 January

AUTOGRAPHS USA - Stephen Goldsmith WINES CHINA - Anna Lee YOUR EUROPE TEAM (LONDON - LUGANO) Chairman’s Office Dennis Muriu Monica Kruber Directors Tim Hirsch Anthony Spink Auction & Client Management Team Miroslava Adusei-Poku Sandie Maylor Charles Blane Luca Borgo Phillipa Brown Rita Ariete María Martínez Maurizio Schenini Finance Alison Bennet Marco Fiori Mina Bhagat Alison Kinnaird Shyam Padhiar Billy Tumelty IT & Administration Berdia Qamarauli Attila Gyanyi Liz Cones Curlene Spencer John Winchcombe Bobby McBrierty Tom Robinson Cristina Dugoni Giacomo Canzi YOUR AMERICA TEAM (NEW YORK - DALLAS) Chairman Emeritus John Herzog Auction Administration and Marketing & Design Rick Penko Patricia Gardner James McGuire Emily Cowin Clyde Townsend Finance & Administration Sam Qureshi Ingrid Qureshi Ed Robinson Auctioneers Stephen Goldsmith Tracy Shreve Andrew Titley YOUR ASIA TEAM (HONG KONG - SINGAPORE) Vice Chairman Anna Lee Administration Amy Yung Dennis Chan Raymond Tat Gary Tan

BANKNOTES 22/23 August 24 August 26 September 2/3 October 4 October 9 October 10 October 13/14 November 6 December 12 January 15/16 January

MEDALS 6 September 22 November 25 April 25 July 21 November

BONDS AND SHARES 22/23 August 24 August 13/14 November 28 November 12 January 15/16 January

AUTOGRAPHS 22/23 August 13/14 November 15/16 January

WINES September November

The above sale dates are subject to change Spink offers the following services: – VALUATIONS FOR INSURANCE AND PROBATE FOR INDIVIDUAL ITEMS OR WHOLE COLLECTIONS – – SALES ON A COMMISSION BASIS EITHER OF INDIVIDUAL PIECES OR WHOLE COLLECTIONS –

314 315 316


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STAMPS COINS BANKNOTES MEDALS BONDS & SHARES AUTOGRAPHS BOOKS WINES

69 Southampton Row, Bloomsbury, London WC1B 4ET www.spink.com

R THE BENTLEY PRIORY BATTLE OF BRITAIN TRUST APPEAL CHARITY AUCTION R 6 SEPTEMBER 2012 R LONDON

© Copyright 2012

£25

THE BENTLEY PRIORY BATTLE OF BRITAIN TRUST APPEAL CHARITY AUCTION

6 SEPTEMBER 2012

LONDON

The Bentley Priory Battle of Britain Trust Appeal Charity Auction  

The Bentley Priory Battle of Britain Trust Appeal Charity Auction

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