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INCREASE Wonderlab: Research Cluster 6, 2014-2015 Graduate Architectural Design


CONTENTS INTRODUCTION

1 INITIAL RESEARCH 1.1 Reference 1.2 Initial Test 1.3 Folding Element 1.4 Connection Method 1.5 Cluster Study


2 DESIGN PROTOTYPE

3 MATERIAL STUDY

4 GROWTH LOGIC

5 FURTHER PROPOSAL

2.1 Stool Prototype 2.2 Chair Prototype 2.3 Physical Connection Prototpye 2.4 Column Prototype 2.5 Pavilion Prototype

3.1 Material Test 3.2 Paper Test 3.3 Paper Mixtures 3.4 Paper Pulp 3.5 Folding to Casting

4.1 Linear Growth 4.2 Chair Design 4.3 Table Design 4.4 Pavilion Design 4.5 Shelter Design

5.1 Site Analysis 5.2 Outdoor Theatre & Meeting Point Design


WONDERLAB: RESEARCH CLUSTER 6, DANIEL WIDRIG, STEFAN BASSING, SOOMEEN HAHM INCREASE: CHAO ZHENG, CHANGCHEN WEI, CHAO-FU YEH, JINLIANG WANG


INCREASE Chao Zheng, Chao-fu Yeh, Changchen Wei, Jinliang Wang

The project, Increase, was oriented by the materiality of paper and the initial prototypes created by folding technique. We investigated different possibilities of paper, which includes materiality and formation ability. The characteristics of the paper are fascinating. The paper is a material that is cheap, easy to get and can be formed into many different things. Once you fold a sheet, the structure of the paper will be much stronger than it was. Folding paper is used more for art crafts rather than for real building scale structure. Moreover, the paper is recyclable. Human beings waste 85 billion kg paper every year. It would be interesting if we utilize the recycled paper such as newspapers, paper boxes, and other paper products and made it constructible and recyclable. We could save a lot of construction energy and sequestrate carbon in a solid status. The paper can be constructed easily, can be massive production, and the formation from the paper can be various., As architectural material, paper was only

widely used in Shigeru Ban’s architecture pieces in the form of laminated paper tube. These tubes are more like the replacement of concrete or steel columns and beams rather than developing a material system based on the probably most important figure of paper, which is easily foldable. Crease which created by the folding process suggests a continuous formation language. We folded three pieces paper as a component as our design seed. Our project abstracted the folded components into single modular and trying to investigate the aggregation logic which adapts to the crease and component outline. Our system applied to our design with 2 main generation logic. We developed the system by the function of spaces. Different space programme needs different generation method to meet the space requirements. To sum up, this project is to research how morphogenesis could be applied during the design process when considering material performance and optimization in form generation.


1

Initial Research Reference, Initial Test, Folding Element, Connection Method, Cluster Study


INITIAL RESEARCH inCrease

Reference

Faceture Vase by Cuttance / 2012

The faceture series consists of handmade faceted vessels, light-shades and table. Each object is produced individually by casting resin into a simple handmade mould. The mould is then manually manipulated to create the each object's form before each casting, making every piece utterly unique.

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INITIAL RESEARCH inCrease

Reference

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INITIAL RESEARCH inCrease

Reference

Paper Pulp Helmet by Bobby Petersen, Tom Gottelier and Edward Thomas / 2013

A low cost, recyclable, bicycle helmet for use in conjunction with the London Bicycle Hire Scheme. Manufactured from waste newspapers that circulate the London transport network. Newspapers are collected and blended with water to create a pulp. No bleaching or adhesive is added although an organic and food safe additive is also combined that ensures the helmets water resistance for up to 6 hours of rain. Natural pigments to communicate helmet size is also added.

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INITIAL RESEARCH inCrease

Reference

Pulp Pavilion by Ball-Nogues Studio / 2015

Ball-Nogues Studio created a sinuous orange and purple pavilion that towered over music fans at this year's Coachella music festival by blasting pigmented paper pulp over a string structure. The spindly latticed structures were created by weaving over 2,200 metres of twine around formwork, then air blasting this material with over a tonne of orange-pigmented paper pulp. Once dry, the rigid components were clustered together to create a structure with a scalloped roof edge.

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INITIAL RESEARCH inCrease

Initial Test

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INITIAL RESEARCH inCrease

Initial Test

Folding is a good way of generating surface forms. In the initial research of folding technique, the most interesting thing is the outcome of the folded crease pattern. These pattern either enhance the load bearing ability or make the surface unique and delicate. One of the exercises is to figure out how the crease and form produced by folding could be kept. Some casting tests were done in term 1 and some interesting moments happened in this experiment.

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INITIAL RESEARCH inCrease

Initial Test

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INITIAL RESEARCH inCrease

Initial Test

After the first several attempts to fold and to cast, structure and formation failure happened all the way. The failure can be concluded into three points. 1. Folding is a continuous form language, while the folding will not be continuous due to the limitation of the folding material. 2. Folding pattern complex and lack of regularity. This makes the component hard to connect with each other, resulting in the formation always limited in a very small and simple scale. Connection method is important in aggregation. 3. The material was used to cast is not even relavant to the paper itself. Whether it is possible to ‘cast’ the outcome by the paper or some other status of paper came into question.

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INITIAL RESEARCH inCrease

Folding Element

one pattern many forms

This project started with exploring the potential of the relationship of folding and patterns. Paper folding is based on crease patterns, without these creases it cannot called folding. At the begging, the folding shape is a circle. These circles were subdivided to several frequencies. Followed by, one-frequency circle and eight-frequency patterns were utilized to different ways. Due to structural and formational reasons, this project became a component based aggregative design. Material system will be introduced as an indispensable part of the project. The next phase will involve fractal concept in the project. At the end of the part, formation generation will be applied to the design. This project investigated a circle as an initial research of pattern and folding. Followed by the experiment, this project focused on one frequency and eight frequency patterns. The frequencies of the circle mean the different subdividing results. Higher frequency pattern has more potential to fold a delicate formation. Eight frequency patterns were utilized to find a proper form as a prototype. Because of eight-frequency pattern was subdivided to many regular triangles, these objects folded by the patterns have potential to connect or interlock together. There are 85 intersection points in the pattern. It means there has 7140 constrained relationships between these points. With the patterned sheet on hands people could create various spatial movements into a 3 dimension object. circle

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one frequency


INITIAL RESEARCH inCrease

two frequency

Folding Element

four frequency

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eight frequency


INITIAL RESEARCH inCrease

Folding Element

folding element a

folding element b

folding element c

folding element d

folding element e

folding element f

folding element g

folding element h

folding element i

folding element j

folding element k

folding element l

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INITIAL RESEARCH inCrease

Folding Element

folding element m

folding element n

folding element o

folding element p

folding element q

folding element r

folding element s

folding element t

folding element u

folding element v

folding element w

folding element x

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INITIAL RESEARCH inCrease component

Connection Method

*1

tetrahedron layer

connection method a

*2

component layer

face to face

tetrahedron layer

component layer

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INITIAL RESEARCH inCrease connection method b

*2

Connection Method

face to face

tetrahedron layer

connection method c

*2

component layer

point to point

tetrahedron layer

component layer

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INITIAL RESEARCH inCrease cluster a

*3

*3

Cluster Study

face to face

tetrahedron layer

component layer

tetrahedron layer

component layer

face to face

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INITIAL RESEARCH inCrease cluster b

*3

*6

Cluster Study

crease to face face to face

tetrahedron layer

component layer

tetrahedron layer

component layer

crease to face

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INITIAL RESEARCH inCrease cluster c

*3

Cluster Study

crease to crease

tetrahedron layer

*4

component layer

*2 point to point

tetrahedron layer

component layer

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INITIAL RESEARCH inCrease cluster d

*4

*3

Cluster Study

face to face

tetrahedron layer

component layer

tetrahedron layer

component layer

face to face

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INITIAL RESEARCH inCrease cluster e

*3

*4

Cluster Study

crease to crease

tetrahedron layer

component layer

tetrahedron layer

component layer

point to point

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INITIAL RESEARCH inCrease cluster f

*32

Cluster Study

crease to crease

tetrahedron layer

component layer

tetrahedron layer

component layer

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2

Design Prototype Stool Prototype, Chair Prototype, Physical Connection Prototype, Column Prototype, Pavilion Prototype


DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Stool Prototype

perspective view

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Stool Prototype

front view

side view

top view

bottom view

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Stool Prototype

perspective view

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Stool Prototype

top view

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Stool Prototype

Stool Prototype B

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Stool Prototype

perspective view

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Stool Prototype

This bench only utilized one size components. Moreover, the cross-connection in this piece was also as the sitting area. To the leg of the bench, it used face to face with rotation connection method. This bench took 19 components to build.

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Stool Prototype

front view

side view

back view

top view

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

Chair Prototype A

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

perspective view

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

In this chair, the smallest component was fill in the sitting area for comfortable and flat sitting. The middle components were the main structure of the sitting part and connected with the cross-connection. The biggest components connected with face to face with rotation as the leg and backrest. This chair was took 90 components to build.

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

front view

side view

back view

top view

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

Chair Prototype B

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

perspective view

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

The small components comprised the core of this lattice chair. The medium components connected as a shell of the core. The connection method is point to point. In real world, it is the weakest connection method. This chair took 61 components.

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

front view

side view

back view

top view

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

tetrahedron layer

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

component layer

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

front view

tetrahedron layer

component layer

tetrahedron layer

component layer

back view

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

front view

tetrahedron layer

component layer

tetrahedron layer

component layer

back view

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

tetrahedron layer

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

component layer

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

front view

tetrahedron layer

component layer

tetrahedron layer

component layer

back view

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

front view

tetrahedron layer

component layer

tetrahedron layer

component layer

back view

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Physical Connection Prototype

I n t h i s s te p we t r i e d s eve r a l c o m p o n e n t a n d connection method by totally folded pieces. These pieces provide mutipal options for us to have more design freedom.

connection test 1

connection test 2

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Physical Connection Prototype

This model shows lattice connections between different components. This method is easy to form a space. The disadventage is too fragile as a structure in our design.

lattice connection test 1

lattice connection test 2

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Physical Connection Prototype

This step tried three-connetion cluster tetrahedrons, with can create random formation but structral reasonable.

cluster connection test 2

cluster connection test 1

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Physical Connection Prototype

Fractal concept introduced to the project. Different scale components were connected to represent fractal formation.

cluster connection test 1

cluster connection test 2

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Physical Connection Prototype

Cross-connection is connected line to line. the connection method provides the potential of rotation. Arranging in group with tetrahedrons this connetion can provide 45 and 60 degrees rotaions.

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Physical Connection Prototype

This piece combined fractal and cross-connection method. Different scale components connected together and showed potential of rotations.

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Physical Connection Prototype

Process of chair fabrication. During the fabrication, there were several beautiful moments of the chair.

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Physical Connection Prototype

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INITIAL STUDY DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease inCrease

Chair Prototype

front view

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

side view

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

back view

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

top view

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

seed component

grow to first boundry

grow to second boundry

grow to final boundry (stoped)

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

secondary layer growth

final object

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third layer growth


DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

side view

tetrahedron layer

component layer

tetrahedron layer

component layer

top view

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

perspective view

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

chair 1 prototype

Chair 2 shrink down and simplify

chair 3 hard-core amplify tetrahedron

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

chair 4 armrest

chair 5 focus on backrest asymmetry test 1

chair 6 focus on backrest asymmetry test 2

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

chair design experiment In this step, we utilized cross-connected method to design our chairs. Due to the cross-connections is the strongest connection method for our project. Moreover, the cross-connections provide flat surfaces for sitting and backrest.

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

The length of middle size component is 14.5cm. The funtion of this component is to be the main structre of the chair. It takes 271 components as the main part of the chair.

The length of small size component is 7.25cm. The funtion of this component is to support and reinforce the main structure. It also helps to shape the delicate part of the chair. It takes 304 components as the secondary part of the chair.

The length of big size component is 29cm. The funtion of this component is to be the base and filling spaces. It takes 5 components as the base part of the chair.

There are 580 components composed this chair. The hight of sitting area is 42cm, width is 61cm, and depth is 41cm.

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

back view

side view

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Chair Prototype

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Column Prototype

tetrahedron layer

column a

column b

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Column Prototype

component layer

column a

column b

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

walkway path

Column Prototype

light penetration

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selected final pavilion


DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Column Prototype

n = 106 step = 003 second & third layer iteration

final aggregation complex (with components shown) n = 053 step = 003 first layer iteration

final aggregation complex

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Pavilion Prototype

side

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Pavilion Prototype

view

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Pavilion Prototype

top v

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE inCrease

Pavilion Prototype

view

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3

Material Study Material Test, Paper Test, Paper Mixtures, Paper Pulp, Folding to Casting


MATERIAL STUDY inCrease

Material Study

material test

We utilize same component by different materials to find the best mixture. Including Kraftpaper, 170gam Cartridge Paper, 300gam paper sheet, 35mic pp plastic paper, and 540mic card board.

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MATERIAL STUDY inCrease

Material Study

paper test

170gam cartridge paper

300gam paper sheet

540mic card board

35mic pp plastic paper

pulp mixture

strength manufacturing time lightness

paper test

kraftpaper

strength manufacturing time lightness

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MATERIAL STUDY inCrease

Material Study

paper mixtures

170gam cartridge paper

170gam cartridge paper + gorilla glue

170gam cartridge paper + paraffin wax

170gam cartridge paper + microcrystalline wax

170gam cartridge paper + varnish oil

170gam cartridge paper + polyurethane casting resin

curing time strenght toxicity

mixtures

curing time strenght toxicity

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MATERIAL STUDY inCrease

Material Study

paper mixtures

170gam cartridge paper

170gam cartridge paper + polyurethane casting resin

170gam cartridge paper pcr / cement / pva / pulp

170gam cartridge paper pcr / plaster / pva / pulp

curing time strenght toxicity

mixtures

curing time strenght toxicity

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170gam cartridge paper + polyurethane casting resin / pulp


MATERIAL STUDY inCrease

Material Study

paper mixtures

kraftpaper

paper mixtures

kraftpaper paper

kraftpaper paper + polyurethane casting resin

300gam paper sheet

kraftpaper paper microcrystalline wax

kraftpaper paper + pcr / plaster / pva / pulp

300gam paper sheet + microcrystalline wax

curing time strenght toxicity

mixtures

curing time strenght toxicity

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MATERIAL STUDY inCrease 300gam paper sheet

Material Study paper mixtures

540mic card board

300gam paper sheet + polyurethane casting resin

540mic card board

540mic card board + polyurethane casting resin

300gam paper sheet + pcr / plaster / pva / pulp

540mic card board + microcrystalline wax

540mic card board + pcr / plaster / pva / pulp

curing time strenght toxicity

mixtures

curing time strenght toxicity

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MATERIAL STUDY inCrease

kraftpaper

Material Study

540mic card board

light structure/ decorative part

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35mic pp plastic paper


MATERIAL STUDY inCrease

kraftpaper + wax

Material Study

540mic card board + wax

plaster + pva + pulp

secondary structure / support part

main structure

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MATERIAL STUDY inCrease

Material Study

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MATERIAL STUDY inCrease

Material Study

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MATERIAL STUDY inCrease

Material Study

entire folding part

folding part + plup with folding language

plup with folding language

entire pulp + random formation (connection part)

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MATERIAL STUDY inCrease

Material Study

semi-pulp interacting + folding area

semi-pulp + folding language area

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MATERIAL STUDY inCrease

Material Study

paper pulp

1 * paper pulp

0 * paper pulp 3 * cement 2 * cement

volume

250ml

volume

250ml

weight

430g

weight

368g

density

1720.00kg/m続

density

1472.00kg/m続

We can decrease 14.42% of the weight.

1.5 * paper pulp 2 * paper pulp

1.5 * cement 1 * cement

volume

250ml

volume

250ml

weight

324g

weight

270g

density

1296.00kg/m続

density

1080.00kg/m続

We can decrease 24.65% of the weight.

We can decrease 37.21% of the weight.

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MATERIAL STUDY inCrease

Material Study

paper pulp

area

15cm2

area

15cm2

pressure

36.03 KN

pressure

29.86 KN

0.225 MPa

0.187 MPa We will lose 16.89% of the compression performance.

area

15cm2

area

15cm2

pressure

20.44 KN

pressure

11.01 KN

0.128 MPa

We will lose 43.11% of the compression performance.

0.069 MPa

We will lose 69.33% of the compression performance.

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MATERIAL STUDY inCrease

Material Study

pulp +rapid setting cement

pulp +sand +plaster

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pu +cem


ulp ment

MATERIAL STUDY inCrease

Material Study

pulp +white cement

pulp +cement + carbon fiber

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MATERIAL STUDY inCrease

Material Study

In this step, we played around with steel wires, pulp and bricks. We looked into the potential of how different design language could be combined together. We also utilized the pulp to shape and connect the gaps beteen different components.

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MATERIAL STUDY inCrease

Material Study

This piece is designed for a leg of a table. We stared from casted component to glue them togather. Then, we duplicated components by steel wires and followed the original creases. Next, we connected new lattice language from steel part and then connect to pulp again.

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MATERIAL STUDY inCrease

Material Study

Pulp brick prototype: We tried to apply our design to real scale structure. The pulp bricks were connected togather face to face.

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MATERIAL STUDY inCrease

Material Study

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MATERIAL STUDY inCrease

Material Study

pulp brick

steel wire

CNC mold

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MATERIAL STUDY inCrease

Material Study

prototype of pulp brick connect to steel

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MATERIAL STUDY inCrease

Material Study

interlock parts

pulp brick

cnc mold

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MATERIAL STUDY inCrease

Material Study

Mold updated We improved the CNC mold at this step. The brick casted from previous mold has two disadvantages. One is related to the creases, which are too flat. The other one is too heavy. In the next generation mold, we modified these two drawbacks. It can decrease 15% of weight.

The original creases are too flat. We made the creases deeper in this version. It also helps to volume down the pulp.

We introduced the shell part into thr brick to make it like paper a n d d e c re a s e t h e we i g h t o f component.

brick type 1

brick type 2

Truncated the corner reduced the volume of pulp, on the other hand the new geometry enriched the mass of our design.

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4.1

Growth Logic Linear Growth


GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Linear Growth

face to face connection: type 1

procedure = 01 iteration = 04

procedure = 02 iteration = 08

procedure = 03 iteration = 12

rotating chain structure & branch structure

face to face connection: type 02

procedure = 01 iteration = 10

procedure = 02 iteration = 20

procedure = 03 iteration = 30

rotating chain structure & branch structure clusters are generated with a same degree of rotation

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GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Linear Growth

face to face connection: type 03

procedure = 01 iteration = 12

procedure = 02 iteration = 24

procedure = 03 iteration = 36

rotating chain structure & branch structure

face to face connection with rotation: type 01

procedure = 01 iteration = 05

procedure = 02 iteration = 10

procedure = 03 iteration = 15

rotating chain structure & branch structure

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GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Linear Growth

face to face connection with rotation: type 01

procedure = 01 iteration = 14

procedure = 02 iteration = 28

procedure = 03 iteration = 42

clusters generated chain structure & branch structure

point to point connection: type 01

procedure = 01 iteration = 04

procedure = 02 iteration = 08

procedure = 03 iteration = 12

chain structure & branch structure

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GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Linear Growth

point to point connection: type 02

procedure = 01 iteration = 10

procedure = 02 iteration = 20

circle structure & chain structure

point to point connection: type 03

procedure = 01 iteration = 05

procedure = 02 iteration = 10

procedure = 03 iteration = 15

rotating chain structure & branch structure

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GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Linear Growth

face to face connection

iteration = 07

iteration = 09

iteration = 11

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GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Linear Growth

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GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Linear Growth

face to face connection

iteration = 07

iteration = 09

iteration = 11

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GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Linear Growth

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GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Linear Growth

generated by cluster: type 01

procedure = 01 iteration = 11

procedure = 02 iteration = 22

procedure = 03 iteration = 33

chain structure

generated by cluster: type 02

procedure = 01 iteration = 03

procedure = 02 iteration = 06

procedure = 03 iteration = 09

chain structure

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GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Linear Growth

generated by cluster: type 03

procedure = 01 iteration = 05

procedure = 02 iteration = 10

procedure = 03 iteration = 15

circle structure & chain structure

generated by cluster: type 04

procedure = 01 iteration = 04

procedure = 02 iteration = 08

procedure = 03 iteration = 09

circle structure & chain structure

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GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Linear Growth

generated by cluster: type 05

procedure = 01 iteration = 03

procedure = 02 iteration = 06

procedure = 03 iteration = 09

circle structure & chain structure

generated by cluster: type 06

procedure = 01 iteration = 13

chain structure

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GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Linear Growth

generated by cluster: type 07

procedure = 01 iteration = 05

procedure = 02 iteration = 10

procedure = 03 iteration = 15

rotating chain structure clusters are generated with a same degree of rotation

generated by cluster: type 08

procedure = 01 iteration = 06

procedure = 02 iteration = 12

procedure = 03 iteration = 18 rotating chain structure clusters are generated with a same degree of rotation

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GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Linear Growth

face to face connection

iteration = 06

iteration = 09

iteration = 08

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GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Linear Growth

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4.2

Growth Logic Design Application - Chair Design


GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Chair Design

curve 1.1 seed amount: 3 seed scale: 1

curve 1.1 vector field

growth output

growth accomplished main structure generated

curve 1.2 seed amount: 2 seed scale: 1

curve 1.2 vector field

growth output

growth accomplished main structure generated

curve 2.1 seed amount: 4 seed scale: 2

curve 2.1 vector field

growth output

growth accomplished side-arms generated

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GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

curve 2.2 seed amount: 4 seed scale: 2

curve 2.3 seed amount: 5 seed scale: 2

curve 2.4 seed amount: 6 seed scale: 2

Chair Design

curve 2.2 vector field

growth output

curve 2.3 vector field

growth output

curve 2.4 vector field

growth output

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growth accomplished side-arms generated

growth accomplished cushion generated

growth accomplished back generated


GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Chair Design

first step cushion area

second outward e

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GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Chair Design

d step extension

third step side-arms & back area

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GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Chair Design

front view

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GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Chair Design

side view

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4.3

Growth Logic Design Application - Table Design


GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Table Design

This series of pictures show the optimization process of the cuboid primitive. The input forces was meant to simulate a table’s load bearing condition. A clear output was generated stepwise after several iterations. This generated outcome together with the tension lines, stress lines and compression lines are the ‘information’ that could be used as environmental data for growth process.

solid primitive

support base

predefined load

3d topological optimization

3d topological optimization

3d topological optimization

curve cluster one (stress line)

curve cluster two (tensile line)

curve cluster three (compressive line)

- PAGE 140 -


GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Table Design

3d topological optimization

3d topological optimization

3d topological optimization

final output

boundry box

boundry box

extracted line

extracted line

field defination

- PAGE 141 -


GROWTH LOGIC inCrease The formation rule of this ‘signification’ language is actually a use of the concept of ‘vector field’. A ‘vector field’ is an assignment of vectors that contains continuous information in a subset of space. It can visually represent a velocity of a moving flow in a certain space, leading to notions such as divergence and curl. After understanding the logic, an algorithm ‘vector field’ representing the information that

Table Design created by the morphogenetic optimization was set up. The following graphs show the creation process of the vector field by input the outcome from last phase. Some representative curves along with their information from the ‘compression lines’ were extracted. The refined boundary box was set to restrict the field.

screenshot 01

screenshot 05

field creation

- PAGE 142 -

screenshot 09


GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Table Design

screenshot 02

screenshot 03

screenshot 04

screenshot 06

screenshot 07

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screenshot 10

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- PAGE 143 -


GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Table Design

First hierarchy growth forms the leg and support area of the table.

- PAGE 144 -


GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Table Design

screenshot 01

screenshot 02

screenshot 03

screenshot 04

screenshot 05

screenshot 06

screenshot 07

screenshot 08

screenshot 09

- PAGE 145 -


GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Table Design

These diagrams show the second hierarchy growth based upon the four legs to form the arch and part of the flat desktop.

- PAGE 146 -


GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Table Design

screenshot 01

screenshot 02

screenshot 03

screenshot 04

screenshot 05

screenshot 06

screenshot 07

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- PAGE 147 -


GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Table Design

The third hierarchy growth refines the whole design piece and to make the part, which directly interacts with users, more delicate and flat.

- PAGE 148 -


GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Table Design

screenshot 01

screenshot 02

screenshot 03

screenshot 04

screenshot 05

screenshot 06

screenshot 07

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- PAGE 149 -


GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Table Design

corner analysis I

curve 0, 1, 2

seed amout 3 seed scale 0.5

growth output

curve 0, 1, 2, 3

seed amout 3 seed scale 0.5

growth output

corner analysis II

- PAGE 150 -


GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Table Design

corner analysis III

curve 0, 1, 2, 3

seed amout 4 seed scale 0.5

growth output

curve 0, 1, 2, 3

seed amout 2 seed scale 1

growth output

basement analysis I

- PAGE 151 -


GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Table Design

component replacement step 01

- PAGE 152 -


GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Table Design

component replacement step 02

component replacement step 03

- PAGE 153 -


GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Table Design

structure analysis

- PAGE 154 -


GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Table Design

perspective view

- PAGE 155 -


GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Table Design

corner view

- PAGE 156 -


GROWTH LOGIC inCrease

Table Design

front view

- PAGE 157 -


4.4

Growth Development Design Application - Shelter Design


GROWTH DEVELOPMENT inCrease

Shelter Design

standard gyroid vector field (aggregationg type I: fill in surface space)

Standard Gyroid pattern is a cube-like volume surface structure. It means that standard Gyroid surface should be acquired in an area which every side length of it equals the same, also the surface spreads out equally in every direction. In this design, a standard unit of standard Gyroid pattern is used to generate the vector field, and guides the components to fill the surface space. As it can be seen, the components aggregate along the direction of the vector and form a radial shape. The final potential space looks like a cavern.

standard gyroid pattern first hierarchy growth

gyroid vector acquire scale x=3 y=3 z=3

1:1:1 standard gyroid vector field

standard gyroid pattern second hierarchy growth

standard gyroid pattern third hierarchy growth

- PAGE 160 -


GROWTH DEVELOPMENT inCrease

first hierarchy components

Shelter Design

second hierarchy components

standard gyroid field potential space render

- PAGE 161 -

third hierarchy components


GROWTH DEVELOPMENT inCrease

Shelter Design

1:1:3 gyroid vector field (aggregationg type I: fill in surface space)

In this design, Gyroid pattern is compressed in Z direction. As a result, the vector field is also compressed in Z direction. Since the components aggregate along the direction of the vector, they would create more layers than in the vector field of standard Gyroid surface. As the final render shows, the components create a platform above the ground. The radial shape doesn’t look so obvious than in the standard Gyroid vector field, because the space is too narrow to let the components spread out to every direction.

z direction compression first hierarchy growth

gyroid vector acquire scale x=3 y=3 z=9

1:1:3 gyroid vector field

z direction compression second hierarchy growth

z direction compression third hierarchy growth

- PAGE 162 -


GROWTH DEVELOPMENT inCrease

first hierarchy components

Shelter Design

second hierarchy components

1:1:3 gyroid field potential space render

- PAGE 163 -

third hierarchy components


GROWTH DEVELOPMENT inCrease

Shelter Design

1:2:1 gyroid vector field (aggregationg type I: fill in surface space)

If Gyroid pattern is compressed in Y direction, the vector field will also be compressed in Y direction. Since there is still plenty space on the two sides of the vector field to let the components spread into every direction, the components form a long-span space. As the final potential render shows, the components do not fill in the surface space between the two sides of the vector field because there is not enough space, so a long-span cavern-like space is created.

y direction compression first hierarchy growth

gyroid vector acquire scale x=3 y=6 z=3

1:2:1 gyroid vector field

y direction compression second hierarchy growth

y direction compression third hierarchy growth

- PAGE 164 -


GROWTH DEVELOPMENT inCrease

first hierarchy components

Shelter Design

second hierarchy components

1:2:1 gyroid field potential space render

- PAGE 165 -

third hierarchy components


GROWTH DEVELOPMENT inCrease

Shelter Design

3:1:1 gyroid vector field (aggregationg type I: fill in surface space)

Compress the Gyroid pattern in X direction, the vector field will also be compressed in X direction. Since the method of letting components fill the surface space makes the components possesses potential space, sometimes there is no actual space generated in this situation. In this design, the components only create a construction, rather than a potential space, as the final render shows.

x direction compression first hierarchy growth

gyroid vector acquire scale x=9 y=3 z=3

3:1:1 gyroid vector field

x direction compression second hierarchy growth

x direction compression third hierarchy growth

- PAGE 166 -


GROWTH DEVELOPMENT inCrease

first hierarchy components

Shelter Design

second hierarchy components

3:1:1 gyroid field potential space render

- PAGE 167 -

third hierarchy components


GROWTH DEVELOPMENT inCrease

Shelter Design

standard gyroid vector field (aggregationg type II: outline surface structure)

Within the same standard Gyroid pattern, in this design, the method of letting components aggregate along the surface is used. Since Gyroid surface is an arc-like shape structure, the components would form arch space in this situation. As the final render shows, the components form several arches since they outline the standard Gyroid surface structure in the standard vector field. This situation is very fit to create arches.

standard gyroid pattern first hierarchy growth

gyroid vector acquire scale x=3 y=3 z=3

1:1:1 standard gyroid vector field

standard gyroid pattern second hierarchy growth

standard gyroid pattern third hierarchy growth

- PAGE 168 -


GROWTH DEVELOPMENT inCrease

first hierarchy components

Shelter Design

second hierarchy components

standard gyroid field potential space render

- PAGE 169 -

third hierarchy components


GROWTH DEVELOPMENT inCrease

Shelter Design

1:1:3 gyroid vector field (aggregationg type II: outline surface structure)

As it has been showed in the former design, Z direction compressed Gyroid vector field could be used to create more layers. In this design, the method of letting components outline the surface structure is used in Z direction compressed Gyroid vector field. As the final render shows, again a platform is created, so is arch space. This situation also can produce long-span space if the aggregation of components is properly guided.

z direction compression first hierarchy growth

gyroid vector acquire scale x=3 y=3 z=9

1:1:3 gyroid vector field

z direction compression second hierarchy growth

z direction compression third hierarchy growth

- PAGE 170 -


GROWTH DEVELOPMENT inCrease

first hierarchy components

Shelter Design

second hierarchy components

1:1:3 gyroid field potential space render

- PAGE 171 -

third hierarchy components


GROWTH DEVELOPMENT inCrease

Shelter Design

1:2:1 gyroid vector field (aggregationg type II: outline surface structure)

In Y direction compressed Gyroid vector field, the potential arch space is also compressed. So the span of the arches would be shorter than those produced in standard Gyroid vector field. In this situation, the components create shelter-like space, as the final render shows. The Gyroid pattern in this situation is denser in Y direction, so the components create narrow arch space since they aggregate along the surface.

y direction compression first hierarchy growth

gyroid vector acquire scale x=3 y=6 z=3

1:2:1 gyroid vector field

y direction compression second hierarchy growth

y direction compression third hierarchy growth

- PAGE 172 -


GROWTH DEVELOPMENT inCrease

first hierarchy components

Shelter Design

second hierarchy components

1:2:1 gyroid field potential space render

- PAGE 173 -

third hierarchy components


GROWTH DEVELOPMENT inCrease

Shelter Design

3:1:1 gyroid vector field (aggregationg type II: outline surface structure)

X direction compressed Gyroid pattern creates X direction compressed vector field. As it has been showed in former design, X direction compressed vector field might produce constructions rather than potential space. In this design, this situation happens again. Rather than arches or shelters created before, this design is more like a construction, since the space is too narrow to make potential use.

x direction compression first hierarchy growth

gyroid vector acquire scale x=9 y=3 z=3

3:1:1 gyroid vector field

x direction compression second hierarchy growth

x direction compression third hierarchy growth

- PAGE 174 -


GROWTH DEVELOPMENT inCrease

first hierarchy components

Shelter Design

second hierarchy components

3:1:1 gyroid field potential space render

- PAGE 175 -

third hierarchy components


GROWTH DEVELOPMENT inCrease

Shelter Design

standard noise vector field (aggregationg type II: outline surface structure)

Standard Noise pattern is also a cube-like volume surface structure but denser than Gyroid surface. So it also should be acquired in an area which every side length of it equals the same, also the surface spreads out equally in every direction. In this design, a standard unit of standard Noise pattern is used to generate the vector field, and guides the components to outline the surface structure. As it can be seen in the final render, since in some area there is not enough space for the components to aggregate, the components form a longspan space at last.

standard noise pattern first hierarchy growth

noise vector acquire scale x=1 y=1 z=1

1:1:1 standard noise vector field

standard noise pattern second hierarchy growth

standard noise pattern third hierarchy growth

- PAGE 176 -


GROWTH DEVELOPMENT inCrease

first hierarchy components

Shelter Design

second hierarchy components

standard noise field potential space render

- PAGE 177 -

third hierarchy components


GROWTH DEVELOPMENT inCrease

Shelter Design

1:1:2 noise vector field (aggregationg type II: outline surface structure)

If Noise pattern is compressed in Z direction, the vector field will also be compressed in Z direction. In former designs, Z direction compressed Gyroid vector field could generate more layers. The same effect also happens in Z direction compressed Noise vector field. As it shows in the final render, two layers are created including a platform. Since Noise surface is also an arclike space, it is also fit to generate shelter-like space.

z direction compression first hierarchy growth

noise vector acquire scale x=1 y=1 z=2

1:1:2 noise vector field

z direction compression second hierarchy growth

z direction compression third hierarchy growth

- PAGE 178 -


GROWTH DEVELOPMENT inCrease

first hierarchy components

Shelter Design

second hierarchy components

1:1:2 noise field potential space render

- PAGE 179 -

third hierarchy components


GROWTH DEVELOPMENT inCrease

Shelter Design

1:2:1 noise vector field (aggregationg type II: outline surface structure)

Y direction compressed Noise pattern creates Y direction compressed vector field. As it has been showed before, Noise surface is fit to create shelter-like space. In the final render, a small arch shape shelter is created. Because when the pattern is compressed, the space between surface becomes narrow. When the components outline the surface structure, they form a small shelter.

y direction compression first hierarchy growth

noise vector acquire scale x=1 y=2 z=1

1:2:1 noise vector field

y direction compression second hierarchy growth

y direction compression third hierarchy growth

- PAGE 180 -


GROWTH DEVELOPMENT inCrease

first hierarchy components

Shelter Design

second hierarchy components

1:2:1 noise field potential space render

- PAGE 181 -

third hierarchy components


GROWTH DEVELOPMENT inCrease

Shelter Design

2:1:1 noise vector field (aggregationg type II: outline surface structure)

As it has been showed in the former designs, Noise pattern is fit to create shelter space. In this design, the pattern is compressed in X direction. When the components aggregate along the surface structure, they form small scale shelter because the space between surface becomes narrow. As the final render shows, the components form a half-closed space which can be used as a small shelter.

x direction compression first hierarchy growth

noise vector acquire scale x=2 y=1 z=1

2:1:1 noise vector field

x direction compression second hierarchy growth

x direction compression third hierarchy growth

- PAGE 182 -


GROWTH DEVELOPMENT inCrease

first hierarchy components

Shelter Design

second hierarchy components

2:1:1 noise field potential space render

- PAGE 183 -

third hierarchy components


GROWTH DEVELOPMENT inCrease

Shelter Design

rendering

- PAGE 184 -


GROWTH DEVELOPMENT inCrease

Shelter Design

rendering

- PAGE 185 -


GROWTH DEVELOPMENT inCrease

Shelter Design

3d print model

- PAGE 188 -


GROWTH DEVELOPMENT inCrease

Shelter Design

3d print model

- PAGE 189 -


5

Further Proposal Site Analysis, Outdoor Theatre & Meeting Point Design


FURTHER PROPOSAL inCrease

Site Analysis South Bank The South Bank is an entertainment and commercial district of Central London, England, next to the River Thames opposite the City of Westminster. It forms a narrow, unequal strip of riverside land within the London Borough of Lambeth and the London Borough of Southwark where it joins Bankside. As with most central London districts its edges evolve and are informally defined however its central area is bounded by Westminster Bridge and Blackfriars Bridge. The South Bank is a significant arts and entertainment district. The Southbank Centre comprises the Royal Festival Hall, the Queen Elizabeth Hall and The Hayward Gallery. The Royal National Theatre, the Imax super cinema and BFI Southbank adjoin to the east.

Paper Waste In today’s electronic age, people are starting to consider going paperless. But there’s still a long way to go before we lose our dependence on this very important human product. From our newspapers to our paper wrappings, paper is still everywhere and most of them are ending up in our landfills creating a staggering amount of paper waste. There was a time when paper was a rare and precious commodity. Now it fills our planet. It was initially invented as a tool for communication, but today, paper is used more for packaging. To produce paper takes twice the energy used to produce a plastic bag. Everything takes energy to produce. In the case of paper, it also involves cutting down trees. Deforestation is one of the main environmental problems we’re facing in these times. 42% of all global wood harvest is used to make paper.

- PAGE 192 -


FURTHER PROPOSAL inCrease

Site Analysis

- PAGE 193 -


FURTHER PROPOSAL inCrease

Site Analysis

One of the chosen sites was located along the thames river, in the front of the area of south bank district. The site was surrounded by various transportation ways, like tubes, trains, yarchts, cars, and bikes . The southbank area plays a node role in London city.

T h e s o u t h b a n k i s a n ew a r t d i s t r i c t , d u e to n ew constructions and planning. Artists from all over the world will come to London festival every year. Moreover, the national theatre hold hundreds performances every year. Owing to these factors, this ribbon area shown in the diagram needs some rapid built and innovative meeting points and some spaces which can hold opening events for performances and exhibitions.

One of the site was chosen to be a plaza located in front of the national gallery. The people flow from the opposite bank side and from the main roads are intersecting here. This suggests a potential space which should meet the need of meeting point and various outdoor activities.

- PAGE 194 -


FURTHER PROPOSAL inCrease

(a) grid net & site boundary

Site Analysis

(b) circulation path

(c) grid transition

An open space whithin the boundary of chosen side, which was roughly regarded as a sq uare, was the constraint of the form generation process. The available space was shown in (a) due to the urban context. Circulation path was expected to be the the curves shown in (b). This was meant to create a small outdoor theatre and a semi-public meeting point as well. The path is expected to create a continous circulation expierence between the two small functional space and create different space quality due to the difference of the activities. The circulation path influence the generation of the landscape area of this project. The diagram(c) indicates a potential transition method between each functional area. The sitting and relaxing parts are closely sitted near the curves and the structural area are defined by the area with larger grids.

The functional area division

- PAGE 195 -


FURTHER PROPOSAL inCrease

Outdoor Theatre & Meeting Point Design

outdoor theatre & meeting point bottom up view

- PAGE 198 -


FURTHER PROPOSAL inCrease

Outdoor Theatre & Meeting Point Design

elevation left

- PAGE 199 -


BPro RC6 2014/15_inCrease  

Project: inCrease / Bartlett BPro Research Cluster 6 2014-15 / Directed by: Daniel Widrig, Stefan Bassing, Soomeen Hahm / Students:...

BPro RC6 2014/15_inCrease  

Project: inCrease / Bartlett BPro Research Cluster 6 2014-15 / Directed by: Daniel Widrig, Stefan Bassing, Soomeen Hahm / Students:...

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