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MANIFOLD ASSEMBLIES Digital Ceramic with Wood Structure for RIBA

Tutors: Daniel Widrig Guan Lee Soomeen Hahm Stefan Bassing Igor Pantic Adam Holloway TeAM members: Hao Li Wenyan Zhao Jialin Tang Xinnan Zhao Zizhuo Su Heyoung Um Jiawei Xi Xiangheng Min


CLAY ROBOTICS INTRODUCTION HAO LI, XIANGHENG MIN, JIALIN TANG, ZIZHUO SU,

HEYOUNG UM, JIAWEI XI, WENYAN ZHAO, XINNAN ZHAO Clay has been a widely used material for centuries as it is easily available, cheap, and plastic in application. This is especially true when clay is used in digital fabrication, as the digital extruding process makes non-standard designs possible to fabricate in a relatively easy and quick manner. This shows the potential and ability for mass customization or “quick-prototypes”. Industrial robotic arms have been widely used in architecture for many years, and work has been undertaken exploring the possibilities of automated fabrication in highly efficient and innovative ways in order to discover the potential of the materials in digital fabrication. When clay meets the robotic arm, the interaction between them is unstoppable. The robotic arm at Grymsdyke Farm is a KUKA KR210, which can move in 6 different axes. However, at the present time, ceramic printing is always printed layer by layer; the extruder is basically used only perpendicular to the platform. The robotic arm has therefore not been taken full advantage of. Testing, designing, and printing ceramic components in ways that go beyond the layer technique is therefore the main subject of this study. One of the fabrication modes in which they are used is large-scale 3D printing. However, due to the limitations of the equipment, techniques, and materials, industrial robotic arm clay printing has remained relatively stagnant. Due to the innovation in robotic arm clay

printing, the projects this year have been achieved by the use of “Space” clay printing with support. Clay could never be produced in as quick and solid in a way using existing technology, so the aim became to control the robotic arm to facilitate printing along with the support, letting the nozzle climb on the surface. An analogy for this would be people walking on the earth, who would always be drawn toward the centre of the earth due to the gravity. With this technique, a shell-shaped component could be achieved. Thus, the robotic arm could be used to work in a freer way, and instead of relying on layer-by-layer texturing, other textures could be introduced. This year, the group has four projects, including V&A Tiles, Funicular Clay Shingles, Catenoid Aggregates and Manifold Assemblies. For the V&A Museum project, more than 2000 tiles are produced by robotic arm, which is the first mass digital fabrication of clay. The Funicular Clay Shingles form the baseis for the following two projects. As for the Manifold Assemblies, the tridimensional clay components are combined with wood frame and fabricated by the method of CNC carving and slip casting. And the fourth one is printed by robotic technique to realize the actual 3D clay printing. With the development of the technique innovated, this group achieved the clay application and digital fabrication in the actual construction.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

01 CATMULL-CLARK SURFACE CONCEPT > component > printing > aggregation

02 PROJECT BACKGROUND > CONCEPT background > site introduction

03 WOOD STRUCTURE > sturcture design > growth distribution > structure installation

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04 BATWING MINIMAL SURFACE > MINIMAL SURFACE COMPONENT > COMPONENT ASSEMBLING > COMBINATION OF COMPONENT AND STRUCTURE

05 FABRICATION > robotic printing > mold > slip casting > firing >installation

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CATMULL-CLARK SURFACE CONCEPT > Component > Printing > Aggregation

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CATMULL-CLARK SURFACE CONCEPT [COMPONENT]

Difference between Rectangle and Catmull Clark Surfacce

rectangular surface

Catmull–Clark surface

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sharp shange angel

smooth shange angel

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CATMULL-CLARK SURFACE CONCEPT [COMPONENT]

Component Variety cube geometry

curvey block

cube geometry

curvey block

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CATMULL-CLARK SURFACE CONCEPT [COMPONENT]

Component Transformation

cube geometry

curvey block

cube geometry

curvey block

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CATMULL-CLARK SURFACE CONCEPT [COMPONENT]

Dimension of Component

x=1, y=1, z=1

x=1, y=1, z=0.5

length: 300mm wideth: 300mm thickness: 300mm

length: 300mm wideth: 300mm thickness: 150mm

Max degree=70

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Max degree=64

x=1, y=2, z=0.5 length: 300mm wideth: 600mm thickness: 150mm

Max degree=64


x=1, y=2, z=1 degree=66

x=2, y=2, z=1

length: 300mm wideth: 600mm thickness: 300mm

length: 600mm wideth: 600mm thickness: 300mm

Max degree=66

Max degree=56

x=2, y=2, z=2 length: 600mm wideth: 600mm thickness: 600mm

Max degree=70

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CATMULL-CLARK SURFACE CONCEPT [PRINTING]

Printing Method

flat mold

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mold with addition


nal holder

flat mold with white additional mold

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CATMULL-CLARK SURFACE CONCEPT [PRINTING]

Printing Mold and Test

Layer two

Gap

Mold 2

Layer one Main mold

Layer two

Gap

Layer one

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Main mold


01

01 Short Component length: 300mm wideth: 300mm thickness: 180mm 02 Long Component length: 300mm wideth: 600mm thickness: 180mm

long component length: 300mm wideth: 600mm thickness: 180mm

02

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CATMULL-CLARK SURFACE CONCEPT [PRINTING]

Printing Mold and Test

FIRST TEST

SPEED OF ROBOT

30

MAXIMUN ANGLE OF ROBOT

20

FIRST LAYER HIGHT

4MM

DISTANCE BETWEEN LINES

5MM

MAXIMUM ANGLE OF MOULD

20

70


SECOND TEST

Perspective SPEED OF ROBOT

10

MAXIMUN ANGLE OF ROBOT

30

FIRST LAYER HIGHT

8MM

DISTANCE BETWEEN LINES

5MM

MAXIMUM ANGLE OF MOULD

70

Top view

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CATMULL-CLARK SURFACE CONCEPT [PRINTING]

Printing Mold and Test

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Perspective

Perspective

Top view

Perspective


THIRD TEST

SPEED OF ROBOT

15

MAXIMUN ANGLE OF ROBOT

30

FIRST LAYER HIGHT

9MM

DISTANCE BETWEEN LINES

5MM

MAXIMUM ANGLE OF MOULD

70

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CATMULL-CLARK SURFACE CONCEPT [AGGREGATION]

Aggregation Logic

brick system

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bounding box

rendering

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CATMULL-CLARK SURFACE CONCEPT [AGGREGATION] Aggregation

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CATMULL-CLARK SURFACE CONCEPT [AGGREGATION]

Aggregation Screen

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PROJECT BACKGROUND > Concept > Site

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PROJECT BACKGROUND [CONCEPT]

To celebrate UKGBC’s

10th Anniversary

Brief:

- A sculpture representing the values of the UK Green Building Council (UKGBC) to celebrate their

10th Anniversary.

- To be erected as part of a workshop with 12 members of staff from the UKGB at the Royal Institute of British Architects on Thursday 28th September - To be unveiled that evening at the 10th Anniversary event (ie. a one-day install) - To potentially be relocated (in parts or as a whole) to the offices of various members of the UKGBC

Budget:

£1000 research & development (samples, models, mock-ups)

£6000 final fabrication (materials, labour, transport, install, de-install)

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timber, steel and clay. The fact that the timber is repurposed from Design Museum’s project, that the steel has been manipulated as little as possible to allow it to be re-used, Materially, the piece uses a simple palette of three materials:

and that the ceramic elements have been fabricated locally from British clay, are all secondary to the larger concept. Finding ways to limit material waste, financial excess, and resource consumption should be, as the UKGBC has phrased it, ‘second nature’ by now. Rather, what the piece seeks to champion is the ‘coming together’ – of materials, people, processes and ideas.

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PROJECT BACKGROUND [CONCEPT]

What is the Ceramic and Pavilion?

Used materials

Upcycling of

[ Re-manu

Used wood

Used clay

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Sanding

Slip ma


f materiality

Recreation in different function

ufacture ]

g down

Facade

aking

Facade

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PROJECT BACKGROUND [CONCEPT]

Do we recognise how much materials we waste?

x3

The effects of construction activity on waste production are enormous. The industry produces 109m tonnes of construction waste each year (24% of total waste), of which up to 13% is delivered and unused. It produces three times more waste than all UK households combined. Although around half of this waste is reused or recycled, the amount that is simply disposed of remains alarming. ‘Construction and Sustainable Development’ Plain English, Constructing Excellence, Section 6, Page 1, 01/01/08

Than Total Waste of All UK households

109m Tonnes

Construction Waste

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24%

Total Waste


what material we gonna do recycling? 200mm

300mm

(1.75 times exceeded for need) Wasted Clay Total Amount << Recycling

6400mm

3800mm Need Production Output

Tile Production Total Output Sep

Nov

Dec

Feb

[Clay Resources]

Jan

Feb

Mar

April

T:40mm

T:30mm

(x10)

(x22) [Wood Resources]

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PROJECT BACKGROUND [SITE]

RIBA Introduction

BUILDING: ROYAL INSTITUTE OF BRITISH ARCHITECTS

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PLAN : 1ST FLOOR OF RIBA

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PROJECT BACKGROUND [SITE]

Site Analysis

section AAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

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B

A

A’

B’

section BB’

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WOOD STRUCTURE > Structure Design > Growth Distribution > Structure Installation

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WOOD STRUCTURE [STRUCTURE DESIGN]

Structure Design Step1

Wood Unit

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WOOD STRUCTURE [STRUCTURE DESIGN]

Structure Design Step2

Create a Surface to Control Wood Units

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A Half-enclosed Shape to Cater for Visiting

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WOOD STRUCTURE [STRUCTURE DESIGN]

Structure Design Step3

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WOOD STRUCTURE [STRUCTURE DESIGN]

Structure Design Step4

Create a Wave Surface to Control Rising and Fall of the Top Area

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A Wave Curve Would Make the Structure a Sense of Floating

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WOOD STRUCTURE [STRUCTURE DESIGN]

Structure Design Step5

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Some trees can be introduced in this system and make an artistic conception of a relationship between people and architecture and nature.

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WOOD STRUCTURE [STRUCTURE DESIGN]

Structure Design Step6

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For some parts, we adjust the density of wood structure (crossed part). Furthermore, we add some wood bars to make the whole structure tensile.

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WOOD STRUCTURE [GROWTH DISTRIBUTION] Structure Layers

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LAYER 1

LAYER 2

LAYER 5

LAYER 6


LAYER 3

LAYER 7

LAYER 4

LAYER 8

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WOOD STRUCTURE [GROWTH DISTRIBUTION] Component Installation

STAGE 1

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STAGE 2


STAGE 3

STAGE 4

STAGE 5

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WOOD STRUCTURE [STRUCTURE INSTALLATION] Structure Types

TYPE 2

TYPE 1

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TYPE 5

TYPE 4

TYPE 3

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WOOD STRUCTURE [STRUCTURE INSTALLATION] Structure Types

type 1 details

type 1 aggregation

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type 1


type 2 details

type 2 aggregation

type 2

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WOOD STRUCTURE [STRUCTURE INSTALLATION] Structure Types

type 3 details

type 3 aggregation

66

type 3


type 3 details

type 3 aggregation

type 3

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WOOD STRUCTURE [STRUCTURE INSTALLATION] Structure Types

STEP 1

68

STEP 2

STEP


P3

STEP 4

STEP 5

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WOOD STRUCTURE [STRUCTURE INSTALLATION] Final Structure

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BATWING MINIMAL SURFACE > Minimal Surface Component > Component Assembling > Combination of Component and Structure

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BATWING MINIMAL SURFACE [MINIMAL SURFACE COMPONENT] Generating Process

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step1

ste step

step4

step

step7

ste step


ep2 p2

step3

p5

step6

ep8 p8

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BATWING MINIMAL SURFACE

step1

[MINIMAL SURFACE COMPONENT]

type 4

Component Study Minimal Surface

type 3

type 2

type 1

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step2

step3

step4 overall geometry

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BATWING MINIMAL SURFACE [MINIMAL SURFACE COMPONENT] Surface Stiffness

synclastic surface

anticlastic surface

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

generating process

78

12


elevation

first layer analysis

perspective

second layer analysis

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BATWING MINIMAL SURFACE [MINIMAL SURFACE COMPONENT] Minimal Surface Save Material

bounding box

curvey geometry

short component: 0.212 m2 volume: 0.18 m3 area/volume ratio: 1.17 length: 300mm wideth: 300mm thickness: 150mm

long component: 0.34 m2 volume: 0.22 m3 area/volume ratio: 1.54 length: 300mm wideth: 600mm thickness: 100mm

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0.18m3

0.22m3

0.08m3

minimal surface: 0.09 m2 volume: 0.08 m3 area/volume ratio: 1.125 length: 300mm wideth: 300mm thickness: 150mm

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BATWING MINIMAL SURFACE [COMPONENT ASSEMBLING] Development of Mold

part 2

part 3

front view

82

back view

part 1


mold 2

mold 3

plan

elevation

perspective

mold 1

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BATWING MINIMAL SURFACE [COMPONENT ASSEMBLING] Component and Structure

old mold only can print one type of component

new mold for printing

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component

section AA

component

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BATWING MINIMAL SURFACE [COMPONENT ASSEMBLING] Toolpath Development

type1

type4

86


type2

type3

type5

type6

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BATWING MINIMAL SURFACE [COMPONENT ASSEMBLING] Universal Mold

empty

mold

m

mold

option

3

mold

88

option

4


mold op

tion 1

mold

mold op

option

2

tion 5

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BATWING MINIMAL SURFACE [COMPONENT ASSEMBLING]

Different Types of Minimal Surface

type 1

type 1.1

type 2

type 2.1

type 3

90

type 4

type 4.1

type 4.2

type 5

type 5.1

type 5.2

type 5.3

type 5.4

type 5.5

type 6

type 6.1

type 6.2

type 6.3

type 6.4

type 6.5

type 7

type 7.1

type 7.2

type 7.3

type 7.4

type 7.5

type 8

type 8.1

type 8.2


type1

type2

type3

type4

type5

type6

type7

type8

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BATWING MINIMAL SURFACE

[COMBINATION OF COMPONENT AND STRUCTURE] Gradually Varied Facade

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BATWING MINIMAL SURFACE

[COMBINATION OF COMPONENT AND STRUCTURE] Varied Unit

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BATWING MINIMAL SURFACE

[COMBINATION OF COMPONENT AND STRUCTURE] Varied Unit

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BATWING MINIMAL SURFACE

[COMBINATION OF COMPONENT AND STRUCTURE] Facade

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BATWING MINIMAL SURFACE

[COMBINATION OF COMPONENT AND STRUCTURE] 3 Design Options

option1 4 components in 1 Box FRAME Hang on structure

option2 1 components in 1 Box FRAME Cupboard structure

option3 4 components in 1 Box FRAME Fitting structure

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option 1 elevation

option 2 elevation

option 3 elevation

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BATWING MINIMAL SURFACE

[COMBINATION OF COMPONENT AND STRUCTURE]

Option1 4 components in 1 Box FRAME

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1000mm

500mm

420mm elevation


option 1

perpective

option 1 elevation

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BATWING MINIMAL SURFACE

[COMBINATION OF COMPONENT AND STRUCTURE]

Option1 Hang on Structure

1 timber unit

axonometric with component

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axonometric with component


section AA

section BB

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BATWING MINIMAL SURFACE

[COMBINATION OF COMPONENT AND STRUCTURE]

Option2 1 components in 1 Box FRAME

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1100mm

980mm

480mm elevation


option 2

perpective

option 2

perspective

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BATWING MINIMAL SURFACE

[COMBINATION OF COMPONENT AND STRUCTURE]

Option2 Cupboard Structure

assemble 1 unit

108


1 unit

axonometric with component

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BATWING MINIMAL SURFACE

[COMBINATION OF COMPONENT AND STRUCTURE]

Option3 4 components in 1 Box FRAME

110

1000mm

500mm

420mm

elevation


option 3

perpective

option 3

perpective

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BATWING MINIMAL SURFACE

[COMBINATION OF COMPONENT AND STRUCTURE]

Option3 Fitting Structure

Fitting structure

Component assembling

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1 unit

axonometric with component

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BATWING MINIMAL SURFACE

[COMBINATION OF COMPONENT AND STRUCTURE]

Connection between Wood and Ceramic Pieces

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axonometric with component NUT METAL RING WOOD BAR METAL RING RUBBER RING CERAMIC PIECE RUBBER RING BOLT

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FABRICATION > Robotic Printing > Mold > Slip Casting > Firing > Installation

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FABRICATION [Robotic Printing]

Form Finding by Robot Printing After the printing, we are waiting for 1 day, the will be nice surface. It will not crack. In order to take out of the component, we cut the one opening to make it easily. In order to take out the clay component easily, we change the mold to plaster. Because plaster can absorbe the water in clay. But we have to take the clay within 1 day, otherwise the clay will crack.

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top view of crack

top view of crack

top view of crack

top view of crack

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FABRICATION [Mold]

CNC Mold and Plaster Mold

01

02

03

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01 Making plaster by CNC mold to support printing. 02 Making negative mold by plaster. 03 Plaster mold


01

02

01 &02 Fixing the plaster mold 03 Key of Plaster Mold

03

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FABRICATION [Slip Casting]

01

01& 02 Positive plaster mold and negative plaster mold.

02

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03 Slip Casting


03

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FABRICATION [Slip Casting]

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FABRICATION [Slip Casting]

01

02

03

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01 & 02 & 03 Slotting 04 &05 Joint half pieces by slip


04

05

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FABRICATION

[Firing and Installation] Biscuit Firing

Glaze Firing

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Installation

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FABRICATION

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Profile for Soomeen Hahm

BPro RC 5+6 2016/17_Clay Robotics - Manifold Assemblies  

Project: Clay Robotics / Bartlett BPro Research Cluster 5+6 2016-17 / Directed by: Daniel Widrig, Guan Lee, Soomeen Hahm, Stefan Bassing,...

BPro RC 5+6 2016/17_Clay Robotics - Manifold Assemblies  

Project: Clay Robotics / Bartlett BPro Research Cluster 5+6 2016-17 / Directed by: Daniel Widrig, Guan Lee, Soomeen Hahm, Stefan Bassing,...

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