DISCOVERING CHATEAU ROUGE
DISCOVERING ChAteau ROUGE
THE MAKING OF ChAteau ROUGE
THE WORLD’S MOST REMARKABLE TEAS
SEEKING OUT THE RARE, UNUSUAL AND EXOTIC
GIFTS AND ACCESSORIES
TEA PRODUCTION, A JOURNEY FROM LEAF TO CUP
HOW TO BREW THE PERFECT CUP
WHAT MAKES LOOSE LEAF TEA BETTER THAN TEA BAGS?
THE REAL HEALTH BENEFITS OF TEA
DISCOVERING CHATEAU ROUGE Born from a love of travel, ChAteau Rouge Teas was launched the end of 2010 by Seán Farrell – an avid tea enthusiast with a passion for luxury food and drink from around the world. Named after legendary Parisian Chateau and inspired by an era in French history of lavish banquets and stylish balls, when traders brought exotic delicacies back from their travels, Chateau Rouge embodies that same luxury and elegance. Determined to uncover the world’s most remarkable producers, each of the product tells its own story of heritage, authenticity and discovery. Chateau Rouge searches far and wide for not only the most remarkable teas in the world but products with stories to tell that take consumers on their own journeys of discovery. From a mellow handcrafted White Monkey to a delicately scented Formosa Pouchong and special long-cut Rooibos, Chateau Rouge Tea is on a mission to introduce UK tea lovers to some of the world’s most exciting undiscovered brews. The Chateau Rouge retail range of teas is available in the UK at Harvey Nichols stores nationwide as well as online.
Seรกn Farrell, MD and Founder ChAteau Rouge Tea 2
THE MAKING OF CHATEAU ROUGE TEA Growing up in a house where tea drinking was a big part of everyday life Seán believes the enjoyment of tea is partly due to its sociability – sharing stories and spending time with family and friends. It seems I have always been surrounded by freshly brewed tea, early memories are of his father who for amusement used to try and read tea leaves and his mother, who herself a highly skilled cook, regularly made cakes for teatime. Seán qualified as an Accountant which gave him the opportunity to travel and live abroad and follow his true passion of discovering new flavours in food and drinks. Chateau Rouge Tea was conceptualised from the time Seán spent living in Paris and subsequently in China – discovering that there was a gap in the market for luxury tea products that not only had their own story but were presented stylishly. “People are caring more about what they eat and drink. They want products that have character and reflect where they’re grown and produced. Even in this difficult economic climate, I think we’re witnessing a sea change. here’s a certain type of consumer who is moving away T from mass produced, consistently uniform and ultimately boring offerings – back to interesting, quality products from producers that share the same values. Life is too short and time too special to not truly expereince and appreciate real foods from around the world. Would you want to have it any other way?” — Seán Farrell
Gladys, Tea picker Arya Tea Garden Darjeeling, India
THE WORLD’S MOST REMARKABLE TEAS To find out what the world’s tea gardens – from the high Himalayan tea gardens to the mountain ranges in China or rolling hills in West Africa – have in common, stroll through one at night. This is when all tea gardens look the same. Wherever tea is cultivated, it loves a wet and temperate climate, with long hot sunny days followed by rainy nights and fresh mountain breezes. It is only at daybreak, when the clouds scatter beyond the horizon and the sun’s first rays transform the mist into glittery dew, that the infinite variety of tea gardens becomes apparent.
From this point on every tea garden looks different: from the colour of the soil and the sound of the birdsong, to the clothes of the women picking the leaves in the fields. But given the enormous variety of tea it is interesting to note that all tea is produced from the same plant – Camellia Sinensis. The main difference between each variety being, where the tea is grown (its ‘terroir’) and how it is produced – white and green teas being the least processed, with black tea leaves being the most. The term ‘tea’ is sometimes also loosely used to refer to ‘herbal teas’ or tisanes, which are an infusion of leaves, flowers, fruit, herbs, or other plant material, that contains no Camellia Sinensis Tisanes include South African Rooibos, camomile and peppermint ‘tea’.
There are few hours in life more agreeable than the hour dedicated to the ceremony known as afternoon tea. Henry James, The Portrait of a Lady
SEEKING OUT THE RARE, THE UNUSUAL AND THE EXOTIC Chateau Rougeâ€™s specially selected collection of singleestate leaf teas is creating a stir in a market where the bland and boring predominate. From a mellow handcrafted White Monkey to a delectably scented Pouchong from Taiwan and special long-cut Rooibos from the Western Cape, Chateau Rouge is on a mission to introduce tea lovers to some of the worlds most exciting and undiscovered brews. The current range of Chateau Rouge Teas of the world includes:
BLACK TEA Complex and assertive, black teas are the most ‘produced’ out of all the teas. With compact leaves yielding dark intense taste sensations, these teas can be compared to wonderfully rich aged Bordeaux wine. With seasonal pickings and graded according to the size of the leaf, a premium quality black leaf tea is refined and sophisticated – a true pleasure.
Sikkim Temi – 1st Flush
Imperial Earl Grey
Acclaimed as one of the best tea producers in India, the Temi Tea Garden is the only estate in the tiny Himalayan kingdom of Sikkim. It produces rare high-grown teas, similar to neighbouring Darjeeling, but from distinctly younger bushes. The gorgeous looking leaves deliver refined golden liquor with hints of ripe fruits. The tea estate is state owned and most of the production is destined for the local markets with only a small amount for export.
Many myths and recipes surround Earl Grey, whose distinctive flavour and aroma come from combining black teas with oil extracted from bergamot rind. Our blenders skilfully balance southern Italian bergamot oil with Keemun, Formosa Oolong, Assam, Darjeeling and Ceylon teas, for a fragrant, refreshing and stylishly complex brew.
REFINED PEACHY SOPHISTICATED
FRAGRANT CITRUSY NOBLE
OOLONG The champagne of green teas: producing a cup that is both sweet and fragrant. This tea really is sublime – Oolong captures the freshness of unfermented green tea and the rich complexity of black teas.
Fikkal Ilam 1st Flush
Nepal tea industry has been slow to develop, but the fantastic, little-known, Darjeeling-style teas from this fabled Himalayan land are starting to make waves. This wonderfully complex tea, from the Fikkal tea estate in Ilam, delivers an amazing jammy sweetness, and pepper, caramel and almond flavours that linger tantalisingly on the tongue. Distinctly lighter and fresher tasting than neighbouring Darjeeling teas, with lighter less astringent younger tasting green leaves.
Taiwan is renowned for its semi-fermented teas: Oolongs and even more lightly fermented Pouchongs (‘green Oolongs’). Formosa Pouchong has the lightness and freshness of unfermented green tea but is sweeter and more fragrant.
DELICATE FLORAL EXOTIC
caramel peppery multi-layered
Jasmine Downy Pearls
A delicate, intensely fragrant tea from the mist shrouded mountains of northern Fujian, China. A rare ‘boutique’ tea produced from the tender, downy green tea tips that are layered up to 7 times, with freshly gathered jasmine blossoms, before being hand-rolled into elegant pearls. This smooth tasting green tea can easily be infused 3 times, and is guaranteed to make you feel refreshed and lighter.
Grown on Wuyi Mountain in Fujian, China, this unusually light green tea derives its name from the way this teas leaves look like monkeys paws and legendary stories of the monks who originally produced this tea, training monkeys to climb the large tea trees to collect the difficult to reach outermost young leaves. Plucked and processed entirely by hand, this tea produces a fresh, mellow, and slightly fragrant cup. Only unopened buds and the youngest white and green leaves are plucked, producing this delicate and sweet tasting tea.
PERFUMED DELICATE REFRESHING
LIGHT UPLIFTING FLOWERY
Tisane is French for ‘Herbal’ tea. Since Ancient Egypt and historic China, herbal teas have been enjoyed for centuries, often drunk for its health properties. Cleansing, soothing and caffeine free no tea chest would be complete without a tisane or two. Try the famous Chateau Rouge single estate Rooibos or our award winning Honeybush.
Wiedouw Long Cut Rooibos
Wild Harvest Organic Honeybush
The most tea-like of herbal teas, this is naturally caffeine free and has well known health benefits. This tea is from the Wiedouw estate in the Cederberg Mountains of South Africa, where it is organically grown, hand-picked and cured naturally in the sun. This special long-cut Rooibos has a soothing aroma and sweet vibrant taste. These teas are Rainforest Alliance accredited and Fair Trade from 2012.
Long known in South Africa for its health benefits, this fragrant herbal tea (tisane) with warm honey coloured leaves, is similar to the better known Rooibos but has a distinct sweet mellow flavour. Gathered growing wild in the rolling hills of Langkloof in the Eastern Cape, these naturally organic leaves yield a fresh, mild, caffeine-free infusion with gorgeous honey/peppery undertones. First recognised by early colonists to the Cape, South Africa and noted in King’s American Dispensatory of 1898, Chateau Rouge Honeybush is once again proving popular.
SWEET MELLOW VIBRANT
HONEYED SWEETNESS SOOTHING AROMATIC
LUXURY GIFT SETS Inspired by romantic stories of discovery and intrigue we have paired these three unique gift set combinations for you to enjoy. The ultimate in sophistication, they make wonderful gifts and perfect treat for tea lovers and gourmands alike.
VOYAGE A L’EXTREME
GLOIRES DE L’ORIENT
(TREASURES OF THE EMPIRE)
Jasmine Downy Pearls & Imperial Earl Grey
Wiedouw Organic Long-cut Rooibos & Nepal Fikkal Ilam
Sikkim Temi 1st Flush FTGFOP1 & White Monkey Tea
The perfumed femininity of Jasmine tea pairs a classic gentleman’s brew. For a couple or a tea lover to share with someone special.
Travel on a sensory journey from the Cederberg Mountains in the semidesert Western Cape of South Africa to the rolling verdant hills of Nepal.
Experience tea at its most magnificent, with our pairing of some of the most highly prized teas from two of the great ancient empires.
TEAPOTS & INFUSERS
Large Glass Teapot with Infuser
Glass Teapot with Infuser
1.2 L – SUFFICIENT FOR 4–6 SERVINGS
400ML – SUFFICIENT FOR 2 SERVINGS
The clear glass allows you to enjoy watching tea leaves unfurl, and makes it even easier to control the strength of the infusion. Truly enjoy the tastes and aromas of your quality loose-leaf tea.
The clear glass allows you to enjoy watching your tea leaves unfurl, and can easily control the strength of the infusion. Truly enjoy the tastes and aromas of your quality loose leaf tea.
Swissgold Tea Filter USE IN MUG OR SMALL TEAPOT Great for tea mugs or small pots: Unlike some cheaper metal filters, this filter does not lose its shape. It is made from dishwasher safe black plastic with gold-plated filter screen. The lid preserves the precious fragrance of your beverage.
TEA PRODUCTION — A JOURNEY FROM LEAF TO CUP GREEN TEA
(ACCOUNTING FOR 20% OF THE WORLD’S PRODUCTION)
(ACCOUNTING FOR 75% OF THE WORLD’S PRODUCTION)
Delicate and unfermented green tea most closely resembles the tea in its natural state. The first step in green tea production is to steam or pan-fire the leaf which destroys the natural enzymes necessary for fermentation. Steaming not only helps to preserve the natural oils and antioxidants (polyphenols and tannins) but also helps soften the leaves. After steaming the leaves are rolled or twisted which forces the cellular structures to break down so that they will release aromatic juices when brewing. A second gentle heating (also called firing) reduces the water content further, this can be repeated but the end result is a slow drying process. Lastly green tea is graded, sorting the leaf according to leaf quality; this is different from black teas which are normally graded according to the size of the leaf.
Instead of being steamed, the harvested tea leaves are placed on large drying trays and allowed to wither until they are limp. Depending on the tea and region withering occurs either in sun or shade. The leaves are then bruised and rolled by hand or machine – since the enzymes are still active the tea slowly ferments (or oxidizes). Once the leaves turn red they are ready to be fired to stop fermentation. Indian teas are graded according to the size of the leaves when picked, and high-grade teas are produced with only the best leaves. FIRST FLUSH – picked in the spring. These teas are produced from the new tender shoots of the tea plant, the first of the season; and are characterised by a fragrant, fresh and vibrant floral aroma and a bright-greenish eminence of the infused leaves. SECOND FLUSH – known as the ‘summer tea’. The infused leaves are more vivid in colour and appearance. It is characterised by a more mature and mellow brew, a full bodied aroma with its infused leaves of bright copper and purplish tinge. MONSOON TEAS – form the bulk of ‘breakfast’ tea blends. Picked during the rainy season these teas are very dark in appearance and give a strong brew. AUTUMNAL FLUSH – picked in the late autumn. These teas normally have a distinct golden coppery hue with an aromatic and fresh fragrance.
DID YOU KNOW? Larger teapots are a post-19th century invention, as tea before this time was very rare and very expensive. In the Chinese and Japanese tea ceremonies, teapots are normally smaller and enough tea made for a few small cups. If more tea is required the process is repeated.
(ACCOUNTING FOR 2% OF THE WORLD’S TEA PRODUCTION)
(BLACK AND GREEN)
Oolongs are produced in a similar way to black teas but are only partly fermented, making for a noticeably lighter brew (oolongs are typically only 75% fermented while black tea is 100% fermented). Oolong tea was brought to Taiwan in the 19th century by immigrant tea farmers from the Chinese province of Fujian, where it originated. In trying to reproduce their native oolong, they created teas that were even more delicious, thanks to Taiwan’s ideal soil and climate conditions. Today fragrant, highmountain oolongs – of which Formosa Pouchong is a highly celebrated variety – are acknowledged as amongst the finest in the world. Formosa Pouchong is lightly oxidized and between traditional oolong and green tea.
These teas are traditionally produced by layering the tea with fresh jasmine, peach, rose, chrysanthemum, gardenia, magnolia or other flowers, the tea slowly absorbing the flowers’ scent through the production process. In the case of jasmine the flowers are picked fresh in the morning and layered on the green tea, with the process repeated up to 9 times, which creates a wonderful tea that perfectly balances the delicate flavour of fine green tea with seductive jasmine notes.
TOP TIP The strength of a specific tea should be varied by changing the amount of tea leaves used, not by changing the steeping time. Generally you should allow one heaped teaspoon for each teacup of water. Stronger teas, such as Assam, to be drunk with milk are often prepared with more leaves, and more delicate high grown teas such as a Darjeeling are prepared with a little fewer.
TEA PRODUCTION SUMMARY WHITE TEA: Wilted and unoxidized YELLOW TEA: Unwilted and unoxidized, and allowed to ‘yellow’ GREEN TEA: Unwilted and unoxidized OOLONG: Wilted, bruised, and partially oxidized BLACK TEA: Wilted, sometimes crushed, and fully oxidized. (In the production of black teas, the halting of oxidization by heating is carried out simultaneously with drying) POST-FERMENTED TEA: Green tea that has been allowed to ferment/compost e.g. Pu’erh
HOW TO BREW THE PERFECT CUP A fine tea can be ruined if not prepared properly; a good cup of tea has as much to do with correct preparation as it does with selecting a high quality tea. Traditionally a cup of tea is made by putting the loose tea leaves (2–3 grams per person) either directly, or in a tea infuser, into a teapot or teacup and then pouring hot water over the leaves. After a couple of minutes the leaves should be removed, either by removing the infuser, or by straining the tea while serving. The best temperature for brewing tea depends on the type, generally speaking the less produced the tea the lower the water temperature required. Teas that have little or no oxidation period, such as a green or white tea, are best brewed at lower temperatures, between 65 and 85°C (149 and 185°F); while teas with longer oxidation periods, such as black teas, should be brewed at higher temperatures around 100°C (212°F). The higher temperatures are required to extract the large, complex, flavourful phenolic molecules found in fermented tea, although boiling the water reduces the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water.
Some tea varieties are often brewed several times using the same tea leaves. For example, in China the tea ceremony involves a couple of infusions of the same leaves. The first infusion is immediately poured out to wash and warm up the teapot, and then the second and further infusions are drunk. In the case of oolong tea, the third through fifth are nearly always considered the best infusions of tea, although different teas open up differently and can take multiple infusions, each with water at increasingly hotter temperatures. Most green teas should be allowed to steep for about two minutes, some types of black tea by contrast can take 5 minutes, and others as little as thirty seconds – make sure to get the right time for each specific tea.
MAX NO. OF INFUSIONS
65 to 70°C (149 to 158°F)
70 to 75°C (158 to 167°F)
75 to 80°C (167 to 176°F)
80 to 85°C (176 to 185°F)
95 to 100°C (203 to 212°F)
DID YOU KNOW? While green tea normally takes only 1–2 minutes to stew using water 2–4 minutes off the boil, in Morocco green tea is made with boiling water and allowed to steep for 15 minutes, producing a bitter tasting brew which can only be drunk by adding plenty of sugar and fresh spearmint leaves. In India black tea is often boiled for fifteen minutes or longer (it normally takes 3–4 minutes to stew) as a strong brew is preferred for making masala chai. This largely came about due to the fact that water had to be boiled before drinking for health reasons. 14
WHAT MAKES LOOSE LEAF BETTER THAN TEA BAG TEA? In 1908, Thomas Sullivan, an American tea merchant, began distributing samples of his tea in small bags of Chinese silk with a drawstring. Consumers noticed that they could simply leave the tea in the bag and re-use it. It was not however till the 1950’s that Tetley’s commercialised the tea bag and launched it in the UK. It proved an immediate success, as it was easy and convenient, making tea bags popular for many people today.
Tea bags are normally made using fannings or “dust” – a by-product from the sorting of higher grade loose leaf tea. Fannings are useful in bagged teas because the greater surface area of the many particles allows for a very fast, complete diffusion of the tea into the water – producing a stronger, harsh flavour when brewed. It is not always possible to fit larger tea leaves into small tea bags without breaking the leaves in the production process.
TOP TIP Never squeeze a tea bag to get a stronger cup of tea! This will do little to strengthen the tea, but is likely to bring the tannins out in the same way that brewing too long will do. If stronger tea is desired, more tea leaves should be used. In order to preserve the pre-tannin tea without requiring it all to be poured into cups, a second teapot may be used. The serving pot is generally porcelain, which retains the heat better.
Benefits of loose leaf tea Dried tea can lose its flavour quickly on exposure to air. Tea bags that contain leaves broken into small pieces have a greater surface area to volume ratio of the leaves that exposes them to more air, and therefore causes them to go stale faster. Loose tea leaves are likely to be in larger pieces, or to be entirely intact which means they remain fresher for longer. With loose leaf tea there is no problem of ‘tasting the teabag’. Using a good quality infuser or teapot ensures you don’t have the residual taste left by a paper tea bag. Whole leaf tea retains most of the natural oils in the tea leaf. Breaking up the leaves for bags loses many of the natural flavoured oils in the leaf that give the tea its unique taste.
The tea leaves have enough room to open up and release their full flavour. The small size of the bag does not allow leaves to diffuse and steep properly. With leaf tea there is no temptation to squeeze the tea bag against the side of the mug, which will release more tannins and makes a very bitter cup. There are no tea bags to recycle, and no risk of being exposed to the carcinogenic glues or coatings used on some tea bags. Lastly, as you can see the tea leaves unfurl in your tea pot or cup, you know exactly what tea you drinking. You can even experiment by mixing your own teas, for example green tea and spearmint or Rooibos and Honeybush, make a fantastic blend.
THE REAL HEALTH BENEFITS OF TEA With the increasing emphasis on a healthy lifestyle, longevity and products that help support that, there is continuing research into the benefits of drinking tea. We have included a few of the highlights below.
Does tea contain caffeine?
Can tea help you look younger?
Dry tea contains more caffeine by weight than coffee; however much more coffee is used than dry tea per serving, which means that a cup of brewed tea contains significantly less caffeine than a cup of coffee of the same size. A 250ml cup of brewed coffee contains on average (depending on brand and type) 130–160mg of caffeine compared with 30-50mg in the same size cup of tea. Black tea has more caffeine than green tea and tea bag tea generally brews a cup with more caffeine than loose leaf tea.
Tea can help you look and feel younger in a number of ways. With over 700 recorded chemicals, among which are flavonoids, amino acids, and vitamins C, E and K, tea helps support your immune system. Due to its high fluorine content it helps prevent tooth decay which can help give you a whiter smile. Tea also plays an important role in improving beneficial intestinal micro flora, as well as providing immunity against intestinal disorders and in protecting cell membranes from oxidative damage. And a recent study tracking 4,800 men and women over the age of 65 found that people who consumed tea had significantly less cognitive decline than non-tea drinkers.
Is tea a good antioxidant? It is widely documented that free radical damage due to modern day living and exposure to environmental pollutants can be a factor in heart disease, strokes and cancers. It is thought that by regularly consuming foods and drinks that are rich in antioxidants, these can act to ‘soak up’ these free radicals. Tea is widely known to be rich in a particular group of antioxidants called flavonoids (with up to 140mg per cup of green tea). For example, there is about eight times the amount of ‘antioxidant power’ in three cups of tea as there is in one apple.
Does tea help reduce cholesterol? Various studies into the effects of regular tea consumption have proven that tea does help to reduce cholesterol. Inclusion of tea in a diet moderately low in fat reduces total and LDL cholesterol by significant amounts and may, therefore, reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.
STUDIES CITED ABOVE INCLUDE: 2010 AAICAD 2010; Lenore Arab, PhD; UCLA Mondal (2007, pp. 519–520) Proceedings of the Third International Scientific Symposium on Tea and Human Health – The American Society or Nutritional Sciences J. Nutr. 133:3298S-3302S, October 2003
DID YOU KNOW? While most research into the health benefits of tea cites green tea as the healthy alternative. However most research to date has been done in China and Japan, predominantly green tea drinking nations. Recent research has now been concluding that black tea is in many ways as healthy as green tea. 16
T: 020 7099 7027 E: sean.farrell@ChAteaurouge.co.uk Coopergate House, 16 Brune Street, London E1 7NJ 18