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CATENOID AGGREGATES

Spacial Clay Printing with improved robotic arm technique

Tutors: Daniel Widrig Guan Lee Soomeen Hahm Stefan Bassing Igor Pantic Adam Holloway TeAM members: Hao Li Wenyan Zhao Jialin Tang Xinnan Zhao Zizhuo Su Heyoung Um Jiawei Xi Xiangheng Min


CLAY ROBOTICS INTRODUCTION HAO LI, XIANGHENG MIN, JIALIN TANG, ZIZHUO SU,

HEYOUNG UM, JIAWEI XI, WENYAN ZHAO, XINNAN ZHAO Clay has been a widely used material for centuries as it is easily available, cheap, and plastic in application. This is especially true when clay is used in digital fabrication, as the digital extruding process makes non-standard designs possible to fabricate in a relatively easy and quick manner. This shows the potential and ability for mass customization or “quick-prototypes”. Industrial robotic arms have been widely used in architecture for many years, and work has been undertaken exploring the possibilities of automated fabrication in highly efficient and innovative ways in order to discover the potential of the materials in digital fabrication. When clay meets the robotic arm, the interaction between them is unstoppable. The robotic arm at Grymsdyke Farm is a KUKA KR210, which can move in 6 different axes. However, at the present time, ceramic printing is always printed layer by layer; the extruder is basically used only perpendicular to the platform. The robotic arm has therefore not been taken full advantage of. Testing, designing, and printing ceramic components in ways that go beyond the layer technique is therefore the main subject of this study. One of the fabrication modes in which they are used is large-scale 3D printing. However, due to the limitations of the equipment, techniques, and materials, industrial robotic arm clay printing has remained relatively stagnant. Due to the innovation in robotic arm clay

printing, the projects this year have been achieved by the use of “Space” clay printing with support. Clay could never be produced in as quick and solid in a way using existing technology, so the aim became to control the robotic arm to facilitate printing along with the support, letting the nozzle climb on the surface. An analogy for this would be people walking on the earth, who would always be drawn toward the centre of the earth due to the gravity. With this technique, a shell-shaped component could be achieved. Thus, the robotic arm could be used to work in a freer way, and instead of relying on layer-by-layer texturing, other textures could be introduced. This year, the group has four projects, including V&A Tiles, Funicular Clay Shingles, Catenoid Aggregates and Manifold Assemblies. For the V&A Museum project, more than 2000 tiles are produced by robotic arm, which is the first mass digital fabrication of clay. The Funicular Clay Shingles form the baseis for the following two projects. As for the Manifold Assemblies, the tridimensional clay components are combined with wood frame and fabricated by the method of CNC carving and slip casting. And the fourth one is printed by robotic technique to realize the actual 3D clay printing. With the development of the technique innovated, this group achieved the clay application and digital fabrication in the actual construction.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

01 INTRODUCTION > traditional clay printing > non-traditional clay printing > “space” clay printing > innovation of robotic arm technique

02 FORM FINDING > why minimal surfaces > minimal surfaces studys

03 DESIGN PROTOTYPE > REFERENCES

> COMPONENT DESIGN > OVERALL DESIGN

04 PREPARATION > SUPPORT MAKING > PRE-PRINTING

4


05 TEXTURE & DIGITAL TOOL PATH > subdivision > texture > printing outcome

06 AFTER DIGITAL FABRICATION > preservation > firing and glazing

07 FINAL DESIGN > component design > fabrication process > overall design > Architecture design

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6


INTRODUCTION > Traditional clay printing

> Non-traditional clay printing > “Space” clay printing

> Innovation of robotic arm technique

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INTRODUCTION [Previous Studies]

Traditonal Clay Printing Traditional clay printing is based on layer by layer technique and usually from bottom to top.

Merit: Stability: Accuracy: Printing Speed: Steerability: Demerit: Variety of Texture: Potential of Robot: Range of Inclination:

8


[V&A Museum Project, 2017, RC5&6]

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INTRODUCTION [Previous Studies]

Non-traditional Clay Printing This kind of texture was generated based on the bump curves, which go through the smooth surface.

Improvement: Variety of Texture: Potential of Robot: Range of Inclination: Limitation: Stability: Accuracy: Printing Speed: Steerability:

10


[Previous minimal surface printing works]

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INTRODUCTION [New Technique]

Space Printing with Support This kind of texture was generated based on the bump curves, which go through the smooth surface.

Improvement: Variety of Texture: Potential of Robot: Range of Inclination: Stability: Accuracy: Printing Speed: Steerability:

12


[Volume minimal surface printing works]

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PRE-TESTING OF 3D PRINTING [Principle of 3D Printing]

A3 A4

A6

A2 A5

A1 [Six Axis Robot.] The robotic arm at Grymsdyke Farm is a KUKA KR210, which can move in 6 different axes.

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[Printing on Curve Surface.] the robotic arm facilitate printing along with the support, letting the nozzle climb on the surface. An analogy for this would be people walking on the earth, who would always be drawn toward the centre of the earth due to the gravity.

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PRE-TESTING OF 3D PRINTING [ Limitation of Robot Printing Angle]

45°

45° 45°

15° 0°

[Limitation of Printing Angle.] The printing angle is limitaed by several factors, like the length of the pipe and the length of the nozzle. The printing angle is limited between 0-45 degrees.

16


[Images of Pipe and Nozzle.]

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PRE-TESTING OF 3D PRINTING [ Printing Test]

In pre-test 1 we tried print layer by layer on the half side of the mold. This type of the tool path works very good on 3d surface.

In pre-test 2, we tied tool path that gradual change from the bottom to top. we can see the quality became very pool. There are seveal reasons. firstly, the nozzle is too fat which destory the clay when it print the next layer. secondly, the gap between two path is too small. thirdly, the the position the mold is not very accurate. In pre-test 3, We ptinted clay on the whole mold. we tried changed a new nozzle and set the mold very accurate. It work very well.

STEP 01

18

STEP


P 02

STEP 03

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FORM FINDING > Why Minimal Surfaces > Minimal Surfaces Studys

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FORM FINDING [ Why Minimal Surface]

[Feri Otto’s minimal surface models and the potential minimal surface system.]

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[Soap form created by Feri Otto.] In mathematics, a minimal surface is a surface that locally minimizes its area. Frei Otto was mainly focused on the “SelfFormation“ and “Natural Conatructions“. Soap films are one of the typical prototypes of high-pointed tent structures. These forms and structures develpoed by Frei Otto make up an individual and unity of unmistakable form.

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FORM FINDING [ Why Minimal Surface]

This kind of form is widely used in the architecture and art sculptures. Indeed, fabric is a good material to shape the minimal sufaces. But also mental and plastic were used to shape the forms. So, we are trying to figure out the possibility of caly made minimal surfaces structures by digital caly printing.

[A minimal surface sculpture made by fabric.]

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[A minimal surface sculpture made by mental.]

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FORM FINDING

[Minimal Surface Studies] 1. Plane Based Minimal Surface

[Different kind of plane minimal surfaces.] We are trying to find the best minimal surface type for clay printing. There are two types of minimal surface. One of them is plane based minimal surface which is the basic minimal surface types. It was tested and printed by the previous students.

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[Previous minimal surface printing works]

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FORM FINDING

[Minimal Surface Studies] 1-1. Batwing

1.

2.

3.

4.

This is called triply Periodic Minimal Surfaces. The first line shows the basic two fundamental regions, whose appearance is the source of the name "batwing". The two fit in a tetrahedron, which is 1/48 of a full lattice cell cube. Different kind of images can be created by cube face mirror symmestry.

28

5.


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FORM FINDING

[Minimal Surface Studies] 1-1-1. Feasibility Research

Weak Points

Volume

:

Printable

:

1. The system can not be self-surpported, the support s 2. Two much separated pieces will cause the different affect the aesthetics.

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Assemblable

:

Self-supportable :

structure is needed. t shrinkages of the pieces, too much joint will

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FORM FINDING

[Minimal Surface Studies] 2. Catenoid

[Minimal surfaces which has the volume. ] These are the minimal surfaces which are generated by a catenoid between different shapes. Some of them is made between circles and squares. Some of them are based on the cube system, the catenoid is created by the cirles and aquares on the differnt sides of the cube surfaces. The catenoid shape in the cube was the component of the previous work. But it was made by joining palne based surfaces, not the volume type of minimal surfaces.

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[Previous minimal surface printing works]

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FORM FINDING

[Minimal Surface Studies] 2-1. Catenoid Prototype - Two Direction

1.

2.

3.

These are prototypes of minimal surfaces are created by catenoids between several circles and differnt planes, circle, square, triangle, and rhombus, and trapezoid. The plane is in the middle of the circles which creates these shape have both positive and negtive sides.

34

4.


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FORM FINDING

[Minimal Surface Studies] 2-1. Feasibility Research

Basement joint

Volume

:

A

Printable

:

Se

1. This kind of components are less of variability when t 2. The plane shaped basement makes the shape layer b

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Assemblable

:

elf-supportable :

they are joined with each other. by layer, which lack of interesting.

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FORM FINDING

[Minimal Surface Studies] 2-2. Catenoid Prototype - Two Direction

1.

2.

3.

4.

These are prototypes of minimal surfaces are created by catenoids between several circles and squares. The round and square plane is the basement of the component. Various hight and position create various shapes.

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5.


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FORM FINDING

[Minimal Surface Studies] 2-2-1. Feasibility Research

Basement joint

Volume

:

A

Printable

:

Se

1. This kind of components are less of variability when t 2. The round shaped basement makes the shape not sm 3. The system not stable enough to support itself.

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Assemblable

:

elf-supportable :

they are joined with each other. mooth enough.

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FORM FINDING

[Minimal Surface Studies] 2-3. Catenoid Prototype - Vorinoi

1.

2.

These are prototypes of minimal surfaces are created by catenoids between the palne basement and several circles on the different surfaces of the vorinoi cubes.

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3.


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FORM FINDING

[Minimal Surface Studies] 2-3-1. Feasibility Research

Printing curve

Volume

:

A

Printable

:

Se

1. This system is based on the 3D voronio system, so ea to control when it applys in a large scale. 2. The red curves show the shape angle, while the black robotic arm can not reach. 3. The system not stable enough to support itself.

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Assemblable

:

elf-supportable :

ach o them is different with each other. It's hard

k arrows show the normal directions which the

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FORM FINDING

[Minimal Surface Studies] 2-4. Catenoid Prototype - Cube

1.

2.

These are prototypes of minimal surfaces are created by catenoids between the palne basement and several circles on the different surfaces of cubes.

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FORM FINDING

[Minimal Surface Studies] 2-4-1. Feasibility Research

Basement joint

Volume

:

A

Printable

:

Se

1. This system is based on the cube shape, so the system 2. The red curves show the basementjoint, it is quit disc 3. But the form is less of diversity.

48


Assemblable

:

elf-supportable :

m after assembling is stable enough. codant.

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FORM FINDING

[Minimal surface studies] Feasibility Research

Feasibility

50

:

Feasibility

:

Feasibility

:

Feasibility

:


:

DEVELOPMENT

Feasibility

:

CONCLUSION After the all the feasibility researchs, the cube based minimal surfaces are most suitable for clay printing and components assembling. The overall system is more table, but new developments are needed to improve the aesthetics of the overall system.

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DESIGN PROTOTYPE > References

> Component Design

> Overall Design

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DESIGN PROTOTYPES [References]

[Some of the branch shapes of the minimal surfaces.] These branch-liked minimal surface systems have been studied through the recent years. Some of the real projects shows the potential of this kind of system to realize the appliment in architecture.

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[Some of the branch shapes of the minimal surfaces.]

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DESIGN PROTOTYPES [Component Design]

1. Component Prototypes

1.

To create the tree branch shapes, the cube based minimal surfaces are developed into catenoids made by several sizes round circles in order to easy connected with each other. Which are shaped like the tree branch.

56

2.

3


3.

4.

5.

6.

A Caps

B Caps

C Caps

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DESIGN PROTOTYPES [Component Design]

2. Component Assembling Prototypes - Horizontal

1.

Through the 3 kinds of size circle system, these components could be connected with other with the same size circles. It has various ways of connection, which creates different kind of shapes.

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2.

3


3.

4.

5.

6.

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DESIGN PROTOTYPES [Component Design]

3. Component Assembling Prototypes - Vertical

1.

Through the 3 kinds of size circle system, these components could be connected with other with the same size circles. It has various ways of connection, which creates different kind of shapes.

60

2.

3


3.

4.

5.

6.

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DESIGN PROTOTYPES [Overall Design]

Prototype 1 - Column

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DESIGN PROTOTYPES [Overall Design]

Prototype 2 - Wall

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PREPARATION > Support Making > Pre-printing

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PREPARATION [Support Making] Support A

[CNC milling.] For the first test, we use CNC to cut the polystyrene board into our support directly. That is to say, we cut a positive shape which is the same as our printing shape. Then, we can print on the support immediately.

[Cut polystyrene board into positive shape as support moulds.]

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[Image of the clay printing on the polystyrene support.] The polystyrene has a bad water-absorbing quality, so the clay cannot be dry quickly and evenly. And when the clay shrinks, it cracks badly.

[Clay crack after printing on the polystyrene support.]

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PREPARATION [Support Making] Support B

[CNC milling mold.] As for this method, polystyrene board is used as mould, which is the negative shape of our design. For avoiding undercut and casting easier, the shape is divided into multiple pieces, and then those pieces will be cast separately.

[CNC milling mold.] 70


[Plaster casting.] Casting the plaster pieces, we assemble them together and make a support. The shortage of the method which cannot be ignored is the error and gaps between those pieces. Therefore, when having printing test, the position is not accurate.

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PREPARATION [Support Making] Support C

[Polystyrene mold for plaster casting.] For one-piece casting, we cast the plaster support together. Although it is hard to demould, the model is more accurate when printing. However , not every support can use this method because of undercut.

[Plaster support.]

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[Image of the clay printing on the plaster support.]

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PREPARATION [Support Making]

Feasibility Research

Method

Mould

Polystyrene Support

--

Plaster Support (Multi-piece Casting)

Plaster Support (One-piece Casting)

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Support


Printing Test

Drying Time

Preservable

Accuracy

5 Days

4 Hours

4 Hours

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PREPARATION [Pre-printing] Set Location

[Set the TCP point.] During the printing process, in oder to perfectly printing on the suppoort, the nozzle center point and the location of the support is quit important.

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[Set the support position.]

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PREPARATION [Extruding Noozle]

Noozle

Type

Printing Outcome

The noozle types were improved by us due to the new printing technique. The short and fat kind of noozle was easy to scrape the clay. The longer and thiner ones would be better.

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A


B

C

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TEXTURE & DIGITAL TOOL PATH > Subdivision > Texture

> Printing Outcome

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TEXTURE & DIGITAL TOOL PATH [Textures]

Bump Surface This kind of texture was directly generated on the pringting surface, then create the second tool path on the bump surfaces.

1.

A

B

C

82

2.

3.


4.

5.

6.

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DESIGN PROTOTYPES [Textures]

Prototype A - Connection Images of the bump components connected with each other.

A

84

B


B

C

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DESIGN PROTOTYPES [Textures]

Prototype A-B-1 This kind of texture was generated based on the broken line subdivion of the component, which has the contract with the smooth surface, but ugly joint.

Mesh

86

Subdivision


n like puzzel

Offset the toolpath

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DESIGN PROTOTYPES [Textures]

Prototype A-B-1 This kind of texture was generated based on the broken line subdivion of the component, which has the contract with the smooth surface, but ugly joint.

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TEXTURE & DIGITAL TOOL PATH [Printing Outcome] Prototype A-B-1

90


Stability: Accuracy: Printing Speed: Easy to Demould: Variety of Texture: Potential of Robot: When printing on the bump surface, it makes the best use of the potential of new technique. But there are several problems, including weak frame, inaccurate printing position, difficulty when moving the clay away from the support. And also, because the robot changes the angle frequently, the printing speed is slow and the lines will be messy. AD RC5&6 AD Material RC5&6Consequences Clay Robotics | UCL 91


DESIGN PROTOTYPES [Textures]

Prototype A-B-2 This kind of texture was generated based on the bump curves, which go through the smooth surface.

Mesh

92

Subdivision


n like puzzel

Offset the toolpath

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DESIGN PROTOTYPES [Textures]

Prototype A-B-2 This kind of texture was generated based on the bump curves, which go through the smooth surface.

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TEXTURE & DIGITAL TOOL PATH [Printing Outcome] Prototype A-B-2

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Stability: Accuracy: Printing Speed: When the tool path goes through the bump area, the messy lines get better, but the bump area can not be seen clear.

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TEXTURE & DIGITAL TOOL PATH [Subdivision]

Subdivision B-1 The component is subdivided into 4 parts with curves, which would creates natrual joints.

Mesh

98

Division


Toolpath

Simulation

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TEXTURE & DIGITAL TOOL PATH [Textures]

Prototype B-1 This kind of texture was generated based on the curve line subdivion of the component. Smooth joint, but less intresting.

Mesh

100

Subdivision


n like puzzel

Offset the toolpath

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TEXTURE & DIGITAL TOOL PATH [Textures]

Prototype B-1 This kind of texture was generated based on the curve line subdivion of the component. Smooth joint, but less intresting.

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TEXTURE & DIGITAL TOOL PATH [Printing Outcome] Prototype B-1

104


Stability: Variety of Texture: Potential of Robot: To avoid the distinct straight boundaries between surfaces when we glue them together, we change the way of division, so that those curve boundaries are not obvious. But the disadvantage is that one component need to be printed by four times.

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DESIGN PROTOTYPES [Textures]

Subdivision B-2 The component is subdivided into 4 parts with broken lines, which would creates natrual joints.

Mesh

106

Subdivision


n like puzzel

Offset the toolpath

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DESIGN PROTOTYPES [Textures]

Prototype B-2 This kind of texture was generated based on the broken line subdivion of the component. Smooth joint, much intresting.

108


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TEXTURE & DIGITAL TOOL PATH [Printing Outcome] Prototype B-2

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Stability: Variety of Texture: Potential of Robot: The picture that has the same method of division as the previous one, but different toolpath which are straight lines shows here.

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TEXTURE & DIGITAL TOOL PATH [Subdivision]

Subdivision C Due to the limitation of the robotic arm clay printing, the undercut of the surfaces can not be printed. So the components are divided into several parts to be printed. And the boundaries of every piece would be one part of the textures. The first component has been researched for showing the different images of the printout works with various types of tool path.

Mesh

112

Divis


sion

Toolpath

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TEXTURE & DIGITAL TOOL PATH [Textures]

Prototype C-1 This kind of texture was generated based on the half part of the component edges, then offset on the surface. Simple texture, easy to print, but less intresting and ugly joint.

Mesh

114

Divide into


o two parts

Offset layer by layer

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TEXTURE & DIGITAL TOOL PATH [Textures]

Prototype C-1 This kind of texture was generated based on the half part of the component edges, then offset on the surface. Simple texture, easy to print, but less intresting and ugly joint.

116


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TEXTURE & DIGITAL TOOL PATH [Printing Outcome] Prototype C-1

118


Stability: Accuracy: Printing Speed: Easy to Demould: Variety of Texture: Potential of Robot: Printing this kind of toolpath, it is easy to control the robotic arm and keep the stability, also, it can keep the clay perfectly while moving away the clay from the support. However, the toolpath cannot exploit the potential of new technique, it is similar to the layer by layer toolpath we print before.

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TEXTURE & DIGITAL TOOL PATH [Textures]

Prototype C-2 This kind of texture was generated based on the tree brach like subdivion of the component, naturaly hide the vertical joint.

Mesh

120

Subdivision


n like puzzel

Offset the toolpath

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TEXTURE & DIGITAL TOOL PATH [Textures]

Prototype C-2 This kind of texture was generated based on the tree brach like subdivion of the component, naturaly hide the vertical joint.

122


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TEXTURE & DIGITAL TOOL PATH [Printing Outcome] Prototype C-2

124


Stability: Variety of Texture: Potential of Robot: The outcome of this kind of tool path is not bad. By this method of subdivision, the boundary of these two pieces of component is not obvious and looks harmonious with those lines of subdivision.

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TEXTURE & DIGITAL TOOL PATH [Textures]

Prototype C-3 This kind of texture was generated based on the broken line subdivion of the component, which has the contract with the smooth surface, but ugly joint.

Mesh

126

Subdivision


n like puzzel

Offset the toolpath

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TEXTURE & DIGITAL TOOL PATH [Textures]

Prototype C-3 This kind of texture was generated based on the broken line subdivion of the component, which has the contract with the smooth surface, but ugly joint.

128


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TEXTURE & DIGITAL TOOL PATH [Printing Outcome] Prototype C-3

130


Stability: Variety of Texture: Potential of Robot: As for this toolpath, the advantage of the new printing technique is obvious. But there is a problem that the component is hard to move away together as a whole piece because of the method of sudivision.

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TEXTURE & DIGITAL TOOL PATH [Printing Outcome]

Double Layer Printing Testing different toolpaths, we find that one layer printing is a bit weak. So we print two different kinds of toolpath as two layers. It is not only making the frame stable, also easy to move away the clay.

Stability: Accuracy: Easy to Demould:

First layer

132

Second layer


[Image of double layers printing.]

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AFTER DIGITAL FABRICATION > Preservation

> Firing and glazing

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AFTER DIGITAL FABRICATION [PRESERVATION]

First Stage - 6 hours After Printing

[Calculating the thickness.] Then we calculate the thickness of clay, and cut a polystyrene mould in new size and negative shape to support the production. By this way, it can give the clay enough space to shrink, avoiding severe cracks. So we can move the clay away from the plaster support to the new support.

136


[Image of demoulding.]

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AFTER DIGITAL FABRICATION [PRESERVATION]

Second Stage - 3-4 Days After Printing

[Fix the cracks.] In that stage, some unexpectedly cracks may happen. And we use wet clay to fix them, then wait for drying again. We made a wooden frame to support it during the next few days. Drying on the wood support, the curve surface of clay can keep its curvature when continue to shrink.

138


[Image of the wood frame.]

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AFTER DIGITAL FABRICATION [PRESERVATION]

Third Stage - 5-7 Days After Printing

[Calculating the rate of shrinkage.] When the clay is strong enough and cannot deform, we move the works away from the polystyrene mold. And we keep culculating the rate of shirinkage.

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[Waiting for the drying out.]

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PHYSICAL MODEL


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PHYSICAL MODEL


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PHYSICAL MODEL


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PHYSICAL MODEL


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OVERALL DESIGN

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OVERALL DESIGN

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OVERALL DESIGN

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OVERALL DESIGN

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OVERALL DESIGN

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FINAL DESIGN > Component Design

> Fabrication Process > Overall Design

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FINAL DESIGN PROTOTYPE [Component Design]

1. Component Prototypes

1.

Through the 3 kinds of size circle system, these components could be connected with other with the same size circles. It has various ways of connection, which creates different kind of shapes.

162

2.


3.

4.

5.

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FINAL DESIGN PROTOTYPE [Component Design]

2. Component Assembling Prototypes - Horizontal

1.

Through the 3 kinds of size circle system, these components could be connected with other with the same size circles. It has various ways of connection, which creates different kind of shapes.

164

2.

3.


4.

5.

6.

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FINAL DESIGN PROTOTYPE [Component Design]

3. Component Assembling Prototypes - Vertical

1.

Through the 3 kinds of size circle system, these components could be connected with other with the same size circles. It has various ways of connection, which creates different kind of shapes.

166

2.

3.


4.

5.

6.

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FINAL DESIGN PROTOTYPE [Subdivision] Subdivision Due to the limitation of the robotic arm clay printing, the undercut of the surfaces can not be printed. So the components are divided into several parts to be printed. And the boundaries of every piece would be one part of the textures.

Mesh

168

Divis


sion

Toolpath

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FINAL DESIGN PROTOTYPE [Texture & Digital Tool Path] Texture & Digital Tool Path This kind of texture was generated based on the broken line subdivion of the component, which has the contract with the smooth surface.

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FINAL DESIGN PROTOTYPE [Texture & Digital Tool Path] Component 1

Component 2

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FINAL DESIGN PROTOTYPE [Texture & Digital Tool Path] Component 3

Component 4

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FINAL DESIGN PROTOTYPE [Texture & Digital Tool Path]

Component 5

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FINAL DESIGN [Fabrication Process] Supports Making

[Support Making.] While making the new plaster support, we use the way of CNC the polystyrene mold first and then pouring liquid plaster to shape the plaster support.

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Robotic Arm Printing

[Pringting on the Supports.]

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FINAL DESIGN [Fabrication Process] Jointing

[Two Peices Jointing before Drying out.] While jointing the two pieces into one component, first we make a support to shape and support the two soft pieces to keep it from collasping and deforming.

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[Image of Jointed component.]

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FINAL DESIGN [Fabrication Process] Firing & Glazing

[Biscuit Firing.] After the component was dried out natrually, they were put into the kilns for the first biscuit firing. And after that they would be sprayed with glazing powder and put into the kilns for the glazing firing.

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[Glazing and Second Firing.]

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FINAL DESIGN [Fabrication Process] Firing & Glazing

[Glazing Sample 1] We tried several types of gazing color, most of them was between the color white and light brown. Among them we decided the pure white as our final glazing color.

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[Glazing Sample 2]

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OVERALL DESIGN

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OVERALL DESIGN

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OVERALL DESIGN

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ARCHITECTURE DESIGN > Site

> Design Language > Rendering

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INTRODUCTION [Site]

Site Analysis

[Site Location] The Brunswick Centre is a grade II listed residential and shopping centre in Bloomsbury, Camden, London, England, located between Brunswick Square and Russell Square. The Shopping arcade ia the main site of our architectural proposal, we tried to create more shadows and spaces in this area for attracting more vistors.

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[Images of Site]

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ARCHITECTURAL PROPOSAL [Design Languages] Overall

Previous Pedestrian Path

Current Pedestrian Path

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Branching

Assembling Components

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Profile for Soomeen Hahm

BPro RC 5+6 2016/17_Clay Robotics-Catenoid Aggregates  

Project: Clay Robotics / Bartlett BPro Research Cluster 5+6 2016-17 / Directed by: Daniel Widrig, Guan Lee, Soomeen Hahm, Stefan Bassing,...

BPro RC 5+6 2016/17_Clay Robotics-Catenoid Aggregates  

Project: Clay Robotics / Bartlett BPro Research Cluster 5+6 2016-17 / Directed by: Daniel Widrig, Guan Lee, Soomeen Hahm, Stefan Bassing,...

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