WEST-BOHEMIAN SPA TRIANGLE SELECTED SPAS OF WESTBOHEMIA NOMINATED FOR REGISTRATION IN THE UNESCO LIST OF WORLD HERITAGE SITES
Lubomír Zeman, Karel Kuča, Věra Kučová
THE KARLOVY VARY REGION and NATIONAL HERITAGE INSTITUTE 2008
WEST-BOHEMIAN SPA TRIANGLE REGISTRATION IN THE UNESCO LIST OF WORLD HERITAGE SITES print: The Karlovy Vary Region in cooperation National Heritage Institute and Club behind beautiful The Karlovy Vary Region Text © Lubomír Zeman, Karel Kuča, Věra Kučová 2008 photography © Lubomír Zeman, Karel Kuča, Jan Prudík Historical documentation and plans © Stavební archiv Magistrátu města Karlovy Vary, Krajské muzeum Karlovarského kraje, Městské muzeum ve Františkových Lázních, Městský úřad Klášterec nad Ohří, F. Holly Kyselka, Karel Kuča, Lubomír Zeman Lector: PhDr. Stanislav Burachovič, Bc. Karel Ksandr The authors of this publication relied on findings and experience acquired in the course of the following grant assignments: Grant Project of the Grant Agency Czech Republic No. 409/06/1759: Spas and the Spa Sector in the Czech Republic in the Context of the Spa Sector‘s Global Development Research and Development Program Project, MCCR, No. DB06P01OPP002: Finalization of a Systemic Research of Town Planning Development in the Czech Republic Including Qualified Selection for International Presentation. Research Assignment of the National Heritage Institute No. 301: Operative Survey and Documentation of Historical Structures Research Assignment of the National Heritage Institute No. 402: Expert Studies, Scientific Evaluation, Documenting, and Recording of the Cultural Heritage of the 19th and 20th century Research and Development Program Project, MCCR, No. DB06P01OPP001 Expert Evaluation and Comprehensive Documentation of Selected Localities in the Czech Republic and Coordination of Conceptual Studies for Their Nomination to the UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites graphic layout and printing: KV TISK s. r. o. issue 1000 ks Karlovy Vary 2008 ISBN 978-80-87104-30-9
Introduction (Lubomír Zeman, Karel Kuča, Věra Kučová)................................................................................... 03 Karlovy Vary (Carlsbad) ...........................................................................................................................................06 Historical and Urban Development (Karel Kuča, Lubomír Zeman)..................................................................... 06 Architectonically Most Important Structures (Lubomír Zeman) .......................................................................... 16 Mariánské Lázně (Marienbad) ...............................................................................................................................29 Historical and Urban Development (Karel Kuča, Lubomír Zeman)..................................................................... 29 Architectonically Most Important Structures (Lubomír Zeman) .......................................................................... 42 Františkovy Lázně (Franzensbad) ..........................................................................................................................53 Historical and Urban Development (Karel Kuča, Lubomír Zeman)..................................................................... 53 Architectonically Most Important Structures (Lubomír Zeman) .......................................................................... 63 West-Bohemian Spa Triangle in European Context (Lubomír Zeman) ...............................................................91 The Spa Sector and Its Role in General ................................................................................................................91 Architectural Specifics of Spa Localities ..............................................................................................................91 The Towns in the West-Bohemian Spa Triangle in the Context of the European Spa Architecture’s Evolution ...92 Classicism and Biedermeier ................................................................................................................................ 92 Historicist Styles .................................................................................................................................................... 99 Art Nouveau and Inter-war Architecture ............................................................................................................ 106 Substantiation of the Outstanding Global Value of the West-Bohemian Spa Triangle ................................ 110 (Karel Kuča, Věra Kučová) Legal Protection Over the West-Bohemian Spa Triangle (Věra Kučová) ........................................................ 112 The Most Valuable Municipal Districts, Urban-planning and Architecture-wise, of the West-Bohemian Spa Triangle, Selected for Future Nomination for Registration in the UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites .... 112 (Karel Kuča, Věra Kučová) Spas on the Current UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites (Lubomír Zeman) ............................................... 115 Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................................... 119 The authors of this publication relied on findings and experience acquired in the course of the following grant assignments: Grant Project of the Grant Agency Czech Republic No. 409/06/1759 Spas and the Spa Sector in the Czech Republic in the Context of the Spa Sector‘s Global Development Research and Development Program Project, MCCR, No. DB06P01OPP002 Finalization of a Systemic Research of Town Planning Development in the Czech Republic Including Qualified Selection for International Presentation. Research Assignment of the National Heritage Institute No. 301 Operative Survey and Documentation of Historical Structures Research Assignment of the National Heritage Institute No. 402 Expert Studies, Scientific Evaluation, Documenting, and Recording of the Cultural Heritage of the 19th and 20th century Research and Development Program Project, MCCR, No. DB06P01OPP001 Expert Evaluation and Comprehensive Documentation of Selected Localities in the Czech Republic and Coordination of Conceptual Studies for Their Nomination to the UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites
Exploitation of natural springs for medical purposes has an very old tradition worldwide. The Czech Republic is a country that is extraordinarily rich in mineral springs and health spas. The Czech and Moravian spa sector used to be and objectively still is one of the best-developed sectors of its kind in the world. The golden era of the Czech spa sector began in the 18th century and lasted until the beginning of the 20th century, and its specifics still account for the Karlovy Vary Region’s distinct position in the Czech Republic. Such a dense concentration of healing mineral springs in a single area has no comparison in the Czech Republic or anywhere in the world – small wonder that it has imprinted unique characteristics to the region as a whole. The triplex of large spa centers – Karlovy Vary, Mariánské Lázně, and Františkovy Lázně – forms one of the best examples of internationally famous health resorts of supranational importance. Each of the centers features exceptionally well-preserved urban and architectural entities that represent an international trend of developing spa centers in Classicist and Historicist architectural styles. They are unique both historically and balneologically. The West-Bohemian Spa Triangle is quite exquisite in that it presents a faithful rendition of the spa towns as they looked before the mid-twenties of the 20th century. It is the prevalence of distinctly authentic and harmonic environment that forms the essence of these spa resorts’ popularity, both on the part of the local population and visitors, whether coming with high expectations as clients or as well-read tourists interested in heritage sites. West-Bohemian spas already are considered part of the world’s unique architectural and the human civilization’s urban heritage. It is therefore our common objective to protect these cultural heritage sites, acquaint ourselves with them in depth, preserve them, and make them accessible. When the magazine Travel in the Czech Republic announced the results of the contest for the most attractive site in the Czech Republic, Karlovy Vary won the 8th and Mariánské Lázně the 13th place. The West-Bohemian Spa Triangle is without a doubt the greatest asset of the Karlovy Vary Region, both from the perspective of tourism and heritage wealth. Historical sites, as well as lovely countryside and other attractive places, are the main factors that have a favorable effect on the development of tourism and the economic benefits that go hand in hand with it. The share of tourism, including spa tourism, accounts for about 10–15 % of the Karlovy Vary Region’s gross domestic product. One of the priorities of the Karlovy Vary Region’s planning policy therefore is to preserve and exploit the region’s heritage fund and tourism potential, as well as to support for the spa industry as such. The aim of the publication, The West-Bohemian Spa Triangle, is to familiarize the broad public with the most prominent spa heritage sites in the Karlovy Vary Region and the Czech Republic, present their historical value that is closely linked to development of the spa culture, and explain why it is such special phenomenon and what role it plays in comparison to other European spas. In the years 2004–2005, an important regional material entitled The Concept of Historical Conservation in the Region of Karlovy Vary was elaborated (Karel Kuča – Lubomír Zeman: The Karlovy Vary Region’s Heritage Sites – Historical Conservation Concept in the Karlovy Vary Region, Karlovy Vary 2006). In addition setting out the priorities of general care for the region’s heritage fund, one of the material’s objectives was to define the specifics of the region and the historical sites that deserve to be promoted nationwide (e.g., by elevating them to the category of national heritage sites), as well as those that give the region its identity of international significance and should therefore be considered a matter of priority. In 2006, on the basis of the said Concept, a Draft of Suggested Listings of Parts of the Historical Centers of Karlovy Vary, Mariánské Lázně, and Františkovy Lázně in the National Heritage Potential for Future Nomination for Registration in the UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites, i.e., the so-called Indicative List Czech Republic. In order to ensure professional objectiveness of the proposal, all three towns were subjected, in the same year, to a detailed Assessment Study of their historical sites using specialized methodology.1 The Assessment Study of the heritage value of the town centers was not limited the existing protected districts, as it also included the adjacent areas, if they contained any historically valuable elements. The Assessment Study showed clearly that the centers of the West-Bohemian spa towns feature an extraordinary concentration of historical sites that meet, without any doubt, the criteria for potential nomination to the List of World Heritage Sites. As part of a research assignment entitled The Spas and Spa Industry in the Czech Republic in the Context of the Development of the World’s Spa Resorts (Lubomír Zeman and Associates, 2006–2008), the Assessment Study of the West-Bohemian spa towns was carried out also in the context of other world-famous spa towns in Central and Western Europe. The idea of promoting our spa towns on a global scale was supported, in addition to the Karlovy Vary Region, also by the managements of the individual towns in a letter addressed to the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage Institute, in which the participating communities expressed their intent to apply for registration on the UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites. Both the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage Institute seconded the pursuit after reviewing the updated, summarized, and well-researched development and architectural materials on the historical quality the three towns.
Following general compilation of the prepared and structured information on the localities that individual countries have put on the Indicative List, introductory documentation was prepared for the West-Bohemian Spa Triangle project that was subsequently signed by the minister of culture by way of verification and forwarded via diplomatic venues to the UNESCO World Heritage Center in Paris. The documentation contains a brief description of the project, substantiation of its worthiness, information on existing legal protection, and characteristic photographs of all three towns. The compactness of the urban entities and concentration of architectonically valuable structures is documented in the annexed planning materials that contain also the optimal territorial scope of the potential world heritage site. The objective of the publication is to corroborate the endeavor of the representatives of the local authorities, state authorities, and members of the broad as well as the professional public to attain registration on the UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites. Only clearly defined and jointly recognized goals can be topped with success in the future. Registration of the West-Bohemian Spa Triangle in the UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites would be a recognition of the site’s quality, as well as commitment for all the parties involved to preserve internationally recognized cultural and historical values for future generations.
Mariánské Lázně - interiér Lázeňské kolonády, foto K. Kučaázek č. 01- 03.
Karlovy Vary 06
Historical and Urban Development The historical and spa district of Karlovy Vary sits deep in the narrow and very deep valley of the Teplá River, closed at the lower end like a bottleneck between Petrova Výšina (Peter Hill, an elevation where Jelení Skok [Deer’s Jump] is situated) and the opposite Otto Heights. On the upper side, on the eastern slope, the valley opens up like an amphitheater and creates an elevation over a bend of the Teplá River below Výšina Přátelství (Friendship Heights). The younger
part of the spa district is spreading at the lower end of the valley of the Teplá River, which flows into the Ohře River about one kilometer farther down. The most recently developed part of Karlovy Vary is situated between Ohře and the steep
Karlovy Vary, M. Merian, 1650 obrázek č. 01- 02.
slope up to Slavkovský Les, which the Teplá River divides into two parts. The western half containing a modern municipal district, including a former village named Tuhnice, is topographically almost flat. The eastern part, consisting mainly of a former village named Drahovice, is wider but also hillier. The Teplá River Valley used to be part of a royal game preserve. The first ruler to disrupt the integrity of the formerly forest-covered area was Jan Lucemburský, who gave, in 1325, 16 tracts of his game preserve to his vassal, Kojata of Otnavice in the Loket district, to ensure new revenues for himself. Kojata founded a new village, Obora, around an already existing church that thus became a parish church. This proves that Karlovy Vary had not existed in 1325. Establishment of Karlovy Vary is being associated with king Charles IV, who is said to have discovered in 1350, according to a well-known legend from the 16th or 17th century, a hot spring near the deep end of the Teplá River Valley. Apparently already in 1358, he had a royal hunting lodge built on the elevation over the river bend, with a tiny town around it, which he christened after himself (Karlsbad). Initially, however, the settlement was known as Warmbad (Warm Bath) or České Vary (Bohemian Bath). In 1370, Charles IV promoted Karlovy Vary to a royal town, which meant that it could enjoy the same privileges and liberties as the town of Loket. Karlovy Vary thus became one of the latest municipalities to be founded still in the Middle Ages. Due to the reasons for its foundation, it never was a classical medieval town, for it was built as a spa, the first one in the Czech Lands and one of the oldest in Europe (since 1508, Karlovy Vary have had the status of public baths). The urban layout of Karlovy Vary, however, was quite similar to other medieval towns that were scattered over the various deep valleys in the region (Kraslice, Horní Slavkov). The articulation of the layout stemmed from the dramatic topography of the countryside and, consequently, the road system. The town spread on both banks of the river valley. The sturdy royal hunting lodge, built like a stronghold on the left bank, had an analogical counterpart in the fortified St. Mary Magdalene Church that stands above the powerful Vřídlo Spring. Climbing uphill from the SW direction was a road from Prague, Bochov, and Olšova Vrata, which widened in front of the church to form a funnel like platform. Analogically, on the opposite bank, the area below the royal stronghold on the southern side widened to form a town market. The middle
Karlovy Vary, půdorysný plán města z Prospektu 1733 obrázek č. 01- 03.
of the market (Markt) became the place where the Town Hall of Karlovy Cary was built and completed approximately in 1567. Right next to the Town Hall used to stand, since 1590, an indispensable part of every spa town – a pharmacy called “U Bílého Orla” or “Bílý Orel” (White Eagle). From the market place the road went uphill, turning around the stronghold and continued towards the church in Obora, which served initially as a parish, then as the new town’s first administration center. From there, it probably continued to Loket. Various settlements may have begun to spread along both banks of the Teplá River, both downstream and upstream, already during the pre-Hussite era, but their former size can no longer be determined. Certain baths and spa facilities are presumed to have existed in the immediate vicinity of the river (although none is expressly mentioned in written sources before 16th century). Also a row of townhouses was built quite early in the market place, known as Tržiště (Marketplace), near water sources that were situated adequately high above the river. In addition to the main route that crossed the valley, there must also have been a road along the river (which may have been there much earlier due to the game preserve). The latter route led downwards to the Ohře River and then upstream towards Bečov nad Teplou. The town was not fortified, as the steep slopes protected the valley adequately against military invasions at the time. All the town had were four (initially only two) access gates at the ends of the valley. In terms of urban development, Karlovy Vary is believed to have grown along the valley very fast. Documentation indicates existence and position of a one-time St. Andrew Church dating back to the 1500’s, about 500 from the main church. Soon thereafter (1531), Albrecht Šlik founded a hospital in Karlovy Vary. By then, on the contrary, the royal hunting stronghold had deteriorated considerably – in 1567, the title to it was transferred onto the municipality of K.V. By mid16th century, there were about forty spa facilities and approximately 200 bathhouses in private homes.2 Spring water would be brought from the other side of the Teplá River in wooden ducts directly into the spas and private bathhouses. Due to the constricting topographical dispositions, the gables of the townhouses were packed next to one another without being separated by the normally required fire safety gaps. Thus, the old Renaissance “Vary” disappeared practically in a single event in 1604: Friday, on August 13 of that year, a
Karlovy Vary - pohled na město, J. Schindler 1652 obrázek č. 01- 04.
fire broke out in the Merkur House (Zawojski House today) at Tržiště. Within three hours, the whole town was on fire. Out of the total of 102 houses, merely three were spared.3 The town was rebuilt according to the former urban layout, i.e., the original Gothic parceling of the plots was retained so that the new houses were rebuilt on their previous foundations. Moreover, the houses were rebuilt in the same style with timber framing. An engraving of 1650, known as Merian’s engraving, depicts the essentially medieval layout of the town. Some of the original town gates were moved out farther so as to enclose certain buildings that used to stand outside the town, whereas other town gates were not restored at all. During the first part of the 18th century, the Špitálská Gate below the stronghold was transferred to the end of Křížová Street on the opposite river bank, i.e., the road to Cheb and Říše, later on called also Chebská or Říšská (Imperial) Gate. The Ostrovská Gate on the road to Ostrov was moved higher up to the old Gothic St. Andrew Church. And the gate that used to close off Tržiště in the direction of today’s Stará Louka, called Luční Gate, formerly situated somewhere
Karlovy Vary - lázeňské kabiny a Stará Louka, prospekt města 1733 obrázek č. 01- 05.
around today’s Atlantic House, was never renewed.4 Much greater areas along the Teplá River were used as pastures for the livestock that the one-time inhabitants used to have, as well as for the purposes of various trades. For instance, lime used to be burned there for the town’s building activities. Later on, the meadows became popular with spa guests for their promenades in the countryside. The first promenade or “korzo” was called Louky (Wiesen, in German) or Weg nach den Wiesen. From the 17th century, the town organized various open-air events, both social and for public entertainment, in this location. Despite being a spa resort and therefore enjoying certain privileges, Karlovy Vary did not escape the hardships of the Thirty Years’ War. The town was raided, occupied, and plundered several times by passing-through armies. The restless era of the Thirty Years’ War, of course, impacted severely on the rate of visitors.5 The municipal chronicles of 1651 recorded a total of 91 inhabited and 6 vacant houses.6 The revenue tax records of 1654 recorded 78 burgher houses (a total of 132 inhabited houses) and only one vacant house.
After the Thirty Years’ War, the town began to grow rapidly. During the first quarter of the 18th century, there already were 300 houses and their number grew to 350 by mid-18th century. Thus, Karlovy Vary began to be known as a spa resort on a pan-European scale. Simultaneously, K.V. was turning into a center of somewhat frivolous entertainment. Marked by the spirit of Baroque pomp and pretentiousness, high-society guests took liking in grandiose social events and voluptuous feasts. Most of these events would take place on Louky on the outskirts of the town. In 1701, a Saxony elector and Polish king, August Silný (August the Powerful), had the Salle de l´Assemblée, so-called Saxony Hall, built on the bend of the Teplá River, where the Grand Hotel Pupp is situated today. Next to it, he had the Bohemian Hall, so-called Becher summerhouse, built shortly before 1715. Development activities began also on Nová Louka, and in Ondřejská and Vřídelní Streets. Records of 1715 show existence of as many as 60 spa houses. In 1716, the Holy Trinity Column was erected at Tržiště. The building boom continued with the construction of a new monumental, two-spire Baroque St. Mary Magdalene Church, in the years 1732–1737, after a project by Kilián Ignác Dientzenhofer. In addition to the church and the column, the Baroque era of the town is documented by numerous structures with well-preserved timberwork frames.7 One of the oldest and certainly best-known K.V. sites is house no. 85, named U Zlatého Vola (Golden Ox), later renamed after its owner to Petr (13 Vřídelní St.), which dates back to the period 1706–1709; house no. 334, called Maltézský Kříž (Maltese Cross) (50 Stará Louka) built in 1706; and the next-door house no. 335, called Krásná Královna (Beautiful Queen) (48 Stará Louka) of 1718–1719. Another noteworthy Baroque structure is named Sedm Planet (7 Planets House) at Tržiště. The town eventually changed its disposition to the river as a composition element. Having become the main axis of development, the Teplá River was incorporated into the layout of the town. The river was not regulated until the mid-18th century. The first reinforced waterfront, on the left bank of the Teplá River, was built in 1756 by count Rudolf Chotek, the supreme margrave of the Bohemian Kingdom, a very generous sponsor of the town and frequent visitor of its spas. In individual segments of the stone-reinforced waterfront, there were steps for access to the river. A similar stonewall was subsequently built on the opposite bank, in a location called Nová Louka, thanks to sponsorship of Jan Rudolf Chotek (nephew of the above-mentioned Rudolf Chotek) in 1803-1805. The stone waterfronts transformed the natural appea-
Karlovy Vary - Vřídelní kolonáda, G. Dobler, kolem roku 1825brázek č. 01- 06.
rance of the river into an extraordinary urban element. When count Chotek had a spectacular alley of chestnut trees planted along the waterfront, Karlovy Vary gained a distinguished promenade of metropolitan characteristics. This was a premeditated effort to approximate Karlovy Vary to the metropolitan sceneries known from major Italian and French cities of pan-European format – such as Rome, Naples, or Paris. The architectonic design of the waterfront resembled the famous seashore promenade Via Nuova Marina in Naples, with its fabulous view over the Naples Bay, or the water front promenade in Bad Ems. In Karlovy Vary, too, designers had very successfully taken advantage of the reflection of the rows of elegant riverbank houses and summerhouses in the water. Until the 19th century, the promenade routes in Karlovy Vary were filled with sand for more comfortable walking. Without a doubt, this very classy and attractive way of landscaping the wide boulevards for the public superseded by far the landscaping of the waterfronts in the capital city of Prague (where the first landscaping of the Vltava River banks in Staré Město (Old Town) District was done only in the years 1841–1845). An important breaking point came in 1759 due to a major fire that broke out in the house U Tří Mouřenínů (Three Moors) at Tržiště and destroyed 224 houses, including the towers at the municipal town gates and city hall. The following year, the municipal court issued the town’s development plan. Developed areas designated for restoration were strongly influenced by the current Baroque principles of comfort and sophistication of public buildings, as well as burgher and spa houses. Although the medieval parceling was preserved during the town’s restoration, the new architecture was distinctly late Baroque with many Rococo elements, giving the town a more-or-less uniform architectural style. In 1761, Obecní Lázně (Municipal Baths) at Vřídlo was restored, and completely replaced with new Mlýnské Lázně with five bath halls, and another hall on the upper floor were built in 1762. During the period of 1774-1777, finally, Karlovy Vary built its first genuine Kursalon, named Vřídelní Sál. The town’s boom, however, was not to end as yet. At the turn of the18th and 19th centuries, builders took a fancy in Classicism and Empirism. The first Classicist structure in Karlovy Vary was the town’s theater that was built on Nová Louka in the years 1787–1788. In order to be able to use the healing springs in unfavorable weather, too, the springs were covered with arbors, in the form of initially very small and eventually bigger pavilions. These antiquitated temples or circular gloriets that imprinted the town with special characteristics are credited primarily to two of the local building authority’s officials, Georg Fischer and Josef Esch. One of the examples is the Empire temple over Hygieia Spring, built in 1817. Gradually, these small pavilions could no longer accommodate the number of visitors and guests. Before long, they were designed as structures of substantial size that could protect many people at a time and simultaneously be used as “korzo” or promenades, i.e., colonnades.8 In 1811, a Classicist colonnade was built over the new spring after a project of the Saxony court’s builder, Johann August Giessel. In 1826, the Vřídelní Colonnade was built and the following year, in 1827, the Mlýnská Colonnade, both of them after Josef Esch’s project. From the Classicist structures preserved in their authentic appearance to this day, let us mention above all: Poštovní Dvůr, built in 1791–1792, as it probably is the most noteworthy structure featuring the oldest neo-Gothic elements in Bohemia9; the Hannover House (Chebský Dvůr today) at Tržiště with a courtyard gallery; the famous Embassy Café at Nová Louka; the Černý Orel (Black Eagle) House at Tržiště; a group of Classicist houses in Mariánskolázeňská Street (“Stuttgart” House No. 580/31, “Deutschland” House No. 308/33, and House no. 516/35 that was the first spa rebuilt in K.V. for officers of the Imperial Army); and Helenin Dvůr and U Města Lvova in Libušina Street, the last examples of authentic roadside inns. In the years 1840-1841, the St. Andrew Church was rebuilt in Classicist style that gave the church its current appearance. So-called administrative Classicism is represented in Karlovy Vary primarily by the former District Regency building, i.e., today’s Museum at Nová Louka. An example of late-Classicism architecture, which is typical for distinct architectonic articulation of the façade, is the Labitzký House No. 467 (15 Mariánskolázeňská St.) from 1855. The first romantic residential villa in Karlovy Vary was Villa Lützov, built in 1844. By mid-19th century, the spa zone stretched out over the entire length of the valley, from Sál Přátelství (Friendship Hall) behind Jižní Vrch (Southern Hill) at the upper end to Luční Údolí (Meadow Valley) and Střelnice (Shooting Gallery) at the lower end, in immediate vicinity of the Ohře River. Quite unique and favorable background for the lower agglomeration of spas formed the landscaping of the parks, which were conceived in the style of early Romanticism and made the wooded hills behind the town accessible to pedestrians, so that an extensive system of walking paths could be created. This enticed investors to building numerous small temples, pavilions, and gloriets, as well as installing simple commemorative plaques on the rock cliffs along these hiking paths as additional attractive enrichment. The oldest circular pavilion, type Monopteros, named Dorotin Gloriet, built in 1791, is preserved to this day. Moreover, Karlovy Vary became a popular venue of numerous political and diplomatic conferences. In 1819, in the Bílý Lev (White Lion) House at Tržiště, an important ministerial conference was held in attendance of the ministers of nine German states, presided by the Chancellor of Austria, count Clemens Wenzel Lothar von Metternich.
In the years 1804-1811, a new road was built to Prague, commissioned by the supreme margrave, count Rudolf Chotek. Its courageous serpentines at Hůrky were in those days considered a technical marvel of civil engineering. The town, however, never became a backbone of major urban development as its original topography-related delimitations kept development restricted to the dimensions of the valley. In the period 1854–1860, another road, Císařská (Imperial), was built, connecting Mariánské Lázně, Teplá, and Bečov nad Teplou with the valley, thus forming an important link between these two most important West-Bohemian spas. Until mid-18th century, the size of Karlovy Vary was limited to the Teplá River Valley. The area between the right bank of the Ohře River and the edge of the wooded hills existed as purely agricultural land that was intercepted only in 2nd half of the 18th century by an alley of trees between the town and the new Chebský Bridge, which replaced former water crossings and an old bridge in Drahovice (that route was to become part of the above-mentioned new Císařská Road). To the west of it used to be a small medieval village, named Tuhnice, which stretched along the bend of the Ohře River. The village disappeared completely giving way to new development and construction of a gas plant (built in 1867); it former location corresponds partly to today’s Západní Street. Farther down the stream, where the hills approach the river, a settlement in the form of row houses grew in 1794 (later on as individual municipal districts) that became known as New Tuhnice. The original settlement (between Pod Lesem and Plzeňská Streets) had disappeared. Eastwards of the Teplá River existed a village named Drahovice, built on the slope over the river along the road from the bridge (not existing since 1842). The lower part of V. Řezáče Square corresponds to its former location. Eastwards from Drahovice used to be an estate that was divided in mid-19th century to form a new municipal district (near Kollárova Street). During the 2nd half of the 19th century and especially during the years 1890–1914, Karlovy Vary enjoyed its greatest boom, both in the traditional spa zone of the valley and along the Ohře River. This period came to be known as the Golden Era of Karlovy Vary. Dramatic economic and construction boom occurred after the town’s connection to the Buštěhradská railway from Cheb to Prague in 1870-1871. Although the historical layout and structure of the town did not change much, the existing older and provincial-looking Baroque, Classicist, and Empire architecture was suddenly replaced by buildings in Historicist and Art Nouveau style. Moreover, most original spa structures gave way to new complexes
Karlovy Vary - litinová Vřídelní kolonáda, konec 19. století obrázek č. 01- 07.
of metropolitan appearance and the structure of the dominant buildings was substantially enriched, especially on the left bank of the town, between the municipal park (Dvořákovy Sady) and the new neo-Renaissance Mlýnská Colonnade (1871–1881). Also, three new colonnades were added. The wave of massive development began to take over the sloped, non-wooded areas of the valley. Numerous houses popped up above the St. Mary Magdalene Church, in the area between the road to Prague and Libušina Třída, and around Helenin Dvůr. In Lorenzberg (Imperial Heights) a line of row houses was built along Nebozízek Street, where subsequently, in the years 1910–1912, one of the town’s main dominants was built: Hotel Imperial. Another area of major development was Švýcarské Údolí (Swiss Valley), on a steep hill above the municipal park. The bottom part of the valley was widened to form a broad Sadová Street (Parkstrasse) where noble-looking row houses were built. Luxurious villas, mansions, and pensions appeared on the steep hill above it, as the first residential villa district named Westend, including the Anglican Temple (1876–1877), the Synagogue (18751877), and the Orthodox Temple (1893– 1897).10 The town’s oldest new-era Evangelic church was built in 1854–1856, at the upper end of the town in the lowest part of the valley (eastwards of Hotel Pupp). A broad promenade was built from Sadová Street (Zahradní / Garden) along the municipal park and the Teplá River. The promenade continued out of the valley into the newly emerging central district of the town. The development of the spa district of Karlovy Vary was extremely rapid throughout this boom period. This occasionally led to far too radical interventions into the remaining testimonies of the town’s former appearance (thus, for instance, the old city hall at Tržiště was demolished to make room for the Tržní Colonnade in 1874). However, the image that Karlovy Vary acquired through these efforts by the beginning of the 20th century, and still has to this day, may be considered a unique work of art as a whole in terms of urban, architectural, Karlovy Vary - plán města, Schindler 1876 obrázek č. 01- 08. -1. and scenery-forming elements. This image is mainly the work of Viennese architects, primarily the famous architectural studio of Ferdinand Fellner and Hermann Helmer. They projected about twenty of the most prominent buildings for Karlovy Vary, including several colonnades and helped turn Karlovy Vary into a spa resort of global fame and importance. Almost concurrently with the rebuilding of the spa zone in the valley, another important urban project was in progress in a hitherto undeveloped area along the Ohře River, as there was no room elsewhere for new residential or commercial development, not to speak of production plants. Since the last part of the 19th century, Karlovy Vary became an important economic and administrative Karlovy Vary - plán nových čtvrtí města, Schindler 1876 obrázek č. 01- 08. -2.
center and its transformation into an agglomeration of metropolitan proportions. Only a part of the construction activities was realized on the right bank of the Ohře River, but no less important part of development, specifically, the new town of Rybáře (Fischern), grew on the opposite bank, primarily thanks to establishment of the Buštěhrad railway. However, most urban and artistically ambitious development took place on the Karlovy Vary side of the river. At the beginning of the 1870’s, the zoning plan of the new municipal districts was completed. The smaller of the new districts was built on the right bank of the Teplá River, around the bend of the Ohře River, and along the road to Drahovice (today’s Vítězná). The plan had a strictly right-angled raster of street blocks, lined with Historicist apartment houses. The same principle was applied in the extended section westwards from Chebský Bridge. A relatively wide area along the Ohře River was initially reserved for the Karlovy Vary railway (lower) station on the track from Rybáře to Mariánské Lázně, which, however, was opened only much later, in 1898. The remaining area in that district was intersected by three long parallel streets, all of them starting from the road to Prague. The raster of perpendicular streets created a system of two lengthy street blocks, of which the first one consisted of two north-to-south streets intentionally oriented towards Chebský Bridge. The view of that block was dominated, perspective-wise, by a symmetrically positioned court building. One block was left undeveloped at the level of the railway station’s expedition building for a new town square (Dr. Milady Horákové Square). Individual street blocks were gradually filled apartment houses, from the east towards the west. By the outbreak of WWII, there were still some undeveloped plots. The plan reckoned also with construction of a second Catholic church (which was never realized). A noteworthy characteristic of the new town center of Karlovy Vary is that dominant public buildings are concentrated in the most southern belt of the area, between today’s Moskevská Street and the protruding foot of Čertův Kámen (Satan´s Rock).This is where the above-mentioned courthouse was eventually built, as well as the Redemptory Cloister Church of Panny Marie Pomocné (Virgin Mary the Helpful) (1933, demolished since 1984), school buildings, and a gymnasium. The row of houses continued westwards from the gymnasium along the foot of the rock and by the end of the 1930’s the entire district was filled with villas and family homes. The layout of the above-described zoning, which was to a considerable degree accountable to the topographical form of
Karlovy Vary - pohled na lázeňské město od jihu, 80. léta 19. století obrázek č. 01- 09.
the whole municipal area, places new Karlovy Vary amongst the most noteworthy municipal developments in the Czech Lands. An important architect, who introduced architecture of ascetically stern style in Karlovy Vary, was Rudolf Wells, a disciple of Friedrich Ohmann and Adolf Loos. His best-known project is the impressive Polyclinic built during the period of 1926–1927 at today’s Dr. Milady Horákové Square (another structure he designed, Plynové Lázně VI with dominant pergolas over the sun terraces, has unfortunately been demolished).11 Yet another notable disciple of the Viennese Otto Wagner Art Nouveau School, architect Karl Ernstberger, designed in Karlovy Vary inter alia in the years 1924–1925 the monumental Hotel Loib (Hotel Central today) at Divadelní Náměstí (Theater Square). Thus, the architectural image of the town was very tastefully complemented in the twenties and thirties of the 19th century, following the establishment of independent Czechoslovakia. The right-bank villages of Tuhnice and Drahovice and the left-bank Rybáře were annexed only in 1928, i.e., the year in which the city of Karlovy Vary, as we know it, was created. The annexation with Tuhnice (to form a single municipal district) was particularly important, not only because it was the location of the municipal gas plant since 1867, so that the area was the venue of an important resource reserve, but also because the railway to Mariánské Lázně was passing through Tuhnice. Moreover, the greater part of new Karlovy Vary development took place in the cadastre of that hitherto independent village. Equally important was the annexation of Drahovice, as the large municipal cemetery was located just above the village and the slopes of the hills began to be developed since the beginning of the 20th century. A whole new residential district of villas and family homes emerged there, first along 5. Května Street, and later on Americká,
Karlovy Vary – půdorysný plán města z roku 1923, obchodně správní část města
and Rumunská Streets. Because the most attractive (and most expensive) plots for residential development had been taken before WWI (Krále Jiřího and Tyršova Streets above the town’s spa district), so that the room left for new Karlovy Vary was relatively small, development activities in the 1920’s and 1930’s moved over to the Drahovice slope, where planners organized parcels into a right-angled raster of streets. The German occupation (1938) halted the town’s deve-
lopment and further decline followed after deportation of the German population in 1945. Although Karlovy Vary had, historically for the first time, the status of a regional city, in the years 1949–60, no development was recorded during that period. Instead, maintenance of older structures was neglected and several demolitions followed eventually. Notable changes occurred in the 1960’s and especially in the 1970’s and 1980’s, when the new Vřídelní Colonnade and Hotel Thermal were built. Major housing development was launched not only in Tuhnice (between the new town center and the railway), but also on the eastern side of Drahovice (north of the cemetery). Awareness of the spa town’s value and significance had fortunately prevailed, in most cases, so that the gross of the town’s historical treasures was preserved. In 1992, the spa district of Karlovy Vary was declared a historical conservation zone. Thanks to its numerous mineral springs, Karlovy Vary is the country’s largest spa resort. The image of the town is dominated by spectacular structures of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century built in Historicist and Art Nouveau styles. In addition to the compact spa district in the valley, the town’s is typical for its residential district of luxurious mansions. The image of the town is complemented with French-style parks and surrounding English-style landscaped wooded areas that feature various noteworthy solitaire structures (lookouts, pavilions, gloriets) and a network of outing paths. Karlovy Vary is a typical spa town of cosmopolitan nature, both in terms of style and atmosphere. In terms of urban development, the historical part of the town is remarkably intact. The town has retained its extraordinarily valuable historical characteristics to this day.
Architectonically Most Important Structures Zámecká Věž, No. 431 (Castle Tower, Zámecký Vrch No. 2) This prismatoid structure standing on the steep rock is the town’s dominant situated directly above Tržiště as the last remainder of a former castle. Emperor and king Charles IV may have given the order for its construction as early as in
Karlovy Vary - Zámecká věž a Tržní kolonáda obrázek č. 01- 11.
1349, as part of his land reform in the Loket region. According to a local tradition, however, the king’s order was issued in 1358; hence this date is acknowledged and believed to be the date of the town’s official foundation as a spa. In 1567, emperor Mammalian II donated the deteriorating tiny castle to Karlovy Vary. The castle was not spared during the massive fire in 1604. During the castle’s restoration in 1608, the tower was designated to serve as the town’s watch-post. Following yet another major fire in 1759, the design of the tower was significantly modified.12 During the second restoration, the tower was topped with a new vaulted roof and a lantern, and with arcades in the form of a gallery, from which the town’s trumpeters used to announce the arrival of guests. Thanks to these alterations, the tower could also be used for overnight accommodation and later on as temporary housing. An apartment for the watchman was created with the aid of wooden partitions in the tower’s attic. The gallery, the roof frame, and the wooden partitions were dated back to 1765–1766. The stucco decorations on the façade were added in 1878. In 1911, as part of the construction of the new Zámecký Spring Colonnade, built after a project by Fridrich Ohmann, an elevator to Zámecký Vrch was added on SE of the tower. The Zámecká Věž of Karlovy Vary – a rudiment of a former castle, initially built by the emperor, then owned by other aristocrats, and finally converted into a municipal watchtower – is one of the town’s most prominent historical sites. The Dean’s St. Mary Magdalene Temple No. 1 (Náměstí Svobody/Liberty Square) Dean’s St. Mary Magdalene Temple was built in the years 1732–1737 after a project of a Prague architect, Kilián Ignác Dientzenhofer. The architectural design reflects the spirit of dynamic Baroque and counts as one of the most beautiful Dientzenhofer´s buildings in Bohemia. The structure is extraordinary both in general design and detail. The author reached perfection in his endeavor to link the longitudinal layout of the church ships with the oval-shaped central structure, as well as other oval rooms that form the presbytery, chapel, and the foyers at the main and side entrances. The central ship has a vaulted dome with a lantern that illuminates the interior. The vaults in the presbytery and the foyers are topped with a flat ceiling. The gallery’s arches and the choir area are open into the main interior, its balustrade railing and the profiles of the moldings are concaved and convexed into the ship’s interior.13 The external design of the temple complemented with a massive double-spire tower that faces the town’s historical center. The temple’s underground level is vaulted, with three-sided sectors, and is a unique example of ingenious foundations of this monumental Baroque structure. Subsequently, apparently during the 2nd half of the 1800’s, the underground level was converted into Karlovy Vary - kostel sv. Maří Magdalény obrázek č. 01- 12. a crypt. When the cemetery that used to surround the temple was liquidated, the excavated bones were deposited in this crypt. In the alcoves is Kaple Božího Hrobu (Holy Grave Chapel) with a unique „pisolite“ altar. The underground level is open to the public as part of the excursion tour. The St. Mary Magdalene Church combines exquisite architecture with magnificent technical and static solutions.
The Mlýnská Colonnade (Mill Colonnade, Mlýnské Nábřeží / Mill River Bank) The Mill Colonnade was built in 1711 in the place of a former mill. It used to be a small building with timber-frame upper storey; it contained three spa rooms on the ground floor and two rooms upstairs. During the years 1792–1793, the first colonnade was built nearby in the form of a long row of columns along the Teplá River. In 1811, its was replaced with a new colonnade after a project by August Giesel, a builder of Dresden. The whole structure was built of wood. Since it was necessary to walk up above the ground, the interior hall was designed like a colonnade with a built-in stairway, from which one could use a rear exit door leading to the promenade towards Terezia Spring. In 1827, another colonnade, Mlýnská, replacing the old Mlýnské Lázně, was added to the Giessel Colonnade, after a project by Josef Esch. In 1869, when it was time to replace the no longer practical wooden colonnade, the commission was given to a Prague architect named Josef Zítek, whose realization of a museum in Weimar had won him considerable fame. The first project he presented proposed a two-storey building in the neo-Renaissance style, with the lower section protruding and enclosed by corner bays with Palladian bulbous roofing. Arcades on the ground floor were open, and those on the upper floor were closed by glass panes. The upper level was accessible by means of a generously wide staircase, who-
Karlovy Vary - Mlýnská kolonáda, foto K. Kuča obrázek č. 01- 13.
se disposition and material solutions resembled those in the old Imperial Colonnade. Shortly after start of construction, in 1870, Josef Zítek had to rework the overall concept and in the new project that was realized the following year (1871) the colonnade was designed as a one-storey hall with a trabeated system resembling an antique „stoy“. The triple-tract disposition of the building was lined with Corinthian columns that covered an area with a total of five mineral springs (Mlýnský, Skalní, Libušin, Knížete Václava, and Rusalčin) and supported a cassette ceiling and an upperlevel terrace with profiled balustrade railing and a reset upper pavilion. Approximately in the middle the hall was widened to form an apsidal niche for an orchestra. The corner bay alcoves had a system of arcades formed as a tympanum of small columns positioned like enclosed forefront pavilions. The small columns were topped with twelve allegorical statues representing the months of the year. The sculpting of the tympanums and festoons was the work of Bohuslav Schnirch and the statues were created by Alfred Schreiber and Karl Wilfert. The construction of the colonnade was
completed in 1881, but the structure as a whole was considered complete only in 1892 after annexation of the north section to Skalní Spring below Bernardova Skála (Bernard Rock). The fact that the northern section of the colonnade with Skalní Spring was also designed by Zítek was discovered only recently.14 The Mlýnská Colonnade with its majestic columns is one of the most elegant colonnades not only in Bohemia but also in all of Europe. The Sadový Spring Colonnade (Dvořákovy Sady / Dvorak Park) In the years 1880–1881, a concert hall and a restaurant were built in the Municipal Park behind Vojenské Lázně (Military Spa). The project was commissioned to architects Ferdinand Fellner and Hermann Helmer who projected it similarly to the Vřídelní Colonnade the year before, i.e., as a structure made of cast-iron components. Likewise, the cast-iron components were delivered by the same supplier: Mariánská Huť (Furnace) owned by count Salm of Blansko. The concert hall was therefore named Blanenský Pavilion.15 The construction of it was commissioned to a Karlovy Vary builder named Josef Waldert. It was designed as a longitudinal structure with a basilica-style saddle roof complemented with dome-topped turrets and column-lined verandas in all four corners. While the construction was already in progress, the whole complex was complemented with a roof-covered promenade section that was connected to Sadový Spring in the underground of the Vojenské Lázně Institute, where the concert hall is situated. The colonnade was named after the spring, namely, Sadová Colonnade. The colonnade consists of a 50-meter-long veranda with a cast-
Karlovy Vary - Sadová kolonáda obrázek č. 01- 14.
iron ceiling in neo-Renaissance style, slender Corinthian columns, and hexagonal corner pavilions. In 1966, the concert pavilion and restaurant were demolished, so that all that remains to this day is the promenade section of the colonnade. Recently, this section underwent a very costly restoration and has become a unique example of cast-iron colonnades of the 2nd half of the 19th century in Karlovy Vary.
The Tržní Colonnade (Market Colonnade, Tržiště / Market) When the old city hall of Karlovy Vary was demolished at Tržiště, a new large colonnade was to be built in its place. However, none of the architectonic tenders were successful and the municipal council therefore decided to build a temporary wood shelter for the promenading guests first. The project was commissioned to a previously engaged and experienced couple of architects: Ferdinand Fellner and Hermann Helmer. They designed a colonnade in the Swiss chalet style with decorative trims made by a master woodcarver, Oesterreicher of Vienna, in 1883.16 In 1904, the colonnade was extended by a right wing with a large apsidal niche for Tržní Spring. On the left side of it is Charles IV Spring. The spectacular wooden lacework on that colonnade was so attractive that an exact copy of it was made when the colonnade was being restored in 1991– 1993. Thus, the originally temporary building has over the years become one of the symbols of Karlovy Vary. Karlovy Vary - Tržní kolonáda, detail vyřezávané konstrukce štítu
The Zámecký Spring Colonnade – Zámecké Lázně (Zámecký Vrch / Chateau Hill) Next to Zámecká Věž, a new colonnade was built, in 1910–1912, the Classicist Zámecký Spring Colonnade, after a project by professor Friedrich Ohmann of Vienna, who also designed an elevator to Zámecký Vrch. The structure, built by a Karlovy Vary builder, Friedrich Seitz, was articulated into three independent units: in the lower section was a large exhibition and promenade hall, which was connected to an open circular Sluneční Dvůr (Sun Courtyard) that was surrounded with arcades. There was also a drinking hall with Zámecký Spring, where a monumental stone relief named Duch Pramenů (Springs Spirit) made by a Viennese sculptor W. Hejda, was added subsequently. Architecturally, the structure was conceived in the Neoclassicist style, which is particularly evident in the typical gloriet, as a symbol of spa architecture, into which another outlet of Zámecký Spring was eventually brought, named Horní (Upper) Zámecký Spring. Following a long period of devastation, the Zámecký Spring Colonnade was rebuilt in 2000– 2001, using new antiquitating motifs, and renamed to Zámecké Lázně. Karlovy Vary - Zámecká kolonáda, dnes Zámecké lázně, gloriet Horního zámeckého pramene
Císařské Lázně (Imperial Spa) – Lázně I No. 306 (Mariánskolázeňská Street No. 2) Císařské Lázně is one of the largest and artistically richest spa houses in Karlovy Vary. The new building of this moor mud spa was erected in the place of a former Baroque beer brewery in the years 1893–1895. It was yet another project authored by Viennese architects Ferdinand Fellner and Hermann Helmer.17 The monumental building became the pride of Karlovy Vary. It takes up an area of 2,800 m2 and the overall cost of the construction, including interior furnishings, exceeded one million golden ducats. The pretentious building in the Historicist style of French neo-Renaissance conceals magnificent interiors combined with extraordinary comfort and state-of-the-art furnishings. The section that faces the town features a central, three-axial bay alcove under a massive dome with mansards that spreads out sideways to form side wings with side bays, also topped with small domes with mansards. The front section is matched by a rear section that has the shape of a horseshoe with the central part topped by a bay alcove with a dome with mansards that originally had a massive chimney. Both side wings and the rear section have a roof with mansards. The interiors of the building are richly decorated. The front vestibule is big enough to allow entry with coach carts. The vestibule opens into a majestic three-wing staircase to the upper level. To the right and to the left of the front section are various parlors conceived as waiting rooms for spa guests waiting for bath procedures. Two large paintings of a Karlovy Vary painter, Wilhelm Schneider, depict the most famous visitors of Karlovy Vary up to 1914. The rear hor-
Karlovy Vary - Císařské lázně (Lázně I). obrázek č. 01- 17.
seshoe section is lined with cabins around the central atrium. The three-sectional disposition is linked to a corridor that circumvents the building along the outer wall, with a row of cabins facing inwards into the atrium. There also was a hydraulic elevator to the upper levels. On the first upper level, in the central bay section, is a large hall named Zander Hall that contained sports facilities for Swedish gymnastics according to Dr. Zander. The dispositions of the spa were so ingeniously planned that no changes whatsoever were necessary throughout the entire period of the building’s operation. There were a total of 120 spa rooms. The most precious and valuable of them was the so-called Císařská
Lázeň (Fürstenbad / Imperial Bath) for prominent guests, which was situated in the front part of the right section. The exquisite furnishings of the Imperial Spa room included a changing room and relaxation parlor. All of the spa rooms on the lower and upper levels featured a changing room and a cabin. Quite unique was also the system of transporting moor mud to the spa rooms. Císařské Lázně is the symbol of Karlovy Vary’s golden era, hence of the West-Bohemian Spa Triangle as a whole. Inspiration for the architectural forms and the composition elements is known to have derived from a spa building and casino built in 1884 by Charles Garnier in the Vittel Spa, France. However, the disposition of the spa operations of Císařské Lázně is absolutely unique and specific to Karlovy Vary. At present, the building is being sensitively renovated to make room for a new Spa Museum. Kurhaus - Lázně III No. 507 (Mlýnské Nábřeží 5 / Millhouse Riverbank) As considerations were made for optimal location of a building, where all procedures related to convalescence of patients and other spa quests would be concentrated in Karlovy Vary, the choice fell on a locality situated NW of the Mlýnská Colonnade, behind the St. Bernard Rock that rises steeply from the bed of the Teplá River. The project of the building, traditionally referred to as “Kurhaus”, designed in 1863 by Ludwig Renner, Gustav Hein, and Eduard Labitzký,18 was completed and ceremonially opened on Sept. 10, 1866. The building’s monumental façade faces Mlýnské Nábřeží and forms its dominant. As architectonic means the designers applied then-fashionable models of early Historicism, i.e., so-called Revivalism, specifically, neo-Gothic and Neo-Romanesque motifs. The massive façade is articulated into three parts with a central bay and two corner bays, whose elevated tops resemble turrets. The corners are lined with polygonal pillars that rise above the roof in the form of small polygonal turrets. All roofs are very low to allow for enhancement of the elaborately profiled roof molding that is adorned with pseudo-defense turrets, so that the overall appearance resembles romantic castellation. Presumably, the inspiration derived from Germany’s neo-Gothic. This is particularly evident in the similarity of façade’s articulation with that of the Arsenal building by Paul Friedrich, built in 1840–1844, in Schwerin. The strictly symmetrical disposition of the building’s two wings, between the three bays, contains two indoor courtyards. The vestibule and stairway hall is articulated with a pair of arcades resting on
Karlovy Vary - Lázně III obrázek č. 01- 18.
three vaulted través. Slender Corinth columns support the vaults. The basement and ground floor are situated to both sides of the central corridor with spa rooms. The upper floor is accessed from the middle of the foyer by means of a two-wins staircase supported with arcades. The arcades continue on the upper floor, where they form a dynamic central area and delimitate the foyer’s individual corridors. The most precious room in the building is Slavnostní Sál (Kursaal), i.e., the ceremonial hall. Situated on the upper floor, the hall’s features a large arcade and lodge, whose blue-green-grey marmoreal finish creates the illusion of a grandiose marble hall of Italian or French quality. In 2004, a part of the hall was restored to the original condition.19 Lázně III is one of the most important public spa buildings in Karlovy Vary still in operation as a spa.
The Military Spa Institute No. 574 (Mlýnské Nábřeží No. 7) Built in the years 1853–1855 after a project by W. Hagenauer, the Military Spa Institute originally had a stern façade whose strict symmetry was typical for the so-called Austrian “garrison” Classicism.20 This monumentally conceived four-winged, two-storey object has a square central courtyard. Its appearance, as well as massive and dispositional design is clearly close to the famous Grand Hotel Sauerhof of 1810 in Baden near Vienna by Josef Kornhäusel. The
Karlovy Vary - Vojenský lázeňský ústav obrázek č. 01- 19.
third floor was added later, in 1924, when the façade was also complemented by a line of tall pilasters with Ionic capitals, sculptures, and so-called trophies. On the ground floor were the spa rooms, on the upper levels were 33 rooms with anterooms for military officers and 210 beds for troops. The dining room featured a well-known large painting entitled Discovery of Mineral Springs by Wilhelm Kandler, dated 1848. Quite extraordinary in the environment of Karlovy Vary was an indoor chapel with a group of statues entitled Ukřižování (Crucifixion) in 1856, by a prominent Czech sculptor, Václav Levý.
The Municipal Theater / Městské Divadlo No. 22 (Nová Louka No. 1) In the years 1884-1886, a new theater was built in the place of the old Classicist theater. The new theater’s designers, Ferdinand Fellner and Hermann Helmer, were inspired by Viennese popularity of Baroque and Rococo at the time. The exquisite Neo-Baroque building with an irregular trapezoidal floor plan, lodges between the corner bays, and a picturesque, wavy mansarded roof, became a first-class dominant of Nová Louka. The layout and composition of the interior derives from similar theatrical structures that were created in the studio of Fellner and Helmer. It invites comparison
Karlovy Vary – městské divadlo obrázek č. 01- 20.
with the less extravagant State Opera building in Prague or the theater in Großwardein (today’s Oradea in Romania).21 In terms of disposition, the Karlovy Vary theater seems to arise from a semi-circular ground-level vestibule by means of two double-winged stairs that open into an upper-level foyer. The walls of the horseshoe-shaped auditorium are adorned with decorative relieves and the ceiling is painted with frescoes by several artists, including one of the most prominent representatives of the Viennese Art Nouveau, Gustav Klimt, his brother Ernst Klimt, and Franz Matsch. They also painted the theater curtain jointly. The theater’s interior was one the first public buildings in the country to have electrical lighting. Moreover, it had a unique air ventilation system, still preserved to this day, including the original dynamo for air and heat circulation. The building of the Karlovy Vary Theater is a high-quality and interesting example of the work of prominent architects who built exquisite theaters all over Europe. Their design of the vestibule with the magnificent stairs was used also in other projects of the Fellner & Helmer studio.22
Alžbětiny Lázně – Lázně V No. 1145 (Elizabeth Spa / Smetanovy Sady No. 1) Named after empress Elizabeth, this relatively new spa building was built in 1905–1906 after a project designed by the town’s construction engineer and builder, Franz Drobny. The architectural design is inspired by Neoclassicism. According to his own words, the designer aimed for greater simplicity than the Empire examples he followed. The front façade has a convex central bay with forefront wings of pillars containing lodges featuring motifs of antique porticoes or stoys. In the vestibule’s interior we see relieves symbolizing spa treatments inspired by motifs from the time of antique Rome. The building is situated in the Franz Josef I Park and its forefront is enhanced with a picturesque parterre in French formal style. In addition to classical hydrotherapy, the spa offered also moor mud baths and packs.
Karlovy Vary – Alžbětiny lázně (Lázně V). obrázek č. 01- 21.
Today, Alžbětiny Lázně is the largest balneological facility in Karlovy Vary, where all types of spa procedures are offered. The spa is also known for its large swimming pool that underwent complete reconstruction in 2004, including the adjacent accessory facilities. With its well-preserved interior, this historical building is fully functional and a highly popular place of spa treatments and relaxation to this day. Grand Hotel Pupp No. 310 (Mírové Náměstí No. 8) In the 1870’s, the old Český Sál (Bohemian Hall), along with several houses around it, underwent a thorough renovation, as soon as brothers Anton, Julius, and Heinrich Pupp managed to acquire full ownership of the surrounding buildings. Following the first alteration of the objects, they officially founded, on June 20, 1872, a family hotel that they named “Etablissement Pupp”. The following period was a time of unprecedented boom and growing fame for the Pupp enterprise. Several new additions were built onto the current Grand Hotel in quick succession. In 1873, a Café Salon with garden verandas was built in the place of a former wooden pavilion of the Natural Science and Medicinal Congress (held in Karlovy Vary in 1862). In the years 1873–74, a bowling hall and a utility building were added, and a restaurant in 1875. In 1876 and 1883, Park Hotel was built and modernized, respectively. In 1889, the family bought additional houses: Saxony Hall, Bavaria, and Zlatá Studna. Following their demolition, including Český Sál, the new Grand Hotel Pupp was built in 1892–93 after a project by Viennese architects, Příhoda and Němeček, in the exquisite style of French neoRenaissance. During the years 1905–1906, a large Slavnostní Sál (Ceremonial Hall) was built on the site of the former Café Salon. The Neo-Baroque nearly Rococo appearance of the Slavnostní Sál contrasts nicely with the Grand Hotel’s restrained French neo-Renaissance style. The project was commissioned to the well-known and highly reputed couple of Viennese architects, Ferdinand Fellner and Hermann Helmer. The planning was actually elaborated by architect Alfréd
Karlovy Vary - Grandhotel Pupp obrázek č. 01- 22.
Karlovy Vary - Grandhotel Pupp, Slavnostní sál, foto J. Prudík obrázek č. 01- 22.
Bayer who frequently cooperated with the Fellner and Helmer studio. Thus, in 1907, the complex of individual buildings of the Grand Hotel was finally united to form one Neo-Baroque palace. Since then, Park Hotel was altered to its current appearance after a project of a Viennese architect, Paul Brang, in the years 1911-1912. In 1936, the Pupps finally managed to acquire the last of the building nearby, a corner house named Boží Oko (God’s Eye}, which was architectonically incorporated as a perpendicular wing to the Gran Hotel shortly before the outbreak of W.W.II. Grand Hotel Pupp in Karlovy Vary is not only the most famous hotel in Karlovy Vary, it is also well known all over Europe as a truly luxurious hotel complex.
Hotel Imperial No. 1212 (Libušina No. 18) In the years 1906-1907, a unique combination of a tunnel and a cableway was built from Divadelní Náměstí to the peak of Tappenberg above the town. It is the oldest electrical tunnel cableway in Europe. At the very top of the hill, near the Classicist inn named Helenin Dvůr, stands a majestic hotel, The Imperial Hotel, the largest and most modern of its kind at the time, built in the years 1910–1912. The courageous project was the result of joint efforts of a Karlovy Vary banker and entrepreneur, Alfred Schwalb, and an international group around Richard Luttrell Pilkington Bethell, lord of Westbury, nicknamed “hotel Richard” after his line of activity. The initial study for the project was produced in 1908 by a French architect, Ernest Hébrard. In fact, the study was an elaboration of a composition made by Albert Hébrard for
Karlovy Vary – Hotel a sanatorium Imperiál obrázek č. 01- 23.
Hotel Royal in Evian-les-Bains, France, in 1908–1909. The project was eventually realized by professor Juan Kronfuss of Buenos Aires and architect R. Thiele.23 Hotel Imperial stands out thanks to its dominant, massive, central bay section, accentuated by a mansarded dome with a lantern, and, like Hotel Royal in Evian, two angled wings extended towards the town on both sides of the bay. The angles of the wings are adorned with a cylindrical turret each. The hotel is designed so ingeniously that each of the 320 hotel rooms gets at least a short time of sunshine every day. Although the exterior is conceived in the style of austere Neoclassicism, the style of the interior is, on the contrary, playfully Historicist, ranging from Empire to Neo-Baroque. In front of the Imperial is a natural park with arcades created from trees and a rose garden – again, quite like Hotel Royal in Evian, which incidentally also has a cableway. In 1912, yet another electrical cableway leading to Hotel Imperial was built, this time on the surface of the opposite side of the Tappenberg Hill, from the current Slovenská Street (formerly Mariánskolázeňská), so that spa guests would not have to return back to Vřídlo after finishing their afternoon walk. The monumental façade of Hotel Imperial is the town’s most visible dominant from the perspective of Vřídlo in the valley, and also from all the lookout points in the area, as well as the road from Prague. It towers over the town’s panorama like a magnificent crown.
The Vřídelní Colonnade No. 2036 (Divadelní Náměstí No. 2) In 1878-1879, an ambitious cast-iron colonnade was built on the site of an old Classicist colonnade of 1826, after a project by Viennese architects Ferdinand Fellner and Hermann Helmer.24 The construction material was supplied by Salmovské Železárny of Blansko. The construction of the new colonnade, Vřídelní Colonnade, was completed within an incredibly short time – mere seven months. The colonnade has a 107-meter-long basilica-like ship, with glass panels on the riverside, except for the front wall that is made of bricks. The design was in the neo-Renaissance style, assembled from precast units, and subsequently decorated with dozens of statues and relieves made of bronze. The bearing structure of the roof was topped with two domes, one over Vřídlo, the other over Hygieia; the domes are made of steel. The colonnade served as a spa until 1939 when it was dismounted and liquidated. The current Vřídelní Colonnade was built in 1967–1975 after a design by Jaroslav Otruba, Ing. Arch.. Made of reinforced concrete and glass panels, its smooth, lapidary lines were intentionally designed as a contradiction to the Historicist architecture around it. The Vřídlo Spring with a 12-meter-high water stream is covered with a profiled glass polygon, as a symbol of the spa town’s heartbeat. The aboveground structure is new, but the underground still contains remainders of the former spa facilities that used to surround Vřídlo, e.g., an old stonewall on the riverbank and a cast-iron foot of a pillar that used to be part of the old colonnade’s promenade hall. In the technical part of the basement of the Vřídelní Colonnade, now accessible by means of a new excursion route, one may see the so-called Staré Prameniště
Karlovy Vary, Vřídelní kolonáda, foto K. Kuča obrázek č. 01- 24.
(Old Springs) with remainders of the old regulation drillings and other technological facilities. There is also a corridor with caverns, where various objects are being left for petrifaction (covering with mineral stone); the corridor ends over the river with openings in the riverbank. The basement of the Vřídelní Colonnade has become one of the most visited exhibition sites in the region, as it give visitors the best chance to acquaint themselves with the history of Vřídlo – the very heart of Karlovy Vary.
Mariánské Lázně (Marienbad) 29
Historical and Urban Development Mariánské Lázně is situated on the borderline between the flattened Tachovská Brázda (Tachov Riff) and the ridges of Slavkovský Les and Tepelská Vrchovina (Slavkov Forest, Teplá Highlands), which form the foot of this important demarcation line between Suchý (Dry) Hill and Výhledy (Lookouts), forming a deep valley for Úšovický Potok (Úšovice Creek). On the northern side, the valley widens into a triangular basin, enclosed by Třebízský and Pstružní Creeks, both tributaries to Úšovický Potok. Before establishment of the town as a spa, the basin with its multiple mineral water springs used to be typical for uneven topography and vast areas of moorland. The salty spring in the moorland valley of Úšovický Potok, north of Úšovice, were known as early as in the 16th century.
Mariánské Lázně - letecký pohled, foto K. Kuča obrázek č. 02- 01.
In 1528, Ferdinand I ordered a survey of the water springs from Slaný Pramen (current Ferdinand Spring), which he though could be exploited as a source of kitchen salt (but the salty flavor is due to Glauber salt that is laxative). Other sources mention the springs in 1609, 1634, and 1650. In 1609, Jáchym Libštejnský of Kolowraty was treated here with hot baths from Smrdutý Pramen (Stinky Spring, today’s Mariánský/Maria Spring). There was no spa to speak of in those days, though, merely occasional treatments with water from the springs. Establishing a spa in the location was precluded initially as well as subsequently by total restriction on tree cutting, as the local woods were designated for ore mining. Although the area was owned by the Teplá Monastery, monopoly on the wood was held by the mining authority in Horní Slavkov that warned the abbot, in 1625, that the woods must not be touched, not even for the purposes of salt production. In 1679, Bohuslav Balbín described two acidulous water springs near Úšovice and four others in the basin above them. The latter were known as Smrdutý (Mariánský/Maria) and Solný (Křížový) Pramen (Maria and Saulty Spring, respectively); the source of the remaining two was said to have been in a water mill, whose exact location is unknown. Around the break of the 17th and 18th centuries, the fame of the local mineral springs spread not only all over Bohemia but also Bavaria and Saxony. Enormous influx of patients enticed Dr. Curtio, the Teplá Monastery’s physician, to having the springs cleaned and the access paths cleared. New detailed analyses of the springs were done in the years 1760 and 1766 at the initiative of abbot Jeroným František Ambrož. As many as 7 springs were known at that time already, thereof three were named as follows: Ambrožův (after the abbot), Křížový (after a tall wooden cross mounted by the Teplá Monastery’s pharmacist, Damián Schultz, in 1749) and Mariánský or Mariin (after Virgin Mary’s painting mounted on a three above the springs). During the last decades of the 18th century, the Teplá Monastery decided to establish a spa in the area, despite the
existing restriction. In 1779, supervision over the springs was entrusted to the Teplá Monastery’s physician, Jan Josef Nehr (†1820). At that time, there existed various natural springs in the valley, as well as waterfalls and vast moorlands, and Křížový and Mariin Springs were barely accessible through the Pstruží Potok Gorge. A shabby wooden hut with two kettles stood there, surrounded by a rickety wooden fence, as the sole facility for extracting Glauber salt from Křížový Spring. In 1781, abbot Trautmannsdorf decided to build the first spa building in the valley, but the construction was halted by intervention of the Slavkov mining authority. In 1786, the abbot managed, thanks to the influence of Filip František Kolowrat (his relative), to obtain permission from the emperor to purchase the woods around the monastery that were part of the mining reserve. The same year, a small log house spa with four bathrooms was built at Mariánský Spring, and named Marienbad (Mariánské Lázně). The name was first used in Schaller’s topography of 1788, but became the location’s official name only in 1808; formerly, the settlement was called Na Kyselce (Auf d´Saling, in German). The year 1786 may therefore be considered the real beginning of the spa settlement with permanent residents. The monastery provided wood, free of charge, and a piece of land to Wenzel Hammer and Anton Fischer of Sítiny, who built the first two log houses on it. In 1789, miller Kohnhäuser built a mill there. The promising beginnings of the settlement were interrupted by abbot Trautmannsdorf’s death, as the abbots who succeeded him showed no interest in developing the spa. The seemingly hopeless situation was diverted by the monastery’s physician, Johann Josef Nehr, who personally financed the construction of the first spa building, U Zlaté Koule, in 1907. The following season, in 1808, the spa accommodated 80 visitors.25 Only success like that persuaded abbot Pfrogner having a spa facility named Traiteurhaus (Treatment House) near Mariánský Spring still in 1808. The same year, the officially constituted new settlement, Marienbad, was subordinated to the justice of peace of Hamrníky. By 1812, Mariánské Lázně comprised 13 buildings. Thanks to efforts on the part of Karel Gaspar Reitenberger (†1860), abbot Pfrogner’s new secretary, who became the monastery’s new abbot in 1813, Mariánské Lázně gained the status of a free town in 1812 and, with
Mariánské Lázně, L. Buquoy 1814 obrázek č. 02- 02.
the support of the Bohemian regent, Filip František Kolowrat, a public spa in 1818 – it remains to be said that these events encountered resentment on the part of some of Teplá Monastery’s clergy. The beginnings of urban planning of the spa date back to 1817, when Václav Skalník, former landscapist of the Lobkowitz family, started to turn the surrounding area into a park that he let gradually spread out into the natural woods
Mariánské Lázně - půdorysný plán 1820. Č. 8 Hotel Výmar (Kavkaz), 9 U zeleného kříže (Split), 10 U zlatého hroznu (Muzeum), 23 Nehrův dům U zlaté koule
on the hills, with lookout pavilions here and there, and meadows in the south. This required extensive leveling of the ground and subsequent landscaping. In 1818, professor Georg Fischer of the Technical School in Prague was commissioned a development project of the town that he completed in 1820. In essence, Fischer’s plan of Mariánské Lázně was based on a unique principle – namely, development around the circumference of a central park, i.e., the same concept originally proposed by Václav Skalník. This made it possible to erect buildings around the moorland in the middle. Besides, development of the basin would not have been feasible without major landscaping work. Most buildings were concentrated in the most northern and most sunbathed area of the basin around Křížový Spring. This is where the oldest and dominant spa house was built in 1807. The composition of the Fischer’s plan brought geometrical order into the town’s urban development. The western side of the central park copied the relief of the land, yet was straight and perpendicular to the northern side. The eastern side was formed a bend independently of the land’s relief. The southern side, bordering on Pstruží Creek, was not delimited, as it was left open for future development in the form of large spa facilities, where shade from the Hamelika Hill would not matter as much. All sunny parts of the park were designated for residential and guest accommodation houses. Thus, the center of the town formed a pentagon extended on the northern side like a panhandle towards Křížový Spring. The Baroque composition of the extension created an illusion of perspective convergence along axial direction. This impression was enhanced by the main colonnade’s long “tongue”. All in all, the whole composition of the central park has the characteristics of a three-axial fan pointed towards the SW corner of the park (the confluence point of Třebízský and Pstruží Creeks) to the north, the NNE (towards Křížový Spring), and the NE (towards the church). The first phase of development of Mariánské Lázně after Skalník and Fischer’s concept can be traced back to the period of 1817–1824, realized mostly by a builder named Anton Turner. Since most of the northern side of the park had at that point been developed, new development concentrated predominantly on the elevated eastern side (current Goethe Square). Its sunny position was very attractive for this purpose, on the one hand, and very practical, on the other, for it is situated between two of the most important springs – Křížový and Mariánský. Of the original house preserved to this day, let us mention house No. 11, U Zlatého Hroznu (Golden Mariánské Lázně - půdorysný plán 1846 i - kolonáda Křížového pramene, g - Promenadenhaus, h - promenáda, k - divadlo Grapevine, current Museum); house
No. 10, U Zeleného Kříže (Green Cross, currently Split); and partly also No. 9, a part of the Klebelsberg Palace (today’s Kavkaz / Caucasus) at Goethe Square. Moreover, the moderate slope behind the newly built spa houses made it possible to build large courtyards in the back of the houses, where horse stables and guests’ vehicles could be accommodated, as well as beautiful gardens.26 The characteristics of the development had been predefined by regulations from the beginning and the architecture of choice merely enhanced them. Adherence to a uniform concept was
Mariánské Lázně - kolonádní chrámek Křížového pramene, návrh z roku 1818 obrázek č. 02- 04.
Mariánské Lázně - Křížový pramen s Promenádním sálem, rytina V. Skalníka. obrázek č. 02- 05.
Mariánské Lázně - Křížový pramen 1900 obrázek č. 02- 10.
Mariánské Lázně, kolonáda Ferdinandova pramene, polovina 19. stoletíobrázek č. 02- 09.
further facilitated by the fact that all of the land was owned by the Teplá Monastery which required that all building contractors follow the development plan. Around 1820, a row of seven houses was built around the circumference of the park on the eastern side of the basin’s narrow part, in the direction of Úšovice, which later on became Poštovní Street. Of the original houses only No. 56 (Nektar) and No. 57 (Expresso) are preserved to this day. Over the period of 1818 – 1827, the number of houses grew from 13 to 46 and the town’s lovely appearance was underscored by new accents in the form of Empire pavilions covering the most important springs: in 1818–1826 – an
Mariánské Lázně, pohled na střed města v roce 1850 obrázek č. 02- 06.
antique-like pavilion over Křížový Spring and, in 1823, a new gloriet over Karolina Spring (formerly New Spring), which replaced the older pavilion from 1811. In 1826, a neo-Gothic gloriet was built over Ambrož Spring and, in October 1827, the first pavilion ever was built over Lesní Spring. In 1827, a colonnade over Ferdinand Spring, situated outside the spa, farther in the lowest part of the valley, about halfway between Mariánské Lázně and Úšovice. By 1827, preparatory work was completed for collecting mineral water from Lesní Spring for distribution to numerous large hospitals in Europe. In the 1920’s, a steam bathhouse was built near Mariánský (Mariin) Spring, replacing and expanding the Old (currently Central) Spa of 1812 in the SE corner of the park. To the west from it, in the middle of the southern side, yet another bathhouse was built in 1827. With this step, the development of the southern side of park was stabilized and stagnated for a long time to come. Symbolically, the endeavors of abbot K.G. Reitenberger ended simultaneously, as his support for the spa initiatives generated considerable indignation, both in the monastery and the parishes under the monastery’s administration, forcing him to abdicate. Under Reitenberger’s successors, development of the increasingly popular Mariánské Lázně continued randomly, as there were no new initiatives on the part of monastery in that respect. At the beginning of the 1830’s, development of the spa town got a major boost in the form of a network of new imperial roads. The road to Karlovy Vary climbed uphill in steep serpentines from the Central Park to the current Karlovarská Street. Important was also the junction road to Velké Hleďsebe (toward Cheb) that connected to the imperial road from Pilsen to Cheb and the road to Hamr-
níky (Hlavní and Vítězství Roads), as it made it possible for road carriages to make the route between Prague and Cheb across Mariánské Lázně twice a day. In the 1830´s, development around the Central Park was completed along the entire western side. Thus, availability of building plots was exhausted. In 1834, a mineral water distribution house was rebuilt at Křížový Spring as Tepelský Lázeňský House was built. In 1838, Staré Lázně was expanded once more. I may be said that Václav Skalník’s ingenious articulation was complemented in the 1820–1830’s by Josef Esch who managed to create a town with multiple-hierarchy urban districts in the town center, not unlike an antique acropolis.27 In the second half of the 1830´s, the town’s development began to expand beyond the limits of the park’s circumference, although still retaining close linkage to the center of Mariánské Lázně with its dominant, the Virgin Mary’s Ascension Church. Attention was first focused on a newly delimited oblong area of the NW side of the park, Mírové Náměstí today, with Tepelský Dům (1834–1836) already standing there. By 1839, nearly all of the southern and western sides of the park were fully developed; but the park still remained on the northern side. A cadastral map from 1839 depicts Mariánské Lázně in that stage of development. During the first half of the 19th century, buildings took on the form of multi-storey houses with simple Late-Empire façades and Biedermeier detailed under the influence of buildings built in (U Zlatého Hroznu and U Zeleného Kříže on the SE of Goethe Square). In the 1840’s, it became fashionable to build very articulated Late-Classicism façades with pilasters and richly adorned upper window ledge. A new row of spa houses was built above the western side of the Central Park, which is now named Ruská Třída (Russian Blvd). In 1844, a new cemetery was established above these row houses, replacing the cemetery in Úšovice. At the beginning of Třebízské Valley, near the new Empire Lesní Spring pavilion, the local branch of the National Guard built its Střelnice (Shooting Gallery) in 1848. In 1844, construction of a new dominant was launched in the Central Park – a new Roman-Catholic church that replaced the former chapel. The dining halls in Halbmayr House (later Mondorf) were opened in 1846 on the eastern side of the new Mírové Náměstí, and Klinger House (later Krym / Crimea) on the southern side of the same square. Almost simultaneously construction began on the northern side of Mírové Náměstí. The Schönau Inn (familiarly called Šenava, Šenov, or Šumava, today) was built in 1839–1840 at the intersection of roads from the town, Hamrníky, Velké Hleďsebe, and Ferdinand Spring in the south (current intersection of Hlavní, Chebská, and Máchov Streets) as the foundation stone of the new municipal
Mariánské Lázně - děkanský kostel, návrhy stavby J. G. Gutensohn 1843 obrázek č. 02- 08.
district that was to be developed there in the future. In 1843, Mariánské Lázně had 79 houses and 412 permanent residents. The number of spa guests reached 3,000 in 1843, compared to 1,500 in 1827. New legislation enacted in the years 1848–1850 abolished serfdom that Mariánské Lázně had been subjected to by Teplá Monastery (which retained the woods, the springs, Tepelský Dům, the church, the parish, and its balneological facilities). The mayor and the councilmen were elected and the municipal council (so-called magistrate) became subordinated to the District Regency in Teplá. Development continued during the second half of the 19th century by construction of buildings along the edges of the central basin (grammar school in 1853 at the new Chopin Street SE from Křížový Spring towards Třebízské Valley; an Evangelic church in 1827 on the northern side of Mírové Náměstí; Municipal Theater in 1866–1868, west of Mírové Náměstí). Classicism in Mariánské Lázně ended definitively with the construction of a new pavilion over Lesní Spring in 1869. Since the 1850’s, the style in fashion was Neoclassicism enhanced by romantic details and generally sophisticated concepts, but more liberal and monumental space-wise. Classicist central bays were replaced with distinctly profiled bays of columns (9th May Children’s Preschool). In 1869, Mariánské Lázně counted 107 houses and 1,566 inhabitants. In 1865, the municipality was officially promoted to a town. A major milestone in the town’s development was the opening of a railway from Pilsen to Cheb in 1872. Situated south from the edge of the valley, the railway station became a magnet for further urban development, both in Mariánské Lázně and Úšovice. The town started to spread through the bottleneck of the valley in the south, where it joined the newly emerging district of Šenov at the crossroads. Another new district, the Railway District, began to grow next to the railway station. The period from 1870’s until W.W.I witnessed the greatest construction boom ever in Mariánské Lázně. Between 1869 and 1890, the number of new houses in the new agglomerations of Mariánské Lázně and Úšovice grew from 178 to 359, i.e., it doubled. Between 1890 and 1921, their number grew from 359 to 602, i.e., it doubled, again. Likewise, the number of spa guests, which had stagnated in the 1840’s for a long time between 3,000 and 5,000, exceeded 10,000 already in 1874, and 20,000 in the 1890’s. The maximum was reached in 1911, when 34,509 received treatment here. In the seventies and eighties of the 19th century, the general contractor was Friedrich Zickler (†1899). Construction activities were subjected to very strict regulation and the municipal council insisted, due to fire hazard, on compliance with the required spaces between individual houses and the maximum height of the houses was 22.5 meters. The expansion of development halted between the circumference of the Central Park and the natural woods, allowing for partial completion of Poštovní Třída (Post Boulevard) and Anglická Street behind it on the eastern side of the valley. Most new development concentrated on the western side of the valley, along the firmly outlined Hlavní Třída (Main Boulevard) that connected the town’s spa district with Šenov. In this part of the town, too, the park-like look of the town was preserved, as a wide enough strip of the park connecting it to Central Park was left untouched. Mariánské Lázně, Lesní pramen z roku 1869 (rytina 1893)
Mariánské Lázně, půdorysný plán města 1860 obrázek č. 02- 07.
Development of the narrow southern part of the town enhanced the hitherto inconspicuous north-to-south axis of the town, when the northern view of the valley was crowned with Hotel Ott (currently Pacific) at the northern side of Mírové Náměstí (Peace Square). Numerous buildings grew both in the spa and residential parts of the town, as well as many public buildings, such as the city hall over the Central Park’s western side, Ruská Street (1878) in the south, the Anglican (Protestant) church (1878–1879) above the SW corner of the Central Park, municipal gardens, marketplace, slaughterhouse, the first preschool (1881) operated by school sisters, the Military Spa House (current Mars, formerly Bílý Kříž (White Cross), Hlavní Třída No. 166), complex of Slatinné and water-treatment baths (1880–1882), a synagogue (1884), and especially a new cast-iron colonnade (1889), which became the Central Park’s new artistic dominant. In addition to the above, individual dominants began to pop up on the surrounding hills, of which the most important one was the Egerländer (Monty) Café above the entrance to the valley. Another fundamentally important event was the establishment of a railway connection with Vienna and the world via Pilsen and Cheb, in 1872, and later on to
Karlovy Vary in 1898. The railway link between two largest Bohemian spas brought many new visitors. In 1888, the municipal electrical power plant was launched into operation to provide energy for public lighting; water and sewer were built, a municipal hospital east of Bezručovy Park, and finally, in the years 1894–1896, a water power plant on Kamenný Creek above the town. From the 1890’s onwards, Mariánské Lázně favored neo-Renaissance. Buildings were built with a sense for exact composition and distinct sense for monumental appearance. In the 1990’s and at the beginning of the 20th century, the town’s architect and director of spa facilities was Josef Schaffer who was inspired particularly by the architecture of the French Riviera (Central Lázně, Kursaal, New Lázně, Palladio, the school, the dean’s house, former municipal hospital, and Společenský Dům in 1901. In 1903, the town established the Municipal Hygienic and Balneological Institute). In 1900, Gustav Svensson, jointly with František Thomayer, designed landscaping of the park with a fountain in the middle at Mírové Náměstí in the French style. More or less simultaneously with the neo-Renaissance period until W.W.I, the town took liking in decorative Neo-Baroque, which was characteristic for so-called spa style in Monte Carlo, where NeoBaroque historicism changed over to naturalist Art Nouveau. The principal designer of that style was Arnold Heymann of Vienna (the author of Krakonoš, Bohemia, Polonia, Kavkaz, Merkur, Pacific, Hvězda, Svatý Hubertus, and Esplanade).
Mariánské Lázně - Centrální lázně obrázek č. 02- 13.
The most important builders of that period were Josef and Ignatz König, Eduard Stern, Alois Korb, to name a few. Particularly fairy-like designs came out of the workshop of a local builder, Josef Forberich (Šípková Růženka, Sněhurka, Svatý Martin in Russian Street; convalescence homes Morava and Narcis, formerly Nejedlý; the Love Chapel, and St Anna Church in Velké Hleďsebe). The fame of Mariánské Lázně reached its peak worldwide before W.W.I. Many prominent rulers took treatments here (including English king Eduard VII) and important political convention were organized here. In 1907, Mariánské Lázně was the place where a treaty was signed between England and Russia, in the attendance of France, on the division of power domains in Asia (the basis for subsequent Triple Entente). The result led to further enrichment of the town by churches of other denominations (see above), complemented by a Russian Orthodox Basilica in the years 1900–1902. Just before the outbreak of W.W.I. the spa district of Mariánské Lázně formed a well-rounded and exceptionally valuable urban and architectural entity.
The glorious era was cut short definitively with the outbreak of WWI. Subsequent land reform led to confiscation of the Teplá Monastery’s large courtyards, including Hamrnický and Kramolínský, and the spa facilities were forcefully rented out to Lázeňská Nájemní Společnost (a rental agency). In the 1920’s, the spa enjoyed another boom period. In 1928–1929, the visitor rate record was exceeded by far (from 41,226 to 120,000 visitors). Quite successful were inter-war efforts to restore the pre-war social role of the spa. The town became, once again, the destination point of many heads of state. In 1927, the airport between Skláře, Chotěnov, and Mariánské Lázně became the second largest air transportation center in the then-Czechoslovakia. Most activities focused on the spa’s infrastructure. New development, this time free of all decorative tendencies, in the town’s spa district evolved vary slowly, partly because it had been recently completed and formed a harmonic entity, and partly because of lack of available development area. Most initiative involved renovation (Cristal). During that period, the town’s principal architects were Karl Gut and
Mariánské Lázně, Nové lázně obrázek č. 02- 14.
Eduard Hnilička. In the residential district, however, development of the agglomeration in the form of extensive construction of new family villas continued. In 1938, the synagogue fell victim to arson and Jewish cemeteries were devastated. During W.W.II, Mariánské Lázně was declared a military hospital town.Only five houses were hit by bombs or air-force machine guns during liberation by the American army in 1945. Restoration of year-round operations in 1948 required numerous structural alterations, because many spa facilities lacked central heating or even any heating devices. This circumstance had certain consequences in terms of urban provisions. In the past, owners of spa houses – now nationalized by the state – used to move into the basement or the attic for the spa season, while their guests would occupy their residences. Now, with the start of all-season operations, it became necessary to build new apartments for them. Also, new apartments were needed for the personnel to work in the spa facilities. This required extensive phase of new housing construction, realized in the form of apartment houses (Nádražní District, Úšovice).Transit traffic could fortunately be diverted from the spa district, thanks to a network of beltway roads. The district, relieved of heavy traffic, was gradually restored and rebuilt, mainly in the 1970’s. Thus, an addition was
built to the Krakonoš Hotel, the Monty Convalescence Home was rebuilt and an addition to Děvín built, and a Rehabilitation Center was added to Dopravní Podnik (Střelnice). Considerable attention was paid to maintenance and expansion of the parks. In the 1950’s, landscaping of the park around Lesní Spring was completed, around the main post office, Lil, and around the Russian Orthodox Church in 1960. In 1961, a new park was established on an area of about 10 hectares between Ferdinand and Rudolf Springs. Reconstruction of the main colonnade was particularly complex, as saving its original appearance was difficult. Despite these efforts, however, the era of socialism (soc-realism) did
Mariánské Lázně, Kursaal (Casino) obrázek č. 02- 15.
leave certain negative legacy in the spa district. The hardest blow was the demolition of a whole block of houses, Nos. 36–40 (including Tepelský Dům), between Mírové Náměstí and Central Park in 1977. Moreover, this destruction of several architectural and urban gems severely affected the basic urban composition of the heart of the spa district, as Mírové Náměstí lost its southern side. Fortunately, the socialist planners’ intent to build a disproportional overdimensioned Sanatorium Arnika in its place was never realized, thanks to public protests and fear of destroying the mineral springs. In the 1990’s, other new projects were eventually realized in the spa district, which offered far more sensitive planning and contextual solutions. The outstanding value of the 19th century composition and nearly undisturbed architectural characteristics of the town’s spa district led to declaring Mariánské Lázně a municipal historical conservation area in 1992. This makes Mariánské Lázně one of the largest protected spa districts in the Czech Republic.Although architecturally the town is predominantly Classicist (pavilions over springs and parts of residential housing), generally, most of its spa facilities, as well as residential houses and villas from the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century represent a broad range of architectural styles ranging from Historicism to Art Nouveau. Well preserved treatment houses and hotels, as well as various structures over the springs, and especially the colonnades are the town’s most characteristic structures. They make Mariánské Lázně part of the European heritage architecture of cosmopolitan value. Thanks to the degree of preservation of its urban structure and architecture, Mariánské Lázně as a whole deserves a place in the world as an extraordinary intact heritage site.
Architecturally Most Important Structures Pavilion Křížový Spring (Goethe Square) In the years 1818–1826, a majestic colonnade was built at Křížový Spring replacing a simple, wooden structure that used to stand there since 1789. Due to elevations, the colonnade is accessible by means of monumentally crafted stairs. Directly over the spring stands a gloriet supported by 8 ionic columns, a drum-shaped temple with small, profiled, semi-circular windows, and a dome with a golden patriarchal cross. The temple is extended into two columnar halls, connected at the front by a perpendicular colonnade supported by 8 x 9 ionic pillars. The individual colonnade halls delimitate an open area, i.e., atrium, in their middle, where a bust of J.J. Nehr by a Pragonian sculptor named Emanuel Max, was installed in 1857. This open-air peri-style temple was imitated to the first Christian sacred sites. The author of the design probably was the urban planner Georg Fischer and construction was executed by the Teplá
Mariánské Lázně - Křížový pramen obrázek č. 02- 16.
Monastery’s architect, Anton Thurner of Přimda.28 Over time, the Křížový Spring Colonnade became a symbol of Mariánské Lázně to the extent where any new concept for replacing of the original structure was inconceivable, so that a replica of the Křížový Spring gloriet and temple was built in 1912-1913. The Ferdinand Spring Colonnade No. 270 (49 Anglická St.) A colonnade was built in 1827 over the oldest mineral water spring in Mariánské Lázně, named after king Ferdinand I, after a project by Josef Esch: Ferdinand Spring Colonnade.29 Its composition consists of three parts with a round gloriet topped by a low-profile dome in the middle and two wings to the east and west, and oblong pavilions on the sides with porticoes ending with arched vaults. The dome over the spring was supported by eight Dorian pillars with adjacent galleries that were open on the southern side and rested on sixteen pillars. Both wings opened into a large hall on the western side. On the other side were the living quarters for the spring’s guardian and a counter for handing out small mugs filled with mineral water from the spring. The colonnade appearance is still intact in its original condition, unlike that of other pavilions and colonnades, making it the oldest Classicist structure over springs in Mariánské Lázně preserved to this day.
Mariánské Lázně - kolonáda Ferdinandova pramene obrázek č. 02- 17.
The Karolina Spring Pavilion (Karolinin Pramen) The spring is named after Karolina Augusta, the wife of emperor Franz I. Originally, there stood a round pavilion dating back to 1811, which was replaced in 1823 by a new, also round, Antique-like pavilion with Corinth pillars. In the summer of 1870, a pipeline was laid to bring mineral water from Ferdinand Spring in Úšovice and, when water from the Karolina Spring was also brought in, in 1872, the pavilion rebuilt and expanded with two wings on the sides. The author of the reconstruction, a local builder named Friedrich Zickler, retained the Corinth columns and added two bays at the ends of the wings that were topped by gable roofs with triangular fronts. During the reconstruction of the promenade in 1989, a copy of the original pavilion was built 20 meters downhill, closer to the colonnade.
The Lesní Spring Pavilion Abbot Melchior Mahr had the original wooden pavilion of 1827 demolished in 1840 and replaced by a charming round temple with sixteen pillars arranged in two circles of eight pillars each. The current Classicist pavilion was built in 1869 after a project by Friedrich Zickler, who let himself be inspired by the Classicist style, so that the new pavilion he designed had an oblong floor plan with arcades on the sides, a dominant central bay with a portico and Corinth pillars bearing a triangular tympanum. In the middle of the gable roof is a tambour (drum) with a dome. The design is an elaboration of the basic style that is so typical
Mariánské Lázně - Karolinin pramen obrázek č. 02- 18.
Mariánské Lázně - Lesní pramen obrázek č. 02- 19.
for the promenade halls and corridors of Mariánské Lázně. Originally, the pavilion was open on all sides, but during its reconstruction in 1955-1957 the whole colonnade was fitted with glazing and is now completely enclosed. The Colonnade No. 625 (Goethe Square 33) In the years 1888–1889, a Neo-Baroque colonnade was built south of Křížový Spring, made of steel with cast-iron decorations, to replace the old Promenade Hall (Promenadensaal 1823-1826), after a project by famous Viennese architects, Hans Miksch and Julian Niedzielski. The frame of the structure was made by a bridge company, I.G. Griedel, and the cast-iron decorations were delivered by Salmovské Železárny Blansko. The basilica-like hall had massive turrets at both ends, its longitudinal walls were articulated by means of large, semi-circular glass windows that formed arcades with occasional open arches like doorways. Since the colonnade copied the floor plan of the former long Promenade Hall, it became the longest colonnade in any spa town – originally, the length of its arcaded floor plan measured 180 meters (Vřídelní Colonnade in Karlovy Vary measured 169 m) and reached nearly all the way to Karolina Spring. However, during complete reconstruction, in 1974-1979, the old colonnade was demolished (1973), replaced by Lázeňská Colonnade, and thereby shortened to 135 meters. During the years 1974–81, the colonnade’s historically authentic appearance was restored and newly decorated with a wooden cassette ceiling made by academic painter J. Vyleťal. In front of the colonnade, Zpívající Fontána (Singing Fountain) was installed in the years 1982–1986, after a design by academic architect Pavel Mikšík.
The Rudolf Spring Pavilion This spring was formerly called Luční. The current wooden pavilion was built as part of retapping in 1902. The romantic structure is decorated with carved details that resemble those on the wooden Tržní Colonnade in Karlovy Vary.
Mariánské Lázně - Lázeňská kolonáda se Zpívající fontánou obrázek č. 02- 20.
The Roman-Catholic Virgin Mary’s Ascension Dean Church No. 110 (Goethe Square 31) Built in the years 1844-1848, after a project by architect Johann Gottfried Gutensohn of Munich, Bavaria, this NeoByzanthic church stands on the site of the former Birth of Virgin Mary Church of 1820. The basilica has a polygon floor plan and was realized by the monastery’s architect, Anton Thurner, in cooperation with a Pragonian builder and sculptor, Joseph Kranner. The interior was decorated by stucco masters, Bader of Munich, Bavaria, and Pellegrini of Prague; architect Bergmann of Prague; painters Carl von Hampel of Vienna, Kratzmann of Prague, and Strauss and Hochenögg of Munich, Bavaria. The sculpting work was executed by sculptor Josef Max of Prague, his workshop, and his student, Josef Paris. The Virgin Mary’s Ascension Dean Church is also one of the first monumental sacral structures built in the style of romantic Historicism in Bohemia. Mariánské Lázně – interiér Rudolfova pramene obrázek č. 02- 21.
Staré Lázně - currently Centrální Lázně No. 1 (Goethe Square 27) In 1808, the original wooden structure with baths of 1786 was replaced by a so-called Traiteurhaus (Treatment House) at the initiative of the Teplá Monastery’s abbot. In the years 1810-1812, another spa building grew next to it, which was substantially expanded in 1820. After construction of so-called Nové Lázně (New Baths) in 1827, Centrální Lázně came to be known as Staré Lázně (Old Baths). In 1870, the structure was rebuilt in Neoclassicist style by builder Friedrich Zickler and thereafter, in 1892, replaced by a monumental neo-Renaissance building after a project by architect Josef Schaffer. Today, only the former perpendicular south wing remains of the former Staré Lázně (Old Baths). There used to be 115 baths with 12-1iter bathtubs for carbonic mineral water from the nearby Maria Spring and 75 baths with 72 tubs for all kinds of complete and partial moor bath procedures, compresses, and applications of moor treatment. In the bathrooms were tubs both for moor and purification baths. Furthermore, there were four comfortable
Mariánské Lázně – Kostel Nanebevzetí Panny Marie, foto K. Kučaobrázek č. 02- 22.
resting rooms for gentlemen and so-called sweat rooms for ladies. In the courtyard were gas baths with carbon dioxide for procedure known as dry-gas bath. The three upper floors, accessible by means of elevators, contained, in addition to spa operations, also 120 elegantly furnished guest accommodation rooms. Slatinné Lázně No. 2 Near Centrální Lázně stands the new building of Slatinné Lázně that was built after a project by Friedrich Zickler in 1880-1882. The building has two wings in the style of French neo-Renaissance with mansarded steeple roofs over corner bays and a dome over the bay in the middle. Moor baths enjoyed enormous popularity. At the time of its establishment, the spa was one of the largest of its kind in the world. On the elevated ground floor were 34 moor bath compartments, each of the having its own changing room and bathrooms. Comfortable relaxation rooms were also in place, of course. Furthermore, there was a special compartment for cold-water treatment and 14 cabins with a lounge
Mariánské Lázně - Centrální lázně obrázek č. 02- 23.
chair each. There also was a large spa hall with a cold-water pool, showers, and tubs for complete, partial, or sit-up bath treatment, a massage room, and other water treatment procedures. Nové Lázně No. 53 (Reitenberger St.) Initially, Nové Lázně was built in the years 1827-1828 after a project by Josef Esch. At that time, it had mere 10 cabins for bath treatment. Subsequently, the building was expanded, in 1841, to make 14 new cabins, and a Kursaal with a reading room, in 1868. In the years 1893–1896, the original building was replaced by a monumental new structure in the style of Italian neo-Renaissance. The entrance to the 120-meter-long building with several wings is in the middle, between two turrets whose design resembles the architecture of French Riviera. In the corners are additional turrets.
Mariánské Lázně - Slatinné lázně obrázek č. 02- 24.
The building’s stucco decorations are particularly rich over the portico, where they are enhanced with majestic-style sculpting work.The project was elaborated by Josef Schaffer. Visitors would enter the vestibule and proceed towards luxurious waiting rooms and relaxation parlors. Adjacent to the vestibule are two exquisite spa halls for treatment with natural carbonic water, consisting of one relaxation parlor each, in a lodge room facing the park, a changing room, and a bathroom with a tub. In the other compartments on the elevated floor and on the first floor, connected by two stair-
Mariánské Lázně - Nové lázně obrázek č. 02- 25.
ways and an elevator, used to be 55 bathrooms with 65 bathtubs for carbonic mineral water baths from Rudolf Spring, 47 bathrooms with 50 tubs from Ferdinand Spring, and 41 bathrooms with 43 tubs for natural ferric water (so-called carbonic steel water) from Ambrož Spring. All in all, there were 156 bathrooms with 172 tubs for various mineral water baths. On the ground floor were generously designed steam baths for gentlemen and ladies, with separate cabins, changing rooms, showers, and cold-water treatment compartments. In the middle of the steam spa was Římské (Roman) Lázně, a large hall in Antique style, designed like a old Roman double atrium. A total of 18 pillars and 24 pilasters of red Salzburg marble and white Carraro marble support the cross-vault ceiling. The walls are lined with large panels of polished Carraro and Belgian marble. There are two swimming pools with cold and warm water, laid-out with Art-Nouveau ceramic tiles. Next to the large hall is a double Roman-Irish (hot-air) bath with showers, a massage room, and a relaxation room. The steam baths for ladies are arranged similarly, but were somewhat smaller in size. The main building for carbonic water treatment also had rooms for electrical light treatment. On the first floor used to be an inhalatorium with individual inhalation devices and two cabins for general air inhalation. The middle section of the 1st and 2nd floors contained also 12 guest rooms for renting. English king Edward VII was particularly fond of the Roman baths during his visits.
Kursaal - Casino No. 95 (Reitenberger St.) Originally a restaurant, Společenský Sál or Kursaal, is a part of Nové Lázně. In 1889, an addition was built to the rear section after a project by a Viennese studio, Miksch and Niedzielski. In the years 1899–1900, complete reconstruction was made in the style of Italian Renaissance. The author of the project, Josef Schaffer, retained the central Marble Hall of 1867, complemented it with two lower side wings, and added a perpendicular wing in front, whose middle was topped with a massive dome and open lodges in the lower side wings that were to evoke the look of a Greek Prostyloslike temple. In the interior, there was, in addition to the Marble Hall, a dance hall, a ladies parlor, reading room, correspondence and conversation hall, and a restaurant with a café.
Mariánské Lázně - Casino obrázek č. 02- 26.
U Zlatého Hroznu No. 11 (Golden Grapevine, Goethe Square 11) Built in 1818 as a pension for spa guest, it is the town’s oldest preserved Classicist house. The ground floor is made of brick, the upper floor is timberwork. In 1823, J.W. Goethe stayed in this house, and the furnishings in his rooms have been preserved to this day. Today, the house is the town’s Municipal Museum. The façade is a good example of integration of late Baroque with early Classicism. Its classical lambrequins are complemented with laurel wreaths. Initially, the house was used as a pension, including the attic. U Zeleného Kříže – current Split No. 10 (Green Cross, Goethe Square 10) The Zelený Kříž house was built by Thaddeas Rubritius in 1819. Later on, the house was purchased by a well-known local physician, Fidelis Scheu. The two-storey house has a typical Classicist or Biedermeier façade with a dominant triangular gable, three-tract disposition with a breezeway in the middle section, a row of partitioned guest rooms on the upper floor, mutually interconnected by a suite. The attic was reserved for the personnel or the owner’s family.
Mariánské Lázně - Dům U zlatého hroznu (Městské muzeum) obrázek č. 02- 27.
Lázeňský Dům Kavkaz (Caucasus, formerly Klebelsberg Palace, Stadt Weimar, King of England) No. 9 (Goethe Square 15) Built in the years 1820-1821 by Franz Josef Klebelsberg-Thumburg, the house was therefore known as “Klebelsberg Palace”. It used to be the largest and most luxurious house in the town. Johann Wolfgang Goethe liked to stay there in the company of Mrs. Amalie Theodora von Levetzow and her beautiful daughter Ulrika. In the years 1872-1873, the
Mariánské Lázně – zleva dům Split, hotel Kavkaz a Jitřenka obrázek č. 02- 28.
house was rearranged and expanded after a project by a local architect Josef Zickler. The hotel section, renamed to Stadt Weimar, was later rebuilt in the years 1903-1905 after a project by architect Arnold Heymann, who gave it its current monumental appearance with majestic central turret and lower turrets on the sides. Substantial portions of the original Classicist Klebelsberg Palace have however been preserved to the present. In the years 1899 to 1909, English king Edward VII enjoyed staying here every year. Lázeňský Dům Hvězda (Stern/Star) No. 7 (Goethe Square 21) The original structure was built in 1819 by a knight named Ferdinand Sternfeld von Kriegelstein. At that time, it had 25 guest rooms, 2 kitchens, a stable for 10 horses, and a car barn. The hotel acquired its current appearance in the years 1904–05, during the ownership of Anton Weiss. The author of the reconstruction project that turned the hotel into a richly decorated structure with two corner turrets was architect Arnold Heymann.
Hotel Bohemia (formerly Fürstenhof) No. 100 (Hlavní Třída / Main Boulevard 40) The hotel was built for its owner, Emil Baruch, in 1905 by builder I. König after A. Heymann’s project. The street façade has two corner turrets with rows pilastered lodges and balconies. The hotel usually served the most prominent spa guests.
Mariánské Lázně - Hotel Hvězda, foto J. Prudík obrázek č. 02- 31.
Františkovy Lázně (Franzensbad) 53
Historical and Urban Development The area of the current town of Františkovy Lázně used to be part of the municipality of Cheb until 1851. Its healing springs are said to have been known as early as the 12th century. The first certain mention of tapping mineral water named “chebská kyselka” dates back to 1406. Sources prove that “kyselka” was used also in the 16th century (1502). Beginning 1611, foreigners would come here for treatment. From 1629, the local mineral water (kyselka) was distributed to other places (in 1670, the town received the emperor’s special permit for mineral water distribution). In 1660, the municipal council of Cheb had the first structure built here, and in 1708, guest rooms were added. In 1714, a wooden inn with 12 cabins was built at the highly popular spring, including bathrooms and 14 guest rooms. In 1748, a timberwork chapel dedicated to St. Jan Nepomuk was built next to the inn. In the 18th century, however, the importance of the local kyselka as well as the spa facilities began to decline. A local physician from Cheb, Dr. Bernhard Adler, devoted considerable effort from the year 1785 onwards to upkeep the spa’s prosperity. Thus, in 1791, he had the spring cleaned and a pavilion built over it, but the women who carried “chebská water” to customers for a living demolished it in defense of their livelihood. Dr. Adler won the regional authorities and even the emperor himself for the idea, however, so that building up a spa in the location was eventually pursued by the municipality of Cheb. Soon thereafter, in 1791, the regional government commissioned the building directorate of regional properties, headed by abbot Tobias Gruber, to work on a plan for a spa settlement. The plan was submitted in 1792 and establishment of the spa was approved on April 27, 1793. The first guests were received there that very year, in 1793. In 1795, the new settlement was named Obec Císaře Františka (Emperor Franz’ Settlement), and, in 1803, renamed to Lázně Císaře Františka (Františkovy Lázně / Franzensbad), as the best known spring was named Františkův Pramen (Franz’ Spring). During his first official visit in 1812, emperor Franz I granted his permission to have a new church built at the site with funding from the imperial treasury (the construction was completed in 1819). Thanks to discovery of more springs, the spa grew rapidly. By the 1850’s, Františkovy Lázně gained considerable popularity and, in 1861, also independence as a settlement. Since
Starý hostinec u Chebské kyselky, Müllerova mapa 1719 obrázek č. 03- 01.
1865, Františkovy Lázně has had the status of a town and was connected to railway network the same year. Construction of Františkovy Lázně after Gruber’s regulation plan began in 1792. The plan was based on the Baroque principle of axial balance and symmetry without enclosed street blocks. The plan also included landscaped composition vegetation and park areas. The main axis was Kaiserstrasse (currently Národní Třída / National Blvd.), which was lined with tree alleys directed towards the octagon pavilion over the main spring (Františkův Spring). ON the opposite side, in the north, the plan ended with a geometrically conceived park with a green roundel in the middle, and a pyramid for accentuation. At both ends, the street axis and the circumferential tree alleys for horseback riding were closed by for-
mally laid out vegetation. The enlightened concept with emphasis on health and contact with nature was clearly expressed. In his project, T. Gruber was evidently inspired by the layout of the Antique “stadium”.30 The perpendicular northern street towards Chlum was complemented with a circular cut-out area that resembled the English Cirk, and was used as an open-air horse drilling area. The houses in the street had uniform-design façades, courtyards for economic
Františkovy Lázně - půdorysný plán Gruber-Rothesel 1795 obrázek č. 03- 03.
activities in the back, stables, car barns, and small gardens in the backyard. During the initial stage of development, T. Gruber designed both public and private buildings. Later on, his plan was further elaborated by Johann Rothhesel, and still later, certain specific Baroque-style Classicist structures were added by local builders from Cheb.31 The development plan reckoned with 19 objects, of which five were completed in 1794 and three private houses added in 1795. That very year, the Společenský Dům (Assembly House), which enclosed the western and southern sides of Národní Třída and was connected with Františkův Spring by a wooden colonnade, thus forming a kind of park square. Another colonnade was projected to be built on the eastern side of the composition axis, but it was never realized. The first construction phase was realized in purely Classicist style, but a large number of other structures were built using timberwork as technique, as such architecture was traditional in the locality. The town’s basic urban structure is comprised of three parallel north-south streets: Louisina (Máchova), Císařská (Národní), and Kostelní (Jiráskova). Two crossing streets complete this chessboard of streets. On the southern side, the street blocks end with a the original semi-circular park, ad continue with a road toward Cheb; in the north, a perpendicular street (Ruská/Russian) also continues to a park. In 1820, a Catholic church was built on Kostelní Street, which created an optical ending to Kostelní (Jiráskova) Street. The vicinity of Františkův Spring remained undeveloped, because the ground is of peat-moss quality that is not suitable for load bearing. Beginning from the second half of the 19th century, the town’s composition was expanded due to discovery of more remote springs. The first one was a powerful spring, named Louisin Pramen (Louisa’s), that was discovered to the west of the town center, where a wooden pavilion was built in 1826, and to the south, the following year, 1827, where the first spa facility was built and became known as Lázně I. In 1816, more springs were discovered, Solný and Luční, SW of the town. Thus, a diagonal axis was created to the park axis from Františkův Spring, and connected by a covered wooden corridor to Solný Spring. In 1843, a common colonnade was erected over Solný and Luční Springs, eventually leading to establishment of Lázně II. Instead of a corridor, Františkův Spring was connected to this colonnade by means of four rows of linden trees that formed two wide alleys from Františkův to Solný Spring. The alleys then became the town’s main promenade route. Simultaneously, the park was gradually expanded from 1828 onwards and all of the park was landscaped as an English park by a Viennese landscapist and gardener,
Františkovy Lázně - Císařská ulice 1830 obrázek č. 03- 04.
Františkovy Lázně - kostel Povýšení sv. Kříže 1902 obrázek č. 03- 08.
Martin Soukup of Schönbrunn after a design by the emperor’s chief landscapist named Riedel. Major development of the town as a spa increased the visitor rate and, by extension, led to construction of new spa facilities and houses. Since Národní Třída was already fully developed, new housing began to grow in both parallel streets, where yet another street was added on the eastern side, Nová Street (current Boženy Němcové St.). Creation of large street blocks changed the appearance of Františkovy Lázně considerably. Moreover, the architecture acquired a different and richer look, even though the basic Classicist style remained. After the 1850’s, a phase of new development followed, both from the planning and architectural perspective. Classi-
Františkovy Lázně - Františkův pramen se starou kolonádou a kaplí, Karel Postl 1808 obrázek č. 03- 05.
Františkovy Lázně - Františkův pramen a Stará kolonáda 1832
Františkovy Lázně - Luisin pramen, E. Gurk 1832
Františkovy Lázně - kolonáda Solného a Lučního pramene 1850
cism made way for modesty, so that new buildings contrasted with the original development, thus forming spectacular mosaic-like variants of Romanticism and Historicism, subsequently united by the color uniformity of white and okra façades. Development was regulated by the vice-regency’s decree of 1853 that required that buildings have a uniform appearance in architecture as well as color, a certain distance between houses and streets be observed, etc. In the years 1865–1911, the park was significantly expanded under the management of A. Soukup, in the north, east, and southeast of the town, and Parková Street (currently French) was laid around its circumference as a form of “okružní” (beltway. This street is where new spa and residential structures were eventually built in the 1860’s , followed by an Evangelic and Russian Orthodox church, and a synagogue. The principle of circumferential beltway with houses on one side, preferably facing southwards and westwards, suited the disposition of Františkovy Lázně and allowed for better exposure to the sun in this climatically relatively cool region. The NW and eastern part of the town’s circumference could accommodate a railway in 1865, but before long more spa facilities and natural park areas emerged on the other side of the railway tracts. To the west of the railroad station, construction activities involved primarily new housing that eventually swallowed up nearby villages, Dolní and Horní Lomany. Likewise, in the south, the town’s park eventually reached all of the way to Slatina. The most important building companies belonged to two families – the Haberzettel family of Cheb and the local Wiedermann family (Adam Haberzettl and his son, Karel Haberzett;, and Karel Wiedermann with his son Gustav Wiedermann). Thus, the face of the town gradually began to wear the fine laces of romantic Windsor neo-Gothic.
Františkovy Lázně - plán města 1871 obrázek č. 03- 11.
At the break of the 19th and 20th century, the composition of the downtown district, to the north of Františkův Spring, started to change. In 1912, a new colonnade was built on the eastern of the main axis, but the symmetry thus achieved was very short-lived, as the old colonnade on the western side was destroyed by a fire in 1914 and was never rebuilt. Traditional architecture was still highly regarded and the Neoclassicist town continued to prefer the “noble” style.32 During the inter-war period, i.e., during so-called First Czechoslovak Republic, housing development between Dolní and Horní Lomany and between Horní Lomany and the railway continued. In the center of Františkovy Lázně, the importance of Kostelní Street was considerably raised with the construction of a new hall at Glauber Springs at the street’s southern end (1930) and expansion of the street block on its eastern side to form a new street. During the Socialist era, Františkovy Lázně was maintained as before without any major interruption. Although the downtown district was hardly growing
Františkovy Lázně - Společenský dům, Konversationsaal 1900
Františkovy Lázně - Císařské lázně 1898 obrázek č. 03- 16.
Františkovy Lázně, pravoslavný chrám v roce 1914 obrázek č. 03- 18.
Františkovy Lázně, panorama města 1908 obrázek č. 03- 20.
Františkovy Lázně - půdorysný plán 1905 obrázek č. 03- 19.
Františkovy Lázně - Nová kolonáda 1914 obrázek č. 03- 21.
Františkovy Lázně - Dvorana Glauberových pramenů, 30. léta 20. století
any more, the older parts of the village agglomerations nearby had to make way for housing settlement in the form of prefabricated apartment buildings. In 1922, the core of the town was declared a historical conservation area (municipal reserve), as it is remarkable as a unique example of well-preserved Classicist spa town complemented in the era of Historicism. Františkovy Lázně is one of the most valuable spa towns in the Czech Republic, both in terms of its size and importance, as well as quality of its conservation area. From the conservationist’s perspective, Františkovy Lázně is the most intact spa entity in the WestBohemian Spa Triangle. The town’s center features a high concentration of conceptually well integrated Classicist, Empire, and Historicist development. The town’s core is surrounded with a large park with numerous individual, predominantly Classicist spa structures over the mineral water springs. Along the park’s circumference is a ring of a younger development, consisting mostly of architecturally remarkable, high-quality Historicist spa houses. The town as a whole comprises all the typological objects that a spa location of European significance should have – pavilions over springs, a colonnade, large treatment facilities, quest accommodation hotels and pensions, a church, a theater, small structures, and decorative sculpting elements. Architectonically Most Important Structures The Františkův Spring Pavilion (Peace Square) Count Kolowrat had the first wooden pavilion built over the main spring as early as in 1789. In 1793, a new pavilion was built in the form of an octagon with a copper dome. Next to it, a wooden triple-wing colonnade was erected that looked more like a garden pergola with wooden lattices than a colonnade. In 1817, the old wooden colonnade was replaced with a new one, also made of wood, but with a gallery supported by pillars and boutique after a joint project by T. Gruber and J. Rothhesel.33 In 1832, the old pavilion over Františkův Spring was rebuilt after a project by construction engineer Josef Esch of October 1831, making way for a new Classicist pavilion with canalled Dorian columns.34 Built in the style of a round monopteros, originally all open and topped with a lowprofile dome, the pavilion’s unique cylindrical form was juxtaposed as a distinct vertical element to the strictly horizontal colonnade. In the night from September 31 to October 1, 1914, the old colonnade burned down. Although tenders were called for the new project, it never came to be realized and the area remained open as landscaped park. Today, the Františkův Spring Pavilion enjoys popularity as a distinct solitaire.
Františkovy Lázně - Františkův pramen obrázek č. 03- 24.
New Colonnade with Plynové Lázně (Gas Spring) No. 378 and 379 (Peace Square 3 and 1) In 1811, the first wooden pavilion was built over Plynový Pramen (Gas Spring) and a spa building with three bathrooms and a social hall was added in 1826. In 1912, a new pavilion was built in its place over Gas Spring after a project by Gustav Wiedermann. Simultaneously, a new covered colonnade in the style of Neoclassicism was erected across from Old Colonnade. Disposition-wise, the new colonnade was a mirror image of Old Colonnade. Tuscany columns supported gabled roofs with dominant corner bays, resembling Antique temples, indicated that architect and the municipal council intended to bring forth reminiscences of the “noble” style of Old Colonnade.35 The rows of columns concealed individual shops and boutiques. New Colonnade became the town’s quasi second shopping center. Distinguished sphinx guard the
Františkovy Lázně - Nová kolonáda obrázek č. 03- 25.
entrance to New Colonnade. In Františkovy Lázně, Classicist as well as Neoclassicist traditions were fully observed during the construction of Plynové Lázně and New Colonnade as late as the beginnings of the 20th century. Luisin Pramen and Studené Vřídlo (Louisa Spring, Cold Thermal Spring) Luisin Pramen, named after empress Louisa, is the second oldest spring discovered in Františkovy Lázně. Another spring, Studené Vřídlo, was discovered in its vicinity. In the years 1826-1827, and Empire pavilion was built over the springs after a project by a regional construction engineer, Wenzel Stöhr. The central structure had an oval floor plan with open arcades around a tambour in the middle, illuminated through a row of thermal windows and topped with a low-profile dome. The pavilion’s shape resembles early Christian community centers and may be used as an example a profane structure’s sanctification in the name of health preservation. The Solný and Luční Spring Colonnade The Late-Classicist structure, completed in 1843, stands on swampy moorland and is supported by means of 1116 pilots driven into the ground. The project was realized by a Pilsener builder, František Filous.36 Its composition consists of five sections, of which the central one features a three-axial bay with a triangular gable, a saddle roof, and lower side wings ending with corner bays. The roof is very low, making the linear attic quite dominant. Tectonics play a substantial role in Classicist designs, as the walls form a regularly shaped groups of Tuscany pilasters with right-angle openings and the corner bays are complemented by semi-circular niches. The central bay features triglyphs (giving the pilasters a Roman-Dorian appearance) and circular targets below the attic. The northern wing contains a pavilion over Solný Spring and the southern wing contains one over Luční Spring. In the interior of the wings are impressive rows of massive pillars that form the colonnade. Over the central pavilion stand the bust of the founder of Františkovy Lázně, Dr. Bernhard Adler.
Františkovy Lázně - Luisin pramen, foto K. Kuča obrázek č. 03- 26.
Františkovy Lázně - kolonáda Solného a Lučního pramene obrázek č. 03- 27.
Společenský Dům No. 1 (Assembly House, Národní Třída 12) The foundation stone of the oldest public building in Františkovy Lázně was laid in 1793 and the construction of it was completed in 1795. In terms of dimensions and massive concept, Společenský Dům became the spa’s new dominant. The building with its old community hall was expanded in the years 1876-1877 by a new Konverzační Hall (Conversation Parlor) after a project by Gustav Wiedermann in neo-Renaissance style, with a massive neck-domed roof. In front of the entrance and along the whole façade is a portico, initially with a terrace that opened into the Konverzační Hall, also in the neo-Renaissance style. Ever since the beginning the hall has been used for congresses, conventions, dance balls, and other important social events.
Františkovy Lázně - Společenský dům obrázek č. 03- 28.
Lázně I (Loimann, Luisa Lázně II) No. 246 (Máchova 6) Originally, this Classicist one-storey structure of 1840 had only two wings. It current complicated floor plan is the result of various additions built subsequently, until full completion in 1872. Guests would take moor and mineral baths; steam-heated water was distributed to the individual bathrooms by a wooden pipeline. The original three-tract disposition had a central corridor, from which the individual bathrooms were accessed. There were a total of 164 cabins for spa treatment, 500 bathtubs, 5 waiting rooms with reading rooms, a parlor, and Knížecí Pokoj (Aristocratic Parlor).37 Built in the austere style of late Classicism with rustic stone blocks and Corinth pilasters in corner bays, the building’s low height keeps the level of development low and natural, which suits the Louisa Spring’s park environment best. Lázně II (Císařské Lázně) No. 154 (Imperial Spa, 5. května) Built in 1878–1880 after a project by Karel Haberzettel and Gustav Wiedermann and financed by a banker named Singer. The low structure in neo-Renaissance style has a central bay with the main entrance pavilion and side wings enclosing a courtyard. The entrance is situated in the central pavilion, which has a majestic portico and a three-section Ionic edicula on the upper level, where it used to adorned with sculpted decorations. The central pavilion used to have
Františkovy Lázně - Luisiny lázně
Františkovy Lázně - Císařské lázně (Lázně II) obrázek č. 03- 29.
a massive dome that gave the structure the appearance of French neo-Renaissance. Disposition-wise, the structure had two tracts with a continual corridor that used to have individual spa treatment cabins on one side only. The vestibule and the foyer had a gallery with niches on the upper level. In the niches were busts of various personages. Connected to the vestibule was another perpendicular wing that ended with an apsis with a swimming pool. All in all the building had a total of 120 cabins, an elegant Knížecí Parlor (Aristocratic Parlor), a large waiting room, and a relaxation room. The spa facility offered mineral water baths, carbonic and ferric baths, saline and thermal baths, electro treatment, phototherapy, Roman-Irish and Russian steam baths, all types of shower treatments, cold-water healing procedures, massages, irrigation, and even a cabinet for x-rays.38 Over time, Císařské Lázně gradually became a symbol of Františkovy Lázně, thanks to its distinguished architecture that documents its rise to fame amongst the world’s spas.
Lázně III. (Cartellieri Lázně) No. 77 In the years 1863-1864, a local physician, Dr. Cartellieri, built his own spa at newly discovered springs. Built after a project by Gustav Wiedermann in the style of romantic Historicism, the building consists of two perpendicular wings, complemented with another wing that forms a triangular courtyard with the other two. In its time, it was state-of-theart spa facility, equipped for example with Schwarz’ double-bottom bathtubs for moor and ferric treatment. Dispositi-
Františkovy Lázně - Cartellieriho lázně obrázek č. 03- 30.
on-wise, the triangular layout had centrally situated corridors. The ground floor had 23 bathrooms for ferric baths and 31 bathrooms for moor baths; the upper level contained 15 rooms for mineral water baths and 6 rooms for saline baths after Nauheimer’s method. There was, of course, a waiting room and a relaxation room.
Solar Polyclinic (newly tapped mineral waters) In the place of the old water tapping site from 1794 and 1816, a new tapping facility was built in 1892, after a project by Josef Pascher in the style of a highly pretentious Neo-Baroque (some sources attribute it to Karel Wiedermann).39 Be it as it may, inspiration came apparently from Hildebrant’s Baroque and Pöpelmann’s architecture in Dresden. Disposition-wise, the building consisted of three interconnected pavilions with French-like mansarded roofs and domes. As Baroque was approaching Rococo at the time already, the building has adorned with abundant stucco decorations with figural sculpting and profiled relieves. Next to Františkův Spring were Studený, Solný, and Luční Springs, and later on also Natalia and Kostelní Springs.
Františkovy Lázně - Lázeňská poliklinika obrázek č. 03- 31.
The Glauber Spring Hall The hall was built in 1930 on the site where new springs were discovered in 1920, specifically, Kostelní, Glauber III, and Glauber IV Springs. The project was authored by Ernst Engelhart in the form of a large Classicist Pitná (Drinking) Hall. Over the central columnar hall is a large cylindrical ceiling addition with a tambour, through which the hall is illuminated. The hall has a dome roof. The sculpting work in the interior was made by Karl Wilfert, a sculptor from Cheb, and the spring cabinets were crafted by Adolf Mayerl. The Holy Cross Elevation Church The construction of the church was fully subsidized by emperor Franz I himself after his visit of the spa in 1812. Built in the style of distinguished Classicism, the church was completed in 1819. The concept derives from the strict principles of sacral buildings applied since the era of Josef II. The location was chosen so as to form an optical ending to the second urban axis of the town’s layout. The building’s dominant element is a tower that is half-concealed by the façade, with a massive portico in front and a pair of pillars that support the entablement and the front gable. The tower has a pyramidal roof. Next to it, a parish was built in the years 1868-1869 after a project by Karel Wiedermann in the style of fine Historicism.
Františkovy Lázně - Dvorana Glauberových pramenů obrázek č. 03- 32.
The Boženy Němcové Theater No. 102 (Ruská 16) The first theater stage had been built on the site of the current one already in 1868. In 1928, it was replaced with the current theater that retained parts of the former structure. The Neoclassicist building was designed by Arthur Payr, professor at the Technical School in Prague. The Tři Lilie (Three Lilies) House No. 3 (Národní Třída 10) Built in the years 1793–1794 by A. Loimann, this building is one of the oldest spa houses in Františkovy Lázně. The original disposition of the house was L-shaped. In 1827, the first public bath was added (no longer in operation) and that is when the house acquired its characteristic atrium-like courtyard. Johann Wolfgang Goethe stayed in this house in 1808, and emperor Ferdinand V with count Wenzl Lothar Metternich in 1835. The U Římského Císaře House (K Rakouské Císařské Koruně) No. 4 (Roman Emperor, Austrian Emperor’s Crown, Národní Třída 8) The house was built in 1794 by master baker Paul Fischer. In 1805, the town’s first pharmacy was established here. Its current appearance is the result of reconstruction in late 1860’s.
Františkovy Lázně - kostel Povýšení sv. Kříže obrázek č. 03- 33.
The U Černého Orla House (Black Eagle House, today part of Hotel Slovan) No. 5 (Národní Třída 11) The house was built in the years 1794-1795 by the spa’s physician, Dr. Bernard Adler. In the years 1827-1828, a second-floor addition was built and subsequently, in the years 1843-1844, an expansion over the originally open side breezeway into the courtyard. The current look of the façade with neo-Renaissance tectonics dates back to the beginning of the 1870’s.
Františkovy Lázně - divadlo, foto K. Kuča obrázek č. 03- 41.
Františkovy Lázně - dům Tři Lilie, čp. 3
The U Dvou Zlatých Lvů House No. 7 (Two Golden Lions, Národní Třída 4) The house with a façade in the style of Classicist Baroque was built in 1805 by Lieutenant of the Imperial Army, Kryštof Arzberger, who sold to master baker Anton Biedermann the same year. In 1812, Ludwig van Beethoven stayed in this house.
Františkovy Lázně - hotel Beethoven čp. 7
Ruský Dům (The Russian House, formerly Grand Duke Štěpán, currently Beseda) No. 8 (Národní Třída 2) The house was built probably towards the end of the 18th century by the municipal builder of Cheb, Adam Schäck, who had meaningfully participated in the development of Františkovy Lázně. The current appearance of the façade dates back to 1869, when it was renovated in refined Historicist style by Karel Wiedermann. In 1812, emperor Franz I stayed overnight in this house. Františkovy Lázně - Ruský dům čp. 8
Františkovy Lázně - dům Labe, Národní 1
Františkovy Lázně - dům Savoy obrázek č. 03- 39. a 40.
The Město Lipsko House (City of Leipzig, then Savoy Hotel, currently Labe) No. 9 (Národní Třída 1) Built in 1795; the town’s first pharmacy was situated here. The current appearance of the Late-Classicist façade dated back to 1871. The Velkovévodkyně Ruská House (Grand Duchess of Russia, currently J.W.Goethe House) No. 12 (Národní Třída 9) Built in 1804 by the Count von Zedwitz. In the years 1847-1873, the post office was in this house. The current façade with neo-Gothic characteristics dates back to the 1850’s and is the work of Karel Wiedermann. In 1814, Grand
Františkovy Lázně - hotel J. W. Goethe čp. 12
Duchess Romanova, after whom the house is named, stayed in this house; in 1817, Countess von Lewetzov (Ulrika’s mother); in 1829, Grand Duke Karel Friedrich von Weimar with his wife Maria Pavlovna (daughter of Russian Czar Pavel I) and, in 1835, emperor Ferdinand V stayed in this house. Villa Imperial No. 151 (Dr. Pohoreckého 3) This exquisite villa in the neo-Renaissance style was built in the years 1877-1878 by builder Karel Wiedermann. In the canted corners are horse-shoe bays with open lodges, supported by Ionic pillars on first-floor level and caryatids on second-floor level. In 1927, an addition with a large pilaster-supported lodge was built on the most upper floor.
Františkovy Lázně - dům Máj čp. 13, foto K. Kuča
Františkovy Lázně - Vila Imperial, foto J. Prudík obrázek č. 03- 42.
Františkovy Lázně - Vila Imperial, detail karyatid, foto J. Prudík obrázek č. 03- 43.
Other Localities Around the West-Bohemian Spa Triangle 76
The famous spas – Karlovy Vary, Mariánské Lázně, and Františkovy Lázně – are complemented by numerous smaller and less important spa localities scattered practically all over the region. They, too, feature valuable examples of spa architecture. However, the specific properties of the mineral springs in this region of modest size are quite unique globally
Jáchymov The spa region is also part of this historically significant town in Krušné Hory, founded in 1516 in connection with silver mining. Once the rich silver mines were exploited, at the break of the 19th and 20th centuries, mining made way for the spa industry. The world’s first radon sanatorium to use radioactive water from flooded mines was established in Jáchymov in 1906. A joint-stock company was formed that associated prominent aristocracy and Viennese grand industrialists under the management of count Arnošt Sylva-Taroucca. Large construction companies and renowned architects from Vienna were commissioned to project and build the individual spa buildings. A small spa district grew quickly in the southern part of the valley. Apart from the indispensable Kurhaus (Treatment House), the following structures were built: grand hotel Radium Kurhaus (currently Radium Palace), spa hotels Astoria (formerly “Kurhaus Rosenhof” and “Seidlhof”), Marie (“Marienheim”), and Elektra, Jitřenka or Dagmar in the Art -Nouveau and Art Deco style. Several other pensions dating back to the first half of the 20th century adhered to the tradition of elaborate stucco decorations, primarily in the Art Nouveau style, and were eventually incorporated into the town’s subsequent architecture.40 After 1950, Jáchymov unfortunately became the center of uranium mining and the work was done by incarceration camps for political prisoners built all over the area. Consequently, the 1950’s were an era of depression for the spa industry. Beginning from the 1960’s, spas were gradually revived. For instance, in 1975, a new large spa institute named Běhounek was built. From the 1990’s Jáchymovské Lázně have begun to prosper once again. The spa district is situated at the southern outskirts of the town, in a quiet no-traffic zone. At present, the spa district is dominated by two new large objects above the main intersection – the Běhounek Institute and the Curie Institute. There is also an architectonically valuable building – a simple Cubist structure – that serves as the town’s house of culture (built 1950 as a Russian Cultural House). The facts are, however, that in terms of historical conservation of the spa facilities, Jáchymov cannot compete with the town in the WestBohemian Spa Triangle. The Kurhaus – Lázeňská building (Spa Treatment House) Built in the years 1910–11 after a project by the imperial court’s architect, Zotter, of October 1909, this building is a Neoclassicist structure influenced by late Historicism. The four-storey building is designed axially, with a semi-circular portico over the entrance and a massive mansarded roof with guest accommodation room in under the roof. It has a central hall with a pavilion extension and convex gable with anterior columns. On the upper floor are cylindrical corner mansards. Connected to the building are two longitudinal wings (expanded by three rows of axially positioned windows in 1928) that have so-called Cyclops brickwork in the sub-base part of the walls. The façades are adorned with refined stucco decorations. The building’s composition is complemented by a terrace park with a renovated music pavilion.
Lázně Jáchymov - Radium Palace obrázek č. 04- 01.
Radium Palace – „Radium Kurhaus“ In 1910-1912, the joint-stock company built a large, luxurious hotel in the place of a former inn, after a project by Viennese architect and builder named Burian. The building had a palace-like appearance with off-set additions and angled wings that articulate the façade by means of tall canton pilasters. The
interiors are adorned with rich late-Historicist decorations. The Radium Palace’s interior contrasts with the concept of the exterior, similarly to the interior-exterior juxtaposition at Hotel Imperial in Karlovy Vary. The extensive terraces at the foot of the hotel – landscaped in 1929 – feature various balustrades, arcades, and small statues in the Neo-Baroque style. In its time, the hotel was one of the best of its kind in Europe and was highly popular amongst prominent personages for its rich political, social, and cultural life.
Lázně Jáchymov - Radium Palace, jídelna obrázek č. 04- 02.
Lázně Jáchymov – lázeňský park, 1924 obrázek č. 04- 05.
Lázně Jáchymov - lázeňská čtvrť, 1937 obrázek č. 04- 04.
Lázně Jáchymov - lázeňský ústav, 1937 obrázek č. 04- 03.
Lázně Jáchymov - Lázeňský ústav, foto J. Prudík obrázek č. 04- 06.
Lázně Jáchymov – Radium Palace, foto J. Prudík obrázek č. 04-
Lázně Jáchymov - lázeňské domy obrázek č. 04- 07.
Lázně Kynžvart Lázně Kynžvart is situated in so-called Land Gate between the range of Bohemian Forest and Slavkovský Forest (formerly Imperial) on the former border with Cheb. In 1242, a royal castle named Königswart (King’s Stronghold) was built here in its defense. At the foot of the castle grew a settlement that was first mentioned in historical sources in 1317. Following definitive destruction of the castle during a siege in 1648, an extension of the castle area was established below the settlement, which was generously rebuilt by count Klement Václav Lothar Metternich in the years 18331839 after a project by Viennese architect Pieter Nobile. It is one of the most elegant castles in the style of Viennese Late-Classicism in Bohemia. It contains Metternich’s unique collections and is surrounded by a vast English-style park (designed by Viennese gardener of Schönbrunn, named Riedel). Important also is the Jewish district SW of the Square from the beginning of the 15th century. The small spa district found its place on the slope of the hill above the town. Healing springs were mentioned in sources as early as 1454, but the first person that thought of tapping them was their owner in 1822 – the Austrian chancellor Metternich. A well-known Swedish chemist, Jakob Berzelius, analyzed 22 mineral springs during his stay in Karlovy Vary, thereof 9 springs from the slope above the town in the current spa district. On the basis of favorable results, six springs - Viktor, Maria, Eleonora, Richard, New, and Lázeňský – were tapped and prepared for exploitation. Simultaneously, the waters were filled into ceramic jugs and distributed under the brand name Kynžvartská Ocelová Voda (Königswarter Stahlwasser / Kynžvart Steel Water) for promotional purposes to general practitioners.41 At present, only four springs are being tapped: Richard, Helena (Eleonora), Viktor, and Maria. In 1856, Prof. Dr. Friedrich Jäger, chancellor Metternich’s personal physician, suggested that the springs be adapted and a building with bathtubs built. Thereafter, mi- Lázně Kynžvart - Hotel Metternich (dnes Orlík) obrázek č. 05- 01. neral water was used not only for drinking, but also for bathing. Also, iron disulphide moor water from nearby woods at Kladská was used likewise. During the first month after opening the bath operations, over 400 bath treatments were given. After 1862, when the healing powers of the waters were officially confirmed, in 1864, Richard Clemens Metternich had the first pension built near Viktor Spring (currently Orlík). Thus, the foundation stone for development of the current spa district was laid. One of the mineral springs (“kyselka”) was named after him in his honor – Richardův Pramen (Richard Spring). During the spa season in 1877, additional hotels for spa guests were opened: Buberl, Villa Waldschlösschen, Vila Kindl (currently Záboj, Šárka, Na výsluní, respectively). A spa treatment building (currently specializing in balneotherapy) and a covered colonnade were built in 1885. By mid-1850’s, Lázně Kynžvart was presented and recommended for treatment of chronic respiration illnesses as a climatic spa (like Davos). During the first season already, the guest list included the Belgian queen Marie Henrietta, prince Talleyrand de Sagan, and baron Nathaniel Rothschild, followed, in 1885, by Wilhelm III, king of the Netherlands, with queen Emma and princess Wilhelmina. The rapid development of Lázně Kynžvart continued in the 1890’s. in 1892, a romantic garden pavilion was built over Richard Spring. In 1897, Richard Spring was appraised as the best drinking water, superseding the hitherto best known Evian water; at that point, the spring was collected in a new tapping pant directly at the railroad station. After W.W.I, Lázně Kynžvart distributed drinking water from Richard and Viktor, plus bath treatment water for carbonic baths from four other springs. In addition to moor baths, the spa provided water treatment, electro treatment, open-air hiking
therapy (using marked paths graded by degree of difficulty), as well as treatment by physical exercise. Since 1950, Lázně Kynžvart has been used for all-seasons treatment of children with respiratory diseases and is serving as a children’s sanatorium to this day.
Lázně Kynžvart – lázně, kolem roku 1890 obrázek č. 05- 02.
The Orlík Spa (formerly Metternich) The town’s architecturally most valuable house was built by Richard Clemens Metternich in the years 1863-1864. The Late-Classicist building is complemented with fine Windsor neo-Gothic domes. The central bay bears the Metternich coat-of-arms made Iron Works by Metternich in Plasy. Adjacent to the building is a later-day dining room with well-preserved timberwork in Art Nouveau style.
Lázně Kynžvart - lázeňský dům Orlík obrázek č. 05- 03.
Lázně Kynžvart – lázeňská budova obrázek č. 05- 04.
Other spa houses, Šárka and Libuše, were built in sober Classicist and neo-Renaissance styles, and the Záboj house, originally in neo-Renaissance with a tall straight gable, was rebuilt in the 1920’s to the current refined late Art Nouveau appearance.
Lázně - Balneology This low structure, opened in 1885, was built in the Swiss romantic style with distinct wooden carvings. The relatively long frontage was articulated by a central bay with a columnar veranda and corner bays with carved fronts. The adjacent covered colonnade was also built in the characteristic Swiss style (not preserved). The Rudolf Spring Pavilion In 1892, an wooden, octagonal, romantic-style pavilion was built over Richard Spring, whose wooden pillars are complemented with carved studs and a pyramidal rooflet with lace-like profiles molding.
Lázně Kynžvart - pavilón pramene Rudolf obrázek č. 05 - 05
Konstantinovy Lázně (formerly Bad Neudorf, Pilsner Region) In the swampy meadows near Nová Ves (New Village), SE of Mariánské Lázně, but on Pilsener side, a sulfuric spring was discovered in the 16th century that was given the name of “Smerdaken” or “smraďoch” (Stinky). Around the year 1790, the owner of the Bezdružické Estate, count Konstantin Dominik von Löwenstein launched extensive prospector activities with the aim of finding veins of precious metals and coal. Also, he commissioned the local spa physician, Johann Josef Nehr of Mariánské Lázně prepare an expert analysis of the sulfuric spring of Nová Ves. Dr. Nehr recommended the water for healing purposes. The land, however, belonged to the local farmers, hence it took initiative on the part of the municipality to make use of the spring – in 1803, the first wooden spa building with 3 treatment cabins was built at the spring. In the years 1812-1818, a new building was erected nearby, called Staré Lázně (Old Spa). It contained 22 rooms, 5 treatment cabins and a dining room.42 In 1837, Konstantin’s son, Karel Löwenstein, bought the spa, which was deep in debt, and named it after his father: Konstantinovy Lázně. In 1838, sources mention the name as “Constantins-Bad”.43 The spa district was gradually expanded and, eventually, a park was established in the vicinity of the current Prusík Spring. In 1872, the Löwenstein’s sold the spa to a Pilsner trading company managed Konstantinovy Lázně - Kurhaus (dnes lázeňské sanatorium Prusík), 70. léta 19. století
by JUDr. Franz Pankratz, a landowner and owner of coal mines near Nýřany, who had a new two-storey building named Kurhaus erected therein 1873. On the ground floor was a foyer with a waiting room and examination room; the bathrooms for moor and carbonic water treatment were accessible from corridors. There also was a restaurant, reading room, and game room with a billiard and a piano. The sulfuric spring, later renamed to Rudolf Spring, was conducted to the new spa through an underground pipeline.44 Subsequently, a colonnade was built and landscaping was done in the park with five springs: František (Franz), Karel, Žofie (Sophia), Gisela, and Skalní (Rocky). In Konstantinovy Lázně - kolonáda a v pozadí Kurhaus, 70. léta 19. století obrázek č. 06- 02. addition to using the local sulfuric and ferric springs as drinking water and water treatment, there also was peat-moss from the moorland that was used for compresses and bathing. In 1878, the spa received a total of 259 spa guests and 1,953 passers-through. Bad Neudorf was officially renamed to Konstantinovy Lázně only in 1890. In 1901, Konstantinovy Lázně joined the local railroad network, an off-branch of the Pilsen ¬– Cheb track, which resulted in a rapid development of the spa town. New spa pensions and hotels were built, in addition to the central spa facility, as well as a tennis court and a swimming facility with a sand beach. The spa owner’s wife, Sofie Konstantinovy Lázně - pavilón Prusíkova pramene, kolem roku 1900 obrázek č. 06- 03. Pankratz, had a large chapel dedicated to Virgin Mary of Lourdes built on the hill above the spa. In 1929, Konstantinovy Lázně recorded 2,331 spa guests and passers-through. At that point, the town had 95 houses and 502 permanent residents. During W.W.II, the town became a military hospital. After the war, life returned to the spa and so did spa guests. Contrary to other spas that tend to be crowded, Konstantinovy Lázně offers a truly peaceful environment of a rural spa, free of the ever-present stress of the 21st century. The Prusík Spa The construction of the four-storey building of the largest and main treatment house, named after a Prague professor and prominent cardiologist, Dr. Bohumil Prusík, dates back to 1873. At present, it is known as Kurhaus, and its appearance is accountable to its renovation in 1928.
Other spa houses – Mír, Palacký, Purkyně, Mánes, Marie, and Máj – were built mostly in the sober styles of neo-Renaissance and Classicism, whereas pension Staré Lázně and Alžbětin Dvůr feature mostly a romantic version of timberwork with a pair of timberwork turrets. Prusíkův Pramen (Prusík Spring) Not far from the treatment institute is the Prusík Spring Pavilion, a structure in Classicist style that covers all five springs (Skalní, Františkův, Žofin, Giselin, Karlův). This modern pavilion was erected in the place of an old wooden gloriet with a funnel-shaped shingle roof in the middle of the park in 1972.
Konstantinovy Lázně - pavilón Prusíkova pramene, foto J. Prudík obrázek č. 06- 06.
Konstantinovy Lázně - sanatorium Prusík, foto J. Prudík obrázek č. 06- 04.
Konstantinovy Lázně - Lázeňský dům Mánes, foto J. Prudík obrázek č. 06- 05.
Kyselka This former spa is situated in a deep, narrow valley of the Ohře River east of Karlovy Vary. The first mention of socalled Buková Kyselka (Acidulous Beech Water) dates to the year 1522, to a balneological document by Dr. Václav Payer, a spa physician of Karlovy Vary. The spring’s source is on the slope of the Bučina Hill. A small settlement was established below Buková Rock (Buchstein / Beech Rock), whose pronunciation eventually changed to Puchstein, and because it belonged to Giesschübel (“Kysibel”), it was named GiesschübelPuchstein or Giesschübel-Sauerbrunn (or Stružné, in Czech). In 1687, the then-
Kyselka, pohled na lázně v roce 1840, vlevo kolonáda, restaurace a lázeňský dům (Zámeček) obrázek č. 07- 01.
owner of the Kysibel Estate, count Heřman Jakub Černín (Czernin), granted his subjects free-of-charge tapping of the water. Around 1790, Buková Kyselka was tapped and distributed in ceramic jugs. Regular export was subsequently organized only in 1793, by the estate’s new owner, count Johann Josef Stiebar von Buttenheim. The next owner, Wilhelm von Neuberg, established a small spa near the spring in 1829. This involved erection of a spa house, whey treatment house, colonnade, and restaurant. In honor of Otto I, king of Greece, who came to Kyselka on August 23, 1852, from KarloKyselka - kolonáda s lázeňským domem a pramenem krále Otty, 1855 obrázek č. 07- 02. vy Vary, the main spring was renamed to Otto Spring, with the ruler’s consent. On September 23, 1853, a new colonnade was built over Otto Spring and a new treatment house in 1862. That year, Kyselka recorded 38 spa guests and 7,324 visitors. The most dramatic development began in 1867, where the count of Neuberg let out the trade with Kysibel Kyselka to trader of the Karlovy Vary mineral water, Heinrich Mattoni (1830–1910). In 1873, Mattoni purchased the entire estate and simultaneously launched generous investment activities to increase export.45 In addition to a new mineral water tapping plant, he built a whole spa district with several spa houses, a network of promenade routes, pavilions, and romantic lookout points over the Ohře River. The original spa house, called Zámeček (Little Palace), was rebuilt to make a home for Mattoni; later on, it was converted to Zámecký (Palace) Hotel. In the course of the 1870’s, a promenade route was built along the Ohře River from the park that reached to Lázeňský Restaurant and Colonnade. More construction development followed along the river: firstly, Jindřichův Dvůr (Henry’s Court) was built as a facility for mineral water distribution and then Švýcarský Dvůr (“Schweizerhaus” / Swiss Court) next to it. A large Kurhaus was subsequently built next to both, called Vilemínin Dvůr (Vilemínka Court). The ground floors of these buildings were used for the tapping plant’s operations. Sidings were built in front of the buildings that connected the filling plants and warehouses with the river bank. Immediately next to the lading building in Vilemínka, Kyselka - pavilon a kolonáda Ottova pramene 1902 obrázek č. 07- 03. the current administration building was built, replacing a former warehouse with apartments for clerks and Úřednický Dům (Clerks House). The former Water Treatment Institute, built in the years 1879-1880, is now the tapping plant of KMV Mattoni. The former Pitná (Drinking) Hall, today’s Kino (Cinema), which used to cover Alžbětin (Elizabeth) Spring, was moved over to Lázeňský Park in 1907. In 1884, St. Anna Chapel in Neo-Romanesque style was built on the rocky hill above the spa buildings, from funds provided by countess Anna Nostitz-Rieneck. In 1880, a small lookout tower overlooking the valley was built on top of the Bučina Hill. An inhalatorium was built in a secluded part of the forest, and a solar spa with rent-a-boat options on the river. For active sports, there was a tennis court as well as cricket court. A district of residential villas
Kyselka - Vodoléčebný ústav 1885 obrázek č. 07- 04.
grew on the opposite riverbank. In the 1890’s, a timberwork theater, known as Divadelní Sál (Conversation Hall) was attached to the large colonnade, and a new colonnade with the Otto Spring Pavilion were built on the slope of the hill above the valley. In 1894, an electrical power plant with two turbines was built and a railroad tracks from Kyselka to Vojkovice, connected to the Buštěhrad railroad track. In the northern part of the former spa district, the springs were re-tapped, as new tapping plants were built at the beginning of the 20th century, next to Alžbětin Spring and Emperor František Josef Spring on Lomnický Brook, and over Löschner Spring on the slope above Lomnický Valley. The whole technically extremely demanding project was directed in the years 1902-1909 by a Swiss construction engineer, Kyselka - Curhaus a Švýcarský dvůr před 1888 obrázek č. 07- 05. Adolf Scherrer, from world-famous Bad Ems. The timberwork Divadelní Sál building was dismounted and reassembled over Alžbětin Spring. Thus, the formerly tiny imperial spa turned into a grand-style spa locality with world-famous mineral water springs. Mattoni Kyselka became one of the most popular mineral waters in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and, moreover, it was exported all over Europe, as well as the Americas and Australia.46 At present, the spa and the former operation buildings form a unique entity that documents the prosperity of Kyselka in the years 1880– 1900 and the West-Bohemian spa industry as a whole. Unfortunately, due to inadequate maintenance of the operations in 1989, the operations deteriorated to the point where it just about ceased to exist. The Mattoni Villa No. 76 Believed to have been built in 1844 as Lázeňský Dům, named Zámeček (Little Palace), during the initial phase of Kyselka’s development as a spa. When Heinrich Mattoni bought both the springs and the spa in 1873, he initiated a radical reconstruction of the spa treatment house in the years 1885-1886. The gross of the original Zámeček was preserved, including the layout of the interior, and the building was expanded by means of additions on the NW side facing the river and the northern side. The exterior
Kyselka - Jindřichův dvůr 1900 obrázek č. 07- 06.
was redone in the style of classical Italian neo-Renaissance that gave the villa a majestic pretentious appearance. The Italian-like features of the building were underlined by an asymmetrical polygonal stairway wall, topped with a tent-like roof. Since then, the building has been known as “Mattoni Palace” (“Mattonisches Schloss”). The land to the west of the villa was landscaped as a natural countryside-like park with romantic accents in the form of dramatic rocky walkups and massive Cyclops barriers. A grandiose water fountain resembling the Karlovy Vary spring named Vřídlo, visible from far away, was built in the middle of the park.
Lázně Kyselka - Mattoniho vila od jihu obrázek č. 07- 07.
The Otto Spring Pavilion and Colonnade No. 74 In the years 1897-1898, a new colonnade in the impressive Art Nouveau style and Otto Spring Pavilion were built in the place of a former wooden colonnade after a project by Viennese architect Karel Haybäck. The Otto Spring Pavilion itself was square-shaped, centrally positioned structure, with chamfered corners forming an octagonal disposition in the interior, topped with massive semi-circular portico and majestic dome. The interior of the pavilion was a magnificent interplay of Neo-Baroque décor with marble tiles („stucco lustro“) in colorful combinations of red, gray, and off-white marble, with golden trimming for enhanced effect, Baroque-style cartouches, laurel wreaths, and H.M. Plato monograms. In front of the colonnade and pavilion were balustrades with a grandiosely elegant stairway. The slope of the hill was romantically landscaped with waterfall cascades, small ponds, and a cave. In connection with tapping Otto Spring, in 1910, the pavilion was expanded with addition to the southern side, designed in same-style as the colonnade on the other side.
Jindřichův Dvůr (Henry’s Court) No. 52 Heinrich Mattoni had Jindřichův Dvůr built in the years 18731875 as a distribution facility for the mineral water Kysibelka. At the beginning of the 1890’s, Jindřichův Dvůr was structurally redesigned and rebuilt by a Viennese architect named Karl Haybäck. During the winter of 1890-1891, a dominant polygonal tower was added to the SW corner of the building, which subsequently acquired its current appearance with timberwork gables over the corner bays in the years 1892-1893.
Lázně Kyselka - Pavilon Ottova pramene obrázek č. 07- 08.
Švýcarský Dvůr (Swiss Court) No. 37 Heinrich Mattoni had Švýcarský Dvůr built in the years 1874-1875 as a guest accommodation facility. The low, rectangular building had a saddle roof with a shallow bay and lodge or balcony. The upper level was raised above the timberwork filled with Andrew’s crosses that were protracted over the whole length of the upper storey, similarly to buildings in the Lázně Kyselka - Jindřichův dvůr obrázek č. 07- 11. francophone parts of Switzerland – hence the name: Švýcarský Dům.
Vilemínin Dvůr – Vilemínka (Vilhemina’s Court, formerly Kurhaus) No. 47 In 1882, the timberwork warehouses were radically rebuilt in the years 18841885 to make way for a new large Kurhaus, later named after Heinrich Mattoni’s wife, Vilhemínin Dvůr. The two-storey structure was built in the style of French neo-Renaissance with a columnar lodge and distinguished dome in the corner. The interior disposition has a stairway with a lighting well in the middle, all the way to the attic, supported by a pair of cast-iron pillars.
Vodoléčebný Ústav (Water Treatment Institute) No. 44 Heinrich Mattoni had the Water Treatment Institute built in the years 1879-1880 directly at the springs. It is a two-storey structure with a couple of bays and side additions. Between the bays is the entrance, topped with a timberwork attic. The upper level is decorated with false
Lázně Kyselka - Švýcarský dvůr obrázek č. 07- 10.
Lázně Kyselka - Vilemínin dvůr obrázek č. 07- 09.
timberwork with large Andrew’s crosses. The Water Treatment Institute was in operation until the end of W.W.II. In the 1950’s, the company was closed and attached to Karlovarské Minerální Vody, state enterprise, as an administration building.
Lázně Kyselka - bývalý vodoléčebný ústav obrázek č. 07- 12.
Löschnerův Pramen (Löschner Spring) No. 64 The building over Löschner Spring was built in 1907 on the slope above the tapping plant after a project by a Karlovy Vary architect, Alfréd Bayer. The front house was built in the Swiss style with timberwork upper floor and a wide alpine-style balcony in the anterior of the gable. In the rear is a single-storey tapping plant, where a cableway from the valley used to be. Kino (formerly Pitná Hala / Drinking Hall) In the park on the left bank of the Ohře River stands a pavilion with a pyramidal roof with a lantern at the top. Its timberwork walls are adorned with elaborately carved decorative gables. Initially built a Drinking Hall (Trinkhalle) over Alžbětin Spring in 1880, the structure was moved to its current location in 1907.
Lázně Kyselka - Trinkhalle, dnešní kino
Klášterec nad Ohří - pramen Evženie, litografie, konec 90. let 19. stoletírázek č. 07- 14.
Klášterec nad Ohří (Region of Ústí nad Labem) This modestly-sized spa complex is situated on the Ohře River SW of the town and castle of the same name. Exploitation of the local springs dates back to the year 1883, in which a farmer, Josef Fickert, discovered, on May 18, that the water in his well suddenly has a somewhat sour but very pleasant taste. Subsequent analysis confirmed it to be a high-quality mineral water that soon became very popular amongst the population of the town and its vicinity, who would buy it for a modera-
te fee. In 1896, a sugar factory owner, František Fieber, of Ústí nad Labem, purchased it and named the hitherto nameless spring after his wife Eugenia. He had a central spa facility erected (1829) next to the existing imperial building Střelnice (Sharpshooters’ Gallery) built, also named Evženie (Eugenia), adorned with typical bays and carvings in Art Nouveau style, and the land around it converted to a park with promenade paths to and around a small swan lake with an island. In 1897, a second spring was discovered nearby, on land owned partly by the municipality and partly by a local association of shar- Klášterec nad Ohří - pohled na lázeňské a provozní budovy, kolem roku 1914 pshooters, which was named Městský Pramen (Municipal Spring). Until the end of January 1901, it was managed by the tenant of the restaurant in „Střelnice“, who would sell the water for a moderate fee to anyone interested. Another spa facility and auxiliary buildings were built, in timberwork style with typical large Andrew’s crosses, similarly to Kyselka. Beginning March 1, 1901, Municipal Spring was rented by a carpenter of Klášterec and member of the Chamber of Commerce, Josef Weber, who rented also Evženie Spring from February 1, 1902 for 15 years. He began to sell the water from both springs in the market under a common name, „Klášterecká Kyselka“. Thanks to his business skills and smart advertising, he managed to revive the business and achieve considerable popularity nationwide as well as abroad. Eventually, up to 1.5 million bottles p.a. were filled in Klášterec. In 1930, the town let the tapping plant and the spa out to a company, Hinke and Glaser, which supplied the mineral water during W.W.II to Rommel’s army in Africa.47
Klášterec nad Ohří - lázně Evženie, celkový pohled, foto K. Kuča obrázek č. 08- 01.
In the 1990’s, as part of endeavor to revive Klášterec nad Ohří as a spa, some of the original spa buildings were repaired. During the restoration activities, a third spring was discovered in 1990 and named Klášterecký Spring – so far, the last spring found in that location – and a new wooden colonnade was built, as well. The complex is complemented with a natural park containing small pavilions over the water tapping points and an open-air music pavilion. Development of this spa zone is still in progress.
Klášterec nad Ohří - lázně Evženie, foto K. Kuča obrázek č. 08- 02.
Klášterec nad Ohří - lázeňská restaurace, foto K. Kuča obrázek č. 08- 03.
The West-Bohemian Spa Triangle in European Context 91
About Spa Culture and its Universal Significance The phenomenon of spa culture has been part of world tradition for over 2,500 years. Yet spas are not distributed equally all over the world. The oldest spa tradition comes from ancient Southern Europe and the Near East. In France, Germany, and England, spa culture emerged as early as the Roman expansion and its development continued in the eras that followed. A typical form of spa culture also developed in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, Russia, and other countries. The names of the spas themselves are characteristic: in English, they are called bath (the famous spa town of Bath also bears this name), in Germany it is the word Bad, in Italy terme and in French bains. The international name for spas, the word „spa“ stems from the world-famous spa town of Spa in Belgium. The spas of Central Europe (the belt of carbon dioxide waters between the Central Massif mountain range in France, through Germany, and the northern half of the Czech Republic to the Sudeten part of Poland) can be considered to be the centers of the world’s spa culture with an important core in the Czech-Bavarian-Saxon border areas. The spa tradition in the Czech Republic area may be younger than that of the Southern and the Mediterranean countries, nonetheless, over time it has won extraordinary fame and respect in European and world consciousness as well as a significant place in the history of medicine and balneology. Spa treatments are based primarily on the use of sources of natural healing. Spas can be divided into several groups: those with natural healing sources (healing waters, “peloids”, and gasses) climatic spas, and relaxation and cleansing spas (public baths, steam baths, and saunas). Visits to spas were never motivated solely for the purposes of healing, but also by the rich social life there. Spas had theaters and concert halls, and famous orchestras played there. Spas were centers of entertainment: casinos, clubs, and music halls were built there, and many guests were attracted to their numerous cafes and restaurants. Spas also played and continue to play an important role as significant social centers in the history of mankind. During the individual phases of their evolution, visits to spas literally became a rage and spas turned into fashionable resorts. Rulers and members of the high nobility, rich entrepreneurs, as well as important cultural individuals such as writers, composers, and painters enjoyed visiting the spas. Numerous congresses and scientific conferences also took place it the spas. Spas also became an extraordinary cultural and social phenomenon, which further manifested itself in their unique architectural and urban forms. The Czech lands played a very significant role in the development of spa culture. Thanks to an unusually rich and varied prevalence of natural healing sources, over the centuries, spa treatments in spa centers were and continue to be developed in spa centers, some of which, over time, have gained world fame. The development of spas and spa culture in the Czech lands always depended on the development of European spa culture. This is true for the technological sphere (tapping of springs and processing of sources) as well as the balneological realm (treatments using the natural sources), and in terms of construction, architecture, and urban planning (the appearance and urban formation of the spa area). Architectural Specificity of Spas In addition to the actual healing sources, the effect of the spa environment and its architecture is an unalienable part of the treatment. In the beginning, small spa centers were not outfitted with any specialized spa buildings and the treatment took place in ordinary town or rural facilities where the spa guests were also housed. The development of balneological expertise led to specialization in individual treatments and cures. These new indications and varied treatments had a feedback effect on the construction and architecture of spa building, and this led to the development of specialized spa buildings. Spas, which always had a very specific air and magic, thus started to differentiate themselves, through their unique architecture, from the common town buildings. The effort to provide proper conditions for the correct and deliberate exploitation of natural sources of healing, as well as the need to create an environment for a peaceful albeit socially rich stay in the spa, led to the creation of a series of specific spa buildings. Spas and spa locations went through an extraordinary phase of development in the second half of the 19th century, when unusual urban units and grand architectural compositions were developed. Some spa centers stand out thanks to extraordinary architecture by significant designers. John Wood and his son left their mark in the English Bath spa, Karl Friedrich Schinkel and Ludwig Persius in Potsdam, Charles Garnier in the French spa Vittel and in Monte Carlo, Alban Chambon in the Belgian spa Spa and in the seaside spa at Ostende, the architect Dernfeld in Baden-Baden.
The Towns of the West-Bohemian Spa Triangle in the Context of European Spa Architecture Development Classicism and Biedermeier The towns in the West-Bohemian spa triangle obtained information on balneology and balneotechnology as well as models of architectural from the foremost spa centers in Europe. They always carefully observed the development in other world spa locations and strived to match them all. In the 19th century, Karlovy Vary, which was trying to obtain world renown, was looking to the foremost European spas: Plombiéres in France and Bad Pyrmont, Baden-Baden, and Wiesbaden in Germany. The North-European Classicism carefully copied not only the paradigms of ancient, Greek and Roman architecture, but French and English examples, in the spirit of the heroic Hellenism as it was seen at the time, underscored by a flash of classical Empire style, as well. English Georgian buildings with Palladian motifs were a great influence on the shape of spas‘ gloriets and temples, along with Classical and Renaissance motifs. The world of West Bohemian spas, is, foremost, a world of colonnades. The regional columned structures built above the springs and grand columned colonnades are (or were) the purest examples of Classicist or Neoclassicist architectu-
Harrogate - Sulphur Well 1808 a Františkovy Lázně -Františkův pramen 1832
re. They also represent one of the peak phases of architecture of the first decade of the 19th century in the Czech lands and in Europe. At the same time, along with the Classical columned halls, extraordinary colonnaded temples with open atriums, evoking Greek palestras, also evolved in Karlovy Vary and in Mariánské Lázně. Georg Fischer, an engineer of the Regional Building Administration, deserves the most credit for the development of this extraordinary architectural concept. Josef Esch, the German engineer and director of the Building Administration, further developed this concept when he completed the reconstruction of the „Vřídelní Kolonáda“ (Spring Colonnade), with a large, open atrium, surrounded by columned halls (destroyed).48 According to his own words, Josef Esch, in his designs, always looked both to the guidelines of the old masters (Antoine Desogets, The Concepts of the Roman Empire’s Monuments 1682), as well as the more recent masters (Jean Nicolas Louis Durand).49 At the same time, he followed the current architectural trends (Joseph Kornhäusel, Baden by Vienna). Furthermore, certain architectural motifs of pre-revolution and revolution France, especially in the area of linking cylindrical and square materials (Etienne Louis Boullée, Claude-Nicolas Ledoux). These initiatives, above all under the influence of Josef Esch, led to formation of a new architectural type of spa building – integration of the gloriet that
Karlovy Vary - Vřídelní kolonáda a Vřídelní lázně s palestrou uprostřed
Pompeje - Stabijské lázně, palestra, pohled z kryté chodby obrázek č. 09- 09.
Karlovy Vary - pavilón nad pramenem Hygieia, řez, W.Stohr obrázek č. 09- 02.
Mariánské Lázně - Křížový pramen - atrium
covers the central position of the spring with narrower promenade areas, whether designed as a colonnade or stoy, and connecting them to the end bays of large halls. An example is, for instance, Esch’s pavilion with a colonnade over the St. Alžběta Spring (Elisenbrunnen) in Aachen, built by Johann Peter Cremer and Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the years 1822–1827. To the central columnar gloriet they added two lower colonnades (stoy) with anterior wings. Josef Esch found this principle particularly suitable for places that were somewhat distant from the center of the given spa town – they were more visible from a distance and could protect more spa guests in unfavorable weather, so that they did not have to rush back to their accommodation places. This basic type of structure was elaborated over and over throughout the 19th century and many more variants were eventually designed. On of them was, e.g., a composition with an elevated central bay that tied onto the popular type of spa structures in Italy (stabilimento). A similar composition principle was also used by the Classicist architect and urban planner, Christian Zais, in 1810, for construction of the first spa house in Wiesbaden, and by Friedrich Weinbrenner in the years 1821-1823 for the design of the famous Konverzační Sál (Conversation Hall) in Baden-Baden. Continuing influence of these compositions can be observed in our country until the 1930’s. For instance, Ing. Sgustav built a pavilion with a colonnade in this style over Nataliin Spring in Františkovy Lázně. Thanks to their Classicist forms, the West-Bohemian spas contributed meaningfully to promulgation of these principles or concepts to more
Mariánské Lázně - Ferdinandův pramen a Aachen - Elisenbrunnen obrázek č. 09- 04.
distant places. Considerable popularity of the West-Bohemian spas amongst Russian gentry, including czar Alexandra I himself, who was a great admirer of Historicist architecture, there were many instances of direct impact of Historicism and English Palladism on the Russian environment ever since the 1850’s, especially in St. Petersburg architecture.50 These trends reached nearly all of the existing spa centers in Europe and through various French and English settlers were eventually transferred to North America, where Neoclassicist architecture (not only in spa towns) has many followers to this day. The main aesthetic levers of “Classical” architecture stems from in its simplicity. The structures of this rational era were, according to contemporaries, charming and beautiful. The tendency to “minimalism” survived in the small-town, petitbourgeois environment until Historicist styles emerged after the 1850’s. During the pre-March period (revolution in 1848), Central-European Classicism represented the principles of bourgeois Biedermeier.51 The Classicist architecture in Karlovy Vary, Mariánské Lázně, and Františkovy Lázně can be compared to its parallels in central Europe, Baden near Vienna during its Classicist reconstruction after a major fire in 1812, or Classicist development in Bad Ischl in Upper Austria. Mutual parallels can also be observed in Bad Pyrmont and Grand Duke’s Leopold I Montecatini Terme in the then-Austrian Tuscany. In Bohemia, the Classicist period in the WestBohemian spa towns is comparable especially with Classicist architecture in Teplice (1787–1826), northern Bohemia, with Libverda Lázně (1776–1818), or with the unique, mostly wooden Classicist structures in Karlova Studánka in Jeseníky, northern Moravia. The bath treatment facilities in the WestBohemian spa took example in the princi- Františkovy Lázně - kolonáda Solného a Lučního pramene a Wiesbaden, Conservationshaus 1810 obrázek č. 09- 05.
Bath - Queensbath, jižní kolonáda a Vřídelní kolonáda s Vřídelními lázněmi v K. Varech, J. Esch obrázek č. 09- 10.
Kolonády v západočeských lázních - základní půdorysná schémata, kresba L. Zeman: 1. Gieselova kolonáda Nového pramene v Karlových Varech 1811, 2. Zítkova kolonáda Mlýnského pramene v Karlových Varech 1871 - 1881, 3. Pavilón nad pramenem Hygieia G. Fischera v Karlových Varech 1817, 4. Vřídení kolonáda J. Esche v Karlových Varech 1826, 5. Velká kolonáda v Kyselce 1844, 6. Pavilón nad Křížovým pramenem G. Fischera v Mariánských Lázních 1818 - 1826, 7. Kolonáda Ferdinandova pramene J. Esche v Mariánských Lázních 1827, 8. Kolonáda Karolinina pramene F. Zicklera v Mariánských Lázních 1872, 9. Stará kolonáda s Františkovým pramenem ve Františkových Lázních 1817 - 1832
ple of independent spa houses containing individual rooms for spa procedures – generally, the German term Kurhaus was used for these houses. Taking example in Antique thermal baths, the structure would have a courtyard with a corridor around the circumference, from which individual treatment room with anterooms and bathtubs could be entered. Identical design solutions can be found in the spa facilities in Germany, as well as in France and Italy. Even the typical wooden cabins and baths can be seen in English and Italian seashore spas. The same dispositional scheme was applied in Karlovy Vary (Kurhaus, currently Lázně III, Císařské Lázně), Mariánské Lázně (Centrální, Slatinné, Nové Lázně), and Františkovy Lázně (Loimann, Cartellieri, and Císařské Lázně). Implementation of the spa into the countryside played a major role, as well. Postulate new landscaping and gardening forms transform formerly enclosed gardens into an open countryside, such as in the English environment already in the 1720’s. Towards the end of the 18th century, these concepts were adopted and implemented into the plans of spa designers. Great care was taken to integrate spa environment harmonically with a clearly defined axis and often making sure that certain viewpoints were be ingeniously uncovered or concealed, as deem. A typical example of it is the Classicist symmetry of axial urban composition of streets with a large park in Františkovy Lázně designed by Tobias Gruber (1791), and similar principles in Bad Brückenau in Germany (1747). Premeditated integration of spa structures into the countryside is characteristic also for Skalník and Esch’s concepts of Mariánské Lázně (1818–1823). The circumferential layout of terraces around a large park as if embracing it into open arms resembles Wood’s new development in Bath (1765– 1775), as well as similar principles in other English spas
(Harrogate, etc.). Since Skalník traveled in England before completing his plan for Mariánské Lázně, we may presume that, apart from visiting gardens and parks of aristocrats, he may have also seen some of the English spas.
Františkovy Lázně - půdorysný plán Gruber-Rothesel 1795 a 1808, a Bad Pyrmont - plán Nového města 1790 obrázek č. 09- 06.
Brückenau - plán lázní, Johann Franz Pfeiffer 1752 obrázek č. 09- 07.
Historicist Styles In the 1850’s, with Late-Classicism on its way out, Historicist elements began to take root. The most characteristic platform where Historicist architecture found a lot of room to play in Bohemia was the area of West-Bohemian spas. The romantic countryside had brought the first neo-Gothic elements into the area already towards the end of the 18th century, the oldest examples in Karlovy Vary being the Labitzký Sál of Poštovní Dvůr (1791–93) and the water pump of the municipal beer brewery (1804, rebuilt in 1823). Another Gothicized structure is the pavilion over Ambrož Spring in Mariánské Lázně (1826). Traditional English neo-Gothic in its most basic form is found in Františkovy Lázně, in the work of the local architect Karel Wiedermann. The first signs of romantic Historicism began to appear here in the 1850’s. It started with a small Historicist ornament on the Tudor-like moldings and battlements (including defense turrets), pilasters with subset internal area or complemented with Gothicized clover leaf or neo-Romanesque semicircular molding. Eventually, Gothicized details would cover whole façades with dense lacework.52 The neo-Gothic forms of builder Adam Haberzettel were more moderate and low-profiled. The fact that Karel Wiedermann’s strictly Historicist forms, normally applied with purist exactness and seriousness, were converted into neoromantic details, accounts for Františkovy Lázně’s unique appearance and gentle charm. The most beautiful example of Windsor neoGothic with Tudor elements is clearly the Windsor House of 1863 and Rubeška House. Thanks to certain stagnation of construction activities in the 1870’s, the “ideal” spa style of Františkovy Lázně had been preserved long enough to find appreciation. Apart from the Gothicizing elements, the romanticism of the West-Bohemian spas is typical for its carved wooden constructions and timberwork. It testifies to intentional linkage to idyllic vernacular architecture – structures with decorative timberwork mixed with brickwork in the structure of gables, lodges, bays, mansards, carved balconies, and individual boards in the gables, traditionally considered to be typical for Swiss or Tyrol architecture. In the 1850’s, however, such architecture indicated inspiration in the francophone parts of Switzerland, Savoy, or Normandy, rather than the former. Architecture of this provenience is typical especially in Kyselka. Timberwork with vertical banisters close to one another is particularly typical for francophone or Anglo-Saxon countries. Only towards the end of the 19th century, West-Bohemian designers returned to old German architectural traditions of timberwork and wooden structures.
Františkovy Lázně, staré divadlo, 70. léta 19. století. obrázek č. 09- 20.
In the mid-1860’s, various forms of early Italian Renaissance, along with strict Historicism, began to penetrate into the West-Bohemian spa region. The first such structure was the former theater in Františkovy Lázně, built in 1867 after a project by Viennese architect Hügel, whose design looked like a “classical” Antique basilica. Likewise, a theater of 1868 by Friedrich Zickler in Mariánské Lázně was designed in Neoclassicist style with small neo-Renaissance motifs (rebuilt in Art Nouveau style in 1905). The façades of rental houses in Františkovy Lázně resembled Venetian “palazzos”, such as spa houses Mirabelle, Moravia, etc. An example of pompous Viennese neo-Renaissance with a touch of French neo-Renaissance French in Františkovy Lázně is, in particular, Konverzační Sál of Společenský Dům, built in 1876, the majestic Císařské Lázně of 1878–1880, or the distinguished Imperial Villa of 1878, which had caryatides in its lodges and a stairway in the style of French spas of the second-empire era (e.g., Vichy or Aix-LesBains). After all, both F. Fellner and H. Helmer, when designing Císařské Lázně in Karlovy Vary, let themselves be inspired by the environment of famous French spas. In the design of the entrance frontage with three bays topped with domes, they followed the concept of a Casino realized by Charles Garnierve in the French spa Vittel in 1884 (which no longer exists in that form). The disposition or layout of the spa operations like a horseshoe was used, apart from the spa in Vittel (1884), also in the Swiss spa Bad Ragaz (1866). In Karlovy Vary’s Císařské Lázně, however, such a technology was absolutely unique. Also, neo-Renaissance observed the principles of Italian Renaissance in terms of columnar halls, such as in the distinguished Zítek’s Mlýnská Colonnade in Karlovy Vary. One of the distinct spa centers associated with Historicist architecture is Kyselka. This spa, apart from featuring romantic timberwork architecture, has a number of structures in Historicist styles, e.g., the Mattoniho Villa (1885–1886) and Vilemínin Dvůr (1884–1885). Their elegant architecture was inspired by French neo-Renaissance. Both buildings are perfect not merely exteriorwise, but also interior-wise. The designer of the disposition of the columnar hall in Vilemínin Dvůr, i.e., the former Kurhaus, took inspiration in the columnar hall and indoor galleries of Grand Hotel Royal (1853–1854) in French spa Aix-les-Bains, and the entrance foyer of the Mattoni Villa resembles the entrance foyer of Hotel Splendide (1881–1884), also in Aix-les-Bains. This testifies to active contacts between the designers of Kyselka with the modern West-European spa centers and a relatively quick exchange of ideas throughout Central Europe. In the second half of the 19th century, architecture and the building industry were ever more influenced by the use of new building materials – Karlovy Vary - Císařské lázně 1893-95 a Vittel, Francie - Casino Garnier v roce 1886 obrázek č. 09- 22.
Karlovy Vary - Mlýnská kolonáda 1890 obrázek č. 09- 11.
Karlovy Vary - Mlýnská kolonáda a Stoa v Athénách obrázek č. 09- 12.
iron and cast-iron. Whole colonnades were built with these materials, which of course was reflected in the construction methods in West-Bohemian spas, where it took on the form of monumental Baroque-like late Historicism. These influences would first come from the English and than the French environment, where all large and small spa towns would build various pavilions, verandas, lodges, or majestic covered promenades, and galleries made of iron and castiron elements, instead of the former wood (Buxton and Harrogate in England; Contrexéville, Vichy, Vittel in France; Spa in Belgium). The massive size of the colonnades in Karlovy Vary and Mariánské Lázně, however, outdid all of them. In the 1880’s, multiple architectural styles emerged concurrently, as development as a whole aimed towards late
Lázně Kyselka - Mattoniho vila 1886 a Aix-les-Bains - hotel Splendide 1884 obrázek č. 09- 28.
Karlovy Vary - Vřídelní kolonáda, návrh F. Fellner a H. Helmer, Vídeň 1878 obrázek č. 09- 14.
Karlovy Vary - Vřídelní kolonáda Fellner - Helmer – interiér kolem roku 1900 obrázek č. 09- 15.
Mariánské Lázně - Litinová kolonáda 1893 obrázek č. 09- 17 a 18.
Mariánské Lázně - Litinová kolonáda 1893 - interiér obrázek č. 09- 17 a 18.
Karlovy Vary - Sadová kolonáda s restauračním pavilónem, kolem roku 1900
Karlovy Vary - Vřídelní kolonáda 1879 a Contrexéville (Francie) - pavilón Pitné haly 1885 obrázek č. 09- 19.
Historicism. Most influential in this respect was the imperial Vienna. Subsequent “dressing” of structures into Historicist costumes hoisted Karlovy Vary and Mariánské Lázně, especially, to a leading position amongst other spas not only in Bohemia, but also in Europe, thus ensuring them worldwide fame. Symbolical meanings played a major role in architectural designs. The point was to create an illusionary world and theatrical results. Architecture enabled spa guests to elevate themselves, both in space and time, without having to leave the place of their stay. Thus, they were able to stroll in sunny Italy, visit sweet-tasting France, England, or the Orient. (Johann Wolfgang Goethe expressed impressions of this kind in 1810 when he described Karlovy Vary as an Italian town with flat roofs. Setting the West-Bohemian spas into the environment of romantic parks, surrounded by woods, and rocky hills seemed to be as attractive as the idealized props of Theater Mundi.) In the 1990’s, pretentious neoBaroque joined the interplay of styles influenced by Viennese architecture. The most elegant house with neo-Baroque elements is, without a doubt, Quissisana Dům (1887–1888) and Společenský Sál of Grand Hotel Pupp (1907) in Karlovy Vary, realized jointly by studio Fellner & Helmer, and architect Alfréd Bayer, who had returned to his native Karlovy Vary in the 1880’s after years of successful professional work in Vienna. Another example of pompous Viennese neoMariánské Lázně - Nové lázně a Monaco - Monte-Carlo, Casino obrázek č. 09- 23. Baroque is hotel and café Miramonte in Mariánské Lázně, built in the years 1904–1905. The architect who designed this fairy-tale palace was Viennese architect Eduard Prandl. In this building, neo-Baroque courts certain elements of “new” Rococo. Towards the end of the 19th century Mariánské Lázně acquired a quite distinct appearance thanks to the creativity of architect Josef Schaffer, who returned to his native town from his studies in Vienna, and Arnold Heymann, a native of Vienna. Their work counts to the most beautiful buildings in this town to this day. J. Schaffer’s was mostly inspired by architecture in the area of the French Riviera. The best example of it is the new spa with a couple of turrets at the corner bays, or the Kursaal with its massive dome and columnar lodges on both side wings, slightly resembling the Neoclassicist style of Vřídelní Lázně in Karlovy Vary by Josef Esch. The central part of the domes indicates free inspi-
ration in Bad Ischl by H. Michel of 1872–1875 when designing Kurhaus in Císařské Lázně. The façade of Villa Palladio in Mariánské Lázně, with a frontage featuring giant female statues evokes Venetia or Vicenza. A. Heymann took liking in the central motif with a couple of turrets and brought it to the point where his designs resemble fairy-tale palaces full of excitement, action, and rich décor, with the aid of elements ranging from Renaissance to Art Nouveau (Star, Pacific, Bohemia, Polonia). The motif of a double-turret frontage takes example in the famous Grand Casino in Monte Carlo by architect Charles Garnier, dating back to1878. His influence was of key importance for the architecture in Mariánské Lázně and accounts for its unique characteristics to this day. As romanticism of the end of the 19th century began to lose the playfulness and variability of the preceding decades, it started to look for inspiration in medieval architecture. The time had come for architectonic transformation – architecture focused on naturalist and functional imitation of the life and scenery of the Middle Ages. This gradual change can be best seen in the well-known residential district named Westend, where neoromantic motifs of Gothicized palaces and strongholds reappeared, often combined with traditional timberwork.
Art Nouveau and Inter-war Architecture At the break of the 19th and 20th century, search for new art forms led to Art Nouveau (L’Art Nouveau in France, Modern Style in England, Jugendstil in Germany, Stile Liberty in Italy). In the West-Bohemian spas, Art Nouveau collided with deep-rooted conservative traditions. The Viennese and, in general, Austrian environment with its essentially internationally eclectic style played a substantial role. Thus, we may see in Karlovy Vary, Mariánské Lázně, and maybe Jáchymov merely partial elements of Art Nouveau set into an overall neo-Baroque architecture. In these building, it is common to encounter Art Nouveau sculpting supplements, busts, and figures or relieves, mostly made of stucco to enliven the façade. In addition to richly decorated façade , there were relieves with mythological and mythical motifs or “putti”. The frontage was often enhanced with decoratively shaped overhanging metal elements that would protect persons underneath from bad weather under a glass roof, so-called marquise after French examples. The beginning of the 20th century was an era of liberated atmosphere, known as Belle Époque (Beautiful Époque), in which Art Nouveau found ever more application and more distinct forms. The most sought after Art Nouveau centers (of fine arts, including architecture) in Europe, apart from Paris, were also in Vienna, as well as a number of German towns. The activities of these artistic groups that were concentrated mainly in Darmstadt, Munich, Hagen, and Hamburg had a major effect on developments in the West-Bohemian spas. Art Nouveau in Karlovy Vary found expression in Haybäck’s realization of Felix Zawojský’s house in the form of pure French floral Art Nouveau, rather than the more tranquil and modest Viennese Art Nouveau. The Art Nouveau of Karlovy Vary is waste colors, as it relies – like the Historicist façades of the 1990’s – on Impressionist interaction of light and shade in monochrome variants. A characteristic example of it can be the house of brothers Nastopil (Nastopil House) of 1901, or the Dukelských Hrdinů School (3rd People’s and Civil School) of 1904, in Moskevská Street, after a project by Franz Drobny. The most beautiful building in the style of typical Art Nouveau of Karlovy Vary is, without a doubt, Městská Spořitelna (Municipal Savings Bank) by architect Otto Steinel, built in 1905–1906. In Mariánské Lázně, Art Nouveau is demonstrated in Merkur House by Arnold Heymann, built in 1904–1905. The relatively few examples of Art-Nouveau architecture in the West-Bohemian spas can withstand comparison, quality-wise, too, with the Vichy spa in France. The range of architectural styles at the break of the 19th and 20th century is more than spectacular. Individual unique projects often blended “classical” decorative Viennese Art Nouveau with neo-romanticism or rational Classicism. Art Nouveau architecture gradually drifted towards more geometrical lines and eventually slipped into decorative arts (Art Deco). Ties to the Viennese environment began to weaken only when nationalistically underscored tendencies emerged amongst cultural groups in the German Reich. The architecture of geometrical Art Nouveau mingled with Viennese influences and German decorativism, not only in terms of the exterior, but also the interior, where neo-Biedermeier with its rich ornamentals transformed into Antique motifs began to gain popularity. Current space concepts were developed, especially for family homes, so-called cottages, with stairway in the living hall leading to the upper floor as a central interior node, often with lighting through a light well from the roof. The most significant example is the Becher family home (1914) in Třída Krále Jiřího (King George Blvd.) in Karlovy Vary. A great example of geometricized Art Nouveau is, for instance, Hotel Esplanade in Mariánské Lázně, built in the years 1910–1911, one of A. Heymann’s last projects. Distinguished Classicist principles were revived at the turn of the 19th and 20th century in the form of “new
classic”, i.e., classicized early modernism. An extraordinary expression of Art Nouveau architecture with a touch of Baroque and new Classicism is the Otto Spring Pavilion and Colonnade in Kyselka (1897–1898). Undeniably noteworthy was the architectural contest for the project of this pavilion, which was attended, beside the winning architect, Karl Haybäck of Vienna, also by his Viennese colleague, architect Leopold Bauer, disciple and colleague of Otto Wagner, who designed the lower colonnade in the style of Classicist Modernism, in addition to the massive pavilion with dominant corner bays.53 Similar mix of Art Nouveau and neo-Baroque with elements of new Classicism, which is characteristic for the Otto Spring Pavilion in Kyselka, is found also in the Széchenyi Spa in Budapest, built in the years 1909-1913. The West-Bohemian spas built during that period may therefore be compared with the above-mentioned spa in Vichy, as well as with other spa places in Bad Neuhaim, Germany, or Salsomaggiore, Italy. The spirit of Modernism entered the West-Bohemian spa triangle despite the local steadfast and determined conservatism. In the first decades of the 20th century, purist tendencies in architecture were confronted by programmed reactions on the part of the fans of decorativism, who resented all attempts at “cleaning up” architecture from all artpour-art décor with the aim to maximize simplification of forms, as well as optimize the aesthetic and physical properties of the materials used. Classicist tendencies are most obvious on the example of the Karlovy Vary Friedrich
Kyselka - pavilon Ottova pramene a Budapest - Széchenyiho lázně obrázek č. 09- 29.
Ohmann’s Zámecký Spring Colonnade or Alžbětiny Lázně of the K.V. Municipal Building Administration’s construction engineer and builder, Franz Drobny. These buildings with an abundance of majestic columnar lodges are the very embodiment of these tendencies. As for Františkovy Lázně, let us mention in this context the Nová Colonnade with its distinguished row of columns. In 1911, during the construction of the spa in Poděbrady, the same programmed principles were applied to the composition of colonnades and gloriets as in Františkovy Lázně. Likewise, architect Ugo Giovanozzi who designed the Italian spa in Montecatini in the years 1927–1928, built similarly magnificent colonnades
Karlovy Vary – Lázeňské sanatorium Imperial, foto J. Prudík
Évian-les-Bains - Hotel Royal obrázek č. 09- 25.
Évian-les-Bains - Hotel Royal, půdorysy, Jean-Albert Hébrard 1909 obrázek č. 09- 26.
in the Tettucio spa, for which this spa in the very heart of Tuscany is being frequently called “Italian Karlovy Vary”. Yet another modern architecture trend that influenced the inter-war period in the Czechoslovak Republic, hence also the West-Bohemian spas, derived from the German inter-war decorativism, whose prominent representative was, above all, architect Karl Ernstberger, a graduate of the Otto Wagner Art Nouveau School in Vienna. Ascetically austere structures were favored particularly by Rudolf Wels, disciple of Friedrich Ohmann, and Adolf Loos. Constructivism or functionalism has, apart from a few exception, found no opportunity to leave a mark in the image of the West-Bohemian spa triangle. Two such exceptions are the Baťa department stores in Karlovy Vary and Mariánské Lázně, i.e., buildings designated for entirely different purposes than classical spa structures. A proof of the fact that the local environment continued to favor Classicist concepts is, e.g., a monumental building called Pawlik House, designed by F. J. Prosch in 1925, or the Glauber Springs Hall, both in Františkovy Lázně, built after a project by Ernst Engelhart in 1930. The standing attitude was that spa localities and their environment are too valuable and developing them requires adherence to the classical principles of “distinguished spa architecture”. Change in this attitude occurred much later – as late as the sixties of the 20th century.
Substantiation of the West-Bohemian Spa Triangle’s Global Value The West-Bohemian Spa Triangle comprises the largest spa centers in the Czech Republic, whose architectural and functional properties are considered typical for certain groups of large West and Central-European spas of cosmopolitan character. A particularly noteworthy aspect of the matter is that all of these three spa towns are situated over a relatively small geographical area, whereby each of them represents a unique urban as well as architectural entity, yet three of them represent entirely different urban planning concepts. Karlovy Vary is a town developed along a water stream in a topographically dramatic valley. Mariánské Lázně is an urban entity based on the concept of a central landscaped park surrounded by urban development. Františkovy Lázně is, on the contrary, a compact urban agglomeration with an octagonal network of streets surrounded with a landscaped park complemented with pavilions over individual springs. From architectural perspective, the West-Bohemian Spa Triangle constitutes an exceptionally diversified treasury of noteworthy sites of extraordinary quality documenting periods of all architectural styles from the 18th to the 20th century. Amongst the authors of the buildings we find the most prominent Czech and foreign architects. The West-Bohemian Spa Triangle is, in this respect, an exceptionally well preserved example of “integrated diversification” (Karlovy Vary and Mariánské Lázně) and “diversified integrity” (Františkovy Lázně). The West-Bohemian Spa Triangle is an excellent document of the role of healing spas in the European societies. The very existence of these three municipal complexes is, in fact, accountable to their functionality, their urban form, and their architecture as such. Thanks to their position amongst the leading European spa centers, these towns are living testimonies of the history of the exploitation of human values in the period from the 18th to 20th century, where balneology predefined their architectural appearance. The architecture of these three towns forms part of the cosmopolitan trends in European architecture during the above period, as it reflects the life style of the middle and upper middle class of the society. The West-Bohemian Spa Triangle is exceptionally important also from the balneological perspective. Numerous springs of mineral water are found in all of these three towns, each of them having a specific chemical composition, therefore also specific physiological and therapeutic effects, in addition to other natural balneological means available in this region. In Františkovy Lázně, there are 21 springs of the Glauber type, used in balneology and as drinking cure, in addition to sulfuric-ferric moor used for compresses, baths, and vaginal tampons, and, finally, there is a natural source of carbon dioxide for balneology and application by injection. The spas specialize in gynecological diseases, sterility, oncological programs, cardiovascular diseases, and motoric system disorders. In Karlovy Vary, there are 12 thermal springs of hydrogen-carbonic-sulfuric-sodium-chloride mineral water of temperatures ranging from 35°C to73°C and 1 cold spring; furthermore, there is peat-moos and moorland and thermal gas. The spa specializes in gastro-intestinal diseases and digestive disorders, metabolic disorders, diabetes mellitus, fat metabolism disorders, obesity, some diseases of the motoric system, paradentosis, etc. In Mariánské Lázně, there are cold hypotonic mineral waters containing hydro carbonates, natrium, magnesium, ferric salts, as well as source of peat-moss used for compresses and baths, and natural healing gas for dry carbonic baths and gas injections. The spa specializes in oncological and respiratory diseases, motoric system disorders, urinary tract and gynecological diseases; children and youth non-tuberculous respiratory diseases, motoric system diseases, kidney and urinary tract diseases, and gynecological diseases. The towns in the West-Bohemian Spa Triangle have extraordinary integrity and authenticity in terms of the preservation of their urban and architectural features, as well as spa functions. They form authentic and vary valuable integral entities, whose appearance has remained practically intact since the end of their traditional development (before W.W.II). Quite extraordinary is also the architectural integrity of the towns in the West-Bohemian Spa Triangle, as authentic structures of outstanding artistic value have been professionally conserved. Moreover, the authenticity of the exteriors of buildings is generally applicable, as there exist no objective differences in the quality and historical value between the individual towns. Thanks to its position amongst prestigious European spa centers, the West-Bohemian Spa Triangle stands out also in terms of cultural and historical values. Numerous prominent artists, politicians, and other personages were treated here or stayed as visitors. Spa clientele used to come and still comes from all corners of the world, which is reflected in the existence of sacral sites of all denominations: Catholic, Evangelical, Anglican, Russian and Greek Orthodox churches, as well as Muslim tabernacles in certain spa houses. There used to be, of course, also Jewish synagogues, but they did not survive the era of Nazi terror. Quite multicultural is also the ethnical mosaic of the spa guests. The West-Bohemian Spa Triangle therefore holds a special position in terms of interaction and coexistence of diverse denominations and nations. At times of their greatest boom, the West-Bohemian spas were fully on the par with the leading spa centers of Europe, despite the fact that most urban planning, architectural, typological, and technological impulses were taken over and adopted from elsewhere, whereupon their development may have taken its own course in these localities. In view of the
chronological order of development and different phases of prosperity, as well as different topographical disposition within the Karlovy Vary Region, the three large spa centers have entirely specific appearance and character. The character arises from the countryside frame, as the given urban concept, as well as the degree of representation of the individual styles and their phases. At the beginning of the 20th century, there existed other town of comparable size and quality in Europe. Today, the West-Bohemian spas stand out in European and global context, as the concentration of artistically first-class architecture spread out on a large area, yet quite intact in terms of preserved historical urban structure throughout the entire spa territory. This is accountable to a confluence of specific historic conditions. By the 1930’s already, new development in the spa was very limited, as the capacity of the spas had been practically exhausted and the great economic crisis that affected above all the German-speaking regions of Czechoslovakia precluded new investment. During W.W.II, the West-Bohemian spas (like most of Czechoslovakia) were spared the agony of military fighting – on the contrary, they became a peace zone with military hospitals, etc. After 1945, the majority of the German population was expelled and their property confiscated. After 1948, these events were followed by general nationalization of private property under the conditions of a totalitarian system. While everything elsewhere usually led to decline or destruction of existing urban and communal structures, the West-Bohemian spas were recognized as having a too valuable a potential, even for the purposes of the socialist system, which instated general availability of free spa care for the whole population. Moreover, the role the West-Bohemian spas in the state’s ability Františkovy Lázně - dům Metropol čp. 114, foto K. Kuča to acquire hard currency from the guests from capitalist or developing countries was not negligible. Thanks to these aspects, exploitation of the spa facilities in these three localities continued, although, given the conditions at the time, most activities involved mere exploitation of previously created values, whose service life was barely and minimally kept up. Due to these circumstances, there were hardly any new investment initiatives with respect to spa operations or accommodation capacities. This state of affairs began to a different course only in the 1970’s and 1980’s, where two major spa facilities were built in Karlovy Vary: Hotel Termal and Vřídelní Colonnade. In both cases, however, it involved demolition of parts of the older urban structure. Although these modern facilities were considered to be of state-of-art quality at the time, they at the same time disrupted the architectural integrity and proportionality of the town. Apart from the above, the towns’ integrity had been violated in the past through several partial interventions (demolition of several structures), which however did not impact on the spa region significantly. For instance, in Mariánské Lázně, several megalomanic projects called for demolition of the southern part of the town square, but the intervention did not destroy the town’s basic urban composition as a whole, as it merely expanded the central park area. A few new structures were integrated into the older-date urban composition rather sensitively. Františkovy Lázně escaped similar interventions altogether. Since 1992, all three towns are registered as historical conservation areas, which has protected them from the greatest risks of the newly instated market economy in the 1990’s, even if certain losses could not be avoided. Elsewhere in Europe, spa centers were exposed to far greater and more destructive pressure. Some former members of the former socialist block preferred drastic measures in the form of new development. Consequently, for example, the historical value of the Romanian spa, Băile Felix, was virtually annihilated, and the integrity of all spa locations in the Black Sea area has also been severely violated. In Western Europe, above all in Germany, similar tendencies, in addition to destructive events during W.W.II, in some cases, have had the same consequences. Thus, the integrity of some of the formerly world-famous spas has been fundamentally disrupted. Likewise, similar course of events took its toll on the
once famous Belgian spa, Spa, that is exposed to the devastation process to this day. As for English spas, most of them had gone out of business as spas and only recently, since the 1990’s, some of them are – at least partially and with considerable difficulties – being restored. Historical spas, save a few exception, no longer serve their original purposes or were dissolve altogether. Although we still find individual first-class buildings in most European spas, their spa environment is no longer intact. There are but a few towns that withstand comparison with the West-Bohemian Spa Triangle, in terms of classical spa culture – besides, there are even fewer among them that still function predominantly as a spa. In the context of the Czech Republic, the role of the West-Bohemian Spa Triangle’s towns is comparable only with Luhačovice in ST Moravia. The architectural value is quite different, however, as their dominant buildings owe their style to the national design characteristics of Dušan Jurkovič and modern inter-war architecture. Other spa centers in the Czech Republic do not reach the level of the West-Bohemian Spa Triangle – size, value, or importance-wise. Particularly noteworthy is the integrity of the Classicist mountain spa named Karlova Studánka with its predominantly wooden structures. However, the overall size of this spa is very small. In the past, another West-Bohemian spa was comparable to the Triangle, namely, Teplice (Teplice-Šanov) in northern Bohemia. Due to severe urban planners’ interventions in the 1960’s, this location has lost its qualifications as an intact urban entity. In the context of all Europe, comparison with major spa centers of the same age or rebuilt at approximately the same time – from the end of the 18th until the beginning of the 20th century – is relevant. For instance: in Italy – Bagni di Lucca, Abano Terme, San Remo, Rimini, and Montecatini Terme; in France – Aix-en-Provence, Aix-le-Bains, Vichy, Évian-lesBains, Nice, and Cannes; in Belgium – Spa; In the UK – Bath, Buxton, Harrogate, and Scarborough; in Germany – BadenBaden, Wiesbaden, Bad Ems, Bad Doberan, and Ahlbeck; in Austria – Baden and Bad Ischl; in Poland – Szczawno-Zdrój, Lądek-Zdrój, and Krynica; and in Hungary – Budapest (not to be considered a spa town in this context). Most spas in other European countries do not attain the historical or architectural importance of the above-mentioned centers.
Legal Protection of the West-Bohemian Spa Triangle Františkovy Lázně was declared a Municipal Heritage Area by Governmental Decree of the Czech Republic No. 443/1992 Coll. Karlovy Vary and Mariánské Lázně were declared Municipal Heritage Areas by Decree of the Ministry of Culture No. 476/1992 Coll. The most valuable districts of Karlovy Vary, Mariánské Lázně, and Františkovy Lázně are therefore protected as historical conservation territories. Protection of such territories is subject to the provisions of Act No. 20/1987 Coll., on state heritage protection (The Heritage Conservation Act), as amended. The Act stipulates that any and all construction plans, repairs, alterations, and modifications with long-term impact on the protected territory be subject to the expertise of a professional historical conservation organization and subsequent approval by the relevant state administration authority. General legal framework of protection is therefore guaranteed. The Assessment Study of individual activities involves examination of potential impact on the historical value of structure, whereby emphasis is put on maximum consideration for authentic architecture and artistic details. Equally meticulous consideration is given to the image of the protected areas as a whole. In this particular case, the overall integrity of values is the greatest advantage of these three towns.
The Most Valuable Town Districts in the Spa Triangle, in Terms of Urban Planning and Architecture, Selected for Future Nomination for Registration in the UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites As state above, detailed Assessment Study of the heritage value of the three above towns’ urban development and architecture was conducted in 2006.The Assessment Study was not limited merely to the area currently protected by the Heritage Conservation Act, as it was extended to include the adjacent areas as well, provided that their historical value was indicated. The Assessment Study of the sites to be nominated involved evaluation of the objective quality of the proposed area as well as its logical delimitation, i.e., in terms of value and thematic integrity. Optimal delimitation of the territories to be nominated was therefore defined without taking the current proprietary or legal aspects of the entities into consideration, as it is based purely on the results of the general evaluation. Experience arising from studying the localities already listed in the UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites indicates that delimitation of a certain protection zone is required to be defined (so-called buffer zone) around world heritage sites. This zone is supposed to assure protection of the viewpoints around the world heritage site and its historical provisions, and assurance of supervisions over construction activities in its immediate vicinity, so that its value could not be affected by inappropriate development projects, extent or character-wise, or physically damaging to the protected heritage site. It is, of course, favorable, if the buffer zone itself is a territory of certain quality and harmony. When considering the proposed nomination, it was therefore necessary to count with the buffer zone requirement. The buffer zone and borderline should have legal protection as well, of course. For this purpose, it is possible to take advantage of the fact that the existing borderlines of the spa territories are protected under provisions applicable to spa locations. Should these borderlines be considered unsuitable for the purposes of the nomination, an amendment to the current delimitation of the protected zone or buffer zone can be made under the provisions of Sec. 17 of Act No. 20/1987 Coll., on state heritage protection, as amended. It is necessary to mention that assurance of a certain regulatory regimen for optimal progress of the potential heritage sites and correct delimitation of the required buffer zones, as part of the preparation of the nomination documentation, is not an easy task. One may, of course, rely on the scope of the selected heritage territories (i.e., the current historical conservation sites of Františkovy Lázně, Karlovy Vary, and Mariánské Lázně). In all three town, however, there exist some minor inaccuracies (both in terms of the verbal description of the protected zone and the logic of their delimitation as valuable conservation zone). More detailed elaboration of these aspects, in order to ensure unambiguous interpretation of the relevant state administration authority’s competences is therefore desirable, irrespective of the nomination project. In the following text, we therefore present the basic characteristics of the scope of the most valuable territories and the respective potential buffer zones, as they are currently being considered for the purposes of the nomination and as presented in the introductory documentation for the Indicative List.
Karlovy Vary The Territory Proper The territory selected for nomination is a continuous territory within the current historical conservation area, i.e., a territory that is smaller than the current historical conservation area. The north, the zone includes the Lázně V complex with Smetanovy Sady (Smetana Park), the town’s spa district to the south from Smetanovy Sady up to Poštovní Dvůr, along the edge of the natural park and Na Vyhlídce Street (in the east). The territory also includes the unique district of residential villas, Westend, which is unalienable from the spa town’s organism, and of course the town’s dominant, Hotel Imperial, with its surroundings. Hotel Thermal is, on the contrary, excluded from the territory. The Buffer Zone For delimitation buffer zone, it is not possible to use the borders of the spa district as such, as it is all part of the conservation area already. It was therefore necessary to use the current borderline of the current conservation area. This causes no problems in the west, where the borderline passes through a park, therefore in sufficient distance from the proposed heritage site’s protection zone. The same can be said about the north, where the protection zone would approximately copy the Ohře River and the railway. In the east, however, the borderline of the borderline of the zone proposed for nomination overlaps with the border of the current conservation area. Here, correct delimitation of the buffer zone is particularly important, because (contrary to the western side) the protected territory does not include the developed area between the conservation area’s borderline (Na Vyhlídce St.) and the edge of the park, i.e., the eastern side of Na Vyhlídce Street. Our Assessment
Study of the area’s historical value indicates that the structures on the eastern side of Na Vyhlídce Street (outside the conservation area) are equally valuable as those on the western side (within the conservation area). Thus, the existing delimitation of the conservation area may be defined as professionally incorrect. Rectification of this discrepancy would require inclusion of the entire eastern side of the said street in the conservation area. Since the borderline of the buffer zone on the western side will run through the upper section of the park (copying the border of the current conservation area), the eastern borderline of the buffer zone should be symmetrical, i.e., it should include Otto Hill and
Maps created as part of the Assessment Study of Land Development in the Towns of the West-Bohemian Spa Triangle The maps produced as part of the evaluation of land development in the towns of the Spa Triangle present a comprehensive view of distribution of historically valuable locations within the said territory, both in terms of individual sites and preservation of the historically authentic urban structure. By way of summarization, it can said that determination of the most valuable territories is based on the prevalence of sites classified as A+, A, or B (or F), i.e., marked in red, blue, or green (or dark gray). The sites are classified by objective historical value in the following categories: A+ – historically most valuable sites – marked in red / A – individual historically valuable buildings, to be protected – marked in blue / B – supplementary sites (urban) of historical value, to be protected – marked in green / C – objekty s rušivou fasádou, k architectonic rehabilitaci – marked in brown / D, E – incongruous sites, to be altered, material or design-wise, or demolished and replaced (D) or not replaced (E) – marked in purple / F – architecturally noteworthy newbuilding – marked in dark gray / 0 – other sires or not evaluated sites – marked in light gray / Z, W – no-longer-existing and vacant (usually never developed) land parcels or land designated for development – marked in yellow. Supplementary Characteristics of Sites: Partly deteriorated façade – marked in dotted purple contour around the façade / Severely deteriorated façade – marked with purple dashed countour around the façade / Incongruous material or design in parts of the site/building or architecturally incongruous roof – marked with a purple dot inside the site’s area Delimitation of the territory in point (i.e., potential world heritage site) (thick orange line) and the respective buffer zone (thick light-blue line) for all three towns constitutes an inseaparable part of the Requisition / Application.
Tři Kříže (Three Crosses). In this context, it would be desirable to also include the complex of the Karlovy Vary cemetery into the buffer zone, as the cemetery is being evaluated as a valuable heritage site. In the NW, the width of the buffer zone would be very narrow, if it were to copy the current border of the current conservation area. Moreover, it includes the questionable Hotel Thermal, but not the neighboring street with historically valuable residential villas east of Bezručova Street. The Assessment Study indicates that this is a valuable intact territory, indeed, which should be part of the protected conservation area. The proposed delimitation of the buffer zone therefore runs east of Jiráskova Street, thus including the most valuable part of the said residential district. Further expansion of the current conservation area has been proposed to include area to the east of Jateční and Vítězné Streets, and the requisition for the expansion is being adequately substantiated in the Assessment Study. Finally, another expansion of the conservation area, hence also the buffer zone, is being suggested in the NW. The current borderline is not organically justifiable, as it cuts through a valuable residential block along the borderline between the cadastral districts of Karlovy Vary and Tuhnice. Since the current borderline is not justifiable, from the professional point of view, it is being suggested that the proposed buffer zone cover also the remaining part of the historically valuable developed area in Tuhnice, south of Krymská and Moskevská Streets, as well as the adjacent historically valuable residential villas. Inclusion of the park around Rohanův Kříž (Rohan Cross) would ensure an organically very sound and professionally unquestionable borderline of the buffer zone.
Mariánské Lázně The Territory Proper The territory selected for nomination is a continuous territory within the current historical conservation area. The northern and central part of it is more or less identical to territory of the current conservation area. Excluded from it were only certain less valuable parts (south of Střelnice, west of the western side of the pavilion known as “intravilán”, i.e., along the beltway road). In the south, selection was limited spa-related facilities, i.e., the park belt along the creek up to Ferdinandův and Rudolfův Springs and the residential district in Úšovice (including Miramonte). Excluded from it was a narrow belt in the SE (south end of Zeyerova Street, east of Ferdinandův and Rudolfův Springs) as well as the entire SW area around Hlavní Třída (between Chebská Street and the railway), which contains certain undeniably valuable structures, but not in the context of spa culture. The Buffer Zone The territory selected for nomination is a continuous territory within the current historical conservation area. The northern and central part of it is more or less identical to territory of the current conservation area. Excluded from it were only certain less valuable parts (south of Střelnice, west of the western side of the pavilion known as “intravilán”, i.e., along the beltway road). In the south, selection was limited spa-related facilities, i.e., the park belt along the creek up to Ferdinandův and Rudolfův Springs and the residential district in Úšovice (including Miramonte). Excluded from it was a narrow belt in the SE (south end of Zeyerova Street, east of Ferdinandův and Rudolfův Springs) as well as the entire SW area around Hlavní Třída (between Chebská Street and the railway), which contains certain undeniably valuable structures, but not in the context of spa culture.
Františkovy Lázně The Territory Proper The territory selected for nomination as world heritage site would cover the entire current historical conservation area, whish is remarkably homogenous from the perspective of urban planning and architecture. A partial exception has been made in the SW corner of the territory in the vicinity of Evangelical church and destroyed synagogue, where relatively many gaps exist. However, the degree of incongruence is not great enough to justify exclusion of this territory from nomination. From professional perspective, it is being suggested that parts of this territory be included in the conservation area. In the west, the borderline would copy Slatinný Brook and include Labutí Jezírko (Swan Lake) and surrounding park. The territory constitutes an inseparable part of the unique park belt surrounding the inner heart of the spa. In the SE, expansion of the conservation area is being suggested to include the remaining part of the park belt between the current borderline and the railway track, as well as the railroad station that constitutes an important functional part of the whole spa town’s organism and a historically valuable site, despite certain partial modern interventions. Furthermore, it is being suggested to include the neighboring area in the conservation area, which have a high concentration of supreme quality villas. Despite their undeniable value, no adequate consideration has been given to the villas as an architectural type to include them in the conservation area. The Buffer Zone The spa territory meets the buffer zone requirements ideally, as it copies the existing conservation area in the short NW section and otherwise covers the adjacent territories, i.e., it includes the area of Dvořákovy Sady with fish ponds west of Slatinný Brook, Natáliin Spring and its surroundings (including lookouts) in the SE beyond the railway track. Generally, the territory is a valuable countryside with several important architectural gems.
Spas on the UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites Several localities containing singular spa structures or spa complexes are already registered in the UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites (status 2008). Let us mention them in this publication: Bath (Great Britain). The Welsh town of Bath was entered in the UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites in 1987. The local thermal spring was used already by the Celts. Following Roman invasion in Britain, large bath facilities were built here, called “Aquae Sulis” and temple dedicated to goddess Sulis–Minerva. The hot spring (46°C) source is located in the temple’s courtyard, from where it flows into the spa with a large water basin (Great Bath). The formerly open-air basin was subsequently covered with a vaulted roof supported with
massive pillars (remainders of the footing are preserved). Towards the end of the Roman period, a Christian sanctuary was built over the spring and, in the 12th century, a so-called Royal Bath, which was a small pool built from the formerly Roman building blocks. Over time, however, the spa structures deteriorated and collapsed, and the ruins stifled the spring. In the year 1497, king Jindřich (Henry) VII decided to have an abbey built at the site of the former temple, whereupon, in 1499, the construction of the abbey was begun. The new abbey was named after the legendary local bishop Bath: Bath Abbey. The healing powers of the springs were used primarily by the brethren of the Bath Abbey, although some spa guests are known to have started to come here. The fame of the town as a spa began to grow only at the beginning of the 18th century, following queen Ann’s visits in 1702 and 1703. The spa’s importance was further enhanced when king Charles II received treatments here. Following reconstruction of the old town, where foundations were laid after regulatory plans by architects John Wood Sr. and John Wood Jr. in the years 1725–1775 for development of new municipal districts. In 1754, John Wood Sr. built a circular Square Circus, onto which John Wood Jr. added s new semi-circular Square Royal Crescent with 30 row houses in the years 1765–75. The houses had straight vertical façades and faces the neighboring large park. In later years, the southern part of the Square was connected to a third square, called Queen Square, whose construction had been started by John Wood Sr. already in 1729. The architecture of new Bath stems from Classical Palladian models, including Roman motifs, especially in the form of columnar offsetting, which, in the case of Square Circus, resembles a Dorian-Ionic-Corinthian Coliseum. Thus, the development of the newly founded spa town represents a unique and integral demonstration of the distinguished Neoclassicist Georgian style favored all over Britain. The old Roman baths were excavated only in the 1870’s. In 1897, a pavilion was built at the site of the former Roman temple. It had a large receiving foyer topped by a dome that evoked the appearance of Wren’s St. Stephen Walbrook Church in London. Terraces with statues of Roman emperors, governors, and old Britain’s military commanders were built around Grand Bath, from which spa guests may overlook and admire the whole spa complex. The restoration of Bath as a spa has definitively transformed the former medieval wool manufacturing center into one of the most elegant spas in Europe. Budapest (Hungary). The was entered in the UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites in 1987, with subsequent expansion in 2002. Budapest took care to preserve traces of its heritage sites that impacted in a meaning way on architectural developments in various eras, such as the Roman town of Aquincum and the Gothic Buda Castle. The image of the town is dominated by monumental structure of the 19th century. Budapest is a town with one of the most beautiful urbane countrysides in the world, and a good illustration of the history of architecture in Central Europe. The subsequent extension of the scope of the world heritage site involved a 19th century urban entity called Andrássy Třída (Blvd.) and part of the town historical district. Budapest itself features a number of architecturally significant spa facilities, such as examples of municipal baths established around thermal springs and used mostly for relaxation by the town’s inhabitants and visitors. Most individual spa buildings demonstrate affiliation to Viennese styles, i.e., Hungarian forms of Historicism and Art Nouveau. Budapest is not a typical spa town that caters primarily to spa guests requiring treatment, as most of its spa facilities are relatively mono-functional. The most important of the town’s spa locations are: Roman Baths in District + obuda (Castrum Aquincum - Thermae Maiores) – formerly a military campus (castrum) established by emperor Vespasian, in the years 41–54. As the role of the campus for defense of the town gradually grew, a civil town, named Aquincum, began to grow outside the fortification wall that eventually became an important point in the Pannonia region of the Roman Empire. In 106, the settlement became capital city of Lower Pannonia (Pannonia Inferior). It had 30-40 thousand inhabitants at the time. The name of the location derives from the thermal springs. The town was built of stone blocks. It had a vice-regency palace, shops, and spas, and it was enclosed by a massive fortified wall with three gates and a was surrounded by a double moat. One of the spas is called Rudas Turkish Baths, and its springs have been known since a thousand years ago. The construction of this spa was launched by pasha Ali of Buda in the style of a typical Turkish bath, i.e., a water basin with massive columns and a dome. Another spa is called Király Turkish Baths: built in the 16th century by Turkish pasha Arslan of Buda. This spa’s typical Turkish opulent luxury is apparent to this day, especially the dome and the vaults are considered master works of architecture. A spa named Császár (Imperial) is mentioned in a source, Gesta Hungarorum, over one thousand year ago, in the 11th century. During the Turkish era, the building was expanded and its current appearance is accountable to a reconstruction in mid-19th century, conceived as a mélange of Turkish and Classical styles with one open-air and one indoor swimming pool. A spa named Rácz consisting of a building built in the 15th century was famous ruler’s Matyáš Korvín favorite spa. In 1865, the spa was rebuilt after a project by a prominent Hungarian architect, Miklós Ybl. The building of yet another spa named Lukács dates back to the 19th century. Another spa named Gellért is in fact Hungary’s oldest spa hotel, whose springs have been known for nearly two thousand years. During the Turkish era, it was a most wonderful spa. Yet another spa, rebuilt to its current appearance in 1918, named Markéta’s Island Spa, is a neo-Renaissance building built after 1850’s by Miklós
Ybl commissioned by princess Hermina, the second wife of duke Josef. And finally, a spa named Széchenyi, was built in neo-Baroque style with Art-Nouveau elements as one of the largest spa facility in Europe. Trier (Treves, Germany) The town has been on the UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites since 1986. It contains a number of particularly valuable Antique sites, including Imperial and so-called Barbora Baths. Trier is a living documentation of Antique civilization in this part of Europe and its universal value does not necessarily stem from values linked to the town’s spa. Aachen (Germany). The spa, known as Dóm, has been on the UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites since 1978. The gross of this town’s universally valuable localities comprises historical sites from the era of Charles the Great, in particular, a polygonal, false-fortified chapel, which is one of the most impressive domed structures north of the Alps with particularly precious interior furnishings. Aachen has preserved its spa facilities and functions as a spa to this day. However, its registration in the UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites is owed to its architectural or urban treasures, with which the spa facilities of the town are associated merely by extension as a secondary functionality. Alhambra (Spain). The royal residence, Alhambra, Granada was put on the UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites in 1984 (expanded in 1994). This grandiose residence of Moorish rulers contains of course all the tokens of status and comfort, including a spa and meticulously designed gardens. Moenjodaro (Pakistan). This bygone metropolitan city’s ruins dating back to the 3rd century B.C. are situated in the valley of the Hindus River. In addition to documenting an urban planning structure of thousands of years ago, the site contains also remains of ancient municipal baths. The locality is a witness of an entirely different civilization and, of course, is not listed in the UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites as a spa. Although the UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites registers certain localities, where spa functions were or are involved, it is a fact that – apart from Bath – spa functions or characteristics played not a determining role. By way of summarization, it can said that examples of European spa towns are currently not adequately represented in the said List. This fact applies both to international and region-specific spa locations.
Poznámky: 1/ KUČA Karel – KUČOVÁ Věra, Principy památkového urbanismu, příloha časopisu Zprávy památkové péče, Issue 60, 2000. 2/ BOŘÍKOVÁ Jana - BOŘÍK Otakar, Hospice, špitály a nemocnice v Karlových Varech. Dobřichovice 2004, p. 6; Karlovy Vary na přelomu tisíciletí,(Karlovy Vary at the Break of the Milennium), Coll. of Athors, Karlovy Vary 2001, p. 204 3/ LUDWIG Karl, Alt-Karlsbad, Karlsbad 1942, p.116. 4/ Comp.: GNIRS Anton, Topographie der historischen und kunstgeschichtlichen Denkmale in dem Bezirk Karlsbad, rkp.1933, München 1996, p. 47; LUDWIG Karl, Alt-Karlsbad, p. 59. 5/ Prameny k dějinám třicetileté války III., Regesta Militaria Fund, Archives of the Interior Ministry, Czech Rep., compiled by Dr. V.Líva, Prague 1951, p. 264. 6/ Karlovy Vary na přelomu tisíciletí, p. 168. 7/ Comp.: ZEMAN Lubomír, Karlovy Vary, architektura baroka a klasicismu (Carlsbad, Baroque and Classicist Architecture) 1650-1850, Karlovy Vary 2006, p. 127 8/ KUBÍČEK Alois, Architekt českých lázní. In: Umění 3, 1958/VI.; ZEMAN Lubomír, Kolonády v západočeských lázních, Sborník Krajského muzea Karlovarského kraje 15/2008, Cheb 2008, pp. 159-190. 9/ ŠREK Robert, Karlovarská architektura v letech 1788-1826. In.: 15th Karel Nejdl Historical Seminar 2005, Karlovy Vary 2006. 10/ ZEMAN Lubomír, The Westend of Karlovary Vary. The Beginnings of Residential Villa Architecture in Karlovy Vary. Karlovy Vary 1998. 11/ RUND Michael, Po stopách Rudolfa Welse, Sokolov 2006, 115. 12/ ZEMAN Lubomír, Karlovy Vary, Baroque and Classicist Architecture ... p. 25. 13/ Comp.: e.g.: HORYNA Mojmír - KUČERA Jaroslav, Dientzenhoferové. Praha 1998, pp. 134-135. 14/ KSANDR Karel, Architect Josef Zítek – Catalogue of Works, Prague 1996, p. 85; KSANDR Karel, The Mlýnský Spring Colonnade, archival research (rcp.). 15/ ROUBÍNEK Zdeněk – ROUBÍNKOVÁ Dana, Historismus v architektuře Karlových Varů, Karlovy Vary 1996, pp. 42-43; ZÍDKOVÁ Anna, Fellner a Helmer v Karlových Varech, Karlovy Vary 1997, pp. 85-96. 16/ ZÍDKOVÁ Anna, Fellner a Helmer, p. 99. 17/ Ditto, pp. 161-183. 18/ FESTSCHRIFT zur 74. Versammlung Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte“, Karlsbad 1902, p. 234-240; ROUBÍNEK Zdeněk – ROUBÍNKOVÁ Dana, Historismus, pp. 26-27. 19/ ZEMAN Lubomír, Kurhaus – Lázně III. v Karlových Varech. Obnova Slavnostního sálu. In.: Historic Conservation Reports (Zprávy památkové péče) 4/2005, pp. 317-322. 20/ ROUBÍNEK Zdeněk – ROUBÍNKOVÁ Dana, Historismus, pp. 23-25. 21/ ZÍDKOVÁ Anna, Fellner a Helmer, p. 111-142; kol. autorů, Karlovy Vary Theater, 1999, pp. 16-18. 22/ Ditto, p. 117. 23/ ROUBÍNEK Zdeněk – ROUBÍNKOVÁ Dana, Historismus, p. 65. 24/ Comp.: ROUBÍNEK Zdeněk – ROUBÍNKOVÁ Dana, Historismus, pp. 40-41; ZÍDKOVÁ Anna, Fellner and Helmer, pp. 63-82. 25/ Latest edition by ŠVANDRLÍK Richard, Johann Josef Nehr (1752-1820), Mariánské Lázně 2008, p. 30. 26/ Comp.: ZEMAN Lubomír, Klasicistní lázeňské domy v západočeských lázních, Sborník
příspěvků konference Dějiny staveb (Conference on the History of Buildings) 2007, Plzeň 2007, pp. 147-162. 27/ ZATLOUKAL Pavel, Mariánské Lázně. In: Architektura 19. století. Praha 2001, p. 164. 28/ BENEŠOVÁ Marie, Stavební vývoj Mariánských Lázní. In: Mariánské Lázně Collection of Papers, Štěpánek, L., Mariánské Lázně 1970, p. 43; ZEMAN Lubomír, Kolonády v západočeských lázních. Sborník Krajského muzea Karlovarského kraje 15/2008, Cheb 2008, pp. 159-190. 29/ KUBÍČEK Alois, Architekt českých lázní, p. 299; FELBINGER Johan Nepomuk, Kronika Mariánských Lázní 1786-1855, Mariánské Lázně 2008, p. 43. 30/ ZATLOUKAL Pavel, Františkovy Lázně. In: Architektura 19. stol. Praha 2001, p. 110. 31/ MACEK Stanislav, Architektura Františkových Lázní v 19. století, Františkovy Lázně 1989, p. 155 32/ MACEK Stanislav, Františkovy Lázně. Historie města. Františkovy Lázně 1995, p. 56. 33/ MACEK Stanislav, Architektura Františkových Lázní, p. 20. 34/ KUBÍČEK Alois, Architekt českých lázní, p. 300. 35/ MACEK Stanislav, Františkovy Lázně, Historie, pp. 56 and 69. 36/ Ditto, p. 37. 37/ KISCH Heinrich, Marienbad, Franzensbad, Teplitz-Schönau, Johannisbad, Liebwerda, Bilin, Giesshübl-Sauerbrunn, Krondorf, Neudorf, Wien-Prag 1902, pp. 239 and 241. 38/ KISCH Heinrich, p. 245-247. 39/ MACEK Stanislav, Architektura Františkových Lázní, p. 113. 40/ ZEMAN Lubomír, Architektura secese a Art Decó v Jáchymově a Ostrově. Historický sborník Karlovarska (History Papers on the Karlovy Vary Region) VIII., Karlovy Vary 2000, pp. 69-93. 41/ BURACHOVIČ Stanislav, WIESSER Stanislav, Encyklopedie lázní a léčivých pramenů v Čechách, na Moravě a ve Slezsku, Praha 2001, p. 190. 42/ PROCHÁZKA Zdeněk, Konstantinovy Lázně, Bezdružice, a okolí, Domažlice 2005, p. 58. 43/ SOMMER Johann Gottfried, Das Königreich Böhmen. Bd. VI, Pilsner Kreis, Prag 1838. 44/ PROCHÁZKA Zdeněk, Konstantinovy Lázně ... p. 62. 45/ ZEMAN Lubomír, Lázně Kyselka. Nové poznatky ze stavebního vývoje západočeských lázní. In: Sborník příspěvků konference Dějiny staveb (Collection of Papers to Conference on History of Buidings) Plzeň 2008, pp. 213-223. 46/ Comp.: KISCH Heinrich, pp. 355-366; GNIRS Anton, Topographie, pp. 38-39; BURACHOVIČ Stanislav, Mattoni a Lázně Kyselka, Karlovy Vary 1999, p. 80 47/ VACHATA Zdeněk, Klášterec nad Ohří. Přehled dějin města a okolí, Klášterec nad Ohří 1997, pp. 136-138. 48/ ZEMAN Lubomír, Kolonády v západočeských lázních, Sborník Krajského muzea Karlovarského kraje15/2008, Cheb 2008, pp. 159-190 49/ KUBÍČEK Alois, Architekt českých lázní, p. 299. 50/ Comp.: Pavel ZATLOUKAL, Architektura neoklasicismu. In.: Dějiny českého výtvarného umění 1780/1890 (III/1), p. 204. 51/ PETRASOVÁ Taťána, Architektura „státního“ klasicismu, palladiánského neoklasicismu a počátků romantického historismu. In: Dějiny českého výtvarného umění 1780/1890 (III/1), p. 28. 52/ MACEK Stanislav, Architektura Františkových Lázní, p. 52. 53/ Comp.: GODOLI Ezio,, Architetture termali nei progetti della Wagnerschule, In: Stile e struttura delle cita termali (ed. BOSSAGLIA Rossana), Bergamo 1986, pp. 183 and 192.
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