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Kaisa Eskelinen, Jesper Marcussen, Kia Friis Petersen, Kaspars Varpins, Taina Hanhikoski

ReSit -Situational Picture of Volunteerism for Societal Resilience in the Baltic Sea Region Final Report


Kaisa Eskelinen, Jesper Marcussen, Kia Friis Petersen, Kaspars Varpins, Taina Hanhikoski

ReSit - Situational Picture of Volunteerism for Societal Resilience in the Baltic Sea Region Final Report

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SPEK tutkii on julkaisusarja, jossa julkaistaan SPEKin omia tutkimus- ja selvityshankkeita. Julkaisut ovat saatavilla osoitteesta spek.fi/vaikuttaminen/tutkimukset/julkaisut/

Rahoitettu ulkoministeriön tuella

Kansien suunnittelu ja ulkoasu Johanna Kuittinen, SPEK

Taitto

Leena Huhmarniemi, SPEK

ReSit - Situational Picture of Volunteerism for Societalo Resilience in the Baltic Sea Region ISBN 978-951-797-707-4 (pdf) ISSN 2242-1653 (pdf) Helsinki 2021

Julkaisija

Suomen Pelastusalan Keskusjärjestö SPEK Ratamestarinkatu 11, 00520 Helsinki Puhelin (09) 476 112, spekinfo@spek.fi www.spek.fi 3


Sisältö 1. Summaries and recommendations . ............................................. 6 1.1 ReSit - Situational Picture of Volunteerism for Societal Resilience in the

Baltic Sea Region .....................................................................................................6

1.2 ReSit – Situationsbillede af frivilligt arbejde for fællesskabets modstands- .

dygtighed i Østersøområdet ................................................................................10

1.3 ReSit – Pelastusalan vapaaehtoistoiminta Itämeren alueella ......................14 1.4 ReSit - Et situasjonsbilde av frivillighet innen samfunnssikkerhet og bered-

skap i Østersjøområdet ........................................................................................18

1.5 ReSit – situationsbild av frivilligarbete för samhällelig resiliens i Östersjö- .

regionen ...................................................................................................................22

1.6 ReSit – olukorrapilt vabatahtlikust tegevusest ühiskonna vastupanuvõime .

suurendamiseks Läänemere piirkonnas ...........................................................26

1.7 ReSit – brīvprātīgā darba situācija sabiedrības noturībai Baltijas jūras

1.8 ReSit – savanorystės stiprinant visuomenės atsparumą būklės Baltijos

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reģionā .....................................................................................................................30 .

jūros regione vaizdas ............................................................................................34

1.9 ReSit – obraz sytuacyjny wolontariatu na rzecz odporności społecznej w

regionie Morza Bałtyckiego .................................................................................38

1.10 ReSit – Situationsbericht über ehrenamtliches Engagement zur Stärkung .

gesellschaftlicher Resilienz im Ostseeraum ....................................................43

2. Introduction................................................................................. 48 2.1 The framework for involving volunteers in the field of civil protection .....50

2.1.1

of civil protection.......................................................................................50 in the BSR countries..................................................................................52

2.1.3 Research on volunteers in the field of civil protection in the BSR

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2.1.2 NGO working conditions and relationships among the authorities .

Institutional framework for international cooperation in the field

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countries.....................................................................................................53

2.1.4 Research questions, target groups, data and methods ....................54

2.2 Results......................................................................................................................57

2.2.1 The role of volunteers in the field of civil protection in the Baltic

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Sea countries..............................................................................................57

2.2.2 Finland.........................................................................................................63

2.2.3 Denmark......................................................................................................76

2.2.4 Norway........................................................................................................85

2.2.5 Sweden........................................................................................................94


2.2.6 Estonia...................................................................................................... 114

2.2.7 Lithuania................................................................................................... 120

2.2.8 Germany................................................................................................... 124

2.2.9 Poland....................................................................................................... 132

2.3 The Baltic Sea Region – summary of the results.......................................... 138

2.3.1 Cooperation and contracts are commonplace ................................ 138

2.3.2 Volunteer tasks are diverse ................................................................. 139

2.3.3 Conclusions............................................................................................. 146

3. References................................................................................. 148 Appendix 1 E-mail questionnaire given to the security officials of the Civil Protection Network and Steering Group for PA Secure .................................................. 151

Appendix 2 Questionnaire for leaders of volunteer organisations .......................... 153 Appendix 3 Questionnaire for authorities............................................... 166 Appendix 4 Interview questions ..................................................................................... 177 Appendix 5 List of organisations.................................................................................... 178

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1. Summaries and recommendations 1.1 ReSit - Situational Picture of Volunteerism for Societal Resilience in the Baltic Sea Region This report paints the situational picture of volunteerism in the field of civil protection in ten Baltic Sea countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany and Russia. The aim of the project was to create a knowledge base and recommendations for developing cooperation and joint preparedness among the authorities, volunteer organisations and citizens for natural and man-made disasters in the region. The data come from information searches, an e-mail questionnaire given to the security officials of the Civil Protection Network and Steering Group for PA Secure, a questionnaire sent out to the authorities and leaders of volunteer organisations acting in the field of civil protection as well as from interviewing the above-mentioned. In all, 138 responses were received to the questionnaire: they encompassed seventy-six volunteer organisation leaders and sixty-two authorities. Altogether thirteen authorities and five leaders of volunteer organisations were interviewed. Volunteers or volunteer organisations are mentioned at some level in the different countries’ legislation. They are mentioned in civil protection acts, emergency management acts, in rescue legislation/law on the rescue services or in fire safety and fire protection law. The role of volunteers in the field of civil protection is generally recognised by the authorities in the region, especially the role of volunteer firefighters.

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In the countries around the Baltic Sea, civil protection is, in general, organised by state institutions. However, volunteer organisations may play a major role in civil protection. In most cases, civil protection measures may be launched following human action or natural disasters and, depending on the specific topic and disruptions, several authorities may be involved, volunteer organisations included. Across the Baltic Sea Region volunteers are widely recognised for their work in fire prevention and in firefighting. In many countries volunteers or volunteer organisations play a vital role in civil protection as they are a part of the local preparedness framework. However, this can vary a lot even within an individual country because firefighting is generally organised at the municipal level; the legislation does not require using volunteers, it only states it as a possibility. Cooperation structures vary from country to country. Sweden (Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency), Denmark (Danish Emergency Management Agency), Norway (Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection), and Estonia (Estonian Rescue Board) have government agencies which play a role in organising volunteering and cooperation. Volunteers also have their own umbrella organisations or a network of organisations where they can coordinate activities, share knowledge, and enhance internal and external cooperation. There are two kind of umbrella organisations in the Baltic Sea Region: one for civil protection/rescue field volunteers and one for volunteer firefighters. In general, firefighting activities by volunteers and volunteer organisations are financed by the associated ministry or local authority under which the volunteers provide the services. However, equipment, facility, training, and administration costs are not included in the funding in every country or area, which results in there being outdated or inadequate equipment and vehicles. Hence, the organisations rely on other sources of funding, such as membership fees, personal donations, and national funds. Other civil protection organisations are financed in a wide range of ways. Usually, the training of volunteers is centralised and carried out at the regional or national level. Volunteers are organised differently in each country, depending on their tasks. But what is common is that the volunteers’ organisational authorities structure their training. 7


The situational picture of volunteering in the Baltic Sea Region has many positive features: cooperation exists in all countries, volunteers are mentioned in the countries’ legislation at some level, contracts among volunteer organisations and the authorities are commonplace, and their mutual relationships are mostly good. However, in most of the countries, there are some shortcomings in structures (laws, contingency plans, partnerships) and in coordinating the activities of the volunteers (directing, leading). Therefore, there is a need to clarify the role/mission of volunteers in legislation, plans and operational procedures, and to improve the overall coordination of volunteers. Difficulties in recruiting volunteers are very common. The study confirmed the results of previous research, according to which the challenges in retaining and recruiting volunteers related to societal (aging population, urbanisation), organisational (e.g., heavy training processes, organisational cultures that do not recognise volunteers), and individual reasons (individualism, lack of spare time, lack of interest). The measures that should be taken are manifold: they need the contribution of volunteer organisations and support from the authorities, the state, and the employers of volunteers. Many volunteer organisations consider their financial resources to be inadequate for their civil protection tasks. The sufficiency and continuity of financing, for example continuous state funding, is crucial for organisations. According to this study, volunteers are not involved in systematic international cooperation, and the number of joint exercises and planning activities with the authorities is small. The institutional framework of international cooperation is unclear to volunteer organisations. The project was directed by the Ministry of the Interior of Finland and funded by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. It was carried out by the Finnish National Rescue Association (SPEK) in cooperation with the Danish Civil Protection League, the Fredriksborg Fire and Rescue Service, and the Liepaja Municipal Police/Union of the Baltic Cities.

Recommendations for promoting volunteer activities in the Baltic Sea Region 1. There is a need to clarify the role/mission of volunteers in legislation as well as in planning and operational procedures, and to improve the 8


umbrella coordination of volunteers. The authorities should include volunteer organisations in the process of drafting legislation, plans and operational procedures. Umbrella coordination can be improved by establishing umbrella organisations for volunteers and by having state agencies lead the volunteers.

2. There is a need to make volunteering more attractive, especially to young people and in rural areas. The measures that should be taken are diverse and need the contribution of volunteer organisations themselves, support from the authorities as well as the state and the employers of volunteers. Creating a culture that supports volunteering is also crucial. • Measures for volunteers: provide sufficient training and professional development for new and existing members to keep volunteers motivated and ‘busy’ between disaster assignments, make physical fitness standards more flexible (task-related standards), provide more information about where potential volunteers can turn, conduct social campaigns for volunteering, pay more attention to motivating volunteers in rural areas. • Support for volunteer organisations: get help to train new volunteers in an effective way, acquire financial support from the state for vehicles and equipment, provide insurance for volunteers, organise training courses provided by the state, enact legislation that takes volunteering into account. • Support for employers: create incentives for employers to enable volunteering, foster the recognition of volunteering at the workplace, provide full compensation for lost work time. • Supportive culture: create a culture where the authorities acknowledge volunteers and assign them to lead the volunteers in order to raise the sense of communality and risk-awareness among citizens. 3. To increase the involvement of volunteers in civil protection tasks in the BSR, there is a need to establish a joint network of volunteers and the authorities that plan and carry out training exercises together on the basis of real requirements/official international risk scenarios. For example, the CBSS and the Red Cross could be the organisers of these kinds of activities. The CBSS because it is a meeting point for civil protection authorities from different countries, and the Red Cross because they already have established international activities in the field. 9


1.2 ReSit – Situationsbillede af frivilligt arbejde for fællesskabets modstandsdygtighed i Østersøområdet Resumé Denne rapport tegner et situationsbillede af frivilligt arbejde inden for civilbeskyttelse i 10 østersølande: Danmark, Finland, Norge, Sverige, Estland, Letland, Litauen, Polen, Tyskland og Rusland. Målet med projektet er at skabe en vidensbase og anbefalinger til at udvikle samarbejdet og det fælles beredskab for myndigheder, frivillige organisationer og borgere i forbindelse med menneskeskabte katastrofer og naturkatastrofer i regionen. Data består af informationssøgning, spørgeskemaer via e-mail til embedsmænd fra CBSS-udvalget PA Secure, spørgeskemaer til myndigheder og ledere af frivillige organisationer inden for civilbeskyttelse såvel som interviews af disse. Der var i alt 138 respondenter af spørgeskemaer, 76 ledere af frivillige organisationer og 62 myndigheder. I alt blev 13 myndigheder og fem ledere af frivillige organisationer interviewet. Frivillige eller frivillige organisationer er nævnt i en eller anden grad i forskellige landes lovgivning: i lov om civilbeskyttelse, lov om katastrofehåndtering, i redningslov/lov om redningstjenester eller i lov om brandsikkerhed og brandbeskyttelse. Frivilliges rolle inden for civilbeskyttelse er generelt anerkendt af myndigheder i regionen, særligt frivillige brandmænds rolle. I lande omkring Østersøen er civilbeskyttelse generelt organiseret af statslige institutioner, og de frivillige organisationer kan spille en stor rolle inden for civil beskyttelse. Generelt kan civilbeskyttelse iværksættes i anledning af menneskelige handlinger eller naturkatastrofer, og afhængigt af de specifikke årsager og forstyrrelser kan flere myndigheder være involveret, herunder frivillige organisationer.

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I hele Østersøområdet anerkendes frivillige i høj grad for deres arbejde med forebyggelse af brand og brandslukning. I mange af landene spiller de frivillige eller frivillige organisationer en vigtig rolle i civilbeskyttelse, da de er den del af det lokale beredskabs struktur. Men dette kan variere meget i et land, da brandbekæmpelse generelt organiseres på kommunalt niveau uden en lovgivning, der kræver brug af frivillige, men kun fremsætter det som en mulighed. Strukturerer for samarbejde varierer fra land til land. Sverige (Den svenske myndighed for samfundsværn og beredskab), Danmark (Beredskabsstyrelsen), Norge (Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap) og Estland (Estonian Rescure Board) har frivillige statslige organisationer, som spiller en rolle i organisering af frivillige og samarbejde. Frivillige har også deres egne paraplyorganisationer eller netværk af organisationer, hvor de kan koordinere aktiviteter, dele vide og forbedre internt og eksterns samarbejde. Der finde to slags paraplyorganisationer i Østersøområdet: til civilbeskyttelse/redningsfrivillige og til frivillige brandfolk. Generelt finansieres brandslukningsaktiviteter fra frivillige og frivillige organisationer af det tilknyttede ministerium eller de lokale myndigheder, som de frivillige leverer tjenester til. Men udstyr, faciliteter, træning og administration er ikke inkluderet i finansieringen i alle lande eller områder, hvilket resulterer i forældet eller dårligt udstyr og køretøjer. Her er organisationerne afhængige af andre kilder til finansiering, eksempelvis medlemsgebyrer, personlige donationer og nationale midler. Andre civile beskyttelsesorganisationer finansieres på en lang række forskellige måder. Generelt er træning og uddannelse for frivillige centraliseret og effektueret på regionalt eller nationalt niveau. Frivillige er organiseret forskelligt fra land til land afhængigt af de opgaver, de skal udføre. Men de har det tilfælles, at træningen basalt set afholdes af de frivilliges organisatoriske myndighed. Situationsbilledet af frivillighed i Østersøområdet har mange positive forhold: Der findes samarbejde i alle lande, frivillige nævnes i landenes lovgivninger på et eller andet niveau, kontakter mellem frivillige organisationer og myndigheder er almindelige, og forholdene er for det meste positive. Men i de fleste lande er strukturerne i en eller anden grad mangelfulde (lo-

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vgivning, myndighedsplaner, partnerskaber), det samme gør sig gældende for koordinering (ledelse) af frivillige. Derfor er der et behov for at tydeliggøre frivilliges rolle/mission i lovgivningen, planer og operationelle procedurer og forbedre paraplykoordineringen af frivillige. Udfordringer med at rekruttere frivillige er meget almindeligt. Undersøgelsen bekræfter de tidligere resultater i forhold til udfordringerne med at fastholde og rekruttere frivillige i forbindelse med samfundsmæssige (stadigt ældre befolkning, urbanisering), organisatoriske (eksempelvis tunge træningsprocesser, en organisatorisk kultur, der ikke anerkender frivillige) såvel som individuelle årsager (individualisme, manglende fritid, manglende interesse). Der burde iværksættes flere tiltag, som fordrer bidrag fra frivillige organisationer og støtte fra myndigheder, stat og frivilliges arbejdsgivere. Mange af de frivillige organisationer anser deres finansielle ressourcer for at være utilstrækkelige til opgaver inden for civilbeskyttelse. Det er vigtigt for organisationer, at finansieringen er tilstrækkelig og konstant, eksempelvis i form af konstant statsfinansiering. Ifølge denne undersøgelse er frivillige ikke involveret på en systematisk måde i internationalt samarbejde, og niveauet af fælles øvelser og planlægningsaktiviteter med myndighederne er lavt. Den institutionelle struktur for internationalt samarbejde er uklar for frivillige organisationer. Projektet er ledet af Finlands indenrigsministerium og finansieret af Finlands udenrigsministerium. Det er udført af Finlands National Rescue Association (SPEK) i samarbejde med det Beredskabsforbundet, Frederiksborg Brand- og Redning og Liepaja kommunale politi/Unionen af Baltiske Byer.

Anbefalinger til at fremme frivillige aktiviteter i Østersøområdet 1. Der er et behov for at tydeliggøre frivilliges rolle/mission i lovgivningen, planer og operationelle procedurer for at forbedre den overordnede koordination af frivillige. Myndigheder bør inddrage frivillige organisationer, når lovgivning, planlægning og operationelle procedurer skal formuleres. Overordnet koordination kan forbedres ved at etablere paraplyorganisationer for frivillige, og ved at statslige bureauer leder frivillige.

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2. Der er også et behov for at gøre det mere attraktivt at være frivillig, særligt blandt den yngre del af befolkningen og i områder uden for større byer. Der burde iværksættes flere tiltag, som fordrer bidrag fra frivillige organisationer og støtte fra myndigheder, stat og frivilliges arbejdsgivere. Det er også vigtigt at oprette en støttende kultur for frivillighed. • Tiltag for frivillige: Tilstrækkelig træning og professionel udvikling til nye og eksisterende medlemmer for at holde frivillige motiverede og ”travle”, også mellem opgaver i forbindelse med katastrofer og ulykker, gøre standarder for fysisk form mere fleksible (opgaveafhængige standarder), synliggøre, hvor potentielle frivillige kan henvende sig, lave sociale kampagner for frivillighed, være opmærksom på at motivere frivillige i områder uden for større byer. • Støtte til frivillige organisationer: Til at få hjælp til at træne nye frivillige på en effektiv måde, finansiel støtte fra staten til køretøjer og udstyr, give frivillige forsikring, statsleverede træningskurser, lovgivning, der tager højde for frivillighed • Støtte til arbejdsgivere: Lave incitamenter for arbejdsgivere for at gøre frivillighed mulig, anerkende frivillighed i hovedbeskæftigelsen, give fuld kompensation for tabt arbejdstid • Støttende kultur: Skabe en anerkendende kultur og lyst til at lede frivillige blandt myndigheder, højne fornemmelsen af fællesskab og risikobevidsthed blandt borgere 3. I Østersøområdet er der behov for at danne et fælles netværk af frivillige for at forøge frivilliges engagement i civilbeskyttelse og myndigheder, der planlægger og eksekverer sammen på baggrund af reelle behov/officielle internationale risikoscenarier. Eksempelvis kunne CBSS og Røde Kors være organisatorer af aktiviteter af den slags. CBSS, da det er et mødested for myndigheder for civilbeskyttelse fra forskellige lande, og Røde Kors, fordi de allerede har etablerede internationale aktiviteter inden for området.

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1.3 ReSit – Pelastusalan vapaaehtoistoiminta Itämeren alueella Yhteenveto Pelastusalan vapaaehtoistoiminta Itämeren alueella -hankkeessa laadittiin tilannekuva pelastusalan vapaaehtoistoiminnasta kymmenessä Itämeren maassa: Tanskassa, Suomessa, Norjassa, Ruotsissa, Virossa, Latviassa, Liettuassa, Puolassa, Saksassa ja Venäjällä. Hankkeessa luotiin lisäksi tietopohja ja suositukset yhteistyön kehittämiselle sekä viranomaisten, vapaaehtoisjärjestöjen ja kansalaisten yhteiselle valmiudelle ihmisen aiheuttamien tai luonnonkatastrofien varalta. Tutkimusaineisto koostui tietohauista, Itämeren valtioiden neuvoston Secure-politiikka-alan turvallisuusviranomaisille osoitetusta kyselystä, pelastusalalla toimiville viranomaisille ja vapaaehtoisjärjestöjen johtajille osoitetuista kyselyistä sekä edellä mainittujen haastatteluista. Kyselyihin vastasi yhteensä 138 henkilöä, joista 76 vapaaehtoisjärjestön johtajaa ja 62 viranomaista. Haastatteluihin osallistui 13 viranomaisen edustajaa ja viisi vapaaehtoisjärjestön johtajaa. Vapaaehtoiset tai vapaaehtoisjärjestöt mainitaan eri maiden lainsäädännössä eri tavoin, kuten väestönsuojelulaissa, pelastustoimilaissa, pelastuslaissa, pelastuspalveluista määräävässä laissa tai paloturvallisuuslaissa. Itämeren alueen viranomaiset tunnustavat yleisesti vapaaehtoisten roolin pelastustoiminnassa, ja erityisesti vapaaehtoisten palokuntien rooli korostuu. Itämeren alueen maissa pelastustoiminta on tyypillisesti valtiollisten tahojen järjestämää, mutta vapaaehtoisjärjestöillä on tärkeä rooli pelastustoiminnassa. Häiriötilanteen luonteesta riippuen, toiminnassa voi olla mukana useita eri tahoja, mukaan lukien vapaaehtoisjärjestöjä. Itämeren alueella vapaaehtoisten työ palontorjunnassa ja sammutustehtävissä tunnustetaan laajalti. Useissa maissa vapaaehtoiset tai vapaaehtoisjärjestöt ovat merkittävässä roolissa pelastustoiminnassa osana pai14


kallista valmiussuunnittelua. Tämä voi kuitenkin vaihdella suuresti, sillä palontorjunta järjestetään yleensä kuntatasolla, jolloin laki ei velvoita käyttämään vapaaehtoisia, vaan ainoastaan mahdollistaa sen. Vapaaehtoisten ja viranomaisten yhteistyörakenteet vaihtelevat maittain. Ruotsissa (Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap), Tanskassa (Beredskabsstyrelsen), Norjassa (Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap) ja Virossa (Päästeamet) on valtion toimielimet, jotka osaltaan koordinoivat vapaaehtoistyötä ja yhteistyötä. Vapaaehtoisilla on myös omat kattojärjestönsä tai organisaatioverkostonsa, jotka koordinoivat toimintoja, jakavat tietoa sekä kehittävät sisäistä ja ulkoista yhteistyötä. Itämeren alueella on kahdenlaisia kattojärjestöjä: yhtäältä väestönsuojelun/pelastustoiminnan vapaaehtoisille ja toisaalta vapaaehtoisille palokunnille. Yleisesti ottaen vapaaehtoisten ja vapaaehtoisjärjestöjen palontorjuntatoimintaa rahoittaa ministeriö tai viranomainen, jonka toimialaan palontorjunta kuuluu ja jolle palveluita tuotetaan. Kaikissa maissa tai kaikilla alueilla kalusto, tilat, koulutus ja hallinto eivät kuulu rahoitukseen, jolloin esimerkiksi kalusto ja ajoneuvot saattavat olla vanhoja tai huonossa kunnossa. Näiden suhteen organisaatiot ovat riippuvaisia muista rahoituksen lähteistä, kuten jäsenmaksuista, yksityishenkilöiden lahjoituksista ja kansallisista rahastoista. Muita pelastustoiminnan ja väestönsuojelun järjestöjä rahoitetaan monin eri tavoin. Yleensä vapaaehtoisten koulutus järjestetään keskitetysti alueellisella tai kansallisella tasolla. Koulutuksen käytännön järjestelyt vaihtelevat maittain, mutta maille yhteistä kuitenkin on, että koulutuksen järjestää käytännössä vapaaehtoistoiminnasta vastaava organisaatio. Vapaaehtoistoiminnan tilannekuva Itämeren alueella on monessa mielessä myönteinen: kaikissa maissa viranomaiset ja vapaaehtoiset tekevät keskenään yhteistyötä, vapaaehtoiset on mainittu maiden lainsäädännössä, vapaaehtoisjärjestöjen ja viranomaisten välinen yhteistoiminta on useimmiten kirjattu sopimuksiin ja vapaaehtoisten ja viranomaisten välisiä suhteita pidetään pääosin hyvinä.

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Joissakin maissa rakenteet (lait, viranomaisten suunnitelmat ja yhteistyökumppanuudet) ja vapaaehtoisten koordinointi (johtaminen) ovat puutteellisia. Siksi onkin tarve selkeyttää vapaaehtoisten roolia lainsäädännössä, suunnitelmissa ja toimintaprosesseissa sekä kehittää vapaaehtoistoiminnan koordinointia. Vapaaehtoisten rekrytoiminen on usein haastavaa. Tutkimuksen tulokset vahvistivat aiempia tutkimustuloksia koskien vapaaehtoisten rekrytoinnin ja sitouttamisen ongelmia. Haasteet ovat sekä yhteiskunnallisia (esimerkiksi ikääntyvä väestö ja kaupungistuminen), organisatorisia (esimerkiksi raskaat koulutusprosessit ja organisaatiokulttuuri, joka ei tunnusta vapaaehtoistoimintaa) että henkilökohtaisia (esimerkiksi yksilökeskeisyys, vähäinen vapaa-aika ja kiinnostuksen puute). Rekrytoinnin suhteen vapaaehtoisjärjestöjen tuleekin ryhtyä erilaisiin toimiin, mutta järjestöt tarvitsevat myös tukea viranomaisilta, valtiolta ja vapaaehtoisten työnantajilta. Monien vapaaehtoisjärjestöjen taloudelliset resurssit eivät ole riittävät pelastustoimintaan. Riittävä ja pitkäjänteinen rahoitus, esimerkiksi valtion myöntämä jatkuva rahoitus, on järjestöille elinehto. Tutkimuksen mukaan vapaaehtoiset eivät ole järjestelmällisesti mukana kansainvälisessä yhteistyössä ja yhteisharjoitukset sekä toiminnan yhteinen suunnittelu viranomaisten kanssa on vähäistä. Lisäksi kansainvälisen yhteistyön institutionaalinen kehys on vapaaehtoisjärjestöille epäselvä. Hanketta johti Suomen sisäministeriö ja rahoitti Suomen ulkoministeriö. Hankkeen toteutti Suomen Pelastusalan Keskusjärjestö (SPEK) hankekumppaneinaan Danish Civil Protection League, Fredriksborg Fire and Rescue Service, Liepaja Municipal Police / Itämeren kaupunkien liitto.

Suositukset vapaaehtoistoiminnan kehittämiseksi Itämeren alueella 1. Vapaaehtoisten rooli ja tehtävä on selkeytettävä lainsäädännössä, suunnitelmissa ja toimintaprosesseissa. Tämä mahdollistaa myös vapaaehtoistoiminnan koordinoinnin kehittämisen. Viranomaisten tulisi osallistaa vapaaehtoisjärjestöt lakien, suunnitelmien ja toimintaprosessien laadintaan. Koordinointia voi edistää perustamalla vapaaehtoisten kattojärjestöjä ja sillä, että valtion virastot vastaavat

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vapaaehtoisten koordinoinnista. 2. Vapaaehtoistoiminnan houkuttelevuutta on lisättävä erityisesti nuorten keskuudessa ja maaseudulla. Rekrytoinnin suhteen vapaaehtoisjärjestöjen itsensä on ryhdyttävä erilaisiin toimiin, mutta ne tarvitsevat tukea viranomaisilta, valtiolta ja vapaaehtoisten työnantajilta. Vapaaehtoistoimintaa tukevan kulttuurin luominen on myös ratkaisevan tärkeää. • Vapaaehtoisia koskevat toimet: riittävä koulutus ja ammatillinen kehitys uusille ja nykyisille jäsenille, vapaaehtoisten jatkuva motivointi ja aktivointi myös häiriötilanteiden ja hälytystehtävien välillä/ väliajalla, fyysiseen kuntoon liittyvien vaatimusten joustavoittaminen (tehtäväkohtaiset vaatimukset), vapaaehtoistoiminnasta kiinnostuneiden ohjaaminen näkyvästi tiettyihin tahoihin, yhteiskunnalliset vapaaehtoistoimintaan kannustavat kampanjat ja huomion kiinnittäminen maaseudun/harvaseutujen vapaaehtoisten motivointiin • Vapaaehtoisjärjestöjen tukeminen: apua uusien jäsenten tehokkaaseen kouluttamiseen, valtion taloudellista tukea kalusto- ja ajoneuvohankintoihin, vakuutusten järjestäminen vapaaehtoisille, valtion tarjoamat koulutukset ja vapaaehtoistoiminnan huomioiva lainsäädäntö • Työnantajien tukeminen: työntekijöiden vapaaehtoistoiminnan mahdollistavat työantajille kohdistetut aloitteet, vapaaehtoistoiminnan tunnustaminen pääasiallisessa työssä ja täysi kompensaatio menetetystä työajasta • Tuen kulttuuri: tunnustuksen ja omistautumisen kulttuurin luominen vapaaehtoisia johtavien viranomaisten parissa sekä kansalaisten yhteishengen ja riskitietoisuuden kasvattaminen. 3. Jotta Itämeren alueella voidaan lisätä vapaaehtoisten osallistumista pelastustoimintaan, on luotava yhteinen vapaaehtoisten ja viranomaisten verkosto, joka suunnittelee ja toteuttaa toimintaa todellisiin tarpeisiin ja virallisiin kansainvälisiin riskiskenaarioihin perustuen. Tällaista toimintaa voisivat järjestää esimerkiksi Itämeren valtioiden neuvosto ja Punainen Risti. Itämeren valtioiden neuvosto olisi hyvä vaihtoehto, koska se on eri maiden pelastusviranomaisten kokoontumispiste, ja Punainen Risti siksi, että sillä on jo olemassa kansainvälistä pelastustoimintaa.

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1.4 ReSit - Et situasjonsbilde av frivillighet innen samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap i Østersjøområdet Oppsummering Denne rapporten gir et situasjonsbilde av frivillighet innen sivilbeskyttelse i 10 land i Østersjøområdet: Danmark, Finland, Norge, Sverige, Estland, Latvia, Litauen, Polen, Tyskland og Russland. Prosjektet har som mål å bygge opp en kunnskapsbase og gi anbefalinger for videreutvikling av felles beredskap og samarbeid mellom myndigheter, frivillige organisasjoner og folk i møte med naturkatastrofer og menneskeskapte katastrofer i området. Dataene består av informasjonssøk, spørreskjema via epost til sikkerhetsrepresentanter for CBSS sin styringsgruppe PA Secure, spørreskjema rettet mot myndigheter og ledere av frivillige organisasjoner som opererer innen sivilbeskyttelse, samt intervjuer av disse. Det var totalt 138 som svarte på spørreskjemaene, 76 ledere av frivillige organisasjoner og 62 myndigheter. Til sammen ble 13 myndigheter og 5 ledere av frivillige organisasjoner intervjuet. Frivillige eller frivillige organisasjoner er i noen grad nevnt i forskjellige lands lover og forskrifter om sivilbeskyttelse, samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap eller brann- og redningstjenester. Frivilliges rolle innen sivilbeskyttelse er stort sett anerkjent av myndighetene i området, spesielt rollen som frivillige brannmenn. I landene rundt Østersjøen er sivilbeskyttelse stort sett organisert av statlige institusjoner, men frivillige organisasjoner kan spille en viktig rolle i sivilbeskyttelsesfeltet. Sivilbeskyttelse kan generelt mobiliseres som en følge av både naturlige og menneskeskapte forhold, og avhengig av hvilken type hendelse det gjelder, kan flere myndigheter være involvert, også frivillige organisasjoner.

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Frivilliges arbeid innen forebygging og bekjempelse av brann er anerkjent i hele Østersjøområdet. I mange av landene spiller frivillige eller frivillige organisasjoner en viktig rolle for samfunnssikkerheten ettersom de er en del av det lokale beredskapsrammeverket. Dette kan imidlertid variere mye i et land, ettersom brannvern generelt er organisert på kommunalt nivå, uten at loven krever bruk av frivillige, men bare oppgir det som en mulighet. Samarbeidsstrukturer varierer fra land til land. Sverige (Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap), Danmark (Beredskabsstyrelsen), Norge (Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap) og Estland (Päästeamet - The Estonian Rescue Board) har alle offentlige etater som spiller en viktig rolle i organisering av frivillighet og samarbeid. Frivillige har også sine egne paraplyorganisasjoner eller organisasjons-nettverk for aktivitetskoordinering, kunnskapsdeling og bedre internt og eksternt samarbeid. I Østersjøområdet er det to typer para-plyorganisasjoner: for sivilbeskyttelse/redning og for frivillig brannvesen. Generelt blir brannbekjempelsesaktivitet utført av frivillige og frivillige organisasjoner som er tilknyttet og finansiert av det departementet eller den lokale myndigheten som de frivillige bistår. Utstyr, fasiliteter, opplæring og administrasjon er imidlertid ikke inkludert i finansieringen i alle land eller områder, og utstyr og kjøretøy er derfor ofte dårlig eller gammelt. Her er organisasjonene avhengig av andre kilder til finansiering som medlemsavgifter, personlige donasjoner og nasjonale fond. Andre sivilbeskyttelsesorganisasjoner er finansiert på en rekke forskjellige måter. Opplæring og utdanning av frivillige er vanligvis sentralisert og utført på regionalt eller nasjonalt nivå. De frivillige organiseres forskjellig fra land til land, alt etter hvilke oppgaver de løser. Det vanlige er at opplæringen arrangeres av den frivilliges organisasjonsmyndighet. Frivillighetssituasjonen i Østersjøområdet har mange positive trekk: det er samarbeid i alle land, frivillige er i en eller annen grad nevnt i landenes lover, det er vanlig med kontrakter mellom frivillige organisasjoner og myndighetene, og relasjonene anses stort sett som gode. De strukturelle elementene (lover, offentlige planverk, partnerskap) er likevel mangelfulle i de fleste landende. Det samme gjelder koordinering (regi,

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ledelse) av frivillige. Det er derfor nødvendig å avklare de frivilliges rolle/ oppdrag i lovverk, planer og operasjonelle prosedyrer for å forbedre den overordnede koordineringen av frivillige. Problemer med rekruttering av frivillige er veldig vanlig. Studien bekreftet tidligere resultater som viser at utfordringene med å beholde og rekruttere frivillige er knyttet til sosiale faktorer (aldrende befolkning, urbanisering), organisatoriske faktorer (f.eks. tung opplæringsprosess og organisasjonskultur som ikke anerkjenner frivillige) og individuelle årsaker (individualisme, mangel på fritid, mangel på interesse). Det er mange tiltak som bør iverksettes, og de frivillige organisasjonene, myndighetene, staten og de frivillige selv må alle bidra. Mange av de frivillige organisasjonene opplever at de økonomiske ressursene de har til rådighet er utilstrekkeligere for sivilbeskyttelsesoppgaver. Tilstrekkelig og kontinuerlig finansiering er avgjørende for organisasjonene, blant annet kontinuerlig statlig finansiering. Ifølge denne studien er det ingen systematisk bruk av frivillige i internasjonalt samarbeid, og fellesøvelser og planlegging av aktiviteter med myndighetene er det lite av. Det institusjonelle rammeverket for internasjonalt samarbeid er uklart for frivillige organisasjoner. Prosjektet er ledet av de finske innenriksministeriet og finansiert av det finske utenriksministeriet. Det gjennomføres av Räddningsbranschens Centralorganisation i Finland (SPEK) i samarbeid med Redningsberedskabet i Danmark, Fredriksborg Brann- og redningstjeneste, og det kommunale politiet i Liepaja/Union of the Baltic Cities.

Anbefalinger for å fremme aktiviteter for frivillige i Østersjøområdet 1. Frivilliges rolle og oppdrag må avklares i lover, planer og operasjonelle prosedyrer, og den overordnede koordineringen av frivillige må forbedres. Myndighetene bør involvere frivillige organisasjoner når lover, planer og operasjonelle prosedyrer formuleres. Den overordnede koordineringen kan forbedres ved å etablere paraplyorganisasjoner for de frivillige og ved at offentlige etater leder de frivillige. 2. Frivillig arbeid må gjøres mer attraktivt, spesielt for yngre generasjoner og i rurale strøk. Det er mange tiltak som bør iverksettes, og de 20


frivillige organisasjonene, myndighetene, staten og de frivillige selv må alle bidra. Det er også avgjørende å skape kultur for å støtte opp under frivillighet. • Tiltak for frivillige: Tilstrekkelig opplæring og faglig utvikling for nye og eksisterende medlemmer, holde frivillige motivert og «i gang» også mellom katastrofeoppdrag, etablere mer fleksible standarder for fysisk egnethet (oppgaverelaterte standarder), synliggjøre hvor potensielle frivillige kan henvende seg, arrangere kampanjer for økt frivillighet, sørge for å motivere frivillige i rurale strøk • Støtte til frivillige organisasjoner: effektive bidrag til opplæring av nye frivillige, økonomisk støtte fra staten til kjøretøy og utstyr, forsikringer for frivillige, statlige opplæringskurs, lovverk som også omfatter frivillighet • Støtte til ansatte: insentiver til ansatte for å tilrettelegge for frivillighet, anerkjennelse av frivillighet i yrkeslivet med full kompensasjon for tapt arbeidstid • Støttende kultur: skape kultur for å anerkjenne frivillige og en vilje til å lede dem blant myndighetene og slik styrke fellesskapsfølelsen og risikobevisstheten blant folket 3. For å oppnå en økt bruk av frivillige i sivilbeskyttelsesoppgaver må det opprettes et felles nettverk av frivillige og myndigheter som planlegger og trener sammen basert på faktiske behov og offisielle internasjonale risikoscenarier. Arrangørene av denne type aktiviteter kan for eksempel være CBSS og Røde kors. CBSS fordi det er møtepunktet for sivilbeskyttelsesmyndigheter fra forskjellige land, og Røde kors fordi de allerede har etablerte internasjonale aktiviteter innen feltet.

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1.5 ReSit – situationsbild av frivilligarbete för samhällelig resiliens i Östersjöregionen Sammanfattning Den här rapporten ger en situationsbild av frivilligarbete inom civil-skyddsområdet i tio länder runt Östersjön: Danmark, Finland, Norge, Sverige, Estland, Lettland, Litauen, Polen, Tyskland och Ryssland. Syftet med projektet är att skapa en kunskapsbas och rekommendationer för att utveckla samarbetet och den gemensamma beredskapen hos myndigheter, frivilligorganisationer och medborgare för katastrofer som orsakats av människor och naturkatastrofer i regionen. Data utgörs av informationssökning, frågeformulär via e-post till säkerhetsansvariga i styrgruppen för Östersjöstaternas råd, frågeformulär riktade till myndigheter och frivilligorganisationsledare som verkar på civilskyddsområdet samt intervjuer av dessa. Det fanns totalt 138 respondenter för frågeformulären, 76 frivillig-organisationsledare och 62 myndigheter. Sammanlagt 13 myndigheter och 5 ledare av frivilligorganisationer har intervjuats. Frivilligarbetare eller frivilligorganisationer omnämns på någon nivå i olika länders lagstiftning: i civilskyddslagen, katastrofhanteringslagen, i räddningslagstiftning/lagstiftning om räddningstjänster eller i brandsäkerhetsoch brandskyddslagstiftning. Frivilligarbetares roll på civilskyddsområdet erkänns i allmänhet av myndigheter i regionen, i synnerhet frivilliga brandmäns roll. I länder runt Östersjön organiseras civilskyddet i allmänhet av statliga institutioner, även om frivilligorganisationerna spelar en viktig roll på civil-

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skyddsområdet. I allmänhet kan civilskydd initieras på grund av människors handlingar eller naturen, och beroende på den specifika frågan och störningarna kan flera myndigheter involveras, inklusive frivilligorganisationer. Runtom i Östersjöregionen har frivilligarbetare ett brett erkännande av sitt arbete inom brandförebyggande och brandbekämpning. I många av länderna har frivilligarbetare eller frivilligorganisationer en mycket viktig roll inom civilskyddet, eftersom de är en del av den lokala beredskapsramen. Detta kan dock variera stort inom ett land, eftersom brandbekämpning i allmänhet organiseras på kommunal nivå, utan en lag som fordrar användning av frivilligarbetare, där detta endast anges som en möjlighet. Samarbetsstrukturer kan variera mellan olika länder. Sverige (Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap), Danmark (Beredskabsstyrelsen), Norge (Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap) och Estland (Estlands räddningsmyndighet) har statliga organ som spelar en roll i att organisera frivilligarbete och samarbete. Frivilligarbetare har även egna paraplyorganisationer eller organisations-nätverk, där de kan samordna aktiviteter, dela kunskaper samt förbättra internt och externt samarbete. Det finns två slags paraplyorganisationer i Östersjöregionen: för frivilligarbetare inom civilskydd/räddningstjänst och för frivilligarbetare inom brandbekämpning. I allmänhet finansieras frivilligarbetares och frivilligorganisationers brandbekämpningsaktiviteter av det associerade ministeriet eller lokala myndigheten som frivilligarbetarna tillhandahåller tjänsterna åt. Utrustning, anläggningar, utbildning och administration ingår dock inte i finansieringen i alla länder eller områden, vilket leder till gammal eller dålig utrustning och fordon. Här förlitar sig organisationerna till andra finansieringskällor som medlemsavgifter, privata donationer och nationella fonder. Andra civilskyddsorganisationer finansieras på en mängd olika sätt. I allmänhet är utbildning av frivilligarbetare centraliserad och anordnas på regional eller nationell nivå. Frivilligarbetare organiseras annorlunda mellan olika länder beroende på vilka uppgifter de utför. Det vanliga är dock att utbildningen i grunden anordnas av frivilligorganisationens myndighet. Situationsbilden för frivilligarbete i Östersjöregionen har flera positiva egenskaper: samarbete finns i alla länder, frivilligarbetare omnämns i län-

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dernas lagstiftning på någon nivå, kontakter mellan frivilligorganisationer och myndigheter är vanliga och relationerna är mestadels goda. I merparten av länderna råder dock någon form av brister i strukturer (lagstiftning, myndighetsplaner, partnerskap) och samordning (styrning, ledning) av frivilligarbetare. Det finns därför ett behov av att klargöra rollen/ uppdraget för frivilligarbetare i lagstiftning, planer och operativa förfaranden för att förbättra den övergripande samordningen av frivilligarbetare. Svårigheter att rekrytera frivilligarbetare är mycket vanligt. Undersökningen styrker tidigare resultat som visar på utmaningarna med att behålla och rekrytera frivilligarbetare relaterat till sociala (åldrande befolkning, urbanisering), organisatoriska (till exempel för tunga utbildningsprocesser) samt individuella anledningar (individualism, brist på fritid, bristande intresse). De åtgärder som bör vidtas är många och fordrar insatser från frivilligorganisationerna själva samt stöd från myndigheter, stat och frivilligarbetarnas arbetsgivare. Många av frivilligorganisationerna anser sina finansiella resurser vara otillräckliga för deras uppgifter inom civilskydd. Finansieringens tillräcklighet och kontinuitet är avgörande för organisationer, till exempel kontinuerlig statlig finansiering. Enligt den här undersökningen är frivilligarbetare inte involverade i internationellt samarbete på ett systematiskt sätt och nivån av gemensamma övningar och planeringsaktiviteter med myndigheter är låg. Det institutionella ramverket för internationellt samarbete är oklart för frivilligorganisationer. Projektet leds av inrikesministeriet i Finland och finansieras av utrikesministeriet i Finland. Det genomförs av Räddningsbranschens centralorganisation i Finland (SPEK) i samarbete med Beredskabsforbundet i Danmark, Fredriksborgs räddningstjänst samt den regionala polisen i Liepāja/Union of the Baltic Cities.

Rekommendationer för att främja frivilligaktiviteter i Östersjöregionen 1. Det finns ett behov av att klargöra rollen/uppdraget för frivilligarbetare i lagstiftning, planer och operativa förfaranden för att förbättra den övergripande samordningen av frivilligarbetare. Myndigheter bör in24


kludera frivilligorganisationer i arbetet med att formulera lagstiftning, planer och operativa förfaranden. Den övergripande samordningen kan förbättras genom att inrätta paraplyorganisationer för frivilligarbetare och av statliga organ som leder frivilligarbetare. 2. Det finns ett behov av att göra frivilligarbete mer attraktivt, särskilt bland ungdomar och i glesbygd. De åtgärder som bör vidtas är många och fordrar insatser från frivilligorganisationerna själva samt stöd från myndigheter, stat och frivilligarbetarnas arbetsgivare. Det är dessutom mycket viktigt att skapa en stödjande kultur för frivilligarbete. • Åtgärder för frivilligarbetare: fullgod utbildning och professionell utveckling för nya och befintliga medlemmar, för att hålla frivilligarbetare motiverade och ’sysselsatta’ även mellan katastrofinsatser, göra standarder för fysisk kondition mer flexibla (uppgiftsrelaterade standarder), att synliggöra vart potentiella frivilligarbetare kan vända sig, driva samhällskampanjer för frivilligarbete, se till att motivera frivilligarbetare i glesbygd • Stöd till frivilligorganisationer: att få hjälp med att utbilda nya frivilligarbetare effektivt, statligt finansiellt stöd till fordon och utrustning, tillhandahållande av försäkringar till frivilligarbetare, statligt anordnade utbildningar, stifta lagar som beaktar frivilligarbete • Stöd till arbetsgivare: skapa incitament för arbetsgivare att möjliggöra frivilligarbete, erkännande av frivilligarbete i huvudyrket, ge full kompensation för förlorad arbetstid • Stödjande kultur: skapa en kultur av erkännande och uppskattning av ledande frivilligarbetare hos myndigheter, öka känslan av samhörighet och riskmedvetenhet bland medborgare 3. Inom BSR-området finns det, för att öka frivilligarbetares engagemang i civilskyddsuppgifter, ett behov av att bilda ett gemensamt nätverk av frivilligarbetare och myndigheter som planerar och övar tillsammans baserat på verkliga behov/officiella internationella riskscenarier. Exempelvis CBSS och Röda korset vore tänkbara organisatörer av dessa slags aktiviteter. CBSS eftersom det är en mötesplats för civilskyddsmyndigheter från olika länder och Röda korset eftersom de redan har etablerade internationella aktiviteter inom området.

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1.6 ReSit – olukorrapilt vabatahtlikust tegevusest ühiskonna vastupanuvõime suurendamiseks Läänemere piirkonnas Kokkuvõte Käesolev aruanne joonistab olukorrapildi vabatahtlikust tegevusest kodanikukaitse alal 10 Läänemere piirkonna riigis: Taanis, Soomes, Norras, Rootsis, Eestis, Lätis, Leedus, Poolas, Saksamaal ja Venemaal. Projekti eesmärk on luua piirkonnas teadmusbaas ja anda soovitusi ametiasutuste, vabatahtlike organisatsioonide ja kodanike koostöö ning ühise inimtekkelisteks ja looduskatastroofideks valmisoleku arendamiseks. Andmed koosnevad teabeotsingust, e-posti teel saadetud küsimustikust Läänemeremaade Nõukogu juhtrühma PA Secure julgeolekuametnikele, kodanikukaitse alal tegutsevatele ametiisikutele ja vabatahtlike organisatsioonide juhtidele suunatud küsimustikest ning mainitud isikutega tehtud intervjuudest. Küsimustikele vastas kokku 138 vastajat: 76 vabatahtliku organisatsiooni juhti ja 62 ametiisikut. Intervjueeriti kokku 13 ametiisikut ja 5 vabatahtliku organisatsiooni juhti. Vabatahtlikke või nende organisatsioone mainitakse mingil tasemel erinevate riikide õigusaktides: kodanikukaitseseaduses, hädaolukorra seaduses, päästeseaduses ehk päästeteenuste seaduses või tuleohutuse ja tulekaitse seaduses. Piirkonna ametiasutused enamasti tunnustavad vabatahtlike rolli kodanikukaitses, eelkõige vabatahtlike tuletõrjujate oma. Läänemeremaades korraldavad kodanikukaitset enamasti riigiasutused, kuid vabatahtlikud organisatsioonid võivad mängida kodanikukaitses olulist rolli. Kodanikukaitse võidakse algatada enamasti inimtegevuse või loodusjõu tõttu ning sõltuvalt konkreetsest teemast ja häirest võidakse sellesse kaasata mitmesuguseid institutsioone, muuhulgas vabatahtlikke organisatsioone.

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Kõikjal Läänemere piirkonnas on vabatahtlikud pälvinud laialdast tunnustust töö eest tulekahjude ennetamisel ja kustutamisel. Paljudes riikides etendavad vabatahtlikud ja nende organisatsioonid olulist rolli kodanikukaitses, sest nad on osa kohalikust valmisoleku raamistikust. See võib aga riigisiseselt suuresti varieeruda, sest tuletõrjet organiseeritakse enamasti kohaliku omavalitsuse tasandil, kusjuures õigusaktid ei nõua vabatahtlike kaasamist, vaid nimetavad seda ainult üheks võimaluseks. Koostööstruktuurid varieeruvad riigiti. Rootsil (Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap), Taanil (Beredskabsstyrelsen), Norral (Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap) ja Eestil (Päästeamet) on valitsusasutus, kes mängib rolli vabatahtliku tegevuse korraldamisel ja koostöö tegemisel. Vabatahtlikel on ka oma katusorganisatsioonid või organisatsioonide võrgustikud, kus nad saavad koordineerida tegevusi, jagada teadmisi ning parandada organisatsioonisisest ja -välist koostööd. Läänemere piirkonnas on kaht tüüpi katusorganisatsioone: kodanikukaitse/pääste valdkonna vabatahtlike ja vabatahtlike tuletõrjujate jaoks. Vabatahtlike ja nende organisatsioonide tuletõrjetegevust rahastab enamasti sellekohane ministeerium või kohalik asutus, kellele vabatahtlikud osutavad teenuseid. Rahastus ei hõlma kõigis riikides või piirkondades aga varustust, ruume, koolitust ja haldust, mistõttu vabatahtlikel on tihtipeale vanad või viletsad seadmed ja sõidukid. Selles osas sõltuvad organisatsioonid muudest rahastusallikatest nagu liikmemaksud, isiklikud annetused ja riiklikud vahendid. Muid kodanikukaitseorganisatsioone rahastatakse väga mitmesugustel viisidel. Üldiselt on vabatahtlike koolitus ja haridus tsentraliseeritud ja seda viiakse läbi piirkondlikul või üleriigilisel tasandil. Vabatahtlikud on riigiti organiseeritud erinevalt sõltuvalt nende täidetavatest ülesannetest. Ühine on aga see, et koolitusi viib läbi põhiliselt vabatahtlike organisatsioon. Vabatahtliku tegevuse olukorrapildil Läänemere piirkonnas on palju positiivseid omadusi: koostöö eksisteerib kõigis maades, vabatahtlikke mainitakse ühel või teisel tasandil riikide õigusaktides, lepingud vabatahtlike organisatsioonide ja ametiasutuste vahel on tavalised ning nendevahelised suhted enamasti head.

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Enamikus riikides on aga mõningaid vajakajäämisi vabatahtlike struktuurides (õigusaktid, ametiasutuste plaanid, partnerlussuhted) ja koordineerimises (juhtimine, haldamine). Seetõttu on vaja täpsustada vabatahtlike rolli/ missiooni õigusaktides, plaanides ja tegevuskordades ning täiustada vabatahtlike koordineerimist katusorganisatsiooni abil. Raskused vabatahtlike värbamisel on väga tavalised. Uuring kinnitas varasemaid tulemusi, mille kohaselt on katsumused vabatahtlike hoidmisel ja värbamisel seotud ühiskondlike (rahvastiku vananemine, linnastumine), organisatoorsete (näiteks rasked koolitusprotsessid, vabatahtlikke mittetunnustav organisatsioonikultuur) ning individuaalsete põhjustega (individualism, vaba aja puudumine, huvipuudus). Meetmed, mida tuleks rakendada, on mitmekordsed ja vajavad vabatahtlike organisatsioonide eneste panust ning tuge ametiasutustelt, riigilt ja vabatahtlike tööandjatelt. Paljud vabatahtlikud organisatsioonid leiavad, et nende rahalistest ressurssidest ei piisa kodanikukaitse ülesannete täitmiseks. Rahastuse piisavus ja pidevus, näiteks pidev riigirahastus, on organisatsioonide jaoks otsustava tähtsusega. Käesoleva uuringu kohaselt ei kaasata vabatahtlikke süstemaatiliselt rahvusvahelisse koostöösse ja ühisõppuste tasandile ning planeerimistegevus koos ametiasutustega on kasin. Rahvusvahelise koostöö institutsionaalne raamistik on vabatahtlikele organisatsioonidele ebaselge. Projekti juhib Soome siseministeerium ja rahastab Soome välisministeerium. Selle viib ellu Soome Päästevaldkonna Keskorganisatsioon (Suomen pelastusalan keskusjärjestö ehk SPEK) koostöös Taani kodanikukaitseliidu (Beredskabsforbundet), Frederiksborgi tuletõrje- ja päästeteenistuse (Frederiksborg Brand og Redning) ja Liepāja munitsipaalpolitsei (Liepājas pilsētas Pašvaldības policija) või Läänemere Linnade Liiduga (Union of Baltic Cities).

Soovitusi vabatahtliku tegevuse propageerimiseks Läänemere piirkonnas 1. On vaja täpsustada vabatahtlike rolli/missiooni õigusaktides, plaanides ja tegevuskordades ning täiustada vabatahtlike koordineerimist katusorganisatsiooni abil. Ametiasutused peaksid kaasama vabatahtlikud organisatsioonid õigusaktide, plaanide ja tegevuskordade 28


kujundamisprotsessi. Koordineerimist katusorganisatsiooni abil saab täiustada katusorganisatsioonide asutamisega vabatahtlikele ja vabatahtlikke juhendavate riigiasutustega. 2. On vaja suurendada vabatahtliku tegevuse atraktiivsust, eelkõige nooremate põlvkondade silmis ja maapiirkondades. Meetmed, mida tuleks rakendada, on mitmekordsed ja vajavad vabatahtlike organisatsioonide eneste panust ning tuge ametiasutustelt, riigilt ja vabatahtlike tööandjatelt. Otsustava tähtsusega on ka vabatahtlikku tegevust toetava kultuuri loomine. • Meetmed vabatahtlikele: piisav koolitus ja professionaalne areng uutele ja olemasolevatele liikmetele, et hoida vabatahtlikke motiveerituna ja „hõivatuna“ ka katastroofiülesannete vahelisel ajal, füüsilise vormi normide muutmine paindlikumaks (ülesannetega seotud normid), et teha nähtavaks, kuhu potentsiaalsed vabatahtlikud võivad pöörduda, sotsiaalkampaaniate korraldamine vabatahtliku tegevuse edendamiseks, tähelepanu pööramine vabatahtlike motiveerimisele maapiirkondades • Toetus vabatahtlikele organisatsioonidele: et aidata tõhusalt koolitada uusi vabatahtlikke, riigipoolne rahaline toetus sõidukite ja varustuse soetamiseks, kindlustuslepingute sõlmimine vabatahtlikele, riigipoolsed koolituskursused, vabatahtlikku tegevust arvesse võtvate õigusaktide vastuvõtmine • Toetus tööandjatele: stiimulite loomine tööandjatele, et nad võimaldaksid vabatahtlikku tegevust, vabatahtliku tegevuse tunnustamine põhitöökohas, kaotatud tööaja täielik hüvitamine • Toetav kultuur: tunnustamise ja pühendumise kultuuri loomine vabatahtlike juhendamiseks ametiisikute hulgas, kogukonnatunde ja riskiteadlikkuse suurendamine kodanike hulgas 3. Läänemere piirkonnas on vabatahtlike kaasamise suurendamiseks kodanikukaitseülesannete täitmisse vaja kujundada selliste vabatahtlike ja ametiisikute ühine võrgustik, kes planeerivad ja harjutavad üheskoos tegelike vajaduste või ametlike rahvusvaheliste riskistsenaariumide põhjal. Taoliste tegevuste korraldajateks võiksid olla näiteks Läänemeremaade Nõukogu ja Punane Rist: esimene sellepärast, et ta on kodanikukaitseasutuste kohtumispaik, ja teine sellepärast, et ta on juba loonud rahvusvahelised tegevused selles valdkonnas.

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1.7 ReSit – brīvprātīgā darba situācija sabiedrības noturībai Baltijas jūras reģionā Kopsavilkum Šajā ziņojumā tiek atspoguļota brīvprātīgā darba situācija civilās aizsardzības jomā 10 Baltijas jūras valstīs: Dānijā, Somijā, Norvēģijā, Zviedrijā, Igaunijā, Latvijā, Lietuvā, Polijā, Vācijā un Krievijā. Projekta mērķis ir izveidot zināšanu bāzi un izstrādāt ieteikumus, kā veicinātu varas iestāžu, brīvprātīgo organizāciju un iedzīvotāju sadarbību un kopīgu gatavību cilvēka izraisītām un dabas katastrofām reģionā. Datus veido informācijas meklēšanas rezultāti, BJVP vadības grupas “Drošība” (PA Secure) drošības amatpersonu e-pastā veikta aptauja, varas iestāžu un brīvprātīgo organizāciju, kuras darbojas civilās aizsardzības jomā, vadītājiem paredzētas aptaujas, kā arī minēto personu intervijas. Aptaujās piedalījās 138 respondenti, 76 brīvprātīgo organizāciju vadītāji un 62 varas iestādes. Kopumā tika intervētas 13 varas iestādes un pieci brīvprātīgo organizāciju vadītāji. Brīvprātīgie vai brīvprātīgo organizācijas ir zināmā mērā minētas dažādu valstu tiesību aktos; civilās aizsardzības likumā, ārkārtas situāciju pārvaldības likumā, glābšanas likumā / likumā par glābšanas dienestiem vai ugunsdrošības un ugunsaizsardzības likumā. Reģiona varas iestādes atzīst brīvprātīgo lomu civilās aizsardzības jomā, it īpaši brīvprātīgo ugunsdzēsēju lomu. Valstīs, kuras atrodas Baltijas jūras krastos, civilo aizsardzību organizē valsts iestādes, taču brīvprātīgo organizācijām var būt būtiska loma civilās aizsardzības jomā. Civilo aizsardzību var uzsākt cilvēka darbību vai dabas parādību dēļ, un atkarībā no konkrētās jomas un traucējumiem var iesaistīties vairākas varas iestādes, tostarp brīvprātīgo organizācijas. Brīvprātīgo darbs ugunsgrēku novēršanas un dzēšanas jomā tiek novērtēts visā Baltijas jūras reģionā. Daudzās no šīm valstīm brīvprātīgajiem vai brīvprātīgo organizācijām ir būtiska loma civilās aizsardzības jomā, jo viņi ir daļa 30


no vietējās gatavības struktūras. Taču tas var ievērojami atšķirties katrā valstī, jo ugunsdzēšana tiek organizēta pašvaldību līmenī un likums nenosaka brīvprātīgo iesaisti kā prasību, bet gan min to kā iespēju. Sadarbības struktūras katrā valstī atšķiras. Zviedrijai (Zviedrijas Civilo ārkārtas situāciju aģentūra – Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency), Dānijai (Dānijas Ārkārtas situāciju pārvaldes aģentūra – Danish Emergency Management Agency), Norvēģijai (Norvēģijas Civilās aizsardzības direktorāts – Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection) un Igaunijai (Igaunijas Glābšanas pāvalde – Estonian Rescue Board) ir valdības iestādes, kuras piedalās brīvprātīgo darba un sadarbības organizēšanā. Brīvprātīgajiem ir arī savas jumta organizācijas vai organizāciju tīkli, kur tie var koordinēt darbības, dalīties zināšanās un uzlabot iekšējo un ārējo sadarbību. Baltijas jūras reģionā ir divu veidu jumta organizācijas: civilās aizsardzības / glābšanas nozares brīvprātīgajiem un brīvprātīgajiem ugunsdzēsējiem. Brīvprātīgo vai brīvprātīgo organizāciju ugunsdzēšanas darbības finansē attiecīgā ministrija vai vietējā varas iestāde, kurai brīvprātīgie sniedz pakalpojumu. Taču ne visās valstīs vai teritorijās finansējumā tiek iekļauts aprīkojums, telpas, apmācība un administrācija, tādēļ tiek izmantots vecs vai slikts aprīkojums un transportlīdzekļi. Šādā gadījumā organizācijas izmanto citus finansējuma avotus, piemēram, dalības maksas, personīgos ziedojumus un valsts līdzekļus. Citas civilās aizsardzības organizācijas tiek finansētas daudz dažādos veidos. Brīvprātīgo apmācība un izglītošana ir centralizēta un tiek veikta reģionālā vai valsts līmenī. Katrā valstī brīvprātīgie tiek organizēti atšķirīgi atkarībā no veicamajiem uzdevumiem. Taču apmācību visur organizē brīvprātīgo organizācijas iestāde. Brīvprātīgo darba situācijai Baltijas jūras reģionā ir daudz pozitīvu iezīmju: sadarbība notiek visās valstīs, brīvprātīgie zināmā mērā ir minēti valstu tiesību aktos, starp brīvprātīgo organizācijām un varas iestādēm tiek slēgti līgumi un attiecības vairākumā gadījumu ir labas. Taču lielākajā daļā valstu trūkst brīvprātīgo struktūru (tiesību aktu, varas iestāžu plānu, partnerības) un koordinācijas (vadības). Tādēļ ir jāprecizē brīvprātīgo loma / misija tiesību aktos, plānos un darba kārtībās un jāuzlabo vispārējā brīvprātīgo koordinācija. 31


Ļoti tipiskas ir grūtības nolīgt brīvprātīgos. Pētījums apstiprināja iepriekš gūtos rezultātus, saskaņā ar kuriem pastāv grūtības paturēt un nolīgt brīvprātīgos sociālu (demogrāfiskā novecošana, urbanizācija), organizatorisku (piemēram, grūts apmācības process, organizāciju kultūra neatzīst brīvprātīgos), kā arī personīgu iemeslu (individuālisms, brīvā laika trūkums, intereses trūkums) dēļ. Ir jāveic daudzkārtēji pasākumi, un ir nepieciešams brīvprātīgo organizāciju ieguldījums, kā arī varas iestāžu, valsts un brīvprātīgo darba devēju atbalsts. Daudzas brīvprātīgo organizācijas uzskata, ka to rīcībā esošie finanšu līdzekļi nav pietiekami civilās aizsardzības nodrošināšanai. Finansējuma pietiekamība un nepārtrauktība, piemēram, nepārtraukts valsts finansējums, organizācijām ir izšķiroši svarīgs. Saskaņā ar šo pētījumu brīvprātīgie nav sistemātiski iesaistīti starptautiskā sadarbībā un kopīgu treniņu un aktivitāšu plānošana ar varas iestādēm ir zemā līmenī. Starptautiskās sadarbības institucionālais regulējums brīvprātīgo organizācijām ir neskaidrs. Projektu vada Somijas Iekšlietu ministrija un finansē Somijas Ārlietu ministrija. To īsteno Somijas Valsts glābšanas asociācija (Finnish National Rescue Association – SPEK) sadarbībā ar Dānijas Civilās aizsardzības līgu, Fredriksborgas ugunsdzēsības un glābšanas dienestu (Fredriksborg Fire and Rescue Service) un Liepājas pašvaldības policiju / Baltijas pilsētu savienību.

Ieteikumi brīvprātīgo darbības veicināšanai Baltijas jūras reģionā 1. Jāprecizē brīvprātīgo loma / misija tiesību aktos, plānos un darba kārtībās un jāuzlabo vispārējā brīvprātīgo koordinācija. Varas iestādēm ir jāiesaista brīvprātīgo organizācijas tiesību aktu, plānu un darba kārtību formulēšanas procesā. Vispārējo koordināciju var uzlabot, izveidojot brīvprātīgajiem “jumta organizācijas” un valsts iestādēm vadot brīvprātīgos. 2. Jāveicina brīvprātīgo darba pievilcība, tostarp jaunās paaudzes acīs lauku apvidos. Ir jāveic daudzkārtēji pasākumi, un ir nepieciešams brīvprātīgo organizāciju ieguldījums, kā arī varas iestāžu, valsts un brīvprātīgo darba devēju atbalsts. Izšķiroši svarīgi ir veidot atbalstošu brīvprātīgo darba kultūru. • Pasākumi brīvprātīgajiem: jāorganizē pietiekama apmācība un pro32


fesionālā izaugsme jaunajiem un esošajiem biedriem, lai nodrošinātu brīvprātīgo motivāciju un “aizņemtību” arī starp katastrofām, jāveicina fizisko standartu elastība (ar uzdevumiem saistīti standarti), jāparūpējas par to, lai potenciālie brīvprātīgie zinātu, kur vērsties, jāorganizē sociālās kampaņas par brīvprātīgo darbu, jāpievērš uzmanība brīvprātīgo motivēšanai lauku apvidos • Atbalsts brīvprātīgo organizācijām: jānodrošina palīdzība jaunu brīvprātīgo efektīvai apmācībai, valsts finanšu atbalsts transportlīdzekļiem un aprīkojumam, brīvprātīgo apdrošināšana, valsts piedāvāti apmācību kursi, tādu tiesību aktu izstrāde, kuros tiek ņemts vērā brīvprātīgo darbs • Atbalsts darba devējiem: jāpiešķir stimuli darba devējiem, lai veicinātu brīvprātīgo darbu, brīvprātīgo darba kā pamatprofesijas atzīšanu, pilnīgu kompensāciju par zaudēto darba laiku • Atbalstoša kultūra: jāveido tāda kultūra, kurā tiek izteikta atzinība un varas iestāžu apņemšanās vadīt brīvprātīgos, jāveicina iedzīvotāju kopības gars un risku apzināšanās 3. Lai veicinātu brīvprātīgo iesaisti civilās aizsardzības uzdevumu veikšanā BJR, ir jāizveido kopīgs brīvprātīgo un varas iestāžu tīkls, kas plāno un trenējas kopā, pamatojoties uz reālām vajadzībām / oficiāliem starptautiskiem riska scenārijiem. Šādas aktivitātes varētu organizēt, piemēram, BJVP un Sarkanais Krusts. BJVP tādēļ, ka tā ir vieta, kur tiekas civilās aizsardzības jomas varas iestādes no dažādām valstīm, un Sarkanais Krusts tādēļ, ka tas jau darbojas šajā jomā starptautiskā mērogā.

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1.8 ReSit – savanorystės stiprinant visuomenės atsparumą būklės Baltijos jūros regione vaizdas Santrauka Šioje ataskaitoje apžvelgiama savanorystės civilinės saugos srityje būklė 10 Baltijos jūros regiono šalių – Danijoje, Suomijoje, Norvegijoje, Švedijoje, Estijoje, Latvijoje, Lietuvoje, Lenkijoje, Vokietijoje ir Rusijoje. Projekto tikslas – sukurti žinių bazę ir parengti rekomendacijas valdžios institucijų, savanorių organizacijų bei piliečių bendradarbiavimui ir bendram pasirengimui žmogaus sukeltoms ir stichinėms nelaimėms regione užtikrinti. Duomenys apima informacijos paieškos rezultatus, elektroniniu paštu pateiktą klausimyną BJVT iniciatyvinės grupės „PA Secure“ saugumo pareigūnams, klausimynus valdžios institucijų atstovams ir savanorių organizacijų vadovams, veikiantiems civilinės saugos srityje, taip pat interviu su nurodytais asmenimis. Apklausose dalyvavo iš viso 138 respondentai – 76 savanorių organizacijų vadovai ir 62 valdžios institucijų atstovai. Taip pat buvo padaryta interviu su 13 valdžios institucijų atstovų ir 5 savanorių organizacijų vadovais. Savanoriai ar savanorių organizacijos tam tikru mastu minimi įvairių šalių teisės aktuose – civilinės saugos įstatyme, ekstremaliųjų situacijų valdymo teisės akte, gelbėjimo ar gelbėjimo tarnybų įstatyme arba priešgaisrinės saugos ir apsaugos įstatyme. Regiono valstybių valdžios institucijos paprastai pripažįsta savanorių vaidmenį civilinėje saugos srityje (ypač savanorių ugniagesių). Baltijos jūros baseino šalyse civilinę saugą dažniausiai organizuoja valstybinės institucijos, tačiau šioje srityje svarbų vaidmenį gali atlikti ir savanorių organizacijos. Apskritai civilinė sauga gali būti inicijuojama dėl žmogaus veiklos ar gamtos reiškinių ir, priklausomai nuo konkrečios problemos ir sutrikimų, gali būti įtrauktos kelios valdžios institucijos, įskaitant savanorių organizacijas. 34


Visame Baltijos jūros regione plačiai pripažįstamas savanorių darbas vykdant gaisrų prevenciją ir juos gesinant. Daugelyje šalių savanoriai ar savanorių organizacijos atlieka labai svarbų vaidmenį civilinės saugos srityje, nes jie įtraukti į vietos parengties sistemą. Tačiau šalies viduje situacija gali labai skirtis, nes gaisrų gesinimas apskritai organizuojamas savivaldybių lygiu, o įstatymai nereikalauja savanorių dalyvavimo, tik numato tai kaip galimybę. Bendradarbiavimo struktūros įvairiose šalyse skiriasi. Švedija (Švedijos civilinių nenumatytų atvejų agentūra), Danija (Danijos ekstremaliųjų situacijų valdymo agentūra), Norvegija (Norvegijos civilinės saugos direktoratas) ir Estija (Estijos gelbėjimo komitetas) turi vyriausybines agentūras, kurios rūpinasi savanoriškos veiklos organizavimu ir bendradarbiavimu. Savanoriai taip pat turi savo bendras organizacijas ar organizacijų tinklus, per kuriuos jie gali koordinuoti savo veiklą, dalytis žiniomis ir stiprinti vidaus bei išorės bendradarbiavimą. Baltijos jūros regione veikia dviejų rūšių bendros savanorių organizacijos – orientuotos į civilinę saugą / gelbėjimo darbus ir į gaisrų gesinimą. Apskritai savanorių ir savanorių organizacijų gaisrų gesinimo veiklą finansuoja atitinkama ministerija arba vietos valdžios institucija, kuriai savanoriai teikia paslaugas. Tačiau ne visose šalyse ar regionuose finansavimas apima įrangą, patalpas, mokymus ir administracinę veiklą, todėl turima įranga ir transporto priemonės dažnai būna pasenusios ar netinkamos. Šiuo atveju organizacijos priklauso nuo kitų finansavimo šaltinių, tokių kaip narystės mokesčiai, asmeninės aukos ir nacionalinės lėšos. Kitos civilinės saugos organizacijos finansuojamos įvairiais būdais. Apskritai savanorių rengimas ir mokymas vyksta centralizuotai regioniniu arba nacionaliniu lygiu. Savanoriai šalyse organizuojami nevienodai – tai priklauso nuo atliekamų užduočių. Tačiau bendra yra tai, kad mokymus iš esmės organizuoja savanorių organizacija. Savanorystės būklės Baltijos jūros regione vaizdas turi daug teigiamų aspektų: bendradarbiavimas vyksta visose šalyse, savanoriai tam tikru mastu minimi nacionaliniuose teisės aktuose, sudaromos savanorių organizacijų ir valdžios institucijų sutartys, taip pat palaikomi iš esmės geri santykiai. Tačiau daugelyje šalių trūksta savanorių struktūrų (teisės aktų, valdžios institucijų planų, partnerystės) ir koordinavimo (vadovavimo, valdymo). Todėl reikia apibrėžti savanorių vaidmenį / misiją teisės aktuose, planuose ir vei35


klos procedūrose bei pagerinti bendrą savanorių veiklos koordinavimą. Dažnai iškyla sunkumų ieškant savanorių. Tyrimas patvirtino ankstesnes išvadas: sunkumų išlaikant ir samdant savanorius kyla dėl tokių priežasčių – visuomeninių (visuomenės senėjimo, urbanizacijos), organizacinių (pavyzdžiui, sudėtingų mokymo procesų, savanorių nepripažįstančios organizacijos kultūros) ir konkrečių (individualizmo, laisvo laiko stokos, nepakankamo susidomėjimo). Yra daugybė priemonių, kurių reikėtų imtis, taip pat reikėtų pačių savanorių organizacijų indėlio bei valdžios institucijų, valstybės ir savanorių darbdavių paramos. Daugelis savanorių organizacijų mano, kad jų finansinių išteklių nepakanka civilinės saugos užduotims atlikti. Organizacijoms būtina užsitikrinti finansavimo pakankamumą ir tęstinumą, pavyzdžiui, nuolatinį valstybės finansavimą. Remiantis šuo tyrimu, savanoriai nėra sistemingai įtraukiami į tarptautinį bendradarbiavimą, taip pat yra mažai bendrų pratybų ir vykdoma nedaug planavimo veiklos su valdžios institucijomis. Savanorių organizacijoms nėra aiški institucinė tarptautinio bendradarbiavimo sistema. Projektui vadovauja Suomijos vidaus reikalų ministerija, o jį finansuoja Suomijos užsienio reikalų ministerija. Projektą įgyvendina Suomijos nacionalinė gelbėjimo asociacija (SPEK), bendradarbiaudama su Danijos civilinės saugos lyga, Frederiksborgo ugniagesių ir gelbėjimo tarnyba ir Liepojos miesto policija / Baltijos miestų sąjunga.

Savanoriškos veiklos skatinimo Baltijos jūros regione rekomendacijos 1. Reikia apibrėžti savanorių vaidmenį / misiją teisės aktuose, planuose ir veiklos procedūrose bei pagerinti bendrą savanorių veiklos koordinavimą. Valdžios institucijos turėtų įtraukti savanorių organizacijas į teisės aktų, planų ir veiklos procedūrų rengimo procesus. Bendrą koordinavimą galima pagerinti įkuriant bendras savanorių organizacijas ir valstybinėms agentūroms kuruojant savanorius. 2. Reikia didinti savanoriškos veiklos patrauklumą, ypač tarp jaunų žmonių ir kaimo vietovėse. Yra daugybė priemonių, kurių reikėtų imtis, taip pat reikėtų pačių savanorių organizacijų indėlio bei valdžios institucijų, valstybės ir savanorių darbdavių paramos. Be to, labai svarbu kurti savanorišką veiklą palaikančią kultūrą. • Priemonės savanoriams: naujų ir esančių narių tinkamas rengimas 36


ir profesinis ugdymas, savanorių motyvacijos ir „užimtumo“ nevykdant su nelaimėmis susijusių užduočių palaikymas, lankstesnių fizinės parengties standartų (su užduotimis susijusių standartų) užtikrinimas, informacijos apie tai, kur kreiptis potencialiems savanoriams, matomumas, socialinių kampanijų savanoriškai veiklai paremti rengimas, savanorių motyvacijos kaimo vietovėse skatinimas. • Parama savanorių organizacijoms: pagalba efektyviai rengiant naujus savanorius, valstybės finansinė parama transporto priemonėms ir įrangai įsigyti, savanorių draudimo sutartys, valstybės organizuojami mokymo kursai, teisės aktų, kuriuose būtų atsižvelgiama į savanorišką veiklą, priėmimas. • Parama darbdaviams: darbdavių skatinimas sudaryti sąlygas savanoriškai veiklai, savanoriškos veiklos pripažinimas pagrindinėje veikloje, visa kompensacija už prarastą darbo laiką. • Palaikanti kultūra: valdžios institucijų pripažinimo ir įsipareigojimo vadovauti savanoriams kultūros kūrimas, piliečių bendruomeniškumo jausmo stiprinimas ir informuotumo apie riziką didinimas. 3. Norint užtikrinti aktyvesnį savanorių dalyvavimą vykdant civilinės saugos užduotis Baltijos jūros regione, reikia sukurti bendrą savanorių ir valdžios institucijų tinklą, kad būtų kartu planuojama ir veikiama, atsižvelgiant į realius poreikius / oficialius tarptautinės rizikos scenarijus. Tokią veiklą galėtų organizuoti, pavyzdžiui, BJVT ir Raudonasis Kryžius, nes BJVT yra įvairių šalių civilinės saugos institucijų susitikimo vieta, o Raudonasis Kryžius šioje srityje jau yra išplėtojęs tarptautinę veiklą.

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1.9 ReSit – obraz sytuacyjny wolontariatu na rzecz odporności społecznej w regionie Morza Bałtyckiego Streszczenie Niniejszy raport przedstawia obraz sytuacyjny wolontariatu w obszarze ochrony ludności w 10 krajach Morza Bałtyckiego: Danii, Finlandii, Norwegii, Szwecji, Estonii, Łotwie, Litwie, Polsce, Niemczech i Rosji. Celem projektu jest utworzenie bazy wiedzy i zaleceń do rozwijania współpracy i wspólnej gotowości władz, organizacji wolontariackich i obywateli na spowodowane działalnością człowieka i naturalne katastrofy w regionie. Dane obejmowały: wyszukiwanie informacji, ankiety wysyłane pocztą elektroniczną do urzędników ds. bezpieczeństwa w Radzie Państw Morza Bałtyckiego (CBSS), ankiety wysyłane do władz i osób kierujących organizacjami wolontariackimi, które zajmują się ochroną ludności oraz wywiady z wymienionymi osobami. W sumie w ankiecie udział wzięło 138 respondentów: 76 osób kierujących organizacjami wolontariackimi i 62 przedstawicieli władz. Wywiady przeprowadzono z 13 przedstawicielami władz i 5 osobami kierującymi organizacjami wolontariackimi. Wolontariusze lub organizacje wolontariackie są ujęte na jednym z poziomów legislacji różnych krajów: ustawa o ochronie ludności, ustawa o zarządzaniu kryzysowym, przepisy prawa regulujące pracę służb ratowniczych lub przepisy prawa dotyczące bezpieczeństwa pożarowego i ochrony przeciwpożarowej. Rola wolontariuszy w obszarze ochrony ludności jest w większości uznawana przez władze w regionie, a w szczególności rola ochotniczej straży pożarnej. W krajach Morza Bałtyckiego ochrona ludności jest na ogół organizowana przez instytucje państwowe, ale organizacje wolontariackie mogą odgrywać dużą role w obszarze ochrony ludności. Zazwyczaj ochrona ludności może zostać zainicjowana w wyniku działań ludzi lub przyrody i, w zależności od 38


rodzaju klęski, może się w nią zaangażować kilka władz, w tym organizacje wolontariackie. W regionie Morza Bałtyckiego wolontariusze są doceniani za zaangażowanie w zapobieganie pożarów i ich gaszenie. W wielu krajach wolontariusze lub organizacje wolontariackie odgrywają ważną rolę w ochronie ludności, ponieważ są częścią lokalnej struktury gotowości. Jednakże sytuacja różni się w zależności od kraju, jako że służba pożarnicza jest zazwyczaj zorganizowana na poziomie gminy i nie ma przepisów prawa wymagających korzystania z pracy wolontariuszy, uznając ją jedynie za dodatkową pomoc. Struktura współpracy różni się w zależności od kraju. W Szwecji (Szwedzka Agencja ds. Ochrony Ludności), Danii (Duńska Agencja Zarządzania Kryzysowego), Norwegii (Norweski Dyrektoriat Ochrony Cywilnej) i Estonii (Komisja Ratownictwa) działają agencje rządowe, które odgrywają istotną rolę w organizacji wolontariatu i współpracy. Istnieją również organizacje stowarzyszające wolontariuszy lub sieci organizacji, które dają możliwość koordynowania działań, dzielenia się wiedzą i wzmacniania współpracy wewnętrznej i zewnętrznej. W regionie Morza Bałtyckiego istnieją dwa rodzaje organizacji stowarzyszających wolontariuszy – organizacje dla wolontariuszy działających w obszarze ochrony ludności/ratownictwa i dla wolontariuszy działających w ochotniczej straży pożarnej. Na ogół działania ochotniczej straży pożarnej są finansowane przez powiązane ministerstwo lub władze lokalne, na rzecz których wolontariusze świadczą usługi. Jednakże finansowanie nie obejmuje sprzętu, pomieszczeń, szkoleń i administracji we wszystkich krajach, skutkiem czego jest stary lub nieodpowiedni sprzęt i pojazdy. W tym obszarze organizacje polegają na źródłach finansowania takich jak: składki członkowskie, darowizny lub fundusze krajowe. Inne organizacje zajmujące się ochroną ludności są finansowane na wiele sposobów. Na ogół szkolenie i kształcenie wolontariuszy jest scentralizowane i przeprowadzane na szczeblu regionalnym lub krajowym. Wolontariusze są zorganizowani w różny sposób w różnych krajach, w zależności od zadań, które podejmują. Wspólnym mianownikiem jest szkolenie przeprowadzane głównie przez kierownictwo organizacji wolontariackiej.

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Obraz sytuacyjny wolontariatu w regionie Morza Bałtyckiego ma pozytywne aspekty: współpraca jest obecna we wszystkich krajach, ujęcie wolontariatu w aktach prawnych kraju (na różnych szczeblach), zwyczajem jest zawieranie umów pomiędzy organizacjami wolontariackimi a władzami, a relacje pomiędzy tymi organami są zazwyczaj dobre. Jednak w większości krajów występują jakiegoś rodzaju braki w strukturze (przepisy prawa, plany władz, partnerstwo) lub koordynowaniu (kierowanie, przewodzenie) wolontariatu. Z tego powodu istnieje potrzeba uściślenia roli/misji wolontariuszy w przepisach prawa, planach i procedurach postępowania, aby ulepszyć centralną koordynację wolontariuszy. Powszechne są trudności związane z rekrutowaniem wolontariuszy. Badanie potwierdziło poprzednio uzyskane wyniki, zgodnie z którymi trudności z zatrzymaniem i rekrutowaniem wolontariuszy są związane z czynnikami społecznymi (starzenie się populacji, urbanizacja), organizacyjnymi (np. trudny proces szkolenia, kultura organizacyjna nieuznająca wolontariuszy) oraz powodami indywidualnymi (indywidualizm, brak wolnego czasu, brak zainteresowania). Należy podjąć różnorakie środki, które wymagają wkładu organizacji wolontariackich oraz wsparcia władz, kraju i osób zatrudniających wolontariuszy. Wiele z organizacji wolontariackich uważa, że ich zasoby finansowe są niewystarczające do zadań związanych z ochroną ludności. Regularnie wpływające fundusze w odpowiedniej wysokości, na przykład stałe finansowanie przez państwo, mają kluczowe znaczenie dla takich organizacji. Zgodnie z tym badaniem wolontariusze nie są zaangażowani w sposób systematyczny w międzynarodowa współpracę na poziomie wspólnych ćwiczeń, a planowanie działań z władzami jest na niskim poziomie. Ramy instytucjonalne międzynarodowej współpracy nie są jasne dla organizacji wolontariackich. Niniejszy projekt jest zarządzany przez Ministerstwo Spraw Wewnętrznych Finlandii i jest finansowany przez Ministerstwo Spraw Zagranicznych Finlandii. Projekt jest prowadzony przez Fińskie Krajowe Stowarzyszenie Ratownictwa (SPEK) we współpracy z Duńską Ligą Ochrony Ludności, Służbą Straży Pożarnej i Ratownictwa w Frederiksborg oraz Strażą Gminną Lipawy / Związek Miast Bałtyckich.

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Zalecenia dla promowania działań wolontariackich w rejonie Morza Bałtyckiego. 1. Istnieje potrzeba uściślenia roli/misji wolontariuszy w przepisach prawa, planach i procedurach postępowania, aby ulepszyć centralną koordynację wolontariuszy. Władze powinny uwzględnić organizacje wolontariackie w procesie tworzenia przepisów prawa, planów i procedur postępowania. Centralna koordynacja może być ulepszona poprzez ustanowienie organizacji stowarzyszających wolontariuszy i agencji państwowych kierujących pracą wolontariuszy. 2. Istnieje potrzeba zwiększenia atrakcyjności wolontariatu i skierowania oferty zwłaszcza do ludzi młodych i osób na obszarach wiejskich. Należy podjąć różnorakie środki, które wymagają wkładu organizacji wolontariackich oraz wsparcia władz, kraju i osób zatrudniających wolontariuszy. Kluczowe znaczenie ma również tworzenie kultury wspierającej wolontariat. • Środki dla wolontariuszy: odpowiednie szkolenie i profesjonalny rozwój dla nowych i obecnych wolontariuszy, aby byli oni cały czas zmotywowani i „zajęci” także pomiędzy wykonywaniem zadań w sytuacjach kryzysowych, uelastycznienie standardów sprawności fizycznej (standardy zadaniowe), wskazanie, gdzie potencjalni wolontariusze mogą się zgłosić, tworzenie kampanii społecznych na rzecz wolontariatu, nacisk na motywowanie wolontariuszy na obszarach wiejskich • Wsparcie dla organizacji wolontariackich: pomoc w szkoleniu nowych wolontariuszy w efektywny sposób, finansowe wsparcie państwa na zakup pojazdów i sprzętu, ubezpieczenie wolontariuszy, szkolenia oferowane przez państwo, tworzenie przepisów prawa uwzględniających wolontariat • Wsparcie dla pracodawców: tworzenie zachęt dla pracodawców, aby umożliwić wolontariat, uznanie wolontariatu w głównej pracy zawodowej, pełna rekompensata za utracony czas pracy • Wspierająca kultura: tworzenie wśród władz kultury uznania dla wolontariuszy i poświęcenia przewodzeniu ich pracy, podnoszenie poczucia wspólnoty i świadomości zagrożeń wśród obywateli 3. W regionie Morza Bałtyckiego należy zwiększyć zaangażowanie wolontariuszy w zadania związane z ochroną ludności. Istnieje potrzeba utworzenia wspólnej siatki wolontariuszy i władz, którzy wspólnie planują i ćwiczą w oparciu o rzeczywiste potrzeby / oficjalne scenariusze 41


zagrożenia międzynarodowego. Organizatorami takich działań mogą być na przykład CBSS i Czerwony Krzyż. CBSS ponieważ jest forum dla władz, które zajmują się ochroną ludności, z różnych krajów, a Czerwony Krzyż ponieważ ta organizacja już od dawna działa na tym polu.

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1.10 ReSit – Situationsbericht über ehrenamtliches Engagement zur Stärkung gesellschaftlicher Resilienz im Ostseeraum Überblick Dieser Bericht stellt die Situation ehrenamtlichen Engagements im Bereich des Katastrophenschutzes in 10 Ostseeländern dar: Dänemark, Finnland, Norwegen, Schweden, Estland, Lettland, Litauen, Polen, Deutschland und Russland. Ziel des Projekts ist es, eine Wissensgrundlage zu schaffen und Empfehlungen für die Entwicklung der Zusammenarbeit und gemeinsamen Bereitschaft von Behörden, Freiwilligenorganisationen und Bürgern im Fall von künstlichen oder natürlichen Katastrophen in der Region abzugeben. Die Daten wurden durch Informationsrecherchen, Fragebögen an Sicherheitsbeamte der Lenkungsgruppe PA Secure des Ostseerates, Fragebögen an Führungspersonen in Behörden und Freiwilligenorganisationen, die im Bereich des Katastrophenschutzes tätig sind, sowie Gespräche mit diesen Personen erfasst. Insgesamt nahmen 138 Personen an der Befragung teil – 76 Führungskräfte aus Freiwilligenorganisationen und 62 Behörden. Mit 13 Behörden und 5 Führungskräften aus Freiwilligenorganisationen wurden Interviews geführt. Freiwillige und Freiwilligenorganisationen werden prinzipiell in den Gesetzen der jeweiligen Länder erwähnt, z. B. im Katastrophenschutzgesetz, im Gesetz über Notfallbereitschaft, im Rettungsgesetz/Gesetz zu Rettungsdiensten oder in Brandschutzvorschriften. Die Rolle von Freiwilligen im Bereich des Katastrophenschutzes und vor allem die Rolle der Freiwilligen Feuerwehr ist von den Behörden des Ostseeraums allgemein anerkannt. In den Ländern des Ostseeraums wird der Katastrophenschutz in der Regel von staatlichen Institutionen organisiert. Freiwilligenorganisationen können im Bereich des Katastrophenschutzes jedoch eine wichtige Rolle spielen. 43


Im Allgemeinen kann der Katastrophenschutz aufgrund von menschlichem Handeln oder Naturereignissen erforderlich werden und je nach Ursache oder Störung unterschiedlich sein. Es können mehrere Behörden und auch Freiwilligenorganisationen involviert sein. Im Ostseeraum sind freiwillige Helfer vor allem wegen ihrer Arbeit im Brandschutz und der Brandbekämpfung anerkannt. In vielen Ländern spielen Freiwillige oder Freiwilligenorganisationen eine wichtige Rolle im Katastrophenschutz, da sie in das Rahmenwerk der lokalen Bereitschaftsdienste integriert sind. Doch auch hier kann es deutliche Unterschiede innerhalb eines Landes geben, da die Brandbekämpfung in der Regel auf Stadt- oder Gemeindeebene organisiert ist und der Einsatz von freiwilligen Helfern nicht durch eine Vorschrift vorgeschrieben wird, sondern lediglich als Möglichkeit festgehalten ist. Die Kooperationsstrukturen variieren von Land zu Land. Schweden (Schwedische Behörde für Notfallpläne), Dänemark (Dänische Notfallbehörde), Norwegen (Norwegisches Direktorat für Katastrophenschutz) und Estland (Estnischer Notfallrat) verfügen über staatliche Behörden, die für die Organisation von Freiwilligen und der Zusammenarbeit zuständig sind. Freiwillige Helfer arbeiten auch unter eigenen Dachverbänden oder Organisationsnetzwerken, in denen sie Aktivitäten koordinieren, Wissen teilen und die interne und externe Kooperation verbessern können. Im Ostseeraum gibt es zwei Arten von Dachverbänden: für Freiwillige im Bereich Zivilschutz / Katastrophenschutz und für freiwillige Feuerwehrleute. In der Regel werden die Aktivitäten zur Brandbekämpfung der freiwilligen Helfer und Freiwilligenorganisationen durch das zuständige Ministerium oder die lokale Behörde finanziert, für die die Freiwilligen ihre Dienste leisten. Doch in keinem Land und keiner Region umfasst die Finanzierung Ausrüstung, Gebäude, Schulungen und Verwaltung. Daher wird häufig mit veralteten Ausrüstungen und Fuhrparks gearbeitet. Diese Kosten decken die Organisationen durch andere Finanzierungsquellen wie Mitgliedsbeiträge, private Spenden oder nationale Fonds ab. Andere Katastrophenschutzorganisationen werden durch verschiedenste Quellen finanziert. Meist sind Schulung und Ausbildung der Freiwilligen zentral organisiert und werden auf regionaler oder nationaler Ebene durchgeführt. Je nach Zuständigkeit und Aufgaben sind die freiwilligen Helfer in den unterschiedlichen 44


Ländern auf verschiedene Weise organisiert. Gemeinsam ist jedoch allen, dass Schulungen durch die jeweiligen Verwaltungseinheiten der Freiwilligen durchgeführt werden. Der Situationsbericht zum ehrenamtlichen Engagement im Ostseeraum gibt in vielerlei Hinsicht ein positives Bild wieder: In allen Ländern funktioniert die Kooperation, Freiwillige werden prinzipiell im Gesetz erwähnt, es werden in der Regel Verträge zwischen Freiwilligenorganisationen und den Behörden geschlossen und die Beziehungen werden meist als gut eingeschätzt. Doch in vielen Ländern mangelt es an Strukturen (Gesetzen, Behördenpläne, Partnerschaften) und Koordination (Abstimmung, Leitung) für die freiwilligen Helfer. Daher müssen die Rolle/Mission von Freiwilligen in Gesetzen, Plänen und Abläufen genau festgelegt und die Verbandstätigkeit für Freiwillige verbessert werden. Schwierigkeiten bei der Rekrutierung von Freiwilligen sind sehr verbreitet. Die Studie bestätigte frühere Ergebnisse, laut denen die Herausforderungen im Zusammenhang mit der Rekrutierung und Bindung von freiwilligen Helfern durch gesellschaftliche (alternde Bevölkerung, Urbanisierung), organisatorische (z. B. aufwändige Schulungsprozesse, keine Anerkennung von Freiwilligen in der Organisationsstruktur) sowie individuelle Aspekte (Individualismus, Zeitmangel, mangelndes Interesse) begründet sind. Es müssen vielfältige Maßnahmen ergriffen werden und der Eigenbeitrag von Freiwilligenorganisationen sowie die Unterstützung durch die Behörden, den Staat und die Arbeitgeber der freiwilligen Helfer spielen eine bedeutende Rolle. Aus Sicht vieler Freiwilligenorganisationen reichen die eigenen finanziellen Ressourcen nicht aus, um Aufgaben im Katastrophenschutz zu übernehmen. Die ausreichende und kontinuierliche Finanzierung, z. B. durch kontinuierliche staatliche Förderung, ist für die Organisationen von zentraler Bedeutung. Laut der Studie sind Freiwillige nicht systematisch an internationaler Zusammenarbeit beteiligt und das Angebot an gemeinsamen Übungen und Planungsaktivitäten mit Behörden ist gering. Für die Freiwilligenorganisationen ist der institutionelle Rahmen in der internationalen Zusammenarbeit nicht ersichtlich.

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Das Projekt wird vom finnischen Innenministerium geleitet und vom finnischen Außenministerium finanziert. Es wird vom Nationalen Katastrophenschutzverband Finnlands (SPEK) in Zusammenarbeit mit der Dänischen Katastrophenschutzliga, dem Brand- und Notfalldienst von Fredriksborg und der Städtischen Polizei von Liepaja/Union der Ostseestädte durchgeführt.

Empfehlungen zur Förderung von ehrenamtlichen Aktivitäten im Ostseeraum 1. Die Rolle/Mission von Freiwilligen muss in Gesetzen, Plänen und Abläufen genau festgelegt und die Verbandstätigkeit für Freiwillige muss verbessert werden. Behörden sollten Freiwilligenorganisationen an der Ausarbeitung von Gesetzen, Plänen und Abläufen beteiligen. Die Verbandstätigkeit kann durch die Einrichtung von Dachverbänden für Freiwillige und staatliche Behörden zur Verwaltung von ehrenamtlicher Tätigkeit verbessert werden. 2. Die Attraktivität ehrenamtlicher Tätigkeit muss verbessert werden. Dabei müssen vor allem jüngere Generationen und Menschen in ländlichen Gegenden angesprochen werden. Es müssen vielfältige Maßnahmen ergriffen werden und der Eigenbeitrag von Freiwilligenorganisationen sowie die Unterstützung durch die Behörden, den Staat und die Arbeitgeber der freiwilligen Helfer spielen eine bedeutende Rolle. Darüber hinaus muss ehrenamtliche Tätigkeit grundsätzlich mehr unterstützt und anerkannt werden. • Maßnahmen für freiwillige Helfer: ausreichend Schulungen und Ausbildung für neue und vorhandene Mitglieder, um die Freiwilligen zu motivieren und auch in Zeiten ohne Einsätze zu „beschäftigen“; flexiblere Standards zur Aufrechterhaltung der körperlichen Fitness (aufgabenbezogene Standards), damit potentielle freiwillige Helfer erkennen, was sie erreichen können; Lancieren von Kampagnen in sozialen Netzwerken; stärke Konzentration auf die Motivierung von Freiwilligen in ländlichen Gegenden • Unterstützung für Freiwilligenorganisationen: Unterstützung bei der effektiven Ausbildung neuer Freiwilliger; staatliche Unterstützung zur Finanzierung von Fuhrparks und Ausrüstung; Bereitstellung einer Versicherung für freiwillige Helfer; vom Staat bereitgestellte Schulungen; Ausarbeitung von Gesetzen, in denen Freiwillige einbezogen werden 46


• Unterstützung für Arbeitgeber: Bereitstellung von Anreizen für Arbeitgeber, die die Tätigkeit der Freiwilligen unterstützen; Anerkennung von freiwilliger Tätigkeit im Rahmen der Hauptbeschäftigung; vollständige Bezahlung der verlorenen Arbeitszeit • Unterstützung durch Behörden und Gesellschaft: Schaffung einer Kultur der Anerkennung und Bereitschaft zur Koordination von Freiwilligen innerhalb der Behörden; Steigerung des Gemeinschaftssinns und des Risikobewusstseins innerhalb der Bevölkerung 3. Damit im Ostseeraum mehr freiwillige Helfer am Katastrophenschutz teilnehmen, muss ein gemeinsames Netzwerk von Freiwilligen und Behörden eingerichtet werden, in dem Aufgaben gemäß den tatsächlichen Anforderungen/den offiziellen internationalen Risikoszenarien gemeinsam geplant und durchgeführt werden. Entsprechende Aktivitäten könnten z. B. vom Ostseerat und dem Roten Kreuz organisiert werden. Denn im Ostseerat kommen Katastrophenschutzbehörden unterschiedlicher Länder zusammen und das Rote Kreuz ist in diesem Bereich bereits international aktiv

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2. Introduction This report paints the situational picture of volunteering in the field of civil protection in ten Baltic Sea countries. The aim of the project was to create a knowledge base and recommendations to develop cooperation among the authorities, volunteer organisations and citizens in the field of civil protection. The project was inspired by the recommendations of the Directors General for Civil Protection in the BSR (2017), according to which all networks and expert groups dealing with civil protection in the BSR should organise cooperation in certain areas. One of them is increasing the involvement of the local authorities and civil society organisations: Enhancing resilience towards natural and man-made disasters can be provided only in cooperation with local governments, their services and agencies, as well as with citizens’ associations. These structures are key partners in prevention activities, raising public awareness regarding hazards, preparing and mobilising resources in emergencies as well as making recovery processes well-tailored to genuine needs and actual delivery conditions. A strong partnership between professional civil protection agencies, local governments, and civil society organisations will create a solid foundation for societal security in the BSR. (Joint Position on Enhancing Cooperation in Civil Protection Area 15th Meeting of Directors General for the Civil Protection in BSR, 2017)

The project also supports another recommendation from the Directors General on building a common societal security culture: Building a common societal security culture. The strategic objective is to build common attitudes towards societal security threats and a shared understanding of prevention, preparedness, and response as well as recovery processes in connection with disasters. The concept of ‘societal security’ should be a basis for developing common societal security culture, as this concept is regionally and globally well standardised. (Joint Position on Enhancing Cooperation in Civil Protection Area 15th Meeting of Directors General for the Civil Protection in BSR, 2017)

Involving volunteers also has a financial aspect. According to research, the financial contribution of volunteer work such as the contribution of volunteer fire brigades is crucial for society (cf Suominen, 2002).

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Important concepts According to the Finnish municipal dictionary (Kuntasanasto, 2013, G068), civil protection refers to a wide spectrum of activities involved in protecting the civilian population in the event of natural or man-made disasters. Civil protection includes prevention, planning, preparedness, response and recovery from disasters. Civil protection is done in cooperation among different administrative sectors, administrative levels and other actors (the private sector, volunteers, individual citizens helping themselves, etc.) The definition, based on the country-information of EU countries’ civil protection tasks and objectives, is provided at: https:// ec.europa.eu/echo/files/civil_protection/vademecum/index.html Societal resilience refers to how systems respond to adverse conditions in a way that promotes the well-being of its units. In the definition of the Rockefeller Foundation, resilience stands for the capacity of individuals, communities, and systems to survive, adapt, and grow in the face of stress and shocks, and even transform when conditions require it. Societal resilience also refers to the mobilisation of resources for the improvement of welfare in the face of adversity. (René Bekkers, Director of the Center for Philanthropic Studies at the Faculty of Social Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, ‘Foundations of Societal Resilience – Talma Lecture’, 2016) A volunteer in the field of civil protection is a person who takes part in civil protection activities and who is not compensated for these activities. The volunteer organisations included in this study refer to non-governmental, non-profit, organisations taking part in civil protection tasks. The study also covers other kinds of entities that organise volunteers, such as volunteers in municipalities. The authorities that were included are all key authorities operating in the field of civil protection in their respective countries.

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2.1 The framework for involving volunteers in the field of civil protection 2.1.1 Institutional framework for international cooperation in the field of civil protection According to a previous study the institutional arrangements of civil protection cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region are very diverse and heterogeneous in terms of membership and institutional design, which clashes with the goal of coherence (Barzanje, Ekengren & Rhinard, 2018). According to research, there is a need to find a common denominator for the crucial elements of safety and security systems, to enable greater coherence and compatible approaches across the region (Working Paper on Civil Protection in the Baltic Sea Region Perspective 2016–2020 Selected Problems). Previous research also recommends rationalising the institutional complexity that utilises the CBSS as an ‘umbrella’ approach to link various initiatives. It advocates adopting incremental, bottom-up practices instead of strict protocols, taking concrete steps towards well-specified goals and an ‘all hazards’ approach. This means there is a need to prepare for specific capacity-building measures with more generic oversight and for potentially unclear transboundary crises (Barzanje, Ekengren & Rhinard, 2018). All Baltic Sea organisations such as the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region (EUSBSR), the Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS), Nordic/Haga as well as NATO support their member states’ efforts to plan, practice and better organise their collective response to crises that focus on preparedness. However, prevention, response and recovery activities are more fragmented. For example, response coordination is limited mainly because response, by definition, is a national responsibility (Nordic cooperation is an exception here, where long-standing cooperation on cross-border rescue exists). (ibid) Civil protection is mainly the responsibility of the individual states’ local rescue services. There is, however, a growing tendency towards international cooperation when dealing with major emergencies and cross-border emergencies as well as in planning and short-term training. Genuine 50


integration is reaching its limits because of there not being supranational decision-making bodies. Also, the lack of common educational standards is a hindrance to the free movement of labour in the field. The study has recommended a multinational school, but that is a matter of political will and funding (Pursiainen, Hedin & Hellenberg, 2005). A study of NGO legislation and the working conditions of NGOs in the Baltic Sea Region (2004) recommended supporting the possibilities of NGOs cooperating internationally and regionally, recognising the Baltic Sea NGO network as a partner to the CBSS, supporting funding for cross-border cooperation and creating specific structure-fulfilling functions in coordination, communications, representation, and the follow-up of international cooperation. The European Union has a Civil Protection Mechanism which aims to strengthen cooperation among the EU Member States and the six Participating States in the field of civil protection with a view to improve prevention, preparedness, and disaster response. A country can request assistance via the Mechanism. Through the Mechanism, the European Commission plays a key role in coordinating the response to disasters in and around Europe. The Mechanism also helps in coordinating the disaster preparedness and prevention activities of the national authorities and contributes to the exchange of best practices. Following a request for assistance through the Mechanism, the Emergency Response Coordination Centre (ERCC) mobilises assistance or expertise. The EU Member States and Participating States may commit national resources to emergency response to the European Civil Protection Pool (ECPP). There is also a training programme for civil protection experts from the EU Member States and Participating States which also includes large-scale exercises. The cooperation of countries in the context of the EU promotes making risk assessments to identify the disaster risks across the EU and encourages research to promote disaster resilience and to strengthen the early warning instruments. (https://ec.europa.eu/ echo/what/civil-protection/mechanism_en)

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2.1.2 NGO working conditions and relationships among the authorities in the BSR countries Both civil protection systems and the NGOs’ relationships among the authorities differ among the countries in the Baltic Sea Region. Whereas the Nordic countries as well as Poland and Germany have rather flexible and decentralised civil protection systems, the Baltic States and Russia have centralised systems. There are also differences to which extent the authorities will cooperate with volunteers. Especially the Nordic countries and Germany rely significantly on volunteers in their civil protection systems. (Pursiainen, Hedin & Hellenberg, 2005.) In the Nordic countries there is vigorous and essential participation in civil activities, and the civil society and the state are interconnected in a manner which may even position them in mutual opposition. The other countries have gone through major political and economic transitions during the 1990s, and the post Second World War period had an impact on how the free civil society is viewed. Some NGOs have had difficulties getting support from the authorities. (Ojala, 2004) The NGO community in the Baltic Sea Region is highly diversified in its outlook in terms of activity, size, resources, orientation, and goals. There is however the right to freedom of association in all of the countries. Registration procedures vary from being controlled and bureaucratic to very light or no registration needed at all. (ibid) Funding is the most challenging issue for the NGOs. Some NGOs only get foreign donations and are taxed like businesses. They are not equally invited to decision-making processes in all of the countries, especially at the national and international level. Still, most of the countries recognise the need for legislation, regulations, and administrative systems that support NGOs in the Baltic Sea Region. (ibid) The study, therefore, recommends that NGOs be provided stable funding and precise regulations as well as more transparent rules for application procedures, such as informing them of the possibility of cooperating with the authorities. According to a study (Ojala, 2004) the authorities should ensure open access for NGOs when it comes to communication which is essential to their participation in civil society actions, and to systematically

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include NGOs in the planning and preparing stages of decision-making processes. The countries in the Baltic Sea Region have different historical conceptualisations/views on societal security. In the Nordic countries, such as Finland and Norway, and almost to the same degree in Denmark, societal security is viewed as an entirety to which non-governmental organisations and individuals contribute. Threats relating to the welfare of people are seen as manifold and complex. This approach bears similarities with the welfare state in its universalism. In Russia, societal security is strongly associated with national security – the security of the state. In the Baltic countries and in Poland the former and the broader concept of societal security is gaining strength. Defining societal security has impacts on how transboundary cooperation is seen and who is to be involved, which links it to the contribution of governmental and non-governmental actors and to a range of threats. Cross-border cooperation is seen as necessary when dealing with these threats. The security-of-state approach may focus more on national issues. (Aaltola et al 2018.)

2.1.3 Research on volunteers in the field of civil protection in the BSR countries According to research (Brandweeracademie, 2019) European countries are, more or less, wrestling with the problem on how to keep volunteer firefighters motivated to remain as volunteers and how to get new people interested in volunteering. The challenges to retaining and recruiting volunteer firefighters relate to societal, organisational, and individual factors. At the societal level, populations are ageing which makes it harder to get young people involved in volunteering. Employers might not be very eager to let their employees participate on calls during working hours. At the individual level, people are less willing to invest their time in volunteering and different activities are competing for their time. At the organisational level barriers are related to practices that make it difficult for volunteers to participate. For example, heavy training processes within the organisational culture that do not sufficiently recognise the volunteers (Brandweeracademie, 2019). The motivation of volunteers is also affected by factors like compensation costs and insurance coverage (Technisches Hilfswerk, 2006).

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In the case of volunteer firefighters, many challenges relate to how the fire service, and the role of volunteer firefighters therein, is organised (Brandweeracademie, 2019). Fire services can better attract and retain volunteer firefighters by removing demotivating organisational factors and by connecting more with the individual ambitions and needs of volunteer firefighters. This could require changes in work content such as task differentiation or reducing the amount of time required for training. This can improve inclusion and enable the participation of new groups of citizens. It can also result in less waste of time because not all volunteer firefighters have to perform all of the tasks. (ibid) Volunteers are motivated by altruism, helping other people, and group spirit. (Eskelinen & Nikkanen, 2020; Brandweeracademie, 2019). Many are also interested in more of a pop-up type volunteering which does not require profound commitment. The increasing interest in spontaneous volunteering is an example of this (cf Roth & Prior, 2019). Also, international tasks motivate volunteers and many are willing to take part in missions abroad (Eskelinen & Nikkanen, 2020). International networking among the organisations should be intensified, especially in training (Technisches Hilfswerk, 2006).

2.1.4 Research questions, target groups, data and methods The research questions were: - What is the role of volunteers in the legislation of the different countries, and is the role recognised by the authorities? - What are the activities of volunteers in the field of civil protection? - How comprehensively are the volunteers included in the guidelines and contingency plans of the authorities? - What are the cooperation structures (the regular meeting points) for volunteers and the authorities? - How common is joint training among volunteers and the authorities? - How are civil protection volunteer organisations funded, and do they have sufficient financial resources? - What kind of training is provided to volunteers, and is it sufficient in relation to their tasks? - How commonplace is international cooperation among volunteers 54


and the authorities, what does it include, is it done via international organisations and based on contracts/laws? - How commonplace is cooperation with spontaneous volunteers? - Has COVID-19 affected cooperation among the authorities and volunteers? - Are the volunteers insured, and who provides the insurance? - What are the biggest challenges involving volunteers in civil protection tasks according to volunteer organisations and the authorities? The information was gathered from literature and Internet sources, by asking questions (via e-mail) from security officials in the CBSS steering group PA Secure, by sending a questionnaire to the authorities and leaders of volunteer organisations in the field of civil protection, and by interviewing them (one interview took, on average, one hour). The questionnaire and interview sheets as well as the questions posed to CBSS security officials are included in the appendix. The data are described in more detail in the next chapter ‘The data: questionnaires and interviews’. The focus groups for the questionnaire were chosen by asking the CBSS security officials to identify the relevant volunteer organisations and authorities for the project in their respective countries. In the request the focus was on local (city-level) authorities. However, the authorities at regional and state levels were also included. The interviewees were chosen from among the respondents to the questionnaire who expressed interest in participating in in-depth interviews. The questionnaire was distributed via different kinds of channels: organisations responsible for the project, the CBSS, the UBC as well as ministries and state offices responsible for civil protection in their respective countries. The questionnaire was also directly sent out to volunteer organisations in the different countries. The questionnaire was sent to the authorities and leaders of volunteer organisations of eight countries: Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Germany and Poland. Similar information concerning Finland is presented on the basis of previous research on the subject, the statistics of the Voluntary Rescue Service (Vapepa) and the register of fire brigades maintained by the umbrella organisation of volunteer fire brigades and the Finnish National Rescue Association. The interviews were conducted in Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Germany, Poland and Finland. 55


When it comes to gathering basic information of volunteers in different countries Russia was included in the information search (cf next chapter ‘The role of volunteers in the field of civil protection in Baltic Sea countries’).

The data: questionnaires and interviews In all, 138 responses were received to the questionnaire: they encompassed seventy-six volunteer organisation leaders and sixty-two authorities (Table 1). The number of the respondents varied across the countries and was small in some countries, especially in Lithuania and Estonia. The results should therefore be read with a qualitative approach (i.e., with some reserve). Table 1. Respondents to the questionnaire Country

Number of volunteer organisation leaders

Denmark

23

30 %

12

19 %

2

3%

3

5%

10

13 %

11

18 %

Latvia

5

7%

9

15 %

Lithuania

1

1%

2

3%

Norway

11

14 %

6

10 %

Poland

11

14 %

3

5%

Sweden

13

17 %

16

26 %

Total

76

100 %

62

100%

Estonia Germany

Percentage

Number of authorities

Percentage

Most respondents from volunteer organisations represented volunteer fire brigades (six out of the ten). The second biggest group represented the Red Cross, one out of ten of the respondents. Eleven volunteer organisation leaders said that they represented ‘some other organisation’, like the Danish Civil Protection League or the Estonian Rescue Association. Nine respondents represented a network of organisations in civil protection. Nearly half of the authorities represented the rescue services/emergency 56


services, thirteen were risk management authorities and fourteen some other authority, like county administrative boards, occupational health and fire safety, the spatial planning department, disaster management or the Coast Guard. There were also five respondents from the police and one from the Border Guard. Seven out of the ten respondents said that their organisation acted at the municipal level; this was the same for volunteer organisation leaders and the authorities. However, the respondents could mark several options: approximately four out of ten volunteer organisation leaders said that their organisation acted at the regional or the state level. One fourth of the authorities indicated that their organisation acted at the state level (ministry, state/federal agency) and one fifth at the regional level (county). Eighteen representatives of the authorities and volunteers were interviewed – thirteen authorities and five leaders of volunteer organisations. The interviewees came from nine different countries. In addition, concerning Finland, two representatives of volunteer umbrella organisations were interviewed to gather information that corresponds to the questionnaire from the eight above-mentioned countries.

2.2 Results 2.2.1 The role of volunteers in the field of civil protection in the Baltic Sea countries Volunteers in terms of legislation and recognition by the authorities Volunteers or volunteer organisations are mentioned at some level in the legislation of the different countries. They are mentioned in civil protection acts, emergency management acts, in rescue legislation/law on rescue services or in fire safety and fire protection law. While in some countries cooperation is, in general, mentioned as something that occurs among the authorities and volunteers, in other countries only the role of volunteer firefighters is formulated. Denmark (The Danish Emergency Management 57


Act), Norway (Organisasjonsplan for redningstjenesten) and Finland (Rescue Act) belong to the former group, Latvia and Lithuania to the latter. The role of volunteers in the field of civil protection is generally recognised by the authorities in the region, especially the role of volunteer firefighters. In Germany and Poland almost all firefighters are volunteers. Some countries, like Sweden, have been successful in making volunteer resources more visible at the national level, and, as in Finland, they are increasingly recognising the role of all volunteers, not only volunteer firefighters, in the field of civil protection. Contracts among the authorities and volunteers are quite common and, for example, in Finland, Sweden, Estonia, Lithuania, Denmark and Norway, their mutual cooperation is based on contracts.

Volunteer activities in the field of civil protection In the countries around the Baltic Sea, civil protection is normally organised by state institutions. However, the volunteer organisations may play a major role in the field of civil protection. In general, civil protection measures may be required following human action or natural disasters and, depending on the specific topic and disruptions, several authorities may be involved, volunteer organisations included. In Finland, civil protection organisations are well known and recognised by law and the authorities. Tasks assigned to volunteers are comprehensive and are mainly intended to support the authorities. The relevant volunteer actors are member organisations of Vapepa and contract fire brigades. In maritime activities individual citizens (boaters) also play a role in assisting the authorities in ‘risk-free’ missions. The participation of individual spontaneous volunteers has been studied and certain procedures have been created for coastal oil spill response. In Sweden, the authorities may engage volunteers when immediate help is needed from actors other than professionals, but the involvement has to be approved by the Operative Rescue leader. It has been pointed out that the Swedish authorities should increasingly recognise the role of volunteers and also more actively engage them in the preventive and follow-up phases. While the volunteer fire brigades are recognised by municipal authorities, this is not always the case at the national level. 58


In Denmark, civil protection tasks for volunteers are quite comprehensive. They can encompass several volunteer actors, such as organised volunteers from state and municipal emergency services and the Danish Home Guard. The spontaneous volunteers organised by municipalities play an important role in civil protection. In some parts of Denmark volunteer fire and rescue services have full responsibility for providing service to their region. In Norway, the role of volunteers is embedded in the Norwegian Civil Protection Act. There the municipalities have an overall coordinating role for civil protection and will include available local resources in their risk assessments and contingency planning. The role of volunteers is highly recognised among the authorities at all levels and they play a crucial role in disaster preparedness and management at sea, in the mountains, and in society in general. Even at the national level, NGOs in civil protection are organised in a joint forum for the rescue services (FORF), which holds regular meetings with the national authorities. There is strong collaboration between the civil sector and the public authorities.

While the volunteers are recognised by the Estonian authorities, volunteer involvement in civil protection is minimal, even though the staff of the Estonian Rescue Board is trained in civil protection and, hence, could train further volunteer rescuers. Volunteers in Estonia are mainly involved in fire and rescue operations, protection, and in searches for missing people. Volunteer rescuers in Estonia are not considered to be part of the permanent capability. In Latvia, the tasks for volunteers mainly involve fire protection and fire prevention. Regarding civil protection activities, they are led, coordinated and controlled by the State Fire and Rescue Service, whose strategy at this moment supports evaluating the possibilities of how to better use volunteers. The national and local authorities are mainly involved in civil protection activities. In Lithuania, volunteers may be used in firefighting and damage mitigation in accordance with the procedure established by the Law on Civil Protection and other applicable legislation. Much like in Latvia, the national and local authorities are mainly involved in civil protection activities. German volunteer organisations who have completed an appropriate certification procedure are actively involved in civil protection activities, even in 59


emergency rescue. Fire protection and general support in Germany is mainly provided by volunteers. Their specific roles are defined by legislation and regulations on civil protection as well as through other guidelines. In Poland, volunteer fire brigades can perform various civil protection tasks in supporting the national agencies, such as supplying light and power, providing basic level mass decontamination, carrying out humanitarian tasks, performing logistic and other tasks in accordance with the decisions of local governments. In Russia, volunteers are participating in preparedness and in training the population for natural and man-made disasters, in civil defence, fire safety and open water safety. Volunteers are also participating in preventing and mitigating the consequences of emergencies. In the Baltic Sea Region, volunteers are involved in civil protection tasks. For the most part, they play a supportive role to the national and local authorities.

Volunteer roles in guidelines and contingency plans Volunteers are widely recognised across the Baltic Sea Region for their work in fire prevention and firefighting. In many of the countries the volunteers or volunteer organisations play a vital role in civil protection, as they are part of the local preparedness framework. However, this can vary a lot within an individual country, as firefighting is, in general, organised at the municipal level. Legislation does not require the use of volunteers, it is only states it as an option. In most parts of Germany and Poland, and in Southern Denmark, fire brigades exclusively rely on volunteers. In Lithuania, volunteer firefighters have only in the past few years been restructured and, therefore, are not yet established as a part of local contingency plans. The role of volunteers thus varies from first responders to support personnel and only in large emergencies where professional fire brigades suffer a shortage of staff or materials. In more balanced cooperation, volunteer organisations support the fire brigades as second responders or perhaps as first responders in specific areas where the fire brigades cannot reach their targets within the designated 60


response time. This is typical for Finland, Norway, and Sweden as they all have a high degree of volunteering within civil protection, not only in firefighting. In Estonia, the volunteer fire brigades are highly appreciated, but due to the nature of volunteering, they are not included in national planning. In Latvia only the volunteer fire brigades that are included in contingency plans are funded by the municipalities. In Denmark, volunteers are part of contingency plans. In Southern Jutland they act as first responders and in the rest of the country they support the fire brigades when they are shorthanded or when the operations drag on. Regarding other civil protection tasks, the role of volunteers varies even more across the Baltic Sea Region. In general, volunteer organisations are not included in the contingency plans of other civil protection tasks to the degree they are in firefighting. However, most countries depend on volunteer organisations to enhance their citizens’ self-preparedness, e.g., in first aid training and in teaching people how to prepare for floods.

Cooperation structures for volunteers and the authorities Cooperation structures vary from country to country. Sweden (The Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency), Denmark (The Danish Emergency Management Agency), Norway (The Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection) and Estonia (The Estonian Rescue Board) have government agencies which play a role in organising the volunteering and cooperation. There are also other kinds of cooperation bodies at the national level, such as the Security Committee in Finland, whose task is to assist the Finnish government and ministries in the field of comprehensive security and to formulate the security strategy of society, which guides the contingency plans of municipalities, organisations, and the business community. In Germany, volunteers are involved in governmental level cooperation with the states. In Poland, the different parties cooperate in crisis management groups. Approximately one quarter of the volunteer fire brigades in Poland is included in the National Firefighting and Rescue System (KSRG) – a network of professional and voluntary fire services and other supporting entities working together at emergency scenes.

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Volunteers also have their own umbrella organisations or networks of organisations. These are: The Danish Civil Protection League (Denmark), the Voluntary Rescue Service, Vapepa, (Finland), the Volunteer Organisations’ Rescue Forum, FORF, (Norway), the Rescue Association (Estonia), and the Russian Volunteer Fire Association, VDPO, All-Russian Forum of Voluntary Search and Rescue Teams (Russia). There are also umbrella organisations for volunteer fire fighters like The Association of Voluntary Fire Brigades of the Republic of Poland (ZOSP RP), The Swedish Voluntary Fire Brigade Association, The Finnish National Rescue Association and The Federation of Finnish Contract Fire Brigades. Local cooperation structures vary. In the Nordic countries, such as Denmark and Finland, volunteers participate in decision-making through commissions and committees or regional preparedness forums. Cooperation takes place in day-to-day cooperation among the authorities and volunteers, e.g., through joint exercises. Volunteer fire brigades anchored in rescue operations in many countries meet regularly with the authorities at the local level, for example, in the Nordic countries and in Estonia and Latvia. However, according to a study in Finland, for example, apart from volunteer firefighters, cooperation structures with volunteer associations were absent in every third local rescue department. There are indications that cooperation functions better in rural areas, where the arrival of emergency assistance may take time and, as a result, the authorities need more volunteers than in cities.

Funding of volunteer activities In general, firefighting carried out by volunteers and volunteer organisations is financed by the associated ministry or local authority to which the volunteers provide the services. However, equipment, facility, training, and administration costs are not included in the funding of every country or area, which results in there being outdated or inadequate equipment and vehicles. For these things the organisations rely on other funding sources like membership fees, personal donations, and national funds. This is more typical for the Baltic countries. In Poland, all citizens have the possibility of earmarking one per cent of their personal income tax to selected non-profit institutions, such as volunteer fire brigades.

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Other civil protection organisations are funded in a wide range of ways: a few organisations have contracts with the authorities or communities, otherwise they are funded through membership fees, fundraising, gifts and personal donations, national funds and (inter-national) organisations. The type of funding varies by organisation within the countries, as does the level of funding.

Training the volunteers Normally, the training of volunteers is centralised and carried out at the regional or national level. Volunteers are organised differently from country to country depending on the tasks they perform. But what is common is that the volunteers’ organisational authorities structure their training. It is commonplace that the parties that utilise the volunteers provide different training in terms of content and duration. However, there are countries where the same is the same, no matter if you are a volunteer or a part or full time firefighter. The training is modular, so that individual volunteers can participate in the training required at their level. Some countries use a structure that uses e-learning/web-based training combined with practical and local training. There are also indications that Virtual Reality (VR) training is beginning to become an established part of the training.

2.2.2 Finland Introduction This chapter summarises the features of volunteering in the area of civil protection in Finland on the basis of recently done research, statistics from the Voluntary Rescue Service (Vapepa), which is the network of fifty-three volunteer organisations acting in the field of civil protection in Finland, as well as statistics from HAKA – the register of fire brigades maintained by the Finnish National Rescue Association (SPEK), which is also the umbrella organisation for volunteer fire brigades. In addition, two authorities and two representatives from volunteer organisations were interviewed. 63


There are 11 957 volunteers in 528 Finnish volunteer fire brigades with, on average, twenty-three volunteers per brigade. Approximately 9 800 volunteers belong to Vapepa’s emergency teams. In 2019, more than 4 300 volunteers participated in tasks that supported the authorities. (https://vapepa.fi/wp-content/uploads/Vapepan-vuosi-2019.pdf) In 2020, Vapepa had 10 723 volunteer members (the statistics of Vapepa). The Finnish Red Cross is the main coordinating organisation for Vapepa, and it coordinates the operations of the network related to general rescue service. The Finnish Lifeboat Institution coordinates the voluntary maritime rescue operations, and The Finnish Air Rescue Society coordinates the voluntary air rescue operations. (www.vapepa.fi)

The studies/research done on Finnish volunteers and their cooperation with the authorities A collaborative study between volunteers and the authorities (Eskelinen & Nikkanen, 2020) examined the status and the needs for developing cooperation among the rescue service authorities and the third sector in Finland. The study evaluated the third sector of the rescue services as a whole, encompassing emergency service organisations and contract fire brigades. The authorities which participated in the study are those responsible for rescue and safety, i.e., the authorities representing rescue departments, the police, the Finnish Border Guard, social and healthcare services as well as municipalities and joint municipal authorities. The study determined the types of cooperation among the authorities and third sector operators in the rescue services, and the way the parties considered how their practical cooperation, its coordination and management, should be developed. In addition to the national level, the results were also assessed at the regional level – the six Regional State Administrative Agencies in Finland. Within the boundaries of each relevant Regional State Administrative Agency, the study also looked at which organisations/associations are cooperating with the authorities and whether their cooperation was based on contracts. The research data comprised fourteen individual interviews (one to two hours each) conducted with representatives of the third sector and the authorities from Northern, Eastern and Southwestern Finland as well as the data from three national questionnaires. In all, 2 158 rescue service volun64


teers and firefighters as well as 184 representatives from the organisations’ administrations, of which 138 were fire brigade chiefs and forty-six chairpersons of rescue service organisations, responded to the questionnaire. The questionnaire sent to the authorities received seventy responses from police liaison officers for Vapepa, rescue service chiefs, liaison officers of the Finnish Border Guard for the Finnish Lifeboat Institution, from safety and risk-management managers of municipalities as well as joint municipal authorities and social directors. The project ‘Volunteers in Rescue Services’ (Ministry of the Interior. Haake, 2019) studied the use of volunteers in regional rescue services across Finland. In this project uniform principles were created for cooperation among the volunteers and rescue departments. The cooperation model aims at enabling the use of volunteers in the best possible way, especially during major disasters. In the context of the project, the term volunteer refers to members of voluntary associations and to ‘spontaneous volunteers’. In the study, volunteer firefighters were not included under the title ‘volunteer’ since they are such a substantial part of the daily activities in rescue departments. The report ‘The role of the third sector in supporting the public authorities’ security functions’ analysed the extensive role played by the third sector in supporting security functions. The report examined the range and competence of third-sector actors that are crucial for the security functions of the authorities, the functioning of cooperation among these actors and the authorities, and how the third sector is financed. The report supported the joint foresight activities of the Government and provided information on cooperation among the public safety authorities under the Ministry of the Interior and third sector organisations, as well as on the ongoing development of their cooperation. A large group of public servants and representatives of organisations at the national, regional, and local levels contributed to the report (Jalava et al, 2017).

The prevalence of cooperation and contracts According to a study of the Finnish National Rescue Organisation (Eskelinen & Nikkanen, 2020) almost all authorities cooperate with the Finnish Red Cross (FRC) and most of them with contract fire brigades. Also, contracts are most commonplace with the Finnish Red Cross (sixty-five per cent of 65


the authorities reported having contracts with the FRC and forty-six per cent with contract fire brigades/volunteer fire brigades, respectively). A third of the authorities reported having contracts with the Sea Rescue Association and more than one in ten with others such as rescue dog organisations or the Air Rescue. The third sector cooperates the most with rescue departments and the police and the least with municipalities. Fire brigades do not only focus on rescue departments with whom they have contracts, but their main cooperation is with them. In all, eighty-six per cent of volunteer organisations have contracts with the rescue services; one in five with the social and health care authorities and one in ten with the police. Contracts among the authorities and the third sector are largely seen as a collaborative practice, but the third-sector representatives sometimes feel they leave much to be desired – they would like to see the contracts drafted jointly, not just be unilaterally drawn up by the authorities (Eskelinen & Nikkanen, 2020). The analysis in the study ‘Volunteers in Rescue Services’ pointed out that rescue departments cooperate quite little with volunteer organisations (other than fire brigades). The reason for this is the limited number of suitable tasks for volunteers. Rescue service tasks are urgent and risky. The idea of volunteering is quite ill-suited for the requirements of standby times and the response strengths that are routine for the rescue services. Rescue departments mostly cooperate with organisations that can commit themselves to such requirements. In all, contracts among rescue departments and associations are becoming more commonplace and the rescue departments relate positively to the contracts. Most rescue departments have a written contract with at least one association. The most common partnership involves a sea rescue society for inland cooperation. Maritime cooperation with a sea rescue society on the open sea focuses more on cooperation with the Border Guard. The next most common contractual partners for rescue departments are Vapepa and the Red Cross. The more contract-based cooperation they had, the better it was seen to be. The research pointed out that model contracts would be handy so that individual rescue departments would not have to draft their own contracts. Rather, they could customise already existing contract templates for their own use (Haake, 2019). In the ReSit project, both of the interviewed authorities considered it typical in Finland that, if some challenges arise in cooperation, the solutions are found through cooperation among the authorities and the volunteers. 66


For example, in the Ministry of the Interior, there is a cooperation group for promoting fire brigade contract issues as well as the above-mentioned ongoing project under which a cooperation model and guidelines are being drafted for rescue departments regarding cooperation with volunteers. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased cooperation among the authorities and volunteer organisations, which is also apparent in Vapepa.

Volunteers’ tasks: together with and independently of the authorities Contract fire brigades participate in most (sixty per cent) of the rescue services’ emergency tasks (Koivunen, 2018 ed). Volunteers in fire brigades participate in firefighting, rescue tasks, fire prevention, other prevention, such as general guidance to citizens in safety, security, resilience and preparedness, as well as in search and rescue and support services. While they do not participate so much in crisis communications, they do participate in medical first response. The volunteer fire brigades carry out independent tasks in fire prevention and in other prevention. They arrange training sessions in first extinguishing, for example, provide home emergency planning to housing companies and present safety information at schools and non-governmental organisations. Approximately half of Vapepa’s volunteer tasks relate to search and rescue, a quarter to the emergency support services and the rest to providing other kind of support to the authorities during traffic accidents or environmental accidents or the like (https://vapepa.fi/wp-content/uploads/Vapepan-vuosi-2019.pdf). Getting into more detail, the tasks of volunteers in Vapepa include search and rescue, first aid, psychological support, transport and logistics, tracing missing family members and checking on vulnerable individuals, emergency housing, fundraising, catering, providing advice, uncompensated work, signalling and communications, oil spill response and underwater search and rescue. Some Vapepa volunteers also take part in firefighting and fire prevention in their role as members of volunteer fire brigades. In 2019, 2 200 people were involved in Vapepa’s support tasks. The number of the members participating in different operations was 4 300 (3 500 in search and rescue) (statistics of Vapepa, 2019). In general, Vapepa does not carry out tasks independently of the authorities. However, a small number of Vapepa volunteers has been involved in, for example, COVID-19 related 67


tasks, which were arranged by the Red Cross, the main coordinator of Vapepa. The volunteers of Vapepa are included in the authorities’ contingency plans. However, this varies region by region. According to the authorities, the third sector provides great support to state activities, particularly in the established areas such as firefighting and fire support operations and in search and rescue and maritime rescue. The cooperation should, however, focus more on preparing for managing extensive or long-lasting disruptions or abnormal situations that differ from ordinary operations. Volunteers do not have much experience with such situations; they say that they need more training for long-lasting disruptions or abnormal situations (Eskelinen & Nikkanen, 2020).

Support to firefighting Firefighting

Catering

Traffic control

28 25

Oil spill recovery

9

26

Support tasks during extensive disruptions

9

26

Accident prevention, safety communication Accelerated training for the fourth sector

8

Information-gathering and communication during disruptions

6 0

Extremely well

Fairly well

18

20

Between well and poorly

31

28 38 6

25 6

18

5

40

Fairly poorly

32 45

5

25

17

34

21

30

5

26

8

16 19

27

Training volunteers for managing disruptions

36

13

39 16

43

7

34

8

Transports

33

6

32 26

16

Accidents involving dangerous goods

28

12

37

Maritime response measures, emergency towing

20

18

45

20

23

12

36

26 14

Emergency medical sevices

36

36

27

Emergency support services (psychosocial and material support

29

6

29

35

Maritime search and rescue

26

41

28

Ground search for missing persons

28

35

35

47 60

Poorly

80

100

No opinion

Figure 1. The authorities’ evaluation of how well the third sector (volunteer fire brigades and the Voluntary Rescue Service) supports their tasks, shown as a percentage (seventy respondents). They were only requested to evaluate the tasks for which their own authority is responsible.

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In addition to the know-how associated with extensive disruptions, the authorities would like that third-sector operators particularly develop their skills in the context of emergency support services and accident prevention (Eskelinen & Nikkanen, 2020). Volunteers would like to have closer cooperation with the authorities and more tasks to carry out because operations provide motivation. Volunteers also have an interest in getting new types of tasks, such as providing accelerated training to spontaneous volunteers and supporting the authorities’ communications in abnormal situations (Eskelinen & Nikkanen, 2020). The study ‘Volunteers in Rescue Services’ pointed out the need to recognise suitable tasks for volunteers. The rescue service authorities need to be better informed about the potential use of volunteers. The authorities, too, need more information on the pertinent risks when making decisions about cooperating with volunteers. Rescue departments would benefit from national guidelines on how to engage volunteers. At the moment national guidelines are being prepared by the Ministry of the Interior (Haake, 2019).

Training available for volunteers and needs for improvement Volunteer fire brigades train volunteers in many fields: in firefighting, rescue tasks, fire prevention, search and rescue and in support services. However, they do not provide training for other types of prevention, such as general guidance to citizens in safety, security, resilience and preparedness or crisis communications. The training seems to be sufficient, except that more and more training is needed for the rapidly changing and developing digital tools and technical devices. Vapepa provides basic training to volunteers as well as training in search and rescue, communications, emergency support services, psychological support and management skills and educates preparedness trainers. In general, Vapepa training meets the demand, but there are some challenges in providing training across the regions. The members of Vapepa find their training to be sufficient, especially in search and rescue activities. The needs for improvement mainly concern training for emergency support services (Survey to Vapepa’s member organisations, 2019).

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Associations and rescue departments are fairly satisfied with their cooperation in the field of training (Haake 2019). However, according to a SPEK study (Eskelinen & Nikkanen, 2020), associations and the authorities supported the idea of having more cooperation in the field of training.

Exercises with the authorities The most common forms of cooperation among the public authorities and the third sector are emergency operations and training. Cooperation should, according to the parties, be further developed in the area of training (Eskelinen & Nikkanen, 2020). Also, in the study by Haake (2019) there appeared to be needs in developing the joint training. Apart from the contract fire brigades, joint exercises involving associations and rescue departments were infrequent and the role of volunteers was quite restricted. Rescue departments situated close to airports or some other high-risk building/activities were the exception to this. In these areas joint exercises were regularly held, and they were also seen to be more useful by the associations compared to other areas. In Vapepa, there is a shared goal to exercise jointly with the authorities. Whereas in some regions and locally, the joint exercises take place regularly, in other regions they do not (fewer than half of the planned exercises take place). There is still need for improvement when it comes to involving volunteers in joint exercises and in planning exercises together with the authorities.

Recruiting and challenges of recruiting Most volunteer fire brigades recruit volunteers. There are difficulties in sparsely populated areas or areas that people are moving out of. On the other hand, in some cities there are more willing volunteers than the fire brigades can use. Basically, Vapepa organisations take care of their own recruiting. Some mainly recruit volunteers for Vapepa’s activities, but for other organisations Vapepa activities are but one form of the activities. Also, in practice, volunteers might join an organisation after first having participated in Vapepa courses. The challenges of recruiting for Vapepa are the same as for volunteer organisations in general. Emergency tasks, however, increase interest 70


in volunteering, and during the COVID-19 pandemic basic online courses have provided a way to raise the interest of new volunteers. Membership is slightly growing in all regions. When it comes to recruiting by the authorities, the police steer spontaneous volunteers towards Vapepa. Moreover, municipalities may directly recruit volunteers into the activities of municipal preparedness centres. There are also new forms of volunteering such as volunteer rescue teams in villages (Haake, 2019). The volunteer rescue teams in villages do not form an association. Rather, they have a contract with their rescue department. When a volunteer is called to duty, the contract enters into force (ibid). The authority who was interviewed in project Resit emphasised that volunteering is appreciated in Finland, and even though long-term commitments to volunteering might be declining, more project-like activities are raising interest in potential volunteers. The opportunities for such activities should, therefore, be increased. The same theme also applies to spontaneous volunteering (cf. next chapter).

Cooperation with spontaneous volunteers In the future, more attention needs to be paid to spontaneous civic activities, namely to the ‘fourth sector’, and to its role in supporting the security functions of the authorities (Jalava et al, 2017). Spontaneous volunteering seems to be growing in Finland, while, at the same time, traditional volunteering based on memberships in associations is diminishing. This sets challenges and the need for a new approach to volunteering, both in associations and in rescue departments (Haake, 2019). For the most part, Finnish volunteer fire brigades do not cooperate with spontaneous volunteers. The national guidelines being prepared by the Ministry of Interior will also provide instructions for rescue departments on spontaneous volunteers. Therefore, cooperation will likely increase in the future. The Voluntary Rescue Service includes spontaneous volunteers in their operations and has established protocols for this. On the other hand, guidelines for cooperating with spontaneous volunteers are being discussed within the network, and the debate whether spontaneous volunteers should be increasingly used in a more goal-oriented fashion is ongoing. In 71


the action plan for 2021, the role of spontaneous volunteers is defined as a supportive resource for the organised and trained volunteers. The different organisations of the network are advised to consider how tasks should be allocated to spontaneous volunteers and how their skills for different tasks can be assured. Also, issues with communicating within the organisations and to the external audience need to be considered. Since Vapepa is not an organisation, but a network of different organisations with different kinds of volunteers, the use of spontaneous volunteers has to be considered differently than in countries with unified umbrella organisations. According to a SPEK study (Eskelinen & Nikkanen, 2020) the authorities and the representatives of the third sector that responded to the questionnaire favour, in principle, having individual, unorganised citizens participate in tasks required in abnormal situations, provided that the suitability and safety of their tasks are ensured. The authorities and representatives of the third sector feel that the possibilities of participation for these ‘fourth-sector volunteers’ needs to be assessed, especially when providing support to maintenance, transportation and search operations. The follow-up after abnormal situations for ensuring that people in the area are doing well was also seen as a potential task for the fourth sector.

Funding sources and sufficiency of funding Volunteer fire brigades are financed by municipalities and the Fire Protection Fund. They also organise their own financing, like fundraising campaigns, and get revenue from rent and property. In all, funding at the moment is sufficient. Many volunteer rescue service organisations get their funding from the Funding Centre for Social Welfare and Health Organisations. The whole system is under review because of a change in the national lottery system. So, the question is how to secure the funding of such organisations in the future. The report that analysed the role of the third sector in supporting the security functions of the authorities stated that securing good cooperation calls for a clarification of the current financing model by, for example, gradually transferring the activities of the organisations at the core of security functions to the remit of the Ministry of the Interior (Jalava et al, 2017). At the moment no decisions have been taken on the issue.

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Insurance practices The volunteers in volunteer fire brigades are insured by the state for injuries, by the parties which use the volunteers for property damage and by the volunteer organisations for damage to third parties. Volunteers do not have to obtain personal insurance. Volunteer fire brigades may also have group insurance. The insurance of Vapepa covers injuries and damage that occur during its activities, such as in training and exercises. The authorities’ insurance covers the injuries that occur in operations. The volunteer organisations’ own insurance covers the activities of the respective organisation.

International cooperation Volunteer fire brigades do not systematically participate in international cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region. However, some cooperation exists within the EU context in, for example, the form of projects. According to studies (Eskelinen & Nikkanen, 2020), volunteers are very interested in being involved in international tasks in the future. Vapepa does not participate in international cooperation, but many of its member organisations engage in international cooperation on their own; in some cases, it directly concerns the tasks of the rescue services, preparedness and resilience. The main coordinator of Vapepa, i.e., the Finnish Red Cross – a part of the Red Cross international community – has its own mechanisms for international cooperation, such as receiving and providing assistance worldwide. The Finnish authorities and volunteer organisations have been involved in separate projects associated with tasks in rescue services/civil protection in the Baltic Sea Region. These projects are Baltprep (enables more effective and timely response to major emergencies in the Baltic Sea Region), Oilspill (trains volunteers for oil spill response), Hazard – Mitigating the Effects of Emergencies in the Baltic Sea Region Ports, and projects funded by the Council of Baltic Sea States, such as the Youth for Safer Youth. Furthermore, Finland participates in the Cascade project to support the achievement of the UN Sendai agreement in fighting climate change in the Baltic Sea Region.

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International cooperation was discussed in two in-depth interviews in project ReSit. Among other things, the interviewees emphasised the benefits of international cooperation to the members of volunteer organisations. One of interviewees characterised the benefits as follows: The project funding provides better resources for organisations to arrange training, to make training materials, to have exercises and in some cases to buy equipment. Volunteers can, in the context of international exercises and training, build their own networks which can be utilised in the future in different kinds of situations, for example, building contacts with friendship volunteer fire brigades abroad. (Authority)

Some volunteer organisations are by their nature international, such as the Red Cross and the World Wildlife Fund (WWF). In the interviews it was emphasised that, among other things, the Red Cross has the ability to build infrastructure in disaster areas and has mechanisms for involving volunteers from different countries. While agreements for international cooperation are signed between states, the volunteer organisations can be involved in different tasks. However, according to one interviewed authority, rescue service volunteers are not systematically involved in international tasks. For example, the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism does not properly support the involvement of volunteers in rescue services because of the differences in the rescue service systems among the different countries. One option presented in an interview was to incorporate rescue service volunteers into the existing structures of the Red Cross. Both of the interviewed authorities stressed the need for an international rescue service/civil protection cooperation network comprising volunteers and the authorities in the Baltic Sea Region. They also emphasised that such a cooperation network should be based on researched requirements. For example, risks shared by all of the countries would make good grounds for cooperation as would the joint training of volunteers. The shared risks could be defined by using the national risk assessments conducted by the European Union Member States in 2018. After profiling the common risks, it would be possible to see whether the volunteer organisations have the required capabilities to help in different kinds of natural and man-made disasters, and what kind of further training is needed for the volunteers. A wide representation by the relevant actors from the countries would be 74


important when building the network so as to make it viable for creating joint international goals and for defining the actions needed by the countries involved. The goal of the network could be to build paths for making it possible for volunteers to help in different kind of disasters, such as forest fires and oil spills. It is important that each partner in the international cooperation gets benefits from it and is invited to the planning of projects/cooperation in the early phase. In turn, the participants can make available their know-how to the projects, for example, in the form of training.

Challenges and needs for change The training requirements of contract fire brigades have increased. Therefore, the biggest challenge is to ensure that volunteer firefighters meet the modern-day requirements. Also, the challenge for Vapepa is to make sure that volunteers have the required skills in their tasks. The question of spontaneous volunteers challenges the principle of Vapepa for being able to provide trained volunteers to the authorities. One solution to this is to make use of spontaneous volunteers in other kinds of tasks arranged by NGOs. When it comes to organising this cooperation, the interviewed authorities suggested that to further develop the cooperation and to make the roles of the different actors more distinct, a central agency should be established in Finland to handle operational command, volunteers included, and that volunteer organisations could set up a public-law body under which the different organisations would operate. Yet another challenge mentioned in the interviews was that, at the moment, the authorities do not have enough information about the skills and expertise of volunteers or about their willingness to be involved in different tasks. In previous studies (Eskelinen & Nikkanen, 2020; Jalava et al, 2017) it was suggested that regional information banks should be established to make, among other things, group level information of volunteer resources visible to the relevant actors. According to the interviews of the authorities, rescue departments have good and established cooperation with contract fire brigades, but rescue 75


departments should be more active with other volunteer organisations in the field of civil protection, such as organisations dealing with preparedness.

Summary Cooperation among the authorities and volunteers in the field of civil protection in Finland is routine practice and it is often based on contracts. The authorities are generally satisfied with the support they get from volunteers. The cooperation should, however, focus more on preparing to manage extensive or long-lasting disruptions or abnormal situations which are different from ordinary operations. Securing good cooperation also calls for a clarification of the current financing model (Jalava et al, 2017). Rescue departments have well-established cooperation with volunteer fire brigades, but at the moment rescue departments cooperate quite little with volunteer organisations other than fire brigades. However, initiatives have been made to increase the cooperation since the common guidelines for cooperation between volunteers and rescue departments are being created by the Ministry of the Interior. The cooperation model aims at enabling the use of volunteers in the best possible way, especially during major disasters. At the moment, volunteers in contract fire brigades or in the Voluntary Rescue Service do not systematically participate in international cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region, although they might be involved in separate projects. Among the volunteers, however, there is great interest to participate in international tasks in the future.

2.2.3 Denmark Introduction Twenty-three leaders from volunteer organisations and twelve authorities answered the questionnaire and one representative from each group participated in an interview. The volunteer organisations represented are all volunteer or contract fire brigades, from state, regional and municipal levels, mostly from the municipal level. All of the authorities represent the 76


rescue and emergency services, nine of whom are local authorities and one a state agency, the Danish Emergency Management Agency, DEMA. Most of the volunteers belong to the umbrella organisation the Danish Civil Protection League, DCPL, which serves as a common forum for all volunteers within the emergency services. The local organisations typically have 8–120 volunteers, whereas the state level organisations have up to 600 volunteers.

The prevalence of cooperation and contracts Most volunteer leaders and all of the authorities say their mutual cooperation is good or very good. Only two volunteer leaders replied that the relationship is bad or quite bad. Twenty volunteer organisations have contracts with the rescue and emergency services. Likewise, seven out of the twelve authorities have contracts with volunteer organisations and ten have contracts with individual volunteers. Some volunteer organisations also have contracts with the police and municipalities. Regarding the contracts, eighteen volunteer leaders and all of the authorities replied that volunteers are involved in the authorities’ contingency plans for major disasters. The volunteers primarily cooperate with the rescue/emergency services and municipalities. A few cooperate with the police, and a single respondent replied that they cooperate with the health authorities. All of the authorities cooperate with volunteers, eleven with volunteer fire brigades and one with their own volunteers. A few also cooperate with the DCPL, the Danish Red Cross, the Home Guard, the Technical Relief Agency and the Sea Rescue Society. All of the interviewees felt that their collaboration with volunteers was challenged by the professional firefighters’ union, especially in areas where their tasks are identical.

Volunteers’ tasks: together with and independently of the authorities The Emergency Preparedness Act provides the opportunity for municipalities to sign agreements with other municipalities, private companies, the 77


Danish Emergency Management Agency, associations, organisations and private individuals to perform tasks within emergency preparedness (cf Section 13, PCS 1 & 21). This enables the volunteers to take part in various types of tasks related to civil protection. As it is shown in the figure above, almost all volunteers participate in rescue tasks and in firefighting. According to the volunteer leaders, one half of the volunteers is involved in search and rescue, but only one of the authorities replied likewise. In the figure below it is shown that five of the volunteer organisations carry out search and rescue independently of the authorities, which can be one of the reasons for the difference. Another reason is that search and rescue missions are typically led by the police, who were not represented among the authorities in the questionnaire.

What kind of tasks were volunteers involved in during the past three years in Denmark? Rescue tasks (concerning people, property and/or environment)

20

7

Firefighting

9

Fire prevention (provision of information on fire safety, work done with fire safety equipment etc.) Support services (for example: temporary shelters, catering, clothing to vulnerable persons, staff support,… Search and rescue

Something else, what?

Volunteers

16

4 11

5

11

6

2 1

8

11

1

Other prevention (general guidance of citizens concerning safety, security, resilience and… Information gathering and information spreading to citizens in case of disasters or major emergencies

19

5

Authorities

Figure 2: Tasks of the Danish volunteers. Twenty-three volunteer leaders and twelve authorities replied. The majority of the replies given under the category ‘Something else, what?’ relate to the other options. Three volunteers described climate-related events/floods as a task. 1 The Danish Emergency Preparedness Act: Section 12. The municipal rescue service must be able to make a justifiable effort against damage to persons, property and the environment in the event of accidents and disasters, including acts of terrorism and war. The rescue service must also be able to receive, accommodate and care for evacuees and other people in need. Section 13. The municipal council may enter into an agreement with another municipal council, with private rescue services or with others to perform tasks within the municipality’s emergency preparedness. The municipal council may also enter into an agreement with the Danish Emergency Management Agency that the state regional rescue service performs tasks within the municipality’s rescue service. PCS. 2. The municipal council may enter into an agreement with associations, organisations and private individuals that they assist in the performance of tasks within the municipality’s emergency preparedness.

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What kind of tasks do volunteers in your organisation carry out in Denmark independent of the authorities? Rescue tasks (concerning people, property and/or environment)

7

Firefighting

7

Prevention concerning rescue tasks other than fire prevention (provision of information and guidance to…

5

Search and rescue

5

Information gathering and information spreading to citizens in case of disasters or major emergencies

4

Fire prevention (provision of information on fire safety, work done with fire safety equipment etc.)

4

Something else, what?

3

Figure 3: Independent tasks of Danish volunteers. Fourteen volunteer leaders replied. The replies in the category ‘Something else, what?’ was elaborated as ‘first responders, EU/UN and drone support’.

The experience of the interviewed authority was that their volunteers tend to sort through the tasks and exclude the tasks that are less fun. This leads to dissatisfaction among the authorities, who want to assign volunteers to tasks they can resolve. But the authorities must also be aware of what motivates volunteers. They seek a sense of community and camaraderie as well as an identity and this does not come from ‘just’ completing the task at hand.

Training available for volunteers and needs for improvement Twenty out of twenty-two volunteer organisation leaders replied that they train their volunteers, and ten out twelve of the authorities said the same. The training is matched with the tasks in which the volunteers participate. All but three volunteer leaders replied that they find the training sufficient. In our organisation the emergency service with whom we cooperate is willing to give us the needed training whenever there are new tasks that we can do so, our tasks and skills match up. However, there has been a big fight over this for the last couple of years which led to us being in the position we are in now, where we are this lucky. Leader of a volunteer organisation.

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On the other hand, one problem stated by both volunteers and authorities is that the volunteers do not always have the needed skills: The greatest challenge I see at the time, is how to educate the volunteers. Leader of a volunteer organisation. As I see it, then, it is impossible to have the volunteers educated when the top management (authority) does not want the volunteers to do it. As leader, I can choose to go against the top management or cooperate with them. I have several volunteers that really want to be educated so they can participate in the tasks. But, as things are at the moment, we do not have the option for it. Leader of a volunteer organisation. (The biggest challenge is) how to secure that the volunteers get the necessary national training – and fast enough. Authority.

The volunteers can receive the same training as professional firefighters, but as the interviewed authority put it: here must be consistency between tasks and training.

Exercises with the authorities Almost all respondents to the questionnaire answered that volunteers and the authorities have joint exercises. What is more, both parties get to train specific tasks and skills and the exercises also help strengthen their relationship and, hence, cooperation for real-life incidents. In an interview an authority stated that their volunteers maintain the operational skills in their own unit, but that crisis management training takes place together with, and under the leadership of, the authority.

Recruiting and challenges of recruiting In total, twenty-eight of the thirty-five respondents replied that they do recruit volunteers. Of them, seventeen have difficulties in recruiting enough volunteers. A general challenge is that people do not have much spare time. It gets more and more difficult to have time for volunteering. People are under pressure, so it also gets more and more difficult to recruit new volunteers. And most of those who join are people who already know someone in the organisation. Leader of a volunteer organisation.

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It (one of the biggest challenges) is how to find volunteers who have the time for training and exercises. Authority. The ‘we usually do it like this’ is one of the biggest challenges when we recruit. It is not that we do not want new volunteers, I just think that you unconsciously ignore the new ones as they do not know the community already. And then it gets really tough to become a part of it. Leader of a volunteer organisation.

One volunteer leader said that the problem with recruiting new volunteers is that the civilian population feels too secure, so they do not see the need to volunteer for civil protection. Urbanisation is also a big problem for the smaller cities.

Cooperation with spontaneous volunteers Eight volunteer organisations and one authority have cooperated with spontaneous volunteers in the past three years. The Danish Red Cross is working on a project to organise and manage spontaneous volunteers as part of their national emergency work.

Funding sources and sufficiency of funding The volunteer organisations’ primary funding source is the state. Half of the organisations get funding from municipalities and a few from private donations, membership fees, and from the EU and the UN. Local emergency/ rescue services are also counted as municipal funding as they are financed by the municipalities. Ten of the volunteer leaders responded that their funding is sufficient. However, seven replied that it is not. We need bigger economic resources for the volunteer units, as there have been many cuts in this area. Leader of a volunteer organisation. One of the problems we have had is that the chain from the volunteers that spend the money to the person at the emergency service administrating the money is too long. So, the process of applying for funding for a specific project, big or small, takes too much time. We have worked with the emergency service to solve the problem, so that in the future we will have more autonomy over our resources. Leader of a volunteer organisation.

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Insurance practices Twenty volunteer leaders and ten authorities replied that the volunteers are covered by insurance, four respondents replied that they do not know whether the volunteers are insured. According to the volunteer leaders, volunteers are primarily covered by the parties which use the volunteers, followed by state/national legislation and the volunteer organisations themselves. Fifteen of the volunteer leaders also replied that the organisation they represent provides insurance, whereas four do not and an additional four did not know. According to the authorities, it is primarily the state/national legislation that provides insurance, closely followed by the parties which use the volunteers. Correspondingly, ten out of eleven authorities replied that they provide the insurance.

International cooperation Participation in international civil protection cooperation is not very commonplace in Denmark. Only eight of the volunteer leaders and three of the authorities said that their organisation participates in such cooperation. The types of tasks they do vary significantly, however, firefighting is the number one task. Some of our volunteers were in Sweden in 2018, helping with the forest fires. It was the Danish Emergency Management Agency (DEMA) that got the request from Sweden. They gave it to the local emergency services, and the one we cooperate with asked if any of our volunteers had the time. It was a great experience for those who helped. Volunteer leader.

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In what kind of international cooperation does the Danish organisation/authority you represent participate in the Baltic Sea Region? Firefighting Rescue tasks (concerning people, property and/or environment)

2 6

0 3

Planning activities in case of cross-border disasters Information gathering and information spreading to 0 citizens in case of disasters or major emergencies Support services (for example: temporary shelters, catering, clothing to vulnerable persons, staff support,… Other prevention (general guidance of citizens concerning safety, security, resilience and… Fire prevention (provision of information on fire safety, work done with fire safety equipment etc.)

Something else, what?

Volunteers

0

2

2 2 2 2 1

Search and rescue

8

1 1 1 1

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Authorities

Figure 4: International cooperation in Denmark. Nine volunteer leaders and three authorities replied. The reply in the category ‘Something else, what?’ was elaborated as ‘the EU/UN’.

DEMA will always be the authority which receives or sends requests for international assistance in Denmark, cf Section 3 of the Danish Emergency Preparedness Act. However, every volunteer organisation or authority can establish tabletop cooperation, where experience and knowledge are shared. I think it would be nice to have more international cooperation. It is a way to share experiences and learn new ways to do things. Leader of a volunteer organisation.

In the interview a volunteer leader saw the social perspective as an important factor – to share the interest in civil protection with others from abroad. However, the leader also pointed out that their organisation would probably not engage in international cooperation on their own initiative. But, if another volunteer organisation reaches out to them, with the framework for cooperation already set, they would participate.

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Biggest challenges involving volunteers The biggest challenges can be divided into two categories: Volunteers and cooperation. The volunteer category regards recruiting new volunteers and motivating the ‘old’ volunteers, whereas the cooperation category is about proper recognition. The challenges to recruiting have already been described. Motivating volunteers can be very difficult, especially when they are not used often. A general challenge is how to keep them motivated between assignments. Still, the challenge regarding recognition also plays a critical role. The need for recognition is not only an issue for the authorities, the volunteers’ employers and families, for instance, also have to approve their participation. To be a volunteer (is the biggest challenge). A lot of people don’t understand that you do work for no compensation and that it often costs you money to be a volunteer. Leader of a volunteer organisation.

One of the authorities put the problem quite simply: Lack of relevant tasks. However, the volunteer leader who was interviewed did not recognise this problem at all. There are plenty of tasks we can do, you just have to ask for them if the authorities are not thinking a bit creatively themselves. And then you have to be ready to try new things.

Another volunteer leader put it this way: Give people a cause for helping others – especially those nearby whom they know. Make them feel appreciated – then the use of volunteers is possible. But, if we do not feel appreciated and our effort is misused, people will place their efforts elsewhere. The focus and culture in public administration does not fit well with the need of being a volunteer.

Summary of the results Volunteers and the authorities in Denmark have good mutual cooperation, and the volunteers participate in many different tasks within civil protection. The biggest challenge is how to recruit new volunteers. There are

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many reasons for this, but the most significant ones are the lack of spare time and urbanisation. For some organisations this is further complicated by authorities who do not recognise the volunteers as an extra resource. International cooperation and international exercises are not common among volunteer organisations. They are, however, open to more international cooperation, but not ready to initiate it.

2.2.4 Norway Introduction Eleven leaders from volunteer organisations and six authorities responded to the questionnaire, and one representative from each group participated in an in-depth interview. The volunteer organisations represented are the Norwegian Red Cross (NRC) and the Norwegian People’s Aid (NPAID). The authorities come from the rescue and emergency services at state and local levels, and from municipalities. The volunteers belong to the umbrella organisation Volunteer Organisations’ Rescue Forum (Frivillige Organisasjoners Redningsfaglige Forum, FORF) which is an organisation for the volunteer rescue services in Norway. The local volunteer organisations that contributed to the project have, on average, thirty-five volunteers: the NRC has 5 000 volunteers and the NPAID 2 000 volunteers around Norway.

The prevalence of cooperation and contracts In the questionnaire ten out eleven volunteer leaders rated their relationship with the authorities as good or very good. Likewise, five out of six authorities said this. The two remaining respondents rated it ‘not good, not bad’. However, relationships and cooperation are not equally good with all of the authorities. The interviewed volunteer leader said: We have very good cooperation with the police and with the search and rescue authorities, because we get called out a lot. They know our capabilities very well, when to use them and when not to use them … volunteers play a vital role in civil protection in Norway. They are generally appreciated

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as a valuable asset by the operational authorities. At the local level, there is next to no cooperation with the municipality. We work well together with the guys with blue lights on their roofs, but the local authorities we do not have much to do with.

Almost all of the volunteers cooperate with the rescue and emergency services and the police. Half of the volunteer leaders replied that they cooperate with municipalities. All of the authorities cooperate with the NRC and most with the NPAID. Some also cooperate with volunteer/contract fire brigades, the Sea Rescue Society, the Rescue Dogs, the Air Rescue, and the FORF. Most cooperation is based on contracts. Eight volunteer leaders replied that they have contracts with the rescue and emergency services, and nine have contracts with the police. Some also have contracts with municipalities. Five of the six authorities have contracts with volunteer organisations and one of the five also has contracts with individual volunteers. Eight volunteer leaders and all of the authorities replied that the volunteers are also involved in the authorities’ plans for major disasters. The interviewed authority does not have a plan which directly involves the volunteers. But they are described in their risk analyses so it is easy to see which organisations can contribute and with what assets. One of the authorities commented on the cooperation: The plans and operational procedures at the operational and strategic level are not good enough. This makes the use of volunteers at the tactical level less relevant.

In the interview the authority described the difference between professional and personal work as one of the difficulties with cooperation. In general, volunteers respond to the alarm calls because they want to, whereas the authorities do it because they have to. You can also have a search and rescue situation where the authorities might be joking around to maintain the morale during a long shift, and then they are suddenly standing next to a relative of the missing person. It is a relationship that is very important to acknowledge and work with.

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Volunteers’ tasks: together with and independently of the authorities Volunteers help with various types of tasks, from search and rescue to traffic guidance and providing emergency shelter. Leader of a volunteer organisation

As it is shown in the table, volunteers are involved in many types of tasks. However, there is no complete agreement between volunteers and the authorities regarding these tasks. This might be because volunteers primarily cooperate with the rescue and emergency services and the police, while the authorities replying to the questionnaire primarily represent municipalities.

What kind of tasks were volunteers involved in during the past three years in Norway? Search and rescue Rescue tasks (concerning people, property and/or environment) Other prevention (general guidance of citizens concerning safety, security, resilience and… Support services (for example: temporary shelters, catering, clothing to vulnerable persons, staff support,… Information gathering and information spreading to citizens in case of disasters or major emergencies

4

6 3

8

7

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3

2 1

Firefighting Fire prevention (provision of information on fire safety, work done with fire safety equipment etc.)

0 0

Something else, what?

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Volunteers

10

3

1

Authorities

Figure 5: Tasks of the Norwegian volunteers. Eleven volunteer leaders and six authorities replied. The answer in the category ‘Something else, what?’ was elaborated as ‘social party/culture activities’.

Some volunteers also have plans for different activities, so they do not overlap each other too much. The different organisations and local groups have different areas of expertise. Authority.

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This helps them to be more useful and better at specific tasks. Seven of the volunteer leaders replied that their organisation also carries out tasks independently. These are just as routine as their other tasks shown in the figure below.

What kind of tasks do volunteers in your organisation carry out in Norway independent of the authorities? Information gathering and information spreading to citizens in case of disasters or major emergencies

3

Prevention concerning rescue tasks other than fire prevention (provision of information and guidance to…

3

Search and rescue

2

Rescue tasks (concerning people, property and/or environment)

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Fire prevention (provision of information on fire safety, work done with fire safety equipment etc.) Firefighting

1 0

Something else, what?

3

Figure 6: Independent tasks of the Norwegian volunteers. Seven volunteer leaders replied. One answer in the category ‘Something else, what?’ was elaborated as ‘social party culture activities’.

Training available for volunteers and needs for improvement Ten volunteer organisations and three authorities provide training for volunteers in the field of civil protection. Eight of the ten volunteer organisations find the training to be sufficient, as do all six authorities. We always place great focus on practical training. We do as much hands on as we can, especially with first aid. It’s very resource-intensive, but we believe this is much better than sitting in a classroom and learning. Leader of a volunteer organisation.

However, one of the volunteer leaders commented on the biggest challenges:

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More help to train new volunteers in an effective way. We are a small organisation, and it’s hard to find the time to do this training in a way that ensures we keep the new volunteers long enough to get them qualified.

This was also a problem pointed out by the interviewed volunteer leader, as the training demands considerable resources. One of their solutions is to share the burden with their sister organisations in the region, so each local group only has to organise one or two full training sessions a year. The fact that the volunteers spend a lot of time and resources on training is also acknowledged by the authorities: The volunteers are very professional in their execution of tasks – sometimes better than the paid staff. Authority.

The training syllabus for some tasks is standardised across organisations and the country, which helps in cooperation: All the search and rescue teams, no matter which organisation they come from, we train using the same guidelines. So, all terminology, all techniques, all communication is standardised. No matter where you come from – the Norwegian People’s Aid or the Red Cross – if you get put in the same search team it shouldn’t make a difference that you don’t know each other because everyone is trained to the same standard. Leader of a volunteer organisation.

Exercises with the authorities Almost all of the volunteer leaders and all of the authorities replied that they have joint exercises. We have joint exercises with the volunteers, both full scale and tabletop, practising the cooperation. In general, we need to know each other and develop a relationship to establish good cooperation. Authority.

Recruiting and challenges of recruiting Ten out of eleven volunteer leaders replied that their organisation recruits volunteers, and all ten have difficulties with recruiting enough volunteers. Only two of the six authorities recruit volunteers and none of them has problems with it.

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The major problem is recruiting. I think people might think it’s a bigger commitment than it is. Leader of a volunteer organisation. Most of our volunteers are long-time members, with an average age of +50 years. Leader of a volunteer organisation.

In the interviews volunteer leaders described a possible solution for retaining the newly recruited volunteers: We are trying a mentorship programme, where one of the more experienced members of the team will be a mentor to one of the new ones, and try to get them to go on missions and so on. It is a good idea in theory, but we haven’t really been able to try it yet, as we do not really have any first aid watches, etc., due to COVID-19.

Cooperation with spontaneous volunteers Most volunteer organisations have cooperated with spontaneous volunteers in the past three years. However, only two of the six authorities have.

Funding sources and sufficiency of funding All volunteer leaders replied that they are funded by membership fees and almost all said that they receive private donations. Half of them get state funding and some are financed by municipalities, lotteries, volunteer work and bank donations. Five of the eleven volunteer leaders found the funding insufficient. It is both the organisations and the individual volunteers that find it challenging: Especially the radio equipment. One thing is the investments, but each unit also has a license which costs a lot of money every year. Leader of a volunteer organisation. The cost involved in buying personal gear (is one of the biggest challenges). Leader of a volunteer organisation.

As stated by one of the volunteer leaders: Full work compensation for lost work time is also a major challenge, as the volunteers do not get compensated for their work.

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The FORF is lobbying on behalf of the organisations on a national plan to ensure that the volunteers are heard, but it is not always the volunteers that are remembered: I do feel, though, that we get a lot of attention when there’s been a big event where the volunteers have helped. And then they (the authorities) promise to remember us in the national budget. But then, when it comes time, we’ve been forgotten again. Leader of a volunteer organisation.

Insurance practices Nine out of the eleven volunteer leaders replied that the volunteers are covered by insurance when they participate in civil protection tasks. One said that they are not covered, and one did not know. However, ten replied that their own organisation provides insurance. Four of the six authorities stated that the volunteers are insured, but only two authorities provided it. We do not have long-term contracts with volunteers. Rather we make short term contracts for a specific incident, thereby making the volunteer secured through the municipalities’ insurance. Authority.

One of the authorities commented that it is complicated to understand the insurance systems.

In general, both the volunteer leaders and the authorities said that insurance is provided by volunteer organisations and by the state (based on national legislation). Insurance primarily covers injuries, etc., to the volunteers. Only a few mentioned damage to property or to third parties.

International cooperation Eight volunteer leaders and two authorities replied that they participate in international cooperation. While they cooperate in many different tasks, it mainly occurs in search and rescue and planning activities.

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In what kind of international cooperation does the Norwegian organisation/authority you represent participate in the Baltic Sea Region? Search and rescue Planning activities in case of cross-border disasters Support services (for example: temporary shelters, catering, clothing to vulnerable persons, staff support, management… Rescue tasks (concerning people, property and/or environment) Other prevention (general guidance of citizens concerning safety, security, resilience and preparedness) Information gathering and information spreading to citizens in case of disasters or major emergencies

Fire prevention (provision of information on fire safety, work done with fire safety equipment etc.)

Volunteers

6

2 5

1

5

1 4

1 0

Firefighting Something else, what?

6

2

0 0 0

2 1 1

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Authorities

Figure 7: International cooperation in Norway. Eight volunteer leaders and two authorities replied.

Four volunteer leaders and two authorities replied that they also organise international exercises with volunteers. In the local organisation of the interviewed volunteer leader there was no international cooperation, but in the national organisation there was. One of the reasons for not participating in international cooperation is because it can be difficult to find relevance: It’s sometimes hard to find relevance because the volunteer emergency services are organised so differently from country to country. We have very different roles. Like in Germany, you can have volunteers manning ambulances in the regular ambulance services, whereas here, we are not allowed even near the regular ambulance missions. It is only possible in some sorts of emergencies. The search and rescue work is also a bit area-specific. You have to train for the environment you work in.

The language barrier is also mentioned as a problem. However, they are willing to give it a try if the right setup is presented:

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At present, I think it would have to be someone outside our organisation starting the cooperation. If there was a framework ready, it would be much easier for us to do. ‘In this cooperation you’ll work with these people and you’ll work with this, and this, and that, talk about this and that’… then it would be much easier to get people involved in it.

Biggest challenges involving volunteers The biggest challenges for the volunteer organisations involve recruiting and motivating volunteers. A volunteer leader says that one of the reasons for recruiting being challenging is the investment in time needed to complete the training. In the interview with the volunteer leader, it came up that training can take from thirty hours to several hundreds of hours, depending on which tasks the volunteer wants to do. For instance, the full search and rescue course takes about seventy hours to complete. When the volunteers are not sufficiently motivated it can become a resource problem: We invest significant resources into training our crews. So, when they go inactive for six months after their training is done, that’s a massive loss to the teams. Leader of a volunteer organisation.

In the interview the volunteer leader also pointed out that ensuring competent leadership can be challenging due to the structure of volunteer organisations: All leadership positions are elected. Only being elected for one year at a time might be a bit counterproductive. So, I’ve spent a lot of my time sort of getting to know the role. But if it was like a two-year period, then you’d have the first year to really get to know the job and then excel in your second year. But then again, if it was a two-year commitment, we wouldn’t get people to volunteer for the positions.

In the cooperation among the volunteers and the authorities the biggest challenge is to properly understand each other. The interviewed authority explained it quite simply: you have to know each other and develop a relationship in order to have good cooperation.

One of the problems pointed out is that the authorities’ chain of command can be difficult for the volunteers to follow. They try to ease this by ‘sectori93


sing’ teams that work during disasters. In this way the professional workers and volunteers are mixed on the basis of their sectors rather than working separately within their own organisation. However, the professional-personal relationship then has to be recognised to avoid clashes between the professional staff and the volunteers.

Summary of the results In Norway, the civil protection authorities regard the volunteers as a valuable asset. In general, they have a good mutual working relationship but there is room for improvement, especially in municipalities. To further develop their cooperation, it is essential to know each other well and to create a close relationship. The biggest challenge for the volunteers is how to recruit new volunteers and keep them motivated. Funding, in general, is another problem that half of the volunteer leaders experience.

2.2.5 Sweden Introduction The results of this chapter mostly illustrate the work of the volunteer/contract fire brigades and the authorities in municipalities. Altogether sixteen authorities and thirteen leaders of volunteer organisations responded to the questionnaire. In addition, three interviews were conducted: two with volunteer organisation leaders and one with a municipal authority. Most authorities that responded to the questionnaire work in municipalities/cities and half of them reported working in risk management. Three of the authorities represented the rescue services or emergency services. Nine of the thirteen representatives of volunteer organisations worked as leaders of volunteer fire brigades/contract fire brigades, two in humanitarian organisations and two in other kinds of organisations. The average reported number of volunteers in volunteer organisations was eleven (median), although the number of volunteers varied very much among the organisations. 94


In Sweden there is an umbrella organisation for volunteers in civil protection: the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB), a state agency. There is also an umbrella organisation for volunteers: the Förbundet Sveriges Frivilliga Brandkåren, the umbrella organisation for volunteer fire brigades. Nine of the ten authorities and eight of the ten volunteer organisation leaders reported working at the municipal level. There were also some that represented the state and regional level among both groups of respondents.

The prevalence of cooperation and contracts and needs for improvement All sixteen authorities had cooperated with volunteers acting in the field of civil protection in the past three years. Nearly all of the volunteer organisations had cooperated with the rescue services and a third with the police or a risk management authority, such as the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, or a city council. Volunteer organisations said that the COVID-19 pandemic had almost no effect on cooperation, although it had increased the cooperation among humanitarian organisations and the authorities. Conversely, the view of the authorities was more complex: a couple of respondents did not see any effect on cooperation but the rest of the respondents either said that COVID-19 had either increased or decreased cooperation with volunteer organisations. Especially the authorities (other than risk management authorities) working in municipalities/cities reported that cooperation had increased. The other authorities reported both effects. It seems that the level of cooperation in COVID-19 related tasks varied in different municipalities. Nearly all of the authorities reported having contracts with volunteer organisations, and six of ten of them with individual volunteers. The authorities reported that cooperation mostly occurs with the Swedish Voluntary Civil Defence Organisations and volunteer resource groups. All of the local authorities (cities) in Sweden have the option of setting up an organised group of local volunteers; local, trained, skilled volunteers from the Voluntary Civil Defence Organisations ready to support the city/region in a crisis. The Civil Defence League supports local volunteer resource groups. The rescue services mostly cooperate with volunteer fire brigades/contract fire brigades, but also with the Red Cross, the Sea Rescue society, the Air Rescue and volunteer resource groups. 95


Likewise, nearly all volunteer organisations reported having contracts with the rescue/emergency services. There were also some isolated answers concerning contracts with the police, the National Board of Health and Welfare, the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency and municipalities. According to the interviews with Swedish volunteer organisation leaders, contracts with the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency and provincial governments are very important because they make it easier for organisations to start cooperating with municipalities: If I take an agreement with spontaneous volunteers as an example, it makes it easier for the Red Cross to act in smaller emergencies in Sweden or in minor emergencies. If we did not have that agreement and there was an emergency in some place where we didn’t have an agreement with the municipality, then we would have to start the discussions at the same time as the emergency is beginning and that takes up time. By having a contract with a central agency we can always say we have the agreement with the MSB, so we are already known. It’s so much easier.

In contracts, it is good to specify the cooperation structures, like steering group activities, common exercises and volunteer tasks, at a sufficiently detailed level to make the cooperation immune to changes in personnel. The Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency also coordinates the use of volunteers across the country, which supports cooperation with the authorities and volunteers. Even though the MSB was seen to be doing a good job, there is still work to do to make the authorities more aware of the capabilities and resources of volunteers, and to harmonise their perspective on volunteering: Even though we have an agreement with MSB, that doesn’t mean that all our authorities are aware how volunteer organisations work and the benefits of them. So, a good way for the authorities to understand these benefits is for there to be common training for volunteers and the authorities. And I know that the Finnish Red Cross has been very good at having trainings with the authorities. My impression is that the Finnish authorities are very familiar with the Red Cross and I think that is probably due to training and cooperation. Leader of a volunteer organisation Local fire departments are very different (from each other) in Sweden; they don’t speak the same language and they don’t have the same impression of volunteers. That’s the main issue. This has been brought this up in our associa-

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tion nationwide. We have an association that hold us together. We are talking with the state about putting out some instructions for fire chiefs around the country so as to have the same understanding of volunteer work. So, that’s the main problem in the whole of Sweden. Leader of volunteer fire brigade.

The interviewees also brought up the need to include volunteer tasks in contingency plans more than what is being done at present. According to the questionnaire, five of the thirteen volunteer organisations are involved in the authorities’ plans for major disasters, a third is not and a third does not know if they are. Since most of the respondents were volunteer fire brigades, the conclusion is that fire brigades should be more included in contingency plans. Eight of the ten authorities reported involving volunteers in their plans for major disasters. The main partners of the authorities that responded are the Swedish Voluntary Civil Defence Organisations and volunteer resource groups. The conclusion is that these volunteers are well included in the contingency plans. Most respondents felt that the mutual relationship among volunteers and the authorities is really good or good. However, some volunteer organisation leaders feel that their relationship with the authorities was quite bad.

Volunteers’ tasks: together with and independently of the authorities Volunteer tasks cover a wide range of activities in Sweden. Most leaders of volunteer organisations, mainly fire brigades, reported that in the past three years their volunteers have been involved in firefighting, rescue tasks and fire prevention as well as in search and rescue, other prevention, crisis communications and in other tasks, like pre-hospital emergency care. Humanitarian organisations participated in other prevention, crisis communications, support services and other tasks, like child-related projects, psychosocial support, volunteer management and first aid. They also participated in firefighting by supporting firefighters during the big forest fires of 2018 in Sweden.

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What kind of tasks were volunteers involved in during the past three years in Sweden? Firefighting

12

2

Rescue tasks (concerning people, property and/or… Fire prevention (provision of information on fire…

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Search and rescue Other prevention (general guidance of citizens…

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Information gathering and information spreading to…

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Figure 8: Tasks of the Swedish volunteers. Thirteen volunteer leaders and fiveteen authorities replied. The answer in the category ‘Something else, what?’ was elaborated as ‘pre-hospital emergency care’, ‘child-related projects’ and ‘COVID-19 related tasks’.

A third of volunteer organisations also reported carrying out tasks independently of the authorities. Those were mainly in the fields of other prevention as well as in crisis communications during disasters. The respondents also reported independent tasks in firefighting, fire prevention, psychosocial support, volunteer management and in first aid. The Swedish authorities, mostly representing municipal risk management or municipal/regional offices, reported that the most common volunteer tasks in the past three years involved support services and other prevention. However, volunteers had engaged in all of the tasks they were requested to carry out. Some of them had also helped the authorities in COVID-19 related tasks. The level of tasks in firefighting and fire prevention is low because only a few respondents representing the rescue services’ work with volunteer fire brigades.

Training available for volunteers and needs for improvement Six out of the ten volunteer organisations and the authorities reported providing training for volunteers.

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All volunteer fire brigades provide training in firefighting and rescue tasks, but one half of them also provides training in fire prevention and other prevention, and some do in search and rescue. Humanitarian organisations provide training in other types of prevention, support services, crisis communications, psychosocial support, volunteer management and first aid. Most of the respondents found the training of volunteers to be sufficient, even though there are some needs for improvement in firefighting, rescue tasks and fire prevention. This reflects the fact that most of the respondents represented volunteer fire brigades. Most of the authorities provide training in support services and in other prevention. Four out of the ten provide training in crisis communications. The rescue and emergency services provide training in firefighting and also in fire prevention, rescue tasks, other prevention and in support services. When asked whether the authorities found volunteer training to be sufficient regarding the tasks in which the volunteers participate, the responses were evenly divided: those who do not find it sufficient and those who do. The needs for improvement were especially sought for training in crisis communications, in providing general safety guidance to citizens and in support services.

Exercises with the authorities Eight out of the thirteen volunteer organisation leaders talked about joint exercises with the authorities. For the most part this illustrates the level of joint exercises among volunteer fire brigades and the rescue services. Since most respondents represented volunteer/contract fire brigades, their main partners were the rescue services. Half of the authorities mentioned joint exercises with volunteers. Since the respondents were mainly from municipalities (other than the rescue services), the conclusion is that joint exercises are not as common among the municipal authorities and volunteer organisations as they are with volunteer fire brigades and the rescue services. Still, 50% is not a particularly low number.

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Recruiting and challenges of recruiting Most volunteer organisations and also the authorities recruit volunteers for tasks in civil protection. Six out of ten of both groups of respondents reported difficulties in recruiting volunteers.

Cooperation with spontaneous volunteers Cooperation with spontaneous volunteers is not very common among the respondents. One third of the volunteer organisations cooperated with spontaneous volunteers whereas 44% of the authorities did. The interview with a Swedish Red Cross representative showed how important the role of the MSB, the central agency, is in supporting the activities of the volunteer organisation. This has been clear ever since the MSB gave the Red Cross a task to organise spontaneous volunteers. This eases the cooperation among volunteer organisations and municipalities because organisations do not have to negotiate with each individual municipality. Rather, they can start the cooperation on the basis of the contract with the central agency. Cooperation with the central agency also enables the activities of the Red Cross in smaller crises, which makes its activities more wide-ranging. A lesson learned from using spontaneous volunteers is that it is also very important to build a digital system beforehand to involve spontaneous volunteers.

Funding sources and sufficiency of funding Volunteer organisations are mostly funded by municipalities. However, the funding comes from many different sources: half of volunteer organisations reported that they get funding from the state, from private donations and from membership fees. Also, a couple of replies referred to some other source of funding: We get paid by the hour. But all of the money goes back to the organisation. Doing prevention tasks.

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Half of the respondents from volunteer organisations found their funding to be inadequate . According to the interviews, it would be important to create a separate fund for volunteer fire brigades such as the Fire Protection Fund in Finland.

Insurance practices Most volunteers have insurance, but some volunteer organisation leaders and one of the authorities reported that there are not insured. Also, some authorities reported that they do not know whether the volunteers they cooperate with are insured. Insurance was provided by many different sources, such as the state, the authorities and the volunteers, but the biggest providers are the volunteer organisations themselves. Most authorities provide insurance for the volunteers with whom they cooperate, but a third of the responses from the authorities does not know whether the authority they represent provides any insurance.

International cooperation Only a couple of volunteer organisations of the thirteen organisations and four of the sixteen authorities had participated in international cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region. On the other hand, the activities volunteer organisations were involved in were diverse and included, for example, cooperation within the Red Cross Movement in the Baltic Sea Region. The authorities had mostly participated in international search and rescue tasks, but there were also some remarks about planning activities concerning cross-border disaster measures, rescue tasks as well as other prevention tasks and support services. In an interview of a Swedish municipal authority, the low level of participation in international tasks was explained by the vague role and tasks of volunteers in the national system: first there has to be a common understanding of the role of volunteers at the national level so as to be able to participate in and develop international cooperation.

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Joint training among the authorities and volunteers was not so common, especially when reported by the volunteer organisations. However, according to interviews and open-ended questions in the questionnaire, it would be important to develop international cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region because of the new cross-border challenges the region faces. Volunteer organisations that participate in international cooperation do not do it through international organisations. Furthermore, the Red Cross, for example, is only involved in international cooperation with other Red Cross organisations. According to the interviews of volunteer organisation leaders, international cooperation occurs through the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency. In the interviews it was suggested that the potential of the European Union should be used as an arena to promote the international cooperation of volunteers in civil protection. Also, the idea of building a common forum for volunteers and the authorities for international tasks was applauded. This, for example, could involve setting up a common training forum or another kind of environment for exchanging ideas between different countries, and to pursue common goals: I think it would be good if we could create something, so that we can talk about the difficulties and work in the same ways in the region on some issues, not everything because some issues are local. – And we should have more cooperation in the meantime. That would solve a lot. And then you can start to build some program for holding some events together. I think that would work in every country. Leader of a volunteer organisation.

International cooperation was seen to provide good learning experiences, for example, by finding the best working methods and for working more effectively as a group. Common training was seen to be very important, as it also improves language skills for more effective cooperation. All in all, for volunteer organisation leaders it was very important to know whom to call in case of cross-border disasters, and to be acquainted with the relevant actors beforehand.

Biggest challenges involving volunteers and how to solve them The biggest challenges for volunteer organisations in increasing volunteer involvement in the field of civil protection in Sweden were demographic segregation and the decrease of rural workers, rules and bureaucracy, the 102


lack of financial support from the state and municipalities and the lack of proper recognition from the authorities. There were also comments about the need to get people interested in volunteering for civil protection. Issues with recognition, the need to form a common and harmonised view of volunteering in the country as well as funding were also connected to this as the following comment shows: To motivate people to participate in volunteering on a broad front. To get a common view of volunteering throughout the country from governing persons and to make them bear the costs.

Potential volunteers should also be given more information regarding points of contact and activities for volunteers between disasters to maintain their motivation. For potential volunteers to know where to turn to. To also keep volunteers motivated and active between disaster assignments.

According to the interviews of volunteer organisation leaders, the role of the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency appeared to be very important in promoting a common view of volunteering and supporting volunteer activities in the country and internationally. The Agency allocates the tasks for volunteers and promotes their optimal use across the country in rescue departments. The Swedish authorities emphasised the problem of recruiting people, especially young people, to volunteer tasks as well as the lack of economic support. They also brought up the shortage of staff for dealing with volunteers, the lack of training and the unclear task definition of volunteers: There is very unclear law regulation on using volunteers in Sweden at the moment. Unclear mission for the volunteers in the new civil defence planning.

According to the interview of the authority, there is lack of clarity about insurance and compensation: in some cases, volunteers are regarded as workers having the same benefits as employees, but in other cases they are viewed as volunteers with no rights to these benefits. According to the interview, there is also confusion about the whole system of how to direct 103


volunteer resources to societal tasks. One solution that was presented was to give a stronger role to the MSB when assigning certain tasks to volunteers. Moreover, the required funding for tasks should be provided and volunteers should also increasingly act as a unified group. In other words, there should be stronger and more unified actors on both sides. One of the authorities also pointed out that there is a strong tradition of the government providing support and services, which has led to individuals not taking enough personal responsibility. In the past the Swedish system was different in the sense that civil protection tasks were more embedded in the tasks of state occupations. In the open-ended questions and interviews a more professional approach to volunteering was seen to be one option to retain volunteers and keep them motivated: In Sweden there used to be an expanded network of state-run volunteers in every profession from farming to police and electrical services. This has decreased to minor groups of civilian volunteers. This is a capability that Sweden should recuperate. Leader of a volunteer organisation. Make it more professional. Authority. According to such views the state should also bear the costs.

However, according to the interviews of the Swedish volunteers and authorities, volunteering or, at least, the spirit of volunteering is on the rise in Sweden; the authorities have become aware of the necessity of volunteers, for example during major forest fires and the immigration crisis of 2015.

Summary of the results of Sweden Cooperation among volunteers and the authorities is routine practice and their mutual relationship is good. Volunteering seems to be on the rise in Sweden – the authorities have noticed the necessity of volunteers through major events such as forest fires and the immigration crisis. However, throughout the country there is the need to make the authorities more aware of volunteer resources and to form a common and harmonised view on volunteering and the role of volunteers. The Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency is important in promoting volunteering and, also, contracts signed

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between the Agency and provincial governments are important tools in easing cooperation among organisations and municipalities. Difficulties in recruiting volunteers are commonplace. There are also difficulties in financing since half of the respondents from volunteer organisations found their funding to be insufficient. Only a couple of volunteer organisations of the thirteen and four of the sixteen authorities had participated in international cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region. Joint exercises among the authorities and volunteers were not so common, especially when reported by volunteer organisations. Volunteer organisations which participate in international cooperation do not do it through international organisations. There is, however, a willingness among organisations to participate in international cooperation in the future.

2.2.6 Latvia Introduction Five leaders from volunteer organisations and nine authorities replied to the questionnaire, and one from each group participated in an in-depth interview. The volunteer organisations represented volunteer fire brigades, the Latvian Red Cross, an NGO that supports people with disabilities and an NGO that searches for missing people. Four of the organisations work at the national level and two of them work at both regional and municipal levels. While the authorities mainly represent the municipal level, one of them is from the state level. Four of the nine that responded are from the police, three from municipal administrations and councils, one from occupational health and fire safety and one from the rescue and emergency services. Only one out of the five respondents indicated that they have an umbrella organisation for volunteer firefighters. Two out of the eight authorities knew that the volunteers with whom they cooperate do not have an umbrella organisation, while six out of eight did not know this. The volunteer organisations which contributed to the project have, on average, 119 volunteers involved in civil protection tasks. Four of the organi105


sations have fewer than fifty volunteers involved, while one has 450–500 volunteers.

The prevalence of cooperation and contracts In the questionnaire two out of the five volunteer leaders rated their relationship with the authorities as good, while two other volunteer leaders rated their relationship as quite bad or bad. Respectively, four out of the five authorities rated their relationship with volunteer organisations as very good or good, but one representative regarded it as neither good nor bad. Almost all volunteer organisations that responded cooperate with the rescue and emergency services and the police; two organisations cooperate with a risk management authority and one organisation cooperates with the Border Guard. Only three out of the nine authorities indicated that they cooperate with volunteers or their organisations which in all three cases was the Red Cross; two authorities cooperate with volunteer fire brigades and one with the People’s Aid. In the future it is necessary to test the cooperation models and develop the criteria for cooperation. Authority.

Three out of the five volunteer organisations have contracts with the authorities. Two out of these three have contracts with the rescue and emergency services, the police and a risk management authority, and one organisation has a contract with the Border Guard. Only two out of the nine authorities replied that they had contracts with individual volunteers, volunteer organisations or with other entities that organise volunteers. Only one of the five volunteer organisations said that they are included in the authorities’ contingency plans for major disasters. Two out of the nine authorities’ representatives said that they include volunteers in their contingency plans for major disasters. Regarding the COVID-19 pandemic, two out of the five volunteer organisations said that their cooperation with the authorities had increased, but for two organisations it had not had any effect. For one of the volunteer organisations cooperation had decreased. Only one of the authority’s cooperation with volunteers had increased, but for the others it had not had any effect. 106


Volunteers’ tasks: together with and independently of the authorities Four out of the five volunteer organisations replied about the tasks they are involved in. All four respondents said that they were involved in other prevention activities such as general guidance to citizens in safety, security, resilience and preparedness. Three of them replied that they are involved in rescue tasks (people, properties and/or the environment), in search and rescue and in crisis communications during disasters or major emergencies. Two of the organisations are involved in firefighting and fire prevention, one organisation is involved in support services in civil protection tasks. When asked to describe some of their tasks, one volunteer leader said: Already from 2001, together with the municipal and state fire and rescue services, we have been organising firefighting sports competitions for children, young people and adults where we update and popularise issues about fire safety and civil protection. We provide free training for residents and local government institutions on fire safety, practical training in case of evacuation and emergency procedures, as well.

Most of the volunteer organisations (three out of four) carry out tasks of their own (independently of the authorities). Two out of these three volunteer organisations indicated that their independent tasks are rescue tasks, crisis communications during disasters or major emergencies and prevention concerning rescue tasks other than fire prevention. One of the three organisations carries out the following independent tasks: firefighting, fire prevention and search and rescue. But one of the four volunteer organisations said that they do not have any independent tasks. It is necessary to agree on a basket of services that volunteers could do independently. They provide good support in prevention activities. Authority.

Five out of the nine authorities mentioned tasks in which they have engaged volunteers during the past three years. While two of them replied that volunteers have been involved in fire prevention and support services, one authority had involved volunteers in firefighting, in crisis communications as well call-centre duties during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Training available for volunteers and needs for improvement Almost all volunteer organisations that responded to the questionnaire (four out of five) provide training for volunteers in the field of civil protection. While three out of these four organisations provide training in rescue tasks and in search and rescue, two of the four volunteer organisations provide training in firefighting, fire prevention, other prevention (general guidance to citizens in safety, security, resilience and preparedness), support services and in crisis communications during disasters or major emergencies. One of these four organisations provides training in first aid. When describing the sufficiency of the training of volunteers in relation to their tasks/duties, one half of the organisations replied that they regard it to be sufficient, while the other half replied that they do not find it sufficient. After our initiative, the municipality implemented a project which resulted in a fire training tower being built – where not only athletes but also firefighters and young people train. The tower helps to train people in rescue and improves the youth’s understanding of firefighters’ work and may help them choose this profession in the future. Leader of a volunteer organisation.

Two of the organisations said that there is a need for more training in order to meet the requirements of the volunteers. Additional training should be given in rescue tasks, fire and other prevention as well as in search and rescue. One organisation indicated that the additional training should include firefighting, support services and crisis communications during disasters or major emergencies. It is important to provide quality training for volunteers. Still, the question is: who will pay for it? Authority.

Only one out of the nine authorities provides training for volunteers in the field of civil protection, specifically in fire and other prevention (general guidance to citizens in safety, security, resilience and preparedness). But when asked if the authorities find the volunteer training to be sufficient in relation to their tasks, two out of the four authorities said that they think the volunteers have sufficient training, and the other two authorities’ representatives did not have an opinion on this.

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Exercises with the authorities Two out of the five volunteer leaders hold joint exercises with the authorities, but the remaining three do not. While four out of the five authorities replied that they do not have joint exercises with volunteers, the remaining one did not know whether they do or not.

Recruiting and challenges of recruiting The majority of the volunteer organisations (four out of the five) do recruit volunteers for tasks in civil protection, but all of them said that they have difficulties in doing that. Our volunteer firefighter organisation mainly consists of members, including their relatives and acquaintances, who are involved in fire safety and firefighting. The involvement of new members is not relevant to us, but if necessary, the Board or our organisation may decide to accept new members by inviting them to join our organisation. Leader of a volunteer organisation.

When asked if the authorities recruit volunteers for tasks in civil protection, two out of the nine replied that they do, but the other seven respondents said they do not. The two authorities replied that they do not have any difficulties in recruiting enough volunteers for tasks in civil protection. At this moment, the volunteers in civil protection are mainly more partially compensated volunteers than strictly non-compensated volunteers. It is necessary to change the mindset of society about volunteering. Authority.

Cooperation with spontaneous volunteers Four out of the five volunteer organisations have cooperated with spontaneous volunteers in the past three years. Almost half (four out of the nine) of the authorities have cooperated with spontaneous volunteers.

Funding sources and sufficiency of funding Three out of the five volunteer organisations replied that they get funding from private donations or that they do not receive any funding at all. While two out of the five organisations get funding from membership fees, one of the organisations receives funding from the municipality. In addition, one 109


of the volunteer organisations replied that they get additional funding from the Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations (ECHO) funded projects. In an in-depth interview a volunteer organisation leader said that: We currently only have membership fees. The Latvian State Revenue Service have issued a new regulation which affects the economic activity of volunteer organisations. They want them to become companies. It is known that there are volunteer firefighter organisations which have already ceased their activities or will do so in the future.

More than a half of the volunteer organisations (three out of the five) think that they do not have sufficient financial resources. Respectively, one organisation replied that they have sufficient financial resources. In order to provide state funding for volunteer organisations, it is important to understand what tasks would be given to them, keeping in mind that they are ready to provide them. Authority.

Insurance practices When asked if the volunteers in their organisations taking part in civil protection tasks are insured for injuries and damage that may occur during or as a result of the tasks, one out of the five replied that they are. Three out of the five responded that they do not have such insurance, and one could not answer this question because they did not know. Two respondents replied to the question: ‘Should something happen to the volunteer during an incident, what insurance would cover the sustained injuries/damage?’ When it comes to injuries, work-related diseases or death, both organisations replied that they would be covered by the volunteer organisation’s insurance. One respondent replied that they would be covered by one of the following: the state (based on national legislation), the parties which use the volunteers, the individual volunteers themselves or by some other party. However, the respondent did not specify which one. Correspondingly, when it comes to damage to property or to third parties, one of the two respondents replied that they would be covered by one of the following: the state (based on national legislation), the parties which use the volunteers, the volunteer organisations, individual volunteers or some other party. Again, the other respondent did not specify which one. Only 110


one of the respondents replied that the volunteer organisation provides insurance for volunteers. The authorities could not answer whether the volunteers with whom they cooperate are insured. Nevertheless, the authorities do not provide insurance for volunteers.

International cooperation While three out of the five volunteer organisations indicated that they do not participate in international cooperation in the field of civil protection in the Baltic Sea Region, two said that they do participate in international cooperation. Two of the volunteer organisations have international cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region regarding cross-border disaster planning. One of them participates in international cooperation in firefighting, rescue, fire and other prevention, support services and in crisis communications during disasters or major emergencies. The volunteer organisations were asked what they could get out of the international cooperation and they replied as follows: At the moment we don’t have any international cooperation, but if we create some kind of international cooperation, we could participate in seminars, forums, discussions and other activities. Also, we could promote the volunteers’ work and improve motivation as well as receive feedback from the tasks we’ve done. We could also find new contacts from different countries’ organisations.

Neither volunteer organisation that cooperates internationally participates in joint exercises with the authorities or volunteers from other Baltic Sea countries. When asked to describe the basis of the international cooperation, one volunteer organisation replied that it is based on legislation whereas other organisational cooperation is not based on legislation. None of the organisations participating in international cooperation does it in conjunction with international organisations. International cooperation for the volunteer organisations is important for the authorities. International cooperation could be used to acquire new knowledge and experience and to learn from our neighbours. Authority.

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Only one out of the nine authorities replied that they participate in international cooperation in the field of civil protection in the Baltic Sea Region. The only authority that participates in international cooperation replied that they cooperate in planning activities regarding cross-border disasters and firefighting. International cooperation for one respondent is based on legislation and is conducted via international organisations. None of the authorities participates in joint exercises with volunteers from other Baltic Sea countries.

Biggest challenges involving volunteers The respondents were given the possibility to share their opinion about the biggest challenges to increasing volunteer involvement in the field of civil protection in Latvia. One of the respondents replied that the public services are not ready to adopt the European experience in attracting and cooperating with volunteers. They said that they always offer help, but unfortunately, they remain ineffective. They have expressed interest and readiness to participate in joint exercises where it would be possible to test the joint response of different services. Furthermore, the respondent also said that they are not only ready to react in the confines of Latvia, but also in neighbouring countries. Another volunteer organisation replied that the biggest challenge is how to attract new volunteers as well as the training and professional development of new and existing volunteers. Another opinion was that the biggest challenge is how to motivate volunteers to participate in civil protection. They added that there should be possibilities for the volunteers to apply for civil protection training courses paid for by the state or the municipalities. Moreover, the volunteers should be protected by insurance in case of emergencies that occur in the voluntary work. One of the respondents replied that one of the biggest challenges involves umbrella coordination: the inclusion of volunteer organisations and volunteers in daily planning activities which are not only limited to emergency situations where the support is needed right at that moment and when there is no time for proper planning. One other volunteer organisation said that one of the biggest challenges is how to obtain state funding for the Latvian Volunteer Fire Brigade Association and volunteer fire brigade teams. An additional challenge involves the introduction of a new, cheaper, progressive and efficient fire safety, firefighting and civil protection system in Latvia.

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The concluding comments included statements saying that the main problem in Latvia involves volunteer firefighter funding, because all expenses (i.e., depot maintenance and rent, car and equipment repair) are financed by the funds they have acquired themselves. Attention was brought to the fact that it is necessary to jointly arrange a progressive internal security system in Latvia and the Baltic Region. The final concluding comment was made by an NGO that represents people with disabilities. They said that their volunteers are not trained to participate in civil protection, but that their organisation and volunteers can provide some help if necessary. For example, during emergencies they can offer various support services to people (temporary shelter, furniture, clothing and food). One of the biggest challenges is how to involve other volunteer organisations in civil protection tasks in major disasters. How to organise their involvement. Authority.

Correspondingly, when asked about the biggest challenges to increasing volunteer involvement in the field of civil protection in Latvia, the authorities replied that they have insufficient legislation and inadequate cooperation in government structures, e.g., in fire and rescue, forest services and among health care organisations. Additionally, it was mentioned that the motivation and know-how of volunteers is one of the challenges, as is the ability to ensure their safety and public interest, in general. One of the respondents emphasised that volunteers in emergency medicine should be trained the same way as professionals, and that, considering the lack of human resources on a daily basis in emergency medicine, it is challenging to attract volunteers.

Summary of the results There should be stronger cooperation and communication among the authorities and the volunteer organisations. There is a strong wish for the volunteer organisations to work together with the authorities. Volunteer organisations have problems with recruiting new volunteers as well as in acquiring financing and insurance.

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2.2.6 Estonia Introduction Two leaders from volunteer organisations and three authorities replied to the questionnaire, and one of the authorities which work closely with volunteers participated in an in-depth interview. The volunteer organisations represent volunteer fire brigades and the Estonian Rescue Association. Both volunteer organisations work at the national and municipal level. The authorities represent state and regional levels and are from the rescue and emergency services, the police and the Border Guard. Both volunteer respondents indicated that they have an umbrella organisation. All three of the authorities know that the volunteers with whom they cooperate have umbrella organisations which are for volunteer rescuers, maritime rescuers and assistant police officers. One of our best practices is the existence of an umbrella organisation for volunteer rescuers. Authority.

The volunteer organisations that contributed to the project have an average of 1 541 volunteers involved in civil protection tasks. One of the organisations has approximately twenty-five volunteers, but the other more than 3 000.

The prevalence of cooperation and contracts In the questionnaire one volunteer leader rated their relationship with the authorities as good, while the other volunteer leader rated the relationship as quite bad. Correspondingly, all three authorities rated the relationship with volunteer organisations as very good or good. We have frequent, daily communication with volunteers. Authority.

Both volunteer organisations cooperate with the rescue and emergency services. All three authorities indicated that they cooperate with volunteers or their organisations. Two of them cooperate with volunteer fire brigades or contract fire brigades; one of the authorities cooperates with the Sea Rescue Society and the Rescue Dogs and the other one cooperates with different NGOs. 114


Both volunteer organisations have contracts with the authorities. They have contracts with the rescue and emergency services and the police. Two of the three authorities replied that they have contracts with volunteer organisations or other entities that organise volunteers. One volunteer organisation said that they are included in the authorities’ contingency plans for major disasters, but the other organisation did not know whether or not they were. All three authorities said that they include volunteers in their contingency plans for major disasters. Regarding the COVID-19 pandemic, both volunteer organisations said that cooperation with the authorities has increased. For two of the three authorities their cooperation with volunteers has increased, for one authority it has decreased. Volunteers’ tasks: together with and independently of the authorities Both volunteer organisations replied that they were involved in rescue tasks as well as in search and rescue activities, other prevention activities, such as providing general guidance to citizens in issues concerning safety, security, resilience and preparedness as well in firefighting, fire prevention and crisis communications during disasters or major emergencies. All three authorities responded about tasks which involved volunteers during the period of the past three years. They have involved volunteers in rescue tasks (concerning people, property and the environment) and in other prevention activities. One of the authorities involved volunteers in crisis communications, in fire prevention and in firefighting, and one of the authorities involved volunteer organisations in support services and in supporting the everyday work of the police. At the county level volunteers are led by the same people as professional rescuers. It works. Authority.

One volunteer respondent replied that their organisation does not carry out tasks independently of the authorities. However, the other organisation does carry out independent tasks, such as fire prevention, rescue tasks, search and rescue, prevention concerning rescue tasks other than fire prevention, and crisis communications during disasters or major emergencies.

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Training available for volunteers and needs for improvement One of the two volunteer organisations in Estonia that responded to the questionnaire provides training for volunteers in the field of civil protection – in fire prevention, other prevention and in crisis communications. However, when asked if they find the training of volunteers sufficient in their organisations in relation to their tasks/duties, they said that the training is not sufficient. They replied that in their opinion the following topics need more training to meet the requirements for the volunteers: other prevention (general guidance to citizens in safety, security, resilience and preparedness), support services (for example: temporary shelters, catering, clothing vulnerable persons, staff support, and in management support, like registration of units or incident documentation) and crisis communication. One of the challenges is to have a clear and supportive system of training and further in-service training to increase the quality of the services provided by the volunteers. Authority

Two out of the three authorities provide training for volunteers in civil protection. One provides training in firefighting, in rescue tasks as well as in fire and other prevention (general guidance to citizens in safety, security, resilience and preparedness), and the other one provides search and rescue and support service training as well as the training required for working alongside the police. Personal contacts and direct communication with volunteers are also important. Not only should you know what equipment the volunteers are missing but you should also know how their families are doing and what their other problems are. This improves trust and, in fact, sometimes protects the volunteer. Authority

When asked whether the authorities find the volunteer training to be sufficient in relation to their tasks, two of the authorities replied that they have sufficient training, but the third authority replied that their training is not sufficient. They indicated that the volunteers need more training in other prevention (general guidance to citizens in safety, security, resilience and preparedness) and in crisis communications during disasters or major emergencies.

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Exercises with the authorities The volunteer organisations and the authorities replied that they hold joint exercises with each other. One of the best practices in Estonia is that we have annual volunteer rescue information days and seminars, annual two-day meetings for all volunteer rescuers in Estonia. Authority.

Recruiting and challenges of recruiting The volunteer organisations and authorities which participated in the questionnaire responded that they do recruit volunteers for tasks in civil protection, and all of them indicated that they have difficulties in recruiting. The recruitment challenges involve rural areas and the sustainability of volunteering. What can you offer to young people to make volunteering interesting? Authority.

Cooperation with spontaneous volunteers Neither volunteer organisation cooperated with spontaneous volunteers in the past three years. One of the three authorities cooperated with spontaneous volunteers.

Funding sources and sufficiency of funding Replying to how the volunteer organisations get their funding for tasks in civil protection, both organisations said that they get funding from the state (federation, regional agencies). One response mentioned each of the following funding sources: municipality, private donations and membership fees. One of them replied that the financial resources they have are not sufficient, but the other one said that they are sufficient. Needs-based allocation of grants, technology and financial resources, taking into account the national perspective. Authority. Volunteer funding: it is important to develop a clear service and participation funding system with the principle ‘the more you contribute, the more you

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get’. The role of the state in financing volunteers, tax benefits for individuals, societies and local governments. Authority

Insurance practices When asked if the volunteers in their organisation taking part in civil protection tasks are insured for potential damage or injuries that occur during or owing to these tasks, one organisation replied that they are, but the other one said that they are not. Both respondents replied that their state insurance (based on national legislation) covers injuries, work-related diseases and the death of a volunteer resulting from an incident. Neither organisation provides insurance for volunteers. When asked if the authorities knew if the volunteers with whom they cooperate have insurance, two out of the three replied that they are insured, but the third respondent could not answer this question. Getting into specifics regarding the volunteers’ insurance, it was stated that they have two types of insurance which are: state insurance (based on national legislation) and personal insurance. Both insurance covers injuries, work-related diseases and death. However, they do not cover damage to property or to third parties. Both of the two authorities provide insurance for the volunteers with whom they cooperate.

International cooperation Answering the question on whether they participate in international cooperation in the field of civil protection in the Baltic Sea Region, one out of the two volunteer organisations replied that they do, but the other one was not sure. The one that replied positively stated that cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region mainly takes place in search and rescue activities as well as in firefighting, rescue tasks, crisis communications and in fire and other prevention. Both organisations hold joint exercises with the authorities from the other Baltic Sea countries. One volunteer organisation holds joint exercises with other volunteer organisations from the Baltic Sea countries. One of the organisations has international cooperation which is based on legislation. Neither organisation carries out international cooperation through or with international organisations. In the field of voluntary rescue there is not much international cooperation. We have once been in contact with volunteers from Denmark, Lithuania, Finland and Germany. But there is nothing on going. Authority.

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All three authorities replied that they participate in international cooperation in the field of civil protection in the Baltic Sea Region. They cooperate in planning activities for cross-border disasters as well as in rescue tasks and crisis communications during disasters or major emergencies. One of the respondents replied that they cooperate in prevention other than fire prevention (general guidance to citizens in safety, security, resilience and preparedness) and in support services (i.e., temporary shelters, catering, clothing vulnerable persons, staff support, and in management support, like the registration of units or incident documentation). It would support the volunteers if they were able to interact with foreign partners. Exchanging experiences and getting a broader view would be beneficial, but I do not think that just visiting other countries in person is very important. Rather, information exchanges and helping volunteers communicate with partners from abroad. It would also have a motivating effect. Authority.

One of the respondents holds joint exercises with volunteers from the other Baltic Sea countries. Their international cooperation is based on legislation and occurs via or with international organisations. The other respondents were unaware of the grounds for international cooperation or any prospects of doing it.

Biggest challenges involving volunteers The respondents were given the possibility to share their opinion about the biggest challenge to increasing volunteer involvement in the field of civil protection in Estonia. Only one volunteer organisation gave a response and it was ‘sustainability’. The authorities provided the following responses: increasing the number of volunteer rescuers and the number of volunteer emergency responders in villages, municipalities and counties (there is a shortage of people in rural areas and urbanisation is taking place). Other challenges involve establishing a joint rescue network, the sustainability of voluntary rescue teams, the availability of adequate funding and the lack of information. The challenges also include linking a single rescue network with the professional rescue system using a flexible approach to the different volunteer associations, increasing the individual benefits of being a volunteer and increasing the benefits to the local community for supporting volunteering.

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One of the unhelpful practices involves the attitude of professional rescuers towards volunteer rescuers. Be that as it may, the officials cannot see the difference between professionals and volunteers and their requirements are equally stringent. Authority.

Summary of the results Cooperation and joint trainings occur among volunteer organisations and the authorities. The main problem for volunteer involvement in Estonia is the lack of new volunteers, especially in rural areas. Because of that, sustainability is one of the main issues on which the organisations and authorities have to focus.

2.2.7 Lithuania Introduction One volunteer organisation leader and two authorities responded to the questionnaire, and one authority which works closely with volunteers participated in an in-depth interview. The volunteer organisation is Lithuanian Scouting and they work at the regional level. Both of the authorities represent the state level and are from the police and the Border Guard. The volunteer organisation indicated that they have an umbrella organisation: the Lithuanian Council of Youth Organisations. While one of the authorities replied that the volunteers with whom they cooperate does not have an umbrella organisation, the other one did not know if they did. The volunteer organisation that contributed to the project has approximately 200 volunteers involved in civil protection tasks.

The prevalence of cooperation and contracts In the questionnaire the volunteer leader rated their relationship with the authorities as good. The authorities also rated their relationship with volunteer organisations as good.

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The volunteer organisation cooperates with various services and they have contracts with the police and the Border guard. One of the authorities indicated that they cooperate with volunteers or their organisations. They cooperate with volunteer fire brigades, the Home Guard, the People’s Aid, Save the Children, the Rescue Dogs and a network of organisations in civil protection which unites people in different stages of life. One authority indicated that they have contracts with volunteer organisations or other entities that organise volunteers, but the other authority has contracts with individual volunteers, even though they stated that they do not cooperate with volunteers. During the interview with the authority which works closely with volunteers in their everyday tasks, they indicated various challenges. Nonetheless, they already have possible solutions for their challenges. For example, one of the challenges was that there are ‘pseudo volunteers’ i.e., those who only want to volunteer for the status, but do not participate in volunteer activities. The solution they provided, and are already implementing, is the need to evaluate their involvement and set up a minimum hour requirement per year for volunteering (a possible threshold could be thirty-six hours per year). The volunteer organisation said that they are included in the authorities’ contingency plans for major disasters. However, neither authority reported including volunteers in their contingency plans for major disasters. Regarding the COVID-19 pandemic the volunteer leader said that their cooperation with the authorities has not changed. Neither had the pandemic affected the cooperation of the authorities with volunteers. During the COVID-19 pandemic, our volunteers were a big support, especially in prevention activities. Authority.

Volunteers’ tasks: together with and independently of the authorities The volunteer organisation replied that they were involved in rescue tasks, support services (for example: temporary shelters, catering, clothing vulnerable persons, staff support, and in management support, like registration of units or incident documentation) and crisis communications during disasters or major emergencies.

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We have more than 1 000 volunteers that spend around 65 000 hours per year in volunteering at our institution. Authority.

One of the authorities replied that they have involved volunteers in other prevention duties (general guidance to citizens in safety, security, resilience and preparedness). To maintain the motivation and interest of the volunteers, it is important that they move through the structures of the organisation, so they can learn new things and they don’t fall into a rut and lose interest in volunteering. Authority.

When asked whether the volunteers carry out tasks on their own (independently of the authorities), the organisation leader replied that volunteers in their organisation do not have such tasks. It is important for the volunteers to know the volunteering time in advance because they have a life of their own as well. So, if we want to involve the volunteers in our activities, we have to let them know well in advance when they will be needed, not at the last minute. Authority.

Training available for volunteers and needs for improvement The volunteer organisation does not provide training for their volunteers in the field of civil protection. One of the two authorities provides training for volunteers in civil protection. They provide training in prevention other than fire prevention and crisis communications. The authority believes that the training they provide is sufficient in relation to the volunteers’ tasks.

Exercises with the authorities The volunteer organisation replied that they do not have joint exercises with the authorities, but one of the authorities is organising joint exercises with volunteers. In the interview the authority highlighted the occasional problem of employers not having a positive attitude towards volunteers. However, the authority provided the solution that the volunteers should be better pre122


pared/trained and equipped. Also, the authorities should get educated about the volunteers and of the benefits of volunteering to the authorities’ own employees.

Recruiting and challenges of recruiting The volunteer organisation and both authorities that participated in the questionnaire replied that they do not recruit volunteers for tasks in civil protection. During the interview with an authority, they emphasised that there are volunteer activities which are little known to society. The suggested solutions for improving the situation were to promote volunteering activities, to publish stories through social media, and to organise meetings for improving the volunteers’ motivation.

Cooperation with spontaneous volunteers The volunteer organisation cooperated with spontaneous volunteers in the past three years. Both of the authorities replied that they have not cooperated with spontaneous volunteers.

Funding sources and sufficiency of funding When asked where the volunteer organisation gets its funding for tasks in civil protection, they replied that they do not receive any funding for civil protection tasks and they did not know whether their financial resources are sufficient for such tasks.

Insurance practices Also, when asked if the volunteers in their organisation taking part in civil protection tasks are insured for possible injuries and damage that occur during or owing to these tasks, the representative replied that they do not have such insurance. When the authority which cooperates with volunteers was asked about insurance, they replied that the volunteers are covered by state insurance (based on national legislation), which covers injuries as well as work-related diseases and death. The authority provides insurance for the volunteers with whom they cooperate. 123


International cooperation The volunteer organisation replied that they do not participate in international cooperation in the field of civil protection in the Baltic Sea Region. Similarly, neither authority participates in international cooperation in civil protection in the Baltic Sea Region. International cooperation can be good support for promoting volunteering and for sharing the best practices about volunteering activities as well as learning from others and incorporating their best practices into our system. Authority.

Biggest challenges involving volunteers The respondents were given the possibility to express their opinion about the biggest challenge to increasing volunteer involvement in the field of civil protection in Lithuania. The main concerns of the volunteer organisation involved motivation, the lack of exercises, and there being no umbrella organisation for all NGOs. One authority replied that enough time needs to be devoted to working with volunteers.

Summary of the results To sum up the results for Lithuania, the main problem is that there was a huge lack of interest in participating in the questionnaire and interviews, especially by those volunteer organisations and authorities that are directly involved in civil protection tasks. So, the overall picture for Lithuania in this research is really lacking and inadequate.

2.2.8 Germany Introduction In all, twenty-one people responded to the questionnaire: ten represented volunteer organisations and eleven the authorities. Four interviews were conducted, all of which with people representing different German firefighting and civil service authorities. The excerpts from these interviews are not direct quotations. Rather, they represent the interviewers’ summaries 124


of the answers and the opinions expressed during the interviews. All volunteer organisations are fire brigades; most operate at the municipal level, four at the national level and two at the regional level. The authorities mostly come from the rescue/emergency services, but other civil protection authorities also participated. The municipal, regional and federal levels were all represented. Most of the participating volunteer organisations have anywhere from twenty to fifty members, but one individual organisation has 38 000 members. According to one of the interviewees, volunteering in firefighting is a long, important and widespread tradition in Germany. Having 1.2 million volunteer firefighters is a totally different scale than what is done in other countries. Preserving this system of volunteer fire brigades is very important. Authority.

The prevalence of cooperation and contracts While most of the volunteer organisations and all of the authorities regard their cooperation relationships to be good or very good, two volunteer organisations replied that it is neither good nor bad, and no one considered it to be bad. Eight volunteer organisations have contracts with the rescue and emergency services, five with the police, one with the Border Guard and one with the Federal Agency for Technical Relief THW (Technisches Hilfswerk). One replied that their organisation is a part of the authority. Only one of the volunteer organisations replied that their organisation is not involved in the contingency plans of the associated authorities for major disasters. Almost all volunteer organisations cooperate with the rescue/emergency services and with the police. In all, the Border Guard, the THW and the risk management authority Katastrophenschutz only gave four answers. The COVID-19 pandemic has generally affected society both nationally and internationally, but it has also affected the cooperation of volunteer organisations with the authorities. Half of the respondents replied that the pandemic has increased cooperation. The rest of the respondents mostly replied that it has not made much of a difference.

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This is in sharp contrast to the authorities, among whom the majority believe that the pandemic has not affected their cooperation.

What kind of tasks were volunteers involved in during the past three years in Germany? Firefighting

8

Rescue tasks (Concerning people, property and/or environment 5

3

Support services (for example: temporary shelters, catering, clothing to vulnerable persons, staff…

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Serch and rescue Other prevention (general guidance of citizens concerning safety, security, resilience and…

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Information gathering and information spreading to citizens in case of disasters or major emergencies Something else, what

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Fire prevention (Provision og information on fire safety, work done with fire safety equipment etc.)

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Authorities

Figure 9: Tasks of the German volunteers. Ten volunteer leaders and ten authorities replied. The answer in the category ‘Something else, what?’ was elaborated as ‘beach cleaning’ and ‘oil spill response’. What kind of tasks do volunteers in your organisation carry out in Germany independent of the authorities? Firefighting

5

Fire prevention (provision of information on fire safety, work done with fire safety equipment etc.)

4

Rescue tasks (concerning people, property and/or environment)

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Search and rescue

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Prevention concerning rescue tasks other than fire prevention (provision of information and guidance to the… Information gathering and information spreading to citizens in case of disasters or major emergencies

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Something else, what

Figure 10: Independent tasks of the German volunteers. Ten volunteer leaders replied.

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Training available for volunteers and needs for improvement All respondents, with the exception of one volunteer organisation, replied that they provide training for volunteers in the field of civil protection. The training matches the tasks in which the volunteers participate. While six volunteer organisations find that their training is sufficient, three do not. Except for ‘fire prevention’ and ‘Something else, what’, which received zero mentions, all other topics received one reply each regarding the need for more training.

Exercises with the authorities Almost all respondents replied that volunteers and the authorities hold joint exercises. Only one volunteer organisation answered that they do not.

Recruiting and challenges of recruiting Fifteen of the twenty-one respondents replied that they recruit volunteers. Of them six have difficulties in recruiting enough volunteers and three could not answer.

Cooperation with spontaneous volunteers Three organisations of each type (six in total) have cooperated with spontaneous volunteers during the past three years.

Funding sources and sufficiency of funding While nine volunteer organisations are financed by the state, six receive funding from municipalities and two receive private donations. None of the organisations is funded by membership fees or other sources, and no one said that their organisation does not get any funding. The replies regarding the sufficiency of funds are divided almost equally between ‘sufficient’, ‘insufficient’, and ‘don’t know’ – slightly tilting towards ‘yes’ (they are sufficient).

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Insurance practices Almost all respondents to the questionnaire replied that volunteers are covered by insurance. Only one volunteer organisation answered that they are not. The respondents generally agreed that the state provides insurance for volunteers that covers most injuries and damage, but a few from each group replied that the employers of the volunteers provide it, particularly in cases involving third parties. All other replies received zero to two answers, (at the most, one answer from each type of organisation) except that ‘Volunteer organisations or entities that organise volunteers’ also seem to be regularly insured for damage to third parties.

International cooperation International cooperation seems to be much more common among the authorities than the volunteers. Whereas only two volunteer organisations replied that they participate in such cooperation, seven authorities said they did. Two volunteer organisations and one authority did not know whether they cooperate internationally. Among the volunteers, firefighting is overwhelmingly the most common area of cooperation, but rescue tasks and search and rescue activities are relatively common as well. All other topics received one reply from a volunteer organisation, except for tasks related to ‘crisis communications’ and ‘Something else, what?’. Among the authorities the most common area of international cooperation is ‘planning activities in case of cross-border emergencies’, while ‘firefighting’, ‘rescue tasks’ and ‘other prevention’ are also quite common – each being carried out by about half of the authorities that cooperate internationally. The remaining possible answers received one to two mentions, with the clarification on ‘Something else, what?’ being ‘oil spill response’. Regarding international cooperation, two main benefits were emphasised by the interviewees. These were the exchange of ideas and experiences as well as the ability to exchange manpower and capabilities as needed. The following excerpt shows an example of the way an interviewee benefited from an exchange of know-how with another country. New ideas. The response time in Hessen is supposed to be ten minutes. This however is not always possible, especially in the countryside during the day. In some places in Finland, the required response time is 45 minutes. This means that they need to find other ways of improving the security level, such as implementing smoke detectors and fire escapes. Things such as these are

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ways that countries can exchange experience and improve general safety levels. Authority

All interviewees expressed an interest in more international cooperation, and most of them did this along with an admission that currently their organisation is not sufficiently involved in international cooperation. The Berlin Fire Department has spent a long time looking inwards in order to join the eastern and western parts of the city that were separated during the cold war. This did not leave a lot of resources for external cooperation, which has only in recent years become a point of focus for the department. Authority

Biggest challenges involving volunteers Most replies from the volunteers to this question are quite brief and address a lack of motivation. One volunteer organisation regards getting recognised for volunteering by their employer as a challenge and another one suggests lowering the standards of physical fitness for specific tasks in order to make them more attractive. The authorities’ answers are a little more diverse and include some overlapping categories to some degree. First is the issue of rural depopulation. More and more jobs are in the city, which means that people either live in the city or have long commutes. This affects both the number of volunteers that are available in rural areas as well as the response times of volunteer fire departments in these areas, since it takes a long time for the volunteers to get to the rural fire stations from their jobs in the city. An issue which is closely related to rural depopulation involves the generation gap. Many respondents representing the authorities expressed the idea that younger people are less interested in volunteer work and/or that their work and everyday lives are less compatible with volunteering. Yet another issue associated with rural depopulation is the fact that most young people move around for education, which means that there are several chances that they will leave a volunteer organisation without joining a new one, even though there might be similar organisations close to their new homes. 129


The last category is a combination of funding and training. Three respondents replied that there are issues with the training of volunteers. While one of them did not give any reason for this, another one blames it on a lack of time caused by ‘daily jobs’, and the third one mentions it as one among a range of issues caused by insufficient funding. Another respondent also mentions the lack of funding but focuses on the problems this causes for material and recruitment. In addition to these categories there is one outlier. One respondent said that a low number of deployments causes a loss of important expertise, since experience is not passed on from older volunteers to new ones. These opinions are shared by most of the interviewees as shown by the following excerpts. The biggest challenge is probably finding people who are able and willing to spend their time on hard and dangerous work that does not pay. This challenge is getting bigger because individualism is making people more focused on themselves and less willing to help society without gaining something themselves. In some of the inner-city fire stations there are so many volunteers that they cannot accept any more, but in the suburbs, they are having problems finding enough of them. Authority Society is changing. In the past it was a great feeling for people to help other people. Today people look out more for themselves and spend more time on family activities and are busier in their jobs. They are less inclined to help the community. It seems to also be a generational issue. Younger people are more interested in their family and their job is not the most important thing in their lives. Authority The challenges are probably the same as everywhere: how to get younger generations involved and interested, and how to have vehicles, equipment and stations updated. Authority.

The interviewees had a range of possible solutions that can at least mitigate the issues. These solutions are presented here in the order that corresponds to the category of the challenge (as presented above). Many of the interviewees mentioned the German Youth Fire Brigades as a strong structure that promotes volunteering. These programs spark the

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interests of young people early and keep it strong until they are old enough to join a fire department, volunteer or do something else. Other suggestions included recruitment and/or public relations campaigns that emphasise the positive that volunteering in fire and rescue activities does for the community as well as focusing on women and immigrants. One interviewee also proposed granting volunteers free access to public transport and leisure activities such as organised sports, fitness centres or swimming pools. Another mentioned their local tradition of offering the employers of volunteers a small monetary compensation if their employees are called out to respond to emergencies. The interviewee did not know whether any employers actually asked to receive this compensation, but it would be a nice gesture to volunteers and their employers.

Summary of the results There is a strong tradition of volunteering in fire and rescue activities in Germany. Issues regarding funding, urbanisation and a change in the values and habits of younger generations challenge this tradition. While these issues cannot be controlled by civil service organisations, they must still do what they can to mitigate their effects. International cooperation is not very usual in Germany, particularly among volunteer organisations. This is a matter that the interviewees regard as a shortcoming that needs to be corrected.

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2.2.9 Poland Introduction Fourteen people representing the authorities and volunteer organisations responded to the questionnaire, and one person representing the authorities participated in an interview. The quotations in this report are summarised paraphrases from this interview. Of the volunteers that responded to the questionnaire, eight are volunteer or contract fire brigades, one represents a search and rescue organisation and two represent the Association of the Volunteer Fire Brigades of the Republic of Poland (ZOSP RP). State, regional and municipal levels are all represented, the fewest (four) representatives were from the regional level. The authorities are evenly split among the three levels: two of them represent the rescue/emergency services and one represents the spatial planning department. While the actual numbers regarding the size of the respondents’ organisations were not available to this survey, by analysing the statistical dispersion of the replies we can conclude that the volunteers’ organisations are generally relatively small. Typically they have approximately twenty or more members, except for the ZOSP RP, which has a quarter of a million members.

The prevalence of cooperation and contracts The volunteers generally consider their cooperation as being good, with six saying good or very good, four being neutral and only one saying bad. All of the volunteer organisations have contracts with the rescue and emergency services. About half of them also have contracts with the police and/ or some risk management authority. Only two volunteer organisations are not included in the authorities’ contingency plans for major disasters. All of the volunteers cooperate with the rescue/emergency services and municipalities. A few cooperate with the police, and two respondents replied they cooperate with a risk management authority. All of the authorities cooperate with volunteer fire brigades. The Red Cross, the Home Guard and some other organisations each gave two answers, and one of the authorities cooperates with the Air Rescue. The other organisations are mostly rescue services and scouting organisations, along with the Polish Medical Mission, Caritas Poland and the Polish Humanitarian Action. 132


The COVID-19 pandemic has generally affected society both nationally and internationally, but it has also affected the cooperation of volunteer organisations with the authorities. Just under half of those surveyed believe that the pandemic has increased cooperation. The rest of the respondents are divided into two equally large groups who believe that the pandemic has either led to a decrease in cooperation or has had no significance. Positive development is more restrained among the authorities, among whom the respondents are divided into three equal-sized groups.

What kind of tasks were volunteers involved in during three years in Poland? Rescue tasks (Concerning people, property and/or environment

3

Firefighting

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Fire prevention (Provision og information on fire safety, work done with fire safety equipment etc.)

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Serch and rescue

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Support services (for example: temporary shelters, catering, clothing to vulnerable persons, staff support, management…

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Figure 11: Tasks of the Polish volunteers. Eleven volunteer leaders and three authorities replied. The answer in the category ‘Something else, what?’ was elaborated as activities against leukaemia (from a volunteer organisation) and logistical support (from an authority).

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What kind of tasks do volunteers in your organisation carry out in Poland independent of the authorities? Fire prevention (provision of information on fire safety, work done with fire safety equipment etc.)

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Firefighting

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Search and rescue

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Prevention concerning rescue tasks other than fire prevention (provision of information and guidance to…

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Information gathering and information spreading to citizens in case of disasters or major emergencies Something else, what?

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Figure 12: Independent tasks of the Polish volunteers. Eleven volunteer leaders replied.

Training available for volunteers and needs for improvement Only one volunteer organisation replied that they do not provide training for their volunteers; all of the authorities replied that they do. The training provided is matched with the tasks in which the volunteers participate. Most of the volunteers replied that they find the training insufficient. When asked if the training is sufficient, the authorities’ replies are spread evenly among ‘yes’, ‘no’ and ‘don’t know’. When asked what type of training needs to be increased, more than half of the volunteers mentioned firefighting, rescue tasks, other prevention and search and rescue. Support services and crisis communications each got two responses and three respondents mentioned fire prevention.

Exercises with the authorities Almost all of the respondents to the questionnaire replied that volunteers and authorities have joint exercises. One respondent from each group replied that they do not know.

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Recruiting and challenges of recruiting While ten of the eleven volunteers said that their organisation recruits volunteers, none of the authorities does. Of the ten, six have difficulties in recruiting enough volunteers. The interviewee mentioned four possible reasons for such difficulties: rural depopulation, decline in the importance of the community, a lack of visibility of volunteer fire brigades and a lack of incentives for volunteers and their employers. There are no contractual obligations for volunteer firefighters, so they are not obligated to respond to emergencies. When there are many people who live in rural areas and they commute to the cities for work, the response times of the volunteer fire brigades become bad, since the volunteers are unable to get back to their hometowns fast enough. There is also a general lack of volunteers in some rural areas. The importance of the community is declining because lately individual entertainment has become more readily available. Therefore, people don’t need the excitement of communal activities offered by volunteer fire brigades in order to stave off boredom anymore. The local leadership of some of the volunteer fire brigades needs help with recruitment, both in understanding that recruitment is important and also in training to become more visible and to appear more open to newcomers. Incentives for volunteers and their employers. While the volunteers themselves generally receive a small monetary compensation from the local government, there is no compensation for the employer if their employees’ work is impaired by them leaving to respond to an emergency. Authority

Cooperation with spontaneous volunteers Seven volunteer organisations and all of the authorities have cooperated with spontaneous volunteers in the past three years.

Funding sources and sufficiency of funding Most of the volunteer organisations are funded by municipalities, by the state and by membership fees. About half of them get funding from private donations and/or other sources, such as foundations and ‘economic activity’ (which assumably means fundraising). One organisation replied that 135


they do not receive any funding. Eight of the volunteer organisations replied that their funding is insufficient, and three replied that it is sufficient. The interviewee did not go into much detail about financing but did mention that they had once thought that they could increase recruitment by modernising their firefighting equipment. However, they have since seen volunteer fire brigades that have been using EU funds to become very well equipped, but still seem to have problems in recruiting.

Insurance practices One of the volunteers could not say whether the volunteers are covered by insurance, but the other ten said that they are. Only one of the authorities said the same. According to the volunteers, they are primarily covered by the parties which use the volunteers and/or by state/national legislation. Four replied that they are insured by the volunteer organisations themselves and the last two options had three replies combined. Six of the volunteers also answered that the organisation they represent provides insurance, whereas four do not and one did not know. According to the authorities it is primarily the parties that use the volunteers, or the volunteer organisations themselves, that provide insurance. One answered that individual volunteers take personal insurance and another one replied: For volunteer firefighters health insurance shall be provided by local government.

None of the authorities’ representatives replied that they provide the insurance.

International cooperation International cooperation regarding civil protection seems to be relatively rare among volunteer organisations in Poland. Only two volunteer organisations said that they participate in such cooperation. Firefighting, fire prevention, search and rescue, crisis communications and youth cooperation all received one mention by a volunteer organisation. Firefighting, cross-border disaster planning, and rescue tasks are shared answers by the authorities, while fire prevention, other prevention, search and rescue, crisis communications and training each received one mention.

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The Council of the Baltic Sea States is a good forum to organise workshops and the like. We are also active in the CTIF, the EUCPM and as a member of the Visegrád group. We are arranging activities with the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. Authority

The interviewee views this kind of cooperation not only as a way to share knowledge and experiences, but also as a recruitment tool since the opportunity to go to other countries and exchange information can be alluring to young people who are considering volunteering.

Biggest challenges involving volunteers The answers to this question can be summarised in three categories that are associated with each other: Recruitment, training and funding. Recruitment issues seem to mainly stem from the depopulation of rural areas, as several of the respondents mentioned young people moving to urban areas as a challenge. They also mentioned the lack of incentives such as pension supplements and benefits to the employers of volunteers. One also mentioned the increasing tendency of young people to directly proceed from high school to further studies, which makes it more difficult to recruit them during their ‘gap’ years. Lack of training is also an issue for many of the volunteers. This seems to concern morale. The logic behind the answers appeared to be that welltrained volunteers are more confident and happy with their work and thus more likely to keep volunteering. The last category involves funding, and it overlaps with the other categories in the sense that at least some of the above-mentioned issues could be fixed, or at least mitigated, by better funding. As one respondent put it: This year we take part in 30 SAR missions, but we can’t afford to buy a service car to transport our volunteers. Candidates see this problem and they then quit.

Some volunteers mentioned that they spend their own money either directly on equipment or for financing the operation, or in the form of lost earnings from their jobs – and this is not exactly motivating.

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Summary of the results Recruitment and funding are big issues and the volunteers themselves believe that they lack proper training. Some of the issues can be fixed and/ or mitigated by more funding but the main recruitment problem seems to stem from demographic changes for which there are no easy solutions.

2.3 The Baltic Sea Region – summary of the results In this chapter the results are presented from the point of view of the whole region, pointing out the most crucial features of volunteering in the region.

2.3.1 Cooperation and contracts are commonplace Among the respondents, cooperation among volunteers and the authorities is routine practice in the region. Volunteers cooperate mostly with the rescue services, but also quite a lot with the police. The authorities mostly cooperate with volunteer fire brigades and the Red Cross. Contracts among the authorities and volunteer organisations are common since seven of the ten authorities have contracts with organisations. In addition, contracts among individual volunteers and the authorities are quite common – half of the authorities have contracts with individual volunteers. According to volunteer organisations, contracts with the rescue services are commonplace, but many also have contracts with the police. It is normal for volunteers to be included in the authorities’ contingency plans for major disasters. Seven of the ten volunteer organisations and eight of the ten authorities replied positively to the question. Also, both respondent groups replied that joint exercises are very common.

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The relationship among the authorities and the volunteers is described as being good. Especially the authorities think so: nine of the ten agreed with this. However, although eight out of the ten volunteer organisation leaders think that their relationship is either good or very good, there seems to be room for improvement in the relationship. One of the ten thought that the relationship is either good or bad, but there were also people who considered the relationship as bad or even very bad. When asked how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected cooperation, the answers varied. The most usual answer given by the authorities was, however, that COVID-19 had not had any effect on cooperation. One third of the volunteer organisation leaders replied that their cooperation had increased, which is almost as many as those who said that it had not had any effect on cooperation.

2.3.2 Volunteer tasks are diverse Volunteers participate in a wide range of tasks in the region, the most common being firefighting and rescue tasks. When the authorities were asked, support services are the most common task for volunteers in the region. Volunteers have also participated in COVID-19 related tasks like logistical support such as distributing personal protective equipment and disinfectants during the pandemic and answering questions at COVID-19 call-centres. In addition volunteers have participated in tasks related to climate change and oil spill response.

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What kind of tasks were volunteers involved in during the past three years? Rescue tasks (concerning people, property and/or environment)

27

Firefighting

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Search and rescue

Volunteers

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15

Fire prevention (provision of information on fire safety, work done with fire safety equipment etc.) Other prevention (general guidance of citizens concerning safety, security, resilience and preparedness) Support services (for example: temporary shelters, catering, clothing to vulnerable persons, staff support,… Information gathering and information spreading to citizens in case of disasters or major emergencies Something else, what?

65

43

16 22 30

40 34

25 17 11 7 Authorities

Figure 13: Tasks of the volunteers. Seventy-six volunteer leaders and Fifty-four authorities replied. The answer in the category ‘Something else, what?’ was elaborated for example as ‘COVID-19 related tasks’, ‘tasks related to climate change’ and ‘oil spill response’.

It is common for volunteer organisations to carry out independent tasks. Six of the ten report carrying out tasks independently of the authorities. There are independent tasks in the entire range of tasks which were included in the questionnaire.

Training available for volunteers: there is still need for improvement regarding major disasters and in providing general guidance to citizens Most volunteer organisations and most of the authorities provide training for volunteers in the region. The most common topics are firefighting and rescue tasks. However, the range is wide. Regarding the tasks, both the authorities and the volunteer organisations provide at least crisis communications training. Most of the authorities and volunteer organisation leaders consider the training of volunteers as sufficient in relation to the tasks in which they participate. However, the authorities feel that volunteers need more training 140


in crisis communications, support services and other prevention (general guidance to citizens in safety, security, resilience and preparedness). Volunteer organisation leaders feel that volunteers need more training in rescue tasks, firefighting and other prevention.

Challenges of recruiting are very common Nearly all volunteer organisations and half of the authorities recruit volunteers. The difficulties in recruiting are very common: seven out of the ten volunteer organisations and half of the authorities reported difficulties in recruiting. In the answers to the open-ended questions where the respondents described the biggest challenges to increasing volunteer involvement in their country, five themes were identified that are very likely connected to difficulties in recruiting and motivating volunteers: 1) demographic changes and urbanisation, shortage of people, especially young people in rural areas; 2) the need to improve the relevance of tasks and sufficient training for volunteers, and to improve the visibility and contact points for volunteering; 3) the need to improve the support of volunteer organisations especially by the state (funding, insurance, training, enacting volunteer-friendly legislation); 4) the need to improve the balance between the working life and volunteering; and 5) the need to establish a culture which is positive to volunteering. 1) Demographic changes and urbanisation, shortage of people, especially young people in rural areas: Demographic challenges (depopulation of rural areas, low fertility rate). (Poland, authority) The changes in society where people move to the big cities reduces the availability of new volunteers. We still need fire stations which are spread out to also have good services outside city centres. (Denmark, leader of volunteer organisation)

2) The need to improve the relevance of tasks and sufficient training for volunteers, and to improve the visibility and contact points for volunteering: Lack of relevant tasks. (Denmark, authority)

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For potential volunteers to know where to turn to. Keep volunteers motivated and also ‘busy’ between disaster assignments. (Sweden, leader of volunteer organisation) To maintain a sufficient number of training opportunities for the entire group and to ensure that everyone is at the same level of training and adheres to the authority’s values. (Authority, Sweden) The official community (kommune) lack of understanding of what motivates volunteers in their daily work. (Denmark, leader of volunteer organisation)

3) The need to improve the support of volunteer organisations especially by the state (funding, insurance, training, enacting volunteer-friendly legislation): The biggest challenge is to motivate volunteers to participate in civil protection. There should be possibilities to apply for state- or municipality-paid training courses in civil protection. Also, volunteers should be protected with an insurance policy in case of an emergency that occurs in voluntary work. (Latvia, leader of volunteer organisation) Provide volunteers insurance, personal protective equipment and equipment for activities. Appreciate the volunteer and create reward mechanisms for their work. (Poland, leader of volunteer organisation)

4) The need to improve the balance between the working life and volunteering: Full work compensation for lost worktime. (Norway, leader of volunteer organisation) Insufficient incentives for employers. Insufficient social campaigns for volunteering. (Poland, Authority) More flexible laws for employers whose employees are volunteers. (Poland, Authority)

5) The need to establish a culture which is positive to volunteering and more time devoted to cooperation: Sufficient time needs to be devoted to working with volunteers. (Lithuania, Authority)

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Cooperation with spontaneous volunteers is quite common among volunteer organisations Cooperation with spontaneous volunteers is a growing phenomenon. According to our study, this is more common among volunteer organisations than among the authorities. Half of the volunteer organisations have cooperated with spontaneous volunteers and a third of the authorities, respectively. This raises the question of whether this cooperation should be done in a more determined fashion among the authorities and volunteer organisations or whether dealing with spontaneous volunteers is only a task for volunteer organisations. Insufficient funding is quite common among volunteer organisations Financing for volunteer organisations comes from many different sources, such as the state, municipalities, private donations, membership fees or some other sources, such as the EU/European Commission (ECHO) and the UN. The biggest financier, however, is the state: six of the ten organisations receive funding from the state. There are clearly improvements to be made to ensure that the financial resources are sufficient in organisations tasked to participate in civil protection. Nearly half of the organisations in this study considered their resources to be insufficient.

Insurances does not cover each and every volunteer An overwhelming majority of volunteer organisation leaders (eight out of ten) and of the authorities (seven out of ten) reported that the volunteers are insured. However, not all volunteers have insurance. One of the ten volunteer organisation leaders said that their volunteers were not insured. Of the authorities, one fourth could not say whether the volunteers with whom they cooperate are insured. Like funding, also insurance comes from different sources. The most common provider of insurance is, however, the state. The second most common providers are the authorities who use volunteers and the third most common the volunteer organisations themselves. Also, individual volunteers have personal insurance.

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The above-mentioned results indicate that there are improvements to be made in the system of insuring volunteers in civil protection. As one of respondents put it: Unclear insurance system. (Norway, authority)

Volunteer involvement is low in international cooperation Volunteers are not involved in a systematic way in international cooperation and the level of joint exercises and planning activities with the authorities is low. While volunteer organisations mostly organised joint exercises with other volunteer organisations (in other countries), one of the five respondents held joint exercises with the authorities. Also, planning activities for cross-border disasters are mostly done by the authorities alone. Although international cooperation is not very commonplace, a third of volunteer organisations do participate in international cooperation, their most usual tasks being firefighting and rescue. Institutional framework of international cooperation is unclear to volunteers. Most volunteer organisation leaders could not say whether international cooperation was based on legislation (national or international, bilateral agreements, etc.) or whether it is done through international organisations. I believe that, in order to increase the participation of volunteers in the civil protection sector in Poland, they must be able to develop, mainly through more training and cooperation with foreign volunteers. Increasing knowledge and skills through training and exchanging experiences with other volunteers will significantly increase certainty in civil protection operations. Participation increases when the volunteers know that their actions are correct and their input is not wasted. (Poland, volunteer) In our opinion, the public services are, unfortunately, not ready to adopt the European experience in attracting and cooperating with volunteers! We always offer our help but, unfortunately, remain ineffective! We are also always ready to participate in joint exercises where they test the joint response of the different services. We are always ready to help. We are also ready to react not only in the confines of Latvia, but also in neighbouring states! (Latvia, volunteer) It is necessary to jointly arrange a progressive internal security system in Latvia and in the Baltic region. (Latvia, volunteer)

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Improvements are needed in coordinating volunteers and in the cooperation structures among volunteers and the authorities Although the prerequisites in the BSR area for volunteering are quite good in the sense that cooperation exists in all of the countries, contracts are commonplace and relationships are regarded as good, in most of the countries there are various kinds of shortcomings in structures (legislation, the authorities’ plans, partnerships) and in coordinating the volunteers (directing, leading). The authorities and volunteer organisation leaders commented on the biggest challenges involving volunteers in the following ways which all imply some kind of shortcomings in structures and in the coordination of volunteers: Coordination of volunteers. (Sweden, authority) Plans and operational procedures are not good enough at the operational and strategic levels; this makes the use of volunteers at the tactical level less relevant. (Norway, authority) Lack of a common system for all NGOs. (Lithuania, a leader of a volunteer organisation) Umbrella coordination, inclusion of voluntary organisations and volunteers in daily planning activities, not only in emergency situations when the support is needed right at that moment and there is no time for proper planning. (Latvia, a leader of a volunteer organisation) Predictability, coordination. (Norway, a leader of a volunteer organisation) Lack of legislation, lack of cooperation from government structures, e.g., fire and rescue, forest services, health care organisations. (Latvia, authority) Establishing a joint rescue network. (Estonia, authority) The laws and regulations for using volunteers in Sweden are very unclear at the moment. (Sweden, authority) Unclear mission for the volunteers in the new civil defence planning. (Sweden, authority)

Also, in Finland there is the need to develop the cooperation of volunteer organisations in providing service packages to the authorities (‘The report 145


on cooperation of volunteers and authorities in the field of civil protection’, The Finnish National Rescue Organisation, 2020).

2.3.3 Conclusions The situational picture of volunteering in the Baltic Sea Region has many positive features: cooperation exists in all of the countries, volunteers are mentioned in the countries’ legislation at some level, contracts among volunteer organisations and the authorities are commonplace and their mutual relationships are mostly regarded as good. However, in most of the countries there are some shortcomings in structures (legislation, the authorities’ plans, partnerships) and in coordinating volunteers (directing, leading). There is, therefore, a need to clarify the role/mission of volunteers in legislation as well as in planning and operational procedures, and to improve the umbrella coordination of volunteers. Difficulties in recruiting volunteers are very common. The study confirmed the previous results according to which the challenges in retaining and recruiting volunteers relate to societal changes (ageing population, urbanisation), organisational processes (e.g., for intensive training the organisational culture does not recognise volunteers) as well as individual reasons (individualism, lack of spare time, lack of interest). The measures that should be taken are diverse and require the contribution of volunteer organisations themselves as well as support from the authorities, the state and the employers of volunteers. Many volunteer organisations consider their financial resources to be insufficient for civil protection tasks. The sufficiency and continuity of financing, for example continuous state funding, is crucial to these organisations. According to the study, volunteers are not involved in a systematic way in international cooperation and the level of joint exercises and planning activities with the authorities is low. The institutional framework of international cooperation is unclear to volunteer organisations. From the perspective of volunteering, this study supports the findings of previous studies according to which civil protection cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region needs more clearly articulated common goals and umbrella coordination, for example in the context of the CBSS (cf ‘Working Paper on 146


Civil Protection in the Baltic Sea Region Perspective 2016–2020 Selected Problems’; Barzanje, Ekengren & Rhinard, 2018; Ojala, 2004). According to this study, in all of the countries there is a willingness to form an international forum for volunteers and the authorities where common goals and tasks are defined and practised in order to jointly prepare for possible disasters in the area.

Features of cooperation between volunteers and authorities Features that are common or quite common

- especially with • Cooperation volunteer firefighters • Contracts for cooperation are included in • Volunteers preparedness plans exercises are organised • Joint (between authorities and volunteers) • Variety of tasks for volunteers organisations cooperate • Volunteer with spontaneous volunteers

Existing features supporting volunteers

• Legal recognition of volunteers & training generally • Education available for volunteers and authorities consider • Volunteers their relation to be good

Features that are not so common

• International cooperation • COVID-19 related cooperation standards for • Harmonised volunteers’ tasks and responsibilities in the Baltic Sea region

Features to improve

• Recruiting and motivating volunteers • Funding concerning tasks in • Training major disasters and general guidance of citizens

• International cooperation • Insurance cover to be 100 % for cooperation (legislation, • Structures authorities plans, partnerships) of volunteers • Coordination (directing and leading)

Figure 14. Features of cooperation between volunteers and authorities 147


3. References: Aaltola M., Kuznetsov B., Spruds A. & Vizgunova E. (2018) Societal Security In the Baltic Sea Region. Latvia: Latvian Institute of International Affairs. Barzanje, Ekengren & Rhinard (2018) Working in the Same Direction? Civil Protection Cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region: the capacity of the institutional landscape of the Baltic Sea Region for transboundary crisis management cooperation. Bekkers, René (2016) Director of the Center for Philanthropic Studies at the Faculty of Social Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, ‘Foundations of Societal Resilience – Talma Lecture’. Brandweeracademie (2019) Recruitment and retention of volunteers in European Fire Services, Phase 1: document study and exploratory focus group. Arnhem: Instituut Fysieke Veiligheid. Danish Ministry of Defence (2017). Bekendtgørelse af beredskabsloven (Danish Emergency Preparedness Act). From Retsinformation: https:// www.retsinformation.dk/Forms/r0710.aspx?id=188158 Danish Emergency Management Agency (2018). Retningslinjer for indsatsledelse (Guidelines for incident management). From: https://brs.dk/globalassets/brs---beredskabsstyrelsen/dokumenter/indsats---retningslinjer-o.l/2020/-retningslinjer-for-indsatsledelse-2018-.pdf Eskelinen K. ja Nikkanen M. (2020) Vapaaehtoisten ja viranomaisten yhteistyö- tutkimuksen loppuraportti. Spek tutkii 21. Helsinki: Suomen Pelastusalan Keskusjärjestö. Estonian Ministry of Interior (2015). Koostöökokkulepe (Cooperation agreement with The Rescue Association.) From: https://paasteliit.ee/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/Koost%C3%B6%C3%B6kokkulepe_Siseministeerium_P%C3%A4%C3%A4steliit.pdf Haake N. (2019) Vapaaehtoiset pelastustoiminnassa-hankkeen väliraportti. Sisäministeriö. Jalava J., Raisio H., Norri-Sederholm-Teija, Lahtinen H. ja Puustinen A. (2017) Kolmas sektori viranomaisten turvallisuustoiminnan tukena. Valtioneuvoston selvitys- ja tutkimustoiminnan julkaisusarja 76/2017. Helsinki: Valtioneuvoston kanslia. Joint Position on Enhancing Cooperation in Civil Protection Area 15th Meeting of Directors General for the Civil Protection in BSR, 2017 Koivunen, P. (toim.) (2018) Sopimuspalokunnat Suomessa – Suomen Sopimuspalokuntien Liiton julkaisusarja, sarja C:5/2018. 2. painos. Eura: Eura Print Oy. 148


Kuntasanasto, 2013, G068 Mattsson, K. D. & Lindgren F. & Johansson J. (2016) Frivilligmedverkan i samhällets beredskap för kris och krig. Rapport nr. FOI- R-4295—SE. Nasjonalt Redningsfaglig Råd (2018). De frivillige rednings- og beredskapsorganisasjonenes rolle i dagens samfunn: Utfordringer og tiltak for en styrket redningstjeneste (The voluntary rescue- and emergency organisations’ role in today’s society: Challenges and solutions for a strengthened rescue service). Norwegian Ministry of Justice and Public Security (2015). Organisasjonsplan for redningstjenesten (Plan for organisation of the emergency service). From Lovdata: https://lovdata.no/dokument/LTI/forskrift/2015-06-19-677 Ojala O. (2004) NGO Legislation in the Baltic Sea Region: A Survey with Recommendations; identifies differences and similarities of working conditions of NGOs. Parliament of the Republic of Latvia (2002). Ugunsdrošības un ugunsdzēsības likums (Fire safety and fire-fighting law). From Likumi: https://likumi. lv/ta/id/68293-ugunsdrosibas-un-ugunsdzesibas-likums Pursiainen C., Hedin S. & Hellenberg T. (2005) Civil protection systems in the Baltic Sea Region: Towards Integration in Civil Protection Training. Eurobaltic Publications 3. Helsinki: Aleksanteri Institute. Roth, F. & Prior T. (2019). Risk and Resilience Report. Volunteerism in Disaster Management Opportunities, Challenges and Instruments for Improvment. Risk & Resilience Team, Center for Security Studies (CSS) ETH Zurich. Suominen, Petteri (2002) Arvon mekin ansaitsemme. Tutkimus vapaaehtoispalokuntien yhteiskunnallisesta vaikuttavuudesta ja merkittävyydestä. Tampere: Tampereen yliopisto, Politiikan tutkimuksen laitos. Technisches Hilfswerk (2006) The promotion of volunteer work in civil protection in the EU Member States and EEA countries on the basis of the recommendation of common standars. Project Report. Vapepa (2019) kysely viranomaisille. Vapepa (2019) kysely Vapepa- järjestöille. Yhteiskunnan turvallisuusstrategia 2017. Valtioneuvoston periaatepäätös. Turvallisuuskomitea. Working Paper on Civil Protection in The Baltic Sea Region Perspective 2016 – 2020. Selected Problems (Policy Area Secure within the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region). https://ec.europa.eu/echo/what/civil-protection/mechanism_en https://vapepa.fi/wp-content/uploads/Vapepan-vuosi-2019.pdf

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Danish Civil Protection League (Beredskabsforbundet), www.beredskab.dk Danish Emergency Management Agency (Beredskabsstyrelsen), www.brs.dk Danish Red Cross (Dansk Røde Kors), www.rodekors.dk Danish Home Guard (Hjemmeværnet), www.hjv.dk Sea Rescue Society (Dansk Søredningsselskab), www.dsrs.dk Air Rescue (NLFs Flytjenesten) www.flytjenesten.nlf.no National Rescue Professional Council (Nasjonalt Redningsfaglig Råd) www. redningsfaglig.no Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection (Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap), www.dsb.no Norwegian People’s Aid (Norsk Folkehjelp), www.folkehjelp.no Norwegian Red Cross (Norsk Røde Kors), www.rodekors.no Rescue Dogs (Norske Redningshunder), www.nrh.no Save the Children (Hentet fra Redbarnet), www.redbarnet.dk Turvallisuuskomitea, www.turvallisuuskomitea.fi The Voluntary Rescue Service (Vapaaehtoinen pelastuspalvelu) www.vapepa.fi

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Appendix 1 E-mail questionnaire given to the security officials of the Civil Protection Network and Steering Group for PA Secure Dear recipient, We contact you as representatives of project ”Resit - Situational Picture of Volunteerism for Societal Resilience in the Baltic Sea Region”. The aim of the project is to create a situational picture of how authorities and volunteers in the fire and rescue field co-operate in man-made or natural disasters in Baltic Sea Region and how volunteers could participate in managing or preventing significant disasters. The aim of the project is to promote volunteer use and activities and to create recommendations for that matter. Our project was presented in CBSS steering group meeting in 2th April due to Joint position 4. by Jari Honkanen from Ministry of the Interior Finland. As Jari told you we would kindly ask your assistance in answering underneath questions concerning your country. The gathered information is also used in applying EU-funding for a project where recommendations are promoted in a more pragmatic level. Here are the questions we would ask you to answer or direct to a person who could assist us with the questions: How does your legislation define the role of volunteers? Is the role of volunteers generally recognized within authorities? When thinking of voluntary actors in your country (organisations or others), who are the relevant targets for this project in your opinion? 151


Also, who are the relevant local authorities (city level) who are relevant for this project in your opinion? What kind of activities do volunteers participate in your country (in fire and rescue)? How is the role of volunteers defined in national and local (cities) preparedness plans/guidelines for significant disasters? In your country, which kind of co-operation structures (for example regular meetings, forums etc) are there for co-operation between authorities and volunteers? How are the voluntary activities funded in your country? Who trains the volunteers and to which tasks/activities they are trained for? In addition we are interested in your general opinions of subject: what are in your opinion the most crucial aspects to take into account when thinking of volunteer participation to fire and rescue field in Baltic Sea region or in your country? We ask you to send us your anwers within three weeks, by 8th of May. After gathering abovementioned information we are planning to do a questionnary and interviews to relevant actors. Additional information of Resit- project: The project is directed by Ministry of The Interior of Finland and funded by Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Finland. It´s carried out by The Finnish National Rescue Association (SPEK) in co-operation with Danish Civil Protection League, Frederiksborg Fire and Rescue Service and Liepaja Municipal Police/Union of the Baltic Cities. Best regards, The representative of project ReSit; name and contact details here

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Appendix 2 Questionnaire for leaders of volunteer organisations

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156


157


158


159


160


161


162


163


164


165


Appendix 3 Questionnaire for authorities

166


167


168


169


170


171


172


173


174


175


176


Appendix 4 Interview questions

Please tell your views on the challenges involving volunteers and how to solve them. Please describe the supportive structures of volunteerism in your organisation (on which activities lies steadfastly) and which you think will remain strong for the next 10 years. Please describe current best practices in involving volunteers. Please describe unfunctional practices which are difficult to remove from the working culture (concerning cooperation between volunteers and authorities). How is your organisation/ country involved in international cooperation and via which organisations and forums? What are the actual benefits of international cooperation and membership(s) in international organization(s)/ forum(s) for example for the members of volunteer organisations? Please give concrete examples. How would the interviewee develop international cooperation to increase volunteer involvement? In which ways would the interviewee’s organisation be ready to develop international cooperation? How does the interviewees see their organisation involved in possible further activities/ project? How do they see themselves as actors in this field giving their contribution to the field? Country specific questions, depending on the answers of the questionnaires 177


Appendix 5 List of organisations Denmark English name

Original name

Website

Danish Civil Protection League

Beredskabsforbundet

beredskab.dk

Danish Emergency Management Agency

Beredskabsstyrelsen

brs.dk

Danish Red Cross

Dansk Røde Kors

www.rodekors.dk

Home Guard

Hjemmeværnet

www.hjv.dk

Sea Rescue Society

Dansk Søredningsselskab

www.dsrs.dk

English name

Original name

Website

Air Rescue

NLFs Flytjenesten

flytjenesten.nlf.no

National Rescue Professional Council

Nasjonalt Redningsfaglig Råd

www.redningsfaglig.no

Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection

Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap

www.dsb.no

Norwegian People’s Aid

Norsk Folkehjelp

folkehjelp.no

Norwegian Red Cross

Norsk Røde Kors

www.rodekors.no

Rescue Dogs

Norske Redningshunder

www.nrh.no

Sea Rescue Society

Redningsselskapet

www.redningsselskapet.no

Volunteer Organisations’ Rescue Forum

Frivillige Organisasjoners Redningsfaglige Forum

www.forf.no

Norway

178


Sweden English name

Original name

Website

Swedish Civil Protection Association

Civilförsvarsförbundet

civil.se

Swedish Red Cross

Röda Korset

rodakorset.se

The Swedish Voluntary Fire Brigade Association

Förbundet Sveriges Frivilliga Brandkårer

frivilligbrand.nu

Swedish Civil Contingency Agency

Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap

msb.se

English name

Original name

Website

The Voluntary Rescue Service

Vapaaehtoinen pelastuspalvelu Vapepa

vapepa.fi

Finnish Red Cross

Suomen Punainen Risti

punainenristi.fi

The Finnish Lifeboat Institution

Suomen Meripelastusseura

meripelastus.fi

The Finnish Air Rescue Society

Suomen Lentopelastusseura

lentopelastus.fi

The Finnish National Rescue Association

Suomen Pelastusalan Keskusjärjestö

spek.fi

The Federation of Finnish Contract Fire Brigades

Suomen Sopimuspalokuntien Liitto

sspl.fi

Finnish Search and Rescue Dogs association

Suomen Pelastuskoiraliitto

pelastuskoiraliitto.fi

Finnish Working Dog Association

Suomen Palveluskoiraliitto

palveluskoiraliitto.fi

The Security Committee

Turvallisuuskomitea

turvallisuuskomitea.fi

Ministry of the Interior Finland

Sisäministeriö

intermin.fi

Finland

179


Latvia English name

Original name

Website

State Fire and Rescue Service

Valsts ugunsdzēsības un glābšanas dienests

https://www.vugd.gov.lv/

Latvian Volunteer Fire Brigade Association

Latvijas Brīvprātīgo ugunsdzēsēju biedrību apvienība

http://www.lbuba.lv

Latvian Red Cross

Latvijas Sarkanais krusts

https://www.redcross.lv/

Liepaja Municipal Police

Liepājas pilsētas Pašvaldības policija

http://www.pp.liepaja.lv/

English name

Original name

Website

Estonian Rescue Board

Päästeamet

https://www.rescue.ee/

The Rescue Association

Päästeliit

https://paasteliit.ee/

Estonian Police and Border Guard Board

Politsei- ja Piirivalveamet

https://www.politsei.ee/

English name

Original name

Website

Fire and Rescue Department

Priešgaisrinės apsaugos ir gelbėjimo departamentas prie Vidaus reikalų ministerijos

https://pagd.lrv.lt

Police Department

Lietuvos policija

https://policija.lrv.lt/

State Border Guard Service

Valstybės sienos apsaugos tarnyba

http://www.pasienis.lt

National Defence Volunteer Forces

Krašto apsaugos savanorių pajėgos

https://kariuomene.kam.lt/ en/structure_1469/national_defence_volunteer_forces_1357.html

Lithuanian Scouting

Lietuvių Skautų Sąjunga

https://skautai.net/

Council of Lithuanian Youth Organisations

Lietuvos jaunimo organizacijų taryba

https://lijot.lt/

Estonia

Lithuania

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Germany English name

Original name

Website

Federal Agency for Technical Relief THW

THW (Technisches Hilfswerk)

Thw.de

Federal Office of Civil Protection and Disaster Assistance

BBK (Bundesamt für bevölkerungsschutz und katastrophenhilfe

Bbk.bund.de

Berlin Fire Department

Berliner Feuerwehr

Berliner-feuerwehr.dk

English name

Original name

Website

Association of the Volunteer Fire Brigades of the Republic of Poland (ZOSP RP)

Zwiazek Ochotniczych Strazy Pozarnych RP

Osp.pl

Polish Medical Air Rescue

Lotnicze Pogotowie Ratunkowe

Ipr.com.pl

Polish Medical Mission

Polska Misja Medyczna

Pmm.com.pl

Caritas Poland

Caritas Polska

caritas.org/where-caritas-work/europe/poland/

Polish Humanitarian Action

Polska Akcja Humanitarna

Pah.org.pl

Poland

Visegrád group

Visegradgroup.eu

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SPEK

This report paints the situational picture of volunteerism in the field of civil protection in ten Baltic Sea countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany and Russia. The aim of the project was to create a knowledge base and recommendations for developing cooperation and joint preparedness among the authorities, volunteer organisations and citizens for natural and man-made disasters in the region. The situational picture of volunteerism in the Baltic Sea Region has many positive features: cooperation exists in all countries, volunteers are mentioned in the countries’ legislation at some level, contracts among volunteer organisations and the authorities are commonplace, and their mutual relationships are mostly good.

Suomen Pelastusalan Keskusjärjestö SPEK Ratamestarinkatu 11, 00520 Helsinki p. 09 476 112 spekinfo@spek.fi www.spek.fi


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