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published by the Society of Wetland Scientists

Vol. 36, No. 3 July Special Issue 2019 ISSN: 1943-6254

Proceedings of the 2019 Annual Meeting of the Society of Wetland Scientists May 28-31, 2019 | Baltimore, Maryland, USA


FROM THE EDITOR’S DESK INTRODUCTION TO THIS ISSUE Last year we prepared a special edition of Wetland Science & Practice to present the proceedings from our annual conference in Denver. At that time, it was decided that the production schedule of WSP would be revised so that the July issue could be dedicated to publishing the abstracts from the meeting. Consequently, this issue contains abstracts of nearly all of the presentations from the Society of Wetland Scientists’ Annual Meeting held in Baltimore, Maryland from May 28-31, 2019. For addiRalph Tiner tional information on those subjects readers should WSP Editor contact the authors. Congratulations to honorees who received the following awards and special recognition at the meeting (for more information about SWS awards, please visit http://sws.org/Awards-and-Grants/societyawards.html ): 2019 Fellow Award Andrew Hamilton Baldwin, University of Maryland and J. Patrick Megonigal, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center Lifetime Achievement Award Nick Davidson, Nick Davidson Environmental and Institute for Land, Water & Society, Charles Sturt University, Mary E. Kentula, Western Ecology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Rebecca R. Sharitz, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory R. Harold Jones 2019 Lifetime Achievement Award Mallory N. Gilbert, M.N. Gilbert Environmental President’s Service Award Jodie Burns, Cattails Environmental, LLC and John Lowenthal, Cardno Doug Wilcox Award Sarah Finkelstein, University of Toronto Wetland Ambassador Graduate Research Fellowship Priyanka Sarkar, Assam University, Sichar in Assam, India Student Research Grants Stefano Barchiesi, University of Florida; David DeLaFrom the Editor’s Desk continued on page 158 156 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

PROCEEDINGS Proceedings from the 2019 Annual Meeting of the Society of Wetland Scientists The Role of Wetlands in Meeting Global Environmental Challenges: Linking Wetland Science, Policy, and Society May 28-31, 2019 Hilton Baltimore Inner Harbor, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

WETLAND SCIENCE & PRACTICE Vol. 36, No. 3 July Special Issue 2019 ISSN: 1943-6254

COVER PHOTO: A view of the Red Lake peatland (part of former Glacial Lake Agassiz) from the boardwalk at Big Bog State Recreation Area, Waskish, MN. It is the largest peatland in the lower 48 states. (Credit: Ralph Tiner) SOCIETY OF WETLAND SCIENTISTS 22 N Carroll St., Ste 300, Madison, WI 53703 608-310-7855

www.sws.org

Note to Readers: All State-of-the-Science reports published in WSP are peer reviewed, with anonymity to reviewers.


PRESIDENTS’ ADDRESSES It’s a great pleasure to accept the gavel (the spoon in SWS tradition) from Beth Middleton and to lead SWS for 20192020 which also represents the Society’s 40th anniversary. I like the way that Beth has summarized the role of the Past President in her message - it is always valuable to have an advisor sitting alongside as you take the wheel of a complex and dynamic group such as SWS. It is far more complex structurally than I had imagined before joining the Board of Directors, but the goodwill and a common sense of purpose makes it rewarding. I have been asked what will I do over the coming year. It’s tempting to come up with a new initiative or a smart sloProf Max Finlayson gan, but equally, and possibly Charles Stuart more importantly, it is time University to consolidate and celebrate SWS President what we are currently doing. In saying that I also expect us to improve and engage with those with new ideas or rejuvenated ideas. As it is our 40th anniversary and we are having a joint conference in Quebec City in June 2020 it is also opportune to reflect and recognize what has been done. We have been talking about how we can do that at the upcoming conference, but one thought that I had was to encourage members to apply for the range of awards that we already have available. It’s great to have these awards and what better time to get one or see your colleague get one at an auspicious meeting such as the 40th. Or just to present your poster or talk. We have something to celebrate and it would be nice to see you there to share the goodwill and celebrate our combined achievements and friendships. In my case I am keen on developing our international reach and engagement with wetland researchers and practitioners from around the world. I have worked in many countries and with many people from different cultures, and in fact, from where I sit, North America is a fascinating international destination. We also have our student members, and Beth in her message to yourselves has mentioned that she joined as a student member. I was an early career researcher when I joined and the opportunities that came from engaging across our Society have been immensely valuable. We also have the established chapters and sections that add further dimensions of activity and variety to our Society. Combined this produces a dynamic that I find exciting, and which needs to be maintained even as it pulls (slightly) in multiple directions. Presidents’ Addresses continued on page 158

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wetland science practice PRESIDENT / Max Finlayson PRESIDENT-ELECT / Loretta Battaglia, Ph.D. IMMEDIATE PAST PRESIDENT / Beth Middleton, Ph.D. SECRETARY GENERAL / Leandra Cleveland, PWS TREASURER / Lori Sutter, Ph.D. MANAGING DIRECTOR / Michelle Czosek, CAE ASSOCIATE MANAGING DIRECTOR / Jen Brydges WETLAND SCIENCE & PRACTICE EDITOR / Ralph Tiner, PWS Emeritus CHAPTERS ALASKA / Emily Creely ASIA / Wei-Ta Fang, Ph.D. CANADA / Gordon Goldborough, Ph.D. CENTRAL / Katie Astroth CHINA / Xianguo Lyu EUROPE / Matthew Simpson, PWS INTERNATIONAL / Ian Bredlin, Msc; Pr.Sci.Nat and Tatiana Lobato de Magalhães MID-ATLANTIC / Jeffrey Thompson NEW ENGLAND / Dwight Dunk NORTH CENTRAL / Christina Hargiss, Ph.D. OCEANIA / Samantha Capon, Ph.D. PACIFIC NORTHWEST / Lizbeth Seebacher, Ph.D., PWS ROCKY MOUNTAIN / Ryan Hammons SOUTH ATLANTIC / Brian Benscoter, Ph.D. SOUTH CENTRAL / Scott Jecker, PWS WESTERN / Richard Beck, PWS, CPESC, CEP SECTIONS BIOGEOCHEMISTRY / Lisa Chambers, Ph.D. EDUCATION / Derek Faust, Ph.D. GLOBAL CHANGE ECOLOGY / Tracy Quirk, Ph.D PEATLANDS / Julie Talbot PUBLIC POLICY AND REGULATION / John Lowenthal, PWS RAMSAR / Nicholas Davidson WETLAND RESTORATION / Andy Herb WILDLIFE / Luke Eggering WOMEN IN WETLANDS / Carrie Reinhardt Adams, Ph.D. STUDENT / David Riera COMMITTEES AWARDS / Loretta Battaglia, Ph.D. EDUCATION & OUTREACH / Arnold van der Valk, Ph.D., PWS (interim) HUMAN DIVERSITY / Alani Taylor MEETINGS / Yvonne Vallette, PWS PUBLICATIONS / Keith Edwards WAYS & MEANS / Lori Sutter, Ph.D. SWS WETLANDS OF DISTINCTION / Roy Messaros, Ph.D. Bill Morgante and Jason Smith, PWS REPRESENTATIVES PCP / Scott Jecker, PWS ASWM / Tom Harcarik AIBS / Dennis Whigham, Ph.D.

SOCIETY WETLAND �

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SOCIETY Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 157 WETLAND �

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Presidents’ Addresses, continued

From the Editor’s Desk, continued

It is a fascinating structure and around this we are reviewing and confirming a new strategic plan that reflects the variety and opportunities that this produces. Strategic planning may sound pretty dull to many of you, but given that it needs to reflect the entire Society I’m looking forward to seeing it develop, and to celebrating with you in Quebec City, and setting the stage for the next few years. As we start this journey I’d like to thank all those on the Board of Directors, the Executive Board, our business office, and all those involved in hosting and running the Baltimore conference – it was great to be in Baltimore. n

Matee, Duke University; Abigail Griffin Wood, University of Alabama; Darien Lozon, West Virginia University; Kali Mattingly, The Ohio State University; Anna Puchkoff, University of Connecticut; Yadav Sapkota, Louisiana State University; Erin Smyth, University of Alabama; Emmett Spooner, Illinois State University; Nicole Stewart, Western Michigan University; Andrea Stumpf, Villanova University; Jack Zinnen, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign International Travel Award Noreen Khalid, Government College Women University, Sialkot, Pakistan; Excellence Akeredolu, University of Lagos, Nigeria; Bright Uchenna Ndimele, University of Lagos, Nigeria SWS Multicultural Mentoring Program Carla Ayala, University of Puerto Rico-Rio Piedras; Nadia Bowles, Tuskegee University; Daniella Gavriel, California State University-Long Beach; Camila Ibarra, Arizona State University; Chloe Johnson, Georgia Southern University; Josette McLean, St. George’s University; Tasnim Mellouli, University of Central Florida; Kristina Morales, University of North Carolina-Greensboro; Lambert Ngenzi, Washington State University; Lina Ramirez, Florida Gulf Coast University; Orlando Rios, Wayne State University; Christopher Sandoval, UTEP; Aiden Short, Guangxi University; Rohini Vembar, Ohio State University

Now that our new SWS president, Max Finlayson has the gavel (spoon actually) firmly in hand, my thoughts turn to what I will do in the next year. The Immediate Past President of SWS continues to serve as voting member of the Executive Board (EB) and as an advisor to the new president. Dr. Beth Middleton I intend to take that role very U.S. Geological Survey, seriously. A former president Wetland and Aquatic should advise but not impede. As members observe the Research Center changing world of wetland SWS Immediate Past ecology, they should inform President their EB, chapters, sections and committees on how to best navigate the way forward for the Society of Wetland Scientists. I want to thank all of the people who supported the work of SWS during my year as president. SWS has dedicated members who support wetlands despite all odds. After hearing many of your stories about why you are wetland practitioners, it is clear that this work will continue long into the future. I joined SWS as a student and I will always “be there” for SWS. The 40th Anniversary Celebration at the annual meeting in Quebec City (June 7-11, 2020) will be a special event for me. We can all look forward to a meeting where we celebrate wetland science, education and conservation while we continue to meet the challenges of the future. As our extremely capable new officers step in to fill leadership roles, I pack gear for what will be a very hot and flooded summer of swamp fieldwork. Hope to see you in Quebec City. n

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We should have some interesting articles in the October issue. So stay tuned. If you’d like to contribute to future articles, please contact me at ralphtiner83@ gmail.com. In the meantime, Happy Swamping! n


John Lowenthal receives one of the President’s Service Award from outgoing SWS President, Beth Middleton.

Andrew Hamilton Baldwin receives a 2019 SWS Fellow Award.

J. Patrick Megonigal receives a 2019 SWS Fellow Award.

Nick Davidson was one of the Lifetime Achievement Award winners.

The R. Harold Jones 2019 Lifetime Achievement Award went to Mallory N. Gilbert.

Members of SWS Multicultural Mentoring Program (SWaMMP) meet during the SWS 2019 Annual Meeting. Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 159


TABLE OF CONTENTS Vol. 36, No. 3 July Special Issue 2019

156 / From the Editor’s Desk 156 / Proceedings 157 / Presidents’ Messages 161 / Biology & Ecology • Animals • Biogeochemistry – Carbon Cycling / Sequestration • Biogeochemistry – Nutrient Cycling • Ecosystem Science • Genetics & Science • Landscape Science • Microbes • Multi-trophic Interactions • Plants • Other (self-identified Biology & Ecology abstracts) 205 / Education & Communication • Professional Development • Public Outreach and Education • Teaching Wetland Science • Wetlands and Society 217 / Global Climate Change • Blue Carbon & Carbon Markets • Global Climate Change • Greenhouse Gas Processes • Sea-Level Rise • Other (self-identified Global Climate Change abstracts)

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235 / Management & Applied Science • Classification • Conservation • Delineation • Ecosystem Services • GIS & Remote Sensing • Invasive Species • Monitoring & Assessment • Restoration, Creation, & Mitigation • Toxicology • Wildlife Management • Other (self-identified Management & Applied Science abstracts) 311 / Physical Sciences • Geomorphology, Hydrology & Watersheds • Soils • Water Quality, Quantity & Hydraulics 319 / Policy • Federal State Local Initiatives • International • Ramsar & International Agreements • Regulation • Wetland Valuation & Free Market Considerations • Other (self-identified Policy abstracts) 330 / Index by Author 346 / About Wetland Science & Practice


BIOLOGY & ECOLOGY

Biology & Ecology: Animals PRESENTATION 1014 Presented during Wetland and Wetland Wildlife of Concern II, 5/31/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

A FRAMEWORK FOR COORDINATED MARSH BIRD MONITORING FOR THE GULF OF MEXICO Fournier, Auriel, Mississippi State University Iglay, Ray, Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Aquaculture, Mississippi State University Feura, Jared, Coastal Research and Extension Center, Mississippi State University Rush, Scott A., Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Aquaculture, Mississippi State University Weitzel, Spencer, Coastal Research and Extension Center, Mississippi State University Woodrey, Mark S., Coastal Research and Extension Center, Mississippi State University Evans, Kristine, Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Aquaculture, Mississippi State University Coastal wetlands of the Gulf of Mexico represent 62 percent of the tidal wetlands in the United States and 22 percent of those found around the world. They provide habitat important to both the plants and animals, as well as support the local and national economy. Marsh birds are widely considered to be indicators of wetland health and integrity. Although many species of marsh birds were affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil spill, a severe lack of baseline data about these species, their demographics and spatial ecology greatly hinders assessment of spill effects emphasizing the need for standardized monitoring across the northern Gulf Coast. Further, we have a poor understanding of the effects of management and restoration activities on marsh bird population at local to regional geographic scales. Thus, our objective is to establish a standardized and coordinated secretive marsh bird monitoring framework for the Gulf of Mexico region to provide sufficient detail to answer local questions about restoration and management actions, while also capable of scaling up these data to assessing larger scale ecological processes. The Saltmarsh Habitat and Avian Research Program (SHARP) of the mid- and northeast-Atlantic regions provided a foundational framework for this effort. First, we established our study area as the Mississippi coast, but developed sampling design and data collection protocols capable of being scaled to a multi-state effort. Second, we developed a power analysis tool to explore relationships of sampling effort and variation among density estimates allowing for easy exploration of sampling effort requirements among multiple bird density and detection scenarios. Third, we applied a multi-stage sampling framework, similar to

SHARP, for establishing our sampling framework in addition to exploring different approaches to distributing sampling points for breeding season point transects. The resulting sampling framework provides a spatially-balanced distribution of sampling points across saltmarsh complexes of Mississippi for conducting breeding and non-breeding bird surveys that can be extended to a Gulf-wide monitoring program. â–

PRESENTATION 1034 Presented during Wetland and Wetland Wildlife of Concern I, 5/31/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

AMPHIBIAN AND TURTLE RESPONSE TO CREATED WETLANDS IN CENTRAL APPALACHIAN WETLANDS Anderson, Jim, West Virginia University Significant effort has been expended across the world to create and restore wetlands for mitigation and conservation. I have conducted several studies since 2001 to evaluate created and restored wetlands for amphibians and turtles in West Virginia and Maryland, USA. Avian and anuran communities in 11 mitigation and 4 reference wetlands throughout WV during 2001 and 2002 indicated that anuran (frogs and toads) species richness, Wisconsin index calling values, and abundance were higher in mitigation than reference wetlands. In 2009 and 2010, in WV and MD, abundance of spring peeper (Pseudacris crucifer) metamorphs decreased significantly from 2009 to 2010 and abundance of green frog (Lithobates clamitans) metamorphs increased with habitat complexity, but both were unaffected by wetland type. Occupancy of anurans were similar between human created and beaver (Castor canadensis)-created wetlands. Detection of anurans was largely unaffected by call survey type, but several environmental covariates had a significant effect on the detectability of calling anurans. In 2009 and 2010 diet composition of adult red-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens viridescens) and selection of prey by newts between created and natural wetlands was nonrandom, but was only minimally affected by wetland type. In 2016 and 2017, use of restored wetlands in WV by snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) and painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) was evaluated. Painted turtle abundance was higher in restored compared to reference wetlands, but there was no significant difference in abundance of snapping turtles. Overall results indicate densities of amphibians and turtles are generally similar between created and natural wetlands and some functions are being fulfilled in created wetlands, but more research on reproductive equivalency needs to be performed to fully understand the ability of created and restored wetlands to replace natural wetland systems. â– Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 161


PRESENTATION 1037

PRESENTATION 1275

Presented during Animals, 5/30/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

Presented during Animals, 5/30/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

AMERICAN BLACK DUCK AND MALLARD WINTERING HABITAT USE IN WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA AND WEST VIRGINIA Rota, Christopher, West Virginia University Anderson, Jim, West Virginia University Yannuzzi, Sally, West Virginia University Peters, Michael, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources Gregg, Ian, Pennsylvania Game Commission

SUMMER AT THE SHORE: BREEDING BLACK DUCK HABITAT USE AND NEST SUCCESS IN COASTAL WETLANDS Lawson, Daniel, University of Delaware Williams, Chris, University of Delaware Howell, Doug, North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission Fuller, Joe, North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission

Populations of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) have been declining for over half a century due to habitat loss and degradation, and hybridization with mallards (A. platyrhynchos). To address this decline we evaluated black duck and mallard use of created and natural wetlands and riverine systems, to determine important factors influencing black duck and mallard winter abundance. We performed waterfowl surveys every other week between November and March 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 in Pennsylvania and West Virginia, USA. Black duck occupancy decreased between years, and habitat use overall was higher in passively managed wetlands, palustrine systems, and modified wetlands. Black duck abundance was lower in the second year of the study, higher in riverine and palustrine systems, modified wetlands, passively managed wetlands, and when there was an active beaver presence (Castor canadensis). Black duck abundance was positively associated with wetland size, surrounding barren land, herbaceous land, forested land, cultivated cropland, and wetland within 200 m of a survey point, and negatively associated with surrounding hay or pasture land within 200 m of a survey point. Mallard occupancy was solely positively associated with surrounding developed land use within 200 m of a survey point. However, mallard abundance was positively associated with wetland size, and open water, developed land, barren land, forested land, hay or pasture land, wetland, and cultivated cropland within 200 m of a survey point. Mallard abundance was also highest in actively managed wetlands, palustrine systems, created wetlands, and on private land. Our results can help guide state and federal decisions for the management of wintering black ducks and mallards. ■

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North Carolina represents the southern extent of the American black duck’s (Anas rubripes) breeding range, however their breeding ecology in this region is little understood. We located and monitored 140 nesting black ducks over two years (2017-18) to assess nesting productivity and quantify nesting habitat within coastal North Carolina. Specifically, we quantified nest initiation and peak nesting dates, determined nest success rates, and developed competing models of nest failure in program MCestimate. Preliminary results indicate that the average nest initiation date over the study was April 16 with a peak nesting date of May 7. Apparent nest success rates varied from 2017 (31%) to 2018 (63%). Depredation rates were 42% in 2017 and 28% in 2018. Primary nest predators included crows (Corvidae), raccoons (Procyon lotor), American mink (Neovison vison), and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Further, we developed a series of a priori competing models of black duck nest occupancy using microhabitat (vegetation height, density, and composition) and macrohabitat (National Wetland Inventory habitat classifications) characteristics. Based on these results, we are predicting nesting habitat availability for the year 2100 under three sea level rise scenarios and model these changes in program SLAMM (Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model). ■


Biology & Ecology: Biogeochemistry - Carbon Cycling/ Sequestration PRESENTATION 1020 Presented during Biogeochemistry - Carbon Cycling, 5/31/2019 1:10 PM-2:50 PM

MANGROVES ON THE MOVE: INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF MANGROVE INVASION ON SOIL PROCESSES ALONG THE EASTERN FLORIDA COASTLINE Geoghegan, Emily, Villanova University Chapman, Samantha, Villanova University Langley, Adam, Villanova University Hayes, Matthew, Villanova University Both mangrove wetlands and salt marshes are highly productive ecosystems that provide valuable ecosystem services like flood protection and carbon storage. These services are tightly linked to the structure and functional ecology maintained by foundational plant species. Mangrove wetlands and salt marshes support different ecological communities, and therefore inherently have different impacts on ecosystem processes. This suggests that changes in vegetation type within tidal wetlands could alter wetland structure and ecosystem services. Along the Florida coastline, mangroves are rapidly encroaching northward into territory previously inhabited by temperate salt marsh ecosystems due to decreasing frequency of freeze events. It is currently unknown how these dramatic shifts in dominant coastal vegetation will impact ‘on the ground’ processes within these ecosystems, such as decomposition and root growth. In order to understand how soil processes will change as a result of vegetation shifts, I investigated belowground root and soil processes at Florida field sites along marsh-to-mangrove gradients, both with and without experimental warming. I also measured soil respiration rates and 13C partitioning within greenhouse mesocosms. The black mangrove Avicennia germinans and the marsh grass Spartina alterniflora utilize different photosynthetic pathways (C3 and C4 pathways, respectively). Therefore, stable carbon isotope signatures can be used to distinguish the fractions of respiration contributed by the plants or by the soils they are grown in - derived either from mangrove or marsh vegetation. Working closely with the Guana Tolomato Matanzas National Estuarine Research Reserve, our work will provide valuable information to local land managers and environmental education programs regarding the future of coastal wetland structure and responses to global change factors. ■

PRESENTATION 1046 Presented during Applying Adaptive Management to Restoration of the Herring River Estuary III, 5/31/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

ESTIMATING WOODY BIOMASS AND CARBON STOCKS IN A TIDALLY RESTRICTED ESTUARY: HERRING RIVER, CAPE COD, MASSACHUSETTS Fouse, Jacqualyn, Yale University As part of a project to quantify carbon fluxes and potential blue carbon benefits associated with the planned restoration of tidal flow to the Herring River Estuary, this study estimated the standing biomass and carbon stocks contained in the woody understory of the river floodplain area. This biomass will die away and the carbon stock will be released over time as the river is restored to its natural state. These estimates are being used as part of a blue carbon model that forecasts the projected net carbon impact of restoring approximately 200 hectares of intertidal salt marsh habitat in areas currently dominated by woody upland and freshwater wetland plant species. The study methodology included three main parts. First, three dominant tall shrub species were sampled and measured in the field for morphological characteristics. Sub-sample stems were selected for harvesting and oven drying during the summer of 2018. The resulting data were used to derive allometric equations by species and for the combined data to use for plant biomass estimation. Second, species distribution and composition were estimated using randomized plots in the floodplain. Data were used to determine percentage cover of tall shrubs, to ground-truth vegetative classifications derived by desktop analysis of multispectral data, and to support the individual plant sample data. Third, a select number of the harvested plant stem samples were pulverized and processed for carbon-hydrogen-nitrogen analysis using an elemental analyzer to determine actual stem percent carbon content and support the tall shrub carbon stock estimation. Part one data produced allometric equations for shrub species not found in existing literature and showed a highly statistically significant relationship between stem biomass and diameter. The results also showed that stem height did not add much explanatory value in a multivariate model. Part two data showed percentage tall shrub cover of 25% in the shrub vegetation zones. Part three data showed percentage carbon content of tall shrub stems ranging from 47.64% to 49.49%. The totality of the study data supported the calculation of tall shrub carbon stocks per unit area in the floodplain. These results expand the body of research related to non-tree woody plant biomass and carbon estimation and offer a pragmatic but comprehensive estimation approach as well as rule-of-thumb data that can easily be used for real-world restoration project applications. ■ Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 163


PRESENTATION 1105

PRESENTATION 1149

Presented during Coastal peatlands in a changing world I, 5/31/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

Presented during Biogeochemistry - Carbon Cycling, 5/31/2019 1:10 PM-2:50 PM

THE IMPACT OF ~200 YEARS OF DRAINAGE ON PEAT CHARACTERISTICS AND CARBON CHEMISTRY IN THE GREAT DISMAL SWAMP Drexler, Judith, US Geological Survey Stricker, Craig, US Geological Survey

LEGACY EFFECTS OF MANAGEMENT CAN AFFECT CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN RESTORED WETLANDS Kasak, Kuno, University of California Anthony, Tyler, University of California Valach, Alex, University of California Hemes, Kyle, University of California Silver, Whendee, University of California Szutu, Daphne, University of California Verfaillie, Joseph, University of California Baldocchi, Dennis, University of California

The Great Dismal Swamp (GDS) is a large forested peatland in Virginia/North Carolina, USA, which has been subject to ~200 years of drainage and widespread logging of Atlantic white cedar (AWC, Chamaecyparis thyoides L.). The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of drainage and AWC loss on GDS peat characteristics and carbon chemistry. Fifty-cm peat cores were collected from three drained GDS vegetation communities (pocosin, AWC, and red maple-black gum) and compared to cores from an intact, undrained AWC peatland at the Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (AR) in North Carolina. Cores were analyzed for bulk density, % organic carbon, 210Pb, 137 Cs, 13C NMR, and lignin chemistry. AR peats had ~ half the carbon densities but twice the vertical accretion rates of drained GDS peats. Carbon accumulation rates ranged from 51 to 389 g C m-2 yr-1 for all sites and were similar for GDS and AR AWC sites with 137Cs dating (87GDS versus 92AR g C m-2 yr-1 and somewhat less at the GDS than AR with 210Pb (111GDS versus 159AR g C m-2 yr-1). The AR peats had higher lignin content in deeper peat layers, whereas lignin content changed little with depth in GDS peats. Acid:aldehyde ratios for vanillyl and syringyl group phenols indicated that GDS peats were more decomposed, particularly at depth, and that this occurred under aerobic conditions. Solid state 13 C NMR showed a coincident loss of carbohydrates and increase in recalcitrant byproducts of carbohydrate degradation with depth, despite the high polyphenol content of peat. These results indicate that long-term drainage has accelerated GDS peat decomposition, reducing the capacity and stability of the carbon sink. â–

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Restoring degraded peat soils to wetlands can be an attractive and efficient measure to sequester carbon, improve water quality, create habitat for wildlife, control flooding, and provide opportunities for recreation. Agricultural lands which are restored to wetlands can build soil and reverse land subsidence. On the other hand, restored wetlands can result in increased methane emissions which can reduce the net benefits of the restoration. Using eddy covariance towers in five restored wetlands in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California, we see high carbon sequestration as well as some of the highest methane emissions measured in restored freshwater wetlands. Several studies have shown that the legacy effect of the previous land use can significantly alter the restoration trajectory. For example, high Fe conditions can temporarily reduce methane fluxes while high concentration of nutrients such as N and P can increase emissions via several pathways. Our soil sampling campaign carried out in August 2018 in the Delta allows us to understand the legacy effects of soil nutrients at our chronosequence of restored wetlands. For example, a wetland which was previously under arable use had significantly higher P content than those which were used as a pasture. This may also be one of the reasons why the wetland vegetation developed quickly after the restoration in a system with high P concentration. Both N and P are common nutrients that limit plant growth, but when the nutrient concentration in the soil is high we can expect highproductivity but low-diversity systems that may resemble Typha marshes. Nutrient-rich conditions can result in high C sequestration potential due to the rapid plant growth. On the other hand, nutrient loading can cause the wetlands to become eutrophic, especially if the diffuse pollution from nearby agricultural lands is continuous. Eutrophic systems can lead to elevated methane fluxes due to the reduced oxygen content by the increased algae growth, especially with rising temperature. In this paper, we plan to synthesize and analyze the soil nutrient legacy effects on biogeochemical cycling at five restored wetlands in the Delta. â–


PRESENTATION 1152 Presented during Biology and Ecology, 5/30/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

THE MICROBIAL MECHANISM FOR ENHANCED METHANE EMISSION IN PHRAGMITES-INVADED TIDAL MARSH Kang, Hojeong, Yonsei University Kim, Jinhyun, Yonsei University Coastal wetlands sequester ca 44.7 Tg of carbon per year globally, but may represent a source for CH4. In particular, previous studies have noted that plant invasion including Phragmites could increase CH4 emission substantially. However, mechanistic understanding of such change is still limited. This study aimed to reveal how Phragmites invasion may induce enhanced CH4 emission from a coastal wetland which was originally dominated by a native species, Suaeda japonica in Korea. We analyzed microbial and chemical properties of soils along the chronosequence of the introduction of Phragmites australis in a tidal marsh in Suncheon Bay, Korea. Methane emission reached its maximum within 5 years after the introduction, while soil chemistry and microbial community continuously changed until 10 years since the invasion of Phragmites. Increases in DOC and soil moisture due to the introduction was not directly connected with the enhanced methane emission, but they affected methane emission through the changes in microbial community structure and abundances. Greater emission of CH4 was associated with structural changes in Archaea and higher relative abundances of methanogens over sulfate reducer or methane oxidizers. In addition to the previously known mechanism of plant-mediated processes, this study highlighted the importance of methanogen abundances and community structure in enhanced CH4 emission in coastal wetlands invaded by Phragmites. ■

PRESENTATION 1174 Presented during Coastal peatlands in a changing world I, 5/31/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF SOIL RESPIRATION DRIVEN BY PLANT COMMUNITY IN A COASTAL SHRUB PEATLAND Wang, Hongjun, Duke University Ho, Mengchi, Duke University Flanagan, Neal, Duke University Wetland Center Richardson, Curtis, Duke University Soil respiration, as a key ecosystem process that releases CO2 from soil, plays a large role in carbon cycling as well as other nutrient cycles in global peatlands. Highly diversified plant communities in coastal peatlands may cause substantial uncertainties, spatial variability in particular, in estimates of soil respiration for scaling up in-situ measure-

ments to an ecosystem level. In this study, we tested the spatial variability of soil respiration and its main physiochemical drivers controlling the carbon oxidation reaction under different plants in a coastal shrub peatland in North Carolina. Our results show that the spatial variability of soil respiration was exceptionally high in the shrub peatlands. Within most of our 10*10 m plots, the rates of soil respiration ranged from 0.5-0.8 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 under bare areas to 2.1-7.6 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 under evergreen shrubs even during winter. The observed spatial variation strongly depended on the plant communities, and can’t be explained by soil physiochemical parameters including soil moisture, soil temperature, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. Therefore, plant communities in peatlands must be taken into account when modeling soil respiration on a large scale. ■

PRESENTATION 1214 Presented during Biogeochemistry - Carbon Cycling II, 5/31/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

ASSESSING ECOSYSTEM CARBON POOLS IN BLACK ASH WETLANDS ACROSS THE GREAT LAKES REGION Hofmeister, Kathryn, Michigan Technological University Shannon, Joseph, Michigan Technological University Davis, Joshua, George Mason University Stimmel, Elisabeth, Michigan Technological University Van Grinsven, Matthew, Northern Michigan University Noh, Nam Jin, Western Sydney University Wagenbrenner, Joseph, USDA Forest Service Pypker, Thomas, Thompson Rivers University Liu, Fengjing, Michigan Technological University Kolka, Randy, USDA Forest Service In the Great Lakes region, the extensive spread of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is threatening ash (Fraxinus spp.)-dominated forest ecosystems and affecting critical carbon (C) cycling ecosystem services. Black ash (Fraxinus nigra Marsh.) forested wetlands, which cover over 1 million ha across the Upper Great Lakes region are particularly vulnerable to the impact of EAB infestation on C pools and fluxes. In 2012, we established study sites in northern Michigan black as wetlands in which we girdled or cut ash trees to represent the potential short- and long-term impacts of EAB invasion, respectively. Simulation-induced ash mortality caused C shifts from live aboveground biomass pools to standing dead and coarse woody debris (CWD) pools. Three years after simulated EAB infestation, aboveground live biomass and CWD C pools did not differ between girdled and referWetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 165


ence sites, although live biomass was significantly lower at the ash cut sites. After six years, both girdled and ash cut sites had significantly lower live biomass C pools than reference sites, and an increase in standing dead and CWD C pools. At these organic soil-dominated sites, soil C pools were significant storehouses of C and remained unchanged during the time since simulations began; however, there is the potential for long-term changes in soil C pools due to shifts in the hydrologic regime at these sites. Changes in canopy cover and the hydrologic regime due to black ash mortality, which included increased water table due to decreased transpiration, resulted in increased CO2 fluxes from soil and fresh down wood following simulated EAB infestation. EAB infestation in black ash-dominated wetlands will alter species composition, hydrologic regime, and the distribution of ecosystem C pools and fluxes as a result of ash mortality. To reduce the impacts of EAB infestation on regional ash-dominated forest C pools, management actions, like selective planting of alternative species, should be considered to help mitigate changes to carbon cycling ecosystem services. ■

PRESENTATION 1250 Presented during Biogeochemistry - Carbon Cycling, 5/31/2019 1:10 PM-2:50 PM

SOURCE AND CHEMICAL STABILITY OF SOIL CARBON ACROSS A 32- YEAR CHRONOSEQUENCE OF CREATED COASTAL MARSHES Kelsall, Megan, Louisiana State University Elsey-Quirk, Tracy, Louisiana State University Tidal marshes have been recognized for providing a number of important ecological services including soil carbon (C) sequestration. However, the loss of tidal marsh habitat due to stressors exposes previously stored soil organic carbon (SOC) to oxidation and reduces the overall capacity to sequester C. Mitigation through marsh creation has been used to compensate for marsh loss; however, the timescale and development of these blue C sinks are not well understood. The vulnerability of organic C to oxidation depends on its chemical stability and environmental conditions that limit decomposition. Labile organic carbon (LC), or the fraction of soil carbon with rapid turnover time, is predicted to decompose quickly unless abiotic conditions, or mineral interactions limit decomposition. Recalcitrant organic carbon (RC) is the fraction of carbon that have slow rates of turnover. For tidal marshes, predicting the fate and long-term storage of SOC is limited by complications such as the potential for multiple C sources, 166 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

differences in their chemical stability, and the influence of environmental conditions that may preserve chemically labile carbon for long-time periods. In order to increase our understanding of soil C dynamics in created tidal marshes, SOC sources were estimated using δ13C analyses and chemical stabilities measured by acid hydrolysis along a time series of created marshes ranging from 1 to 32 years old in Sabine National Wildlife Refuge, southwest Louisiana. We hypothesized that the transition from algal to vegetation sources as marshes age is predicted to be supported by stable carbon isotope data and will be coincident with a shift from predominantly LC to RC. Our preliminary results support this hypothesis as the LC pool increased from 52 to 347 g m-2 in marshes from 5 to 32 years old, respectively while the RC pool increased more so such that there was approximately two times more RC in older marshes (e.g., 678 g m-2 in 32 yr old marsh). Additionally, the rate of RC accumulation was nearly twice that of LC in older marshes (22 g m-2 yr-1 compared to 12g m-2 yr-1), however both LC and RC accumulation rates were approximately 70% lower in created marshes than natural marshes. We further predict that C source, marsh characteristics, and vegetation morphology may influence LC and RC accumulation. Overall, our findings are anticipated to improve understanding of carbon sequestration potential and SOC development in created wetlands. ■

PRESENTATION 1251 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

SOIL CARBON SOURCES AND CHEMICAL STABILITY ACROSS A COASTAL MARSH SALINITY GRADIENT IN BARATARIA BAY, LOUISIANA Kelsall, Megan, Louisiana State University Elsey-Quirk, Tracy, Louisiana State University Wilson, Carol, Louisiana State University Snedden, Gregg, U.S. Geological Survey Soil carbon (C) sequestration is one of several important ecosystem services provided by tidal marshes. Rates of C sequestration are determined from a balance of C inputs and losses, and rates of burial by mineral sedimentation. Organic matter is comprised of different fractions of easily decomposed, labile, and chemically complex, recalcitrant, C compounds. Labile carbon (LC) (e.g., proteins, polysaccharides, carbohydrates) has a rapid turnover time, yet may be preserved by anaerobic conditions and interactions with mineral particles. The majority of recalcitrant organic carbon (RC) (e.g., lignin, humic acids, phenolic compounds)


is expected to be resistant to microbial decay and remain a large fraction of the total soil C pool. Little is known about the relative sources and stabilities of soil C across coastal marshes along salinity gradients and whether these factors are important determinants of long-term C storage. Here, soil C sources and chemical stability were assessed in cores collected in marshes along an estuarine salinity gradient in tidal fresh (n = 4), brackish (n = 3), and salt marsh (n = 4) types in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. ϐ13C and organic C analyses were conducted every 2 cm to a 36 cm depth on both bulk soil and soil with only RC remaining (post-hydrolysis). Our preliminary results indicate that the C signature of freshwater marsh soils reflects in-situ vegetation, while brackish and saline marsh soil were more depleted in ϐ13C than in-situ plant tissues. This depletion may be due to allochthonous C sourced from C3 plants, algae, or decomposition. Refractory C accumulation rate was significantly higher than the rate of LC accumulation, comprising 7075% of the total organic C accumulation. LC, RC, and TOC accumulation rates were similar across marsh types. Future analysis will examine relationships among soil C source and stability and environmental factors. ■

quin Delta in California, which display some of the highest measured methane emissions in the world. Being a potent greenhouse gas, these emissions can seemingly offset the climate benefit of wetlands in the short-term. Studies have indicated that briefly drying marsh soils can reduce methane emissions without limiting carbon uptake. Once the soils are exposed to oxygen methane production is inhibited. This effect has been shown to last up to several weeks after re-flooding occurs. To fully benefit from the high carbon uptake rates of these freshwater marshes, intermittent water table draw-downs during peak emission periods in summer may flip the system from a small carbon dioxide equivalent source to a net sink. In addition to benefiting the climate, this would increase financial profits made from wetlands under carbon cap and trade schemes. Here we present data from past water table draw-down events showing significant reductions of methane emissions, as well as an ongoing water table manipulation experiment on Twitchell Island in California. Our aim is to understand the optimal conditions to maximize climate benefits and, where possible, to outline wetland management techniques. ■

PRESENTATION 1255

Presented during The Wetland Underground: Frank Day’s Contributions to Wetland Ecology, Belowground Ecology, and SWS I, 5/31/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

PRESENTATION 1262 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

MANAGING MARSH HYDROLOGY TO REDUCE METHANE EMISSIONS Valach, Alex, University of California Chamberlain, Sam, University of California Eichelmann, Elke, University College Dublin Hemes, Kyle, University of California Kasak, Kuno, University of California Knox, Sara, USGS Oikawa, Patty, California State University East Bay Szutu, Daphne, University of California Verfaillie, Joseph, University of California Baldocchi, Dennis, University of California Wetland restoration entails an array of ecological benefits to society and the environment including wildlife habitats to support biodiversity, water quality improvements, flood protection, and carbon sequestration. This last benefit has received much attention in recent years, due to its valuable role in combating climate change. However, the benefit of capturing carbon from the atmosphere and maintaining soil carbon stores comes at the cost of increased methane emissions. In some cases, these can be very high, such as from reconstructed marshes in the Sacramento-San Joa-

THE ROOT OF THE CARBON CYCLE: LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 ON ROOT BIOMASS IN A COASTAL FLORIDA ECOSYSTEM Stover, Daniel, U.S. Department of Energy Day, Frank P., Old Dominion University Schroeder, Rachel, Old Dominion University Butnor, John, U.S. Forest Service Hinkle, C. Ross, University of Central Florida Drake, Bert, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center Growth and distribution of roots in time and space represent a gap in our understanding of belowground ecology. Larger coarse roots in addition to smaller fine roots may play a critical role in carbon sequestration belowground. Using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and minirhizotrons, we quantified coarse and fine-root biomass from an open-top chamber CO2 enrichment experiment in a coastal scrub-oak ecosystem at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA. The GPR propagates electromagnetic waves directly into the soil and reflects a portion of the energy when a buried object is contacted. In our study, we utilized a 1500 MHz antenna to establish correlations between GPR signals and root biomass to a depth of 60 cm. A relationship was found between GPR signal reflectance and root bioWetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 167


mass (R2 = 0.68). This correlation was applied to multiple GPR scans taken from each open-top chamber (elevated and ambient CO2). Total root biomass after 11 years of CO2 enrichment was greater in elevated plots (7670 ± 467 g/ m2) than in ambient plots (6655 ± 399 g/m2; P = 0.1208). Coarse roots comprised roughly 77% of total root biomass. Root-to-shoot ratios were 3.9 for elevated and 5.5 for ambient CO2 plots, demonstrating that root biomass contributes the most to total plant biomass in this system. Our results suggest that belowground plant structures in this fire-dominated system sequester substantial carbon from the atmosphere and provide an important sink for atmospheric CO2. Under elevated CO2, depth distribution of root biomass was affected, with an increase in biomass at 10-50 cm depth compared to a decrease of biomass with increasing depth in ambient CO2 plots. Combining GPR and minirhizotron nondestructive methods holds promise for rapid and repeatable quantification of root systems in coastal forests with low soil water content, but GPR applications to wetland forests remain elusive. ■

with freshwater ecosystems, including Phragmites Australis, Typha sps., and forest and shrub areas, replacing salt marsh habitat. In this study, we determine carbon storage and accretion rates for 1) impounded and drained former salt marshes, 2) salt marshes across a range of ages since restoration of natural hydrology, and 3) salt marshes that have not been altered. Each of these ecosystems has unique carbon burial rates and thus projected elevation trajectories. Ultimately, drained and impounded former marshes in the Herring River system do not store carbon at rates that match healthy salt marshes responding to sea-level rise. From 3 to 20 years post restoration, salt marshes do display increasing carbon storage and accretion rates, indicating a return to long-term carbon storage as well as elevation resilience to accelerating sea-level rise. However, systems that continue to have altered hydrology are not resilient to sea-level rise and represent coastal landscapes at risk of flooding and, in the long-term, ecosystem loss. ■

PRESENTATION 1288 PRESENTATION 1280 Presented during Applying Adaptive Management to Restoration of the Herring River Estuary III, 5/31/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

CARBON BURIAL RATES AND LINKAGES TO TIDAL HYDROLOGY AND ELEVATION IN TIDALLY RESTRICTED AND UNRESTRICTED WETLANDS Eagle Gonneea, Meagan, U.S. Geological Survey Kroeger, Kevin, U.S. Geological Survey Tang, Jim, Marine Biological Laboratory Wang, Faming, Marine Biological Laboratory Spivak, Amanda, University of Georgia Salt marshes have persisted for millennia, keeping pace with sea-level rise through a series of dynamic bio-physical feedbacks between ecology-plant production and decomposition-and geomorphology-sedimentation and erosion. Over the past century, however, ~50% of U.S. marshes have been lost to infilling, impoundment, draining, or other land-use modification. Such modifications of tidal hydrology have negative impacts on coastal wetland carbon storage and elevation. Draining wetlands lowers the water level, exposing buried organic material to oxygen, resulting in loss of both stored carbon and associated elevation of the marsh. Additionally, converting salt marsh habitat to another ecosystem disconnects the natural feedbacks between sea-level rise and platform elevation, leaving coastal wetlands unresponsive to future changes. The Herring River salt marsh complex was diked over a century ago, 168 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

Presented during Coastal peatlands in a changing world II, 5/31/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

EFFECTS OF WARMING AND ELEVATED CO2 ON COASTAL PEATLAND CARBON CYCLING Noyce, Genevieve, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center Megonigal, Patrick, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center Kirwan, Matthew, Virginia Institute of Marine Science Rich, Roy, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center Tidal systems are dynamic examples of how interactions between plants, microbes, and hydrogeomorphology respond to global change, as plants are ecosystem engineers that regulate wetland carbon sequestration by varying resource allocation between roots and shoots. This resource balance in turn affects biogeochemical cycling and the ability of the wetland to survive under accelerated sea level rise. The Salt Marsh Accretion Response to Temperature eXperiment (SMARTX) was established in the Smithsonian’s Global Change Research Wetland in 2016 to investigate these interactions in a microtidal coastal peatland where the herbaceous plant communities are known to respond rapidly to environmental change. Through a feedback-controlled experiment, we actively manipulate whole-ecosystem temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration. Heating treatments run year-round along a gradient from ambient temperature to +5.1 °C above ambient and warming spans from above the plant canopy to 1.5 m soil depth.


We found that warming alone increased total net primary productivity (NPP) at a relatively wet C3 sedge-dominated site, but decreased total NPP in a relatively dry C4 grassdominated site, suggesting that water relations regulate plant responses to warming even in wetland ecosystems. Changes in root-shoot allocation were nonlinear; modest warming of +1.7 °C increased belowground NPP, but further warming caused NPP to decline back to ambient levels. In contrast, elevated CO2 (eCO2) significantly increased belowground NPP, but was nonadditive on total NPP in warmed plots. These opposing plant responses then had cascading feedbacks on microbially-mediated biogeochemical cycles; warming alone significantly increased annual CH4 emissions but the combination of eCO2 plus warming decreased CH4 emissions. These trends were similar in two growing seasons, despite much higher annual precipitation in 2018 compared to 2017. Overall, the shifts in biomass allocation between roots and shoots in response to warming and eCO2 have important consequences for forecasting coastal ecosystem responses to climate change, especially determining their future stability and resilience to elevated sea level rise. ■

conditions takes place on these former drained peatlands. Results show a net positive C storage balance that could be profitable on the open C market. An American Carbon Registry approved method developed using either a stock based or flux-based method supported by our research are reviewed along with a range of potential market C values based on our 5 years of research at Pocosin Lakes Wildlife Refuge in North Carolina, where hydrologic conditions and C fluxes were quantified on reference, restored and drained blocks from (2012-2017). Research to-date has shown that restored farmland in NC peatland sites compared to drained sites have net C credits ranging from a low of 34 to a high of 63 t CO2 ha -1 yr-1 depending on plant productivity and soil accretion rates. C credit values will be discussed in terms of developing future C markets in these peatlands. In addition, we will report on the recent development of the largest C farm in the USA, established on a private landowners 5000 ha coastal peatland property. ■

PRESENTATION 1317 Presented during Coastal peatlands in a changing world I, 5/31/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

PRESENTATION 1310 Presented during Coastal peatlands in a changing world I, 5/31/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

CARBON FARMING IN COASTAL POCOSIN PEATLANDS: AN APPROACH TO RESTORING WETLANDS FOR CARBON CREDITS AND BIODIVERSITY Richardson, Curtis, Duke University Flanagan, Neal, Duke University Wetland Center Wang, Hongjun, Duke University Ho, Mengchi, Duke University Histosols have the highest amount of C storage per hectare of any soils on the globe but many of these peatlands have been drained, burned, fertilized and are now under intensive agricultural or forestry practices. For example, millions of hectares of coastal peatlands in the southeast USA have been drained and converted to row crops, exacerbating C loss due to increased greenhouse gas (GHG) losses, increased C export in runoff, reduced C sequestration and occasional uncontrolled deep peat fires. However, shrub dominated southeastern peatlands have also been shown to have low levels of C loss compared to other wetland ecosystems even under drainage and extended droughts due to the recalcitrant nature of the peat C chemistry in Pocosin peatlands. Our restoration research provides key scientific data which quantifies the amount of increased C sequestration that occurs annually when restoration to natural hydrologic

TIDAL FRESHWATER FORESTS AND MARSHES: AN UNAPPRECIATED ORGANIC-RICH CARBON SINK Craft, Christopher, Indiana University Mobilian, Courtney, Indiana University Located at the head of large estuaries, tidal freshwater forests and marshes are hotspots of important ecosystem services including high biological productivity, nitrogen (N) removal (e.g. denitrification), phosphorus (P) retention (e.g. sediment deposition), and biodiversity. Less is known about the role of these organic rich coastal wetlands as a carbon (C) sink relative to other wetlands. We measured soil organic C concentrations, pools and accumulation in tidal freshwater, brackish, and salt marshes and tidal freshwater forests of three rivers (Ogeechee, Altamaha, Satilla) of coastal southeastern Georgia USA to characterize C storage and C sequestration. Soil organic C concentrations (0-30 cm) of tidal freshwater forests and marshes ranged from 7-25%, higher than other tidal marshes and forests and many qualify as Histosols based on their concentrations (12-20%) and thickness (>40 cm). Soil organic C concentrations (10.81%) and stocks (8580 g/m2, 0-30 cm) in tidal freshwater forests (10.4%, 14,390 g/m2) and marshes(10.81%, 8580 g/m2) are higher relative to brackish (7.71% C, 7864 g/m2) and salt (5.95% C, 6961 g/m2) tidal marshes downstream and non-tidal alluvial forests upstream (2% C, 6000 g/m2). Carbon sequestration also Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 169


was greater in tidal freshwater marshes (109-122 g/m2/yr) than in marshes downstream (39-99 g/m2/yr) and non-tidal alluvial forests upstream (40-50 g/m2/yr), owing to higher C concentrations and soil accretion. However, C sequestration of tidal forests was low (46-93 g C/m2/yr) relative to tidal fresh marshes due to low rates of soil accretion. Tidal freshwater marshes accounted for only 2.5 to 11% of tidal wetland area yet sequestered 7.5% to 21% of the soil organic C in the three estuaries. Our findings underscore the importance of tidal freshwater forests and, especially, marshes as a C reservoir in coastal regions. ■

PRESENTATION 1336 Presented during Biogeochemistry and Plants, 5/29/2019 1:10 PM2:50 PM

LEAF LITTER DECAY RATES WITH NUTRIENT ENRICHMENT IN AVICENNIA GERMINANS Simpson, Lorae, Whitney lab for Marine Bioscience Lovelock, Catherine E., University of Queensland Cherry, Julia, University of Alabama Feller, Ilka, Smithsonian Environmental Reserach Center Rates of litter decomposition, an important component of the global carbon (C) cycle, often depend on litter quality and decomposer activity, which can then drive differences in C sequestration and storage in ecosystems. Nutrient enrichment may alter C storage in wetlands through its effects on litter quality. We investigated the effects of long-term nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) enrichment on Avicennia germinans litter quality and decomposition rates in the salt marsh-mangrove ecotone in St. Augustine, FL. Senescent leaf litter was collected from control, N and P enriched trees and placed in litterbags for use in a reciprocal transplant experiment, with each litter treatment (control, N, P leaves) placed in soils of control, N, and P fertilized trees. Litterbags were collected at 0, 14, 30, 60 and 180 days to determine mass loss and decay rates. While nutrient enrichment did not alter % N, C:N, or % lignin in treatment leaves, P-enriched leaves had higher % P, and thus lower N:P, C:P and lignin:P, compared to N and control leaves. However, there were no significant differences in decay rates of treatment leaves, likely due to the homogeneity of litter quality. Initial decay rates (30 and 60 days) were significantly higher in N and P fertilized soils compared to controls, but by 180 days decay rates had stabilized to 0.009 ± 0.0003 k day-1. Low C:N and cellulose content of litter suggests that labile fractions are rapidly decomposed and net immobilization of litter is favored after 60 days of incubation irrespective of nutrient 170 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

treatments. Thus, nutrient enrichment of A. germinans does not appear to alter litter quality or increase decomposition in the long term and therefore we do not expect a decline in sediment C sequestration as a result of eutrophication in this mangrove system. ■

PRESENTATION 1399 Presented during Biogeochemistry - Carbon Cycling II, 5/31/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

SALINITY AND SOIL COMPOSITION REGULATE DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON EXCHANGE IN TIDAL MARSH SOILS Pinsonneault, Andrew, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center Megonigal, Patrick, Smithsonian Env Research Ctr Neale, Patrick, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center Tzortziou, Maria, City College of New York Canuel, Elizabeth, Virginia Institute of Marine Science Coastal wetlands are significant sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to adjacent waters and exert a strong influence over the quality and quantity of the DOM exported to the oceans from terrestrial sources. Our understanding of the factors that control the quantity and quality of DOM exported from tidal wetlands, however, remains limited. We hypothesize that tidal marsh soils act as such a regulator and that their physical characteristics, such as organic matter (SOM) content and mineral phase composition, govern DOM exchange between soil surfaces and interstitial waters. To test this hypothesis, we collected 40 cm soil cores from four tidal wetlands across Maryland and Virginia (USA) representing a range of organic matter content (LOI450 = 5.1 ± 1.1 % to 74.8 ± 2.7% SOM) and salinity regimes (freshwater to 32 ppt Cl-) as well as surface water from Jericho Ditch (JD) in the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (Virginia, USA). Adsorption-desorption isotherms were generated by incubating the freeze-dried soils from each wetland with JD surface water ranging in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration from 0 to 200 mg-DOC L-1 at four different salinity regimes (0 ppt, 10 ppt, 20 ppt, and 35 ppt Cl-). Incubation results suggest that salinity, non-crystalline aluminum and iron content, and soil organic matter content exert a significant influence over soil sorption capacity, exchangeable soil carbon, and DOC partitioning coefficients. Two pools of colored DOC were identified and results indicate that the humic- and protein-like fluorophores that make up these pools exchange with one another on the soil surface. These results suggest that tidal marsh soils are indeed an important regulator of both quality and quantity of DOC exported to estuarine waters. ■


PRESENTATION 1411

PRESENTATION 1419

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

Presented during Applying Adaptive Management to Restoration of the Herring River Estuary III, 5/31/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

CARBON ACCUMULATION PATTERNS IN SOILS OF TROPICAL PEATLANDS FROM FLUVIAL ORIGIN (CAQUETÁ, COLOMBIA) Santofimio-Tamayo, Gina Alejandra, Pontifical Javeriana University Benavides, Juan Carlos, Pontifical Javeriana University

CLIMATIC IMPACTS OF TIDAL RESTRICTION AND RESTORATION: FULL CARBON AND GREENHOUSE GAS BUDGETS, WITH RADIATIVE FORCING CALCULATIONS Kroeger, Kevin, U.S. Geological Survey Eagle Gonneea, Meagan, U.S. Geological Survey Tang, Jianwu, Marine Biological Laboratory Wang, Faming, Marine Biological Laboratory Fouse, Jacqualyn, Yale University Smith, Tim, Minnesota Board of Water and Soil Resources Moseman-Valtierra, Serena, University of Rhode Island

The continuous and dense vegetation of tropical rainforests makes them an important global carbon reservoir storing 88,6Gt, equal to 15-19%. Within the tropical forests, peatlands stand out because they store a disproportionately high content of organic carbon. The organic soils from peatlands are several meters deep and have extremely low decomposition rates. The spatial distribution, functioning and carbon storage patterns of peatland ecosystems in the Amazon basin remain to be explored due to the remoteness of the site and the lack of reliable remote sensing techniques for detection. The main objective of this study was to identify the vegetation and carbon accumulation patterns of 8 peatlands located along the Orteguaza River from the Andes foothills to its end at the Caquetá River in the Colombian Amazon and their relationship with the geomorphological position. At each site vegetation and soil was sampled every 10m along a transect running from the river channel to the upland forest. Carbon content and organic matter was estimated using loss on ignition. The variation of the vegetation and its relationship with the environmental variables (water pH and electrical conductivity, peat depth, and distance to channel) were analyzed using a CCA. We found that the carbon content of peatland soils was between 30 gC m-2 and 90 gC m-2, dry bulk density was between 0,01 gC cm-3 and 1,7 gC cm-3. The peatland initiation age using soil radiocarbon was of 1770ybp. Macrofossil analyses indicated a change from floating vegetation to Mauritia dominated swamp forests as the wetland develops into a more autogenic (peat forming) ecosystem, although at the upstream area’s peat formation was scarce due to high energy and sediment transport in the river channel. CCA analyses indicated that variation in vegetation was related more with distance of the wetland to the main river channel than to water chemistry. Peat depth was generally shallow this less than 1m of peat near to the Andes but in stable peatlands far from the Andes the peat depth exceeded 4m. The most likely explanation for the change in carbon content is the change in conditions influenced by the geomorphological development of the river and time since the abandonment of meanders, and channels. Preliminary estimates of carbon in the sampled areas are high with a total estimated of 2029*10E3 tonC in 2660 ha and 129*10E3 tonC in 133 ha, making this area a nationally important carbon reservoir. ■

Intact salt marshes typically have a cooling effect on climate, due to a high rate of net carbon storage, and a modest rate of methane emission. When tidally-restricted and drained or impounded, a salt marsh may become a diminished carbon sink, or even a net source for carbon dioxide, and methane emissions may be enhanced. Widespread occurrence of tidally-restricted, altered and degraded wetlands therefore represents an opportunity to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions through tidal restoration and ecosystem recovery. The climate change mitigation benefits of wetland restoration, however, are largely unquantified, and in general they are not yet considered in greenhouse gas management plans, nor coastal adaptation plans, where often they may be important co-benefits. The Herring River estuary, part of the Cape Cod National Seashore, was diked early in the 20th century, leading to drainage or impoundment of ~400 hectares of former salt marsh. As a proposed restoration project, the site is an important case study for the consequences of tidal restriction and restoration for blue carbon processes. In the Bringing Wetlands to Market Project, we are conducting research to enable evaluation of the climatic role of the Herring River system, in the ~100 years since it was diked, as well as in both restoration and no-restoration scenarios. In addition, collaborators are evaluating potential of the restoration as a carbon market project. The Herring River system comprises a complex set of conditions, with varying water levels relative to soil, and contrasting vegetation cover. We will present results on greenhouse gas budgets, with consideration of direct gas exchange between the ecosystem and the atmosphere, changes in soil carbon, changes in biomass carbon stocks. ■

Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 171


PRESENTATION 1432 Presented during Biogeochemistry - Carbon Cycling, 5/31/2019 1:10 PM-2:50 PM

PLANT-MEDIATED CARBON TURNOVER OVERRIDES EFFECTS OF SEA LEVEL RISE IN A SALT MARSH FIELD EXPERIMENT Barry, Aidan, University of Connecticut Elphick, Chris, University of Connecticut Helton, Ashley, University of Connecticut Ooi, Sean Khan, University of Connecticut Lawrence, Beth, University of Connecticut Steven, Blaire, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station To determine how sea level rise (SLR) may impact carbon cycling rates among dominant Long Island Sound salt marsh vegetation zones, we manipulated marsh elevation and vegetation composition during a 2018 field experiment. We quantified CO2 fluxes and soil carbon mineralization rates in response to three SLR-scenarios (present day, ~10 year SLR (+7.5cm), ~20 year SLR (+15cm)) and five vegetation treatments (Spartina alterniflora, S. patens, Phragmites australis, two unvegetated controls). In-situ carbon emissions were estimated using a Picarro (G2201-i) gas analyzer in the field with both transparent and opaque chambers. Preliminary analyses suggest that S. alterniflora and S. patens had greater CO2 uptake and emissions compared to P. australis. Our laboratory assays of soil carbon mineralization and substrate-induced respiration rates indicate that soils associated with Spartina spp. produced more CO2 than P. australis or unvegetated controls. Interestingly, our elevation treatments did not alter field or laboratory carbon emissions. Further analyses will incorporate how plant biomass, soil chemistry, and microbial communities may influence carbon cycling among vegetation treatments. Our data suggest that as marshes flood more often as sea levels rise, vegetation composition within marshes will shift towards more flood-tolerant Spartina spp., which may lead to increased carbon turnover rates. ■

PRESENTATION 1481 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

THE EFFECT OF ENHANCED SULFUR AND NITROGEN DEPOSITION FROM OIL SANDS MINING ON CARBON FLUXES IN BOREAL PEATLANDS OF NORTHERN ALBERTA, CANADA Huang, Wendy, Villanova University Vile, Melanie, Villanova University Wieder, R. Kelman, Villanova University Peatlands are one of the world’s largest terrestrial carbon pools, storing approximately 25-30 % of the global pool 172 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

of soil carbon. However, peatlands in Alberta, Canada have been impacted by oil sands mining operations, which began in the late 1960’s. Despite the outfitting of upgrader stacks with sulfur dioxide scrubbers, these stacks and heavy haulers continue to emit substantial amounts of sulfur and nitrogen to the atmosphere in the forms of NOx and SOx, and has ultimately been deposited onto regional peatland ecosystems. Enhanced sulfur and nitrogen deposition is problematic because it can potentially affects the rates of methane and carbon dioxide emissions, which are potent greenhouse gases. The objective of this study was to understand how enhanced levels of nitrogen and sulfur deposition affects the emissions of methane and carbon dioxide from peatlands. Here, I have experimentally manipulated peat cores collected from Alberta, Canada with 2 kg N/ha/yr (control), 25 kg S/ha/yr (25 S), 50 kg N/ha/yr (50 N), and the combination of both (25S+50N). The results showed carbon dioxide emissions were significantly higher in the 50 N treatment than all other treatments. Methane emissions were significantly higher in the 50 N treatment than in the control and 25S+50N treatments, ...with intermediate emissions obtained in the 25 S treatment. In conclusion, long term, high nitrogen and/ or sulfur deposition from oil sands mining operations may compromise peatlands’ ability to sequester carbon. ■

PRESENTATION 1485 Presented during Coastal peatlands in a changing world II, 5/31/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

WILL SYNERGISTIC DISTURBANCES COMPROMISE RESILIENT SUBTROPICAL PEATLANDS? Benscoter, Brian, Florida Atlantic University Peatlands are tremendously resilient ecosystems, with physical and biological adaptive feedback mechanisms capable of sustaining or promoting ecosystem health across a spectrum of disturbances. However, compounding disturbances due to changing climate drivers or anthropogenic pressures have the potential to exceed the bounds of these mechanisms. Freshwater wetlands of the coastal zone are increasingly stressed by water management and precipitation deficits, resulting in both extreme and prolonged droughts initiating cascading vegetation shifts and altered fire regimes. For peatlands like those of the Florida Everglades, their thick, carbon-rich organic soils have adaptive protection mechanisms that decrease soil combustion risk during wildfire, even while in some cases promoting intense surface or canopy fire behavior. However, the dense organic soils can become vulnerable


fuels during severe drought, leading to scenarios of more severe fire effects and potentially compromised post-fire ecosystem resilience. Plant invasions, particularly by shrubs, further compromise ecosystem resilience by altering fire behavior, ecosystem carbon and water cycling, and ultimately ecosystem recovery. Here we will discuss recent and ongoing studies investigating controls on subtropical peatland disturbance regimes and their consequences for wetland resilience. Carbon storage in peatlands is the result of a delicate balance between storage and loss with a fine margin sensitive to extremes. Therefore, identifying tipping points is critical for the development of conservation and management strategies that may preserve these valuable ecosystems. ■

(2010) using kriging performed in ArcGIS. Accuracy of the interpolation was calculated using leave-one-out cross validation. Delaware Bay was found to exhibit a larger range of C accumulation rates than Barnegat Bay with a trend of declining C accumulation rate from the upper to lower bay. At sites with both field and coring data, the rates generated by these two methods are generally similar and only a few locations display significantly higher or lower rates. Sites with rates that vary from the general spatial trends and between time scales may indicate degrading or restored areas. This assessment of wetland C sequestration can be applied to support restoration and conservation efforts. ■

PRESENTATION 1502 PRESENTATION 1501 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

A COMPARISON OF ANNUAL AND DECADAL-SCALE CARBON SEQUESTRATION RATES IN NEW JERSEY, PENNSYLVANIA, AND DELAWARE TIDAL WETLANDS USING INTERPOLATION MAPS Champlin, Lena, Drexel University and the Academy of Natural Sciences Velinksy, David, Drexel University and the Academy of Natural Sciences Sommerfield, Chris, University of Delaware Watson, Elizabeth, Drexel University and the Academy of Natural Sciences Blue carbon (C) burial in coastal marsh sediments plays a significant role in climate change mitigation, but coastal wetlands are declining due to development and sea level rise. Spatial and temporal variations of C sequestration were examined in the extensive wetlands of the Mid-Atlantic Region. Recent C surface accumulation rates were compared to C sequestration over longer timescales from sediment cores in marshes within and between Barnegat and Delaware Bays. Data were compiled from short-term rates measured in 10 marshes and longer-term burial rates at 25 marshes in the two bays performed by the Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University and the University of Delaware. Short-term C sequestration was calculated as the product of surface sediment C density and sediment accretion measured above a feldspar marker layers (n = 9-X per marsh) seasonally or annually. Decadal scale C sequestration estimates were computed as the product of C density and accretion rates calculated over the past 50 years using 10Pb and 137Cs radioisotopes. Point values were interpolated to the spatial extent of emergent tidal wetlands mapped by NOAA’s Coastal Change Analysis Program

Presented during Coastal peatlands in a changing world II, 5/31/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

THERMAL ALTERATION OF SOIL ORGANIC MATTER BY LOWSEVERITY FIRE CAN ENHANCE CARBON PRESERVATION IN GLOBAL PEATLANDS Flanagan, Neal, Duke University Wetland Center Richardson, Curtis, Duke University Wang, Hongjun, Duke University Many peatlands across the globe are subject to frequent natural wildfires with return intervals ranging from 3 to 100 years. The majority of peatland wildfires are low-severity events that occur in winter and spring when vegetation is desiccated and soil moisture content is high. As a result, wildfires typically consume above-ground fuels without igniting the nearly saturated surface soil layers that are instead subjected to flash heating with a rapid loss of soil moisture but little loss of soil organic matter (SOM). Such fires have the potential to alter the chemical structure of SOM, even in the absence of combustion, through Maillard’s Reaction and similar chemical processes, and through structural changes that physically isolate and protect SOM in a manner that reduces rates of decomposition. Our research examines the effects of low-intensity surface fires on the rates of heterotrophic decomposition of SOM from peatlands spanning a latitudinal gradient from tropical to sub-boreal zones. The duration and temperature of low-intensity fires were measured in the field during prescribed burns and replicated in simulated fires. The effects of fire on the chemical structure of SOM was examined with FTIR, SEM and XPS. Burned and unburned peat replicates were incubated at three temperatures (5°C, 15°C, 25°C) in controlled chambers for more than six months. Burned replicates initially showed higher CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions. Yet, within four weeks emissions from Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 173


the burned replicates dropped below those of unburned replicates and remained significantly lower (10-50%) for the duration of the experiment. Thermal alteration of SOM significantly reduced the temperature sensitivity (Q.10) of peat. XPS results show a significant increase in aliphatic and aromatic functional groups on the surface of thermally-altered SOM aggregates, suggesting physical protection of SOM might explain the significant reduction in temperature sensitivity after fire. After accounting for small initial losses of organic matter (<10 %) during the fire simulations, thermal alteration of SOM resulted in a net long-term reduction in carbon losses to heterotrophic respiration. Such thermal alteration of SOM might be an underestimated factor influencing carbon accretion in frequently burned peatlands and could be globally relevant if climate change increases fire frequency in peatlands across the globe. ■

PRESENTATION 1562 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

METHANE GENERATION IN THE RESTORED TIDAL MARSHES AT POPLAR ISLAND Logan, Lydia, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science While salt marsh ecosystems may play a significant role in removing carbon from the atmosphere by sequestering it in soil, this carbon sink through burial may be offset by methanogenesis, the microbial production of methane (CH4) under anaerobic conditions during organic matter degradation. The variability of salinity in wetlands coupled with changing soil temperature, plant diversity and abundance, and freshwater inputs can result in different marshes throughout an estuary acting as atmospheric carbon sinks or sources. Methane emissions have been quantified in natural marshes varying in salinity, but there is less information regarding methane emissions in restored marshes. Here we measured rates of CH4 generation in the tidal marshes at Poplar Island, a restoration project located in the mesohaline region of Chesapeake Bay. We hypothesized that CH4 emissions would be modest due to the moderately high sulfate conditions, but predicted a positive correlation with marsh age due, in part, to the accumulation of organic matter with increasing age. To test this we measured methane production in created marshes ranging in age from 0 - 13 years old. Intact soil cores (diameter: 3.81cm) were obtained from the marshes and incubated in the lab under temperature-controlled conditions. Sealed cores were incubated for 24 hours, and CH4 concentrations in the head 174 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

space were analyzed every 2-3 hours by gas chromatography. As predicted, we found relatively low mean rates of methanogenesis (0 - 294 mg CH4 m-2 d-1) overall, with a high degree of spatial variability within each marsh and a weak, positive correlation with marsh age. ■

PRESENTATION 1570 Presented during Biogeochemistry - Carbon Cycling II, 5/31/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

MARSH EDGE EROSION IMPACTS ON DENITRIFICATION IN COASTAL WETLANDS White, John, Louisiana State University Vaccare, Jessica, Louisiana State University Sapkota, Yadav, Louisiana State University Coastal Louisiana has 80% of the contiguous U.S.’s total coastal wetland loss and it is experiencing one of the highest rates of relative sea level rise in the world. The mechanism of land loss is primarily through marsh edge erosion that results in the vertical loss of up to 1.5 m of the organic carbon previously stored for up to 900 years. The marsh edge erosion rate measured from 33 transects spread over 6 islands ranged from 49 to 324 cm/yr. The erosion rate was not well correlated with wind speed but strongly correlated with wind duration (r=0.60) which drives wave formation in the bay. Erosion rate was negatively correlated (r=0.45) with bulk density and positively correlated with soil organic matter content (r=0.42). Current coastal restoration plans call for reconnection of the Mississippi River with coastal basins through river diversion to restore these eroding coastal wetlands. These river diversions will import a large load of nitrate into the estuary which could potentially lead to degraded water quality. The nitrate removal capacity of submerged, carbon-rich marsh soil, which is an artifact of coastal marsh erosion, was studied. Nitrate removal rates were determined through an intact core flux experiment of marsh soil, submerged peat fringe sediment, and muddy estuarine sediment. Mean water column nitrate reduction rates from the aerobic intact core incubation for the marsh, fringe, and estuary were significantly different at 29.29±3.28, 18.83±1.31, and 10.83±0.62 mg NO3-N/ m2/day, respectively. Average denitrification potential rates from anaerobic shaken bottle incubation for the marsh, fringe, and estuary areas were 0.98±0.28, 0.42±0.04, and 1.13±0.26 µg N2O-N/g dry soil/hr, respectively. Percent recovery by mass for the denitrification potential shows that the majority of the nitrate added to the samples was converted to nitrogen gas indicating denitrification as the primary N loss mechanism in these eroding marshes. These


results will be useful to modelers to remove the uncertainty of how Barataria Bay will react to the nutrient inputs from the Mississippi River diversions. These results can, therefore, be used to inform the world’s stable coastlines on the relative vulnerability of their coastal marshes and to understand the potential nitrate removal capacity of other wetland dominated coastlines in the near future. ■

PRESENTATION 1575 Presented during Biogeochemistry - Carbon Cycling II, 5/31/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

REDUCED SOIL CARBON IN LOUISIANA SALT MARSHES IMPACTED BY THE DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL Graham, Sean, Nicholls State University Marinelli, Carmen, Nicholls State University Lin, Qianxin, Louisiana State University Mendelssohn, Irving, Louisiana State University Fleeger, John, Louisiana State University Deis, Don, Atkins Hou, Aixin, Louisiana State University Previously documented impacts of Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oiling on salt marsh plant growth have potentially important implications for ecosystem stability by reducing the rate of soil carbon accumulation, which directly influences the capacity to keep pace with sea level rise. Here, we assess the effects of DWH oiling on soil carbon content in the salt marshes of Barataria Bay, Louisiana, exposed to moderate and heavy oiling. Results spanning a 7-yr time frame from 2011 to 2017 show that oiled marshes had significantly lower soil carbon content (mg C g-1 soil) compared to reference marshes that received no apparent oiling. Reduced soil carbon caused by oiling also corresponded with increased soil bulk density (g soil cm-3), likely due to reduced belowground biomass contributions to soil volume. However, when soil carbon was converted to a volume-basis (taking into account soil bulk density), the main effect of oil exposure on oiling category was masked and instead revealed the initial intensity of the DWH spill at heavily oiled marshes. These results indicate that the DWH oil spill compromised salt marsh stability over the long-term, and recovery of ecosystem function is not yet complete. ■

Biology & Ecology: Biogeochemistry - Nutrient Cycling PRESENTATION 1019 Presented during Coastal peatlands in a changing world III, 5/31/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

THE WHAT, WHERE AND HOW OF PEATLAND OPENWATER POOLS Arsenault, Julien, Université de Montréal Talbot, Julie, Université de Montréal Martinez-Cruz, Karka, Universidad de Magallanes Sepulveda-Jauregui, Armando, Universidad de Magallanes Moore, Tim, McGill University Mid- and high-latitudes maritime peatlands are often covered with open-water pools of different shape and spatial arrangement. These pools, contrary to the surrounding peat, can be net sources of atmospheric carbon. This presentation will focus on the mechanisms responsible for the initiation and the persistence of pools as well as explaining their role in the general function and structure of peatlands. In the past, we have studied pools’ biogeochemical and hydrological connections with the surrounding vegetation and have shown the existence of small ‘watersheds’ to the pools. We have also shown that pool biogeochemistry is mainly controlled by internal processes driven by pool depth. Now, using published and unpublished data from eastern Canada and Tierra del Fuego (Chile), we will demonstrate how pools create spatially heterogeneous peatlands in relation to local environmental settings. ■

PRESENTATION 1142 Presented during Biogeochemistry - Nutrient Cycling I, 5/31/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

USING SALT MARSH VEGETATION ZONES TO PREDICT THE CURRENT AND FUTURE RATES OF POTENTIAL DENITRIFICATION ON REGIONAL SCALES Ooi, Sean Khan, University of Connecticut Barry, Aidan, University of Connecticut Lawrence, Beth, University of Connecticut Elphick, Chris, University of Connecticut Helton, Ashley, University of Connecticut Granville, Kayleigh, University of Connecticut Predicting denitrification rates of salt marshes at broad scales is challenging because their structure and function are constantly changing in response to various overlapping stressors like coastal development, anomalous weather, and sea-level rise (SLR). Salt marsh vegetation zones are Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 175


potentially good indicators of soil microbial processes because they closely track landscape-scale changes to salinity and flooding regimes. The goal of our study was to use the spatial extent of dominant vegetation zones to predict potential denitrification rates of salt marshes on a regional scale under current-day and SLR scenarios. To quantify the relationship between vegetation zones and potential denitrification rates, we conducted denitrification enzyme activity assays (DEA) on sediment collected from 20 salt marshes across Connecticut. Our results show significant differences in potential denitrification across vegetation zones, which predicted potential denitrification better than salinity, soil moisture, and other measured environmental factors. We then applied this relationship to spatial vegetation maps to predict the potential denitrification rates of salt marshes in Connecticut. Our results suggest that the vegetation composition of salt marshes could be a good predictor of their capacity to remove nitrogen. To predict the effect of SLR on future regional denitrification potential, we will pair results from an in situ field experiment that tested the effect of SLR-driven increased flooding and salinity on potential denitrification rates within each vegetation zone with modified spatial vegetation maps that account for projected changes to tidal range. By accounting for shifting vegetation zones and expected changes within each zone, we will be able to project potential denitrification across the region under various scenarios of sea-level rise and vegetation change. ■

ments where Spartina patens plants were treated with three levels of atrazine, six levels of nutrient addition, and 18 atrazine-nutrient combinations. A one-way analysis of variance revealed that all three treatments reduced the tensile stress of S. patens roots compared to Control. The tangent modulus of the high nitrogen (HN) and high phosphorus (HP), all three levels of atrazine, and all 18 combination units were significantly less than Control. However, there were no significant differences in Poisson’s ratio for all three treatment classes, regardless of root diameter or length. These results indicated that atrazine, nutrient addition, and the combination treatment significantly reduced the tensile strength (measured as tensile stress) of S. patens roots, but produced variation in the tangent modulus. Poisson’s ratio results suggested that the roots were subjected to similar plastic deformation. The resistance of the roots to biomechanical loading was affected by all three treatments, whereas their deformation resilience (tangent modulus) was most apparent with the atrazine and atrazine-nutrient combination, but the effect was limited to the HN and HP treatments with nutrient addition, only. The results of this study indicates that species specific adaptations to wetland environments, such as aerenchyma formation may be important factors that could have direct effects on biomechanical properties of emergent macrophytes. ■

PRESENTATION 1237 Presented during Biogeochemistry - Nutrient Cycling I, 5/31/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

PRESENTATION 1235 Presented during Biogeochemistry and Plants, 5/29/2019 1:10 PM2:50 PM

XENOBIOTICS DEGRADE THE RESISTANCE AND RESILIENCE OF SPARTINA PATENS BELOWGROUND BIOMASS TO EROSIVE BIOMECHANICAL FORCES Hollis, Lauris, Louisiana State University Turner, R. Eugene, Louisiana State University The belowground biomass of emergent wetland macrophytes provides resistance and resilience to erosive forces that can cause wetland loss. Tensile stress measures the plants’ ability to resist uprooting; whereas the tangent modulus is a measure of stiffness that could indicate resilience to deformation; Poisson’s ratio describes the nature of that deformation. These biomechanical metrics can be used to provide insight into the vulnerability of coastal wetlands to erosion. We calculated the true stress, true strain, tensile stress, tangent modulus, and Poisson’s ratio from biomechanical data that were generated from greenhouse experi176 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

HYDROLOGICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CONNECTIVITY BETWEEN WETLANDS Yuan, Yuxiang, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Zhu, Xiaoyan, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Otte, Marinus, North Dakota State University Jiang, Ming, Northeast institute of Geography and Agroecology,CAS Mushet, David, US Geological Survey Hydrological connectivity leads to chemical and biological exchange and migration, resulting in changes of composition of elements and species and consequently influences the biodiversity and stability of interconnected aquatic ecosystems. We investigated biological connectivity among four wetlands in the Xingkai Lake basin in China in 2013/14, and chemical connectivity between prairie pothole wetlands in the US using the multi-element fingerprinting approach in 2017/18. In China, increased nutrient concentrations occurred in those habitats connected to a


eutrophic shallow lake, and hydrological connectivity increased phytoplankton community similarity among different waterbodies. In the US, most element (e.g. Na, Mg, As) concentrations of porewater and soil varied significantly by wetland hydrologic type and increased along a recharge to discharge hydrologic gradient. Element compositions in porewater and soil of interconnected wetlands were more similar to each other than to those of wetlands located farther away. Our findings confirmed the importance of hydrological connectivity for biodiversity and chemical composition between connected wetlands, and provide a scientific basis for wetland protection and management at the basin scale. ■

PRESENTATION 1421 Presented during Biogeochemistry and Plants, 5/29/2019 1:10 PM2:50 PM

EXPLORING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN WETLAND PLANTS AND SEDIMENT BIOGEOCHEMISTRY Kissoon-Charles, La Toya, Missouri State University Cornish, Christine, Missouri State University Whaley, Hannah, Missouri State University Wetland plants grow in saturated conditions, and thus depend on an abundant supply of water. They can be emergent, submerged, floating-leaved, or free-floating as they are found growing on or in water, or in flooded or saturated soils. Multiple environmental characteristics can influence the presence or absence of various wetland plants as well as their abundance. Previous work has shown that local geology, land use, water clarity, and water and sediment chemistry can influence the distribution and abundance of different wetland plants. However, most work often focused on relationships between water chemistry and wetland plants, while few have reported on relationships with sediment characteristics. Previous research has shown that land use within a watershed affects the water and sediment chemistry of water bodies. To determine the role of land use, we collected sediment samples from ponds in the vicinity of different land use activities (agriculture, conservation, and golf courses). We analyzed pond sediments for organic matter, particle size, and multiple chemical elements (e.g. cadmium, lead, phosphorus, selenium, and zinc) to determine relationships with wetland plant community composition. Wetland plants in the vicinity of sediment sampling were identified, and their percent cover determined. Preliminary results indicated that plant community composition, sediment organic matter, and element concentrations varied between ponds. ■

PRESENTATION 1474 Presented during Biogeochemistry - Nutrient Cycling I, 5/31/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

NUTRIENT CYCLING AND WATER QUALITY IN COASTAL AGRICULTURAL ECOSYSTEMS AFFECTED BY SALTWATER INTRUSION Weissman, Dani, University of Maryland Tully, Katherine, University of Maryland As the world’s climate changes, coastal ecosystems are becoming more vulnerable to sea level rise and undergoing major disruptions in nutrient cycling. In this study, we examine the potential impact of saltwater intrusion (SWI) on phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) concentrations in a portion of the Chesapeake Bay estuary. Study sites are located along Maryland’s Lower Eastern Shore in forest, intruded forest, agricultural field, intruded agricultural field, agricultural ditch, tidal creek, and tidal salt marsh ecotones. The ecotones exist close together within a small area (<1 km) and P and N from agricultural areas have the potential to move into nearby tidal creeks and salt marshes. Soil porewater and surface water were collected in each ecotone for three consecutive years. Samples were analyzed for conductivity (EC), pH, and dissolved inorganic P and N in the forms of orthophosphate (PO4-P) and ammonium (NH4-N). Dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) was also measured in the water samples during the second year of the study. Across the years, mean EC exceeded 5 mS cm-1 in agricultural ditches and 20 mS cm-1 in intruded fields, indicating a movement of saltwater onto farm fields. Mean NH4-N concentrations in water samples were significantly higher in tidal salt marsh soil porewater than in the other ecotones across all years. Mean PO4-P concentrations were generally highest in agricultural ditches, tidal creeks, and marshes in all years combined. These concentrations exceeded recommended EPA ambient water quality criteria thresholds for the region by an order of magnitude. Mean DOP concentrations were similar across ecotones and were at least twice the corresponding mean PO4-P concentration in each ecotone. As SWI encroaches on coastal areas, agricultural fields may be poised to release large quantities of bioavailable nutrients into nearby waterways where they can have a negative effect on downstream water quality. ■

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PRESENTATION 1507

PRESENTATION 1566

Presented during Biogeochemistry - Nutrient Cycling I, 5/31/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

Presented during Biogeochemistry and Plants, 5/29/2019 1:10 PM2:50 PM

MULTI-ELEMENT FINGERPRINTS OF MARSH SOILS CONVERTED FOR AGRICULTURAL USES Zhu, Xiaoyan, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Yuan, Yuxiang, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Otte, Marinus, North Dakota State University Jiang, Ming, Northeast institute of Geography and Agroecology,CAS

EFFECTS OF NUTRIENT AND SEDIMENT ENRICHMENT ON POREWATER CHEMISTRY AND PLANT BIOMASS IN BRACKISH MARSH MESOCOSMS Ameen, Alex, Nicholls State University Graham, Sean, Nicholls State University

The long agricultural history of China was, to a certain extent, a history of drainage and reclamation of wetlands. This trend is particularly marked in the Sanjiang Plain given the nutrient-rich soils and flat topography. The conversions from wetlands to farmlands directly or indirectly influence the geochemical position of metals bound to the soil. However, little is known about the influence of this conversion on the element composition of soils. We took soil cores of five wetlands of different land use types (natural freshwater marsh, drained marsh, marsh converted to soybean field for one year, marsh converted to paddy for seven years, and grazed marsh), and measured the concentrations of 56 elements, organic matter content, pH, total organic carbon, and total nitrogen at depths of 0-20cm, 2040cm and 40-60cm. Organic matter content was the most important variable explaining variation in element concentrations (60.6%), as indicated by RDA analysis, followed by land use (4.2%), TN (3%) and pH (2.4%). Organic matter correlated positively with P, S, Ca, As, Mo, Cd, Sb and Hg, negatively with most metals. After normalization for OM, similarity tree analysis revealed that element concentrations in the top soils of all types were more easily affected by wetlands conversion. In addition, wetlands conversion to agricultural uses did change more element concentrations and distributions than drained and grazed wetlands. Multi-element fingerprinting did reflect the variance in the progress of wetland converted for agricultural uses. This information is of importance particularly to sustainable management of agriculture-induced natural wetland loss. â&#x2013;

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High-capacity sediment diversions of the Mississippi River have been planned as a keystone strategy for wetland restoration in coastal Louisiana. The introduction of mineral sediment and dissolved nutrients present in Mississippi River water could drastically alter the abiotic environment of the surrounding wetlands, and the effects on wetland vegetation are unclear. In this study, 50 sods were transplanted from a Spartina patens-dominated brackish marsh into a greenhouse and grown in either mineral or organic soil in combination with one of five levels of nutrient enrichment. The primary component of the mineral soil was silt collected from the bank of the Mississippi River, while that of the organic soil was peat collected from the aforementioned S. patens marsh. Nutrient treatments were based on a range of Mississippi River diversion discharge rates of nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, potassium, and iron as well as a control with no nutrient addition. After one summer, we found that total porewater conductivity increased with nutrient loading under both soil types. Under higher nutrient treatments the concentrations of porewater sulfide were elevated to phytotoxic levels, but this effect was only observed in the organic soil treatment. Nitrate and ammonium porewater concentrations were affected by both nutrient loading and soil type; however, nitrate was higher in the mineral soil while ammonium was higher in the organic soil. Porewater phosphorous and potassium concentrations were elevated in organic soil conditions and higher nutrient loading, while porewater iron was higher under mineral soil and lower nutrient loading. Aboveground standing crop, belowground biomass accumulation (i.e., ingrowth), and soil shear strength were also sampled at the end of the growing season and will be discussed in the context of nutrient and sediment enrichment, their relationship to porewater chemistry, and the ecosystem quality of wetlands restored by sediment diversions. â&#x2013;


Biology & Ecology: Ecosystem Science PRESENTATION 1005 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

A DIATOM-BASED RECONSTRUCTION OF SHIFTING HYDROLOGICAL REGIMES RESULTING FROM ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACT ON A BARRIER ISLAND SALT MARSH Maedke-Russell, Kristopher, Savannah State University Salt marsh habitat provides ecological services including mitigation of the effects of sea level rise and storms on inland areas. However, infrastructural development can alter salt marsh hydrology and biology, potentially limiting resilience to the effects of storm events and climate change. Ossabaw Island, GA features extensive salt marsh habitat and has a history of anthropogenic impact including the installation of roads that isolated large swaths of salt marsh from tidal inundation. The purpose of this study was to create a diatom-based reconstruction of hydrology at the Rocket Pond impoundment on Ossabaw Island before and after anthropogenic impact. Sediment cores were collected from Rocket Pond and extruded into 1 cm intervals. Loss-on-ignition was performed and representative slides were made for each core interval. Diatom assemblages were described for each core interval by the identification of at least 400 individuals per slide. Radioisotopic dating of the collected sediment using Pb-210 and Cs137 yielded sediment accumulation rates of 0.11 and 0.09 cm/ yr, respectively. Assuming constant sedimentation rate during the closed phase of Rocket Pond, tidal impediment resulting from the installation of Willows Road occurred approximately 171-209 YBP (19 cm core depth). Prior to causeway installation, diatom assemblages were dominated by the brackish species Cymatosira belgica (x̅=0.37) and other benthic species. Sedimentary organic content and carbonate content were negligible (x̅<0.01) below 52 cm core depth while both were higher (x̅=0.05 and x̅=0.04, respectively) and stable from 52-27 cm core depth. Two distinct ecological states occurred following causeway construction beginning with one dominated by planktonic and freshwater diatom species and an increase in sedimentary organic (x̅=0.50) and carbonate content (x̅=0.07). The current state became established approximately 63-77 YBP (7 cm core depth) and is defined by the returning prevalence of benthic species with a variety of salinity preferences and the highest sedimentary organic (x̅=0.58) and carbonate (x̅=0.12) content of the core. Road construction on Ossabaw Island substantially altered the hydrology of Rocket Pond, changing the site from a shallow, open brackish system to a deep freshwater impoundment and likely contributed heavily to its current ephemeral state. ■

PRESENTATION 1021 Presented during Ecosystem Science II, 5/30/2019 3:15 PM-5:00 PM

ABOVEGROUND NET PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY ACROSS AN ELEVATION GRADIENT WITHIN A FLOODPLAIN FOREST OF THE CONGAREE RIVER, SOUTH CAROLINA, USA Conner, William, Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science Blosser, Gavin, Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science Bridges, William, Clemson University Lockaby, Graeme, Auburn Uiversity Song, Bo, Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science Chow, Alex, Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science, Clemson University Aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) was measured across an elevational gradient in a floodplain forest on the Congaree River. Twenty data collection points, blocked by a priori elevational differences, were established along five roughly parallel transects with four 20x25-m plots along each transect. ANPP was estimated using the sum of annual litterfall (five 0.25 m² litter traps/ plot) and annual incremental increase in tree biomass. Tree (stems > 10 cm DBH) wood ANPP ranged from 409-606 g/m² while total litterfall ranged from 678 to 705 g/m². It seems we may need to concentrate resources to extend annual DBH measurements for as many years as possible, even at expense of reducing littertrap data, to produce a better estimate of long-term ANPP and provide more accurate values to be used in long-term models. Sapling (stems < 10 cm DBH) wood accounted for a mean of 5.8% to total measured ANPP for intermediate elevation plots, suggesting that, in areas with a moderate to dense sapling layer and experiencing occasional flooding, sapling wood should also be considered in ANPP calculations. We conclude that topographic position, a surrogate for both hydrology and sedimentation, as well as stand age and size, results in differing productivity rates within forested floodplains of the southeastern United States. ■

PRESENTATION 1025 Presented during Ecosystem Science II, 5/30/2019 3:15 PM-5:00 PM

ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONING OF GREAT SALT LAKE WETLANDS Pendleton, Maya, Utah State University Douglas, Aubin, Utah State University Kettenring, Karin, Utah State University Atwood, Trisha, Utah State University Great Salt Lake (GSL) wetlands account for approximately Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 179


80% of Utah wetlands and are critical habitat for birds migrating along the Pacific and Central Flyways. Like many wetlands worldwide, GSL wetland habitats have been declining as a result of anthropogenic impacts and the spread of invasive species, particularly non-native Phragmites australis. To better understand the impacts of habitat type loss in GSL wetlands, we quantified six ecosystem functions: above-ground biomass, above- and below-ground nitrogen storage, above- and below-ground carbon storage and bird diversity. We then compared our six individual ecosystem functions across seven habitat types differentiated by monotypic stands of five native species of wetland plants (Typha latifolia, Schoenoplectus acutus, S. americanus, Bolboschoenus maritimus, and Salicornia rubra), invasive Phragmites australis, and one non-vegetative habitat (playa). The best performing native wetland plant for the ecosystem functions measured was T. latifolia. In contrast, the worst performing native habitats for most ecosystem functions measured were playa, S. rubra, and B. maritimus with the exception of bird diversity where these habitats performed quite well. For all ecosystem functions measured, except for below-ground nitrogen storage (outperformed by S. americanus and S. acutus) and bird diversity (outperformed by every other habitat), we found that invasive P. australis performed equal to or better than the best performing native species. It especially excelled in above-ground nitrogen storage where it stored almost twice as much nitrogen than the leading native species. These results suggest that although we are losing habitat diversity across GSL wetlands due to the spread of P. australis, not all ecosystem functions are predicted to decline. The information gained from our study will be used to help landowners better manage their resources and restore ecosystem functioning and services of the GSL wetlands. ■

PRESENTATION 1126 Presented during Ecosystem Science II, 5/30/2019 3:15 PM-5:00 PM

ECOHYDROLOGICAL EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS FOR BLACK ASH WETLAND ECOSYSTEMS THREATENED BY EMERALD ASH BORER Van Grinsven, Matthew, Northern Michigan University Shannon, Joseph, Michigan Technological University Bolton, Nicholas, Michigan Technological University Davis, Joshua, George Mason University Hofmeister, Kathryn, Michigan Technological University Noh, Nam Jin, Western Sydney University Stimmel, Elisabeth, Michigan Technological University Wagenbrenner, Joseph, USDA Forest Service Kolka, Randy, USDA Forest Service 180 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

Pypker, Thomas, Thompson Rivers University North American forested wetlands with black ash (Fraxinus nigra Marsh.) dominated canopies are threatened by the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), and critical ecosystem services will likely be affected as a result of EAB-induced alteration to canopy composition and site hydrology. Management and conservation efforts to retain the structure and function of black ash wetlands will benefit from a better understanding of black ash’s ecohydrological role. A long-term regional investigation of hydrological connectivity, canopy transpiration, streamwater and solute exports, and management-based mitigation was initiated in 2011 in northern Michigan to characterize baseline conditions, evaluate ecohydrological responses to a simulated EAB infestation, and ultimately provide management recommendations. Specifically, we examined i) water tables and relative contributions from groundwater, ii) sap flux-estimated water use and response to hydrologic drivers among three codominant species: black ash, red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.), iii) streamwater yield and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) exports to downstream waterbodies, and iv) alternative species survival and growth. Results indicate that water tables were significantly elevated following simulations, though the magnitude of these responses were mitigated by connections to groundwater. The observed effect on water tables is likely due to the unique ecohydrological role of black ash, which exhibited significantly greater sap flux than the two codominant species studied here, resulting in a larger effect on total transpirational losses than if sap flux among these species was more similar. Additionally, loss of ash had important downstream effects, including increased water yield as well as DOC and TDN loads. Based on planting trials, silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.), American elm (Ulmus americana L.), and northern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) are viable alternative species to replace black ash, if appropriate management techniques are employed. However, it is unclear if any of these species can fully replace the role of black ash in the wetland hydrologic cycle, which may be a critical consideration in conserving ecosystem services. ■


PRESENTATION 1140

PRESENTATION 1141

Presented during Ecosystem Science I, 5/30/2019 1:10 PM-2:50 PM

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

ADAPTIVE FEATURES OF SOME MANGROVE PLANT SPECIES IN NIGERIA COASTAL ZONE Olowokudejo, James, University of Lagos Nigeria has the third largest mangrove forest in the world and the largest in Africa (about 970,000 ha.). Mangroves are wetlands which are subject to constantly changing flows of fresh and salt water. Over 60 species of trees, many associated plants and thousands of species of mammals, birds, fish, and invertebrates have been recorded from different mangrove forests. Nigeria’s oil and gas deposits are found largely in geological structures underlying mangroves and adjacent coastal ecosystems. Inadequate planning and poor management of oil exploration and production activities have caused significant environmental damage to mangroves which are fragile ecosystems and are at risk of disappearing before they are well studied and their ecological and economic functions properly understood. Vegetative morphological and anatomical features of representative specimens were studied and collected from six geographical locations in southern Nigeria. The plant species included Rhizophora racemosa, Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa, Hibiscus tiliaceous, Acrostichum aureum, Cyperus articulatus, Phoenix reclinata and Paspalum vaginatum. Anatomical features of the leaves, stems and roots were microscopically examined while the leaf epidermises were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The cortex of the roots is spongy due to the development of complex intercellular spaces for aeration. In cross-section the narrow stele of the pneumatophores of Avicennia and Laguncularia spp. is surrounded by a wide aerenchyma which is produced by phellogen. The large air spaces act as gas reservoirs for respiration. Leaf abaxial and adaxial surfaces in Avicennia and Rhizophora species are ornamented with cuticular waxes. The leaf surfaces of Avicennia germinans are covered by large funnel- shaped wax flakes while those of Rhizophora racemosa have thick corrugated cuticular wax around the sunken stomata. The outer periclinal adaxial walls of R. racemosa are concave with deposits of wax particles. These structural features ensure water conservation while the anatomical architecture guarantees adequate storage and ready supply of oxygen for respiration in the anaerobic habitat. The ecological significance of the adaptive features and the imperative for urgent conservation strategies for the mangrove ecosystem are discussed. ■

SUNLIGHT AND MICROBIAL EFFECTS ON DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON (DOC) IN TUNDRA PONDS NEAR BARROW, ALASKA Sandoval, Christopher, University Of Texas at El Paso Lougheed, Vanessa, UTEP Adame, Christy, University of Texas at El Paso Because of the rising temperatures in the Arctic, we are seeing permafrost melt at a rate not seen before. Due to these increased rates of thaw, carbon contained within the permafrost, sometimes older than 10,000 years, is being released into our modern atmosphere, including aquatic environments. We completed an experiment examining how light and microbes affect carbon transformation in wetland ponds, rivers and nearshore lagoons near Barrow, Alaska. Filtered samples were incubated in Whirl-Paks® with and without a native or exotic microbial inoculum, in light and dark conditions. Samples were incubated for 72h in a cold room kept at 14°C, equipped with a metal halide bulb (58,000 lux). Dark samples were wrapped in tin foil. Changes in dissolved oxygen (DO), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and spectral properties of the organic matter (C440, SUVA254, spectral ratio) were monitored. Preliminary results from a reference pond (IBP-C) and a thermokarst pond (TK3), which has experienced a greater rate of thaw and slumping than the reference site, indicate that light increased the lability of DOC relative to the dark control, and native innocula were better able to transform photodegraded DOC relative to non-native innocula. Additional sites will be added to the analyses to see if these trends hold across multiple habitats and dates. ■

PRESENTATION 1165 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

MICROBE AND SUNLIGHT EFFECTS ON DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON (DOC) QUALITY IN DESERT WETLANDS Adame, Christy, University of Texas at El Paso Lougheed, Vanessa, UTEP Sandoval, Christopher, University Of Texas at El Paso Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important component in wetland ecosystems, forming an important part of the carbon cycle and a food source for many microorganisms. Importantly in shallow wetland systems, sunlight can degrade DOC into more labile forms, allowing microbes to metabolize the DOC and produce CO2. Our objective was to see how DOC in local water bodies is modified by light, Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 181


and determine if microbes can use this photochemically altered DOC. Water was collected from multiple desert wetlands near El Paso, TX. Samples were filtered for DOC using 0.47 µm filter and microbes using 1.2 µm filter. Triplicate DOC samples were incubated in WhirlPaks with and without a microbial inoculum in light and dark conditions for 2 days at 15°C. DOC and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations were measured using a SHIMADZU TOC-L. A spectrophotometer (GENESYS 10UV) was used to determine the quality of carbon in samples using calculations for Slope Ratio (SR) for molecular weight, C440 for color, and Specific Ultraviolet Absorbance (SUVA254) for lability. Preliminary results from 2 sites showed some significant differences in C440 and SR between the light and dark samples, indicating photochemical changes occurred in DOC. However, there were no differences in the final concentration of DIC, suggested microbes were not better able to use this modified carbon. Additional experiments are being completed to optimize incubation time and temperature. There was also a lot of variability in the data which may indicate more replicates needed for future samples. ■

PRESENTATION 1180 Presented during Ecosystem Science II, 5/30/2019 3:15 PM-5:00 PM

ENGINEERED ECOSYSTEMS, A CYBORG APPROACH TO WETLAND RESTORATION - GRAND LAKE ST. MARYS LITTORAL WETLAND RESTORATION Pfeiffer, Joseph, KCI Technologies Inc. Direct modification of an ecosystem as a whole is beyond the technological, physical and financial limitations of society. However, the resilience of the processes within the ecosystem can be used to synergize an effect on the system as a whole given proper nurturing and support. The initiation of this process may require establishing a symbiotic relationship between engineered systems and natural infrastructure specifically designed and calibrated to enhance targeted ecosystem processes that will yield exponential response within the ecosystem. The created ‘cyborg system’ serves the greater good of the objective by establishing seeds of stable processes that become the foundation for self-sustaining ecosystem restoration. This approach is being applied to the restoration of the Grand Lake St. Marys (GLSM) Ecosystem. Nutrient loading from the contributing watershed has created hypertrophic conditions within the 21 square mile lake ecosystem. GLSM historically supported 2,500 acres of littoral fringe wetlands. Engineered Ecosystems were established to address the limiting factor to the restoration of the littoral wetland system, targeting 182 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

water quality degradation. These systems remove nutrients via a series of interlinked engineered, bio-technical, and natural treatment systems. The improvement in water quality provides the conditions needed for natural regeneration of littoral wetlands beyond the influence of the engineered systems. Natural re-establishment of littoral vegetation in the embayment and constructed littoral wetland system provides direct evidence of the effectiveness of this approach. ■

PRESENTATION 1197 Presented during Ecosystem Science I, 5/30/2019 1:10 PM-2:50 PM

FUNGI NOT BACTERIA DRIVE SOIL MULTIFUNCTIONALITY IN BOREAL FOREST FROM CHINA Li, Jing, Institute of Wetland Research, Chinese Academy of Forestry Boreal forests execute functions that are critical to global biogeochemical cycling and climate regulation. Soil microbial diversity has been reported to drive multiple functions simultaneously (multifunctionality) in drylands and temperate ecosystems, however, the role and relative importance of bacterial and fungal diversity in driving multiple soil functions in boreal forest ecosystems remains poorly understood. We collect soils from 58 plots across different habitat types (upland and swamp) in boreal forest from China to evaluate the linkages between fungal and bacterial diversity and multiple soil functions. 18S rDNA and 16S rDNA amplicons were sequenced on the Miseq platform, and functions related to nutrient cycling (dissolved inorganic and organic nitrogen and carbon, nitrification) and climate regulation (CO2 and N2O emissions) were measured. The results showed that fungal not bacterial richness was positively related to soil multifunctionality. We also used structural equation modelling to identify the direct and indirect effects (via microbial communities) of environmental predictors (moisture, pH, soil organic carbon and habitat types) on multifunctionality. Our model predicted 65.0% of the variation in soil multifunctionality, and further highlighted that fungal richness and community composition were significantly and positively associated with multifunctionality accounting for key soil attributes and habitat types simultaneously. Finally, we identified particular fungal genus strongly associated with soil multifunctionality, and saprotrophic fungi are especially important for maintaining multiple soil functions. Our results suggest that potential losses in fungal diversity might result in reductions in soil functions particularly related with nutrient cycling and climate regulation in boreal forests. ■


PRESENTATION 1229 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

IMPACTS OF WATER SOURCE ON AQUATIC MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY COMPOSITION WITHIN WETLANDS OF THE DESERT SOUTHWEST. Pina, Anna, University of Texas at El Paso Lougheed, Vanessa, UTEP The relatively rare freshwater ecosystems in the arid Southwestern United States serve as biodiversity hotspots, yet they remain among the most threatened systems in the world due to human impacts and climate change. Water quality and macroinvertebrate data were collected from 12 different wetland and riparian sites spanning across West Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. This project aims to shed light on the factors that may affect macroinvertebrate communities in wetlands of the US desert Southwest. Preliminary data were analyzed using multivariate methods such as NMDS; which depicted differences in macroinvertebrate community between sites flooded with waste water and those with non-waste water. However, more data are required to identify possible indicator species and determine the effects of water quality on macroinvertebrate community composition. These results will ultimately be used to track future restoration efforts, particularly at a local created wetland (Rio Bosque). Overall, this data may be crucial in forecasting how these vulnerable systems will respond to changes in water availability and habitat quality due to projected climate fluctuations. ■

PRESENTATION 1234 Presented during Ecosystem Science I, 5/30/2019 1:10 PM-2:50 PM

EVALUATING THE POTENTIALS OF MANGROVE ECOSYSTEM IN NIGER-DELTA REGION OF NIGERIA Ewenla, Oyindamola Lois, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State, Nigeria Ndimele, Prince Emeka, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State, Nigeria The Niger Delta is located in the Atlantic coast of Southern Nigeria and is the world’s second largest delta with a coastline of about 450km. The Niger Delta region occupies a surface area of about 112,110km2, representing about 12% of Nigeria’s total surface area. The Delta’s environment can be broken down into four ecological zones: coastal barrier islands, mangrove swamp forests, freshwater swamps, and lowland rainforests. The mangrove swamps of Niger Delta, which is the largest delta in Africa constitute the dominant wetland ecosystem in the

Niger Delta region and covers an area of about 1,900km2. Mangroves constitute important nurseries for fishes, crustaceans, sponges, algae and other invertebrates, and also acts as a sink, retaining pollutants from contaminated tidal water. The Niger Delta mangrove together with the creeks and rivers are a major source of food and livelihood for about 30 million people, which represents more than 17% of Nigeria’s population. Other ecosystem services provided by this unique environment are flood control, ground water re-fill, reservoir of biodiversity, fuel wood, cultural values etc. This ecosystem also plays important role in climate change mitigation because of its high blue carbon sequestration potential. This is particularly important because of continuous gas flaring in Niger Delta from petroleum operations, which releases carbon dioxide among other gases into the atmosphere. This wetland is potentially a good site for ecotourism and also qualifies to be a world heritage site and Ramsar site if proper steps are taken. The benefits derivable from this fragile ecosystem are under severe threat by anthropogenic stressors. These include the installation of pipelines and seismic exploration by oil companies, crude oil pollution, deforestation, urbanization etc. This paper discusses the extent of depletion and loss of mangrove ecosystem in the Niger Delta region and the value of its goods and services. ■

PRESENTATION 1277 Presented during The Wetland Underground: Frank Day’s Contributions to Wetland Ecology, Belowground Ecology, and SWS II, 5/31/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

REFLECTIONS ON FOUR DECADES OF WETLANDS RESEARCH AND SWS: SCIENCE, EDUCATION, AND SOCIETY Day, Frank P., Old Dominion University When I began my career in wetland research in the Great Dismal Swamp in the mid 1970’s I noted the lack of belowground studies and realized that the impacts of environmental forcings and disturbances could not be fully understood without knowledge of belowground responses. The methods and techniques available for belowground research at that time were labor intensive, and the results were often unsatisfying. I addressed these limitations by adopting and developing new technology-based methods such as minirhizotron cameras and ground-penetrating radar. Minirhizotron cameras proved well suited for quantifying dynamics, such as rates of growth, death, and turnover, which are nearly impossible to determine by manual methods. The resolution of these techniques has improved to the point that mychorrhizal dynamics can be quantified. The software for digitizing roots has also advanced to the point Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 183


that these methods are readily accessible for both terrestrial and wetland systems. Ground-penetrating radar proved effective for quantifying biomass and the biomass increment of large belowground structures, and helped close the 10year carbon budget of a coastal forest subjected to elevated CO2. However, the challenge of using GPR in wetland systems remains substantial due to the high water and clay content of many wetland soils. Early in my career I also embraced the importance of involving undergraduate and graduate students in every phase of the research process, and a life-long dedication to social equality issues led to efforts to increase the diversity of students involved in research. New ideas for quantifying belowground processes in wetlands will come from a diverse population of students. SWS has played a major role in guiding this melding of science, education and societal needs. ■

and land-use change adaptation efforts, a mechanistic understanding of the relationship between climate, landuse, hydrology, chemistry, and ecology in prairie-pothole wetlands is needed. To meet this need, we developed the Pothole Hydrology-Linked Systems Simulator (PHyLiSS). PHyLiSS is a generalized, coupled, hydrologic and hydrogeochemical model of prairie-pothole wetland ecosystems. PHyLiSS is unique among other wetland models because it accommodates differing sizes and morphometries of wetland basins, is not dependent on a priori designations of wetland class, and allows for functional changes associated with dynamic shifts in ecohydrological states. PHyLiSS also has the capability to simulate pond-water salinity, and future iterations will be able to simulate the influences of changing hydrology and geochemical conditions on biota. ■

PRESENTATION 1313 PRESENTATION 1295 Presented during Ecosystem Science I, 5/30/2019 1:10 PM-2:50 PM

THE POTHOLE HYDROLOGY-LINKED SYSTEMS SIMULATOR (PHYLISS): DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF A SYSTEMS MODEL FOR PRAIRIE-POTHOLE WETLANDS Mushet, David, US Geological Survey McKenna, Owen, United States Geological Survey Scherff, Eric, U.S. Bureau of Land Management McLean, Kyle, U.S. Geological Survey Mills, Christopher, U.S. Geological Survey The North American Prairie Pothole Region encompasses approximately 770,000 km2 of the USA and Canada (including portions of five states and three provinces: North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, Minnesota, and Iowa, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Alberta). Millions of glacially-derived depressions, known as prairie potholes, dot this expansive landscape. The wetlands that subsequently formed in these depressions, prairie-pothole wetlands, provide critical migratory-bird habitat and support dynamic aquatic communities. Extensive grasslands and productive agricultural systems surround these wetland ecosystems. In prairie-pothole wetlands, the composition of plant, invertebrate, and vertebrate communities are highly dependent on hydrogeochemical conditions. Regional meteorological shifts between wet and dry periods influence the length of time that wetlands contain ponded surface water and the chemistry of that ponded water. Land-use change can exacerbate or reduce the effects of climate on wetland hydrology and water chemistry. To more fully understand the interdependent influences of climate and land-use on prairie-pothole wetland systems, and to facilitate climate 184 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

ASSESSING AIR-PURIFYING CAPACITY OF WETLAND ECOSYSTEMS USING ARTIFICIAL WETLAND MODULES Son, Ga-yeon, Seoul National University Kim, Jae Geun, Seoul National University Fine dust has been raised to be an environmental problem but only short-term solutions has been suggested to remedy the problem. Therefore, the ecosystem’s inherent airpurifying quality could give the perspective of long-term solution. Wetland ecosystems and wetland plants are expected to have higher quality function in carbon fixation or adsorption of particulate matters through water and plants. In this study, we used the artificial wetland modules to assess the wetland’s capability to reduce fine dust compared to dry land ecosystem to provide new perspective on the value of wetlands. We performed a mesocosm experiment using small-sized greenhouse (70 cm W x 70 cm L x 60 cm H) to create a closed system. In each greenhouse, dryland condition (D) and wetland condition (W) was created and in wetland condition, constant water level was maintained. Experiment was performed twice, and two species were used in each experiment. Four planting conditions, which were non-planted, one species, the other one species and two species were applied in each mesocosm. After stabilization of planting and aeration, we measured the air quality of each mesocosm and after one hour, the later air quality was measured. PM2.5, PM10 was primarily measured and dry weight of planted individuals was measured at the second experiment. One hour after closed system was made, the decreased amount of PM2.5 and PM10 in


wetland condition was 13.7 ± 1.3 µg/m3, 15.0 ± 1.4 µg/m3 whereas in dryland condition, the decreased amount was 13.2 ± 1.3 µg/m3, 13.8 ± 1.5 µg/m3. In second experiment, the decreased amount of PM2.5 and PM10 in wetland condition was 10.5±2.1 µg/m3, 11.2±2.2 µg/m3 whereas in dryland condition, the decreased amount was 9.2 ± 1.5 µg/ m3, 8.8 ± 1.4 µg/m3. Wetland conditions showed the higher decreased amount of particulate matters and this could be explained by the wetland’s high productivity leading to the more effective absorption of fine dust by plant. Furthermore, aquatic characteristics of wetland system and high humidity could have helped purifying the air quality. Therefore, the ability to reduce fine dust in wetlands can be seen as another value for wetlands, which can be presented as one of the solutions to the problem of fine dust. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (No. 2018R1A2B2002267). ■

PRESENTATION 1349

different from the wintering areas. Most of the rice fields remain natural wetland during autumn-early spring, since the northeastern monsoon bring rains season. Rice field wetlands exhibited two differentiated periods in wetland bird community use, one from October-April and the other from May-August. The lowest numbers of shorebirds and waterfowl occurred. Due to the timing of wintering and migratory periods of wetland birds and their consequent dependence on agricultural areas, climate and wetlands, it has been recognized that wetland management plans may be needed to alleviate conflicts with agriculture and landowners, the migratory waterbirds are conservative by Yilan County. During study, the wetland situation of rice fields would allow migrants to staging and feed instead of other wetlands such as coastal areas. The Taiwan government has now enacted laws encouraging protection of waterbird friendly wetland habitats because they perform an important function in protecting waterbird winter foraging habitats. In Wushierjia wetland, there are increasing abundances of wintering staging bird populations. Nevertheless, wetland management plans are urgently needed to mitigate and avoid conflict social factors. ■

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

STUDY RICE FIELD WETLAND FOR CLIMATE AND CONSERVATION IN TAIWAN: THE RECOVERY OF THE RICE FIELD WETLAND Chen, Liang Hsien, Chinese Culture University In past decades, natural wetlands degraded biodiversity, climate and habitats. Waterbird species richness and abundances have declined, with some waterbird moving into anthropogenic farmed wetlands during the winter season in Taiwan. Waterbird populations have wintered in these alternate foraging habitats, such as the rice fields area in Wushierjia, Taiwan, for survival and growth during annual migrations and fueling. However, the conflicts with traditional agricultural uses. The main objectives of this study were: (1) to determine which species and abundance of waterbirds use the wetland habitat and (2) to assess waterbird responses to climate variability and farm land patterns, both in order to consider conservation options in rice field wetlands. To compare bird foraging in various types of landscape of the farmland in order to elucidate feasible wetland management planning for rice fields in order to maintain biodiversity and climate in rice field wetlands. We performed monthly bird surveys during 2003-2018. A total of 130 species of birds were recorded from the study sites. There were significantly different number s of individuals among seasons. The preferred habitats rice fields, flooded fallow fields, and dry fields and were significantly

PRESENTATION 1351 Presented during Ecosystem Science II, 5/30/2019 3:15 PM-5:00 PM

PERFORMANCE OF RIPARIAN BUFFERS BUILT AS CONSERVATION PRACTICES IN THE SUSQUEHANNA RIVERCHESAPEAKE BAY ECOSYSTEM. Brooks, Robert, Pennsylvania State University Nassry, Michael, Penn State Fernandez, Corina, Pennsylvania State University Yetter, Susy, Pennsylvania State University Kleinman, Peter, USDA Agricultural Research Service McCarty, Gregory, USDA-ARS Veith, Tamie, USDA Wallace, Carlington, Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin Headwaters of watersheds comprise the majority of terrestrial-aquatic interfaces between human uses of the land and receiving waterbodies. Thus, they are the likely places to locate Best Management Practices (BMPs) for conservation benefits. Headwaters, including streams, floodplains, associated wetlands and nearby uplands, typically comprise 65-75% of the spatial area of most watersheds. Riparian areas closest to waterways provide many important ecosystem services by moderating storm runoff, processing nutrients, retaining sediments, storing carbon, providing habitat, and providing for water-based recreational activities. Design and construction of riparian Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 185


buffer projects should seek to mimic high-performing natural buffers. A stratified, random sample of buffer projects (n=149), from those enrolled in USDA’s Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP), were assessed for ecological condition and delivery of ecosystem services in the Susquehanna-Chesapeake watershed in 2016. Assessment and performance results are illustrated for three spatial scales and levels of effort - Landscape, Rapid, Intensive - compared to those of natural riparian habitats in the same region. Key results were as follows: 1) the majority of CREP riparian forest buffers scored in the second highest category of condition assessment (sub-optimal), comparing favorably with natural riparian forest buffers; 2) runoff filtration by riparian buffers is often undermined by gullies and ditches that route runoff water around the buffer, suggesting that targeted maintenance of concentrated flow features is key to improving the buffer performance; 3) riparian areas with extensive mature forest buffers provide much higher flood water retention and carbon storage services than streams with only grass or no buffers; and 4) practitioners reported ways to enhance the existing program through interagency/organization coordination, funding for longer-term maintenance, and opportunities for product and income generation within buffers. ■

PRESENTATION 1358 Presented during The Wetland Underground: Frank Day’s Contributions to Wetland Ecology, Belowground Ecology, and SWS I, 5/31/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

OPPOSING EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND ELEVATED CO2 ON TIDAL WETLAND METHANE EMISSIONS Megonigal, Patrick, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center Noyce, Genevieve, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide and warming perturb ecosystem carbon cycling, causing both positive and negative feedbacks on greenhouse gas concentrations. We began a field experiment in a tidal marsh to investigate the mechanisms by which warming and elevated CO2 (eCO2) perturb carbon gain via plant-driven sequestration in soils, and carbon loss primarily via CH4 emissions. The Salt Marsh Accretion Response to Temperature eXperiment (SMARTX) is an active, whole-ecosystem experiment with four levels of warming (+0, +1.7, +3.4, +5.1 °C above ambient) encompassing both the plant canopy and soils to a depth of 1.5 m. The two warming extremes (+0, +5.1 °C) are crossed with eCO2 (+350 ppm above ambient). Warming by 5.1 °C more than doubles spring, summer, and fall 186 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

CH4 emissions. We found support for three hypotheses that explain the increase in CH4 emissions: (i) more carbon substrates for methanogenesis, (ii) a decline in SO4 reduction, and (iii) a decrease in the proportion of CH4 consumed by methane oxidation. Supporting the third mechanism, we found that eCO2 decreased CH4 emissions, most likely due to an increase in aerobic CH4 oxidation rates. Because eCO2 caused a large increase in root biomass, we hypothesize that the net effect of higher shoot and root biomass in the eCO2 treatments was to increase O2 diffusion into anaerobic soils, an effect with significant implications for SOM decay rates. These results are an example of complex plant-microbe interactions that remain a challenge in wetland science, and a testament to Dr. Frank Day, Jr and other pioneers who advanced belowground ecosystem science. ■

PRESENTATION 1389 Presented during Applying Adaptive Management to Restoration of the Herring River Estuary I, 5/31/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

COMPLEX OBJECTIVES AND INHERENT RISK: APPLICATION OF DECISION-ANALYTIC METHODS FOR RESTORING THE HERRING RIVER ESTUARY Eaton, Mitchell, USGS/DOI SE Climate Adaptation Science Center Smith, David, US Geological Survey This talk will extend over two 20-minute blocks presented by Eaton and Smith. The collective set of decisions involved with the restoring of degraded wetlands is often more complex than considering only ecological responses and outcomes. Restoration is commonly driven by a complex interaction of social, economic and ecological factors representing the mandate of resource stewards and the values of stakeholders. The U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the National Park Service and partners, developed a decision framework to understand the implications of complex trade-offs and guide decision-making for restoring the 1100-acre Herring River Estuary within Cape Cod National Seashore, which has been restricted from tidal influence for 100+ years. Over a 25-year planning horizon, decisions involve the rate at which newly constructed water control structures allow tidal exchange, and the timing and location of implementing numerous secondary management options. Decisions affect multiple stakeholders, including residents of two adjacent towns who value the watershed for numerous benefits and whose economy relies on seasonal tourism and aquaculture. System response to management is characterized by a high degree of uncertainty and risk, with both positive and negative outcomes possible. Decision policies will affect biophysical (e.g., sediment transport, discharge


of fecal coliform bacteria) and ecological (e.g., vegetation response, fish passage, impacts to shellfish) processes, as well as socio-economic interests (e.g., flooding of private property, viewscapes, recreation). The framework provides a structured approach for evaluating trade-offs among multiple objectives (ecological and social), while appropriately characterizing relevant uncertainties and accounting for levels of risk tolerances and the values of decision makers and stakeholders. Consequences of policy options are predicted using a range of methods from quantitative physical process models to elicited expert judgement. We present the decision framework and introduce the software used to implement the trade-off analysis. ■

PRESENTATION 1401 Presented during Ecosystem and Plants, 5/29/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

IMPACTS OF ROAD SALT ON THE FUNCTION AND STRUCTURE OF FORESTED WETLANDS IN SOUTHERN NEW ENGLAND Walker, Samantha, University of Connecticut Lawrence, Beth, University of Connecticut Forested wetlands are ubiquitous throughout New England providing critical ecosystem services (i.e., flood mitigation, water quality treatment, biodiversity support), however increases in road deicing salt use (largely NaCl) and road fragmentation threaten the ecosystem structure and function of forested wetlands. To investigate the impacts of road salts, we surveyed 9 road-adjacent red maple (RM) dominated wetlands in eastern Connecticut during summer 2017. We quantified soil parameters (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), heavy metals, total N, soil moisture, C:N) and characterized vegetation community composition (ground, shrub, tree layers) along transects extending 165 meters into each wetland. With increasing distance from roads, soil salinity (EC, Na+) decreased, while soil base cation concentrations increased, potentially due to cation exchange (Na+ displacing other base cations). Interestingly, we did not observe strong vegetation spatial patterns along salinity gradients with distance from road, as there were no changes in invasive or native species abundance, diversity indices, species richness or evenness. To explore potential mechanisms behind this, we collected soils from a RM forested wetland and conducted a full factorial seedbank experiment to test how road salt concentration (6 levels: 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 ppt), frequency of salt exposure (pulse, constant) and water level (surface, 2 cm below surface) affects seedling density, plant species richness, and biomass. Our data suggest that a salinity threshold of ≥ 2 ppt reduces the abundance, diversity and vigor of the vegetation community;

however, the pulsing nature of road salt inputs during storm freeze-thaw events may reduce seed exposure and mitigate deleterious effects. Our work suggests that road salts are altering forested wetland sediment chemistry, but longerterm studies are needed to investigate if these impacts can indirectly affect plant health. ■

PRESENTATION 1424 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

HYDROLOGIC CONNECTIVITY AND HYDRO-PATTERN OF THE MESOPOTAMIAN MARSHES UNDER NATURAL AND REGULATED FLOW CONDITIONS Al-Quraishi, Ali, University of Florida Kaplan, David, University of Florida The Mesopotamian Marshlands are the largest wetland systems in the Middle East. Historically, these marshes served as the floodplains of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, and they are currently connected to these rivers through direct surface water connection via feeder canals. Historically (before 1974), the Mesopotamian marshes received consistent flood pulses during the spring season from March to May, which represents the natural flow regime for the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in this location. Since 1974, several large dams have been constructed in the Tigris and Euphrates basins for irrigation purposes and power generation, severely altering the flow regime and degrading the marsh ecosystem. This work quantifies how changes in the riverine flow regime have affected the hydro-pattern of the western Mesopotamian marshes (the western Al-Hammar marsh) and describes others hydrological drivers (direct precipitation and groundwater) that may be important to sustain the marshes. Statistical analysis of hydro-climatological data over the period from 1901 to 2018 showed a reduction in surface flow of 16.3% and 34.6% in the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, respectively, with steadily negative trend since 1974. Consequently, the total area of the marsh has been reduced from an average of 2800 km2 in the historic period to a minimum of 120 km2 in recent decades, concomitant with flow reductions from an average of 29.41 to 9.3 billion cubic meters per year between 1974 and 2009. Groundwater contributions are likely negligible given maximum observations of the water table greater than 5 m below the surface. This analysis quantifies the central role of surface water connection on driving marsh hydro-pattern, with cascading effects on vegetation cover, productivity, and soil biogeochemistry. A focus on river-marsh connections will help to create predictive models and scenarios for the restoration of the water budget and hydroperiod of these important marshes. ■ Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 187


PRESENTATION 1580

PRESENTATION 1593

Presented during Ecosystem Science I, 5/30/2019 1:10 PM-2:50 PM

Presented during Female Leaders in Wetland Science and Policy I, 5/29/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

LONG-TERM IMPACTS OF DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL EXPOSURE ON SALT MARSH-STABILIZING FACILITATION OF SOUTHERN RIBBED MUSSELS, GEUKENSIA GRANOSISSIMA Quade, Adam, Nicholls State University Graham, Sean, Nicholls State University Johnson, David, Virginia Institute of Marine Science Fleeger, John, Louisiana State University Deis, Don, Atkins Lin, Qianxin, Louisiana State University Hou, Aixin, Louisiana State University This study documented the long-term impacts of Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil exposure on the southern ribbed mussel (Geukensia granosissima), an ecologically important species that facilitates salt marsh function and stability through plant-invertebrate mutualism. The two leading research objectives were to determine 1) whether DWH oiling reduced salt marsh sustainability by altering the facilitative interactions of G. granosissima and S. alterniflora in heavily oiled sites compared to reference sites and 2) is the transplantation of G. granosissima into DWH impacted salt marshes a viable strategy to mitigate hydrocarbon stress and promote marsh restoration. These objectives were addressed by conducting a field manipulation experiment at five reference and five heavily oiled sites located within Barataria Bay, LA. In March 2017, four 0.25 m2 plots were established at each site: two control plots with all G. granosissima removed, and two transplant plots with all G. granosissima removed then added back at a density of 100 individuals m2. One plot from each treatment was then sampled in November 2017 and 2018 to determine the impacts of DWH oil exposure on mussel transplant growth and mussel recruitment potential as well as the effects of mussel presence/absence on aboveground and belowground plant biomass, green tissue C:N stoichiometric ratios, soil physicochemistry, and soil shear strength. Results from this work will be presented in the context of how complex ecological interactions influence ecosystem resilience and restoration of oiled coastal wetlands. ■

188 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

USING SCIENCE TO PROTECT INLAND WATERS: INSIGHTS FROM WOMEN WITH DISTINGUISHED CAREERS IN FRESHWATER SCIENCE AND POLICY Alexander, Laurie, USEPA Science is the backbone of decision-making at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). As an aquatic ecologist and entomologist working in EPA’s scientific research arm, I have led or contributed to national research initiatives to inform Clean Water Act (CWA) policy decisions and support CWA programs that monitor, protect, and restore inland waters, including wetlands. Reflecting on my 10 years at EPA, I am struck by the disproportionately high number of women in freshwater science and protection. Here, I provide career insights from distinguished women - on both sides of the science-policy interface - I have been privileged to collaborate or interact with while at EPA. I also reflect on interesting twists and turns in my own career and the unique opportunities and challenges I have encountered in as a federal scientist doing policy-relevant stream and wetland research. ■


Biology & Ecology: Genetics & Evolution

dinal limits than any other IWP mangrove species and may facilitate further latitudinal range expansion by this species as annual minimum temperatures continue to rise. â&#x2013;

PRESENTATION 1017 Presented during Plants, 5/29/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

THE COLD STRESS RESPONSE OF INDO-WEST PACIFIC MANGROVE SPECIES WITH VARYING LATITUDINAL LIMITS Short, Aidan William, Guangxi University Sunoj, V.S. John, Guangxi University Ma, Zhongcai, Guangxi University Chen, Dan, Guangxi University Kajita, Tadashi, University of the Ryukyus Cao, Kun-fang, Guangxi University Wee, Alison K.S., Guangxi University Mangroves are found throughout the world in tropical and subtropical regions, but have recently displayed global northward range expansion resulting in the displacement of coastal salt marsh ecosystems. Rising annual minimum temperatures have been identified as the primary factor facilitating the poleward range expansion of mangroves. This suggests that by determining the minimum temperature a mangrove species can tolerate the current and future latitudinal limit of that species can be predicted. In this study, we test whether chilling tolerance best predicts differences in the latitudinal limit of Indo-West Pacific (IWP) mangrove species by comparing the chilling stress response of three commonly co-occurring IWP mangrove species that display differing latitudinal range limits, Kandelia obovata, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, and Avicennia marina. To determine the chilling tolerance of these species we compared their physiological and molecular condition before, during and after exposure to chilling temperatures to assess how these species respond to and recover from chilling stress. The physiological condition of these species during each of these treatment conditions, was determined by measuring the effective quantum yield of photosystem II, night respiration and light energy utilization. To identify differences in the expression of cold responsive genes, leaves were collected 24 hours after the onset of each of the treatment conditions and then sent for transcriptomic sequencing. We found that K. obovata, the species with the northernmost latitudinal limit recovered quickly from chilling stress exposure, while the other two species with lower latitudinal limits, B. gymnorhiza and A. marina showed high mortality and those that survived showed very slow recovery. The high mortality in the two species with lower latitudinal limits is likely the result of chilling induced photodamage in these species, while the rapid recovery of K. obovata indicates that it only experienced reversible photoinhibtion under chilling temperatures. This suggests, that higher chilling tolerance has facilitated the ability of K. obovata to inhabit areas at higher northern latitu-

PRESENTATION 1061 Presented during Invasiveness in wetland plants in temperate North America: what have we learned in 20 years? I, 5/30/2019 9:45 AM11:35 AM

ASSESSING HORTICULTURAL INTROGRESSION IN PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE INVASION Mattingly, Kali, The Ohio State University Hovick, Steve, The Ohio State University Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) is considered one of the worst invasive species in Eastern North America. Negative impacts of L. salicaria invasion caused many states to prohibit its sale in the 1970s-80s. As a response to prohibition, nurseries replaced their stock with the closely related L. virgatum (European wand loosestrife), purported as a sterile, non-invasive alternative. However, the two loosestrife species can hybridize to form fertile offspring. Hybridization has been associated with increased invasiveness in other species, but the extent to which hybridization with L. virgatum has contributed to L. salicaria genetics remains unexplored. We are testing the hypothesis that the two species hybridize in natural populations. We sampled 72 naturalized loosestrife populations across three geographic regions: the upper Ohio River, the southern shore of Lake Erie, and the Columbus, Ohio, metropolitan area. We measured species-diagnostic morphology to screen for intermediate morphs potentially indicative of hybridization. Preliminary results suggested hybrid-like morphology was most common around Columbus and in small populations. We developed species-specific genetic markers (SRAPs, sequence-related amplified polymorphisms) based on native-range, non-hybrid L. salicaria and L. virgatum. From these non-hybrid individuals, we recovered 1,086 polymorphisms from 24 primer pairs. STRUCTURE and principal components analysis (PCA) accurately differentiated each species and identified a suite of species-specific markers that we are using to screen the invaded-range populations for evidence of L. virgatum introgression. Successful marker development suggests SRAP should have high power to detect L. virgatum introgression in invaded-range loosestrife populations, and to do so inexpensively. If ornamental L. virgatum is hybridizing with naturalized populations of L. salicaria as predicted, this phenomenon should be further examined, given the potential for hybridization to promote invasiveness. Detection of even a small degree of L. virgatum introgression would also have policy implications, because L. virgatum remains unregulated in many states. â&#x2013; Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 189


Biology & Ecology: Landscape Science PRESENTATION 1220 Presented during Wetland and Wetland Wildlife of Concern I, 5/31/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

INTEGRATING SEA-LEVEL RISE AND LAND COVER CHANGE INTO A CONSERVATION STRATEGY FOR MOTTLED DUCKS IN THE WESTERN GULF COAST Moon, Jena, USFWS Lehnen, Sarah, USFWS Metzger, Kris, USFWS Marley, Philip, USFWS Brasher, Michael, Gulf Coast Joint Venture Ballard, Bart, Texas A&M University- Kingsville Conway, Warren, Texas Tech University Haukos, David, Kansas Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit Davis, Bruce, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Rhower, Frank, Delta Waterfowl Factors related to global climate change, sea-level rise, and anthropogenic alterations to the landscape have the potential to threaten habitats important to the Western Gulf Coast Mottled Duck (Anas fulvigula) Population. Mottled ducks are non-migratory, and therefore must satisfy all of their annual resource, physiological, and habitat needs within a relatively small geographic area that has considerable inter-annual and spatial resource variation. Coastal and inland habitats of the Gulf Coast are home to a diverse spectrum of species, whose populations are threatened by anthropogenic stressors such as urbanization, and natural factors such as drought and saltwater intrusion. Increases in wetland salinity, land subsidence, rising sea levels, and reduced freshwater inflows into coastal marsh and estuary systems are currently contributing to the degradation of mottled duck habitat. These factors are expected to persist into the future, which may result in further declines in mottled duck abundance and reduce longevity of the species. The conservation response to preserve this species and mitigate habitat loss lies in identifying prospective areas to enhance, restore, and protect. Understanding species needs and diagnosing present and future threats to their habitats is essential for developing conservation strategies in the right places. We integrated sea-level rise projections and trend-based land-change models to evaluate current and future habitat suitability for mottled ducks in the Western Gulf Coast. We then created a flexible decision support tool to identify, compare, and prioritize current and future mottled duck habitat under projected urban development and sea-level rise through the year 2100. Within this large 190 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

landscape we identified habitat areas most likely to persist through time or that could be maintained as long-term conservation areas in light of projected sea-level rise and other land changes. Identification of potential future conditions in the Western Gulf Coast will inform strategic conservation actions to benefit mottled duck and their habitats. â&#x2013;

PRESENTATION 1259 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

BELOWGROUND CONTROLS ON SURFACE ELEVATION CHANGE AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF THE SUNDARBANS MANGROVE FOREST, BANGLADESH Bomer, Edwin, Louisiana State University Wilson, Carol, Louisiana State University Quirk, Tracy, Louisiana State University The conservation of coastal ecosystems, like mangrove forests and salt marshes, represents a critical strategy for mitigating carbon atmospheric emissions and climate change in the 21st century. Yet, the existence of these environments is threatened by human-induced disturbances, namely deforestation and accelerated sea-level rise. Coastal systems maintain surface elevation in response to sea-level rise through a combination of physical and biological processes both above and below the ground surface. The quantification and relative contribution of belowground process controls (e.g. seasonal water content, organic matter decomposition) on surface elevation change in large mangrove forests is largely unexplored but crucial for informing coastal ecosystem sustainability. To address this knowledge deficit, we integrated measurements of surface elevation change of the live root zone (0.5 to 1 m depth) with geotechnical data from co-located sediment cores in the Sundarbans mangrove forest (SMF) of southwest Bangladesh. Core data reveal that the primary belowground controls on surface elevation change include seasonal fluctuations in pore-water content and the relative abundance of fine-grained sediments capable of volumetric expansion and contraction. In contrast to many mangrove environments, the soils of the SMF contain little organic matter and are dominantly composed (>90%) of inorganic clastic sediments. The mineral-rich soil texture likely leads to less compaction-induced subsidence as compared to organic-rich substrates and facilitates surface equilibrium in response to sea-level rise. However, the dearth of preserved organic matter in the shallow subsurface limits the carbon sequestration potential of this mangrove forest. Upscaled estimates of belowground carbon storage in


the SMF indicates that local stocks are low in comparison to the vast majority of mangrove ecosystems worldwide. The findings of this study demonstrate that belowground soil carbon storage is highly site-specific and that additional research, especially in alluvial mangrove settings, is needed to provide better constraints on the terrestrial carbon budget. ■

PRESENTATION 1359 Presented during General Wetland Science, 5/30/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

MARSH MORPHOSIS: A CLIMATE-RESPONSIVE AND ADAPTIVE DESIGN FRAMEWORK FOR HABITAT RESTORATION AND RECREATION IN THE RUMNEY MARSH RESERVATION Ansari, Sadiqa, The Pennsylvania State University Cole, Andrew, Penn State University The Rumney Marsh Area of Critical Environmental Concern (ACEC) has been characterized by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as one of the most biologically significant estuaries in Massachusetts north of Boston. The area includes approximately 1000 acres of highly productive saltmarsh, tidal flats, and shallow sub-tidal channels. Inspired by the principles of the Stuckeman School’s Ecology + Design (E+D) initiative that combines ecology and design in built works, the purpose of this project is to develop a landscape design strategy for the marsh that will integrate research and design focused on improving habitat, creating recreational opportunities and mitigating the long term impacts of climate change. A brief evaluation of existing case studies on wetland development was developed as a matrix to guide on the framework needed for the research and learn how other projects address these issues. Body of literature from fields such as wetland restoration, urban ecology, landscape design etc. was also reviewed as a means to provide useful information regarding how wetland systems work and also behave in an urban context. A thorough analysis of the site’s quantitative and qualitative data was done to facilitate the process through which the design strategy can take place, focusing on the marshland by extending programs from the surrounding social context, while at the same time, enhancing its ecological value, and prepare for climate change. By developing such strategies that are in tune with the environment and sensitive to the natural systems, the proposal tries to establish design interventions to allow access and recreational opportunities while enhancing the marsh landscape community and ecology. Through this project, an experimental method is developed to create an open space strategy that is capable of supporting the diverse social interactions and ecological demands of such a wetland system. ■

PRESENTATION 1504 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

WETLANDS AND HEADWATER STREAMS - IMPACTS OF LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS ON WETLAND FUNCTION Whigham, Dennis, Smithsonian Institution Walker, Coowe, Kachemak Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Callahan, Michael, Office of Columbia River Rains, Mark, University of South Florida Baird, Steve, Kachemak Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve King, Ryan, Baylor University Headwater streams provide essential habitat for juvenile salmonids and stream characteristics are related to the surrounding landscapes. As a component of the uplandwetland-stream continuum, riparian wetlands immediately adjacent to headwater streams directly and indirectly influences stream ecology. We present results from research focused on the dynamics of headwater streams and the importance of landscape linkages between upland habitats, riparian wetlands and streams. Research was conducted in five river systems in the Kenai Lowlands of Alaska. Riparian wetlands that are immediately adjacent to streams are most often dominated by Calamagorstis canadensis, a clonal grass that is widespread across the northern hemisphere in both wetland and upland habitats. Visually, streamside wetlands are very similar but .ecologically they differ in important ways and the differences are associated with watershed characteristics. Across the study area, riparian wetlands segregate into two broad categories that are associated with the slope of the land rather than the geology of the watershed. Riparian vegetation associated with streams on steeper slopes (i.e., greater contact with substrate geology) have significantly higher concentrations of some nutrients (e.g., boron) compared to riparian wetlands that emerge in and flow through large, flat peat-dominated landscapes. Riparian vegetation is also influenced by the presence or absence of Alnus spp. (Alder), a source of nitrogen that is related to the presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Alder roots. Nitrogen fixed by Alder eventually is released into the environment and becomes a source of nitrogen for riparian wetlands and streams. We found, for example, orders-of-magnitude differences in the amount of belowground biomass and nitrogen in groundwater in riparian wetlands that receive nitrogen from uplands habitats with Alder. Interactions between watershed characteristics, riparian wetland, and headwater streams result in landscape complexity and the potential to subdivide headwater streams into segments that have differing potentials to support juvenile salmonid populations. ■ Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 191


PRESENTATION 1568 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

FLOODPLAIN ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT ACROSS TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL SCALES: DOES THE PORTFOLIO EFFECT APPLY TO RAPID ASSESSMENT TOOLS? Kleindl, William, Montana State University Rains, Mark, University of South Florida Stoy, Paul, Montana State University Riparian systems of the American West are a shifting mosaic driven by fluvial and fire disturbances and recovery. These disturbance and recovery patterns are influenced by landscape patches shaped by silviculture, agriculture, development and preservation management decisions. Together these create a system with dynamic elements that operate at a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. Although there are well-established ecological assessment models that measure the extent of anthropogenic impact on ecological condition and services, these tools are generally temporally static, site-specific, and do not account for natural disturbance dynamics. Here we developed 34-years of Landsat thematic maps within the Flathead River system in MT, USA and BC, CA (~59000 ha). We established multiple reaches based on geomorphic characteristics (n=43: 290-7660 ha) and three silviculture, preservation and agriculture/urban dominated management zones (n=3: 1466025575 ha). From these, we mapped structural attributes and created qualitative models that measure riverine ecological functions and services. We further examine how these relationships change across time and spatial scales from reach to management zone to watershed. From these, we pursue two research approaches: 1) The Portfolio Theory address control that spatiotemporal patterning of disturbance has on ecological variation at different spatial scales. However, multimetric indices (MMI) commonly used in ecological assessment already reduces the amplitude of individual system attributes effect within an index and our early results suggest this affects the portfolio. Therefore we ask, are reach-based MMIs scalable within a portfolio? 2) Portfolio Theory is based on the idea that emergent properties of aggregated systems are less volatile then their components. Its application is compelling in systems where volatility is driven by natural (e.g. fluvial) or anthropogenic (e.g. logging/recovery) processes. However, it has been established that as systems harden through anthropogenic influence (e.g. ag/urban), they become simplified as our early results indicate. Here we ask, is the portfolio effect an efficient management tool in human-dominated systems? ■

192 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

Biology & Ecology: Microbes PRESENTATION 1121 Presented during Biology and Ecology, 5/30/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

MICROSCOPIC HITCHHIKERS: IMPACT OF BLACK MANGROVE RANGE SHIFTS ON RHIZOSPHERE FUNCTION Hyde, Charles, Villanova University Chapman, Samantha, Villanova University Langley, Adam, Villanova University The poleward movement of black mangroves (Avicennia germinans) is changing the nature of soil environments in the salt marshes dominated by Sporobolus alternifolus into which they are encroaching. A. germinans introduces more oxygen to the soil through its extensive root system, which may also release distinctive combination of root exudates. Using a series of soil incubations, we assessed the impact of both black mangrove encroachment and the changing climate on the soil microbial communities in northeastern Florida salt marshes. We have shown that microbial respiration rates are unaffected by the source of soil inoculum across a gradient of encroachment in Northern Florida. Warming stimulated respiration rates from 20°C to 28°C but caused a surprising drop off of 62.7% between 28°C and 32°C. Through another series of incubations, we assessed the influence of oxygen and other root exudates on respiration rates at 20°C and 30°C. Once again, we found that warming caused a drop off in respiration rates of 19.4%. These findings indicate that increased temperatures will have an important effect on soil microbial activity in salt marshes on the southern Atlantic coast of the United States. ■


Biology & Ecology: Multi-trophic Interactions

Biology & Ecology: Plants

PRESENTATION 1444

PRESENTATION 1048

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

LARVAL TREMATODE PARASITES AS BIOINDICATORS OF BIRD DIVERSITY IN TEXAS SALT MARSHES Chacon-Olivares, Marco, Texas A&M University at Galveston Schulze, Anja, Texas A&M University at Galveston

RESPONSES OF AN ESTABLISHED PLANTED WETLAND VEGETATION COMMUNITY IN A CONSTRUCTED STORMWATER WETLAND TO A TWO-YEAR NITROGEN ADDITION Ahn, Changwoo, George Mason University Moody, Natalya, George Mason University Dorsey, Sharon, George Mason University Schmidt, Stephanie, George Mason University Wong, Jesse, George Mason University

Among multiple other ecosystem services, Texas salt marshes provide shelter and feeding grounds for a large diversity of resident and migratory birds and, as such, support local economies through nature tourism. However, regular monitoring of bird use is labor intensive. Researchers therefore seek alternative methods that can accurately estimate bird diversity, based on other indicators. This project measures the prevalence and diversity of larval trematode parasites as indicator species of avian biodiversity in salt marshes in the Galveston area. In these ecosystems, birds are the most common final hosts for parasitic species of trematodes. Trematodes, also called ‘flukes’, are small (few centimeters long) flat-bodied worms; they have one to two ventral suckers that are used to infect and attach to mollusk or vertebrate hosts. The complex life cycle of trematodes normally involves the presence of one or two intermediate hosts for different stages of their development, snails, fish and/or crustaceans, respectively. The life cycle can only be completed if all hosts are present in an environment. Therefore, trematode diversity may not only be an indicator for bird diversity, but also for overall ecosystem functioning. The primary objective of this study is to correlate larval trematode diversity in one of the most common intermediate hosts of trematodes, the plicate horn snail, Cerithidia pliculosa, to bird use in several Galveston marsh systems. It is hypothesized that parasite diversity is higher in marshes that are utilized by a greater diversity of birds. C. pliculosa are collected from previously probed marshes for sampling of larval trematodes in them. After measuring various parameters for snail size, snail shells will be broken, and tissues will be dissected for parasite extraction. Flatworm species identification will be done by morphological observations through light microscopy and, if necessary, scanning electron microscopy and/or DNA barcoding. Trematode diversity in C. pliculosa will be correlated with bird records from eBird, an online citizen science database for bird observations. ■

There is a lack of knowledge on how to create urban wetlands that would guarantee functional ecosystem development to provide much needed ecosystem services lost due to urban development. There is a legacy project that we have conducted for several years, focusing on the effects of planting diversity on the development of various structural and functional attributes in a set of 40 constructed mesocosm wetlands. In this particular sub-study of the project we investigated the responses of plant community (i.e., plant cover percentage, morphological features, and productivity estimation) that had four distinctive planting diversity (PD) groups to nitrogen (N) enrichment for two recent growing seasons (2016 and 2017). A commercial N fertilizer from a local nursery was applied to the half of the mesocosms (i.e., a set of 20) over all four PD groups with the other half unfertilized. The wetland plant species under study included obligate annuals (i.e., Eleocharis obtusa), facultative annuals (i.e., Mimulus rigens), interstitial reeds (i.e., Juncus effusus), and interstitial tussocks (i.e., Carex vulpinoidea). Hydrology was kept constant in all mesocosms. During and at the end of the two growing seasons, morphological characteristics of plants in four PD groups were measured, including percent cover. A preliminary analysis of data shows that there was a significantly positive impact of N addition on plant morphological attributes measured, including the percent cover, a key indicator to evaluate the success of wetlands often created to mitigate the loss of natural wetlands due to urban development. Peak biomass production of the plant community was estimated based upon a regression equation developed from our previous study. The fertilization has the most positive impact in plant growth (i.e., biomass estimation) on the highest PD group (four species mix), but the difference from the other PD groups seemed insignificant. Statistics revealed no significant interaction between PD and N fertilization on the plant growth and morphology. Further analysis discussion is underway and will be presented. ■ Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 193


PRESENTATION 1120

PRESENTATION 1182

Presented during Female Leaders in Wetland Science and Policy I, 5/29/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

MEXICAN WETLANDS, SO INTERESTING AND SO ENDANGERED Martinez, Mahinda, Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro

EVALUATING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF MISCANTHUS AND SWITCHGRASS INTERCROPPING IN LOBLOLLY PINE PLANTATIONS Bowles, Nadia, Tuskegee University Leggett, Zakiya, North Carolina State University

Mexico is a country of contrasts, with a mixture of deserts, tropics and temperate areas. With 11,000 Km of shorelines in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, we have permanent as well as temporary wetlands of fresh, marine and brackish waters. Recent estimates suggest that 6.5% of the surface is covered by wetlands, roughly 128,000 Km2. The aim of this presentation is to provide information on Mexican wetlands, what we know and what we ignore. Large wetlands are distributed at low elevations, and there is a good amount of knowledge on them. Wetlands harbor a rich biota, including 1,283 species of aquatic angiosperms, 2,600 fishes, and 176 birds many of which are migratory. Freshwater algae are well known only for central Mexico, but information is lacking for 15 states. Even so, 3,256 freshwater algae and 1,600 marines occur in Mexico. Many temporary wetlands above 1,000 m or in arid and semiarid areas have not even been detected, in spite of being an important landscape feature, and this has been my main area of interest. With recent fieldwork in seven states, we located 39 temporary wetlands that harbor 126 aquatic plant species but failed to locate other 15 places suggesting a rapid recent disappearance. Knowledge is almost non-existing for groups such as invertebrates (non-arthropods and arthropods), bacteria, fungi, and protozoans. We also lack information on climate change impact on wetlands, adequate restoration, and connectivity among geographically isolates areas. In spite of having 142 Ramsar sites, wetland loss and deterioration in Mexico is higher than the average worldwide estimate, with over 62% in the last decade. Wetlands are further threatened by highly invasive species, increased aridity, phreatic extraction, poor legislation, and agronomic expansion. Research opportunities in Mexican wetlands are therefore varied and challenging. â&#x2013;

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) biofuels have grown increasingly popular with farmers. They can be intercropped in forest systems to create a constant revenue that does not involve complete manipulation of cropland. Nutrient availability for the main crop, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), can be affected differently by each biofuel. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of switchgrassloblolly intercropping, miscanthus-loblolly intercropping, and loblolly only cropping on soil nutrient availability for optimum loblolly and biofuel growth. Clip plot samples were taken of miscanthus and switchgrass for biomass measurements. Soil samples were taken to be analyzed for soil nutrients and tree growth was measured as diameter at breast height (DBH). The biomass was higher in the miscanthus-loblolly intercropping (7,643 kg/ha) than the switchgrass-loblolly intercropping (4,952 kg/ha). The switchgrass-loblolly intercropping and pine only cropping had an equal average DBH of 15 while the miscanthus-loblolly pine was 17 inches. For soil nutrient availability, the miscanthus-loblolly intercropping also had higher numbers in the amount of calcium (47.7%) and phosphorus (78.0%). Based on these results, I suggest the use of miscanthus in comparison to switchgrass because it generates more biomass and the pine trees had a larger diameter. This can be a way to generate additional revenue for tree farmers. â&#x2013;

PRESENTATION 1211 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

DEVELOPMENT OF A SMALL MIRE IN THE BIEBRZA RIVER VALLEY (NE POLAND) Drzymulska, Danuta, University of Bialystok Studied mire is located in the Biebrza River valley, which is one of the largest wetland area in Europe. Extensive fens predominate there. However in this study I focused on the origin and development of small bog. This object is located in the Lower Biebrza Basin, near Gugny village. Planning this research I wanted to check how old is this mire, and if there are any connections between its origin and history of 194 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019


this area documented by historical data. Right next to it so called Tsar Road runs. The road building in the second half of the 19th century was connected with a peat extraction on a large scale. I designated a transect consisted of five points and then peat cores were collected. Russian sampler (50cm long and 5 cm in diameter) was used. This sediment was studied by method of plant macrofossil analysis to recognized the past vegetation. As you know (pollen analysis) mire started to developed at least in the Atlantic period of the Holocene. I determined seven peat units, mainly raised (bog) peat. Only in the southern part of mire fen peat (sedge peat) was described in the bottom part of the core. Sphagnum peat was dominant in the deposit. I did not find humopeat or boggy soil layers, what could possibly relate to dry phases connected with road building in the past. â&#x2013;

salinity. Root biomass did not change for any of the species in the upper soil horizon, however the root distribution varied across species regardless of soil salinity. A. rubrum, J.virginiana, N. sylvatica and Q. nigra allocated > 75% of their roots to the upper soil horizon, while P. taeda and T. distichum roots occupied deeper soils. Root-shoot ratio of A. rubrum decreased and Q. nigra increased with higher salinity. Although morphological stress responses across coastal tree species exposed to brackish conditions were minimal, physiological responses, in combination with leaf reflectance indexes, may prove to be reliable indications of salt stress in some coastal tree species. â&#x2013;

PRESENTATION 1239 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

PRESENTATION 1227 Presented during Ecosystem and Plants, 5/29/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

VARIABLE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND GROWTH RESPONSES OF SIX COASTAL TREE SPECIES TO EXPERIMENTAL SALINIZATION Anderson, Steven, North Carolina State University Ury, Emily, Duke University Emanuel, Ryan E., North Carolina State University Wright, Justin P., Duke University Bernhardt, Emily S., Duke University Ardon, Marcelo, North Carolina State University Coastal wetlands are highly vulnerable to rapid changes associated with climate change, including more frequent storm events, fire, drought, and saltwater intrusion. Trees are a crucial component to maintaining ecosystem structure by controlling light availability to the soil and influencing biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and water. Our study aims to assess the response diversity of dominant tree species from freshwater forested wetlands in the Southeastern U.S. to varying levels of saltwater exposure. Understanding species-specific stress responses to saltwater can help identify species that may provide early signals of salinity stress of forests at broader spatial scales. We performed a 6-month greenhouse experiment to investigate whole plant productivity and physiology of six tree species (Acer rubrum, Juniperus virginiana, Nyssa sylvatica, Quercus nigra, Pinus taeda, and Taxodium distichum) when exposed to a gradient of fresh to mesohaline treatments (0.2-6 ppt). We found that increased soil salinity had negative impacts on leaf photosynthesis in all species, but at different magnitudes and time points. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values either increased or decreased in four of the six species in response to higher

NUTRIENT AND SEDIMENT ENRICHMENT EFFECTS ON PLANT PRODUCTIVITY AND DECOMPOSITION IN BARATARIA BAY MARSHES: MISSISSIPPI RIVER DIVERSION IMPLICATIONS Groseclose, Gina, LSU Quirk, Tracy, Louisiana State University The Mississippi River Delta has experienced some of the highest rates of coastal wetland loss in the world due, primarily, to reduced sediment supply and high rates of relative sea-level rise. Engineered river diversions have been proposed to increase sediment supply to degrading wetland areas, but this will also introduce high nutrient loads, which may reduce wetland belowground plant productivity and increase organic matter decomposition rates. However, the combined effects of high nutrient loadings and mineral sediment deposition is unknown. To test the hypotheses that sediment availability changes the effects of nutrients on belowground productivity and reinforces the nutrient-effect on decomposition, a field experiment is being implemented in three marsh types in Barataria Bay, LA: healthy oligohaline, deteriorating brackish and created. Belowground plant productivity and decomposition are being measured in plots in a full-factorial experiment with six treatments of control, low nutrients [100g N+11g P m-2 yr-1], high nutrients [1000g N+ 111g P m-2 yr-1], sediment [47kg m-2 yr-1, ~5cm] and their combination (n=5). After 6 months, litterbags lost 25-45% of initial root and rhizome material. Decomposition was slower in low elevation marshes receiving sediment with and without nutrient-enrichment as compared to higher elevation marshes exposed to the same treatments. Preliminary results suggest marsh elevation and soil type (e.g., created vs natural) may play a large role in treatment effects on decomposition across Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 195


marshes. Continued belowground productivity and decomposition data will provide insight into how oligohaline, brackish and created marshes may respond to the introduction of river nutrients and sediment. ■

PRESENTATION 1302 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

PERMAFROST THAW CHANGES PLANT COMMUNITY COMPOSITION, NUTRIENT STOICHIOMETRY, AND LITTER INPUTS McCabe, Samantha, The Ohio State University Hough, Moira, The University of Arizona Vining, Sarah Rose, University of Arizona Pedersen, Emily Pickering, University of Copenhagan Hodgkins, Suzanne, The Ohio State University Crill, Patrick, Stockholm University Chanton, Jeff, Florida State University Dorrepaal, Ellen, UmeÃ¥ University Rich, Virginia, The Ohio State University Saleska, Scott, The University of Arizona Permafrost thaw is rapidly occurring as a result of climate change, and may act as a positive feedback to warming due to increased greenhouse gas emissions. As thaw drives shifts in hydrology and vegetation communities, carbon balances also shift, with higher uptake of CO2 but, depending on soil saturation, also higher emission of CH4. This study characterized the shifting communities and physiology of arctic wetland plants across a permafrost thaw gradient, as part of an interdisciplinary US Department of Energy-funded exploration of carbon cycling in these wetland systems. The study site is Stordalen Mire, a northern peatland in Sweden, which is actively thawing and has been intensively studied since the 1970s. The thaw gradient spanned dry palsa hummocks, intermediate-thaw ombrotrophic bogs, and fully-thawed inundated minerotrophic fens. To characterize thaw-associated changes in plant tissue quantity and quality, we sampled roots, stems and leaves from thirteen species belonging to the five plant function types that dominate the ecosystem’s vegetation: mosses, deciduous shrubs, evergreen shrubs, graminoids, and forbs. Thaw induces a shift from dominance of shrubs, to mosses, and then graminoids. The percent cover of each species was characterized within each habitat, and individual species were measured for biomass (above- and below-ground), seasonal growth (May to October), litter deposition (per species and site), carbon, and macro- and micronutrient contents (N, S, P, K, Fe, Al, Mn, Mg, Ca, & Zn). We tested the hypotheses that during thaw-driven 196 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

community succession: (1) plant biomass, seasonal growth, and tissue nutrient content will all increase with thaw, and (2) litter inputs to the soil will increase in quantity and quality, due to both species shifts and to decreased senescence-associated nutrient resorption with thaw, with the former being the dominant driver. Given that plant primary production increases with thaw, it was unexpected that above- and below-ground biomass were stable across the thaw gradient, however, this is reconciled by our finding of higher litter production with thaw. This insight into Stordalen Mire’s shifting productivity and nutrient cycling will improve our understanding of controls on, and prediction of, greenhouse gas emissions in rapidly thawing permafrost peatlands. ■

PRESENTATION 1333 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

EFFECTS OF TIMING OF SOIL FERTILIZER APPLICATION ON THE GROWTH OF PERENNIAL WETLAND PLANTS Park, Hyekyung, Seoul National University Kim, Jae Geun, Seoul National University To examine the effects of timing of soil fertilizer application on the growth of perennial wetland plants depending on the growth stage, we conducted a mesocosm experiment using five dicotyledonous species (Triadenum japonicum, Sium suave, Lysimachia vulgaris, Penthorum chinense and Lythrum salicaria) and six monocotyledonous species (Phragmites australis, Juncus effusus, Juncus gracillimus, Typha angustifolia, Iris setosa and Panicum bisulcatum) as plant materials. Six conditions of fertilizing 2, 4, 7, 10, 13, and 15 weeks after planting (F2, F4, F7, F10, F13 and F15) and conditions for constant fertilization (FC) and non-fertilization (FN) were prepared as treatments of the mesocosm experiment. The greatest shoot height was observed in all 11 species under FC condition. P. chinense (223.3 ± 42.4 cm), L. salicaria (400.4 ± 41.1 cm), P. bisulcatum (648.8 ± 271.5 cm), T. japonicum (93.3 ± 17.8 cm) and P. australis (527.0 ± 77.6 cm) showed the highest total length of stem under F2 condition, which was fertilized at the early stage of the growth. On the other hand, the greatest number of leaves were found in most species under the conditions which were fertilized in the middle of the growth stage, and the number of shoots was comparatively higher as well in J. effusus (F10; 79.6 ± 3.3), J. gracillimus (F13; 17.8 ± 2.3), S. suave (F4; 18.8 ± 4.0) and P. australis (F7; 12.0 ± 1.3). Time to flowering and fruition were accelerated and the number of reproductive organs was


greater for P. chinense (68.2 ± 8.8 flowers per individual) and S. suave (489.6 ± 173.4 flowers per individual) under the early fertilized condition (F2). The response of plants to fertilization at the same time varied depending on the stage of growth for each species, and this temporal change in nutrients affected not only the vegetative growth but also the reproductive traits. Main shoot stem elongation of perennial wetland plants seems to require a constant supply of nutrients. Formation of leaves, reproductive organs and additional shoots seem to have the optical timing of fertilizer application depending on the inherent life cycle of each species. ■

PRESENTATION 1366 Presented during Biogeochemistry and Plants, 5/29/2019 1:10 PM-2:50 PM

DIFFERENTIAL RESPONSE OF PUCCINELLIA MARITIMA TO ELEVATED CO2 AND INORGANIC AND ORGANIC NITROGEN SOURCES Cott, Grace, University College Dublin Girard, Paul, Catholic University of Lyon Jansen, Marcel, University College Cork As a key determinant of plant growth, nitrogen plays a pivotal role in controlling carbon sequestration rates in coastal wetlands. Puccinellia maritima, a dominant marsh grass in European saltmarshes, is effective at stabilizing sediments and is an important contributor to shallow root biomass. We investigated the degree to which P. maritima responds to different forms of nitrogen - nitrate, ammonium, glycine and glutamic acid, under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions. Previous studies have suggested that under elevated CO2 nitrate assimilation is inhibited in C3 plants. Hence, we hypothesized that as a C3 plant, P. maritima would be most productive grown on ammonium under elevated CO2 conditions. Productivity did not vary uniformly between inorganic and organic nitrogen fed plants, with nitrate and glycine fed plants exhibiting stronger growth responses than those on ammonium and glutamic acid. CO2 enrichment interacted strongly with nitrate, boosting total biomass by 46% compared to plants grown on ammonium, glycine and glutamic acid. These results suggest that as atmospheric CO2 increases, the relative availability of different forms of nitrogen will be an important determinant of productivity, ultimately impacting carbon sequestration rates in coastal wetlands. ■

PRESENTATION 1375 Presented during Animals, 5/30/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS HABITAT FUNCTIONS FOR OTHER BIOTA ARE SIMILAR ON THREE CONTINENTS Kiviat, Erik, Hudsonia Common reed (Phragmites australis) is one of the most widely distributed, most abundant, and best-studied vascular plants worldwide but there has been no broad comparative analysis of reed-associated biota on different continents. A survey of observational data on (mostly terrestrial) organisms using P. australis reedbeds revealed ecological similarities among North America, Europe, and sub-Saharan Africa. I present examples for a selected group of 29 habitat functions (i.e., features of the reed plant or reedbed used in particular ways by certain groups of organisms). Habitat functions include animals eating particular portions of reed, birds roosting in reedbeds, animals using reed for nest material, bryophytes growing beneath the reed canopy, and vines using reeds for support. These similarities in habitat functions in biogeographically distinct world regions suggest a fundamental character of reed ecological relationships related to the large size, extensive stands, high productivity, deep litter layers, and other traits of reed. The data also underline the biodiversity support functions of reed and their similarity among continents. Managers can consider reed functions and user guilds to design management approaches and predict outcomes of conservation, management, or other environmental changes affecting reedbeds, whether native or introduced, over-abundant or under-abundant. ■

PRESENTATION 1376 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

PLANT COMMUNITY RESPONSE TO THE EFFECTS OF SIMULATED NUTRIENT AND SEDIMENT LOADING IN A SAGITTARIA LANCIFOLIA DOMINATED WETLANDS Day, Donnie, Louisiana State University Quirk, Tracy, Louisiana State University Coastal wetlands are increasingly threatened by the combined effects of relative sea-level rise, human modified hydrology regimes, sediment deprivation, and anthropogenic nutrient loading. Restoration and management strategies often include adding sediment in order to increase wetland elevations which results in stimulate feedbacks that increase resilience to sea-level rise. In deltaic systems, increasing sediment supply through diversions may also introduce nutrient-rich river water, which may negatively Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 197


affect belowground biomass and soil organic matter pools, resulting in the acceleration of wetland loss. However, this effect may be reversed when mineral sediments are supplied, which would allow for an increase in elevation and enhanced productivity and organic matter inputs. Overall, there is limited information on the combined effects of nutrient loading and sedimentation on marsh plant and soil processes and how elevation may alter these dynamics. To test the hypothesis that nutrient enrichment and inundation will negatively affect species richness with mineral sediment ameliorating these effects, plugs from a Sagittaria lancifolia-dominated wetland were subject to a full factorial nutrient, sediment, and elevation treatment in a greenhouse under a 15 cm diurnal tide regime. Initial findings indicate that moderate sedimentation increased species richness, whereas high inundation and nutrient-enrichment reduced species richness relative to other treatments. However, stem density was not affected by nutrient-enrichment or sediment deposition, but was negatively affected by high inundation, indicating its dominant role in aboveground productivity. Moreover, it can be inferred that inter-specific interactions contributed to differences in species composition brought on by nutrient and sediment treatments, resulting in deeply rooted species (i.e.,Sagittaria lancifolia, Panicum repens, and Eleocharis sp.) outcompeting shallow rooted species (i.e., Ipomea sagittata and Alternanthera philoxeroides) for nutrients and sediment availability. With additional growing seasons, empirical relationships between belowground productivity and soil organic matter pools, nutrient and sediment inputs, and elevation will be determined. ■

areas) to remain adequately hydrated when the soils are arid. Recent research suggests that mangroves also have freshwater requirements, which is important for productivity, and foliar water uptake satisfies that requirement. Overall, foliar water acquisition strategies have not yet been explored in mangroves. If mangroves do employ foliar water acquisition strategies, this could be advantageous for mangrove survival during periods of drought and in arid environments. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to test whether or not three different mangrove species found in northern Florida (Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, and Avicennia germinans) utilize foliar water uptake using isotopically labeled O18. We constructed four chambers of PVC and polyethylene sheeting to create air tight seals and diffused labeled water through a humidifier at night, when the plants would not be photosynthesizing. This way, water found in the leaves would be the product of foliar water uptake. We expect that all three species tested will exhibit foliar water uptake, since the leaf physiology across all three species is similar, contrasted to their differing root and stem physiologies. These results are important for aiding in understanding differences of species range shifts, and could potentially explain how different species survive and continue to propagate in northern limits around the world. This experiment compliments the ongoing work of arid mangrove population ecology, especially that of western mangrove encroachment near Baja California, where mangroves seem to thrive in arid environments and continue to move northwards. ■

PRESENTATION 1442 PRESENTATION 1436

Presented during Ecosystem and Plants, 5/29/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

Presented during Ecosystem and Plants, 5/29/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

AN ANALYSIS OF SEEDLING DYNAMICS IN FLOODPLAINS OF THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI ALLUVIAL VALLEY Kroschel, Whitney, Louisiana State University King, Sammy, U.S. Geological Survey

FOLIAR WATER UPTAKE IN MANGROVES: RHIZOPHORA MANGLE, LAGUNCULARIA RACEMOSA, AND AVICENNIA GERMINANS O’Brien, Elizabeth, Villanova University Hayes, Matthew, Villanova University Chapman, Samantha, Villanova University Studies have shown that some plants, for example redwood forest species, exhibit foliar water uptake as a water acquisition strategy. When water droplets collect on the leaves of these redwood forest plants, the water droplets move along a water potential gradient to the inner plant tissues. This hydrates the plants from the leaves, rather than the roots, a strategy that is largely overlooked. This strategy is beneficial for plants because it enables those plants near water sources (especially coastal regions and common fogging 198 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

Within the past century modifications to Southeastern US river systems for navigation and flood control have permanently altered the natural hydrologic and geomorphic processes of most bottomland hardwood forest (BLH) floodplains. Some BLH ecosystems are subsequently exhibiting a transition from hydric to more mesic tree species communities, a transition possibly driven by mechanisms within the regeneration process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the phenology of BLH tree species regeneration and to identify the effects of hydrologic patterns on BLH recruitment within the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley. We established 145 1 x 1 m plots in two northern


Louisiana floodplains (n=105) and at two sites in south Louisiana within the historic Mississippi River floodplain (n=40). We monitored seedling emergence, growth, and survival for the 2016-2018 growing seasons. We also established seven groundwater monitoring wells among sites to collect long term data on surface and groundwater patterns. We documented 15,738 new individual seedlings among 16 species. The most abundant seedling was American elm (Ulmus americana) with 10,689 seedlings, followed by green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica; n=1,854), and red maple (Acer rubrum; n=1461). These species were primarily found at the sites with less or no flooding (<30 d) and generally emerged between late February and April. Seedlings at more flooded sites were dominated by swamp privet (Forestiera acuminata; n=1,143), water elm (Planera aquatica; n=104), and water hickory (Carya aquatica; n=70), most of which emerged late May through July. Not all species were present at every site though there was some overlap between groups of species. â&#x2013;

PRESENTATION 1453 Presented during Integrating innovative technologies, TEK and TRM for restoring /creating resilient wetlands for the future II, 5/30/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

PHYTOREMEDIATION PILOT STUDY FOR ARSENIC-IMPACTED COASTAL SOILS AND SEDIMENTS IN NORTHERN CALIFORNIA Wolf, Katie, ERM A parcel of land approximately 140-acres in size is located down-gradient of an active industrial property. The parcel consists primarily of undeveloped pasture terrain and encompasses seasonal vernal pools and a tidally-influenced flood control canal. Portions of the pasture that are adjacent to the industrial property historically received arsenicbased herbicides as part of weed abatement efforts. As a result, arsenic compounds are present above the associated regulatory screening level in the shallow soils and sediments in the pasture and flood control canal. A pilot study has been implemented within the arsenic-impacted pasture to assess the feasibility of phytoremediation as a means of stabilizing and remediating the arsenic impacted soils. To evaluate phytoremediation as a potential remedial option for the site, two experimental study plots were established within the pasture area where arsenic concentrations in soil were highest. Baseline soil samples were collected using a multi-incremental sampling approach prior to planting in order to characterize pre-remedial baseline arsenic and agronomic conditions in soil across the plots. Arsenicaccumulating plants, including brake ferns (Pteris spp.), Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum), and willows (Salix

spp.), were subsequently transplanted from an off-site greenhouse into the prepared plots following baseline sampling activities. At the completion of the pilot study, soil and plant tissue samples within the pilot study plots were collected using the same multi-incremental sampling approach to identify concentration changes in soil and to document arsenic uptake levels in fern fronds as part of the remedy evaluation. Multiple lines of evidence from the pilot study will be presented as part of the evaluation of phytoremediation as a remedy to reduce arsenic levels in soil in a safer and more sustainable way. These results will be used to further refine the full-scale remedy and will provide a basis for the forthcoming Corrective Action Plan. â&#x2013;

PRESENTATION 1484 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

SPECIES-SPECIFIC AND DOSE-DEPENDENT RESPONSES OF TIDAL FRESHWATER MARSH VEGETATION TO NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS ENRICHMENT Neubauer, Scott, Virginia Commonwealth University Burton, Kristen, Virginia Commonwealth University The literature on tidal freshwater wetland plant responses to increased nutrient loading is inconsistent, with some studies showing that nitrogen (but generally not phosphorus) increases plant growth and others reporting that fertilization does not affect the plants. These differences may reflect between-study differences in plant species composition, the amount of applied nutrients, and/or the methods of fertilizer application. To specifically test how the nutrient dosage affects freshwater wetland plant growth, we set up a gradient fertilization experiment in a tidal freshwater marsh on the James River, Virginia, USA. The diverse plant community was dominated by perennial species including Leersia oryzoides (rice cutgrass), Sagittaria latifolia (broadleaf arrowhead), and Typha spp. (cattail). Over two growing seasons, replicated plots received monthly subsurface applications of nitrogen and phosphorus at annual doses from 18 g N m-2 + 0.5 g P m-2 to 73 g N m-2 + 1.7 g P m-2 (four fertilization levels). A series of control plots received no allochthonous nutrients beyond those delivered from tidal flooding. During the growing season, monthly measurements of community composition, plant percent cover, and plant size (height, number of leaves, leaf size) were used to assess the responses of the plant community and individual species to the nutrient additions. Some species, including L. oryzoides and S. latifolia, consistently showed enhanced growth at the two highest Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 199


nutrient fertilization rates, but not all species did. There was no evidence that fertilization responses were greater during the second year of the experiment, even though the plant community was dominated by perennials and might be expected to show a delayed response. This study, which used a standard method of fertilizer application across all plots, has demonstrated that the growth of tidal freshwater marsh plants responds positively to nutrient fertilization but that the level of response varies between species and as a function of fertilization levels. â&#x2013;

nent species following restoration were all wetland indicator species (Panicum dichotomiflorum, Leersia oryzoides, and Euthamia caroliniana). In addition, average cover of non-native species per plot decreased from 4% to 0.3%. Plant recruitment was predominantly from seed banks. We found 38 native plant species following restoration that were not present before restoration. Additional monitoring will be required to determine the full complement of plant species that colonize after restoration, and the likelihood of spread of non-native species. Restoring native wetland plants from existing seed banks on retired cranberry bogs shows great promise. â&#x2013;

PRESENTATION 1487 Presented during Plants, 5/29/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

VEGETATION RESPONSES TO RESTORATION OF A MASSACHUSETTS CRANBERRY BOG Miller, Haley, Marine Biological Laboratory Whittemore, Michael, Woods Hole Research Center Polloni, Pamela, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Neill, Christopher, Woods Hole Research Center The cranberry industry has historically been an important component of the local economy in southeastern Massachusetts and on Cape Cod. Competition from increased production in other locations has led to a recent increase in the area of retired bogs in Massachusetts, and an interest to actively restore these retired bogs to wetlands. Because most bogs were created from former wetlands, proposed restoration approaches involve both raising water levels to increase soil moisture and capitalizing on stored seed banks to promote the reestablishment of wetland plants. We quantified plant species composition and cover in two retired bogs (Tidmarsh Farm in Plymouth, MA and the Coonamessett River in Falmouth, MA), that varied from 13 to 17 years since cranberry farming ceased. In one, the Lower Coonamessett River, we quantified species composition and cover in permanent 3 x 3 meter plots both before and one year after active restoration that removed sand, lowered soil elevation, and enhanced soil microtopography. Vegetation of retired bogs was dominated by cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), and a small number of predominantly native species including dewberries (Rubus spp.), poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), pitch pine (Pinus rigida), and switch grass (Panicum virgatum). Prior to restoration, plots in the Lower Coonamessett had 80 species identified. One year post-restoration in the lower bog, this species richness increased to 105 species. The average number of native species per plot more than doubled from 12 to 25, and the average number of obligate wetland species per plot increased from 4 to 10. The three most promi200 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

PRESENTATION 1503 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

QUANTIFYING THE EFFECTS OF STORMWATER POND DRAINAGE ON URBAN REMNANT FORESTED WETLANDS Hess, Kayla, University of Florida Bean, Eban, University of Florida Iannone, Basil, University of Florida Reisinger, AJ, University of Florida Throughout urbanized landscapes, isolated natural wetlands can be found, providing crucial ecosystem services, such as wildlife habitat, carbon sequestering, and flood control. However, these wetlands are often incorporated into city hydrological networks, thereby receiving drainage from stormwater ponds that could impact wetland plant communities and ecosystem services they provide via alteration of nutrient and hydrological dynamics. The goal of this project is to determine how stormwater ponds draining directly into remnant forested wetlands of urbanized landscapes change wetland plant communities. To meet this goal, we surveyed 19 wetlands within Gainesville, Florida, with three different treatment levels, including isolated wetlands into which stormwater ponds drain, isolated wetlands which stormwater ponds do not drain into, and non-urban reference sites. The objectives of this study are to (1) Quantify the variation in plant community in relation to the treatment levels, (2) Quantify the variation in hydrological dynamics and water and soil nutrients in relation to the treatment levels, and (3) Quantify the degree to which the plant communities change in response to variation in hydrological dynamics and nutrient levels. Using an index of Floristic Quality (FQAI) revealed no differences between wetlands that do and do not receive stormwater drainage in the overall plant community quality. However, non-urban wetlands had 22% higher FQAI values than urbanized wetlands, indicating


overall declines in plant community condition. Additionally, we detected greater abundance of exotic and invasive plants in urban vs. non-urban wetlands, but no effects of stormwater drainage. Initial analyses of soil samples shows evidence of elevated nutrient concentrations in wetlands receiving stormwater drainage, which could affect other plant community characteristics. Future work needs to be done to confirm these patterns. The findings from this study will guide future stakeholders in stormwater management, as well broaden and improve the understanding of these remnant urban forested wetland ecosystems. ■

PRESENTATION 1521 Presented during Ecosystem and Plants, 5/29/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

DEGRADING MOUNTAIN WETLANDS IN ETHIOPIA: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES Dullo, Bikila Warkineh, Addis Ababa University In March 2013 we investigated two small peatlands in the Bale Mountains in central Ethiopia. The mires are located on the Sanetti Plateau at an altitude of approximately 4000 metres above mean sea level (a.m.s.l.). Their vegetation is dominated by tussocky Carex species and locally also by a cushion plant Eriocaulon schimperi, which occurs elsewhere in eastern Africa in montane areas at altitudes between 2000 and 4100 m a.m.s.l. We studied the vegetation and pore water at different depths. The pore water chemistry suggested that these mires were groundwater fed, but also received water as precipitation and calciumpoor runoff from adjacent hills. The cushion plants (Eriocaulon schimperi) on the Sanetti Plateau resemble Astelia pumila, a cushion plant that dominates large ‘blanket bog type’ mires in south-west Chile and the south-eastern part of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina). Both species appear to expand in slightly degrading fens or bogs under rather extreme environmental conditions. We also discuss possible evolutionary adaptations within the Eriocaulon family to the harsh environment of mountain mires at high altitudes. In January 2019 we revisited the study area and found the peatlands degraded, dried up and the vegetation over grazed. Even though our previous study indicated a possible the cushion plant Eriocaulon schimperi displayed root investment stagey that high oxygenized the rhizosphere and thus highly reduced methane flux, due to intensive overgrazing this ecosystem service is now lost. In this paper we highlight the drivers of change in the mountain wetlands of Ethiopia and discuss a way forward towards its conservation and management. ■

PRESENTATION 1540 Presented during Animals, 5/30/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

DO FIDDLER CRABS INFLUENCE PLANT GROWTH AND SOIL CHARACTERISTICS? GETTING TO THE BOTTOM OF THE BURROW IN GULF COAST TIDAL MARSHES Murphy, Gwendolyn, Southern Illinois University Battaglia, Loretta, Southern Illinois University Bioturbation by fiddler crabs may enhance plant productivity by ameliorating stressful soil conditions in coastal ecosystems, thereby contributing to marsh sustainability in the face of rising sea levels. Fiddler crab-plant interactions in Gulf Coast tidal marshes are poorly understood and have not been closely examined across the dominant vegetation zones. We hypothesized that burrow density, a proxy for crab abundance, would differ across zones and would have a negative relationship with soil organic matter, moisture, electrical conductivity, and soil hardness but a positive relationship with pH, redox potential, and plant biomass. In January 2017, we initiated a fiddler crab reduction experiment by constructing enclosures and exclosures in the four dominant vegetation zones (salt marsh, brackish marsh, fresh marsh and salt panne) at Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, Mississippi, USA. Species and sex of fiddler crabs were recorded and compiled over the course of the study. Soils and plant biomass were sampled in July and November 2017. Following our final measurement, all vegetation was removed, allowing for thorough burrow counts. Collectively, our results highlight variability in fiddler crab-plant interactions and suggest that bioturbation is facilitative in zones characterized by waterlogged soils, but sometimes destructive in drier habitats. Uca longisignalis was the dominant fiddler crab species in the salt (90%) and brackish marshes (75%), where male to female ratios were highest. In contrast, fresh marsh and salt pannes had higher crab diversity and more even sex distributions. The final burrow survey revealed an inordinate number of burrows hidden under fresh marsh vegetation. While few studies acknowledge fresh marsh as fiddler crab habitat or document effects of bioturbation on fresh marsh vegetation, our research indicates that this zone may actually be preferred by Gulf Coast fiddler crabs and quite possibly a habitat ‘bridge’ for upslope migrations as sea levels rise. ■

Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 201


PRESENTATION 1549

PRESENTATION 1552

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

Presented during Plants, 5/29/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

SALINITY-MEDIATED COASTAL PLANT COMMUNITY CHANGE: CONTROLLED EXPERIMENTS TO INFORM THRESHOLDS Verhulst, Stephanie, University of Florida Reinhardt Adams, Carrie, University of Florida Coastal forests experience periodic salt water inundation during tidal storm surges and extreme tidal events. This creates stressful conditions where dominant overstory tree species, Sabal palmetto and Juniperus virginiana, have shown limited salinity tolerances and susceptibility to dieoff. In recent decades, these species have shown reduced regeneration leading to ‘the living-dead forest’ where only older trees are present. The specific conditions under which this occurs is still unknown. Research has experimentally determined salinity tolerance thresholds for these two species under constant hydrology, but the effect of plant age on salinity tolerance has not been studied, and the influence of episodic tidal flooding has not been simultaneously explored. We examined salinity thresholds of 3 different ages (1 month, 8 month, and 18 month old seedlings) of S. palmetto and 12 month old J. virginiana by placing potted trees in individual treatment pools representing 5 different salinities (0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 ppt) for 5 months. Fluctuating tidal conditions were approximated by using a pump system that flooded and drained the plants on 6-hour cycles. Additionally, ungerminated S. palmetto seeds were placed in seed boxes in an incubation chamber using 4 salinities (0, 4, 8, 12 ppt) and monitored for germination success. Productivity (plant height and leaf length) of 1 month and 18 month old S. palmetto seedlings decreased non-linearly with increasing salinity. One month old seedlings were the only S. palmetto age group to experience mortality which was significantly higher at 16 ppt. Juniperus virginiana growth was similar across lower salinities, but at 12 and 16 ppt plants were significantly shorter. Ungerminated S. palmetto seeds were the most sensitive to lower salinity treatments, with a significantly reduced germination in all salinity treatments above 4 ppt. Using this threshold data and landscape-level observations of salinity patterns, we can further our predictive understanding of die-off in areas dominated by these species, potentially targeting areas for management. Also, these age-related salinity thresholds demonstrated here can inform restoration by identifying the propagule type most likely to survive a planting in any given salinity condition. ■

202 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

DISCERNING DIFFERENCES IN SAP FLOW BETWEEN BALDCYPRESS AND WATER TUPELO IN A LONG HYDROPERIOD FRESHWATER SWAMP Duberstein, Jamie, Clemson University Krauss, Ken, U.S. Geological Survey Baldwin, Michael J., U.S. Geological Survey Southern deepwater swamps dominated by baldcypress and water tupelo trees exist in areas with long hydroperiods. Though the two species are similar in flood tolerance, their internal cell structure is fundamentally different, which could affect rates of transpiration along the radial profile from just inside the cambium (most flow) to near the heartwood (no flow). Non-porous ring structure, such as found in baldcypress, can exhibit sharp declines in sap flow with radial depths greater than 20 mm inside the cambium. Diffuse-porous ring structure, found in water tupelo, often remain relatively active to radial depths exceeding 40 mm. We selected 30 trees from a portion of a deepwater swamp exhibiting freshwater conditions and measured rates of sap flow at various radial depths inside the cambium for an entire growing season. We tested for differences between species, and size classes within species; comparisons were based on data from two shallow depths (15 and 25 mm), and using two metrics: maximum daily and average daily sapflow rates. We also explored seasonal changes in maximum sap flow rates and radial profiles (attenuation). Sap flow rates at the 15 mm depth were lower for water tupelo than baldcypress, but at 25 mm inside the cambium the sap flow rates of water tupelo were higher than baldcypress. Size class differences were found in baldcypress using daily maximum and daily average flow rates at 15 mm; large baldcypress have greater sap flow than medium sized trees. Implications of these results will be discussed, including scaling to individual tree and stand water use. ■


PRESENTATION 1590 Presented during Overview of key global wetland issues - threats, challenges and solutions II, 5/29/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ANTHROPOGENIC PRESSURE ON PLANT BIODIVERSITY OF HIGH ALTITUDE WETLANDS OF ARUNACHAL PRADESH, INDIA Kanwal, Khilendra Singh, G.B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment & Sustainable Development Lodhi, Mahendra Singh, G B Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment & Sustainable Development The high altitude wetlands (HAWs) are an important category of natural wetlands found mainly in the higher elevations (3000 meter above) in the mountain region. Arunachal Pradesh state is ranked second in India after Jammu & Kashmir with 1672 HAWs covering a total area of 11,864 ha, accounting for about 7.6% of total wetland area of the state. The HAWs of state support rich and unique biodiversity, play a key role in maintaining hydrological and ecological, provide number of important ecosystem goods and services, important for carbon sequestration and have religious significance among communities. Empirical scientific studies have projected that temperature may rise by 1.00C to 3.5 0C and intensity of rainfall is likely to increase by 1-6 mm/day by the next decade in the region. The present study assesses impact of climate change and anthropogenic pressure on the status and distribution of plant biodiversity of HAWs of Tawang district of Arunachal Pradesh. Standard methodology was followed for documentation of floral biodiversity, landuse landcover analysis, ecological niche modelling and climate change impact and antropogenic vulnerability assessment. A total 281 flowering plant species belonging to 136 genera and 69 families were recorded from study area. Rare, endangered and threatened (RET) species such as Gentiana kurroo, Nardostachys jatamansi Aconitum heterophyllum, Aconitun ferox, Meconopsis paniculata, Picrorhiza kurrooa, Podophyllum hexandrum will face severe threat from climate change in the future due to very narrow range of distribution and small population size. Indigenous community living around the high altitude areas are mostly nomadic and poor and highly vulnerable to climate change impact. Anthropogenic pressures such as population growth, grazing, unregulated tourism, infrastructure development and forest product collection etc. are other major threats for plant biodiversity of HAWs. Considering the emerging threat of climate change, there is urgent need of interdisciplinary action oriented research work for linking the policy and society for conservation and wise use of high altitude wetland ecosystem. Capacity building of stakeholders through education and awareness programs and strengthening traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of indigenous community will also play vital role in protection of alpine floral biodiversity and sustainable development of HAWs of Arunachal Himalaya. ■

Biology & Ecology: Other - Biogeochemistry - Mercury Cycling PRESENTATION 1063 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

VARIATIONS IN TOTAL- AND METHYL-MERCURY LEVELS IN TWO RECENTLY RESTORED URBAN WETLANDS AND NEARBY STREAMS. Morales, Kristina, University of North Carolina Greensboro Tsui, Martin, University of North Carolina Greensboro As ubiquitous features of the urban landscape, wetlands have been recognized for their importance in habitat provision and the plethora of ecosystem services they can provide. In many cities they are useful solutions for storm water management, contaminant mitigation, and flood control. Despite their abundance, these systems are severely understudied, particularly when it comes to mercury (Hg) cycling and their potential to generate a potent neurotoxic form of Hg, methylmercury (MeHg). Thus, creating new wetlands in urban areas may have an unforeseen drawback: reducing conditions are highly favorable for the microbial methylation of Hg to toxic MeHg. In the aquatic environment, MeHg can extensively bioaccumulate and biomagnify in food webs leading to many fish consumption advisories against Hg in water bodies across the United States. The urban campus of the University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG), restored two on-campus sites in March 2017 (also known as ‘The Wetlands Project’, both the shady and open site are roughly 232 m2 each in surface area). This restoration has resulted in significant increases in biodiversity, but a lack of knowledge about alterations in Hg cycling and how MeHg levels may vary over time as these wetlands mature. Monthly water samples from each site, as well as nearby streams have been collected since the first year of installation. These samples are analyzed for total mercury (THg), MeHg, nutrients (phosphate and sulfate), dissolved organic carbon, and total nitrogen concentrations; THg and MeHg concentrations are quantified using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CVAFS). Current observed peaks in MeHg in the wooded site are magnitudes higher than the those observed in the open site and coincide with the more anoxic conditions during the dry summer. The downstream waterways closely reflect concentrations of THg found in the wetland, and considerably less MeHg, eluding to the idea that some MeHg is being exchanged with nearby bodies of water. The exchange of MeHg from wetland sites to streams can have implications for overall ecosystem health, water quality, and human health, as exposure to MeHg occurs through the consumption of contaminated fish in urban waterways. ■ Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 203


Biology & Ecology: Other - Fire

Biology & Ecology: Other - Habitat Management

PRESENTATION 1450

PRESENTATION 1154

Presented during Biogeochemistry - Nutrient Cycling I, 5/31/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

Presented during Integrating innovative technologies, TEK and TRM for restoring /creating resilient wetlands for the future II, 5/30/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

INITIAL RESPONSES OF SUISUN MARSH BRACKISH WETLANDS TO FIRE DISTURBANCE Jones, Scott, United States Geological Survey Schutte, Charles, Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium Roberts, Brian, Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium Thorne, Karen, USGS Fire can influence ecological function by altering carbon cycling, changing nutrient loads, and resetting plant successional pathways. In coastal wetlands, fire may particularly impact key functions such as carbon storage and habitat provisioning, although data for the Pacific Coast of the United States are scarce. To better understand how coastal marsh function is influenced by fire, we used a natural experimental approach in burned and unburned brackish marshes in Suisun Marsh, California, USA. We quantified marsh platform elevation, soil properties, and vegetation community responses to the Branscombe Fire that burned portions of Suisun Marsh in October 2018. We quantified soil organic matter, nutrient concentrations and potential nitrification and denitrification rates, and determined plant community diversity and species cover. We measured paired burned-unburned patches in both tidally-influenced and leveed marshes. In these mineral-based marshes, we found no evidence of post-fire peat collapse, but leveed marshes were 1 m lower than tidal marshes. In all marshes, patches that burned had on average 9% less soil organic matter in the top 10 cm of soil. Fire additionally increased both soil extractable nitrate concentrations and nitrification potential in tidal marshes, but leveed marsh soils with low nutrient concentrations did not show the same nutrient pulse. Pre-fire vegetation differed in leveed and tidal marshes, but fire reduced all vegetation to chaff regardless of habitat. Initial post-fire measurements of Suisun Marsh indicate that dry, nutrient-poor leveed soils are not drastically altered by fire, but tidal marshes exhibit an initial release of nutrients. Planned soil and vegetation measurements after winter rains will elucidate how quickly marsh soils recover their organic matter and nutrient content, and vegetation recovery trajectories over time. â&#x2013;

204 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

EXPERIMENTAL WATER LEVEL OPERATION FOR WATER BIRD HABITAT ENHANCEMENT IN CHENGXI WETLAND Cheng, Kai-Hong, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan Wang, Hsiao-Wen, National Cheng Kung University Wang, Yi-Kuang, National University of Tainan Chen, Kai-Wei, National University of Tainan This research aims to create a water gate operation procedure that can turn abandoned fishponds of Taijiang National Park, located in Tainan, Taiwan, into habitat for waterbirds such as the endangered Black-Faced Spoonbill. The main threat facing waterbirds is the loss of wetland or mudflat habitat. Due to this need for habitat preservation, or creation, Taijiang National Park tried to explore the possibilities of managing abandoned coastal fishponds as wetland bird habitats. According to previous research, the water level in the Chengxi ponds, controlled largely by the tides, is normally too high for waterbirds to use. In order to investigate possibilities of controlling water level and improving the habitat quality for waterbirds, we conducted hydrologic and ecological surveys as well as created partnerships with local fishermen. This data was used to design and implement water gate experiments, which were paired with bird, fish, and benthic organism surveys in order to understand the impact of water gate management on not only water level, but on food availability, water quality, and species diversity in the fishponds. The results of the experiment showed that reduced water level has the potential to increase usage of the ponds by waterbirds. Results also show that after our short-term experiments, fish and benthic organisms are able to recover quickly once the water gates were opened. Further experiments may be needed to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the possible impacts of water management, and create a holistic habitat enhancement strategy considering various water levels and operation times. â&#x2013;


EDUCATION & COMMUNICATION

Biology & Ecology: Other - Nutrient fluxes

Education & Communication: Professional Development

PRESENTATION 1556

PRESENTATION 1031

Presented during Biology and Ecology, 5/30/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

Presented during Working in Wetlands I, 5/29/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

HOW DO FLOODPLAIN AND STREAMBANK WATER QUALITY PROCESSES CHANGE WITH LAND USE AND GEOLOGIC SETTING? Doody, Thomas, U.S. Geological Survey Noe, Gregory, U.S. Geological Survey Bourg, Norman, U.S. Geological Survey Metes, Marina, U.S. Geological Survey Benthem, Adam, U.S. Geological Survey Hopkins, Kristina, U.S. Geological Survey Claggett, Peter, U.S. Geological Survey Schenk, Edward, National Park Service Rieb, Emma, U.S. Geological Survey Rappolee, Eleanor, U.S. Geological Survey Fergus, Craig, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute Hupp, Cliff, U.S. Geological Survey

#BESTJOBEVER - WETLAND SCIENTISTS WORK THEIR PASSION Ponzio, Kimberli, St. Johns River Water Management District

Our research aims to determine how land use changes may alter fluxes of nutrients and sediment in floodplain wetlands. We selected 10 different stream reaches within the Virginia portion of the Blue Ridge physiographic province. These sites are part of a larger study of 68 sites in the Chesapeake Bay and Delaware River watersheds. The Blue Ridge sites represent catchments with varied land use and geology (including high and low gradient streams), ranging from flatter agricultural and suburban watersheds to steeper forested watersheds within Shenandoah National Park. We surveyed sites and collected bank and floodplain sediment cores, tree cores, and tree root cookies to characterize the geomorphometry of floodplain wetlands relative to the stream channel, sediment characteristics, and dendrogeomorphic fluxes of sediment and attached nutrients associated with floodplain deposition and streambank erosion. Sediment samples were analyzed for grain size, organic content, and total carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and other elements. Floodplain and streambank fluxes of sediment, N, P, and C were calculated for all reaches and results of were compared to other sites within our larger study, specifically those within the high gradient, Appalachian Plateau region of the Delaware River watershed. These comparisons are useful in analyzing the differences in floodplain and bank function in the region across gradients of land use and geology. For example, mean organic matter content of floodplain sediments is significantly lower in the Blue Ridge (9.65%) relative to other high gradient sites in the Appalachian Plateau (11.40%). Ultimately, the Blue Ridge data will contribute to the development of a larger predictive model of floodplain and bank fluxes under scenarios of future land use change. â&#x2013;

Sometimes the path that leads to working in wetlands is indirect and, certainly, there is no prescribed process that must be followed. This is one of the things that fosters the immense diversity of people who work in wetlands and the jobs that they do to help protect and restore wetlands. From my perspective, those lucky people that do end up slogging around in the water and muck and bugs, are happier there than no other place on the planet. Rather than considering this as a job we HAVE to do, it is one we are excited that we GET to do. Or, more aptly put, for the newest generation of wetland scientists and managers - #BestJobEver! By relating my personal story, I hope to inspire future wetland scientists to reflect on what they did in their formative years that is gently, or forcefully, nudging them in the direction of wetland science. And, what are the opportunities for them as they transition from the academic arena to the working world. Finally, I will present what some of the challenges and opportunities are for a vibrant and happy career in the wonderful world of wetlands. â&#x2013;

PRESENTATION 1058 Presented during Female Leaders in Wetland Science and Policy II, 5/29/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

MY CAREER IN US BEAVER WETLANDS AND BEYOND Johnston, Carol, South Dakota State University Background: My student job at Cornell University in 1973 launched a lifetime interest in beaver wetlands that opened many opportunities throughout my career. I was an aerial photo interpreter at Cornell, mapping wetlands for the New York State Wetlands Inventory. To assess our accuracy at identifying beaver-created wetlands, I snowmobiled with colleagues from the NYS Department of Environmental Conservation deep into the Moose River Plains of the Adirondacks, comparing evidence of beaver activity on the ground with evidence on our aerial photographs. After moving to Wisconsin for grad school, I became Director of the Wisconsin Wetlands Inventory for the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, where we continued to identify beaver wetlands on our maps. Completion of my PhD led to a 1985 postdoctoral position at the University Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 205


of Minnesota-Duluth working on an NSF-funded study of ecosystem alteration by beavers at Voyageurs National Park. In addition to using aerial photos and GIS analysis to document the expansion of beaver colonies within the landscape, we conducted field studies on how beaver impoundments altered soil, water, vegetation, and biogeochemistry. I collaborated with a visiting Russian scientist to model watershed alteration by beaver dams, and we traveled to Russia in 1995 to view beaver wetlands there. Moving to South Dakota State University in 2003, I was a mentor to Marla Striped Face-Collins, who studied water conservation by beaver dams in the Standing Rock Sioux Nation. I also received an NSF OPUS grant to compile the results of my beaver research at Voyageurs National Park, which culminated in my 2017 book, ‘Beavers: Boreal Ecosystem Engineers.’ Conclusions: Build upon your early career experiences - they can snowball into greater opportunities. Be an advocate for your career - don’t assume that your record will speak for itself. ■

PRESENTATION 1110 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

STUDENT TRAINING IN WETLAND SCIENCE THROUGH THE GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLAND MONITORING PROGRAM Wilcox, Douglas, SUNY College at Brockport Uzarski, Donald, Central Michigan University Brady, Valerie, University of Minnesota Duluth Cooper, Matthew, Northland College The Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands Consortium developed a basin-wide monitoring plan in 2008 to determine the condition of coastal wetlands, with 2011-2020 implementation funding from the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative via USEPA-GLNPO. The program has collected data on vegetation, invertebrates, fish, amphibians, birds, and chemical and physical parameters from randomly selected wetlands across the basin using standardized protocols. Additional wetlands were sampled as benchmarks specific to restoration projects. Field data collection, laboratory analyses, data entry and quality assurance, and data analyses for such a large program require substantial human resources for completion. Fifteen principal investigators with oversight on various parameters across the five Great Lakes rely heavily on post-doctoral, graduate, and undergraduate students, as well as trained technicians. From 2011 to 2018, 4 post-doctoral and 40 graduate students have been supported, with partial or full funding for thesis projects. Each year, about 50 undergraduates and 25 technicians are 206 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

paid full-time for summer and/or part-time academic year work, and about 25 volunteers also provide assistance. More than 40 undergraduate research projects have resulted. In addition to providing federal, state, and non-governmental organizations with data on changes in wetland condition and assessments of wetland restoration projects, the Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Monitoring Program is training substantial numbers of the next generation of wetland scientists. ■

PRESENTATION 1124 Presented during Working in Wetlands II, 5/29/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

PULL YOURSELF UP BY YOUR HIP-BOOTS AND BUILD THE WETLAND CAREER THAT YOU WANT! Davis, Nicole, HDR Not all career paths follow a straight line or lead where initially intended. Over the last 12 years of my career in wetland science, unique opportunities through developed network connections and my goal to achieve a healthy work-life balance have allowed me to experience careers in the federal, academic, private, and non-profit sectors. In this presentation, I will tell my story of professional advancement as an ecosystem scientist and project manager while keeping my passion for the protection, conservation and restoration of coastal wetlands an integral part of my career. Most importantly, I will outline the education that I attained and the specific skills sets I have acquired throughout my career that have allowed me to build the career in wetland science that I wanted for myself. So join me, while I tell you through my experiences, how you can build the wetland career that YOU want for yourself. ■

PRESENTATION 1230 Presented during Working in Wetlands II, 5/29/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

MANY PATHS LEAD TO WETLANDS: PERSPECTIVES FROM CONSULTING, ACADEMIA, AND GOVERNMENT Baldwin, Andy, University of Maryland The world of wetlands is so broad and multidisciplinary that myriad careers are possible that deal fully or partially with wetlands. I have been fortunate to have had a diversity of experiences and interests in wetlands that began in college, developed in environmental consulting, sharpened in graduate school, and evolved in academia. Along the way I enriched my knowledge of wetlands and government, indirectly from working with government staff and directly through a sabbatical at a U.S. federal agency. At


some point I developed a credo of ‘all wetlands, all the time’ that motivated me to pursue paths leading to a succession of wetland positions, projects, and activities. I hope that by sharing my experiences in a range of different wetland professional environments I can provide a sense of the diversity and breadth of opportunities in wetland science, management, and policy, and make the point that a fulfilling career in wetlands can take many paths. ■

PRESENTATION 1321 Presented during Working in Wetlands II, 5/29/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

LIFE AFTER SCHOOL: DEVELOPING A PROFESSIONAL ONLINE PRESENCE, LOOKING FOR JOBS AND WINNING OVER HIRING MANAGERS Brumley, Jessica, National Research Council Often times, after finishing your degree it can feel like you have not been prepared for the job market. Many plan to go into Academia, but many have discovered other career paths. Sometimes there is a waiting period between graduation and finding your place on the job market. Using my experiences from the past four years, this talk will give suggestions on building your brand to promote yourself on the market and the various directions you can pursue. I will address: what to have prepared for the job search process; what attributes to highlight for academic and non-academic jobs; how your online presence can influence hiring decisions; how to expand your network; and where to find job opportunities. For PhDs, I will discuss how to get through the post-doctoral application process for fellowships/grants and where to find these opportunities. Various tools are available to support you through the process and these will be presented with self-care tips to alleviate the stress while going through this often frustrating but rewarding process. ■

PRESENTATION 1405 Presented during Working in Wetlands I, 5/29/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

FEDERAL AGENCY SCIENTIST TURNED PRIVATE CONSULTANT - MAKING THE TRANSITION Schweisberg, Matt, Wetland Strategies and Solutions, LLC What is the next chapter in your career when you’ve been a wetlands ecologist and wildlife biologist for the federal government for nearly 33 years and decide to retire from federal service? Among many possibilities, you could become a private consultant. Regardless of your tenure in the public sector, how does one move from the public to the private sector? Depending upon what type of private consulting you want to pursue, there are several paths you could follow. For this presentation, I will briefly recount my experiences with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency at both its headquarters and New England Region offices. I’ll describe the approach I took to becoming a private wetlands consultant, including the importance of taking on varied work responsibilities, making and maintaining professional contacts, and long-term planning. For young wetland professionals and students, I also will touch upon the key knowledge, skills and abilities you should develop and perfect. ■

PRESENTATION 1410 Presented during Educating current and future wetland scientists I, 5/31/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

MEETING THE LEARNING NEEDS OF PROFESSIONAL WETLAND SCIENTISTS THROUGH RESEARCH-BASED APPROACHES TO TRAINING AND EDUCATION Zollitsch, Brenda, Association of State Wetland Managers As one of its primary activities, the Association of State Wetland Managers (ASWM) delivers education, outreach and training to current and future wetland professionals through a variety of approaches, each targeting specific sets of learners. ASWM will share findings from its recent twoyear study on developing and delivering high quality wetland training and highlight specific tools that have proven effective. These include the development of research-based online wetland training modules, multiple live and recorded webinar series and on-the-ground learning sessions. The presentation will focus on sharing key considerations for developing targeted trainings that meet the needs of wetland professionals and include special considerations for developing high quality anytime, anywhere access options. Participants will come away with a better understanding of approaches they can adapt for use, as well as online access to reference materials and training resources. ■ Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 207


PRESENTATION 1439

PRESENTATION 1441

Presented during Educating current and future wetland scientists I, 5/31/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

Presented during Working in Wetlands I, 5/29/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

A NEW APPROACH TO TRAINING CORPS OF ENGINEERS REGULATORS IN SCIENCE AND POLICY IMPLEMENTATION Martin, Steven, US Army Corps of Engineers The Army Corps of Engineers Regulatory program is responsible for issuing permits for work in waters of the US including navigable waters and adjacent wetlands. The skills and knowledge required of Corps regulators is specialized and goes beyond the preparation they receive in colleges and universities. The Corps is constrained in the resources it can use to train its regulators. Corps districts can only spend 3-5% of total overhead funding on training. The historic training model was based on 1 to 2 week national courses. The expenses of travel, tuition, and per diem meant districts could send at most 1/3 of their staff each year. Training often did not reach regulators at the right time in their careers and did not allow sufficient time to address the full range of necessary important topics such as wetland delineation, permit review, compliance with other federal laws, cumulative effects, and applicable regulations In response to this problem, a new Regulatory Training plan was developed in 2017 to provide timely training at every level of expertise. New employees will learn from a series of ‘New Hire’ online modules to help understand and implement the program. Project Managers will have more technical options to help in implementing the program at more advanced levels as well as providing pathways for development as senior project managers, subject matter experts, or leaders (not just supervisors). This Regulatory training plan reduces waste and expands the staff reached by reducing the reliance on national workshops or classes and taking training directly to the regulator through a suite of options. It incorporates 3 components: 1. Cost-effective virtual training for staff as needed, including webinars and online modules so regulators need not travel to access training; 2. Regional training brings expert trainers to the regulator; Instead of sending a few regulators to a national training, Corps districts or regions bring the instructors to the regulators. 3. More limited national level training, including interagency training. The format will change to deliver case scenarios that provide more advanced, hands-on, real world examples. Classroom training will also move toward a train-the-trainer effort with the goal of developing regional experts. Compensatory mitigation training is an example of this approach. It makes full use of virtual training, regional workshops, and national courses. ■

208 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

UNIVERSITY LIFE: RESEARCH, MENTORING, AND EDUCATING FUTURE WETLAND SCIENTISTS Shannon, Robert, The Pennsylvania State University A major benefit to academic life is the freedom to go in many different directions; no day is the same as the next day or the one prior to it. While teaching and research are the mainstays of academic life as a professor, the real allure is in working with and mentoring young wetland scientists. Although everyone’s academic career is different, in my career I’ve had the opportunity to develop and teach my own wetland course, conduct wetland research and advise and mentor undergraduate and graduate students about careers in wetland science. The mentoring process typically begins in my wetlands class, with engaging students in the wide array of opportunities through field and classroom exercises, and in helping students demonstrating an interest in and aptitude for further professional or graduate-level wetlands work to realize their goals. Identifying internship experiences for students while in school is another component to the mentoring experience. Lastly, involvement in the SWS Professional Certification Program provides a platform to mentor and inform students on the benefits of SWS membership and certification, and assist recent graduates with the certification process. A mid-career segue into administration of an interdisciplinary, environmental science program has provided complementary opportunities for curriculum development and assessment, and collaboration with a broad range of professionals from wetland scientists, to terrestrial ecologists, to air quality specialists. ■

PRESENTATION 1458 Presented during Working in Wetlands I, 5/29/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

REAL-ESTATE DEVELOPER, RISK ASSESSOR, ENGINEER OR RESTORATION ECOLOGIST?: A DAY IN THE LIFE OF AN ECOPRENEUR Berkley, Brett, GreenVest My career started with humble beginnings bar tending in the Back Bay while attending undergrad at Boston University. This ambitious student volunteered for the Massachusetts Natural Heritage and Endangered Species program for so long that the Director felt obligated to start paying me a whole $6.00/hour, you would have thought I had won the lottery! This cemented by passion for wildlife conservation and ultimately secured my career as restoration ecologist and ultimately an ‘ecopreneur’.


I am Senior Vice President and Chief Science Officer for GreenVest, LLC. The nature of our business requires working with a wide array of environmental, regulatory, engineering, finance, legal, real estate and construction professionals, landowners, engaged stakeholders and the public. I wear many hats requiring the practical application of multidisciplinary skills and experience. No two days are alike... GreenVest develops ecological assets in the form of mitigation banks and fixed price turnkey mitigation actively assuming risk on our client’s behalf to satisfy permit obligations. Come find out what the heck all that means, how you sell what no one wants to buy and most importantly what skills and experience you need to be a ‘restoration ecologist’ versus an ‘ecopreneur.’■

PRESENTATION 1516 Presented during Wetlands and Society I, 5/29/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

BRIDGE ASSEMBLY AND BRICK BUILDING: DEVELOPING DIVERSITY ACROSS PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES. Riera, David, Florida International University Students from all walks of life and disciplines have experienced academic drift. Through time, potential knowledge users have actively sought alternative academic fulfillment. Professional societies and organizations have been historically erected for virtuous perceptions like becoming a clearinghouse for specialized knowledge, as a support network for professional/practitioners in the same field, and as a safe place and space where comprehension, as well as selfefficacy, is enhanced, although some insidious rationales behind them revolve around power dynamics, inequity, inequality, social/economic injustices. Through this account, we will first illustrate which societies and organizations are being utilized, then we will focus on the author’s experience navigating through these societies by using qualitative reflexivity to explore the observed effects of the author’s diversity on the societies and the effects of the diversity (or lack thereof) within these identified organizations as they affect the author. This process is very useful to guide students through their own preconceptions and distortions, which we will continuously navigate as we learn and unlearn knowledge that will allow us to bridge understandings across societies and lay the foundation between organizations, creating diverse and hybrid stakeholders who will build collaborative networks to include academic institutions, businesses, agencies, and us the people. ■

Education & Communication: Public Outreach and Education PRESENTATION 1053 Presented during Educating current and future wetland scientists I, 5/31/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

INTRODUCING THE SWS EDUCATION SECTION: BRINGING TOGETHER WETLAND EDUCATORS TO MEET TOMORROW’S CHALLENGES Faust, Derek, Clover Park Technical College Recognizing the need and importance of wetland education, the Society of Wetland Scientists (SWS) board of directors approved formation of the Education Section of the SWS in May 2017. The main purpose of the Education Section is to promote wetland science education for students of all ages and for the general public. The section has created a Facebook page (@SWSEducation) to promote wetland education and outreach through the power of social media, such as its #WetlandWednesday posts. Members of the Education Section also organized a symposium at the Annual Meeting with presentations on topics including: the SWS Education Section, informal public education, wetland training, research on education techniques, educating policy makers, and formal education. We are also beginning to design wetland-themed coloring and activity pages for K-12 students to increase awareness of wetlands importance. Other ideas compiled at a brainstorming session of section membership included: Organize symposia and workshops on techniques and curricula for wetland science education and outreach; Organize field trips to carry out wetland education; Propose and fund wetland science education initiatives; Encourage and support students and teachers engaged in wetland science education; Develop an online repository for wetland science curricula; Use social media account(s) for public outreach and education on wetland science. Education techniques used in a variety of settings can be a powerful force and are integral to helping society realize the value of wetlands. The SWS Education Section brings together people with a passion for wetlands and education to meet society’s current and future environmental challenges. ■

Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 209


PRESENTATION 1166 Presented during Educating current and future wetland scientists I, 5/31/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

EDUCATING CURRENT AND FUTURE WETLAND SCIENTISTS: INFORMAL WETLAND EDUCATION FOR THE PUBLIC Marburger, Joy, Adjunct Purdue University Northwest Framing information according to the audience is an important aspect of informal education programs about wetlands. Who are your audiences? What are their perceptions about wetlands? I will discuss informal wetland programs I developed with the national park system and other organizations to facilitate wetland education. Wetlands in Parks (WIP) workshops incorporate published educational tools from Wonders of Wetland (WOW) and professional wetland expertise to elementary and middle school teachers. WIP workshops include lecture information, hands-on indoor activities, and field trips provided over a two-day period, usually on weekends to allow teachers time to attend. The free workshops focus on wetland mapping, wetland soil, hydrology, and vegetation characteristics found in the region. Visiting researchers incorporate their research into field trips to various sites. Other programs by state agencies include Legacy (in Florida) in which high school students assist in vegetation monitoring and restoration. National organizations such as the Botanical Society of America have an on-line program called PlantingScience.org with plant science experts mentoring grade school, middle and high school students in conducting classroom experiments with plants. Organizations with local chapters such as Izaak Walton League work with communities to provide hands-on field explorations for adults and youth. All these educational programs require agency support through funding for staff and materials. ■

aimed to test new methods of engaging 54 priority landowners in a 4,300 acre project area. We initiated outreach to floodplain landowners by hosting a workshop in May 2013 with NRCS and inviting all landowners in the focus area. Nine landowners (of which 4 were priority site landowners) attended and two of these landowners enrolled a total of 175 acres in restoration programs. Letters and flyers were sent to the other landowners in the focus area, with 9 responding. The remaining landowners were contacted by phone, typically requiring 2 to 3 calls before a property visit was scheduled. We successfully engaged 32 landowners to restore 3,537 acres (82% of the focus area). Two key components of our success were dedicated capacity to perform outreach and follow-through with interested landowners and providing restoration program options that meet landowners’ goals, both of which increased enrollment in restoration programs. We also found that targeted outreach to all landowners in a focused area results in greater enrollment in programs compared to targeting individual properties over a larger area and engaging influential/respected landowners early in the process assisted with making connections with their neighbors and other landowners in the area. Our outreach efforts in the Pocomoke River watershed, demonstrate that we can make more progress toward our restoration goals in the Chesapeake and beyond if we invest in on the ground capacity, incorporate landowner goals and interests into developing restoration programs, and strategically identify opportunities. ■ PRESENTATION 1393 Presented during Wetlands and Society I, 5/29/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

ENGAGING PRIVATE LANDOWNERS TO RESTORE WETLANDS - SUCCESSFUL TOOLS AND APPROACHES IN THE POCOMOKE RIVER, MD USA. Jacobs, Amy, The Nature Conservancy Dryden, Michael, The Nature Conservancy

THE USE OF LANDOWNER’S VIEWS AND OPINIONS OF WETLANDS IN PLANNING COMMUNICATION AND OUTREACH EFFORTS Haywood, Brittany, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control Rogerson, Alison, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control Smith, Kenneth, DNREC Dorset, Erin, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC)

Wetland restoration is a conservation practice preferred by many conservation groups and agencies to improve water quality and provide a multitude of other benefits. One of the greatest challenges to accelerating restoration projects is engaging private landowners. For example, as part of the Chesapeake Bay restoration efforts, partners set a goal of restoring 85,000 acres of wetlands by 2025 and as of 2017 have only reached about 10% of this goal. As part of the Pocomoke River Restoration project in Maryland, we

In September of 2017 the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control’s Wetland Monitoring & Assessment Program (WMAP) performed a survey to Delaware landowners to garner baseline data about the public’s understanding of wetlands, their functions, and preferred methods of obtaining new information. The results of the survey were then used to examine and adjust current WMAP wetland outreach efforts and plan for future communications to the general public and target audiences. ■

PRESENTATION 1283 Presented during Advancing Large-Scale Restoration in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, USA, 5/29/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

210 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019


PRESENTATION 1426

PRESENTATION 1498

Presented during Educating current and future wetland scientists I, 5/31/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

Presented during Wetlands and Society I, 5/29/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

REACHING OUT TO IMPROVE EVALUATING THE SUCCESS OF WETLAND COMPENSATORY MITIGATION Granger, Teri, Washington Department of Ecology Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) uses outreach to help inform the development of wetland guidance. Ecology staff will use an interactive workshop on exploring function-based performance standards for wetland compensatory mitigation sites as an example of how outreach helps inform decision-making. They will provide background on the concept of function-based performance standards, a synopsis of the workshop, and a summary of feedback from participants. In current guidance for evaluating the success of wetland compensatory mitigation, Ecology recommends that performance standards be used to measure attributes that indicate that target functions are being performed. However, function-based standards are rarely used. Typical performance standards primarily focus on the cover of woody and invasive vegetation, native species richness, and the presence of wetland hydrology. They are not tied to the performance of functions, rather it is assumed that functions are performed if these standards are met. As part of exploring function-based standards, Ecology led an interactive workshop at the Pacific Northwest regional conference of the Society of Wetland Scientists and the Society of Ecological Restoration in October 2018. Workshop attendees included environmental professionals, staff from agencies, local governments, and conservation districts, and college students.The workshop included a mix of presentation, guided open discussion, and small group exercises. Ecology designed the workshop to introduce participants to examples of function-based performance standards. Participants used the examples to develop success standards for three real-life mitigation projects. Based on the results from the workshop, Ecology will continue to explore function based standards, including collecting input on and testing the practicality of using function-based performance standards. ■

LEVERAGING STUDENTS TO GROW THE WETLANDS OF DISTINCTION PROGRAM Munguia, Steffanie, Florida International University The Wetlands of Distinction program was established in 2013 to promote awareness, appreciation, and knowledge of some of the country’s most ecologically sensitive wetlands. The Wetlands of Distinction website provides practitioners, scientists, and students with high quality information about these diverse wetland sites. Since its creation, the program has sought to increase the number and quality of nominations received. While the wide distribution of academic institutions both domestically and internationally should encourage more geographically diverse nominations, this effect has yet to be demonstrated, with most nominations received from the northeast and Great Lakes regions. Leveraging student talent presents an opportunity to diversify the Wetland of Distinction nominations in terms of geographic location, size, and ecological characteristics. Working individually or collaboratively, students can compile the necessary data, or potentially identify avenues for future research, to complete the nomination process. This process can further facilitate relationship building between the students and faculty of the academic institution and resource managers at these wetland sites. This talk will summarize two examples of student-led nomination initiatives and highlight obstacles and opportunities encountered through this experience. By engaging more students in the Wetlands of Distinction nomination process, more wetlands will garner additional recognition and the Society will further its objectives of supporting student education and research to promote the development of future wetland professionals. ■

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PRESENTATION 1555

PRESENTATION 1588

Presented during Educating current and future wetland scientists II, 5/31/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

Presented during Wetland Policy, 5/31/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

EDUCATING POLICY MAKERS AND PUBLIC OFFICIALS ON THE BENEFITS OF WETLAND CONSERVATION AND RESTORATION: A GRASS-ROOTS APPROACH FOR CONTINENTAL CHANGE Herbert, Ellen, Virginia Institute of Marine Science Moss, Kellis, Ducks Unlimited Ducks Unlimited (DU) conserves, restores and manages wetlands and associated habitats for the benefit of waterfowl, wildlife and people. Since 1937 DU and its sister organizations in Canada and Mexico have conserved 14.5 million acres of habitat and influenced the retention or restoration of an additional 177.5 million acres of habitat through policy measures. Representing the interests of nearly 780,000 members across North America, DU’s volunteers are our voice. DU’s approach to educating policy makers on key issues for wetland and wildlife conservation relies upon educating and mobilizing our members to contact and connect with their local, state, and federal policy makers regarding legislation, regulation, and appropriation of funding to wetland and wildlife programs. As a sciencedriven organization, we work hard to make sure sound science makes its way into good public policy. At the federal level, DU advocates for key conservation legislation, such as the North American Wetlands Conservation Act, and the Conservation Title of the Farm Bill. For example, we have hosted an annual volunteer public policy training and fly-in to Washington DC. During the three-day event, DU volunteers had more than 100 office visits with congressional leaders, including key members of both the House and Senate leadership. While DU equips our volunteers with the latest conservation science and policy analysis, our volunteers bring with them local knowledge and perspective on local priorities. DU works at state and local levels to prioritize conservation funding and promote policies that streamline restoration activities. DU is also working hard to develop tools that easily illustrate the broader impact of conservation programs on a local scale, quantifying conservation outcomes not only for waterfowl, but for ecosystem services provided by habitat, such as water quality and flood abatement. In response to feedback from policy makers, we analyze the economic returns associated with key conservation programs and also build coalitions with other NGOs, for-profit and non-profit entities to make a business case for wetland and waterfowl habitat conservation. ■

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THE MAKING OF ‘SWAMPY’ AND WETLAND AWARENESS OVER 28 YEARS Glade, Kent, Planet SWAMPY Kent Glade, a child of the 70s environmental generation, earned a Bachelors of Science in forestry from the University of Kentucky. After gaining a familiarity with woody plants he became enamored with the plethora of ‘weeds’. He then worked for the Kentucky State coal mining and reclamation regulatory agency for 11 years specializing in permits that involved wetland and stream regulations. He was privileged to lead in the facilitation of permits called experimental practices permits. These permits included wetland creation from abandoned slurry ponds with interagency coordination of the state-federal-industry-academia. Site visits and data analysis in the annual monitoring of: 1) wetland hydrology, 2) hydric soil development, 3) hydrophytic vegetation along a gradient, and 4) wildlife habitat sampling. After these practices, other permit reviewed included constructed wetlands and critical resource habitat analyses. Eventually, the author created, by accident, an eco-friendly wetlands and clean water focus character entitled, ‘Swampy, the Living Wetland’. SWAMPY is also an acronym for: soils, waters, animals, mankind, plants and youth! In Kent’s memories he shares his and Swampy’s adventures in wetland awareness and protection in events as: 1) INTECOL (‘92), 2) Land Reclamation - Pittsburgh (‘94), 3) Wetlands ‘96 & GIS - Washington DC(‘96), 4) Wetlands - Lake Placid (‘02), 5) North American Association Environmental Education - Raleigh (‘11). and 6) ‘8 Weeks to Earth Day’- Lexington (‘18). Kent and Swampy continue their campaign to reinvent wetland awareness from negative stereotypes as being the ‘Rodney Dangerfield of Ecosystems’ and the current slogan of the need to ‘Drain the Swamp.’ Other ventures are in the making to partner with wetlands enthusiasts to motivate K-12 students in STREAM Education and drive Swampy projects that touch, move and inspire inhabitants on a lonely blue planet. ■


Education & Communication: Teaching Wetland Science

PRESENTATION 1316

PRESENTATION 1300

THE ROLE OF INTERNAL CONSULTATION AND EXTERNAL OUTREACH IN MANAGING WETLANDS ON STATE FOREST LANDS IN WASHINGTON Jacobsen, Nicole, WA Department of Natural Resources

Presented during The Wetland Underground: Frank Day’s Contributions to Wetland Ecology, Belowground Ecology, and SWS II, 5/31/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

MEETING THE HUMAN DIVERSITY CHALLENGE IN ECOLOGICAL SCIENCE: A RETROSPECTIVE OF FRANK DAY’S LEGACY AT SWS AND ESA. Carter, Jacoby, US Geological Survey Dr. Frank Day had many accomplishments as an ecologist. However, he made significant contributions to both the Ecological Society of America (ESA) and the Society of Wetland Scientist (SWS) by increasing the diversity of ecologists. As president of the SWS he established the societies first human diversity committee, and developed a program to bring undergraduate students of underrepresented groups to the SWS’s annual meetings. Additionally, by communicating and collaborating with ESA’s Strategies for Ecology Education, Diversity and Sustainability (SEEDS) program, students were able to participate in the annual meetings of both societies, establish mentors, and careers in ecology. Establishing the mentoring program was no easy task and there were significant challenges in recruitment, logistics, and matching students to the appropriate mentors. However, the step learning curve was surmounted and the program has been a success and continues to this day. Dr. Day continued to work with the SWS’s Human Diversity Committee long after he left formal leadership positions in the society, and was the principal investigator on grants to the SWS to sustain the undergraduate-mentoring program for over 10 years. Both the ESA and SWS undergraduate mentoring programs now boast of having mentors that are today established researchers and graduate students, that were once former mentees; and the diversity of working scientists of both the ESA and SWS are notably higher at annual meetings. In 2016 the ESA, in recognition of Frank’s contribution to increasing ecologist diversity, received the ESA’s Human Diversity Award. ■

Presented during Educating current and future wetland scientists II, 5/31/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

Washington State Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) manages working forests on over 2 million acres of trust land. Trust lands are managed to provide sustainable income for beneficiaries through revenue-producing activities including timber harvest. The WDNR State Lands Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) provides longterm habitat conservation for multiple species while also allowing forest management activities to continue. The WDNR HCP and Policy for Sustainable Forests establish a no net loss wetland policy and additional buffer requirements for wetlands and riparian areas on state trust lands. Training agency personnel on identification and management of wetlands and riparian areas requires internal consultation. This presentation will discuss our current project of: 1) migrating introductory training from in-person lectures to an online, on-demand, interactive and immersive format; 2) developing an internal network of region specialists; 3) creating a base layer of spatial information on forest wetland and stream types; and 4) coordinating with external experts to update wetland identification and management pocket guides. As part of the migration to online and immersive learning, initial case study / training sites were identified to highlight concepts best observed in the field. These training sites are virtually explored through the use of ESRI Story Maps and extended reality field visits. The online platform will allow students to upload their own 3D VR photospheres to the classroom for internal specialists to ‘visit’, and answer identification and management questions, thus enhancing our local knowledge spatial layer for wetlands. ■

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PRESENTATION 1423 Presented during The Wetland Underground: Frank Day’s Contributions to Wetland Ecology, Belowground Ecology, and SWS II, 5/31/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

WETLAND EDUCATION AT CHOWAN UNIVERSITY Dilustro, John, Chowan University Dame, James, Chowan University McGuire, Heather, Chowan University Chowan University (CU) is a private, undergraduate liberal arts institution of 1,500 students located in Northeastern North Carolina, an area rich with both an abundance and a diversity of wetlands. The student profile is 75% nonwhite, with many first generation students. The CU Biology Department has integrated wetland science in its biology curriculum, student research and experiential learning. The university offers a Bachelor of Science degree in Biology with an Environmental Biology Track that includes degree coursework stressing the preservation, restoration, and management of wetlands and includes extensive fieldwork in local wetlands. In part to support fieldwork, Chowan University established the Meherrin River Field Site in 2013. The site was established through an agreement with the Town of Murfreesboro, NC that allows the university sole use of the 120-acre site. The site includes riparian cypress-gum forest, bottomland hardwood forest and pine upland forest. Located approximately 1.5 miles from campus, the site allows course projects, student capstone research projects, and long-term monitoring. These studies frequently examine belowground processes. The university also conducts an Ecology Field Camp that meets each spring semester and culminates in one week of extensive field training conducted in the Outer Banks of North Carolina at the Pine Island Nature Sanctuary, which is managed by the National Audubon Society. The course emphasizes the understanding of coastal habitats, including wetland processes and major taxa. CU biology students have also been included in a North Carolina Sea Grant-supported research project addressing the impacts of sea-level rise on Currituck Banks National Estuarine Research Reserve site in Corolla, NC, and the Pine Island Nature Sanctuary. Students have gained experience in mapping wetlands, collecting aboveground and belowground biomass samples, litterbags and establishing feldspar plots for measuring sediment accretion. These student research and experiential learning activities at CU promote a greater student understanding of wetland science. The university serves as an important force in the region educating underrepresented students in wetland science. Frank Day’s enduring legacy as a teacher of wetland science and belowground processes is evidenced at CU and many other undergraduate science programs throughout the country. ■ 214 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

Education & Communication: Wetlands and Society PRESENTATION 1016 Presented during Female Leaders in Wetland Science and Policy II, 5/29/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

TRANSITIONING FROM WASTELANDS TO WETLANDS TO WONDERLANDS Zedler, Joy, University of Wisconsin, Madison Attitudes and words changed over 50 years, as scientists learned about places that are not too wet or too dry, but just right to provide a wealth of useful ecological functions. My 1960s studies of wastelands transitioned from Wisconsin abandoned fields to urbanizing California tidal marshes in the 1970s. Research at Tijuana Estuary (called a swill pit by anti-conservationists) focused on endangered species habitat and justified designating it a National Estuarine Research Reserve. In the 1980s, my Pacific Estuarine Research Lab trained women and men to become guardians of wetlands, and continual testimonies and reviews guided agencies and activists to use solid science, especially how rare species depend on salt marshes. In the 1990s, we pioneered adaptive management at San Diego Bay and adaptive restoration at Tijuana Estuary, using large field experiments to learn how best to restore and sustain wetland area and functions. I helped NRC review (for Congress) wetland restoration, wetland boundaries, and ‘Compensating for Wetland Losses’. In the 2000s, my UW-Arboretum team measured six ecosystem functions in experimental wetlands, and we linked ecosystem services to slightly different hydroperiods. We advised managers to curtail urban runoff (excess water, sediments, nutrients) to minimize invasive weeds that displace native sedge meadows. In 2017, my eBook on Waubesa Wetlands described a multi-functional ‘wonderland’ that must be conserved by restoring wetlands upstream, through watershed approaches. In 1918, Waubesa Wetlands became an SWS Wetland of Distinction. Advice for the future: Ensure that science is used to conserve wetlands - locally to internationally. ■


PRESENTATION 1071

PRESENTATION 1100

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

Presented during Wetlands and Society I, 5/29/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

USE OF DREDGE SEDIMENT TO REBUILD DROWNING COASTAL MARSHES: A PLANT GROWTH EXPERIMENT Ibarra, Camila, Drexel University Use of Dredge Sediment to Rebuild Drowning Coastal Marshes Camila Ibarra1, Elisabeth Powell2, Farzana Rahman2, Brittany Paige Wilburn2, Kirk Raper1, and Elizabeth Watson1 1The Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 2Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281 3University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 4Narragansett Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, Prudence Island, RI 02872 Under increasing pressures of sea level rise, coastal wetlands are flooding and drowning wetland plants, causing marsh edge erosion and expansion of interior ponds. One technique used to extend the lifespan of drowning wetlands is the application of dredge sediment, which can build the elevation of the marsh to combat sea level rise. However, if plants do not recover from the disturbance quickly, this technique might not be appropriate. In New Jersey, application of dredge sediment caused the development of acid sulfate conditions in wetland soils, which has not permitted plant recolonization. Both regulators and coastal managers have questions about whether and how this technique can be most successfully used for climate change adaption. In two separately conducted greenhouse experiments, three wetland plant species (Salicornia pacifica, Spartina alterniflora, and Spartina patens) were grown with tides that simulated life on the marsh. For the first experiment, the species were tested in four different sediment textures including varying raw benthic grain sizes and one quarry fine. In the second experiment, biochar and compost were added to sediments known to develop acid sulfate conditions to see their effect on the growth of Spartina alterniflora. Preliminary analysis of net ecosystem exchange rates indicate that coarse sediments enhance the growth of plants that are less inundation tolerant. We also discovered that although biochar and compost did not significantly affect the growth of the Spartina alterniflora, these amendments did increase respiration through decomposition. These results indicate that coarse sediments without amendments may be the most beneficial for plant growth in TLP projects. ■

SUDD WETLAND AND ITS IMPACT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF SOUTH SUDAN Kansal, Mitthan Lal, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee Richard, Nyombe, IIT Roorkee Wetlands affect the Hydrology, Environment, Life and policy (HELP) of a place. This in turn affect the social, economic and environmental aspects of a country’s development. The Sudd wetland, which is the largest in Africa and the second largest tropical wetland in the world, is unique in its ecological setup and is a big economic asset of South Sudan. It is rich in Biodiversity and the people around are entirely dependent on it for their livelihood. It is felt that if this wetland is managed efficiently, it can cut the country’s cycle of poverty that has become endemic for decades and also will help the country to attain its development goals. This study highlights the characteristics of Sudd wetland and discusses its impact on development of South Sudan. ■

PRESENTATION 1362 Presented during Overview of key global wetland issues - threats, challenges and solutions II, 5/29/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

CITIZEN SCIENCE PARTICIPATION TO BETTER MONITOR AND MANAGE WETLANDS Simpson, Matthew, WWT Consulting Wetland degradation and loss is continuing in many parts of the world. Local stakeholders and communities are often disengaged from the management of wetlands they live next to or downstream from. Engaging with local communities and stakeholders to become more actively involved in wetland monitoring and management can be difficult so is often avoided. However, with the right approach, significant results can be obtained. Citizen science typically refers to research collaborations between scientists and volunteers where the general public are engaged to expand scientific data collection. It has been used to collect a larger data set for specific projects whilst at the same time being used as a public awareness tool to promote particular issues. However, if a programme is designed with a wider set of objectives a citizen science programme can go beyond data collection and public awareness to support local community empowerment to better monitor and manage wetlands. In this circumstance, communities can become more directly engaged with wetland monitoring taking full control of the data management, analysis and communication. This paper examines different citizen science approaches to empower local communities Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 215


and stakeholders to better monitor and manage wetlands. It will consider approaches of mass engagement through social media platforms, the use of online surveys such as the World Wetland Survey to examine wetland status, drivers and trends at a regional level, the use of dedicated apps for wetland site and species monitoring and direct engagement with communities through approaches such as the Community Owned Solutions approach pioneered in the Guiana Shield region of South America. This approach empowers communities to share best practice in how to monitor and manage their natural resources. This type of citizen science approach is fundamentally transdisciplinary and holistic, and has been used by people working in the fields of development, nature conservation, health, natural resource management, social welfare and education. This paper demonstrates the different types of techniques that can be adopted for a wetland citizen science approach through a range of case studies. It will demonstrate that if done well, engaging with communities through a citizen science approach empowers them to counter threats to wetland degradation through appropriate, community led management approaches. ■

PRESENTATION 1522 Presented during Plants, 5/29/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

WETLANDS OF PAKISTAN AND ASSOCIATED ENDANGERED BIODIVERSITY Khalid, Noreen, GC Women University Sialkot Pakistan is home of over 200 different types of wetlands which are of immense importance to the country. However, various factors are putting serious stress to these valuable resources and their conservation is an important need of the time. Hydrology and hydrodynamics are the chief driving forces of the wetlands. Therefore, services and vital functions of wetlands are impacted by any sort of change in these forces associated to human activities. Under a wide range of anthropogenic activities, the wetlands of Pakistan are generally deteriorating. Currently, the main factors that can potentially alter and are causing changes to the natural hydrology of wetlands of Pakistan are diversion of water flows, disruption of natural drainage systems, construction of infrastructure and dams in drainage basins, deforestation, and overgrazing. Additionally, anthropogenic activities are posing a serious threat to associated biodiversity as these wetlands of Pakistan are the habitat of several endangered species of animals and plants, for examples, Indus water dolphin, Sarus crane, threatened marine turtles, endangered marsh crocodiles, mangrove swamps, corals, migratory birds, green turtle, hawksbill turtle, and mangrove species Avicennia marina. The prime objective 216 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

of the presentation is to provide baseline information on distribution, degradation, and management of wetlands of Pakistan with special emphasis on their endangered biodiversity. ■

PRESENTATION 1529 Presented during Wetlands and Society I, 5/29/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

THE ROLE OF INTEGRATED CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS IN INCREASINGLY URBANISED COMMUNITIES: ROLE OF WETLANDS IN TACKLING CLIMATE CHANGE AND EMERGING POLLUTANTS Harrington, Caolan, VESI Environmental Ltd. Carty, Aila, VESI Environmental Ltd. Integrated Constructed Wetlands (ICW) have been an increasingly sought-after approach for tackling a wide range of wastewater types in Ireland. Their efficacy in treating industrial, municipal, agricultural and mining wastes has been examined since 1996. Their ancillary benefits, such as ecological restoration, biodiversity support and public amenities have been implemented in bespoke and unique settings. The challenges facing Ireland in meeting its European Union obligations in regard to the Water Framework Directive (WFD) are placing considerable pressures on councils and state agencies to address these challenges, including surface water quality, flooding and carbon capture. ICW systems have been extensively shown to treat incoming wastewaters to a particularly high standard with low operational costs and reduced capital costs in comparison to conventional systems. Their design is tailored to their specific site location which strives to produce a far great range of ecosystem services than can be achieved with electro-mechanical treatment. As part of their functionality, they also provide flood attenuation and significant carbon sequestration capacities. The presence of so-called ‘emerging pollutants’ such as pharmaceuticals, nano-metals and micro-plastics is part of a new initiative in ICW monitoring in Ireland. A municipal ICW in Co. Waterford, Ireland is currently undergoing monitoring for the capacity of ICW for the removal of such materials in a rural community. This particular ICW has received unparalleled support from the local community, who access the ICW and its accompanying river every day for walks and engagement with the catchment area. Similarly, an international research group is assessing the role of ICW in sub-urban areas of Dublin city, where the role of ICW in relation to flood attenuation, carbon sequestration and societal health (mental & physical) is being examined. This will be run parallel to international constructed wetland and sustainable urban drainage case studies in Denmark, Brazil, Norway, Estonia and South Africa. ■


GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

Global Climate Change: Blue Carbon & Carbon Markets PRESENTATION 1201 Presented during Climate Change Effects on Wetlands and Our Role in Mitigating and Adapting II, 5/29/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

MITIGATING GREENHOUSE GASES THROUGH COASTAL WETLAND CONSERVATION AND RESTORATION: THE SCIENCE AND POLICY OF BLUE CARBON ACCOUNTING Needelman, Brian, University of Maryland The conservation and restoration of coastal wetlands has significant potential for greenhouse gas mitigation through enhanced carbon sequestration and decreased methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Carbon storage and greenhouse gas emissions from coastal wetlands have been described generally as ‘blue carbon’. The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in blue carbon research driven in part by the potential for carbon financing of conservation and restoration projects. This research has been accompanied by the development of new international greenhouse gas accounting methodologies for organizations such as the Verified Carbon Standard that allow projects to generate offset credits for sale in voluntary carbon markets. In this presentation, I will discuss research developments and needs related to carbon sequestration and emissions, methane emissions, and nitrous oxide emissions in marsh, mangrove, and seagrass systems. Topics will include the use and misuse of default values, mineral-protected allochthonous carbon quantification, avoided losses (projects that prevent carbon dioxide emissions), estimation of methane emissions, soil carbon fate following erosion, and determining whether greenhouse gases mitigated through blue carbon projects are ‘additional’ to mitigation rates that would have occurred in the absence of the project. ■ PRESENTATION 1223 Presented during Climate Change Effects on Wetlands and Our Role in Mitigating and Adapting I, 5/29/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

SEA LEVEL RISE, BARRIER ISLAND MIGRATION, AND BACKBARRIER TIDAL MARSH BLUE CARBON Gedan, Keryn, George Washington University Norman, Kathryn, George Washington University Sea level rise is redistributing the sediment of barrier islands, resulting in repeated overwash and rapid landward migration of some islands. Rapid or runaway transgression is reshaping back-barrier and lagoon ecosystems. This study investigated the consequences of barrier island migration for back-barrier blue carbon storage in salt marshes. The Virginia Barrier Islands are relatively pristine with regard to beach nourish-

ment and shoreline management; barrier island migration is unrestricted and occurring at variable rates across the barrier chain. We compared the carbon storage behind a rapidly migrating barrier island, Cedar Island, and an island that is eroding but more geologically stable in position, Parramore Island. Our hypothesis was that barrier island migration would increase the sand inputs to back-barrier marshes and reduce soil organic carbon density, in addition to reductions in back-barrier area. We found that the reduction in soil organic carbon density due to overwash is detectable, but minimal, and dwarfed by the effects of migration. More generally, blue carbon density was positively correlated with elevation in the back-barriers of both islands. Overall, the coastal squeeze resulting from barrier island migration will strongly affect the area of back-barrier habitats and the back-barrier ecosystem service of blue carbon storage. ■ PRESENTATION 1285 Presented during Applying Adaptive Management to Restoration of the Herring River Estuary III, 5/31/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

GREENHOUSE GAS FLUXES AND SALT MARSH RESTORATION IN MASSACHUSETTS Tang, Jim, Marine Biological Laboratory Wang, Faming, Marine Biological Laboratory Kroeger, Kevin, U.S. Geological Survey Eagle Gonneea, Meagan, U.S. Geological Survey Coastal salt marshes play an important role in global and regional carbon cycling. Tidally restricted marshes reduce salinity and provide a habitat suitable for Phragmites invasion. We measured greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2 and CH4) continuously with the eddy covariance method and biweekly with the static chamber method in a Spartina salt marsh and a Phragmites marsh on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA. We did not find significant difference in CO2 fluxes between the two sites, but the CH4 fluxes were much higher in the Phragmites site than the Spartina marsh. Temporally, tidal cycles influence the CO2 and CH4 fluxes in both sites. We found that the salt marsh was a significant carbon sink when CO2 and CH4 fluxes were combined. Restoring tidally restricted marshes will significantly reduce CH4 emissions and provide a strong ecosystem carbon service. ■ PRESENTATION 1319 Presented during Greenhouse Gas & Blue Carbon, 5/29/2019 9:55 AM11:35 AM

A REVIEW OF COASTAL WETLAND CARBON CREDIT MARKET METHODOLOGIES Sapkota, Yadav, Louisiana State University Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 217


White, John, Louisiana State University Coastal wetlands have several economic and ecosystem services including carbon sequestration. However, these systems are threatened mainly due to sea level rise, short sediment supply, edge erosion, and anthropogenic influences. These habitats require restoration to continue their services. The incentive for emission reductions, referred to as carbon credits or carbon offsets, is well established in other ecosystems like forestry and agriculture. Some wetland carbon credit methodologies have been approved by various carbon markets. However, no wetland carbon credits have been transacted to date. Thus, the aim of this talk is to analyze the current carbon market, discuss approved carbon market wetland methodologies, discuss uncertainties associated with monitoring, and provide insights for methodology improvement. There are four approved coastal wetland carbon credit methodologies. Some other methodologies, including the methodologies for forest and peatlands, are also applicable to coastal wetlands. The coastal restoration projects can sequester carbon and in some scenarios may prevent the release of previously stored carbon as Green House Gases (GHGs). Different types of wetland methodologies are essential to realizing the carbon credits in practice with the differences in the geology, geomorphology, tidal range, current and historical land use, and the types of the feasible restoration projects. The goal of this talk is to offer scientific, public and managerial awareness about the types of wetland projects that are currently eligible in carbon markets. This review may be helpful for managers to consider the role of carbon sequestration in their coastal restoration projects across the globe. ■ PRESENTATION 1392 Presented during Sea Level Rise II, 5/30/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

BUILDING A COASTAL CARBON RESEARCH COORDINATION NETWORK: YEAR 1 Holmquist, James, Smithsonian Env Res Center Megonigal, Patrick, Smithsonian Env Research Ctr Klinges, David, Smithsonian Env Res Center The Coastal Carbon Research Coordination Network (CCRCN) is an NSF-community of ecologists, biogeochemists, coastal land managers, policy makers, and others with the shared goal of accelerating the pace of discovery in coastal wetland carbon science by providing access to data, analysis tools, and synthesis opportunities. We are accomplishing this goal by growing iteratively with community feedback, facilitating the sharing of open data and analysis products, offering training in data management and analytics, and leading topical working groups aimed at quantitatively reducing uncertainty in coastal greenhouse gas emissions and storage. We also cu218 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

rate a Data Clearinghouse that offers infrastructure and tools for accessing, visualizing, and summarizing data. After one year our major achievements include the issuing of guidance for soil carbon databasing, the curation and public release of over 1,500 U.S.-based tidal soil carbon profiles, interactive access to hundreds of additional soil profiles worldwide, and our first working group on improved measuring, reporting, modeling, and mapping of soil carbon burial rates and carbon stocks in coastal wetlands. We will report on the current reach of the network and our plans to expand to international audiences in year two. ■ PRESENTATION 1452 Presented during Greenhouse Gas & Blue Carbon, 5/29/2019 9:55 AM11:35 AM

CARBON CYCLING AND TRACE GAS DYNAMICS IN DISTURBED, RESTORED, AND REFERENCE WETLANDS ALONG A SALINITY GRADIENT IN OREGON, USA Bridgham, Scott, University of Oregon Schultz, Matthew, University of Oregon Sadofsky, Emil, University of Oregon Blount, Keyyana, University of Oregon Fitch, Amelia, Dartmouth College The positive climatic benefits of high soil carbon sequestration rates in tidal wetlands may be offset by high trace gas emissions, but this trade-off may be mediated by salinity and land-use history. We examined the interplay among these factors by measuring soil carbon pools, soil carbon sequestration rates, and emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in disturbed (diked or drained), restored, and reference wetlands in 3 freshwater, 5 mesohaline, and 3 saline wetland sites in Coos Bay, Oregon, USA. Large losses of soil carbon occurred after drainage and/or diking over decades in all wetlands along the salinity gradient. Also consistently along the salinity gradient, restored sites had higher sedimentation rates than reference sites, although lower carbon concentrations in sediments in restored sites caused smaller differences in soil carbon sequestration rates. Nitrous emissions were low in all wetlands. Methane emissions were highest in the freshwater restored and references sites but low in the freshwater disturbed site because of a lowered water table due to ongoing drainage. Substantial methane emissions occurred in the mesohaline marshes. The saline marshes had low methane emissions, even in the disturbed site which had become predominantly freshwater because of diking. Overall, our study shows substantial greenhouse gas forcing benefits of restoring saline wetlands but mesohaline and freshwater wetlands show lesser benefits because of the tradeoff between soil carbon sequestration and methane emissions. ■


Global Climate Change: Global Climate Change PRESENTATION 1007 Presented during Global Climate Change, 5/29/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON THE ECOLOGY OF THREE DESIGNATED TROPICAL COASTAL WETLANDS IN INDIA: CHALLENGES IN ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION Krishnapillai, Shadananan Nair, Centre for Earth Research and Environment Management Changing climate and increasing anthropogenic pressure lead to ecological degradation in the designated coastal wetlands Vembanad-Kol (agricultural), Ashtamudi (saline) and Sasthamkotta (freshwater) - of Kerala, India. These wetlands provide livelihood to millions and are rich in biodiversity. Environmental degradation makes the region inhospitable to living organisms and affects livelihood of the wetland dependent communities. The VembanadKol wetland (declared as Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems by FAO for the below sea level farming system) was an excellent natural water purifier and life-supporting system. Encroachment and failure in development projects resulted in the deterioration of water quality of this wetland. Water-borne and vector-borne diseases affect more than half of the population every year. Many species fishes and birds disappeared. Changing climate adds to the anthropogenic pressure. Increasing seasonality and intensity of rainfall leads to large-scale sedimentation in the wetlands. Encroachment and sedimentation has significantly reduced the area of wetlands. Increasing frequency of floods spoils rice cultivation. Salinity intrudes far inside when the monsoons fail. Change in sea level poses a serious threat to the wetlands environment, as height of the land separating the wetlands and the sea is less than one metre. Wetland degradation leads to several socio-economic issues such as increasing rural poverty, food and water crises, migration and conflicts over resources allocation. Sustainable management of the wetlands and strategies for adaptation and mitigation under a changing climate and rising sea level is of utmost importance. Measures for this often fail because of various socio-economic and political reasons. Present study is an assessment of the impact of environmental changes on the ecology of the wetlands. Possible changes in river input into the wetlands under an altered climate in near future have been estimated. Existing policies and strategies have been critically reviewed to suggest guidelines for modification to face the future challenges. ■

PRESENTATION 1030 Presented during Global Climate Change, 5/29/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

ASSESSING MICROBIAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN ALASKAN PERMAFROST McLean, Josette, St. George’s University Drown, Devin, University of Alaska Fairbanks Kholodov, Alexander, University of Alaska Fairbanks Permafrost is perennially frozen ground that has been at or below 0°C for at least two consecutive years. It is mainly found in Arctic and Antarctic regions, and it contains almost half of the world’s soil carbon content. Permafrost is also a naturally occurring reservoir for antibiotic resistant genes. Over the past 30 years, polar temperatures have risen significantly, which has led to rapid permafrost thaw. In turn, this has facilitated the release of methane gas which intensifies the impact of global warming. Additionally, permafrost thaw also exposes antibiotic resistant genes to the environment; which increases the potential for multi-drug resistance; furthermore, according to the World Health Organization, this is one of the leading global threats to human health. As part of a National Science Foundation (NSF) Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) program, we designed this study to examine the presence of both methane producing and antibiotic resistant microbes within permafrost in the Alaskan Arctic. The sites used represented a latitudinal range of permafrost in Alaska: the northernmost point of Barrow, Alaska; the interior of Fairbanks, Alaska and along the Dalton Highway en route from Fairbanks to the north slope of Alaska. At each site, we collected cores using a rotary column coring technique with a core barrel that was 2’ in diameter. To avoid contamination, we used a sterilized 1’ hole saw to obtain subsamples from the central part of the cores. Then we extracted DNA from these subsamples using both the DNeasy Power Soil and Power Max Soil kits (QIAGEN). Finally, we used a MinION machine (Oxford Nanopore) to sequence the DNA. Our results identified a variety of microbes, but the most abundant types were methanogens and methanotrophs, antibiotic resistant microbes and some nitrogen fixing and denitrifying bacteria. However, the presence and abundance of these microbes varied among sites. Our study yields new information on the microbiome of Alaskan Arctic permafrost. This has not been well studied, with respect to methane producing and antibiotic resistant bacteria. Such insights are becoming increasingly important in the face of global warming as they highlight some of the unforeseen implications of climate change. ■

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PRESENTATION 1130 Presented during The Critical Role of Wetlands in International Climate Solutions: Emerging Opportunities I, 5/30/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

WETLANDS, CLIMATE CHANGE AND GLOBAL GOALS AND TREATIES Moomaw, William, Tufts University Multiple types of wetlands provide ecosystem services at various scales. Locally, they capture storm runoff and prevent flooding, provide habitat for multiple terrestrial, aquatic and marine species and moderate regional temperatures. On a global scale, they sequester and continuously remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere thereby slowing global temperature increases, maintain biological diversity, and support marine life and fisheries. In 2015, all members of the United Nations approved a set of 17 goals that are to be achieved by 2030 in order to eventually achieve sustainable development. Wetlands play a central role in three of these Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): Number 13 Climate Action, Number 14 Life on Land and Number 15 Life Under Water. The first target listed under Life on Land highlights freshwater wetlands, but neither these ecosystems nor coastal wetlands nor permafrost regions are mentioned in either of the other two SDGs. The major global agreement that protects wetlands is the Ramsar Treaty whose original purpose was to protect the biodiversity of migratory birds but only recently began considering carbon storage and climate change. Additional treaties that relate to wetlands, but do not have specific sections that address their role include the Convention on Biological Diversity, World Trade Organization, and most development assistance programs. This narrow focus is characteristic of international agreements, and this presentation will suggest ways that wetland scientists can help to rectify this deficiency and improve the coordination among governments to fully meet the full potential of these three Sustainable Development Goals. â&#x2013;

PRESENTATION 1131 Presented during The Critical Role of Wetlands in International Climate Solutions: Emerging Opportunities I, 5/30/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

WHY ONLY FORESTS? WHY NOT WETLANDS TO ADDRESS CLIMATE CHANGE? Moomaw, William, Tufts University In October 2018, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) issued its Global Warming of 1.5- degree C Report. Limiting global average temperature rise to 1.5- degree C is a goal set by the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement. To meet this goal will require simultaneously reducing emissions and increasing removal rates of CO2 from the atmosphere. 220 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

IPCC concludes that CO2 emissions must be lowered by a substantial 45 percent by 2030, achieving zero net emissions by 2050. Black carbon, methane and other greenhouse gas emissions must also be substantially cut. Carbon dioxide removal rates must increase over coming decades and exceed emissions during the second half of the 21st century. The two major removal methods described, bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) and afforestation both involve forests. Wetlands, which hold some 30% of soil carbon globally are mentioned only as a potential source of CO2 and methane as the world warms. Forested wetlands and mangroves may be included in the forest section of the Paris Climate Agreement but are not mentioned specifically. Additional carbon storage that could be achieved especially by coastal saltwater wetlands that have among the highest net primary production of all ecosystems is ignored. There is also a large gap between actual (and uncertain) greenhouse gas emissions and removals by wetlands and forests, and how they are accounted for in the climate treaty and by governments. Only managed ecosystem emissions are considered in national accounts, and a full inventory of the relative size of managed and unmanaged systems does not exist. This presentation will discuss how wetland science and wetland scientists can assist both the climate science community and international climate governance in identifying the contribution of wetlands and forests to addressing the urgent requirement that we reduce both emission and removal rates of greenhouse gases. â&#x2013;

PRESENTATION 1177 Presented during The Critical Role of Wetlands in International Climate Solutions: Emerging Opportunities III, 5/30/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

THE SWS BALTIMORE PROCLAMATION: AN ASSESSMENT OF THE CONSENSUS BUILDING, POLICY AND MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS OF ASPIRATIONAL SOCIETY STATEMENTS Davies, Gillian, BSC Group, Inc. Wetland scientists have an important role to play in addressing multiple global change issues. This presentation will describe the extensive role that members of SWS have had in informing policy makers and the public through aspirational and forward-looking Society declarations signed by individuals at meetings. To this end, the SWS Baltimore Proclamation on the Role of Wetlands in Meeting Global Environmental Challenges utilizes some of the main points discussed in this symposium and builds upon the 2017 SWS San Juan Statement on Climate Change and Wetlands, the 2018 Denver Declaration on the Management and Restoration of Wetlands and the ongoing initiative by a group of SWS scientists to raise awareness of the importance of wetlands in finding cli-


mate and land use change solutions. This initiative has already led to increased public awareness and has pioneered a discipline-specific application of the Alliance for Global Scientists’ Second Warning to Humanity, which now serves as a model for others. At the SWS San Juan and Denver Annual Meetings, the San Juan Statement and Denver Declaration were presented to offer attendees the opportunity to sign on and to create a community-wide statement of intent, with approximately 200 delegates choosing to sign each document. SWS publicized these statements and encouraged members to share them as widely as possible to further the stated policy and management goals. Past examples such as the 2016 Changshu Declaration on Wetlands, signed at the 10th INTECOL International Wetland Conference in Changshu, China, and their effectiveness, will be discussed. In examining past success and limitations, this presentation explores ideas for increasing the impact of such declarations, with Q&A focusing on ideas from the audience. ■

are seeking further collaboration - ideas, individuals, groups, and joint activity to extend these knowledge and education interests. This is what we are informally calling an SWS climate initiative - an opportunity for SWS members and colleagues to contribute to and share the essential knowledge about this insidious threat to our wetland globally. We have the knowledge to provide greater support for science-based contributions to addressing climate change - we are looking for further ways to advance and share this with our peers, our communities, and with policy makers. In this sense the initiative rests with ourselves, and we can make it what we want. Your assistance, advice, participation is welcomed, as part of our roles as knowledge brokers and experts with a particular fascination with wetlands. ■

PRESENTATION 1190 Presented during Climate Change Effects on Wetlands and Our Role in Mitigating and Adapting I, 5/29/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

PRESENTATION 1184 Presented during The Critical Role of Wetlands in International Climate Solutions: Emerging Opportunities III, 5/30/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

AN SWS CLIMATE INITIATIVE? DEVELOPING OUR ROLE IN COLLABORATIVELY GENERATING KNOWLEDGE AND SCIENCEBASED ADVOCACY ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE AND WETLANDS Finlayson, Max, Charles Sturt University The Society of Wetland Scientists has for almost 4 decades provided a forum for presenting and sharing knowledge about wetlands - their ecology and conservation, creation and restoration, policy and management, education and training. As a consequence we have been able to establish a wealth of information and wisdom that extends beyond that contained in the individual talks and posters, or scientific reports and papers that have been produced. This knowledge base is a critical element in our ongoing efforts to assist our communities make the best decisions to manage wetlands, to restore them, and to prevent further loss and degradation. We also recognise that global change is imposing further pressure on wetlands and on our combined efforts to stop and reverse the loss and degradation th at we have witnessed over the same 4 decades, and longer. With this in mind we are seeking further collaboration between SWS members, sections and chapters to address the knowledge and education issues necessary to respond to global processes, in particular to global climate change. We have already started this with special symposia at the annual meetings, statements for signing by individual members, the publication of multi-authored papers on climate change, and a widely read article in The Conversation. We

THE AMPLIFYING INTERACTION OF WARMING AND MANGROVE INVASION FOR BELOWGROUND PRODUCTION Langley, Adam, Villanova University Hayes, Matthew, Villanova University Geoghegan, Emily, Villanova University Hyde, Charles, Villanova University Spanier, Nicole, Villanova University McAndrew, Emmett, Villanova University Chapman, Samantha, Villanova University Climatic warming accelerates sea level and can directly affect microbial processing of organic matter both affecting the relative elevation of coastal wetlands. Warming also drives plant community shifts that may have important consequences, perhaps especially strong in coastal wetlands where different plant species exhibit little functional redundancy owing to low plant community richness. We experimentally warmed plots with and without black mangroves (Avicennia germinans) at three sites along a chronosequence of mangrove migration. After only three months, warming stimulated mangrove stem elongation by an average of 57% across the three sites, indicating that chronic warming, even during the summer season can promote mangrove expansion in marshes. Marsh grasses and succulents did not respond strongly to warming. Preliminary belowground production data indicate that warming has larger effects in mangrove-invaded plots than in marsh control plots. Warming has two important effects that multiply each other with consequences for the key process of belowground organic matter production: warming (1) increases the abundance of mangroves on the landscape scale, and (2) enhances root productivity especially in mangroves. Changing plant Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 221


composition mediates the strongest effects of warming on critical ecosystem processes such as organic matter accumulation in this ecosystem. ■

PRESENTATION 1240

Field germination percentage (range 10 - 24%) was lower than in growth chambers. Our findings show Phragmites has a competitive advantage in the current and future projected climates. Our study can support models to predict wetland restoration outcomes under future climate change scenarios, and improve restoration strategies applied in GSL wetlands by choosing competitive species and a better time to seed. ■

Presented during Global Climate Change, 5/29/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

POTENTIAL CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON NATIVE SEEDS RELATIVE TO INVASIVE PHRAGMITES: IMPLICATIONS FOR GREAT SALT LAKE WETLAND RESTORATION Lobato de Magalhães, Tatiana, Autonomous University of Queretaro Martin, Emily, Utah State University Kettenring, Karin, Utah State University Seed germination response to future climate change scenarios is an essential consideration as higher temperatures will likely affect germination in the field. In the future, wetlands will become drier on average and drought extremes may become common. Great Salt Lake (GSL) wetlands are a critical resource for millions of migratory birds and are threatened by increasing demands on water upstream for development and agriculture, and the proliferation of invasive species as Phragmites that replaces habitat-forming native plants such as bulrushes. Our objective was to evaluate seed germination performance of wetland species under current and future climate scenarios, and to answer three questions: How do bulrush vs. Phragmites germination rates differ? (Experiment 1), How do germination rates differ between bulrush seed sources? (Experiment 2), How does bulrush seed germination vary with differing temperatures and water potentials in the field? (Seeding trial). We evaluated seed germination response of Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus acutus (5 Intermountain West populations in Experiment 2), and S. americanus. Seeds (three replicates of >100 seeds for each treatment) were incubated under current (23/10, 28/14, 33/18° C) and future (33/18, 36/20° C) projected temperature regimes and different water potentials (0, -0.15, -0.3, -0.6, and -1.2 MPa; using polyethylene glycol solutions). We compared germination response under controlled conditions to seeds sown in GSL wetlands. We found that Phragmites germination percentage was not affected by the future projected temperatures, and decreased from -0.6 Mpa. Schoenoplectus acutus germination varied substantially more among the different temperature regimes than Phragmites, and was reduced from -1.2 MPa. The highest temperature was too hot for S. acutus seeds to germinate, but not for S. americanus. Germination lag time was affected more by the water potential change than by temperature for all species. We found no significant differences between S. acutus seeds sourced from the different regions. 222 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

PRESENTATION 1242 Presented during Global Climate Change, 5/29/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

VULNERABILITY AND RESILIENCE OF LAGOS COASTAL COMMUNITIES TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Anwan, Henry Robert, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State, Nigeria Kushoro, Hijrah Yetunde, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State, Nigeria Lagos state is a coastal state located in a low lying area as well as the largest state and financial capital of Nigeria with a teeming population. Lagos has the highest concentration of industries in Nigeria and one of the most urbanized cities in Africa. The state of Lagos faces serious environmental challenges consistent with its physical location and economic stature. With a total landmass of about 3,345 km2, which is just about 0.4% of the total land area of Nigeria, Lagos is the smallest, but the most highly populated state in Nigeria. Lagos with its natural endowments and its industrial and commercial development ranks high as the economic capital of Nigeria. Additionally, Lagos state is covered by creeks, rivers, freshwater and salty mangrove marshlands. The impacts of growth on Lagos has left in its wake many socio-economic and ecological issues resulting in environmental stress and challenges such as water and atmospheric pollution, flooding, limited access to drinkable water, loss of wetlands and expansion of built up areas into ecologically fragile natural habitats and widespread structural collapse of building. Confronting the Lagos area are recurrent ecological issues such as threats of heavy rainfall, flooding, pressures from overcrowding and the continual encroachment of rapid urban development activities into dainty natural areas to the detriment of ecosystem stability. The concept of resilience constitutes part of the stability properties of the ecosystem. With many glowing promises painted about Lagos state over the last decades, this present study examines the vulnerability and resilience of Lagos coastal communities to environmental pollution, explores the capacity of these communities to cope with or adapt to these phenomena. To mitigate the risk of making the coastal communities vulnerable to environmental pollution, there is need for effective planning and education for city managers and developers. ■


PRESENTATION 1266

PRESENTATION 1278

Presented during Global Climate Change, 5/29/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

Presented during The Critical Role of Wetlands in International Climate Solutions: Emerging Opportunities II, 5/30/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

EVALUATING PAST CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON PRAIRIE POTHOLE WETLAND ECOSYSTEMS USING PALEOLIMNOLOGICAL METHODS Hu, Kui, North Dakota State University Sweetman, Jon, North Dakota State University Mushet, David, US Geological Survey Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) are an important freshwater resource, supporting high biodiversity and providing vital ecosystem services for socio-economic development in the Northern Great Plains. The climate in this area is highly variable, with multiyear periods of drought and periods of excess precipitation occurring in the past, which have markedly influenced wetland ecosystems. Yet little is known of how the biotic communities in these wetlands respond to climate variability over these wet/dry periods during recent past (last few centuries). Here combining archived historical datasets (including meteorology, hydrology and water chemistry) and sediments records from wetland P1 and P8, we aim to evaluate the effects of climate change on biological assemblages in prairie pothole wetland ecosystems over the past two century at the Cottonwood Lake Study Area (CLSA), North Dakota. Based on our initial sediment core record from wetland P1, the diatom community shifted from predominately benthic taxa (i.e. Amphora libyra, Cocconeise placentula and Nitzschia amphibia) to a greater abundance of planktonic species (i.e. Cyclotella meneghiniana, Cyclostephenos dubius and Stephanodiscus hanzschii) since ca. 1966, which correspond with the relative wetter hydroperiod in this region and higher water levels. However, during the most recent wet cycle recently from 1993 to present, planktonic taxa decreased, which might be associated with increasing macrophytes at the higher and more stable water levels. Understanding how climate change influences aquatic communities will be important for managing biodiversity and wetland health in these sensitive systems. ■

RAMSAR COP13: SWS SCIENCE SUPPORT OF RAMSAR INITIATIVES Middleton, Beth, U.S. Geological Survey Davidson, Nick, Nick Davidson Enironmental Society of Wetland Scientists is uniquely positioned to provide scientific expertise related to Ramsar’s Scientific and Technical Review Panel (STRP) and other Ramsar initiatives. In particular, the SWS-Ramsar Memorandum of Understanding gives SWS a role in supplying information for Ramsar priorities to address any effects of climate and land-use change on Ramsar protected wetlands. SWS led a side event to provide such information at the Ramsar Conference of the Contracting Parties (COP13) in Dubai UAE in October 2018. Case studies of climate adaptation and resilience show that hydrologic remediation and management can play a role in maximizing carbon and biodiversity conservation in Ramsar wetlands. Freshwater remediation can increase the health of stressed vegetation and increase primary production and soil carbon stocks. As a Ramsar Observer Group, SWS can provide useful information for the conservation of Ramsar designated wetlands in the future. ■

PRESENTATION 1289 Presented during The Critical Role of Wetlands in International Climate Solutions: Emerging Opportunities I, 5/30/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

THE GREENHOUSE GAS FORCING AND BALANCE OF U.S. NATURAL AND RESTORED WETLANDS Bridgham, Scott, University of Oregon Several recent nationwide estimates of carbon stocks and trace gas emissions have been made for wetlands in the conterminous U.S. These include the Second State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR-2): North American Carbon Budget and Implications for the Global Carbon Cycle (2018) and the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment (Nahlik and Fennessy 2016). The Nature Conservancy recently led a collaborative team that has estimated the ability of natural ecosystems, including peatlands and coastal wetlands, to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in the conterminous U.S. (Fargione et al. 2018). I summarize the results of these projects, as well as compare them to other syntheses, to describe the current carbon stocks and GHG emissions from conterminous U.S. wetlands (i.e., the GHG balance) as well as estimates of changes in GHG emissions (i.e., GHG forcing) with resWetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 223


toration in a number of different types of wetlands at a national scale. Results show that U.S. wetlands contain large amounts of soil carbon but also emit significant amounts of methane. Restoration of some wetland types, e.g., peatlands and coastal wetlands, provide large site-based GHG benefits but are relatively small at a national scale. The GHG benefits of restoring other types of wetlands, e.g., some mineral-soil, freshwater wetlands, may be neutral to negative because of their high methane emissions. ■

PRESENTATION 1307 Presented during Climate Change Effects on Wetlands and Our Role in Mitigating and Adapting II, 5/29/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS TO COASTAL WETLANDS ALONG THE GULF OF MEXICO Osland, Michael, U.S. Geological Survey The Gulf of Mexico’s low-lying coasts support some of the most extensive and visually striking coastal wetlands in the world. The region’s salt marshes, mangrove forests, and salt flats provide critical fish and wildlife habitat and support many societal benefits, including protection of human communities from storms and maintenance of productive coastal fisheries. However, due to climate change and rising sea levels, the coastal wetlands present today are expected to be much different by the end of the century. Here I present results regarding some of the changes that are expected, with an emphasis on the role of warming winter temperature extremes, rising sea levels, and changing precipitation regimes. All three of these factors govern the region’s coastal wetlands in nonlinear ways and are expected to produce abrupt landscape-scale ecological transformations (i.e., ecological regime shifts), where critical ecological thresholds are crossed. Warming winter temperatures are expected to allow mangrove forests to expand northward at the expense of salt marshes. Rising sea levels are expected to allow salt-tolerant species to move upslope and upriver at the expense of salt-sensitive species. In certain areas, drought and warming temperatures are expected to produce hypersaline conditions, which can lead to vegetation dieback and salt flat formation. And to add complexity, these three factors will interact with each other as well as with other aspects of global change, including anthropogenic constraints to ecosystem migration. To protect the societal benefits provided by coastal wetlands, there is pressing need for strategic conservation and restoration activities that can help these valuable ecosystems adapt to future change. ■

224 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

PRESENTATION 1341 Presented during The Critical Role of Wetlands in International Climate Solutions: Emerging Opportunities I, 5/30/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

FRESHWATER WETLANDS A SINK OR SOURCE OF CARBON ON THE LANDSCAPE? Richardson, Curtis, Duke University The impact of wetlands on climate change and carbon cycling were ignored for decades due to fact that they cover such a small percentage of the planet’s surface area and productivity in the vast areas of northern peatlands is so low. However, a seminal paper by Gorham 1991 pointed out that despite covering just a small portion of the Earth’s land surface (roughly 3%), peat-soil wetlands contain roughly one-third of the world’s soil carbon. Like many wetland ecologists motivated to understand biosphere carbon cycling in the context of climate change mitigation, Whiting & Chanton 1993 provided the first synthesis of wetland methane emission and carbon storage data and framed it in terms of the net radiative effect of wetlands (‘carbon balance’). Following a similar theoretical framework Bridgham’s et al 2006 reviewed and analyzed all available North American carbon flux data, producing a synthetic carbon balance estimate for the continent’s wetlands. Neubauer & Megonigal 2015 introduced the term ‘sustained global warming potential’ to better quantify the warming or cooling influence of wetlands, which are continuously emitting and/or sequestering carbon over centuries and millennia. This was an important improvement over the ‘global warming potential’ concept used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which was designed to describe instantaneous anthropogenic emissions pulses This paper will review key new studies and present the fundamental processes that determine which freshwater wetlands have the potential to be carbon sinks versus sources as well as provide several nature-based research studies where wetland restoration has resulted in a significant net carbon balance. ■


PRESENTATION 1519

PRESENTATION 1525

Presented during Ecosystem Services and Monitoring Assessments, 5/30/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

Presented during Coastal peatlands in a changing world III, 5/31/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

COMBINING CITIZEN SCIENCE AND ISOTOPE HYDROLOGY TO IDENTIFY ARID LAND WETLAND CLIMATE REFUGIA Davis, Jenny, Charles Darwin University Munksgaard, Niles, Charles Darwin University Hodgetts, Jon, Territory NRM

HOLOCENE HYDROCLIMATE VARIABILITY IMPACTS ON VEGETATION AND CARBON DYNAMICS IN THE GREAT DISMAL SWAMP, SOUTHEASTERN VIRGINIA, USA Jones, Miriam, USGS Willard, Debra, US Geological Survey Hoefke, Kristen, US Geological Survey Wurster, Frederic C., U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Balentine, Karen, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Garner, Morgan, Georgia State University

Both groundwater and surface water-dominated wetlands play important roles as biodiversity hotspots and aquatic refugia in arid lands. However, it is groundwaterdominated systems that are likely to be most important for the persistence of biodiversity under future warming and drying climate scenarios, because they are not dependent on local rainfall. We combined the people power of citizen science with the application of isotope hydrology to determine the relative importance of groundwaters and surface waters in sustaining wetlands across the arid lands of central Australia. We provided participants with a wetland water sampling pack (containing instructions, vials and labels). Sampling involved the collection of 50 mls of water and accurate recording of the date and location of the site. Samples were analysed at Charles Darwin University for electrical conductivity (EC) and isotopic composition (δ18O & δ2H) using IRIS (isotope ratio infrared spectrometry). Over 207 water samples were collected spanning an area of >250,000 square kilometres in central Australia. Many samples were collected from remote and difficult to access locations by tourists and hikers. It is unlikely that so many samples could have been collected across such a large area without the help of citizen scientists. The isotopic information enabled us to identify where the most perennial (groundwater-dominated) wetlands are located in central Australia. These are the waterbodies that are likely to contain water through the most severe of droughts. They will provide refugia for aquatic species and for terrestrial wildlife (mammals and birds) that require water for drinking and cooling. ■

The Great Dismal Swamp (GDS) in southeastern Virginia and northeastern North Carolina (USA) consists of more than 100,000 acres of temperate forested peat swamp that has been diminished in size and function since intensive efforts to drain and log the area began in the 18th century, which altered wetland hydrology, native vegetation, fire regimes, and resulted in peat compaction. We present new records of pollen, plant macrofossil, macroscopic charcoal, and carbon accumulation rates from three sites in GDS to examine the role of changing hydroclimate, vegetation, and fires on carbon accumulation rates. Preliminary results show that while wetland sediments began accumulating as early as 14,000 years ago, peat began accumulating ~10,000 years ago in locations closest to drainages and spread across the landscape in the mid-Holocene. In all cores analyzed, peat initiation coincided with marsh vegetation and resulted in an increased rate of carbon accumulation, despite a higher frequency of fires than at any other period of the record. Evidence for diminishing fires at the two southernmost sites ~4000 years ago coincides with a transition of marsh-dominance to forested swamp, likely driven by a moister climate and a stabilization of the water table position. Carbon accumulation rates increased from 4-3,000 years ago, before abruptly declining after 2,700 years ago, and remained low until present day. Questions remain about whether decades of artificially lowering the water table resulted in aerobic peat decomposition that resulted in the drastic decline in carbon accumulation rates of older peats, or if a shift in late Holocene hydroclimate can explain the decrease in carbon accumulation rate. ■

Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 225


PRESENTATION 1531

PRESENTATION 1557

Presented during Climate Change Effects on Wetlands and Our Role in Mitigating and Adapting I, 5/29/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

Presented during Sea Level Rise I, 5/29/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF CLIMATE-DRIVEN CHANGES IN PRECIPITATION ON INUNDATION AND WATER QUALITY PROCESSES IN FLOODPLAINS Noe, Gregory, U.S. Geological Survey Floro, Kelly, U.S. Geological Survey Hupp, Cliff, U.S. Geological Survey Schenk, Edward, National Park Service Climate change is projected to alter future patterns of the frequency and intensity of large precipitation events and flooding, although local predictions are uncertain. These changes in flooding are likely to alter the hydrologic connectivity of floodplains to rivers and inundation patterns within floodplains, leading to changes in the associated ecosystem services. We are evaluating the potential effects of altered precipitation on floodplain inundation across the US mid-Atlantic in order to relate those changes to sediment and nutrient retention by floodplains. We surveyed 34 USGS stream gages and the adjacent active floodplain in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, choosing gages that reflecting the diversity of geology and land use of the region. We then compared historic stream stage data to the topography of the adjacent floodplain and calculated the average percent of time the floodplain was inundated (hydroperiod). Next, we built a quantitative relationship between the hydroperiod and long-term sediment and associated particulate N and P trapping by floodplains (measured using dendrogeomorphology). Finally, we evaluated a range of scenarios of altered flood intensity (due to climatedriven precipitation changes) and their likely impacts on water quality using the statistical function of hydroperiodto-trapping. On average, floodplains were inundated 3% of the time over their historic record of stream stage. Floodplains located in the Coastal Plain were inundated much more often (8% of the time) than those located in either the Piedmont or Valley and Ridge (both <1% of the time). Floodplain hydroperiod was positively correlated with floodplain sediment trapping flux (Spearman correlation, rho=0.351, P=0.042), indicating that longer flooding increases the opportunity for the floodplain to retain more sediment. This statistical relationship will next be used to evaluate how climate-driven changes in precipitation could affect the water quality functions of floodplains. â&#x2013;

226 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

ASSESSING THE RELATIVE VULNERABILITIES OF MIDATLANTIC FRESHWATER WETLANDS TO PROJECTED HYDROLOGIC CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH CLIMATE CHANGE Wardrop, Denice, Penn State University Nassry, Michael, Penn State Hamilton, Anna, Tetra Tech West, Jordan, EPA Britson, Aliana, Penn State University Wetlands are known to provide a myriad of vital ecosystem functions and services, which may be under threat from a changing climate. However, these effects may not be homogenous across ecosystem functions, wetland types, ecoregions, or meso-scale watersheds, making broad application of the same management techniques inappropriate. In order to address this gap, we present a recently-published relative wetland vulnerabilities framework, applicable across a range of spatial and temporal scales, to assist in identifying effective and robust management strategies in light of climate change. Utilizing an approach to global hazards analysis, we deconstruct vulnerability into dimensions of exposure and sensitivity/adaptive capacity, and identify relevant measures of these as they pertain to wetland extent and plant community composition. As a test of the framework, we populate it with data for three primary hydrogeomorphic wetland types (riverine, slope, and depression) in seven small watersheds across four ecoregions (Ridge and Valley, Piedmont, Unglaciated Plateau, and Glaciated Plateau) in the Susquehanna River watershed in Pennsylvania. We use data generated from the SRES A2 emissions experiment and MRI-CGCM2.3.2 climate model as input to the Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model to simulate future exposure to altered hydrologic conditions in our seven watersheds, as expressed in two hydrologic metrics: % time groundwater levels occur in the upper 30 cm (rooting zone) during the growing season, and median difference between spring and summer mean water levels. We then examine the spatial and temporal scales at which each of the components of vulnerability (exposure and sensitivity/adaptive capacity) shows significant relative differences. Overall, we find that relative differences in exposure persist at a very fine spatial grain. For temporal scale, we find strong seasonal but weak annual relative differences in exposure resulting from a magnification of summer dry-down combined with winter and spring wet periods becoming wetter. Sensitivities/adaptive capacities show significant differences among wetland types. A comparison between our anticipated hydrologic alterations under climate change and historical changes in hydrology due to anthropogenic disturbance indicates potential shifts in hydrologic patterns that are far beyond anything that wetland managers have experienced in the past. â&#x2013;


PRESENTATION 1595 Presented during Coastal peatlands in a changing world II, 5/31/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGICAL RISK EVALUATION OF HEAVY METALS IN SURFACE SEDIMENTS FROM DAFENG COASTAL WETLANDS IN YANCHENG, JIANGSU, CHINA. Yuan, Hongming, QIMG, CGS Guangming, Zhao, Xue, Li, Ye, Siyuan, QIMG, CGS Known as the Oriental Wetland City, Yancheng City has the largest coastal wetlands in the Asia covering an area of more than 45,000 km2, accounting for one seventh of the total area of the whole coastal China. It is also an important overwintering site for the endangered species redcrowned crane in China and has been listed in the world key wetland list in 2002.Dafeng coastal wetlands is one of important parts of Yancheng wetlands. The regional distribution characteristics of seven heavy metals contents in the surface sediments of Dafeng coastal wetlands are seriously studied. The results show that the mean values of Hg, Cd, As, Cu, Pb, Cr and Zn in the surface sediments were 0.05, 0.25, 7.21, 25.5, 20.3, 67.79 and 68.09 mg/kg respectively, and the mean values of the tidal flat wetlands were higher than those in man-made wetlands. The site JST-02 of the tidal flat wetland near the Dafeng Port has the highest content of heavy metals, showing a pollution pattern by a single point source. The regional distribution of heavy metals is positively correlated with particle size, suggesting that the clay content plays a controlling role on the enrichment and distribution of heavy metals. The average values of single factor pollution indices show an ordered pattern from high to low in the surface sediments of the study area as Cd > Cr > Cu > Zn > Pb > As > Hg, and the maximum value of Cd, the main pollution element of the study area is as high as 1.57. The comprehensive potential ecological risk index(RI) varies between 15.70 and 184.91, with a mean of 27.41, in an order of Hg > Cd > as > Cu > Pb > Cr > Zn, which is higher than that of man-made wetland. Hg and Cd are the main potential ecological risk factors. Our data further suggests that though the whole region has lower potential ecological risk indices and remains under the level of environmental pollution, the concentration of single pollutant maybe too high already in some the local areas. Comparing with the similar research of 2005, the contents of Hg, Cd, As, and Cr are much lower than those of 2005, Pb and Cu keep same level with 2005, while the content of Zn raise a little higher than that of 2005. Furthermore the RI reduced from 297.7 to 184.9. It shows that

although more and more human activities affect the coastal wetlands through these years, the pollution level of heavy metals in Dafeng coastal wetland is getting better by local government’s policy and treatments. ■

PRESENTATION 1596 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

WARMING EFFECT OF AN OPEN TOP CHAMBER AND ITS SHORT-TERM INFLUENCE ON A PHRAGMITES WETLAND ECOSYSTEM Yu, Xueyang, Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology Ye, Siyuan, QIMG, CGS Lei, Guo, Yuan, Hongming, QIMG, CGS Kauss, Ken, Brix, Hans, Open-top chamber (OTC) is a widely applied passive warming method in the research of field in-situ experiment, considering the study of global climate change. A model of OTC warming instance was conducted in a Phragmites wetland located at the Yellow River delta of Dongying city, China. With continuous climate data collection, the attributes and patterns of the chamber’s warming effects are demonstrated. Combined with in-situ plant observation, we also quantified the influence of chamber warming to plant properties, which could provide clues on future study of how wetland ecosystem responds to future climate change. According to our results, our design of OTC averagely increases air temperature by 0.8°C during the growing season of 2018, surface soil temperature is increased by 0.54°C. The soil was warmed by 0.46°C. The warming effects highly depends on heat sources of incoming radiation in daytime and outcoming soil heat in nighttime. The instant warming effects of air temperature ranges from -2.5 to 8.3 °C due to various meteorological conditions. Nighttime temperature depression events are regulaly observed, and the environmental factors indicates that the cooling effects was due to the low turbulence inside warming chambers and the surface soil-atmosphere heat transfer. Besides, warming resulted in soil dehydration. Significant short-term response of plant were detected including the shoot density change, height change, stem diameter change. Due to the experimental warming, plant shoot density decreased by 23%, plant height increased by 4.5%, and plant stem diameter increased by 6.2%. Plant biomass was estimated to be decreased by 31.6%, which was related to the changes in individual plant traits and community changes such as pests damage and reed lodging within the warming chambers. ■ Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 227


Global Climate Change: Greenhouse Gas Processes PRESENTATION 1193

In addition to the water depth, the increased water temperature had also significant effect to the GHG emissions and the combination of low water table and high temperature resulted highest CH4 and N2O emissions. ■

Presented during Greenhouse Gas & Blue Carbon, 5/29/2019 9:55 AM11:35 AM

NITROUS OXIDE AND METHANE EMISSIONS FROM SURFACE FLOW CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TREATING DIFFUSE AGRICULTURAL POLLUTION Kill, Keit, University of Tartu Kasak, Kuno, University of California Pärn, Jaan, University of Tartu Mander, Ülo, University of Tartu Diffuse agricultural pollution can affect our surrounding water bodies and trigger eutrophication due to the increased concentration of nutrients. One of the best measures to reduce diffuse pollution is constructed wetland (CW). While water treatment efficiency of the CW is widely studied, less is known about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions emitted from different parts of the wetland and how to design effective treatment systems with minimized GHG fluxes. We measured nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions from Vända CW in southern Estonia. Vända in-stream surface flow CW consists of two shallow water wetlands with varying water depths and planted with cattail (Typha latifolia) and common reed (Phragmites australis). Gas samples were collected biweekly since May through November 2018 from 12 sampling points (total of 24 chambers) in each wetland. At each sampling point, N2O and CH4 emissions were measured from water surface using closed floating chambers. In addition to gas samples, water temperature, O2 concentration, redox potential and electrical conductivity was analysed on site and nutrient concentration were analysed biweekly from the inlet and outlet of the both wetlands. Average water depth in the CW varied between 5 and 65 cm. Our results showed significant negative correlation (p<0.05) between the emissions of N2O, CH4 and water depth (rs=-0.69, rs=-0.30, respectively). Highest CH4 and N2O emissions occurred from the shallowest parts of CW that were especially high during summer period. In the outflow area of the first CW, the average water depth during the study period was 5 cm and average N2O emission was 780.06 µg N m-2 h-1, however average N2O emission from deeper parts of the CW was 59.24 µg N m-2 h-1. CH4 emissions from the CW were also dependent on the water depth, and highest emissions occurred from the shallow parts, being up to 474.34 µg C m-2 h-1, while the average CH4 emissions in deeper parts of the wetland was 145.09 µg C m-2 h-1. 228 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

PRESENTATION 1385 Presented during Greenhouse Gas & Blue Carbon, 5/29/2019 9:55 AM11:35 AM

USING AUTOMATED MEASUREMENTS TO UNDERSTAND BIOPHYSICAL CONTROLS ON SOIL CO2 EFFLUX IN A TIDAL SALT MARSH Capooci, Margaret, University of Delaware Vargas, Rodrigo, University of Delaware Large amounts of carbon are sequestered in tidal salt marshes, potentially playing a role in mitigating global CO2 emissions. In addition to understanding the ability of tidal salt marshes to sequester carbon, it is also important to understand soil CO2 efflux to better understand the source/sink capability of marshes. Thus, we installed automated chambers to continuously measure soil CO2 efflux in St. Jones Reserve (SJR), a subsection of the Delaware National Estuarine Research Reserve (DNERR). SJR is a heavily-instrumented, representative, tidal salt marsh in the Mid-Atlantic region. The chambers were placed in two different areas of the marsh: one dominated by Spartina cynosuroides and the other by Spartina alterniflora. By combining multiple long-term data sets on water quality and meteorology (collected by the DNERR) with our long-term data sets (including soil water level and soil temperature), we investigated the patterns and the potential biophysical drivers of the CO2 efflux at each location. With nearly 2 years of data, we found that the traditional controls on soil respiration in terrestrial ecosystems (i.e., soil moisture and temperature) are not the dominant factors regulating CO2 efflux. We present models to best describe the biophysical drivers of soil CO2 efflux in this tidal salt marsh. The model can be used to better parameterize soil CO2 efflux and challenges assumptions for terrestrial soil CO2 efflux modeling. Long-term monitoring of soil CO2 effluxes has implications for policy and management decisions, by enabling us to ascertain under which environmental conditions soil CO2 effluxes increase or decrease. ■


PRESENTATION 1412 Presented during Greenhouse Gas & Blue Carbon, 5/29/2019 9:55 AM11:35 AM

SPATIALLY-EXPLICIT MODEL OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM PRAIRIE POTHOLE WETLANDS Bansal, Sheel, U.S. Geological Survey Fern, Rachel, U.S. Geological Survey Post van der Burg, Max, U.S. Geological Survey McKenna, Owen, United States Geological Survey Almost half of all biogenically-produced methane emitted to the atmosphere is emitted by small lakes and wetlands. The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of central North America contains 5-8 million wetlands, which can influence continental and global methane budgets. However, there is considerable uncertainty of current and future emissions of methane from PPR wetlands due to a lack of landscapescale models based on robust, empirical data. We used a bottom-up approach to develop a spatially-explicit, temporally-dynamic model of wetland methane emissions from PPR wetlands. Using a dataset of >20,000 static-chamber flux measurements, we developed a chamber-based model of methane flux and then upscaled to the landscape using GIS and remotely sensed proxies. Covariates in the chamber-based model included water-filled pore space, soil temperature, wetland size, land cover, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Proxies for upscaling included the Dynamic Surface Water Extent (DSWE) based on Landsat, Parameter elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM), and the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD). Total emissions from the PPR ranged from 0.1 to 1 Tg CH4 per year during historic dry and wet years. Future warm (RCP 8.5) and wet climate scenarios indicate methane emissions from the PPR could increase significantly. ■

Global Climate Change: Sea-Level Rise PRESENTATION 1400 Presented during Sea Level Rise I, 5/29/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

COASTAL WETLAND HABITAT RESPONSES TO SALTWATER INTRUSION AND INCREASED FLOODING IN DELAWARE Dorset, Erin, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC) Rogerson, Alison, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control Smith, Kenneth, DNREC Haywood, Brittany, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control Sea level rise and intense storm events are major catalysts for change in coastal wetlands by increasing flooding frequency and duration and the occurrence of saltwater intrusion. Such processes can convert freshwater forested wetland to high marsh, high marsh to low marsh, and low marsh to subtidal habitat in a stepwise fashion over time, as has been documented in some states along the east coast. This observational study was designed to determine if coastal wetlands in Delaware are responding in this stepwise fashion or if transition states are being by-passed, as well as to describe the role of invasive species, such as Phragmites australis, in habitat responses. Old and current state wetland maps and aerial imagery, as well as DNREC’s marsh migration model, were used to carefully select 15 field sites that are likely experiencing increased flooding and saltwater intrusion. At each site, we visited 4 points that were placed along a habitat gradient from estuarine marsh to freshwater forested wetland. We collected data on salinity, soils, standing dead trees, and various aspects of living plant communities at each point. Overall, we found that coastal wetlands in Delaware are responding in a stepwise fashion, where trees and shrubs along forest edges are dying and marshes are advancing further inland to take their place. P. australis, rather than any native high marsh species, was commonly found in the current high marsh zones where trees had died. Results from this study confirm that marshes are capable of migrating inland as sea levels rise in Delaware, meaning that coastal marshes will likely still be able to provide many beneficial functions in the future. However, the prevalence of P. australis may affect how marshes function in terms of accretion and resiliency, quality of wildlife habitat, and abundance of native high marsh plant species. ■

Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 229


PRESENTATION 1402

PRESENTATION 1406

Presented during Sea Level Rise I, 5/29/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

Presented during Wetland Restoration and Creation Using Fine-Grained Dredged Sediments II, 5/29/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

A SUITABILITY ANALYSIS FOR TIDAL WETLAND MIGRATION IN DELAWARE. Rogerson, Alison, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control Dorset, Erin, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC) St. Laurent, Kari, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control Due to their location on the coastal landscape, tidal wetlands are susceptible to sea level rise (SLR). In Delaware, estuarine vegetated wetlands have been lost mostly due to open water conversion. It is important to understand which areas of the state may be suitable for future marsh migration in order to determine management practices to prevent a net loss in tidal wetlands. This study aimed to inform state land management by conducting a suitability analysis on land in Delaware that may have the potential for future marsh migration under SLR. This was achieved through a simplistic model in ArcGIS combining the Delaware 4 ft SLR future scenarios, soil type, slope, land use/land cover (LULC), and distance to current tidal wetlands. The model excluded areas of impervious surface, open water, and the current extent of tidal wetlands. The result is a layer showing the possible suitability of land for future marsh migration. It was beyond the scope of this study to predict the extent of tidal wetlands in any time frame, and the results of this study should not be interpreted as such. The final layer includes five categories: areas receiving a score of zero are unsuitable for marsh migration, scores between one and three are unlikely suitable for migration, 4-6 are moderately suitable, 7-9 are suitable, and 10-12 are highly suitable. The 4 ft SLR marsh migration results were analyzed for intersection with protected (publicly owned) and unprotected (privately owned) lands as well as LULC. The results of the 4 ft SLR migration model indicate that 26,391 acres are highly suitable for migration, a majority of which are on privately owned, unprotected lands (60%). More than 43% of the highly suitable areas are currently non-tidal wetlands and almost 34% are currently agricultural lands. â&#x2013;

230 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

THIN-LAYER SEDIMENT PLACEMENT: EVALUATING AN ADAPTATION STRATEGY TO ENHANCE COASTAL MARSH RESILIENCE ACROSS THE NERRS. Lerberg, Scott, Chesapeake Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve of Virginia Raposa, Kenneth, Narragansett Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve West, Jennifer, Narragansett Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Wasson, Kerstin, Elkhorn Slough National Estuarine Research Reserve Woolfolk, Andrea, Elkhorn Slough National Estuarine Research Reserve Endris, Charlie, Elkhorn Slough National Estuarine Research Reserve Tidal marshes provide key ecosystem services-and they are increasingly threatened by sea level rise. Narragansett Bay and Elkhorn Slough National Estuarine Research Reserves recently led the first national assessment of tidal marsh resilience to sea level rise by developing and applying multimetric indices to 16 reserve sites. Now the group is moving beyond marsh resilience monitoring and assessment efforts to actively test strategies to enhance resilience. Beneficial use of dredged sediment to enhance coastal resilience is already being applied in many coastal states. At project conception, the team interviewed and surveyed end users involved in the funding, permitting, implementation, and monitoring of thinlayer sediment placement projects. This project is addressing the needs end users identified and should be broadly relevant to other organizations interested in thin-layer sediment placement as a tool for marsh restoration. Through this project, replicated restoration experiments are being conducted at several reserve sites across the nation, with the purpose of examining the effectiveness of thin-layer sediment placement as a marsh adaptation strategy. Novel aspects of the field portion of this project include the broad distribution of sites, the examination of the effectiveness of thin-layer sediment placement at different marsh elevations, use of a standardized monitoring protocol across sites, and the incorporation of biochar. As this project is currently ongoing, this presentation will focus more on the experimental design and unique monitoring approaches from our field efforts but will also highlight some early results from across the suite of sites in the study. Additional outputs from this project which will be discussed include the development of a vetted monitoring protocol to assess restoration success after thin-layer sediment placement, a synopsis of associated permitting issues, a consensus statement on thin layer soil placement as a coastal resilience strategy, and technical reports summarizing field efforts as well as results from complementary greenhouse experiments. â&#x2013;


PRESENTATION 1417

PRESENTATION 1425

Presented during Sea Level Rise II, 5/30/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

Presented during Climate Change Effects on Wetlands and Our Role in Mitigating and Adapting I, 5/29/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

BLACKWATER NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SHORTER’S WHARF THIN LAYERING TIDAL MARSH RESTORATION PROJECT McCullough, Albert, Sustainable Science LLC Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), located 12 miles south of Cambridge, Maryland, protects over 29,000 acres of tidal marsh, mixed hardwoods and loblolly pine forests, freshwater wetlands, and croplands. Approximately 5,028 acres of tidal marsh have converted to open water on Blackwater NWR (BNWR) since 1938. Coastal marshes survive relative sea level rise only if the surface of the marsh can build vertically at a rate sufficient to keep pace with rising water level. Much of the marsh along the Blackwater River appears to currently have a surface elevation below ideal tidal range growing conditions. The BNWR Shorter’s Wharf restoration site (BNWRSWRS)was dominated by monotypic stands of threesquare (Schoenoplectus americanus) with areas of smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) frequently having areas with saltmeadow cordgrass (S. patens) as a minor constituent. Tide range at the project site is approzimately 25 cm with winds and precipitation events greatly influencing water levels. The project purpose is to increase the resiliency of approximately 40 acres of tidal marsh within BNWRSWRS through thin-layer sediment application using material dredged from the adjacent Blackwater River. Root zone production is the main driver of vertical accretion rates hence building the marsh platform to an elevation that maximizes plant productivity will take full advantage of the capacity of the marsh to continue to build future elevation. The presentation will discuss the design approach and geotechnical & survey methods to achieve the project purpose as well as project regulatory aspects. Dredging operations to thin layer place nearly 26,000 cubic yards commenced on November 1st, 2016 and finished on December 21st, 2016. Target elevations (15 cm to 35 cm NAVD 88) were achieved in 78% of the surveyed 32.5 acre placement area. Planting of 250,000 salt marsh plugs was executed in the summer of 2017 with subsequent project monitoring for geotechnical predictions and vegetative success. The project results and lessons learned will also be presented. ■

U.S. PACIFIC COASTAL WETLAND RESILIENCE AND VULNERABILITY TO SEA-LEVEL RISE Thorne, Karen, USGS Guntenspergen, Glenn, USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center Buffington, Kevin, USGS Freeman, Chase, USGS Janousek, Christopher, Oregon State University : Sea-level rise (SLR) has a major effect on wetland accretion processes and is largely under studied throughout most of the Pacific coast of the United States especially for isolated fragmented wetlands. We used a comprehensive scenario modeling approach with data from field surveys and experiments to parametrize the model to evaluate both the vertical and horizontal response of tidal wetlands to projected wetland changes with SLR across 14 estuaries along the Pacific coast. Throughout the U.S. Pacific region, we found that tidal wetlands are highly vulnerable to endof-century submergence, with resulting extensive loss of habitat. Using higher-range SLR scenarios, all high and middle marsh habitats were lost, with 83% of current tidal wetlands transitioning to unvegetated habitats by 2110. The wetland area lost was greater in California and Oregon (100%) but still severe in Washington, with 68% submerged by the end of the century. The only wetland habitat remaining at the end of the century was low marsh under higher- range SLR rates. Tidal wetland loss was also likely under more conservative SLR scenarios, including loss of 95% of high marsh and 60% of middle marsh habitats by the end of the century. We found horizontal migration of most wetlands was constrained by coastal development or steep topography, with just two wetland sites having sufficient upland space for migration and the possibility for nearly 1:1 replacement, making SLR threats particularly high in this region and generally undocumented. ■

Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 231


PRESENTATION 1449

PRESENTATION 1459

Presented during Sea Level Rise I, 5/29/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

TIDAL MARSH VULNERABILITY TO RISING SEA LEVEL ALONG THE SOUTHERN COAST OF NORTH CAROLINA: A 30-YEAR RECORD OF CHANGE Solohin, Elena, Indiana University Hwang, Taehee, Indiana University Craft, Christopher, Indiana University Tidal marshes are increasingly threatened by global climate change and anthropogenic activities. Future rates of sea level rise (SLR) and altered sediment supply due to land use change may impact wetland’s ability to keep pace with rising seas in the future. We used a combination of in-situ biomass measurements, and remote sensing techniques to estimate how tidal marsh biomass health and resilience has changed over time in a Southeast estuary of Cape Fear River, North Carolina. Aboveground biomass and marsh elevation were measured at 10 sites across the estuary. We established a relationship between in-situ biophysical variables and biomass estimates, derived from remote sensing data. The derived relationship was then calibrated and validated using field measurements for spatio-temporal adjustments and biases. In addition, the study created a time series analysis of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and then correlated it to climate variables of temperature and precipitation, temperature-seasonality, as well as historical sea-level data, and sediment supply. Google Earth Engine (GEE), a cloud computing platform, was used to process 500 Landsat scenes acquired between 1986 and 2017 for the period from June to October, and approximately 100 Sentinel-2 images. In addition, we used the Margin change Quantification Tool to quantify the marsh margin changes in the last 30 years. Non-parametric trend analysis using the Theil-Sen slope revealed statistically significant negative trends in biomass and in the retreat of marsh margins. Largest decline in biomass occurred between 1997 and 2002 and between 2005 and 2015. This decline correlated with drought frequency and severity trends. Additionally, declines in marsh biomass were positively correlated with decreasing sediment supply, indicating that human activity plays a role in declining primary production. The loss of marsh area through landward marsh edge erosion ranged from ~ 0.6 m to 3 m yr-1. Our 30-year analysis of NC tidal marshes is supported by real time kinematic global positioning system elevation data, which suggest that NC marshes have lower elevation in tidal frame, relative to many SE Atlantic tidal marshes, making them more susceptible to sea level rise. Understanding the response of marshes to changes in land use and human disturbances will inform coastal adaptive management in the face of climate change and SLR. ■ 232 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

IMPACTS OF SALT MARSH VEGETATION AND SEA-LEVEL RISE ON SOIL CARBON STABILITY Bisson, Alaina, University of Connecticut Lawrence, Beth, University of Connecticut Coastal wetlands play a crucial role in sequestering carbon, but in an era of rising seas, we have limited understanding of how shifts in salt marsh vegetation to more salt and flood tolerant species may affect the stability of stored carbon. To investigate the impact of plant species and sea level rise on soil carbon stability, we implemented two complementary studies that utilized commercially available teas as standardized decomposition substrates (Lipton green (more labile) and rooibos (more recalcitrant) teas). During a three month-long observational field study, we quantified tea decomposition rates in three dominant salt marsh vegetation zones (Spartina alterniflora, S. patens and Phragmites australis), within five coastal Connecticut wetlands. We observed differential decomposition rates among vegetation zones, with greater rates in P. australis vs. S. alterniflora zones, presumably because P. australis grows in higher and drier habitats. Using a marsh organ experiment, we manipulated plant composition and elevation in order to disentangle the role of plant dominance, water level, and salinity on soil decomposition rates. Surprisingly, elevation (proxy for the frequency of inundation) did not affect mass loss, but decomposition differed among vegetation treatments, with unvegetated controls consistently having the lowest rates. Salt marsh grasses appear to prime soil organic matter decomposition by exuding oxygen or carbon into the rhizosphere and stimulating microbial activity. Our preliminary analysis indicates differences in green and rooibos tea decomposition rates among vegetated treatments, which may be related to root production. Our data suggest that shifts in plant species composition associated with sea level rise will alter soil carbon stability, and highlight the need for a more mechanistic understanding of how different species alter rhizospheric micro-environments. ■


PRESENTATION 1478

PRESENTATION 1542

Presented during Sea Level Rise II, 5/30/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

Presented during Sea Level Rise II, 5/30/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

CONSTRUCTING WETLANDS AT ELEVATIONS PREDICTED TO BE INTERTIDAL IN 20 YEARS DELAYS RATHER THAN EXTENDS WETLAND BENEFITS Nyman, Andy, LSU

TREE GROWTH AND PLANT COMMUNITY COMPOSITION CHANGES IN MID-ATLANTIC TIDAL FRESHWATER FORESTED WETLANDS IMPACTED BY SALINITY AND SEA-LEVEL INCREASES Bourg, Norman, U.S. Geological Survey Noe, Gregory, U.S. Geological Survey Hupp, Cliff, U.S. Geological Survey

Constructing wetlands with dredged material is an increasingly common restoration technique. Most research to improve efficiency focuses on vegetation but restoring coastal wetlands generally is justified on the basis of fish and wildlife that use wetlands. None-the-less, relatively little research is designed to optimize the effects of restoration on fish and wildlife. We compared nekton habitat quality and quantity between created and natural wetlands. That comparison led us to identify strategies to improve the contribution of created wetlands to coastal nekton. We compared the quality and quantity of habitat for nekton among three treatments: (a) pre-restoration (large, open water), (b) restoration target (natural marsh), and (c) actual restoration (created marsh). We replicated all three treatments at four sites in southeast Louisiana; all four created marshes were at least five years old. All created marshes were constructed with hydraulically dredged sediment, either from open water bodies or from the Mississippi River, that was deposited in shallow open water areas that had earlier supported emergent vegetation. All four sites were in areas where natural wetlands were dominated by Spartina patens, which is the most common plant in coastal Louisiana. Sites were visited seasonally: spring, summer, fall, and winter. We replicated sampling within each site-treatment combination in triplicate. We used nekton collected with throw-traps as an indicator of nekton habitat quality; we used the distance from a random point to the first available nekton habitat as an indicator of nekton habitat quantity. Habitat quality was similar in natural marshes and created marshes in terms of abundant species but there were differences, which agreed with a previous comparison of edge habitat between natural and created marshes. Habitat quantity differed between natural marshes and marshes constructed using dredged material. Created marshes had less habitat than natural marshes and thus probably provide fewer nekton than natural marshes to estuarine ecosystems. Until better data are available, we recommend that wetlands constructed from dredged material are designed explicitly to create nekton habitat as well as emergent vegetation. Such design features could include a lower surface elevation, because even constructed marshes vertical accrete, and increased interspersion of ponds and channels throughout the created marsh. â&#x2013;

Mid-Atlantic tidal freshwater forested wetlands (TFFW) are being impacted by sea-level rise and salinity increases. We initiated a TFFW study along a river gradient encompassing non-tidal fresh (NT), upper tidal fresh (UT), lower tidal fresh (LT), and stressed tidal (ST) habitats on the Mattaponi and Pamunkey rivers in Virginia (4 sites/river) to address how ecosystem control by river inputs versus estuarine sea level and salinity influence vegetation in terms of: 1) tree growth and mortality levels; and 2) plant community change in canopy trees, understory trees/saplings/shrubs, and herbs. Dendrochronology and plot-based vegetation sampling were employed to examine differences between sites relative to river and estuarine environmental variables. Mean annual tree basal area increment (BAI) was calculated from 2015 dating back as far as 1969. Multiple regression analyses found annual mean sea level and river flow were explanatory for temporal changes in BAI, although directionality of influence varied. Mean river total nitrogen was negatively related to BAI on the Mattaponi, while mean river total phosphorus was positively related at all Pamunkey sites except ST. Estuarine salinity positively influenced BAI at all but one tidal site. Overall, tree growth was affected by river nutrient inputs, flow and sea level at NT and UT sites, whereas salinity and sea level became increasingly important at LT and ST sites. Red maple, American beech and holly, and green ash dominated NT and UT sites, with green ash and black gum increasingly dominating at more downstream tidal sites. Tree species dominance shifted, woody stem mortality increased and the understory tended toward monodominance with greater tidal influence, yet live herbaceous vegetative cover and richness increased. Competitive growth release due to tree death may temporarily mitigate the negative effects of salinity and sea-level increases on canopy trees, even as overall plant community conversion to tidal marsh progresses. â&#x2013;

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PRESENTATION 1578 Presented during Climate Change Effects on Wetlands and Our Role in Mitigating and Adapting I, 5/29/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

IMPACTS OF SEA LEVEL RISE ON COASTAL MARSHES IN NEW JERSEY: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE Watson, Elizabeth, Drexel University and the Academy of Natural Sciences Elsey-Quirk, Tracy, Louisiana State University Across the mid-Atlantic region, coastal marshes are in decline. Analyses conducted for a ‘State of the Estuary’ report indicates that Delaware Bay has lost an acre per day of tidal wetlands between 1996 and 2006, and a recent analysis of Long Island tidal wetlands shows a loss rate of more than 10% between the early 1970s and early 2000s. Similar rates and patterns of losses have also been estimated for Chesapeake Bay and southern New England, suggesting that these patterns and trends are regionally widespread. These losses of wetland habitat are symptomatic of marsh drowning, and include marsh retreat, edge erosion, marsh island loss, and the development and enlargement of dieback areas found on the marsh platform. In this presentation, we focus on coastal wetlands found in Delaware and Barnegat Bay, reviewing patterns of wetland change reconstructed from analysis of historic aerial photography and National Wetlands Inventory data, the results of wetland monitoring conducted over the past 5-10 years in coastal New Jersey, and comparative predictive modeling. Our results suggest that patterns and rates of marsh loss vary across estuaries, and also interact with existing anthropogenic modifications to wetland hydrology. Our project demonstrates the utility of using both remote sensing and on-the-ground monitoring data in accessing coastal wetland vulnerability to sea level rise, and identifies areas were improvements are needed for predictive modeling. ■

234 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

Global Climate Change: Other - Organic Carbon PRESENTATION 1594 Presented during Coastal peatlands in a changing world III, 5/31/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

ACCRETION RATE AND CONTROLLING FACTOR OF CARBON AND NUTRIENTS OF COASTAL WETLAND EVOLUTION IN THE YELLOW RIVER DELTA Xigui, Ding, Ye, Siyuan, QIMG, CGS Guangming, Zhao, Yuan, Hongming, QIMG, CGS Jin, Wang, The study on carbon accretion and burial was an important content in global carbon cycle and budge, and caused the attention of scientists all over the world. Most of the new organic matter will be broken down, nutrients will be mineralized and released into the pore water of the sediment, and eventually released to the surface water when there is no water on the surface of wetland, because the carbon fractions and total amount in sediments are controlled by early diagenesis, the rest of the organic matter and nutrients combined with sediment particles and buried together. Influenced by human activities, large amounts of organic matter and nutrients from land are accumulated in estuaries. It is very important to study the accretion rate of organic carbon and nutrients in the estuarine wetland sediments. In this study, core ZK4 with a shallow depth of 28.3 m was drilled in the Yellow River Delta in 2007. Samples from the core were used in the laboratory to make detailed sedimentologic observations and do analyses of water content, organic carbon (Corg), total carbon (TC), and nutrient compositions. According to the stratigraphic analyses of core ZK1, seven sedimentary environments have been recognized,and the historic evolutions of coastal wetlands have been revealed. Chronologies, sedimentation rates and carbon accretion rates of the environments are made known from AMS14C dating method, historic records of the Yellow River diversions, and comprehensive analyses by means of historic geography and sedimentary geology. Results show that total carbons, organic carbons and nutrients (except element S) are all in good linear correlations; accretion rates of Corg,TC,N and P have very significantly positive correlations with sedimentation rates showed as R>0.89, p<0.01; and sedimentation rates are the main factor controlling accretion rates of Corg,TC,N and P. Although Corg concentrations are low(<1%)in the modern Yellow River Delta sediments, the high sedimentation rates make the average accretion rate of Corg in the sediments come up to 2878.23 g/(m2·a, much higher than those in other high-Corg wetlands in the world, and thus the modern Yellow River Delta can be considered a very good carbon sink due to its high sedimentation rates. ■


MANAGEMENT & APPLIED SCIENCE

Global Climate Change: Other - Red Tide

Management & Applied Science: Classification

PRESENTATION 1181

PRESENTATION 1049

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

SEABIRD MORTALITY DURING A PROLONGED RED TIDE EVENT IN THE GULF OF MEXICO Ramirez, Lina, Florida Gulf Coast University DiNuovo, Adam, Audubon Florida Lefevre, Kara, Florida Gulf Coast University

URBAN WETLAND SOIL MAPPING AS IT RELATES TO A RECREATIONAL STORMWATER DETENTION BASIN Ohm, Hannah, North Dakota State University Hargiss, Christina, North Dakota State University DeSutter, Thomas, NDSU

Southwest Florida is currently experiencing a prolonged occurrence of ‘Red Tide’, algal blooms caused by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. While harmful algal blooms (HABs) of this and other organisms occur naturally, growing pressures from human population growth, nutrient enrichment, and climate change have augmented the distribution, frequency and persistence of HABs worldwide. This has been the case on Florida’s Gulf coast, where the current red tide bloom has persisted since the Fall of 2017 and throughout 2018; it continues to affect the coastal environment in early 2019. HABs can cause illness and mortality of marine species, including coastal birds. We are monitoring seabird populations in the area and aiming to document the impact of this HAB event. Monitoring seabirds is a valuable way to gauge the ecological integrity of Florida’s coastline, due to their role as bioindicators. HAB events can impact marine life due to exposure to the brevetoxins that are produced by K. brevis, among other related effects. We have observed that the timing of the current red tide is correlated with the stranding, behavioral changes, and mortality of marine birds in the region. Based on data collected in our regular monitoring and by stewardship programs and wildlife clinics, our analysis will provide a snapshot of the avian species assemblage that is being impacted. ■

Urban wetlands are wetlands that have been extensively altered through human activities and are unlike their natural counterparts. Currently, there is minimal knowledge on urban wetland soil mapping, taxonomy, and characteristics. However, with over 80% of North America’s population living within urban areas, there is a need for urban wetland data. As of 2005, 0.9% of North America was classified as developed land. This relatively low number has great impacts on human health and environmental quality due to its close proximity to the population. Currently, the rate of urbanization for North America is estimated to increase 0.98% between 2015 and 2020 and due to the rapid increase of urbanization and a majority of the population living in these areas, urban wetland soil mapping is essential. The objectives of this study were to determine the urban wetland soil map in an urban, recreational stormwater detention basin within the city of Fargo, North Dakota. Soil cores were obtained inside and outside the basin and described using traditional US soil survey field and laboratory methods and compared to their corresponding taxonomy based on Drs. John Galbraith (Virginia Tech.) and Richard Shaw’s (New Jersey State Soil Scientist) urban soil taxonomy proposal. Results show that traditional soil survey descriptions do not fit the urban soil taxonomy. Redoximorphic features will also be analyzed based on traditional US soil survey field and laboratory methods and then Iron Reduction in Soil (IRIS) Tubes will be used to determine the length of time it takes for redoximorphic features to develop in an urban hydric soil. Understanding urban wetland soil taxonomy and maps will give insight for how recreational, stormwater detention basins impact wetland soil mapping in the future and allow for the improvement of urban wetland soil mapping. ■

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Management & Applied Science: Conservation PRESENTATION 1008 Presented during Conservation I, 5/30/2019 1:10 PM-2:50 PM

WETLAND RECREATIONAL AGRICULTURE: INTERNATIONAL COMPARATIVE STUDIES AND COOPERATION INITIATIVES Yu, Xiaofei, Northeast Normal University Agricultural development at the expense of natural wetland loss is a historic and global phenomenon. Conflicts over water and land still exist in the current wetland-farmland matrix. The shift in wetland-agriculture interactions from competition to coexistence requires a more sustainable mode to balance wetland conservation with agricultural development. Because the recreational values of wetlands have been gaining increasing recognition, the concepts, types, development pathways and management challenges of wetland recreational agriculture are proposed in this paper, based on an analysis of the evolution of wetland-agriculture interactions, as well as the lessons and experiences derived from past wetland agriculture. It is concluded that wetland recreational agriculture not only prompts economic development but also conserves the surviving wetlands from continuous degradation or loss. Through learning from traditional eco-agricultural ideas and using modern agricultural technology, wetland recreational agriculture is committed to delivering multiple ecosystem services and increasing the profit of wetland agriculture; in addition, it is committed to realizing the balance of public and private interests. Finally, six guidance recommendations are proposed, international cooperation and the joint action of local residents, enterprises, scientists, governments, NGOs, and volunteers is recommended to drive the implementation of specific wetland recreational agricultural practices. ■

PRESENTATION 1082 Presented during Overview of key global wetland issues - threats, challenges and solutions I, 5/29/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

GLOBAL OFFTAKE OF WILD ANIMALS FROM WETLANDS: CRITICAL ISSUES FOR FISH AND BIRDS Joyce, Christopher, University of Brighton Brotherton, Sarah, University of Sussex Scharlemann, Jorn, University of Sussex The global offtake of wild animals is valued at US $400 billion annually and supports the livelihoods of over 1 billion people. Offtake is the taking, exploiting or harvesting of animals from the wild. Humans use wild animals 236 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

for food, clothing, medicine and numerous other reasons. Wetlands, including rivers and lakes, are some of the most important ecosystems globally because they support vital services and provide benefits to society. Wetlands are important for nature conservation, but the biodiversity of wetlands is threatened and offtake may represent a significant pressure affecting characteristic taxa. Unlike marine systems, for which offtake and its sustainability have long been of interest, there is little research on animal offtake from wetlands internationally. This study aims to assess the availability of information and evaluate the offtake of wild animals from wetlands by focussing on two key taxa: fish and waterbirds. An initial literature search resulted in 2726 articles or reports on wetland offtake being identified. Scoping of these resulted in 82 studies that contained data, or other quantitative information, on fish or waterbird offtake. Reviewing the information availability indicated that there is a paucity of global data for waterbird offtake, with most studies based on a country, flyway, or continent. Although government hunting statistics from countries in Europe and North America are available, there is little bird data from less economically developed countries. Fishing offtake from inland waters are collated globally from official government statistics, but other sources of information are few. Species data for both fish and birds is variable, and the information rarely reveals the type of wetland the animals are taken from. Hidden (unquantified) offtake, of both fish and waterbirds, hinders obtaining precise figures for global offtake. For fish, subsistence, recreational or sports fishing, and capture by illegal methods, all contribute to hidden offtake. Illegal shooting and trapping are the main types of hidden offtake for birds. Thus, available data are unlikely to accurately reflect true wetland offtake, which may threaten the conservation of species and the sustainability of wetland ecosystems, especially as examples of sustainable offtake from wetlands are rare. ■

PRESENTATION 1112 Presented during Ecosystem Services II, 5/31/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

THE SHRINKING LAKE CHAD!: URGENT NEED FOR CONCERTED EFFORT BY MEMBER COUNTRIES TO SAVE IT FROM EXTINCTION Ndimele, Prince Emeka, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State, Nigeria Anwan, Henry Robert, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State, Nigeria Lake Chad is located in the far west of Chad, bordering on north-eastern Nigeria. The Chari River, fed by its tributary, the Logone, provides over 90% of Lake Chad’s water, with


a small amount coming from the Yobe River in Nigeria/ Niger. Over half of the lake’s area is taken up by its many small islands (including Bogomerom archipelago), reed beds and mud banks, and a belt of swampland across the middle divides the northern and southern halves while the shorelines are largely composed of marshes. Lake Chad is economically important, providing water to more than 68 million people living in the four countries surrounding it (Chad, Cameroon, Niger, and Nigeria) on the edge of the Sahara. Other ecosystem services provided by the lake are: fishing, transportation, science and education, etc. Lake Chad is rich in flora and fauna; it holds about 86 species of fish, elephant, hippopotamus, crocodile, and large communities of migrating birds including wintering ducks, ruff (Philomachus pugnax) and other waterfowl and shore birds. All this organisms are on the decline. As a matter of fact, some can no longer be found within and around the lake because of its present size. The impact assessment report of Lake Chad Basin noted that the demand for water for irrigation has increased fourfold due to fluctuations of the basin in response to climate cycles leading to dramatic environmental changes. In 1963, the lake surface covered 25,000 Km2. Today, it covers 1,350 Km2, which represents about 1,750% reduction in surface area within 54 years and annual loss in area of approximately 438 Km2. If this trend continues, Lake Chad will completely disappear in 2020!, which is a year from now. The disappearance of Lake Chad is attributed to a variety of factors such as overuse of water resources, climate change, poor enforcement of environmental legislation, and weak capacity for water resources management. According to Fort Lammy Convention, which set up the basin, member states are required to abstain from measures likely to alter the water budget, water quality, integrated water resources management, or water access by other member states. The Convention also recognizes the right of member states to plan projects within the ‘Conventional Basin’ in consultation with the Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC). However, most of these recommendations have not been adhered to by the member states, which have contributed significantly to the decline of its surface area. ■

PRESENTATION 1127 Presented during Conservation II, 5/30/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

THERE’S NO ‘I’ IN TEAM!: A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO COMBATING COASTAL LAND LOSS THROUGH WETLAND PRESERVATION, CONSERVATION AND RESTORATION Robinson, Amber, HDR As populations have grown over recent centuries at an unprecedented rate worldwide, the amount of suitable land available for development continues to decrease. Consequently, more environmentally sensitive areas, such as coastal wetlands, are under pressure for development and project proponents are faced with more complex environmental issues during planning and design requiring creative solutions from multi-disciplinary project teams. This presentation will demonstrate how environmental professionals collaborate with other disciplines, policy regulators and communities and utilize the best available science to implement successful projects that result in the preservation, conservation and/or restoration of environmentally sensitive areas, including wetlands and coastal habitat. To illustrate this objective, two case studies, a coastal marsh restoration and an infrastructure permitting project, will be highlighted. The first case includes restoration of a 66-acre intertidal marsh in an area previously converted to open water. The area is used as a mitigation bank at Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge in Cameron Parish, Louisiana to offset impacts occurring on the Refuge. This project required extensive interaction with wetland biologists, coastal and geotechnical engineers, along with agency biologists and refuge managers to successfully restore and manage the brackish Spartina alterniflora dominated wetlands. The second case will review a 12.8 mile San Jacinto Railroad project located southeast of Houston, Texas which included inland freshwater coastal prairie wetlands, riparian habitats, and tidal wetlands near Galveston Bay. Through the close coordination of biologists, rail engineers, real estate agents, county and agency staff, the project resulted in the conservation of approximately 90-acres of a combined wetland/mima mound complex which included 17 newly identified Texas prairie dawn (Hymenoxys texana) sites. ■

Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 237


PRESENTATION 1212

PRESENTATION 1224

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

Presented during Wetland and Wetland Wildlife of Concern I, 5/31/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

FACTORS AFFECTING THE FACILITATIVE INTERACTION BETWEEN CORDGRASS AND RIBBED MUSSELS IN GEORGIA’S SALT MARSHES Johnson, Chloe, Georgia Southern University George, Sophie, Georgia Southern University

NORTHERN CLAPPER RAIL (RALLUS CREPITANS CREPITANS) POPULATION TRENDS AND FUTURE MONITORING NEEDS Elizondo, Elisa, University of Delaware Shriver, Greg, University of Delaware

The ribbed mussel, Geukensia demissa, can filter the total volume of water in a salt marsh twice a day, making the salt marsh the most invaluable natural water purification system in the world. Ribbed mussels are found on raised portions of the marsh sediment called mounds. Mounds store water, reduce soil salinity stress, have a high organic content and promote cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) growth. Unfortunately, salt marshes are threatened by a variety of natural and anthropogenic factors such as increased temperatures, storms and urban land use. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between these two species in a saltmarsh at Tybee Island, Georgia. At this site, cordgrass height and density vary with distance from a winding tributary off of Tybee Creek. In addition, a road cuts through the high marsh. Four mounds located in the high marsh close to the tributary and four located in the mid marsh further away from the tributary were surveyed from spring through fall 2018. Spartina height and density and ribbed mussel abundance were determined on each mound. Spartina height and density data from 2018 were compared to data from 2012. Mean mussel abundance in the high marsh was 39 ±2 and in the mid marsh was 27± 2. Air temperature, monitored by placing one temperature logger in each of the high marsh and mid marsh, indicate that the number of days with temperatures above 43ºC was higher in the high marsh. A shift from tall to short cordgrass in the mid marsh, were observed and may be due to increased human activity and increased storm intensity. Lower mussel numbers in the mid-marsh may be explained by the shift to shorter cordgrass in this zone. ■

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The Northern Clapper Rail (R. c. crepitans), the northernmost subspecies of Clapper Rail, is thought to be declining overall throughout its range. Data gathered through the Saltmarsh Habitat Avian Research Program support that assertion, documenting various rates of decline in Northern Clapper Rail populations throughout the survey range. We present a summary of these data, as well as a case study from a research effort recently initiated in Delaware to gain better insight into the population dynamics and spatial habitat use of this secretive species. The drivers of Northern Clapper Rail population dynamics are unknown, and survival rates in particular are poorly documented (both historically and currently). Preliminary data from radiomarked birds (n = 4) in Delaware indicates that survival may be quite high during the breeding season, although additional data are needed to draw any concrete conclusions. The location data from these individuals also demonstrates broad variation in home range size with 75% kernel estimates ranging from 1.67 ha to 54.79 ha. Moving forward, additional data from radiomarked bird will be collected to gain better insight on their breeding season movements and survival as well as their migratory ecology. Demographic parameters collected in Delaware during the breeding season will also be coupled with SHARP survey data in an attempt to shed light on the decline through the use of an integrated population model. ■


PRESENTATION 1264 Presented during Integrated Framework for Evaluating Wetland and Stream Compensatory Mitigation II, 5/30/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

LONG-TERM MANAGEMENT OF COMPENSATORY MITIGATION OPPORTUNITIES FOR PARTNERSHIP WITH THE 404 PROGRAM Mattson, Michelle, USACE Institute for Water Resources The Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) Regulatory program is responsible for compliance with the Compensatory Mitigation Rule (2008) for unavoidable losses of aquatic resources authorized by the Clean Water Act (CWA) 404 permits. There are many limitations to the compensatory mitigation program; one of which is consistency across districts for establishing performance-based monitoring and long-term management programs. A related challenge is knowing whether or not approved mitigation programs result in sustainable sites and replace lost aquatic resource functions after the site meets performance standards in the short-term monitoring period (5+years). The Corps’ long-term management requirement is comprised of four elements; site protection, sustainability, adaptive management, and long-term management (after performance standards are met). But continuing oversight through this period is transitioned to a third party and does not necessarily provide data back to the Corps to improve future decision making. It’s possible that this gap in long-term management oversight is an opportunity to encourage use of the new framework by Corps’ districts to develop and align consistent multi-agency monitoring programs with State and local agencies. Consistent monitoring programs through the mitigation flow (i.e. from design through implementation, short-term monitoring, and long-term monitoring), sharing oversight responsibilities and data could provide the feedback necessary to refine national policy and district-specific guidance. This presentation will focus on the opportunities to utilize the new framework to align 404 monitoring and long-term management programs with State and local programs. ■

PRESENTATION 1294 Presented during The Wetland Underground: Frank Day’s Contributions to Wetland Ecology, Belowground Ecology, and SWS I, 5/31/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

MARYLAND GREENPRINT WETLAND CONSERVATION: COMMUNITY RESILIENCY ROOTED IN HEALTHY BELOWGROUND ECOSYSTEMS Conn, Christine, Maryland Department of Natural Resources Coastal wetlands play a vital role in Maryland’s climate resiliency strategies. Most recent projections forecast a

likely increase of 0.8-1.6 foot (0.24-0.29 m) in mean sea level rise between 2000 to 2050. Beyond 2050, projections vary widely, depending on global greenhouse gas emissions pathways. If emissions continue to grow, Maryland could potentially see increases of up to 4.2 feet (1.3 m) by 2100. The capacity of coastal wetlands to buffer wave energy, slow inland water transfer, increase infiltration, trap sediment and migrate landward as sea level rises is rooted in healthy belowground ecosystems. The Maryland Department of Natural Resources issued the Building Resilience to Climate Change Policy in 2010 which directs state investments towards better understanding, mitigating and adapting to impacts of climate change. For example, Maryland’s GreenPrint program targets land conservation funding to benefit the state’s most ecologically valuable lands and waters. High value coastal wetlands are those that reduce coastal hazards to adjacent communities, or are areas where ecologically significant wetlands will exist in the future based on wetland migration modeling. GreenPrint priorities are presented in an interactive map application to enhance conservation partnerships in these focus areas. The application has recently been enhanced, allowing the public to generate a conservation scorecard for every land parcel in the state. The scorecard also includes an economic valuation for various ecosystem services provided by these high value wetlands, forests and other natural habitats. My role in developing these programs is rooted in my appreciation of belowground processes and the resulting benefits conferred to society. My barrier island research on root dynamics with Dr. Frank Day prepared me to translate foundational ecosystem science into policy and practice. ■

PRESENTATION 1305 Presented during Advancing Large-Scale Restoration in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, USA, 5/29/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

APPLYING LESSONS LEARNED IN THE POCOMOKE TO ADVANCE RESTORATION THROUGHOUT THE CHESAPEAKE BAY AND BEYOND. Strano, Steve, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service Implementing restoration of a channelized river system at a landscape scale can produce efficiencies and environmental outcomes at a magnitude that otherwise would not be possible. We completed 2,200 acres of floodplain reconnection on the Pocomoke River in Maryland, USA, for purposes including nutrient and sediment retention, flood storage, and wildlife habitat improvement. Several lessons that can be applied to other projects include: Large-scale restoration can be accomplished within the current conservation proWetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 239


gram framework, if you have some other key resources. Lidar-based digital elevation models were a critical resource for planning and targeting. Partnerships were critical for outreach and providing flexibility in a project that included private and public land ownership. Providing alternative opportunities for participation enhanced the effectiveness of the project. ■

Plains ecozone portion of the Akaitcho territory, wetlands were mapped in greater detail to DUC’s Enhanced Wetland Inventory schema (19 classes) due to the high diversity of wetlands present on the landscape. Comprehensive wetland inventories are critical for providing ecologically, and culturally important information in the land use planning process, that will allow for the development of sustainable development and conservation goals that benefit both the land and community. ■

PRESENTATION 1330 Presented during Conservation II, 5/30/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

WETLAND INVENTORIES IN LAND USE PLANNING: A CASE STUDY OF THE AKAITCHO WETLAND MAPPING PROJECT Warren, Rebecca, Ducks Unlimited Canada Merchant, Michael, Ducks Unlimited Canada Edwards, Rebecca, Ducks Unlimited Canada Spitzig, Adam, Ducks Unlimited Inc The boreal forest of Canada consists of a vast mosaic of forests, lakes, rivers, and wetlands that cover more than 1.3 million square kilometers. Approximately 85% of Canada’s wetlands are located in the boreal, which provide critical ecosystem services such as water filtration and storage, carbon sequestration, and habitat, as well as support traditional cultural practices. Despite their abundance and internationally recognized importance, wetlands in northern Canada remain poorly understood, in part because a spatial wetland inventory of appropriate ecological representation does not exist in these regions. The Treaty 8 Tribal Corporation (‘Akaitcho’) is in the process of developing a land use plan for their traditional territory, a 77 million acre area located in the southeastern Northwest Territories. In collaboration with Ducks Unlimited Canada (DUC), a digital wetland inventory was produced using an object-based image analysis approach. The 2-year initiative included cataloguing, pre-processing and object-based classification of L-Band SAR ALOS PALSAR (σ°HH, σ°HV), and multispectral Sentinel-2A imagery. SAR imagery included 3 seasons of backscatter (spring, summer, and fall), while multispectral imagery was obtained during maximum vegetation greening conditions (summer) when possible. A field campaign to obtain calibration and validation data was completed over 2 weeks in summer 2017, resulting in ~1,000 helicopter survey sites collected. Field data was supplemented with interpreted sites identified using a combination of multispectral signal interpretation and high-resolution (50cm) Digital Globe WorldView2/3 imagery. The resulting wetland inventory was assessed for accuracy, and conformed to the Canadian Wetland Classification System (5 classes). Additionally, within the Boreal 240 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

PRESENTATION 1345 Presented during The Critical Role of Wetlands in International Climate Solutions: Emerging Opportunities II, 5/30/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

INDIRECT THREATS TO BLUE CARBON WETLANDS Chmura, Gail, McGill University Torio, Dante, University of New Hampshire Short, Frederick, University of New Hampshire Van Ardenne, Lee, McGill University Fajardo, Paola, McGill University Blue carbon, the carbon stored in salt marshes, mangrove swamps and seagrass beds, imparts these wetlands with the ability to contribute to mitigation of climate change. In North America, these wetlands, thus their ability to sequester carbon and provide other ecosystems services, historically have been lost to filling, dredging, draining and excavation. Today, most jurisdictions in Canada, Mexico and the USA have protective legislation and a policy of no net loss and such activities are greatly limited. Thus, today, the greatest threats occur outside the boundaries of these wetlands. They are indirect and more challenging to address. For instance, as sea level rises salt marshes and mangroves need room to migrate inland to protect them from ‘coastal squeeze’, yet most conservation policies do not protect adjacent lands over which marshes could migrate. Many activities in watersheds endanger marshes, mangroves and seagrasses. Nutrient loading from watersheds is not prevented by coastal wetland protection policies. The resulting eutrophication of coastal waters degrades seagrasses, reduces resilience of salt marshes and mangroves, and causes emissions of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. Hydrological modifications in watersheds can cause multiple problems. Dams can reduce freshwater flow, resulting in hypersalinity of coastal waters in arid regions. In temperate and boreal regions freshwater released for hydropower dams dilutes the salinity of coastal waters year-round rather than just during the spring thaw. Dams and other land use changes in watersheds may starve coastal waters of sediments needed by marshes and mangroves to maintain their elevation with respect to rising sea


level. Alternatively, erosion in watersheds can generate sediment loads that threaten seagrass communities. Urbanization of watersheds and adjacent terrestrial lands increases the likelihood of numerous anthropogenic disturbances. Thus, if we want to continue to protect these blue carbon sinks we must extend protection outside the wetlands, in North America and elsewhere. These indirect threats also should be taken into account when prioritizing restoration sites to be sure that restoration success will not be threatened by indirect threats. ■

PRESENTATION 1363 Presented during Conservation I, 5/30/2019 1:10 PM-2:50 PM

WETLAND CONSERVATION REGIMES IN NIGERIA: EXPLORING SOCIO-CULTURAL CHALLENGES TO POLICY DRIVE IN THE NIGER DELTA Anwana, EnoAbasi, University of Uyo Umoh, Ubong, University of Uyo The Niger Delta wetlands as an ecological complex accommodates a large variety of terrestrial, marine and aquatic life (some endangered); throwing up the need for efficient conservation measures backed effective policies. Existing studies on wetland biodiversity in the Niger Delta often focus on the effects of the oil/gas exploration and mining activities of multinational oil companies (MNOCs) operating in the region as it affects wetland biodiversity and conservation.Consequently, the frontier challenge to wetland conservation regimes has been figured as the activities and operations of MNOCs. Wetland reclamation for an expanding urbanization,as well as rising water levels due to extreme weather, has also featured respectively as human and non-human challenges to conservation regimes. However, very little appears to be known about the challenge posed by socio-cultural practices in the Niger Delta. Social, traditional and cultural attachment to wetlands arguably lacks synergy with state driven policies as most social and cultural practices are not compatible with sustainable conservation demands. Indeed, the extent to which existing legal, environmental, and biodiversity conservation regimes in Nigeria are challenged by deep cultural practices that place increasing demands on the ways the wetland biodiversity in the Niger Delta is exploited appears under-explored. As policies remain in conflict with socio-cultural practices, the wetlands of the Niger Delta remain relatively protected, thereby making sustainable use of its biodiversity challenging. The paper identifies key social and cultural pressures on wetland biodiversity in the Niger Delta and how it challenges cum affects overall policy drive of various conservation regimes. ■

PRESENTATION 1367 Presented during Conservation I, 5/30/2019 1:10 PM-2:50 PM

RECONSTRUCTING FIRE RETURN INTERVAL IN LOWLAND FORESTS OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN: A BASIS FOR MANAGEMENT Uhelski, Dominic, Michigan Technological University Chimner, Rod, Michigan Technological University Kane, Evan, Michigan Technological University Fire has multiple impacts on peatland qualities and functions, yet little is known about the fire regimes of peatlands in the Great Lake states. Multiple significant wildfires in the Upper Peninsula (UP) of Michigan, including the Duck and Sleeper Lake fires, have prompted land managers to question the natural fire history of peatlands under their purview. There are a variety of techniques available to reconstruct fire frequency by detecting charcoal, but those which function well in peat are expensive and time consuming. We have developed a new method to address these issues and to answer the question of peatland fire regime using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Combined with carbon dating, we are able to determine fire return interval for individual peatlands across the UP and detect trends in fire regime with location and peat type. We have found that fire is more prevalent in black spruce (Picea mariana)/Sphagnum peatlands compared to northern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) peatlands, and that fire is more common in the Eastern UP compared to the Western UP. These data provide an ecological basis for fire management plans in lowland conifer forests, and our method makes peatland fire regime reconstruction more accessible than ever. ■

PRESENTATION 1443 Presented during Conservation II, 5/30/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

THE ROLE OF TEMPORALLY PONDED WETLANDS IN MAINTAINING MACROINVERTEBRATE BIODIVERSITY IN A COMPLEX OF PRAIRIE-POTHOLE WETLANDS McLean, Kyle, U.S. Geological Survey Mushet, David, US Geological Survey Sweetman, Jon, North Dakota State University Maintenance of biodiversity is often a concern for managers attempting to conserve healthy ecosystems, as increased diversity is often associated with improved productivity and ecosystem function. In wetland ecosystems, aquatic invertebrates often form a bulk of a wetland’s animal diversity and biomass. Aquatic invertebrates can also serve as indicators of wetland health and are a crucial part of many food webs. However, wetland ecosystems Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 241


are very dynamic, and invertebrates need to be adapted to the changing environmental conditions to persist. Thus, physical and behavioral adaptations have developed that allow some invertebrates to quickly colonize favorable habitats or to remain dormant during unfavorable conditions. Therefore, temporal gradients are likely important to consider when attempting to identify wetlands most important for maintaining biodiversity. To explore how time influences the contribution of individual wetlands to aquatic-invertebrate diversity, we performed a Local Contributions to Beta Diversity (LCBD) analysis of 17 wetlands monitored at the Cottonwood Lake Study Area in central North Dakota from 1992-2015. The wetlands are within a 92-ha Waterfowl Production Area managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and represent a diverse gradient of physical and hydrological characteristics typical of prairie-pothole wetlands. Wetlands within the study area that remained ponded during the study were classified as ‘permanently ponded’ while wetlands with periodically inundated ponds were classified as ‘temporarily ponded.’ Our LCBD results indicated that from 1993-1997, a rewetting period in which all wetland ponds refilled with water following a severe drought, a combination of both permanently and temporarily ponded wetlands contributed significantly to the site’s biodiversity. As wetlands cycled to drier conditions, the more permanently ponded wetlands contributed most to beta diversity. Conversely, during wetter periods of our study, temporarily ponded wetlands often contributed the most to beta diversity. Our results show that while local species richness was typically greatest in the permanently ponded wetlands, the less-diverse, temporarily ponded wetlands harbored unique communities that maintained overall gamma diversity of the site. These results suggest that heterogeneous ‘complexes’ of wetlands are needed to maintain biodiversity at both the local and landscape levels. ■

PRESENTATION 1457 Presented during Wetland and Wetland Wildlife of Concern III, 5/31/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

FLOODING AND NEST SUCCESS OF COLONIAL NESTING WATERBIRDS IN COASTAL LOUISIANA, USA Ritenour, Karis, Louisiana State University King, Sammy, U.S. Geological Survey Collins, Samantha, Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Coastal marshes and barrier islands are important breeding habitats for colonial nesting waterbirds. These habitats are declining across the Gulf Coast due to accelerated sea level 242 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

rise, subsidence, and erosion due to wave action. Those that remain may have increased flood potential, both from prolonged inundation and also brief wave overwashes, both of which can be catastrophic to nesting birds. We monitored a total of 459 Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis), 92 Tricolored Heron (Egretta tricolor), 270 Forster’s Tern (Sterna forsteri), and 35 Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja) nests throughout two breeding seasons: one year in which flooding was frequent (2017) and one year which was much drier (2018). Surprisingly, success and failure rates stayed relatively static across both years, with flooding being the number one cause of nest mortality in both years. This suggests that the timing of the flood might be just as important for nest survival as the number of floods during the nesting season. Using data recorded by a nearby NOAA water gauge over the past 13 years, we created exceedance curves, to model the likelihood of flooding throughout the breeding season as well as during particularly vulnerable times for nests of each species. We hope to also determine an optimum island level to reduce flooding as a possible future management tool. This information can be used to design habitat restoration projects in a manner that maximizes the extent and persistence of nesting bird habitat for a given volume of dredged sediment. ■

PRESENTATION 1472 Presented during Conservation I, 5/30/2019 1:10 PM-2:50 PM

RETHINKING WETLAND CONSERVATION IN A WATERSTARVED FUTURE King, Sammy, U.S. Geological Survey Laubhan, Murray, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Vradenburg, John, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Fredrickson, Leigh, Wetland Management and Educational Services, Inc. Water availability is of increasing concern globally. In the U.S., conflicts over water resources are common and are no longer limited to arid western lands. Agriculture, energy development, and urban use are increasingly impacting water availability. Numerous public lands, even those with strong water rights, are embroiled in contentious water issues. Increasing human populations and changing human food habits are expected to increase pressure on global food resources and water availability. We argue that a new, or improved, approach to wetland conservation is needed that is grounded in long-term water security. Because agriculture is the greatest user of water, understanding the economic incentives of farmers and market pressures that affect their land and water use decisions is a critical first step in ad-


dressing conservation needs. Conservation programs such as the Wetlands Reserve Program and the Conservation Reserve Program have provided numerous benefits to wildlife, but we argue that status quo conservation efforts without changing broader water use behaviors will achieve little long-term success in many regions. Agricultural production in these regions is also threatened by the same water issues, thus opportunities exist to work with agricultural interests but solutions will require innovative approaches possibly outside current agricultural approaches. ■

subtitle long-term shifts resulting from landscape stressors, dewatering, and fragmentation (e.g., edge effects). Our new wetland integrity metric (Level 2.5), captures shifts in the floristic composition of hardwood swamps. These results highlight the importance of considering anthropogenic stressors in space and time, and the utility of using multiple metrics to quantify wetland condition and integrity. Further, natural cover in adjacent upland buffers should extend beyond the NYS regulatory minimum of 100 ft (30.5 m) if New York State hopes to maintain or improve the condition and functionality of its remaining wetlands. ■

PRESENTATION 1496 Presented during Conservation II, 5/30/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

PRESENTATION 1601

HOW WIDE IS WIDE ENOUGH? BUFFER WIDTH, LAND USE, AND WETLAND CONDITION Shappell, Laura, New York Natural Heritage Program Howard, Tim, New York Natural Heritage Program

Presented during The Wetland Underground: Frank Day’s Contributions to Wetland Ecology, Belowground Ecology, and SWS II, 5/31/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

Understanding factors that influence wetland condition is essential for effective management, developing appropriate restoration benchmarks, and monitoring wetland change. New York Natural Heritage Program (NYNHP) has developed a three-tiered sampling approach to assess the condition of palustrine wetlands. We recently refined those methods (Shappell and Howard 2018) and developed new protocols for assessing ecological integrity, adjacent buffer condition, and digitizing the immediate upland area of influence. Our growing database of >200 sites ranging from pristine dwarf shrub bogs to urban maple-ash swamps includes a diverse flora of 800+ vascular plant species. Recalibrating our rapid wetland condition assessment method (NYRAM5) produced a more robust metric that strongly correlates with weighted floristic quality (FQ); and when combined with threshold analysis, we find wetlands in good condition generally have FQ scores >5.6 and NYRAM5 scores <38. Wetlands in poor condition tended to have sparse canopy cover (<30%) in the upland buffer surrounding the wetland. Emergent wetlands responded strongly to landscape stressors and poor buffer condition; a relationship likely magnified in marshes where shifts in species composition can occur more rapidly compared to forested systems (apart from beaver etc.). Definitive shifts in species composition in response to stressors may therefore be easier to identify in non-forested wetlands. In contrast, deciduous forested wetlands may experience

DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF A GENERAL PERMIT FOR LIVING SHORELINES IN TIDEWATER VIRGINIA Owen, Randy, VMRC The 2011 Virginia General Assembly adopted legislation that directed the Virginia Marine Resources Commission (VMRC), in cooperation with other interested state agencies and local wetlands boards, to establish and implement a general permit regulation that authorizes and encourages the use of living shorelines as the preferred alternative for stabilizing tidal shorelines in the Commonwealth. The legislation defines living shorelines as: ‘a shoreline management practice that provides erosion control and water quality benefits; protects, restores or enhances natural shoreline habitat; and maintains coastal processes through the strategic placement of plants, stone, sand fill, and other structural and organic materials.’ Since identifying living shorelines as the preferred option for shoreline stabilization in Virginia, approximately ¼ (25 %) of the shores involving erosion control structure requests to date included a living shoreline component. This shift from traditional shoreline hardening measures will hopefully increase as Virginia’s waterfront property owners gain more confidence in these structures’ ability to protect private property while providing key ecological services to the natural resources and marine habitats within the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. ■

Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 243


Management & Applied Science: Delineation

PRESENTATION 1468

PRESENTATION 1056

A FRAMEWORK FOR MULTI-WETLANDS ECOLOGICAL MONITORING AT THE RIVER CORRIDOR SCALE Ko, Szu-Yu, Hydrotech Research Institute, National Taiwan University Hwang, Gwo-wen, Hydrotech Research Institute, National Taiwan University Kuo, Pin-Han, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary Kao, Yi-an, Hydrotech Research Institute, National Taiwan University In Taiwan, as the Wetland Conservation Act took effect in 2015, the government used the concept of land division to carry out investigations and management of wetlands. To be more specific, the ecological monitoring of wetlands in Taiwan was divided by the administrative division. For instance, Urban and Rural Development Branch of the Ministry of the Interior published a report, ‘The prior planning of ecological monitoring system and maintaining management for Taiwan’s wetlands of importance’, in 2019. The report suggested that ecological monitoring should follow each wetland’s competent authorities, such as city/county government and national park headquarters. Moreover, the ecological monitoring methods, like sample positions and period, were provided. However, some species’ home range were not wetland-based but crossing wetlands. Therefore, this study proposes to create an ecological monitoring plan across wetlands-taking the estuary of tidal reaches of Tamsui River as an example. Although the synchronized censuses of birds lead by academic units and non-governmental organization were undertaken for few years in Tamsui River Basin, the government did not attach great importance to the synchronized censuses. Because of being rich in ecological resources, the estuary of lower reaches of Tamsui River contains some wetlands, included Zhuwei, Guandu, Wugu Luzhou and Huajiang. These wetlands were the main waterfowl wintering area which was the range across wetlands at the river corridor scale. The range of the river corridor was used to design a bird monitoring plan once a month in a year. In addition, according to the wintering characteristic of waterfowl, the monitoring period would be shorter during the breeding and wintering season; monitoring was taken twice a month in the wintering season and forth a month in the breeding season. Furthermore, the government was encouraged to increase the investment to integrate academic units and non-governmental organization to achieve the synchronized censuses of waterfowl at the river corridor scale. In sum, the result was aimed to provide some guidance for ecological monitoring at a multi-wetland scale similar to the sample and support the ecological characteristics of the large-scale wetland to be recognized clearly. Keywords: Multi-Wetlands, Ecological Monitoring, River Corridor Scale ■

Presented during Ecosystem Services II, 5/31/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

IMPROVING HYDRIC SOIL IDENTIFICATION IN AREAS CONTAINING PROBLEMATIC RED PARENT MATERIALS: A NATIONWIDE COLLABORATIVE MAPPING APPROACH Mack, Sara, University of Maryland Rabenhorst, Martin, University of Maryland College Park Berkowitz, Jacob, US Army Corps of Engineers Hydric soils are one of three environmental parameters required for the identification of wetlands under the Clean Water Act in the United States. However, soils derived from certain red parent materials (RPM) fail to develop characteristic hydric morphologies, complicating wetland delineations. The hydric soil field indicator, F21 Red Parent Material, was created and approved for testing in all resource areas to address these problematic situations, but its correct application is limited by uncertainty in problematic RPM distribution. In response, a collaborative effort (>50 participants) was undertaken to document the occurrence of problematic RPM across the nation. From laboratory analyses (using the Color Change Propensity Index) of >1100 samples from >450 locations, problematic RPM soils were identified and geospatially linked to geologic and soils map units to create maps of problematic RPM distribution. Four major RPM regions were identified (e.g. Northeast and Mid-Atlantic, Great Lakes, South-central, and Desert Southwest and Western Mountains), each with problematic RPM soils occurring in association with sedimentary, hematite-rich, red bed formations developed where deposition of terrestrial sediments occurred in warm-tropical, near-shore, marginal-marine environments in the geologic record. Guidance maps produced from this study promotes the appropriate application of the F21 Red Parent Material hydric soil field indicator, thus improving approaches to wetland management. ■

244 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM


Management & Applied Science: Ecosystem Services PRESENTATION 1024 Presented during Coastal peatlands in a changing world II, 5/31/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

CARBON STORAGE IN THE RAMSAR SITE LOS PANTANOS DE VILLA (LIMA, PERU): ANTHROPOGENIC FIRES AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION Aponte, Héctor, Universidad Cientí­fica del Sur Corvacho Cárdenas, María Fernanda, Universidad Científica del Sur Ramirez, Dámaso, Universidad Cientí­fica del Sur (Lima-Perú) Los Pantanos de Villa is a Ramsar site and a protected natural area of Peru. In its more than 200 hectares, this ecosystem is home to hundreds of species and provides important ecosystem services such as carbon capture. However, different anthropogenic disturbances affect this carbon stock, with fire standing out as an important disturbance. The objectives of this study were to summarize the effects of fire on this Ramsar site using a compilation of recent research information related to carbon emissions and species affected during fires, and to quantify the carbon stock of this protected area. To achieve the second objective, the following had to be done: a) updating the vegetation map, by measuring the total area covered by the most conspicuous plant formations, b) estimating plant biomass from field inventories, complemented by soil sampling up to 20 cm deep and c) getting the carbon percentage of the plants and the soil samples by the Walkley & Balck technique to estimate the biomass-carbon equivalence per unit area, thus being able to estimate the carbon stored in the study area. The results indicate that, during fires, the main affected plant species are the american bullrush (Schoenoplectus americanus), saw-grass (Cladium jamaicense), cattails (Typha domingensis), reeds (Phragmites australis) and grasses (Distichlis spicata, Sporobolus spp and Paspalum vaginatum), releasing about 20.83 kg of CO2 /m2, similar to the amount of CO2 that is released in some primary and secondary forests. Furthermore, the carbon stored in Los Pantanos de Villa amounts to more than 80 thousand tons of CO2 (around 448 tons per hectare). The implications of these results in the conservation of this natural protected area are discussed, as well as the great potential that similar ecosystems have in the global carbon capture and also in the climate change mitigation. ■

PRESENTATION 1052 Presented during Working in Wetlands II, 5/29/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

OWNING AND OPERATING AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTING BUSINESS Jecker, Scott, Whitenton Group, Inc. Owning and operating a successful business can be very rewarding, yet very challenging at the same time. It requires a good work ethic, budgeting, patience, perseverance, multi-tasking, marketing, and fighting fires. The success (or failure) of the business includes daily decisions that include politics, staffing issues, money, development, and people’s feelings about how the environment should be ‘handled’. We’ll discuss the daily life of environmental consulting business ownership and some of our experiences along the way. ■

PRESENTATION 1068 Presented during The Critical Role of Wetlands in International Climate Solutions: Emerging Opportunities II, 5/30/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

COASTAL WETLANDS, COMMUNITIES AND CLIMATE RESILIENCE: POLICY GOALS AND OPPORTUNITIES Sutton-Grier, Ariana, Nature Conservancy and University of Maryland There is growing interest in the use of ‘natural infrastructure’ or healthy coastal ecosystems to provide important climate change resilience benefits to coastal communities. This presentation will discuss what we know about how natural infrastructure helps to reduce wave energy and erosion risk reduction as well as some of the other benefits provided by coastal wetlands including long-term carbon storage. As we better understand these benefits, we can identify policy opportunities for leveraging these benefits to lead to more coastal ecosystem conservation. Specific policy opportunities that will be discussed include the role of coastal wetlands as a component of a natural climate solutions, the growing interest in including wetlands in national greenhouse gas inventories, and the opportunity to include wetlands in our planning for disaster risk reduction. ■

Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 245


PRESENTATION 1123

PRESENTATION 1128

Presented during Advancing Large-Scale Restoration in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, USA, 5/29/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

Presented during Climate Change Effects on Wetlands and Our Role in Mitigating and Adapting II, 5/29/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

HISTORY AND NEED FOR LARGE-SCALE WETLAND RESTORATION IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY WATERSHED: CASE STUDY IN RESTORING THE POCOMOKE Jacobs, Amy, The Nature Conservancy Strano, Steve, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service Jennings, Brian, United States Fish and Wildlife Service Boomer, Kathy, The Nature Conservancy McLaughlin, Erin, Maryland Department of Natural Resources

PROTECTING WETLANDS TO PROTECT PEOPLE Sutton-Grier, Ariana, Nature Conservancy and University of Maryland Endter-Wada, Joanna, Utah State University Kettenring, Karin, Utah State University

In 2010, EPA established the Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL). The 2014 Chesapeake Bay Watershed Agreement outlined the States’ commitment to 1. restore 85,000 acres, 2. enhance 150,000 acres, and 3. protect 225,000 acres of wetlands by 2025. Each State committed to a portion of the overall goals. Pocomoke River is a priority for federal, state, and non-profit organizations due to its high aquatic and terrestrial biodiversity. The 73-mile-long river drains four Delmarva Peninsula counties, starting in the Great Cypress Swamp of southern Delaware and emptying into Pocomoke Sound and Chesapeake Bay. Since European settlement, the watershed hydrology has been altered extensively to facilitate development and agriculture. The degree of hydrologic alteration increased dramatically after World War II with agricultural Public Drainage Association (PDA) ditch networks, resulting in more than 1,100 miles of ditches across the watershed today and 17 miles of spoil levee along the Pocomoke mainstem. The Pocomoke River Partnership formed over six years ago to implement wetland best management practices (BMP’s) in the watershed and includes the U.S.D.A. Natural Resources Conservation Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, The Nature Conservancy, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, and U.S. Geological Survey. The first priority area was located along 9 miles of the channelized Pocomoke River mainstem. Our goal was to reconnect the river with approximately 4,000 acres of its historic floodplain by cutting breaches in the spoil levee on both sides of the river. Although nearly two-thirds of the priority area land was in private ownership, we were able to reconnect over 3,400 acres of historic floodplain. ■

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Extreme weather events are becoming the ‘norm’ with more frequent droughts, megafires, and major flooding events. The ecological, human, and economic impacts of many catastrophic weather events can be linked, directly or indirectly, to loss of wetlands. Yet, the protective services of wetlands-for preventing and mitigating weather-related disasters-are greatly undervalued by people, societies, and governments all over the world. We have failed to sufficiently protect wetlands to protect ourselves as well as the wildlife that depend on them. It is time to take bold, effective, landscape-scale policy action to incorporate wetland flood and drought protective services into water and land management. In this presentation, we discuss how wetlands provide protective services from weather-related disasters. We also provide examples of how we can better incorporate wetlands into U.S. disaster risk planning and detail a plan for a large-scale national wetlands commission to better protect and manage wetlands across the landscape so that wetlands can help people mitigate extreme weather events. Our case study is based on our knowledge of U.S. governance and policy structures, but the ideas we present are relevant to wetlands in all regions of the world. ■

PRESENTATION 1144 Presented during Closing the permitting-mitigation-monitoring (PMM) loop: A focus on the mid-Atlantic USA I, 5/30/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

CREATED WETLANDS USING STORMWATER-PULSED HYDROLOGY AND HYPORHEIC FLOW Berg, Joe, Biohabitats Bergen County, New Jersey is undertaking improvements to the Teaneck Creek Park. Historically, this area was a tidal freshwater marsh, but a tidal gate downstream of the site eliminated the site’s tidal hydrology. Subsequent development and landfilling on the margins of the site has further degraded conditions. The surrounding development was designed and constructed to drain to the remaining undeveloped land. The purpose of the proposed project, is to improve wetland, riparian and stream habitat. The project includes re-grading the topography to intercept and create surface storage wetland features at multiple stormwater


discharges to the Park from surrounding development. A regenerative stormwater conveyance (RSC) system will be constructed in the largest drainage locally known as the ‘stormwater canyon’. Using the RSC approach, including elements of sand seepage wetland design, stormwater inputs will be held in wetland depressional features and soak into the ground and constructed seepage zones. Larger storms will flow overland, spreading across the site increasing contact area, reducing its velocity and increasing contact time, and be safely conveyed to Teaneck Creek. Stormwater becomes the hydrologic foundation for integrated stream and wetland systems that slow the flow of the stormwater, converting the high frequency storm events into hyporheic seepage flow capable of restoring and enhancing wetland and stream hydrology. This approach will reduce peak discharges, increase the time of concentration, and infiltrate stormwater pulses into a hyporheic lens that will slowly deliver seepage to the constructed streams and ultimately to Teaneck Creek. By improving the site hydrology, water quality will be improved, with an overall effect of improving riparian wetlands and establishing conditions for a diversity of native plant and wildlife species. This project will showcase the benefits of green infrastructure in managing stormwater inputs within a highly urbanized setting. ■

PRESENTATION 1153 Presented during Integrating innovative technologies, TEK and TRM for restoring /creating resilient wetlands for the future II, 5/30/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

UNDERSTANDING ECOSYSTEM SERVICES OF TAIWAN’S COASTAL WETLANDS: LEARNING FROM LOCAL VOICES Dodd, Adrienne, National Cheng Kung University Wang, Hsiao-Wen, National Cheng Kung University Cheng, Kai-Hong, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan Ecosystem Services are often under recognized by the decision makers in charge of creating wetland management plans, especially in coastal salt pan wetlands of Taiwan. There is a lack of knowledge and understanding about what ecosystem services are, and how to utilize them in a sustainable way. This misunderstanding stems from a rigid top-down wetland management system in Taiwan which does not truly include the communities or people whose daily lives take place in and around the wetlands, and who will be most directly impacted by the wetland management plans. Though Taiwan’s Wetland Conservation Act specifies the creation of wetland wise-use plans, the lack of real understanding of ecosystem services hinders

implementation of such progressive legislation. Many local communities protest the designation of wetlands near them because they are concerned regulations will stop all use of the wetland. Unfortunately, this concern is well founded. Unless an activity is specifically stated as a wise-use in that wetland’s management plan, it is generally not allowed. Due to the lack of understanding of ecosystem services, ecosystem services which have been used by communities for a long time are often left out of a wetland’s wise-use plan. This has hurt environmental efforts in Taiwan as it has turned people against wetland conservation. In previous research, we have gained a general understanding of the ecosystem services provided by the salt pan wetlands of Tainan and Chiayi, but general understanding is not enough to convince and educate stakeholders on the importance of ecosystem services, or to influence management plans. In this research, we utilize participatory mapping tools to engage communities and create a detailed database of the ecosystem services being used in coastal wetlands of Southwestern Taiwan. This research looks at who is using the ecosystem services, to what degree are they being used, and where exactly in the wetland system are they being extracted/utilized. This will pave the way for future researchers to better understand the value of wetlands and the ecosystem services they provide. Inclusion of local communities and promoting local knowledge is a vital aspect of creating sustainable, ethical, and resilient wetland management plans. We hope that these techniques can be used by others, and that inclusion of participatory ecosystem service mapping can become a standardized aspect of wetland data collection in Taiwan and abroad. ■

PRESENTATION 1208 Presented during Ecosystem Services and Monitoring Assessments, 5/30/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

THE NEW ENGLAND WETLAND FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT Minkin, Paul, US Army Corps of Engineers Sachs Lambert, Erica, US Environmental Protection Agency The New England District of the US Army Corps of Engineers and Region 1 of the US Environmental Protection Agency have developed a quantitative wetland functional assessment method to be used throughout New England for the regulatory program that they administer. The New England Wetland Functional Assessment (NEWFA) is a modelbased method that assays levels of functioning for 14 specific wetland functions that fall within three categories: water quality maintenance (Particulate Retention, Removal and Sequestration of Heavy Metals, Phosphorus Retention, Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 247


Nitrogen Transformation, Carbon Sequestration), hydrology (Groundwater Recharge, Surface Water Detention, Streamflow Maintenance, Coastal Storm Surge Detention, Bank Stabilization, Shoreline Stabilization), and biota support (Production Export, Plant Community Integrity, Wildlife Habitat Integrity). In addition to the ecological model building, two rounds of field testing, with sites in all six New England states, were conducted to help develop and calibrate the models. The method does not assess wetland condition or provide a similarity index to reference sites. The variables used in the models are based on data that are collected both via remote sensing and from the field. The method takes into consideration wetlands that inherently perform different functions or levels of functions by not assessing across wetland type, and includes use of regionally available datasets and practicalities of application within typical regulatory restraints. Each function is assessed individually and not combined into an overall function grade for the wetland. ■

PRESENTATION 1243 Presented during Ecosystem Services II, 5/31/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

SAND DREDGING AND ITS IMPACTS ON AQUATIC LIVES IN A SECTION OF LAGOS LAGOON COMPLEX, LAGOS, NIGERIA Ikemefuna, Deborah Abolanle, The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria Uche, Shulamite Ngozika, Aquatic Conservation and Ecological Restoration Network The purpose of this study is to show how dredging activities negatively impact aquatic life and ecosystem in Topo, Badagry and Agbara Rivers, Lagos state, Nigeria. Dredging is a necessary activity required to increase river depth, but with its advantage comes with ecological and environmental issues which create temporary or permanent impacts on surrounding areas and aquatic life. Such impacts include: contaminant release, vulnerability to erosion, sedimentation, turbidity and re-suspension. Studies show that the impacts of dredging on aquatic life is influenced by the following factors: 1.Dredging technique and technology employed 2.Topology of the River and its surrounding 3.Environmental conditions and 4.Sediment characteristics Dredging process affects the river’s composition, habitat structure and biodiversity leading to mass migration of local fish, mollusks and amphibian population. Deepening the river also attract invasive species that can survive more readily in such altered habitats, and death of river bank

248 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

vegetation. Due to increased turbidity in the dredged river, there is reduction in visibility in the water and the amount of sunlight reaching below the water surface, thereby reducing photosynthesis and other ecosystem functions. This in turn leads to reduction in food supply for fish and other organisms, impaired growth, reduced resistance to disease, and death. Dredging activities in rivers has negative impacts on the environmental, aquatic growth, ecosystem and biodiversity. ■

PRESENTATION 1254 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

CHESAPEAKE BAY DERELICT CRAB TRAP REMOVAL IN BALTIMORE COUNTY, MARYLAND FOR TIDAL MITIGATION Rigney, Kristen, EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc., PBC Koser, Sarah, EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc. Slacum, H. Ward, Oyster Recovery Partnership In 2017, Maryland Department of Transportation - State Highway Administration (MDOT-SHA) partnered with the Oyster Recovery Partnership (ORP) and EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc. PBC to satisfy compensatory tidal mitigation required by MDE and USACE via an off-site and out-of-kind tidal enhancement project. The project included the enhancement of existing tidal waters by removing lost or abandoned (derelict) crab traps. Approximately 3,000 acres within the Chesapeake Bay (the Bay) northeast of Hart-Miller Island was identified by ORP as a priority area for derelict crab trap removal. Yearly estimates indicate that 3.3 million blue crabs, or approximately 4.5 percent of the annual harvest, are trapped in derelict crab traps within the Chesapeake Bay. Similar removal projects have been implemented by Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS), NOAA, and ORP in the Chesapeake Bay and have shown that the removal of derelict crab traps can have a positive impact on blue crab populations. The project satisfied mitigation goals by reducing trash and debris, providing ecological uplift through reduced mortality of species trapped in derelict crab traps, stimulating the local economy by employing local watermen during the off season, and increasing economic productivity of blue crabs. During the removal effort more than 1,730 pieces of derelict gear were removed. ■


PRESENTATION 1260

PRESENTATION 1342

Presented during Ecosystem Services and Monitoring Assessments, 5/30/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

Presented during Restoration, Creation and Mitigation II, 5/29/2019 1:10 PM-2:50 PM

THE ROLE OF WETLANDS IN DEFENCING SANDIFICATION IN DRYLAND AREA Wen, Bolong, Northeast Institute of geography and agroecology, Chinese academy of sciences Liu, Xingtu, Northeast Institute of geography and agroecology, Chinese academy of sciences Zhang, Jitao, Northeast Institute of geography and agroecology, Chinese academy of sciences Zhu, Qilin, Northeast Institute of geography and agroecology, Chinese academy of sciences

MANIPULATING INTRASPECIFIC DIVERSITY AND ECOTYPE RICHNESS TO RESTORE MULTIFUNCTIONAL WETLANDS Hager, Rachel, Utah State University Kettenring, Karin, Utah State University

The interaction between wetland and surrounding ecosystem deeply affects the main ecological functions of wetlands. The role of wetlands as barrier to desertification is easily accepted, but is not as deeply studied as other functions of wetland, nor as clearly understood as the windbreak and sand fixation of forest and grassland. Based on the monitoring in situ with a series of sand collectors and wind equipment deployed inside and nearby the marshes with Phragmites australis, the sand interception efficiency and eolian sediment deposition flux was analyzed and evaluated in the Western Songnen Plain, China. In wetland-sandy land transitional areas, marshes have a strong barrier effect on wind-sand migration, the amount of wind-sand decreased sharply along longitudinal distances into marshes under the prevailing wind, the amount of sand collected near the surface in outer parts is higher than in inner parts of marsh, the minimum reduction rate of windsand can be up to 60% across 2 km continuous marsh; the intercept of reed vegetation in the wetland effectively reduces the low-altitude wind speed close to the ground and weakens the ability of carrying sand; wind-driven sand migration is highly seasonal, the amount of wind-blown sand collected from March to May is 4.4 times and 22.3 times of that from May to July and July to September respectively, the key period of sandstorm interception is in early spring in China’s Songnen region; the ability of sand fixation for its wet surface and moisture of wetland is strong, fixation flux is from 369.9 g/m² to 3.9 g/m² from the sandy land to the downwind inner wetland, which is an important ecological function for the wetland to distinguish itself from other ecosystems. More research about the effect of vegetation, negative topography, wet surface and other structural characteristics of wetland on wind-sand will help us to quantitative evaluate the degree to which the wetland is defending against sand expansion in Arid and Semi-arid Area. ■

Wetlands are among the most productive and economically valuable ecosystems in the world because they provide essential ecosystem functions and services. However, restoration efforts to restore these systems following degradation have varying degrees of recovery of ecosystem functioning. Understanding the complex and diverse relationships between functional traits and ecosystem functioning is critical for the restoration of multifunctional ecosystems. Functional traits are the expressions of plant characteristics that can impact ecosystem functions within their environment. In species-poor ecosystems like Great Salt Lake wetlands, the focal ecosystem for this study, diversity within species (i.e., intraspecific diversity) can be a driving factor of ecological strategies and ecosystem functioning. Understanding the integration of intraspecific diversity, functional traits, and ecosystem functions is critical to restore functionally-rich wetlands. In a field experiment, we manipulated 12 different ecotypes of the native foundational species Schoenoplectus acutus (hardstem bulrush) across 3 ecotype richness levels in competition with invasive Phragmites australis to explore how planting diverse assemblages can increase ecosystem multifunctionality in Great Salt Lake wetland restorations. Over the growing season, we measured functional traits including percent cover of all species, and specifically for P. australis and S. acutus: stem height, stem density, aboveground and belowground biomass, and seed head density. We also assessed metrics to quantify the ecosystem functions of primary productivity, invasion resistance, habitat provisioning, and heavy metal bioaccumulation. Preliminary analysis indicates differences in mean and variation of the different functional traits across the ecotypes and ecosystem functions across ecotype richness levels. Additionally there are trade-offs and synergies of ecosystem functions across the ecotype richness levels. Variation in functional traits and ecosystem functioning between ecotypes provides a strong potential for more targeted restoration planning. Based on these findings, we will broaden our understanding of how to restore the multifunctionality of Great Salt Lake wetlands, with strong future implications for other ecosystems and diverse ecosystem functions. ■

Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 249


PRESENTATION 1353

PRESENTATION 1403

Presented during Restoration, Creation and Mitigation III, 5/29/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

Presented during Ecosystem Services II, 5/31/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

BARRIER ISLAND FLOOD RESILIENCY VIA RESTORATION OF A BAY ISLAND WETLAND Dix, Junetta, ACT Engineers, Inc. Merritts, Travis, Anchor QEA, LLC Rosina, Eric, ACT Engineers, Inc. New Jersey’s barrier islands are at risk from coastal storms, sea level rise, flooding, and erosion. Strengthening natural ecosystems can threats and benefit fish and wildlife. The 2013 Climate Action Plan committed to making local communities more resilient against major storms and funded 102.75 million in grants. Grants were awarded to projects that assess, restore, enhance, or create wetlands, beaches and other natural systems to help mitigate storm events and better protect communities and fish and wildlife. Ocean City, NJ was awarded the Shooting Island Restoration Grant. Shooting Island is a Spartina alterniflora-dominated salt marsh with areas of salt pans, tidal creeks and 5-acre former dredged material placement site. The island is proximate to densely populated Ocean City and has historically served to reduce wave run-up and intensity. As a result of wave action, the island has experienced significant deterioration of its natural shoreline for more than 80 years. The restoration project is intended to provide improved protection to Ocean City against erosion, wave action, and sea level rise, by enlarging the island and marsh habitat. The restoration plan proposed construction of 2,750-feet of living shoreline and installation of 1,750 linear feet of oyster castles. Approximately 2,700 linear feet of rock sill will be constructed, just off the island’s northern shoreline. The sill will function as protection for the Shooting Island wetlands and absorb existing wave and current energy, creating a depositional environment. Post settlement, the sill has an approximate 22-25 foot wide base. It is approximately 6.5 to 7.5 feet high, with a post-settlement top elevation of +1.55 feet NAVD88 (3.78’ MLW). The sill contains nine 50-foot wide ‘windows’ for enhanced tidal flow and fish passage. Approximately 1,450 linear feet of oyster habitat would be developed using concrete habitat blocks, approximately 300 feet offshore the northwestern shoreline of Shooting Island. The oyster blocks are tiered/ stacked with a top elevation of approximately 0 to -1-foot NAVD88 (2.23 to 1.23’ MLW). Oyster blocks pyramids are assembled on land, barged to the site and installed either bare, with packed shell for oyster recruitment or packed oyster spat-seeded shells. Construction began on December 19, 2018, is underway and scheduled for completion by April 1. Post construction monitoring will evaluate the success of the restoration work. ■ 250 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

CHANGES TO HEADWATER WETLAND FUNCTIONS ACROSS AN URBANIZING LANDSCAPE Anderson, Christopher, Auburn University Ramesh, Rasika, Auburn University Kalin, Latif, Auburn University Along the southeast U.S. coast, maintaining the integrity of coastal creeks and associated wetlands is critical for the functions they provide including downstream water quality. Because of their small size, they are easily displaced or altered through filling, dredging and stormwater management practices. Given their location, they have a disproportionately high influence on watershed flow and nutrient fluxes. We highlight recent findings on the effects of urban land use on headwater wetland functions related to water quality, nutrient cycling and habitat. Evaluating over 30 wetlands across a range of land use conditions in coastal Alabama, relationships between land use (e.g., % watershed impervious area) and shifts in edaphic conditions and vegetation assemblages were detected and related to changes in hydroperiod. In urban areas, headwater wetlands become increasingly driven by surface water flows and monitoring indicated greater than normal fluctuations in water table and the increased tendency for leaf-litter export from the forest floor. Surveying a subset of the wetlands, land use change also resulted in shifts in amphibian assemblage with increased emphasis on more cosmopolitan species and fewer sensitive species. Most recently, four headwater wetlands were intensely monitored for their capacity to attenuate dissolved nutrients (e.g., nitrate+nitrite). Where stormwater flows were ameliorated and hydroperiods largely sustained, wetlands were capable of substantial reductions in nitrate+nitrite concentrations and loads (up to 64%). We offer practical suggestions and options on how to maintain the functional capacity of these wetlands in a region facing significant land use change. ■

PRESENTATION 1418 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

FEMA FUNDING OF WETLAND CONSERVATION AS A PREVENTATIVE MEASURE AGAINST HURRICANE DAMAGE Bordelon, Sarah, Texas A&M University at Galveston Social costs associated with disaster recovery in the United States have been on a rise in recent decades given unprecedented numbers of extreme weather events including floods, coastal storms and hurricanes that overwhelm local capacity to deal with disaster consequences. How to proactively manage and mitigate disaster risks have become a priority for many


coastal communities. Among many alternatives, nature-based risk management solutions including preservation and restoration of wetlands, mangroves and dunes have been considered increasingly. In this paper, we examine the effectiveness of wetlands in mitigating social costs associated with natural disasters. Analyzing the panel data of coastal counties in the Gulf of Mexico region over the past decade, we find some empirical evidence that restoring wetland effectively reduce spending on FEMA disaster recovery programs. The implication of our research is tremendous given staggering rate of loss of wetlands in the united states and rising costs of both disaster declaration as well as disaster aid in the aftermath. ■

PRESENTATION 1433 Presented during Closing the permitting-mitigation-monitoring (PMM) loop: A focus on the mid-Atlantic USA II, 5/30/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

NON-TRADITIONAL MITIGATION STRATEGIES - A MARYLAND PERSPECTIVE Dolbin, Emily, McCormick Taylor Lowe, Scott, McCormick Taylor Beyond the usual wetland and stream creation or restoration strategies, we’ll discuss non-traditional forms to mitigation that have been implemented in Maryland, and look for feedback on how to focus more on function based mitigation strategies. From ghost crab pot removal, reef balls, stormwater management treatment, and preservation of natural systems, we’ll discuss mitigation projects that highlight an overall gain in aquatic function. We’ll discuss how to open the doors to more creative and holistic mitigation strategies, the potential of investigating ecosystem services, and look for feedback from other practitioners. ■

planning. This is particularly true when analyzing the relative impact of individual species on functions such as water quality improvement, and especially so in non-treatment wetlands. Even in the relatively well studied field of wastewater treatment wetlands, which are focused almost exclusively on water quality improvement, the standard advice for more than two decades simply has been to plant species of Typha, Scirpus, or Phragmites, or more generally stated, plant perennial species exhibiting the graminoid growth form. As part of a study of restored wetlands in the lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, we collected data on water quality attributes to evaluate their correlation with particular plant species, or suites of species. In that study, we found no relationship between water quality and individual plant species; however, the plant growth forms present in our study wetlands were found to be related to parameters such as pH, conductivity, and turbidity. In a separate experimental study, we examined the relationship between wetland plant species and rates of loss of suspended sediment and dissolved nutrients (N & P) and again found that plant growth forms and other summative parameters of the vegetation were more closely correlated with contaminant loss than was species identity. In both studies, broadleaf forb species and graminoids were correlated with similar levels of ‘water quality,’ whereas the presence of other growth forms seemed to detract from measured water quality or rates of contaminant removal. Our results suggest that the general advice of planting species with a graminoid growth form for water quality improvement (in either treatment or non-treatment wetlands) may, in fact, continue to be supported as more data become available on relationships between wetland plant species and water quality. ■

PRESENTATION 1523 Presented during Ecosystem Services II, 5/31/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

PRESENTATION 1510 Presented during Restoration, Creation and Mitigation I, 5/29/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

WETLAND VEGETATION FOR WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT: IS THE SIMPLEST ADVICE STILL THE BEST? Ervin, Gary, Mississippi State University Shoemaker, Cory, Mississippi State University A major objective of wetland creation or restoration is to restore, enhance, or augment ecological services on the landscape. A critical consideration in restoration is providing a hydrology suitable for the establishment of plant species that will facilitate the desired ecological functions. However, species-specific effects on some ecological functions remain largely unknown, as do relative differences among species, despite the potential utility of such information for site

DEVELOPMENT OF ECOLOGICAL CHECK MECHANISM ON RIVER DREDGING CONSIDERING ECOSYSTEM SERVICES Kuo, Pin-Han, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary Shih, Shang-Shu, National Taiwan University Hwang, Gwo-wen, Hydrotech Research Institute, National Taiwan University The Tanshui estuary provides diverse habitats for animals including mangrove, mudflat, sand bar, marsh and tidal creek, and was recognized as one of the national important wetlands in Taiwan. Owing to urban development and increasing precipitation, the capacity of the flood defense in downstream Tanshui River is not enough. Dredging in downstream Danshui River was thus considered as a measure to increase flow capacity. Considering the dredging engineering may alter the ecosystem functions, similarly to other projects in Taiwan, Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 251


the ecological check mechanism was employed to prevent the impact on ecological resources and habitats attributed to the engineering. However, in the ecological check form, the links between ecosystem and human well-being was overlooked and the dialogue platform was not well taken into considerations. This may bring the dispute over flood control and ecological conservation. We thus carried out revisions on the ecological check mechanism in the view of ecosystem services. The participatory activities, i.e. interview, card game, workshop, were incorporated as well. Throughout the revision, a win-win solution was presented. Among it, the dredging engineering not only decreases the flood risk but also creates the habitat for shorebirds and insects. As ecological check mechanism for the hydraulic engineering projects is enforced in Taiwan, the experiences in our study could be an inspired practice for future work to address both human needs and ecological conservation. ■

conducted at the ground level by Delaware scientists. On-site wetland condition assessments collect data on a different set of metrics to assess function, which let scientists determine if good wetland condition equates to high function predicted at the landscape level. Multiple approaches of comparing numeric scoring to categorical data were used including creating similar scoring for both. Comparing landscape-level wetland functional predictions to site-level wetland condition does not align well as predicted function at the landscape level is derived from hydrogeomorphic characteristics where wetland condition metrics are used to evaluate function at the site level. However, this evaluation proved valuable in identifying improvements to the methods and steps forward which will allow each method to help inform the other in future efforts. ■

PRESENTATION 1554 Presented during Restoration, Creation and Mitigation III, 5/29/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

PRESENTATION 1544 Presented during Ecosystem Services and Monitoring Assessments, 5/30/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

COMPARISON OF LANDSCAPE-LEVEL WETLAND FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT TO SITE-LEVEL WETLAND CONDITION ASSESSMENT IN DELAWARE. Biddle, Mark, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control The Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control partnered with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) to complete a statewide wetland mapping update using recent aerial imagery. This wetland mapping effort provided the opportunity to include NWIPlus interpretation with abiotic hydrogeomorphic characteristics to the baseline ecological classification - the Cowardin et al. system (1979). The new mapping also produced an updated wetland status and changes analysis. The addition of the hydrogeomorphic features within NWIPlus classified wetlands by landscape position, landform, waterbody type, and water flow path (LLWW descriptors; Tiner 2003a). The Delaware Wetland Monitoring and Assessment Program uses these data to assist with wetland resource management and for outreach to the public. In recent years, outreach focus has addressed the values of wetlands. Messaging wetland function is important to landowners and particularly decision-makers as loss of wetland functions can result in health, safety, and economic consequences. The NWIPlus mapping proved valuable in highlighting 11 functions predicted at the landscape level. The functional data also provided opportunity to ‘cross-walk’ functional predictions at the landscape level with wetland condition assessments 252 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

LINKING VARIATION IN BELOWGROUND BIOMASS TO SOIL SHEAR STRENGTH IN LOUISIANA WETLANDS Jimoh, Olajuwon, Nicholls State University Graham, Sean, Nicholls State University Louisiana’s wetlands are vulnerable to both anthropogenic and natural processes, including sea-level rise, subsidence, and erosion that contribute to high rates of wetland loss. Belowground biomass is an important component of ecosystem structure that contributes to wetland stability by mediating erosion resistance and vertical accretion. In this study, we examined the relationship between belowground biomass and soil shear strength at 37 wetland sites across Louisiana, representing five wetland types: salt marsh, brackish marsh, intermediate marsh, fresh marsh, and forested wetlands. At each site, belowground biomass was collected using a 7.65-cm diameter by 30-cm long soil corer and sectioned into 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm soil depth increments. Soil shear strength was measured in triplicate at the mid-point of each soil depth increment using a shear vane with an attached torque gauge. In general, belowground biomass increased with increasing salinity, however, live root biomass was greatest in forested wetlands. Soil shear strength was significantly higher in forested wetlands compared to the other wetland types. In forested wetlands, soil shear strength was negatively correlated with both live and total belowground biomass. In contrast, fresh and intermediate marsh soil shear strength was positively correlated with live and total belowground biomass. Brackish and salt marshes had no discernible relationship between soil shear strength and belowground biomass. These results show that different wetland types of Louisiana have distinct variation in soil strength relationships with belowground biomass. ■


PRESENTATION 1558 Presented during Restoration, Creation and Mitigation II, 5/29/2019 1:10 PM-2:50 PM

THE SONOMA CREEK MARSH ENHANCEMENT PROJECT: HABITAT IMPROVEMENT AND MOSQUITO SOURCE REDUCTION IN A SAN FRANCISCO ESTUARY TIDAL MARSH Gillenwater, Dan, Gillenwater Consulting The Sonoma Creek Marsh Enhancement Project, constructed in 2015, was designed to improve tidal exchange and habitat structure and function within a 300-acre tidal marsh at the mouth of Sonoma Creek within the San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge (San Francisco Estuary, California). Prior to project implementation, the marsh routinely ponded water for extended periods following spring tides and storm events when water became trapped in a large topographic basin in the marsh interior and between a series of relict levee alignments. This ponding led to high mosquito production rates and reduced vigor and cover of marsh vegetation, which reduced habitat quality for several state and federally-listed marsh-dependent wildlife species. The problems observed at this site are typical of ‘centennial’ tidal marshes (formed over approximately the past 100 years on accumulated Sierra Nevada hydraulic mining sediments), which lack the extensive tidal channel networks and habitat complexity characteristic of ancient San Francisco Estuary marshes. There is concern that centennial marshes may continue to degrade and revert to mudflat over time, a process that is likely to accelerate with sea level rise. The Sonoma Creek Marsh Enhancement Project, implemented by the San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge in collaboration with Audubon California and the Marin-Sonoma Mosquito and Vector Control District, involved constructing a large channel through the central basin of the marsh, bisecting existing relict marsh channels and connected to Sonoma Creek. The excavation spoils were used to create structural habitat elements, including marsh mounds, high marsh ‘lifts’, and a habitat transition (ecotone) ramp along the adjacent upland levee. Three years following project construction, the site has experienced a dramatic reduction in mosquito production rates, revegetation of nearly 100% of the central basin ‘dead zone’, and an increase in wildlife use of the site. This project serves as an example for addressing similar problems at centennial tidal marshes throughout the Estuary. ■

Management & Applied Science: GIS & Remote Sensing PRESENTATION 1033 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

ASSESSING SEMI-AUTOMATED WETLAND MAPPING TECHNIQUES AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WETLAND LOCATOR MODEL Hengel, Benjamin, North Dakota State University DeKeyser, Edward, North Dakota State University Access to up-to-date wetland inventories is a vital tool for implementing and assessing wetland restoration and enhancement projects. A large portion of the National Wetland Inventory (NWI) has not been updated since its inception in the 1980’s, hindering wetland conservation efforts. The time consuming and costly processes previously used to update wetland inventories are insufficient especially with the lack of funding. Recent research and development of semi-automated tools within geographic information systems (GIS) software has provided methods for identifying wetland areas. These tools are timely and cost-effective alternatives to previous methodology. This study analyzed the accuracy, precision, and miss rates of multiple tools previously used to map wetlands and introduces a new model (Wetland Finder Model) that applies weights to a layerstack method to improve wetland mapping accuracy and precision. The analysis and methods used in this study would provide highly accurate and precise wetland maps that are timely and affordable to all wetland managers and scientists. The results of the Wetland Finder Model (WLM) and the use of a weight equal to or greater than seven will provide a wetland mapping accuracy of 94.4%, a precision rate of 97.5%, and a miss rate of 33.8%. These results suggest that the WLM would not only provide accurate and precise wetland maps but also allow agency funds to be directed towards implementing more wetland restoration and protection projects. ■

Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 253


PRESENTATION 1038

PRESENTATION 1155

Presented during Applying Adaptive Management to Restoration of the Herring River Estuary II, 5/31/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

Presented during GIS II, 5/29/2019 1:10 PM-2:50 PM

USING SLAMM OUTPUT AS PROXY DATA FOR ECOLOGICAL OBJECTIVES IN A DECISION SUPPORT TOOL Leduc, Elise, Woods Hole Group Bosma, Kirk, Woods Hole Group Smith, Tim, Minnesota Board of Water and Soil Resources Derleth, Eric, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service The Herring River Estuary historically spanned more than 1000+ acres on outer Cape Cod, but it has been physically separated from Wellfleet Harbor for over a century by a dike that has dramatically reduced its tidal range and circulation, and has resulted in significant degradation of the ecological functions of the marsh. A comprehensive adaptive management strategy, which combines hydrological, ecological and social objectives, is being utilized to guide the restoration of this system. Multiple ecological objectives, such as changes in the acreage of emergent marsh and the aesthetics of various viewscapes, require predictions of how habitat conditions will change within the system in response to changing water levels. To address these ecological objectives, a targeted ecological modeling effort was undertaken to understand how wetland types and vegetation within the system will respond to the alterations in tidal regime planned as part of the restoration. Although the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) was originally designed to simulate the dominant processes involved with wetland conversions due to sea-level rise, because water level is the driving factor within SLAMM, by specifying the tidal range resulting from various tide gate openings this model was used in a unique approach to evaluate how the vegetation will respond to changes in water level due to altering man-made structures, rather than the water level increases projected to occur through sea-level rise. Such simulations were completed for 17 different potential adaptive management gate opening scenarios. Habitat change results from the SLAMM analyses will feed directly into a broader 38-measurement endpoint decision tool to guide adaptive management decisions by providing proxy data for ecological objectives, such as habitat areas and viewscapes, to help choose a preferred restoration alternative. â&#x2013;

254 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

INVESTIGATING LANDSCAPE LEVEL SPATIAL PATTERNS OF BRACHYPODIUM SYLVATICUM INVASION Clay, Tiffany, SUNY Brockport Graham, Andie, The College at Brockport Slender falsebrome (Brachypodium sylvaticum) is a relatively new invasive species in New York State, though it has become an ecological villain in the Pacific North West since its introduction in 1939. After discovery of B. sylvaticum in Bergen Swamp (Genesee County, NY) in 2009 and the subsequent discovery of additional infestations throughout NYS, researchers at the College at Brockport have been working to identify and remove infestations as rapidly as possible. In its native range, B. sylvaticum can grow in a wide range of ecological conditions, a pattern also found in Bergen Swamp through direct observation in 2016 and the creation of a habitat suitability model in 2017. In 2018, we expanded this model to cover the entire state of NY to investigate landscape level spatial patterns of B. sylvaticum invasion using ArcGIS (v. 10.4) and Maxent. Data layers included presence data for current B. sylvaticum infestations, land use, climate variables, soil characteristics, transportation (i.e. roads and trails), and state lands and parks. Preliminary results suggest that the spread of B. sylvaticum may be facilitated by multi-use trails, and that B. sylvaticum is found most often in loamy, mixed, active soils that are poorly drained in areas of NY that experience low annual precipitation rates. Moreover, comparable models were created for Oregon, California, Michigan, Missouri, and Virginia in an attempt to better understand the spatial patterns of B. sylvaticum invasion in these states that have also been invaded. If an overall pattern can be found between states, it can increase the efficiency of the search for new infestations in New York and the Northeast, leading to early detection and rapid response - a statewide goal for B. sylvaticum management. â&#x2013;


PRESENTATION 1157

PRESENTATION 1196

Presented during GIS II, 5/29/2019 1:10 PM-2:50 PM

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

THE APPLICATION OF SMALL-UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS (SUAS) FOR THE DETECTION OF THE INVASIVE AQUATIC PLANT SPECIES C. HELMSII IN WETLANDS Strong, Conor, University of Brighton Small-unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS), more commonly referred to as drones, present a novel and rapidly evolving approach to spatial data collection and research. One application for this technology is the detection and management of invasive species. Australian swamp stonecrop (Crassula helmsii) is an invasive aquatic plant capable of dominating still or slow flowing water bodies such as ditches, ponds, and canals. It is spreading throughout the UK and Europe, where it can form dense vegetative mats that out-compete native flora. At present, there is no effective method of control for this species. We employed a fixed-wing sUAS equipped with a multispectral sensor to monitor C. helmsii on the Pevensey Levels wetland in East Sussex, UK. The Levels represent one of the largest wetland landscapes in South East England and are of global nature conservation significance. However, the area is infested to such an extent that the site could lose its conservation designations if this invasive species is not controlled. Ditch networks containing C. helmsii were surveyed across both spatial and temporal scales during the main growing season (AprilOctober). SUAS flights were conducted at an altitude of 120m and captured imagery had a ground resolution of 11cm. The survey areas ranged from 27-29.2ha in size and the number of individual images acquired was between 325-830. Image location data was corrected using Post Processed Kinematic (PPK). Pix4Dmapper photogrammetry software was then used to create digital orthomosaics from the georeferenced imagery. Image analysis was undertaken within ArcGIS using the Maximum Likelihood Classification feature. In order to classify ditch vegetation, pixel subsets (0.5 x 0.5m quadrats), identified during ground surveys, were trained for both multispectral bands and vegetation indices. These trained samples were then applied to all pixels within the ditch imagery to classify them into species groups. This analysis allows C. helmsii to be rapidly identified and subsequently monitored within the field. Furthermore, sUAS surveys repeated monthly during the main growing season will help to determine the optimum period for monitoring C. helmsii utilising this approach. It is anticipated that scientific publications relating to the monitoring and control of C. helmsii will be produced. Additional outcomes of the project will include a plan of eradication for the species on the Pevensey Levels wetland and a control brief for contractors â&#x2013;

FEWER WETLANDS, MORE CONNECTIVITY: IMPLICATIONS OF LANDUSE-LANDCOVER CHANGE IN AN AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE Lawlor, Stephanie, University of South Florida, College of Arts and Sciences Rains, Kai, University of South Florida Rains, Mark, University of South Florida Flannagan, Claire, The Mosaic Company Landry, Shawn, University of South Florida St. Lucie County (SLC) is a 1,782 km2 area in east-central Florida that drains to the Nationally Significant Indian River Lagoon (IRL). It is low lying and nearly level, with widespread non-floodplain wetlands (NFWs) and few natural channels. Since the early 20th Century, SLC has undergone extensive land use-land cover (LULC) change and is now characterized by citrus farming in the interior and municipalities on the coast. This LULC change has been made possible by the construction of an extensive drainage network, which has altered the way water is stored on and transmitted though this landscape. We hypothesized that the net effect in this case has been to reduce wetland area, increase drainage density, increase the distances between individual wetlands, and decrease the distances between individual wetlands and channels. We tested these hypotheses by mapping the spatial distribution of wetlands (1950 and 2007) and natural and artificial channels (1845, 1950, and 2007) before and after the most intense period of LULC change, calculating spatial metrics to quantify change. NFWs comprise the vast majority of wetlands, both in terms of numbers and area. The reduction in wetland area and the increase in drainage density have been pronounced, resulting in a pronounced increase in the distances between individual wetlands and a pronounced decrease in the distances between individual wetlands and channels. These results suggest that wetland water storage has been decreased, with water instead being routed more efficiently to coastal waters. The loss of wetlands and enhanced hydrologic connectivity in SLC has potential implications for the IRL, where chronic and acute water-quality degradation and related harmful algal blooms (HABs) have become the norm. We suggest that local LULC change be given careful consideration in ongoing efforts to address these growing threats to the integrity of the IRL and other coastal waters. â&#x2013;

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PRESENTATION 1253 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

QUANTIFYING THE ACCURACY OF LANDSAT DERIVES WATER INDEX IN ESTIMATING RESERVOIR WATER SURFACE AREA Ngenzi, Lambert, Washington State University Water is a crucial resource for food production in semi-arid regions of the world, such as parts of West Africa. Thus, the management of water storage plays a critical role in human well-being. In this research, we are trying to understand the dynamics of water storage in small reservoirs in the Volta Basin by using remotely sensed imagery. Google Earth images give better results on fine scale with than Landsat images, but Google Earth has only been collecting data for about fifteen years. However, the Landsat program has collected more than three million images for about forty years. First, we will assess the accuracy satellite images (Landsat 7 or 8) with water index by comparing them to available aerial photography (Google Earth). We will quantify how accuracy changes with soil color, latitude and size of reservoir from 2000-2016. A detailed accuracy assessment using water index will improve our ability to estimate changes in storage across semi-arid regions of the world to inform water resources management. In addition, we hope to detect changes in water quantity by assessing the impact of the local communities and their activities in these small reservoirs in the Volta Basin. â&#x2013;

PRESENTATION 1355 Presented during GIS I, 5/29/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

HIGH-RESOLUTION MAPPING OF GLOBAL MANGROVE LOSS DRIVERS AND VULNERABILITY Goldberg, Liza, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Lagomasino, David, NASA/GSFC Fatoyinbo, Lola, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Global mangrove forests remain highly threatened due to a range of often-simultaneous natural and anthropogenic factors. An understanding of the local-scale contributors to mangrove loss is critical to future planning of restoration and preservation efforts. Here we present global, 30-meter resolution maps of the drivers of mangrove loss from 2000 to 2016. Using long-term Landsat disturbance metrics, we mapped global permanent mangrove losses in three epochs: 2000 to 2005, 2005 to 2010, and 2010 to 2016. Random forest machine learning algorithms classified land cover changes from mangrove to wet soil, dry soil, and water within each loss pixel, and a series of decision trees categorized the ultimate driver of the forest loss into one 256 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

of five classes: erosion, commodities, human-settlement, human-driven dieback, and naturally-driven dieback. Continental, national, and sub-national loss driver trends reveal the extent of anthropogenically influenced and naturally occurring forest change, and projecting these patterns enables the consideration of potential future stressors. In leveraging global mangrove height, biomass, and carbon stock data in conjunction with loss driver maps, we also identify the implications of mangrove losses and their drivers on the global carbon cycle. All loss driver maps are featured in an interactive application known as the Electronic Coastal Monitoring and Assessment Program (EcoMap), enabling the visualization of past and future drivers from the local to the international scale. This monitoring tool has the potential to inform decision-making and restoration measures in mangrove-dependent communities, aiding sustainable resource management planning and climate mitigation efforts in coastal regions. â&#x2013;

PRESENTATION 1447 Presented during Monitoring and Assessment I, 5/30/2019 9:55 AM11:35 AM

NATIONAL WETLAND AND ASSOCIATED LAND COVER DATA: LESSONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION AND APPLICATION Lang, Megan, USFWS Herold, Nate, NOAA Office for Coastal Management Jones, John, USGS Rover, Jennifer, U.S. Geological Survey Xian, George, USGS DeVries, Ben, University of Maryland Peterson, Birgit, USGS Wetland maps are essential for sound decision-making regarding a wide range of topics, including natural disasters, infrastructure development, recreation planning, and natural resource conservation. The need for detailed wetland data for such purposes has led to the development of a variety of wetland maps across the globe. For the U.S., several land cover datasets that contain explicit wetland classes or related environmental variables are or will soon be available. These map products represent a range of production methods with associated costs and resultant levels of spatial and categorical detail, while fulfilling a variety of mandates for agencies. One product, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) geospatial dataset, was designed explicitly to map wetlands and contains only wetland and deepwater classes. More general land cover maps, like the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium (MRLC) National Land Cover Database (NLCD) and the


National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) dataset, characterize a broader array of land cover categories, including uplands. Level of detail within these datasets ranges from two to hundreds of mapped wetland types. Some datasets are updated regularly (e.g., with each new Landsat acquisition) whereas others are only updated as resources allow. In addition to more traditional land cover maps, which denote land cover classes for one point in time, new products are being developed that can be used to monitor critical wetland related environmental variables, such as the presence of water or vegetation. The wetland community would benefit from an overview of these datasets as well as information on their appropriate use. Although coverage of these products is limited to the U.S., they present a wide range of options, including cost points, for implementation by other nations, many of which have implemented or are planning to implement wetland mapping programs. This presentation provides an overview and use information for three current U.S. land cover datasets that include wetland classes (U.S. FWS NWI geospatial dataset, NOAA C-CAP, and MRLC NLCD) as well as two new products from the U.S. Geological Survey: the Dynamic Surface Water Extent (DSWE) and the soon to be released Land Cover Monitoring, Assessment, and Projection (LCMAP) datasets. ■

cal classification to best support geospatial summaries and modeling for management. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) encourages states and tribes to develop and use a consistent, thorough and timely wetland monitoring and assessment program as a critical tool in managing and protecting their wetland resources. These programs can allow states and tribes to: 1) establish a baseline in wetlands extent, condition and function; 2) detect change; and 3) characterize trends over time. Wetlands monitoring and assessment data can be used to help States and Tribes make decisions in: 1) the Clean Water Act Section 404 or individual State/Tribal regulatory programs; 2) wetland restoration and watershed planning efforts; 3) establishing the ambient condition of wetland resources, and 4) the development of meaningful water quality standards for wetlands. A monitoring and assessment program is defined as the establishment and operation of appropriate devices, methods, systems and procedures necessary to monitor, compile, and analyze data on the condition of wetlands in a state or tribe. Monitoring is the systematic observation and recording of current and changing conditions, while assessment is the use of that data to evaluate or appraise wetlands to support decision-making and planning processes. To further assist States and Tribes, EPA’s Wetland Program Development Grants provides needed financial resources to support actions and activities that together with NWI data, can comprise a comprehensive wetland monitoring and assessment program. ■

PRESENTATION 1460 Presented during GIS I, 5/29/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

USING NATIONAL WETLAND INVENTORY DATA TO ASSIST STATE/TRIBE WETLAND MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT EFFORTS Vallette, Yvonne, USEPA Region 10 Kirchner, William, U.S Fish and Wildlife Service The US Fish and Wildlife Service’s National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) is a publicly available geospatial data set that provides detailed information on the abundance, characteristics, and distribution of streams and wetlands throughout the US. Natural resource managers use the data to promote the understanding, conservation and restoration of these resources. In 2016, NWI released version 2.0 of the dataset (NWI 2.0), which is a comprehensive characterization of all surface water features on the landscape, including a wide range of wetlands and other aquatic ecosystems, like streams. NWI 2.0 data is a reasonable representation of the resources at the landscape scale. Because of its coarse scale, and the classification, the data is suitable for establishing a baseline for resources either statewide or at watershed scale. This comprehensive dataset allows the accurate, consistent calculation of area and ecologi-

PRESENTATION 1482 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

DETECTION OF DISTURBANCE IN COASTAL WETLANDS USING GEOBIA AND PIXEL-BASED CLASSIFICATION OF LANDSAT 8 AND HIGH-RESOLUTION AERIAL IMAGERY Powell, Elisabeth, Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University Watson, Elizabeth, Drexel University and the Academy of Natural Sciences Haag, Scott, Academy of Natural Science Perez, Lin, Academy of Natural Science Since the development of commercial software for delineation and analysis of image-objects around 2000, the number of studies that have used object-based methods for wetland imagery classification have increased. Rather than focus on the accurate classification of individual pixels, this approach focuses on grouping spectrally homogeneous objects, and then classifying those objects using attributes such as intensity, texture, shape, and size. Many consider this shift from the individual pixel to image-objects as a paradigm shift in Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 257


remote sensing, and have termed the approach geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) to differentiate it from techniques used in medical imaging and other fields. This technique has great promise to improve change detection capabilities of national level land cover monitoring programs focusing on wetlands and forests. In this study, we used GEOBIA and pixel-based imagery classification methods to quantify the number and areal extent of man-made ponds constructed in the extensive coastal wetlands of New Jersey’s Barnegat Bay since the 1950s for the purposes of mosquito control. While little is known if it actually controls for mosquitos, the fragmentation of coastal wetlands that has resulted from pond construction likely has had a large impact on both wetland carbon storage functions and habitat value. This analysis is therefore useful for both establishing the overall extent of habitat alteration that has occurred in New Jersey due to mosquito control practices, as well as for illustrating general principles relevant to imagery resolution and analysis method in the context of detecting landscape disturbances. As such, our chief goal was to define the limitations of traditional wetland mapping conducted using LANDSAT data and pixelbased classification methods within the context of identifying small-scale disturbance and degradation. ■

PRESENTATION 1499 Presented during GIS I, 5/29/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

WETLAND FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT VIA REMOTE SENSING: EXISTING APPROACHES AND PROPOSED DEVELOPMENTS Backhaus, Peter, The Pennsylvania State University Brooks, Robert, Pennsylvania State University Wardrop, Denice, Penn State University Advances in the field of remote sensing and the expanding availability of geospatial datasets have contributed to the rapid development of wetland mapping techniques in recent decades. The advent of high-quality wetland maps and associated inventories created the opportunity to observe the status and trends of wetlands over time, including general decreases in wetland area and shifts in surrounding land use. These changes impact the ability of wetlands to optimally perform functions and provide associated ecosystem services; however, measurement of these functions is not readily translated from mapped data alone and field-based functional assessments are cost and time prohibitive over large geographic areas. The ability to efficiently track the alteration of functional performance in wetlands over time has a wide variety of applications in wetland and watershed management, making the development of landscape-scale functional assessments utilizing readily available geospatial data an appealing opportunity. 258 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

This talk will review existing remote functional assessments and related spatial data, ranging from function-specific and regional protocols to methods applicable nationwide. Current gaps in these assessments and data sources will be identified and the proposed development of protocols to address these shortcomings will be discussed. ■

PRESENTATION 1539 Presented during GIS I, 5/29/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

THE POTENTIAL OF REMOTELY SENSED PHENOLOGICAL INFORMATION TO SUPPORT WETLAND BIODIVERSITY MONITORING FROM LOCAL TO NATIONAL SCALES Dronova, Iryna, University of California at Berkeley Taddeo, Sophie, University of California at Berkeley Despite the widely acknowledged contribution of biodiversity to critical ecosystem services such as productivity, stability and resilience to stressors, the ability to monitor biodiversity and these contributions across regional extents remains limited. Further aggravated by spatial complexity and field survey limitations in wetlands, these constraints create an urgent need for cost-effective yet generalizable approaches for monitoring wetland biological diversity at the scales relevant to local, regional and national decision-making. We discuss the potential of spatio-temporal phenological information from publicly available, long-term repeatedly collected satellite remote sensing products to inform the monitoring of wetland vegetation diversity using the evidence from 1) systematic review of scholarly literature applying multi-temporal remote sensing data in landscape-scale biodiversity assessments and 2) case study using the national-scale wetland survey from the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Our results indicate that phenological information from time series remote sensing data can greatly facilitate wetland biodiversity assessments not only by enhancing discrimination of vegetation and habitat types in traditional applications, but also by informing new landscapescale indicators of biodiversity elucidating its magnitude and relationship with ecosystem change. Our findings also show that performance of such indicators is sensitive to spatial heterogeneity resulting from disturbance and varying inundation and spectral contributions of non-native species and woody vegetation, which should be investigated in more detail in future research. Growing archives of publicly available satellite data and new cloud-based computational tools offer promise to inform new leading indicators of biodiversity change in limited-access wetland environments and incorporate such indicators into monitoring programs from local to national levels of ecosystem management, restoration and conservation. ■


PRESENTATION 1589 Presented during GIS II, 5/29/2019 1:10 PM-2:50 PM

REMOTELY SENSED EARLY WARNING OF SALTWATER INTRUSION IN COASTAL FRESHWATER SWAMPS White, Elliott, University of Florida Kaplan, David, University of Florida Coastal freshwater swamps impacted by chronic saltwater intrusion (SWI) eventually shift to brackish or salt marshes dominated by herbaceous, salt-tolerant species. This shift in community composition can be captured using satellite remote sensing (RS), however early warning indices of impending shifts could be useful for identifying vulnerable sites and guiding improved water management. Leafy biomass in coastal freshwater swamps is strongly seasonal due to the dominance of deciduous canopy species and limited understory vegetation. Brackish and salt marshes, on the other hand, have more consistent year-round growth. Given these phenological traits, we hypothesized that coastal swamps impacted by SWI will have lower growing-season biomass (quantified using the RS enhanced vegetation index, EVI), higher dormant-season EVI, and higher growing:dormant season EVI ratios. To test this hypothesis, we selected four sites (two impacted by SWI, two unimpacted) from an ongoing long-term study of SWI in Florida (USA). All sites were within 40 km, minimizing the potential for other environmental factors (e.g. temperature, sunlight hours, and rainfall) to drive phenological dynamics. We used Landsat Surface Reflectance Tier 1 data from 1984 to the present to calculate EVI and divided data into growing season (March-September) and dormant season (October-February). As expected, average growing-season EVI was higher at unimpacted sites (0.49 ± 0.08) compared to impacted sites (0.42 ± 0.06), and average dormant-season EVI was lower at unimpacted sites (0.27 ± 0.07) compared to the impacted sites (0.3 ± 0.06). The growing:dormant season ratio at the unimpacted sites (1.81) was greater than the impacted sites (1.39). Under chronic pressure from SWI, the growing:dormant season ratio for the impacted site will continue to trend downward toward one. This would represent a complete shift in species composition from a canopy dominated by deciduous trees to one with consistent, year-round growth. This study indicates that it may be possible to detect changes in community composition of coastal freshwater swamps based upon satellite RS. More in-depth analysis needs to happen in order to correlate in EVI patterns with groundwater salinity. Next steps would be to apply across large geographic areas to monitor this hard-to-measure process at big scales. ■

Management & Applied Science: Invasive Species PRESENTATION 1006 Presented during Invasive Species I, 5/31/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

DO PLANT-SOIL FEEDBACKS CONTRIBUTE TO THE INVASIVENESS OF PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS? Lee, Sean, Villanova University Mozdzer, Thomas, Bryn Mawr College Langley, Adam, Villanova University Phragmites australis, common reed, is one of the biggest threats to wetland biodiversity today. The ‘M’ haplotype Eurasian lineage of P. australis has spread along the eastern seaboard and is moving inland into places such as the Great Lakes and pockets of the Western US (Saltonstall, 2002).   While introduced ‘M’ haplotype Phragmites exhibits traits that would make it a successful invader such as tall stature, dense growth pattern, ability to withstand wide range of salinities, and ability to become locally adapted (Vasquez et al. 2005, McCormick & Kettenring 2009), these characteristics alone do not explain the rapid spread of P. australis in North America. Belowground microbial interactions such as Plant-soil Feedbacks (PSFs) and release from belowground enemies (Enemy Release Hypothesis) may contribute to the expansion of Phragmites.  Being that P. australis is such an ecologically important species in North America, relatively little attention has been paid to its’ soil feedbacks. Using a 2-step Plant-soil Feedback experiment I seek to define the intraspecific soil feedback characteristics of native and European ‘M’ haplotype P. australis as well as interspecific soil feedbacks using the native saltmarsh species Spartina patens. To explore the effect of native range (Europe) vs. introduced range (North America) soils on the growth of ‘M’ haplotype P. australis I performed a growth experiment using soil/seed from 3 different habitat types (Urban, Freshwater, and Tidal) of both ranges. Data collected from the international study suggests growth differences based on seed range origin as well as differences between specific soil habitats. Interestingly, the PSF study shows positive growth feedbacks of P. australis soil towards native plants, with the opposite effect demonstrated by the native conditioned soil. ■

Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 259


PRESENTATION 1032

PRESENTATION 1073

Presented during Invasiveness in wetland plants in temperate North America: what have we learned in 20 years? II, 5/30/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

Presented during Invasiveness in wetland plants in temperate North America: what have we learned in 20 years? I, 5/30/2019 9:45 AM11:35 AM

EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL TREATMENT, BURNING, AND ALUM APPLICATION TO CONTROL CATTAIL IN A FLORIDA MARSH Ponzio, Kimberli, St. Johns River Water Management District Hall, Dianne, St. Johns River Water Management District Hoge, Victoria, St. Johns River Water Mgmt District Dobberfuhl, Dean, St. Johns River Water Management District The Ansin West tract encompasses 769 ha in the headwaters of the St. Johns River in Indian River County, FL. This historically low-nutrient marsh was designated to improve the quality of water draining surrounding agricultural operations and has been subjected to high-nutrient inflows since the 1990s. As a result, cattail (Typha domingensis) experienced a three-fold increase from 1991 to 1995 and continued to increase to more than 20% of the area by 2008. This reduced the quality of foraging habitat for the endangered snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis), prompting SJRWMD to implement a plan to reduce cattail cover and to bind bioavailable phosphorus in the soil. To remove cattail, a 267-ha area was treated with ClearcastTM in Jul 2012, followed by a prescribed burn in Aug 2012. This provided clear access for granular alum (dose 680 kg/ha) to penetrate the water column and reach the sediment, when it was applied aerially in late Aug 2012. Plant community composition was annually monitored at eight transects from 2012 to 2018. Soil samples were taken pre-treatment and 1-mo and 12-mo post-treatment at a depth of 10cm and were analyzed for parameters such as bulk density, pH, TP, orthophosphate, alkalinity, and Al. Water quality data was collected monthly, including TP-D, Color, pH, and Al. The most evident result of the treatment was the near elimination of cattail for two years. Although cattail slowly recolonized, it did not reach pre-treatment levels even after five years. After treatment, there was an expansion of submerged aquatic vegetation, especially Chara zeylanica, a species not recorded prior to treatment. Cattail was re-treated with ClearcastTM and burned again in 2017, effectively reducing its cover in 2018. While the impact of treatment on cattail cover was clear, we were unable to quantify a change in bioavailable P in the soil due to sampling limitations and wide spatial variability. Water quality samples displayed no dramatic alkalinity or pH depression after alum application. Although average TP-D in the water column was low prior to treatment (< 0.010 mg/L), it was further reduced by the treatment, initially, but then rebounded to pre-treatment levels seven months afterward. Aluminum spiked immediately after treatment, but leveled off from 2014-2017. The lack of realized benefits (reduced bioavailable P) of alum application indicates that it may be unnecessary to supplement chemical treatment and burning to manage cattail in this system. ■ 260 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

MANAGING RISKS OF CONTROLLING PHALARIS ARUNDINACEA AND OTHER WETLAND INVASIVE SPECIES Galatowitsch, Susan, University of Minnesota Over the past twenty years, increasing recognition of the realized and potential impacts of wetland invasive species on ecosystem services and functions has accelerated control efforts. Generally, response to wetland invasive species spread is initiated long past the point when control might be expected to reverse spread or have a lasting effect. This delay in response is less often due to a lack of awareness of potential adverse consequence of the invasive species requiring attention than other missed diagnoses of risk. Using Phalaris arundinacea as a model, it is instructive to consider a comprehensive risk assessment framework for wetland invasive species control. Some essential elements of this framework should include assessing the risks of: 1) failing to control a new invader relative to risks associated of reducing ongoing control investments in established invaders, 2) non-target impacts from control treatments, 3) of high-frequency, high-magnitude disturbances from control treatments on native plant and animal communities, and 4) partial-controllability (e.g., missed treatments, poorly implemented treatments. This risk framework also must account for the extent to which invasive species response is pursued in a regionally coordinated way. Without a comprehensive risk framework for control, the odds of adverse outcomes greatly increases as does the likelihood that control of wetland invasive species will be deemed unreasonable. This would undermine wetland conservation in many parts of the world, especially where wetland ‘assets’ of high value will be diminished by the prevalence of invasive species. ■

PRESENTATION 1075 Presented during Invasiveness in wetland plants in temperate North America: what have we learned in 20 years? II, 5/30/2019 1:00 PM2:50 PM

PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE CONTROL WITH HERBICIDES: MULTIYEAR APPLICATIONS Knezevic, Stevan, University of Nebraska This study evaluated the effectiveness of 14 herbicides treatments for purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) control over a period of 10 years. The study commenced in 2000/2001 at four wetland locations in Nebraska. The


evaluated herbicides included: glyphosate at 2.2 and 3.4 kg ha-1; 2,4-D dimethylamine at 1.3 and 2.7 kg ae ha-1; triclopyr at 1.3 and 2.1 kg ae ha-1; imazapyr at 1.1 and 1.7 kg ae ha-1; metsulfuron at 0.042 and 0.084 ai kg ha-1; fosamine at 13.5 and 22.4 kg ai ha-1 and triclopyr at 1.3 plus 2,4-D amine at 1.33 ae kg ha-1, and metsulfuron at 0.042 kg ai ha-1 plus 2,4-D amine at 1.3 kg ae ha-1. Some treatments provided excellent control (90%) that lasted only one season, while others suppressed loosestrife growth for multiple seasons, depending on the location and the age of purple loosestrife stand. Application of higher rates of glyphosate, imazapyr and metsulfuron consistently provided excellent control (≥90%) of purple loosestrife that lasted 360 days after treatment (DAT) at most locations. Application of fosamine and the lower rate of 2,4-D amine provided the least purple loosestrife control at most locations. The older the purple loosestrife stand the more multiple application of herbicides was needed to completely control purple loosestrife. Generally, there were higher percentages of grasses in the 2,4-D, triclopyr, and metsulfuron treated plots compared to higher percentages of broadleaf species in the glyphosate and imazapyr treated plots at each location. ■

RCG wild MN populations along rivers, cultivars, and historic N. American herbarium samples for their status to aid land managers in identifying native vs. exotic types. Genetic variation among and within RGC populations were assessed by DArTseqLD1.0 that produced 12,378 polymorphic SNPs. This is the first use of this technology in RGCs. MN wild and Czech RCG wild collections are genetically distinct. The RCG populations from six major MN rivers are panmictic. Additionally, MN herbarium specimens cluster with extant samples, indicating the persistence of potentially native RCG genotypes over time. Extant specimens from the locations of previous herbarium samples are similar to MN wild river populations. We conclude that RCG MN wild populations are genetically similar to the herbarium specimens. The main goal of this research is to develop specific single nucleotide markers that will identify native vs. exotic types of RCG in Minnesota. Identification will be possible by using a hand-held device that will use specific DNA markers for better management of exotic invasive populations and preservation of native populations in state and Tribal lands. ■

PRESENTATION 1087 PRESENTATION 1086 Presented during Invasiveness in wetland plants in temperate North America: what have we learned in 20 years? I, 5/30/2019 9:45 AM11:35 AM

MODELING GENETIC STRUCTURE OF REED CANARYGRASS (PHALARIS ARUNDINACEA) ALONG MAJOR MINNESOTA RIVERS AS A GUIDE TO IDENTIFY NATIVE AND EXOTIC SPREAD Anderson, Neil, University of Minnesota Noyszewski, Andrzej, University of Minnesota Smith, Alan, University of Minnesota Dalbotten, Diana, University of Minnesota Ito, Emi, University of Minnesota Timm, Anne, USDA Forest Center, Pellerin, Holly, University of Minnesota Reed canarygrass (RCG, Phalaris arundinacea) is a major invader of Minnesota wetlands. It forms large, monospecific stands and it is highly competitive, especially in disturbed areas. Despite its invasive potential it is still being planted for soil stabilization, bioremediation and bioenergy. Native vs. exotic status of RCG is not clear and past research suggests the existence of native RCG stands in N. America. Herbarium specimens (1889-1985), native in origin in N. America are used in the present study as a benchmark to determine current RCG populations’ genetic background. The purpose of this study is to examine extant

Presented during Wetland and Wetland Wildlife of Concern III, 5/31/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

SUNNY WITH A CHANCE OF NUTRIA: FORECASTING DISTRIBUTIONS OF A NEW INVADER IN CALIFORNIA’S SACRAMENTO-SAN JOAQUIN DELTA Tobias, Vanessa, US Fish and Wildlife Service Goertler, Pascale, California Department of Water Resources Khanna, Shruti, California Department of Fish and Wildlife Mitchell, Lara, US Fish and Wildlife Service Normand, Catherine, Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries McMartin, Louanne, US Fish and Wildlife Service Nutria (Myocastor coypus) are large (15-20 lbs), semiaquatic rodents that are native to South America. They have become an invasive species in wetlands across the globe and they were recently discovered in California’s Sacramento Delta. Nutria can damage wetland habitats and water control infrastructure through their feeding and burrowing behaviors. This could impact existing wetland habitats and restoration sites through physical damage and impacts to water quality. Early detection and removal of invaders is key to limiting their impact and the cost of control. Forecasting when nutria could arrive at specific locations in the Delta is a question of management concern, especially as it relates to ranges of endangered species and water infrastructure. To address these concerns, Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 261


we combined spatial data on potential habitat, trapping locations in California, and published information from other regions where nutria are invasive to prioritize search areas for the eradication effort. Here, we present the results of occupancy modeling and estimates of dispersal ability in the Sacramento Delta. Maps of potential habitat will form the basis for a simulation model that can be used to forecast distributions using various dispersal and control plan scenarios. This proactive approach to invasive species management is intended to give managers early warning of potential impacts and to help agencies prioritize search areas, especially where resources for detection and control are limited. ■

PRESENTATION 1093 Presented during Invasiveness in wetland plants in temperate North America: what have we learned in 20 years? II, 5/30/2019 1:00 PM2:50 PM

THE ROLE OF INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDIZATION IN CATTAIL INVASIONS AND MANAGEMENT APPROACHES Marburger, Joy, Adjunct Purdue University Northwest Travis, Steven, University of New England One of the key drivers of cattail (Typha) invasiveness among temperate wetlands in North America is interspecific hybridization. The encroachment of T. angustifolia, now widely accepted as introduced from Europe, into the historical range of native T. latifolia has led to the genesis of hybrid T. x glauca. Broad expanses of the American Midwest, particularly in the Upper and Western Great Lakes regions are now dominated by hybrid cattail, although sizable pockets of T. latifolia remain, particularly in areas where disturbance is minimal. The Northeast has been less impacted, including the Canadian Maritime Provinces and Maine. Additional surveys have been conducted or are underway in the Prairie Pothole Region and on the West Coast. Where first-generation hybrids coexist with other Typha including their progenitors or their descendant backcrosses or advanced-generation hybrids, they exhibit much greater size, both in the horizontal (clonal) and vertical (stem height) dimensions, with no apparent niche partitioning, and spread at the expense of other native wetland plant species. Hybrid cattail management and control is obtained by several means: animal herbivory, hand pulling, mechanical measures, chemical control, prescribed burning, and a combination of treatments. For cases of small populations in small areas with individual plants and seedlings, hand pulling and chemical treatment works. For large areas with dense stands, mechanical and chemical treatment are the primary options. Controlled burning has 262 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

had mixed success, especially if rhizomes are not killed. Repeated treatments during the year and succeeding years are often necessary. Also restoration of native species after cattail removal is required in most cases. ■

PRESENTATION 1101 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

THE INFLUENCE OF PLANT INVASIONS ON NATIVE BIODIVERSITY IN WETLAND SYSTEMS Mazurczyk, Tara, Pennsylvania State University Invasions and extinctions have been ever-present, but under increasing anthropogenic activity and disturbance, species are being transported and landscapes are being transformed at alarming rates. As a result, new plant community assemblages have evolved that may allow biological invasions to drive species extinction in unexpected ways. This study investigated the effects of invasive plant richness and abundance on wetland native biodiversity in 16 temperate, freshwater wetlands in central Pennsylvania. We calculated a number of site-level plant community structure and wetland condition indices at approximately 8-10 year intervals across a 20-year timeframe. Most wetland sites had at least one invasive herbaceous species present over the sampling period. As invasive plant richness increased, native plant richness, habitat quality, and floristic quality also increased; these were generally in the context of a decrease in environmental stressors during the same time period for a given site. Over time, dominant (> 50% cover) invasive plant species were replaced by a different invasive or native plant species within 10 to 20 years. We found that the relative abundance of invasive plants was determined more by hydrogeomorphic type (p-value = 0.021) and soil legacy effects (p-value = 0.034) than by native biodiversity. These findings contradict the theory that non-native species will eventually out-compete native plants within plant communities, and suggest that invasive plant richness and abundance, alone, are not sufficient to explain native biodiversity loss. This research elucidates the complexity of plant community assembly and provides evidence of surprising interactions between invasive and native species, with important implications for management, eradication, and restoration efforts. ■


PRESENTATION 1111

PRESENTATION 1167

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

Presented during Invasiveness in wetland plants in temperate North America: what have we learned in 20 years? III, 5/30/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

RESPONSE OF INVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES TO PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS INVASION AND NATIVE PLANT REVEGETATION IN GREAT SALT LAKE WETLANDS Leonard, Emily, Utah State University Kettenring, Karin, Utah State University An invasive grass, Phragmites australis (common reed), is rapidly invading wetlands surrounding the Great Salt Lake in Utah, outcompeting native vegetation, and substantially altering critical habitat for migratory shorebirds and waterfowl. Although the removal of Phragmites can help restore native vegetation, additional factors, such as food resource availability, contribute to bird habitat quality. Specifically, invertebrates provide an important food source for many bird species, yet how Phragmites may be altering invertebrate assemblages is unclear. This project addresses three primary objectives to fill these knowledge gaps: 1) examine how invertebrate assemblages respond to Phragmites invasion 2) identify if Phragmites removal and the reestablishment of native vegetation can restore invertebrate species composition, biomass, and diversity within previously invaded wetlands and 3) estimate the role of different restoration techniques in determining invertebrate recovery success. To accomplish these objectives, we are examining the terrestrial invertebrate assemblages associated with three dominant native wetland vegetation types, areas invaded by Phragmites, and two active restoration sites using a combination of emergence and flight-intercept traps. Our results indicate that there may be specific habitat types that are potentially more valuable to developing aquatic insect larvae than other areas. Furthermore, our collected invertebrate samples also suggest a difference in terrestrial invertebrate activity between Phragmites and native vegetation areas. Recognizing how invertebrates interact with Phragmites as well as with native vegetation is a critical component of understanding how to restore these wetland habitats for birds. By gaining a better understanding of these relationships, invertebrate assemblage composition could serve as a potential assessment metric for determining wetland restoration success. â&#x2013;

TEN QUESTIONS IN WETLAND PLANT INVASIONS: WHAT DO WE KNOW AND WHERE SHOULD WE GO? Kettenring, Karin, Utah State University Reinhardt Adams, Carrie, University of Florida Hovick, Steve, The Ohio State University Anderson, Neil, University of Minnesota Over recent decades, our understanding of wetland plant invasions-mechanisms, impacts, and management-has advanced considerably, but we still have a lot to learn. In this presentation, we explore 10 key questions regarding wetland plant invasions, synthesize the latest research findings, and chart a path forward for further advancing our understanding of wetland plant invasions. Our focus is on the five focal species of Galatowitsch et al. (1999) but we bring in additional illustrative species as needed. We address 10 questions to better understand wetland invaders relative to those in terrestrial ecosystems. Mechanisms: (1) How important are genetic mechanisms (introgression, hybridization, and genome size variation) for wetland plant invader success? (2) How important are genetic diversity and rapid evolution, relative to phenotypic plasticity, in wetland plant invasions? (3) Does partial clonality-harnessing the benefits of sexual and asexual reproductionconfer an important benefit to wetland plant invaders? (4) In what context does enemy release most contribute to wetland invader success in their new ranges? (5) Are wetland plant invaders opportunists (seeds and seedlings taking advantage of temporary high resource availability with high propagule pressure) or superior competitors relative to natives? (6) Have anthropogenic environmental modifications and global change made wetlands particularly susceptible to invasion relative to terrestrial ecosystems? Impacts: (7) What are ecological impacts of wetland plant invaders on populations, communities, and ecosystems and associated ecosystem services? Management: (8) Can an understanding of invasion mechanisms facilitate transferable management strategies across contexts? (9) Can recognition of social, economic, and institutional constraints inform more practical management strategies? (10) Can restored native plant communities be reestablished to effectively resist plant re-invasions? In addressing these questions, our aim is to both advance the scientific underpinnings of wetland plant invasions and to vastly improve the management of some of our most intractable plant invaders. â&#x2013;

Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 263


PRESENTATION 1168

PRESENTATION 1173

Presented during Invasive Species I, 5/31/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

Presented during Invasiveness in wetland plants in temperate North America: what have we learned in 20 years? I, 5/30/2019 9:45 AM11:35 AM

THE EFFECTS OF NATIVE SEEDING DENSITY AND PHRAGMITES COMPETITION IN GREAT SALT LAKE WETLAND RESTORATIONS Martin, Emily, Utah State University Kettenring, Karin, Utah State University Invasive species are a global environmental challenge that have contributed to rapid degradation of wetland ecosystems. Phragmites australis is of particular concern in wetlands as it forms dense, monotypic stands and outcompetes native species that provide valuable ecosystem functions and services. Following P. australis treatment, managers must consider returning native species to the site to restore important wetland functions and improve ecosystem resilience. However, sites that have been heavily degraded by invasive species often have limited native seed banks, which prevents desired native plant establishment. Thus, seed-based restoration (sowing native seeds on-site) is a promising wetland restoration strategy. Seed sowing density is an important consideration - low densities will likely result in the reinvasion of P. australis while high densities can result in density dependent mortality of native species. Despite the significance of this initial restoration step, there are few guidelines for optimal seed sowing densities in wetland restoration. As such, we conducted a mesocosm experiment investigating the influence of P. australis and native seed density. Mesocosms were sown with P. australis seeds at three densities (10, 500, 5000 seeds/m2) and a native seed mix at four densities (180, 360, 540, 900 seeds/m2). Percent cover and biomass data were collected for each species. We found that higher native seeding densities resulted in increased native species biomass, but only when P. australis propagule pressure was greatly reduced (500 seeds/m2). At the medium P. australis density, there appeared to be a threshold crossed between 540 and 900 native seeds/m2 that allowed for a more native-dominated plant community. Our findings provide initial insight into optimal seed sowing densities that land managers can use to enhance native plant establishment in wetland restorations. â&#x2013;

264 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

REGIONAL BIOTIC HOMOGENIZATION OF WETLAND VEGETATION DRIVEN BY PHALARIS ARUNDINACEA Matthews, Jeffrey, University of Illinois Price, Edward P. F., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Biotic homogenization is the process of erosion of beta diversity. This occurs, for example, when several specialist species are replaced by a few widespread generalists at multiple sites, increasing taxonomic similarity among sites. This process threatens biodiversity by diminishing beta diversity (compositional turnover) across all spatial scales. The objectives of this study were to: (1) investigate changes in beta diversity in wetlands as a temporal process, (2) determine whether anthropogenic disturbance is causing homogenization in U.S. wetlands, and (3) identify species that are contributing to changes in beta diversity. We used plant species abundance data to document biotic homogenization from 1997 to 2015 in 48 herbaceous emergent wetlands in Illinois, USA. Additionally, we used plant species data from 195 emergent wetlands sampled across the temperate conterminous U.S. as part of the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment to determine the impact of anthropogenic disturbance on beta diversity. Repeated sampling of Illinois wetlands indicated significant floristic homogenization between 1997 and 2015 due to the increased presence and abundance of Phalaris arundinacea, and the simultaneous decline of several other species. At the national scale, compared to the least and intermediately disturbed wetlands, highly disturbed wetlands had significantly lower beta diversity, and this difference in beta diversity was driven primarily by P. arundinacea. Our study documents a process that has been long suspected; regional biotic homogenization of wetland floras and loss of diversity, largely in association with P. arundinacea invasion. Protecting wetlands from anthropogenic stressors that promote P. arundinacea abundance may be the most effective way to combat large-scale homogenization in temperate, herbaceous wetlands. â&#x2013;


PRESENTATION 1204

PRESENTATION 1233

Presented during Invasiveness in wetland plants in temperate North America: what have we learned in 20 years? III, 5/30/2019 3:10 PM5:00 PM

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

PHRAGMITES MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES IN INLAND WETLANDS: LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE GREAT SALT LAKE Rohal, Christine, Utah State University Cranney, Chad, Utah Department of Wildlife Resources Hazelton, Eric, Utah State University Kettenring, Karin, Utah State University The widespread invasion of Phragmites australis within coastal and inland wetlands across North America has led to substantial investment in its management. Yet there remains uncertainty about the best control practices for Phragmites removal and native plant recovery, and questions about how to prioritize sites for management. We conducted two five-year Phragmites management experiments (3 treatment years, two years of additional monitoring) at two spatial scales (small 1,000 m2 plots and large 12,000 m2 plots) to assess Phragmites and native plant responses to multiple treatments. Both experiments were conducted at multiple sites to understand how environmental factors and site context can influence plant community outcomes. The treatments evaluated in the large patch study were 1.) untreated control 2.) fall glyphosate, winter mow, 3.) summer imazapyr, winter mow, 4.) summer glyphosate, winter mow. The small patch treatments included 1-4 above plus 5.) summer mow, fall glyphosate, and 6.) summer mow, then black plastic solarization. We evaluated treatments for their influence on Phragmites and native plant outcomes in the context of environmental factors. We sampled the seed bank to evaluate the richness and density of species across sites, and the influence of treatments on seed bank composition. We found that fall herbicide applications were superior to summer applications for Phragmites cover reduction. The density of Phragmites seeds in the seed bank decreased following management, but remained substantial, indicating high reinvasion pressure following control. Native plant recovery was slow following all herbicide treatments, but was greater at sites with increased soil moisture, due to more effective Phragmites removal and beneficial germination environments. Degraded conditions such as hydrologic disturbance, nutrient enrichment, and disconnection with established native plant species were all factors associated with lower richness and covers of native plants following Phragmites management. While refining management tools is important, this research highlights the often greater importance of environmental context on management outcomes. â&#x2013;

THE EFFECTS OF SALINITY ON TYPHA SPP. ABUNDANCE IN ROADSIDE WETLANDS IN OHIO Vembar, Rohini, The Ohio State University King, Christian, The Ohio State University Hovick, Steve, The Ohio State University Application of road salt and subsequent run off into adjacent soil and water systems is one disturbance that many roadside wetlands in northern latitudes face. This disturbance can create a less suitable environment for many native plants, potentially creating open niches for colonization by other species. Because roads also serve as dispersal pathways for non-native species, these roadside wetlands may be highly susceptible to invasion, especially by salt-tolerant taxa. This study looks at the distribution of Typha spp. in roadside wetlands, due to the salt-tolerance and range expansion exhibited by these taxa. However, the density of Typha spp. even within an invaded wetland is not likely to be uniform throughout; we hypothesize that salt run off will be greatest at the point of the wetland closest to the source of salt, or the road, and salinity will decrease as distance from the source increases. To test this, we estimated soil salinity (as electrical conductivity, EC) and Typha spp. abundance along a transect running perpendicular to the nearest road in a total of eight preserved and created wetlands in northern and central Ohio. In the majority of studied wetlands, we found increasing soil salinity and Typha abundance in quadrats closer to the road; however, this relationship was not found in some roadside wetlands that had been subject to invasive species management recently. â&#x2013;

PRESENTATION 1238 Presented during Invasive Species I, 5/31/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

USING MECHANICAL AND CHEMICAL CONTROL TO REMOVE THE INVASIVE GRASS, BRACHYPODIUM SYLVATICUM, FROM A WESTERN NEW YORK WETLAND COMPLEX Graham, Andie, The College at Brockport Brachypodium sylvaticum is a highly invasive bunchgrass native to Eurasia and North Africa. It was first documented in the US in 1939 near Eugene, Oregon and subsequently spread throughout Oregon, California, Washington, and parts of British Columbia, Canada. The first report of B. sylvaticum in the eastern US was in Virginia, far from other occurrences in the Pacific Northwest. In recent years, it has been detected in highly localized populations in eastWetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 265


ern Canada, Missouri, and New York. One of the largest known infestations is in Bergen Swamp, Genesee County, New York. Bergen Swamp is a large wetland/riverine complex with unique habitats and impressive biodiversity. The grass was first detected in the swamp in the late 1990s but not positively identified until 2009. By 2016, several dense, monospecific stands had formed. The rampant spread of B. sylvaticum in Bergen Swamp and surrounding counties highlights the importance of developing effective control strategies. We implemented a multi-year restoration plan to control B. sylvaticum in Bergen Swamp using mechanical and chemical methods. In 2017, we sampled vegetation at 225 randomly placed 1m² quadrats in areas dominated by B. sylvaticum. We identified all plants to species and estimated percent cover of each. We cut B. sylvaticum using string trimmers from mid-June through lateJuly before the plants formed seeds. In 2018, we resampled treated areas using the same methods. After one year of cutting alone, plant diversity increased and B. sylvaticum cover decreased significantly (p < 0.05), suggesting that cutting helps reduce percent cover. In September 2018, we treated previously cut areas with glyphosate. Preliminary results suggest that a combination of cutting and herbicide substantially reduces B. sylvaticum cover; however, at least two years of treatment is needed. Results of this and future work will aid in the development of effective B. sylvaticum control methods. ■

Lake Ontario’s southern shore near Rochester, NY. When discovered in 2014, the fen contained ~0.16 ha of an intact and uninvaded fen community, while the surrounding 4.25 ha contained fen heavily invaded by cattail; the entire site encircled by 12.75 ha of cattail marsh. Piezometers showed groundwater discharge to the fen, as did water chemistry data collected from the piezometers. Additionally, elevation data collected using RTK GIS indicated a slightly mounded interior fen, potentially explaining why cattails have not invaded. We implemented cattail-control measures starting in 2016 with the goal of increasing native fen taxa percent cover, richness, and diversity. We conducted vegetation surveys by identifying and estimating percent cover of each species in randomly placed 1m² quadrats. Once vegetation surveys were completed, we removed all dead cattail, cut new cattail growth in June and July when rhizome carbohydrate reserves were at their lowest, and hand-wicked regrowth with herbicide in late-summer. We conducted vegetation surveys and cattail removal again in 2017 and 2018 using the same methods. Preliminary results show a decrease in live cattail stem density and dead litter cover, as well as an increase in cover of fen tax and overall fen diversity, suggesting that a minimum of two years of control is needed. ■

PRESENTATION 1301 Presented during Invasive Species II, 5/31/2019 1:10 PM-2:50 PM

PRESENTATION 1258 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

RESTORATION OF A LAKE ONTARIO CONNECTED FLOATING FEN VIA INVASIVE CATTAIL REMOVAL Graham, Andie, The College at Brockport Polzer, Eli, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Mudrzynski, Brad, CC Environment and Planning Wilcox, Douglas, SUNY College at Brockport Lake-level regulation that began in 1960 eliminated large fluctuations of Lake Ontario water levels, altering coastal wetland plant communities. More than a half century later, the altered hydroperiod supports the resulting dense, monotypic stands of invasive cattail (Typha angustifolia and Typha x glauca), which have diminished overall community diversity. As a result, Lake Ontario coastal wetlands are now less capable of providing many of their traditional ecological functions. One such wetland is Buttonwood Fen, a floating, lake-connected fen located within the Rochester Embayment of Concern on 266 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

THEY’RE NOT JUST VEGETARIANS. THE INVASIVE FRESHWATER SNAIL, THE GIANT APPLE SNAILS (POMACEA MACULATA) WILL EAT OF FROG AND TOAD EGGS. Carter, Jacoby, US Geological Survey Merino, Sergio, US Geological Survey Johnson, Darren, Cherokee Nation Technologies Background: Giant apple snails (Pomacea maculata) are an invasive, aquatic, freshwater snail native to South America. They are often described as a generalist herbivore of aquatic vegetation. A sister species, Pomacea canaliculata, has been reported to be a predator of frog eggs in its introduced range (a wetland in Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China). Objectives: Answer the question, ‘Are giant apple snails (Pomacea maculata) a potential predator of anuran eggs? ‘ Methods: We presented the eggs of American toads (Anaxyrus americanus- AT), northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens- NLF), southern leopard frogs (Lithobates sphenocephalus-SLF) and pickerel frogs (Lithobates palustris- PF) to lab raised giant apple snails (henceforth ‘snails’). Anuran eggs from a single egg mass were, divided into four groups of approximately equal number, and


then randomly assigned to one of four treatments: (Snail Test 1) with snails; (Snail Test 2) with snails and an alternative snail food, lettuce (Lactuca sativa); (Control 1) with only lettuce; (Control 2) with neither lettuce nor snails. The eggs were incubated until either all the eggs had hatched into tadpoles or the remaining eggs showed signs of decomposition in at least one of the replicates. The incubation period varied between 2 and 6 days. At the conclusion of the experiment we counted the number of eggs and tadpoles in each container. The number of replicates for each experiment varied depending on egg mass availability. The number of replicates were: 8, 4, 4, and 4 for PF, NLF, SLF, and AT respectively. Results: Statistics were performed using one-sample T-tests with a 0.05 alpha level. All four anuran species had a significant loss of eggs (p values < 0.03) with snails as compared to controls and there were no significant differences between snail treatments with and without lettuce. For all four anuran species, there were no differences in egg loss between Controls 1 and 2. Conclusions: We conclude that P. maculata eat anuran eggs. Many anuran species lay their eggs in habitats that are being invaded by these snails and our results are a potential cause for concern. However, it remains to be demonstrated that snails will prey on eggs in the wild. ■

PRESENTATION 1344 Presented during Invasive Species II, 5/31/2019 1:10 PM-2:50 PM

MONITORING OF NEW YORK CITY’S WETLANDS FOR ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT Ong, Jamie, NYC Department of Parks and Recreation Haight, Christopher, NYC Department of Parks and Recreation Hartig, Ellen, City of New York Parks & Recreation Holmes, Clara, NYC Department of Parks and Recreation Swadek, Rebecca, City of New York Parks & Recreation Auyeung, Novem, NYC Department of Parks and Recreation The NYC Department of Parks and Recreation (NYC Parks) conducts annual monitoring of its restored salt marshes and freshwater wetlands to track performance and inform adaptive management. Through ongoing assessment of at least five marshes throughout New York City, including wet meadow at Meadow Lake, Queens, salt marsh in Four Sparrow Marsh Preserve, Brooklyn, and emergent wetland in Cedar Grove Beach Park, Staten Island, we are evaluating restoration success and using this data to determine future management actions. Specific objectives are to: 1) measure native and invasive plant composition in restored areas, 2) assess effectiveness of pilot projects, such as rare plant conservation and elevation

enhancement in interior salt marshes, and 3) consider how restored elevations may be influencing species distribution in observed plant communities. Field investigations include a randomized, square-meter plot monitoring design with plots along randomly placed transects for salt marshes and line-intercept observations along a wetland to upland gradient for freshwater wetlands. We used a Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) Global Positioning System (GPS) with centimeter-level accuracy to survey elevations at monitoring plots where applicable. We performed analysis using Microsoft Excel, applying statistical methods as appropriate to the data, ranging from simple standard error calculations to one-way analysis of variance using ANOVA. Of special interest is the continued observation of the New York State endangered yellow flatsedge (Cyperus flavesncens) at Meadow Lake, and natural recovery of salt marsh vegetation in some locations following debris removal at Four Sparrow. Annual monitoring also identified dominant invasive cover at Cedar Grove and Meadow Lake, and confirmed that certain sections of exposed earth at Four Sparrow were too low for salt marsh vegetation. These results are critical to assessing the performance of our restoration projects and demonstrating the need for ongoing management at these sites post-construction. In the future, we plan to use this information to develop an adaptive management matrix to help ensure that our monitoring protocols are evaluating project success with greatest efficiency, and to assign condition thresholds that would trigger maintenance actions. This process would establish a feedback loop that would improve effectiveness of our wetlands monitoring and management programs. ■

PRESENTATION 1386 Presented during Invasiveness in wetland plants in temperate North America: what have we learned in 20 years? I, 5/30/2019 9:45 AM11:35 AM

DOES GENOME SIZE DRIVE INVASIVENESS? AN ATTEMPT TO RECONCILE CONFLICTING PATTERNS WITHIN AND AMONG SPECIES Hovick, Steve, The Ohio State University Genome size variation is thought to be an important driver of invasiveness in plants: smaller genomes are often associated with faster relative growth rates and thus increased competitive ability and thus invasiveness (at least within a given ploidy). These patterns have most commonly been assessed as an among-species phenomenon, but similar patterns have been expected within species as well. One report detailing positive within-species associations between genome size and growth rates in invasive reed canary grass Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 267


(Phalaris arundinacea) has been widely cited in support of this pattern. I will present recently published data using reed canary grass collected from 20 invasive range and 9 native range populations, grown under common garden conditions, indicating that these earlier results may not actually hold when genome size is quantified using best-practice protocols. Apparent within-species genome size variation in reed canary grass - and thus apparent correlations with growth rates - may instead be related to environmentally induced variation in secondary chemicals. These results suggest that genome size is not related to invasiveness at the withinspecies level, at least for this particular species. I will place these specific findings in the context of our current state of knowledge regarding within- and among-species correlations between genome size and invasiveness in plants. ■

ics (24 vs. 1%). Based on phylogenetic distance, aquatic invaders were more closely related to native taxa than were terrestrial invaders (p < 0.0001). This evolutionary legacy of adaptation to aquatic habitats poses challenges for invasive species response. Outreach and communication are challenged by finer distinctions between native and invasive; there is more nuance to arguing that a distinct lineage of a species poses a threat than that a species is wholly alien and harmful. Surveillance is challenged by cryptic invasions that escape notice or require expert verification. Control efforts are challenged by high risk of non-target impacts to close native relatives, while failure to control can lead to such relatives being displaced by introgression or competition. Sophisticated outreach, robust documentation of impacts, and rigorous surveillance are needed to respond effectively in this biologically messy context. ■

PRESENTATION 1448 Presented during Invasiveness in wetland plants in temperate North America: what have we learned in 20 years? II, 5/30/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

THE THIN LINE BETWEEN NATIVE AND INVASIVE IN MYRIOPHYLLUM AND OTHER MACROPHYTES: CHALLENGES FOR INVASIVE SPECIES OUTREACH AND MANAGEMENT Larkin, Daniel, University of Minnesota Evolutionary history and speciation shape biological invasions. For example, Galatowitsch et al. (1999) posited a key role for hybrid speciation in wetland invasions. Evidence for this mechanism has grown since; e.g., we now know invasive Myriophyllum spicatum hybridizes with native M. sibiricum, producing M. spicatum x sibiricum exhibiting hybrid vigor and herbicide tolerance. In another seminal paper, Santamaría (2002) argued that aquatic environments select for plants with broad tolerances, yielding a global aquatic flora with wide geographic ranges. Joining these ideas, we should expect aquatic invasions to be characterized by ‘thinner lines’ separating native and invasive taxa: ability to grow in water acts as a fundamental filter; taxa overcoming this challenge are preadapted to reach broad distributions and, on colonizing a new area, are likely to encounter similarly adapted relatives that arrived earlier. I tested this prediction by comparing evolutionary relationships between native and invasive species in terrestrial vs. aquatic plants of the upper Midwest (MN, WI). I used published sources to build a phylogeny for upper Midwest seed plants (4,875 taxa) and to identify priority invasive species established in the region (21 aquatic, 101 terrestrial). I then examined taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships between native and invasive taxa. Aquatic and terrestrial invasives had similar frequencies of native congeners (71 and 69%, respectively), but aquatic invasives were far more likely to have native conspecif268 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

PRESENTATION 1486 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

ACCIDENTAL BIOCONTROL AGENT OR JUST ANOTHER INVADER? Osorio, Sara, Southern Illinois University Battaglia, Loretta, Southern Illinois University Interactions between species that lack a recent evolutionary history are highly unpredictable. For example, the outcomes of interactions between native and exotic species run the gamut from benign to widespread ecosystem degradation. Interactions between species that are both aliens to their introduced range, and to each other, may be positive, neutral, or negative. In contrast, exotic species that share an evolutionary relationship may exhibit more predictable ‘old interactions’, indicative of historic relationships, in their introduced range. The largest freshwater snail in the world is the Giant Apple Snail (Pomacea maculata), a generalist herbivore native to South America. After its introduction to the southeastern U.S., the snail’s high fecundity promoted rapid invasion in many wetland ecosystems where it can have detrimental effects on water quality, native macrophytes, and potentially higher order consumers. Salvinia minima and S. molesta are aquatic ferns that are also highly invasive. They form dense, floating mats that displace native plants, block sunlight and reduce dissolved oxygen levels in the water column. These ferns not only co-occur with P. maculata in parts of their joint native ranges, but also their joint introduced range. Few studies have been conducted on interactions between introduced species that share an evolutionary background but also overlap in their new range where they are now invasive. We hypothe-


sized that the snail would be more accustomed to the invasive ferns and would therefore preferentially consume them over the novel, native plants (e.g., Lemna minor). Our study site is in the backswamp at Barataria Preserve at Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve, Jefferson Parish, Louisiana, USA. In Summer 2019, we will conduct a food preference study using enclosures in the field. Renewed herbivory of the ferns, which lack an effective biocontrol in this system, should lead to increased abundance of native plants. ■

PRESENTATION 1530 Presented during Invasive Species I, 5/31/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

INVASIVE SPECIES RESEARCH IN COMPENSATORY WETLAND MITIGATION: DETERMINING ENVIRONMENTAL CORRELATES WITH POPULATION DENSITIES OF THREE INVASIVE PLANTS Hunter, Dakota, William and Mary Invasive plant species can alter natural communities and degrade ecosystem function, yet the factors influencing species invasion are poorly understood. On compensatory wetland mitigation sites, ‘back-end’ (after invasion has occurred) techniques such as chemical spraying and mechanical removal are implemented to combat invasive species and comply with section 404 of the Clean Water Act. Back-end management techniques are costly and often fail to control the species in question. Understanding how environmental factors impact plant invasion on compensatory mitigation sites would allow wetland managers to alter restored wetland environments on the ‘front-end’ (prior to invasion) and minimize invasive plant colonization. Our study asks which key environmental factors are correlated with invasive plant prevalence on compensatory wetland mitigation sites. For this study, Arthraxon hispidus (small carpetgrass), Microstegium vimineum (Japanese stilt grass), and Typha latifolia (broadleaf cattail) were selected as representative study organisms due to their abundance on non-tidal wetland mitigation sites, as well as their relative differences in ecological tolerance for environmental conditions (e.g., light availability or flooding). Within populations of these species, transects consisting of five 2m X 2m plots were established in 34 locations on mitigation banks within the coastal plain and piedmont physiographic provinces in Virginia. Along transects, plots were randomly assigned to an area that captures the gradient from completely invaded (invasive species dominant) to uninvaded (invasive species absent or nearly so). At each plot, vegetation abundance data, soil samples, and canopy imagery were obtained for analysis. Data analysis reveals soil geochemistry and light availability as potential correlates with invasive species prevalence on non-tidal wetland mitigation sites. ■

PRESENTATION 1565 Presented during Invasive Species II, 5/31/2019 1:10 PM-2:50 PM

LARGE-SCALE BINATIONAL COLLABORATION AND ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT TO MANAGE NON-NATIVE PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS IN THE GREAT LAKES BASIN Kowalski, Kurt, U.S. Geological Survey Stanton, Samantha, Great Lakes Commission Engel, Dan, U.S. Geological Survey (Contractor) Ferrier, Elaine, Great Lakes Commission The non-native Phragmites australis (common reed) continues to invade wetlands, beaches, ponds, and other wet areas throughout North America. Once established, it degrades fish and wildlife habitat, limits recreational opportunities, increases fire hazards, and reduces property values. Resource managers invest a significant amount of time and energy to manage this invasive plant, but landscape-scale collaboration among managers is difficult. Data-driven best management practices are not readily available, and uncertainties exist concerning optimal treatment options given site conditions. Therefore, the Great Lakes Phragmites Collaborative (GLPC; http://www.greatlakesphragmites. net) was initiated in 2011 to link people, information, and action. This binational collaborative is founded on a collective impact model and driven by the needs and actions of engaged agencies, organizations, and citizens. A 2015 survey revealed the desire for standardized monitoring protocols, decision support tools, and a central repository of Phragmites management data to improve control efficacy. Therefore, with support by the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, the Phragmites Adaptive Management Framework (PAMF; http://www.greatlakesphragmites.net/ pamf) was developed as an adaptive management program to reduce uncertainty about what Phragmites treatments are most effective given individual site conditions. PAMF participants throughout the basin collect monitoring data about their Phragmites-impacted site, upload data to a centralized web hub to support model updates, and receive site-specific management guidance based on data from the most recent model updates. Guidance provided by the datadriven model is improved through time and as the number of participants increases. The GLPC continues to build the resources available to the public through its robust web site and stakeholder interactions. Similarly, the PAMF program is expanding rapidly as managers become aware of the program and recognize the value of participation. ■

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PRESENTATION 1581 Presented during Invasive Species II, 5/31/2019 1:10 PM-2:50 PM

VEGETATIVE COMMUNITY CHANGE AND DETRITAL PRODUCTION FOLLOWING 22 YEARS OF COMMON REED (PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS) CONTROL IN NEW JERSEY Hinkle, Raymond, AECOM Strait, Kenneth, Estuary Enhancement Program The Alloway Creek Wetland Restoration Site is a 1,600 acre brackish tidal wetland located in Salem County, New Jersey (USA) on Delaware Bay that historically was diked and farmed. Following the cessation of farming, dikes and berms that had maintained non-tidal conditions were breached and eroded and common reed (common reed australis) became established. The occurrence and patterns of common reed distribution at the Site have developed in response to natural and man-made disturbances. Common reed became established in artificially elevated areas created during ditch excavation and spoil disposal, in filled areas such as dikes and levees, and on natural upland edges adjacent to marshes. This establishment was likely facilitated by the previous agricultural use of these areas that involved the construction of dikes to control tidal flooding. Once established on the remnants of these dikes and other disturbed areas associated with the previous use of these marshes, common reed spread into adjacent areas and had out-competed desirable marsh vegetation over much of the marsh plain surface. Initial establishment occurred around 1950 and coverage of the site increased through 1996, when common reed covered approximately 58.7 percent of the site area. In July 1994, the NJDEP issued Final NJPDES Permit No. NJ0005622 (Permit) to PSEG Nuclear LLC (PSEG) [formerly known as Public Service Electric and Gas Company (PSEG&G)] for the Salem Station (Salem or Station). The Permit included a number of special conditions designed to address concerns related to potential effects on aquatic organisms resulting from the Station’s operations, including that PSEG implement a program to restore, enhance, and preserve a minimum of 8,000 acres of wetlands adjacent to the Delaware Bay Estuary. Restoration of the 1,600 acre common reed dominated Alloway Creek Wetland Restoration Site was among the sites that were incorporated into the PSEG Estuary Enhancement Program in response to this requirement. Treatments with glyphosate based herbicide were initiated in 1996 and have continued over the past 22 years. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) was also addressed by an extensive program to assess the effectiveness of other potential control approaches at the site. Annual vegetation community mapping and marsh plot sampling have been conducted 270 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

annually to document the success of these treatments. In 2018 common reed dominated on less than 5 percent of the site area. ■

PRESENTATION 1582 Presented during Closing the permitting-mitigation-monitoring (PMM) loop: A focus on the mid-Atlantic USA III, 5/30/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

WETLANDS MITIGATION FOR THE MD 331 OVER THE CHOPTANK RIVER REPLACEMENT PROJECT Spendiff, Kyle, WSP The presentation will primarily focus the construction of two wetland mitigation sites that serve as compensatory mitigation for the replacement of the Dover Bridge (MD 331) over the Choptank River on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, from the perspective of an Independent Environmental Inspector (IEM). The project was conducted by the Maryland State High Administration Environmental Programs Division. The IEM is a position that serves as the ‘eyes and ears’ of the regulatory agencies, and is incorporated into projects that are in close proximity to important and vulnerable natural resources, as a permit condition by the Maryland Department of the Environment and United States Army Corps of Engineers. Focus will be on the construction techniques, planting, invasive species management, role of the IEM and environmental compliance. In addition to the wetlands mitigation other special features such as wildlife passage culverts, turtle exclusion fencing, critical area plantings,and some of the techniques used in the bridge construction will be discussed. ■


PRESENTATION 1585

PRESENTATION 1586

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

Presented during Invasive Species II, 5/31/2019 1:10 PM-2:50 PM

IS PHRAGMITES DIEBACK AT THE MOUTH OF THE MISSISSIPPI DELTA RELATED TO EUTROPHICATION? Nyman, Andy, LSU Roseau Cane (Phragmites australis) die-back appears relatively new in North America. Dieback was first noticed during the fall of 2016 in the Bird’s Foot Delta of the Mississippi River but by the summer of 2017 it was noticed elsewhere in southeastern Louisiana. Dieback generally coincides with a scale bug (Nipponaclerda biwakoensis) native to Asia that was not previously reported in North America. The scale bug has been found throughout southeastern Louisiana and in southwestern Texas. However, three parasitoids that attack the scale bug also were identified, which suggests that the scale bug has a long history in North America. In most of North America, duck hunters and other wetland enthusiasts will celebrate if their Roseau Cane dies because other plant species that provide better wildlife habitat probably will replace Roseau Cane. However, Roseau Cane in the Bird’s Foot Delta buffers desirable wildlife habitat from salinity and waves in the Gulf of Mexico while growing in water too deep for other plant species to tolerate. Thus, Roseau Cane dieback in the Bird’s Foot Delta appears to be increasing open water rather than desirable wildlife habitat. Roseau Cane in the Bird’s Foot Delta also buffers oil and gas infrastructure and recreational camps from waves and probably reduces navigation dredging by channelizing river flow. Roseau Cane dieback in the Bird’s Foot Delta thus will probably decrease fish and wildlife abundance, increase storm damage and may increase navigation dredging. Early in 2017, someone suggested that elevated nutrients in the river caused dieback. I collected leaf tissue from four healthy and five dieback stands of Phragmites on April 12 2017 and had them analyzed for elemental concentrations. Healthy stands had more Mg and S in their leaves than dieback stands but similar amounts of C, N, and P. These data, combined with the subsequent occurrence of dieback in areas virtually isolated from riverine water suggests that dieback is unrelated to coastal eutrophication. ■

COWLES BOG WETLAND COMPLEX A NATIONAL NATURAL LANDMARK - GLORY AND SPLENDOR, TWENTIETH CENTURY DEGRADATION, TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY RESUSCITATION Mason, Daniel, National Park Service Cowles Bog Wetland Complex (CBWC) is a 220 acre wetland unit of Great Marsh (GM). The birth of GM occurred in Northwest Indiana over 4,000 years before present in response to declining Lake Michigan water levels. At the time of European settlement of Northwest Indiana, GM contained a diversity of wetland types representing 4,000 acres. The beginning of its decline occurred over 120 years ago in response to land-use for agriculture, industrial development, and home-sites. At the time of authorization of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, 1,200 acres of GM had been annihilated and wetland hydrology removed from 1,575 acres. The remaining portion of GM exhibited replacement of native plant assemblages by non-native plant assemblages. In 2002, the National Park Service initiated re-birthing of the CBWC which, in part, is a National Natural Landmark. At the time of its discovery by Henry Chandler Cowles in 1906, the CBWC was comprised of a marvelous plant assemblage inclusive of a coniferous assemblage of tamarack, white cedar, and white pine. In the early 20’th century, the CBWC was a functioning outdoor laboratory and was visited by participates of the 1913 International Phytogeographic Excursion to America. Interpretation of 1938 to 1980 aerial photography documented a negative trajectory of vegetation change resulting in a vast expanse of hybrid cattail and common reed. Between 2002 and 2006, inventory and other research documented CBWC’s vegetation, seed-bank, hydrology, water chemistry, soil chemistry, soil types and management protocols for eradicating the non-native plant assemblages followed by establishment of native assemblages. Based on the data, actions to restore eight wetland types were developed: wet-mesic prairie, sedge meadow, shallow marsh, deep marsh, forested swamp, fen, and bog. Restoration actions were initiated in 2007 and have continued through 2018. The response of CBWC to restoration actions has provided validation of President Dwight Eisenhower’s words: ‘Planning for battle is necessary but useless’. ■

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Management & Applied Science: Monitoring & Assessment

PRESENTATION 1042

PRESENTATION 1004

ONGOING INTEGRATION OF MULTI-YEAR, MULTI-PARAMETER DATA TO ASSESS PRE-RESTORATION WATER QUALITY Spaetzel, Alana, U.S. Geological Survey

Presented during Ecosystem Services and Monitoring Assessments, 5/30/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

LANDSCAPE AUDIT TO RECONCILE COMPETING CLAIMS ON THE PEATLANDS OF SUMATRA Sari, Dwi, James Cook University Formal methods for assessing the effectiveness and the economy of a public policy do not yet exist. The complexity of multi-sectoral arrangements that pertain in decision making process has hindered the development of suitable metrics. In Indonesia, the absence of effectiveness and economic assessment during a policy making has resulted in continuing conflicts among stakeholders: government, business, NGOs, and local communities. We propose an audit at a landscape scale as a way of assessing the scope, and therefore complexity of governance. We test this idea with an experimental audit of the peat restoration policy in Kampar Peninsula, a peat landscape located at Pelalawan district, Riau. Conflicts among governance actors in Kampar have occurred since exploitation of the peatland for plantations began in the 1990s. The disputes escalated following the implementation of a new peatland restoration regulation. It provides for a series of peat protection and restoration measures including the delineation of protection zones and the relocation through land swaps of any overlapping land allocations to other locations. There have been intense controversies among all involved actors over the implementation of this new policy. We conducted a performance audit on the effectiveness and the economy of the new peatland regulation. We applied commonly accepted performance auditing standards to generate criteria of effective peatland zoning. We also utilized radar and Landsat imagery to map the existing land uses in Kampar and to delineate different spatial allocations of all governance actors. We were able to produce a map showing potential spatial plan that would reconcile competing land claims. We argue that this new delineation would be more effective and more economic in resolving spatial conflict. This governance audit method will have wide potential application for auditing best practice and will have immediate application for resolving the current governance failures on the Kampar Peninsular. Keywords: policy, audit, landscape, multisectoral. â&#x2013;

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Presented during Applying Adaptive Management to Restoration of the Herring River Estuary III, 5/31/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

Quality-assured water-quality data are critical for the success of the Herring River salt marsh restoration project because these data serve as inputs to the Adaptive Management Plan (AMP), demonstrate credibility to the public, and support the permitting process. Pre-restoration baseline water-quality data will be used to assess potential changes following restoration of tidal exchanges to inform the AMP. A vast quantity of water-quality data has been collected in the Herring River watershed since 2005 by the National Park Service (NPS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Despite the need for data and the apparent availability, the datasets have not been processed, validated, published, or stored in a consistent manner across agencies, which has limited their utility in the current project efforts. The overall purpose of this USGS-NPS collaborative project is to bridge the gap between waterquality monitoring and the applications that require monitoring data. The project addresses this gap in two ways: (1) data integration and (2) stakeholder communication. A comprehensive data synthesis of both discrete and continuous water-quality data collected by USGS and NPS in the Herring River watershed is ongoing. The integrated data will be published as a USGS data release. As part of the integration, NPS and USGS data will be reviewed for quality assurance. To communicate the data availability to the public, an online interactive story map will be created. The story map will show the monitoring locations, associated metadata, and links to the downloadable data. The links will include electronic files of discrete data compiled in the data release and URLs to USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) data for discrete and continuous data. Synthesizing existing water-quality data and communicating it effectively is an essential component of the AMP and is critical for planning and designing a post-restoration monitoring program. â&#x2013;


PRESENTATION 1043

PRESENTATION 1088

Presented during Integrated Framework for Evaluating Wetland and Stream Compensatory Mitigation I, 5/30/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

A MODULAR FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING COMPENSATORY MITIGATION PROGRAM EFFECTIVENESS Stein, Eric, Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Brown, Jeff, Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Bishop, Nathan, Environmental Law Institute Kihslinger, Rebecca, Environmental Law Institute

MERCURY STORAGE IN HYDRIC SOILS AND BIOMASS OF A ST. LAWRENCE RIVER WETLAND Ayala Crespo, Carla, University of Puerto Rico-Río Piedras Brahmstedt, Evie, Clarkson University Holsen, Thomas, Clarkson University Twiss, Michael, Clarkson University

Substantial effort has been devoted to improving compensatory mitigation practices over the past 20 years. However, evaluation of mitigation program effectiveness remains challenging and capacity varies widely across states. Sustained improvement in wetland and stream compensatory mitigation requires establishment of ongoing evaluation efforts that provide continued feedback to aquatic resource programs that allow them to adapt, evolve, and improve over time. To help states and other interested parties develop a long-term, scientifically rigorous approach to evaluating the overall performance of their wetland and stream compensatory mitigation programs, USEPA funded development of a technical resource document. The document provides a tiered framework for combining site-specific and regional evaluations to improve the ability of states to report on the administrative and ecological success of their compensatory mitigation programs at achieving stated goals and desired objectives. The framework includes elements to assess site performance, program effectiveness, and long-term resiliency, along with recommendations for data management and strategies for data analysis and information sharing and dissemination. The proposed framework was developed based on peer-reviewed literature and agency reports on past mitigation practices and monitoring approaches, interviews with program managers from 15 state programs, and input from a team of nationwide technical experts. This talk will provide an overview of the three-tiered framework, examples products from each module, and next steps planned to support implementation within state programs. ■

Restrictive water levels caused by damming the Upper St. Lawrence River affect biodiversity in this river’s wetlands and have resulted in dominant emergent vegetation, Typha spp. (Typha angustifolia, Typha latifolia, Typha glauca) cattails. Dense cattail marshes adversely impacts fish spawning habitat. An ecological restoration plan, seeks to provide natural water level fluctuations to support the diversity of the area without interrupting the dam’s services. This restoration plan has the potential to benefit the biodiversity of the wetlands, but may also release legacy mercury (Hg) and nutrients that have accumulated in wetland soils in this region. In this project, we determined Hg content among Typha organs (stems, leaves, roots). Hg content in soil and dry Typha leaves were also measured. The hypotheses are that 1) Hg content in cattails reflects that in soils, and 2) that Hg distribution in soils and biomass in a wetland is homogenous. Correlation analysis showed no strong or moderate linear relationships between Hg concentration in plant organs and Hg concentration in soil. Average Hg content in soil (23.4 ± 9.1; mean ± SD) ranged from 6.0-40.0 ng/g, roots had an average Hg content of 28.0 ± 9.2 ng/g, and leaves had an average Hg content of 5.0 ± 2.2 ng/g, evincing heterogeneous Hg concentration among soil and plant organs. We also found that there is heterogeneity in Hg concentrations in the soil. Therefore, we reject our hypothesis of homogeneity of Hg distribution in soils and biomass. Our study suggests that there might be zones of Hg mobilization within wetlands that lead to enhanced bioaccumulation at this scale. ■

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PRESENTATION 1139

PRESENTATION 1198

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

Presented during Integrated Framework for Evaluating Wetland and Stream Compensatory Mitigation II, 5/30/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

UNDERSTANDING THE RESPONSE OF ESTUARINE WETLANDS TO ANTHROPOGENIC DISTURBANCES AT THE DELAWARE NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE Whiteman, Christina, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control Siok, Drexel, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control St. Laurent, Kari, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control

ASSESSING THE RESILIENCY OF ESTABLISHED WETLAND MITIGATION SITES IN THE MIXED WOODS PLAINS AND TEMPERATE PRAIRIE ECOREGIONS OF MINNESOTA. Smith, Tim, Minnesota Board of Water and Soil Resources

In April 2015, Delmarva Power & Light (DP&L) began an emergency pole replacement project that impacted portions of the Delaware National Estuarine Research Reserve (DNERR) Vegetation Monitoring site. Following pre-permit planning meetings, DP&L reached an agreement with the `Delaware Department of Natural Resource and Environmental Control (DNREC) Wetlands and Subaqueous Lands section, the Delaware Division of Fish and Wildlife and the DNERR to have all power line replacement work completed with low impact equipment instead of heavy machinery to reduce the disturbance of marsh habitats. Equipment used during the project included a helicopter, an airboat and an Argo (amphibious off-road vehicle) to move construction workers across the marsh and matting to create a stable installation area around the power poles. Once the pole replacement was completed in May 2015, DNERR staff assessed the area and determined that the disturbance from construction was greater than expected and post-project monitoring was needed. The goal of this monitoring project is to document the level of disturbance and how the marsh recovers or changes over time. This information is being captured by monitoring vegetation, soil bearing capacity, and photo documentation. Preliminary observations suggest recovery is occurring, at a slow pace, and continued monitoring is needed to understand the long-term response, impacts and recovery of the tidal wetland system. ■

274 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

The Minnesota Board of Water and Soil Resources (BWSR) has been overseeing and implementing wetland restorations to replace functions loss through authorized impacts for over twenty years. At the time they were approved, these mitigation projects were expected to be resilient over time and to fully compensate for a permanent loss of wetland function. While many of these sites are monitored for up to five years immediately after construction, very little is known about the long-term sustainability and resiliency of these sites. In 2017 BWSR, with support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, initiated a study to monitor sites in the mixed woods plains and temperate prairie ecoregions of Minnesota that are 7-15 years post-construction to assess the floristic quality of these restored wetlands. We have completed two years of vegetation monitoring at 108 sites using a Floristic Quality Assessment (FQA) methodology. In 2019, we will initiate a three year hydrology monitoring study at a subset of these sites to assess the current condition versus the target condition in the approved plan. The challenges of planning and executing a monitoring program to assess long-term sustainability of mitigation sites will be discussed along with the preliminary results of the vegetation monitoring and evaluation. Our study indicates that the proportion of wetlands categorized as fair or good is higher for intensively restored (sites where a wetland seed mix is used and prescriptive vegetative performance standards are established) and natural (reference) wetlands than for passively restored wetlands (sites where only natural regeneration of wetland plants is used with no performance criteria). In addition, vegetative quality has not reached or maintained ‘good’ levels at many of the sampled sites which suggests that resiliency may be an issue that needs to be addressed programmatically. ■


PRESENTATION 1206

PRESENTATION 1207

Presented during Integrated Framework for Evaluating Wetland and Stream Compensatory Mitigation I, 5/30/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

ECOATLAS: A WEB-BASED TOOLSET FOR TRACKING AND VISUALIZING THE EFFECTS OF MITIGATION AND RESTORATION ON LANDSCAPE CONDITIONS Grosso, Cristina, San Francisco Estuary Institute

USING VIRGINIA’S WETLAND CONDITION ASSESSMENT TOOL FOR MANAGEMENT DECISIONS Henicheck, Michelle, Virginia Dept of Environmental Quality Davis, Dave, VA Dept of Environmental Quality

Many programs call for the careful tracking and reporting of restoration and mitigation efforts. Nevertheless, sharing data related to such projects across agencies in a coordinated fashion remains a challenge. Climate change, habitat loss, and human population growth are intensive threats against the continued vitality of California’s wetlands. However, the ability of government agencies to respond to these threats is hampered by inadequate knowledge of the location of wetlands and how their abundance, diversity, and condition are affected by wetland protection programs and projects. The proposed presentation will describe EcoAtlas (ecoatlas.org), a toolset that can help meet various reporting needs by monitoring and tracking performance and progress, evaluating project settings and alternatives during the planning phase, documenting accomplishments of habitat restoration efforts, and tracking net change in wetlands over time. EcoAtlas was developed by an interagency workgroup to promote consistent project tracking needed to view the cumulative benefits and effects of public policies and programs that manage the State’s valuable aquatic resources. The toolset provides key mechanisms for standards-based project data entry, mapping, and reporting. Customized visualization tools summarize condition at different landscape scales from the site-specific to larger program and regional levels. EcoAtlas has evolved over the past twenty years to meet users’ tracking and reporting needs. Top lessons learned include: 1) emphasize the importance of a durable underlying scientific framework guided by a multi-agency committee and technical workgroup process; 2) ensure that the fundamental functions to enter, edit, and download data and summarize information are included from the start and refined with ongoing user input; and 3) leverage existing data through web services and an open-data approach, rather than duplicating efforts or data sources. By sharing our lessons learned and collaborative, multi-agency approach to addressing complex scientific and information management challenges, we hope to offer a productive way forward for the many other agencies across the country who might benefit from this knowledge. ■

The Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) and the Virginia Institute for Marine Science (VIMS) have developed a robust, science based Wetland Monitoring and Assessment strategy for evaluating the condition of wetlands in the Commonwealth. The overarching goal of Virginia’s wetland monitoring and assessment strategy is to develop a long-term implementation plan for a wetland monitoring and assessment program that protects the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the Commonwealth’s water resources, including wetlands. In order to accomplish this goal, it is critical to first know the status of wetland resources in Virginia, in terms of location and extent of wetlands in each watershed, and have a general knowledge of the quality of these wetland resources. Secondly, the functions of wetland resources impacted through our permitting program must be accurately evaluated to determine those functions to be replaced through compensatory mitigation. It is also important to assess the degree to which the required compensatory mitigation is performing in relation to those impacted functions. ■

PRESENTATION 1209 Presented during Monitoring and Assessment I, 5/30/2019 9:55 AM11:35 AM

AVIAN RESEARCH IN THE NEW JERSEY MEADOWLANDS McQuade, Drew, New Jersey Sports and Exposition Authority Avian research has been conducted in the New Jersey Meadowlands in some form since at least 1907. In the last few years, multiple projects have been carried out by the New Jersey Sports and Exposition Authority and our collaborators to monitor the avian communities that use the meadowlands during at least part of the year. Bird banding was used during fall migration to examine the stopover ecology of migrant passerines using an enhanced marsh and a capped landfill. Multiple point count studies have served as district-wide monitoring projects and examined differences at select sites pre and post enhancement. Multiple projects have also looked at the nesting success of species using multiple habitats in the meadowlands. The results and future directions of these studies will be discussed. ■

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PRESENTATION 1225

PRESENTATION 1226

Presented during Monitoring and Assessment I, 5/30/2019 9:55 AM11:35 AM

Presented during Monitoring and Assessment II, 5/30/2019 1:10 PM2:50 PM

FIFTY YEARS OF PROTECTING AND RESTORING THE NEW JERSEY MEADOWLANDS Doss, Teresa, New Jersey Sports & Exposition Authority Bragin, Brett, New Jersey Sports & Exposition Authority

FLORISTIC QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF THE NEW JERSEY MEADOWLANDS Mooney, Aleshanee, NJSEA

The New Jersey Meadowlands is one of the few wetland complexes remaining in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary ecosystem, and is one of the largest contiguous blocks of open space located within the highly developed landscape of the New York City metropolitan area. In 1962, it was stated that ‘The Hackensack Meadows are not at the present time of significance to fish or wildlife... productivity of the meadows has all but been destroyed.’ However, after 50 years of active preservation, protection and restoration, this urban wildland now supports a diversity of flora and fauna, including several species whose status is listed as declining, endangered or threatened, and provides critical ecosystem functions including nutrient cycling and flood storage. The New Jersey Sports and Exposition Authority’s Natural Resources Management Department has played a key role in the renaissance of the Meadowlands through its on-going efforts to manage, monitor and restore its habitats and open space. The Department has undertaken comprehensive efforts including extensive monitoring of the District’s vegetation, bird, fish and benthic populations; managing more than 2,500 acres of wetland habitat that is owned or overseen by the Authority; and, over the past 35 years, implementing or overseeing the restoration of over 1000 acres of tidal wetland habitat. But what have we learned from this past half-century of efforts? This presentation will review the 50-year effort to preserve the Meadowlands, and then turn a deeper focus on the 20+ tidal wetland restoration projects that have been implemented over the past 35 years. Topics to be discussed include water quality, remediation, invasive plant management, sea level rise, and future recommendations for tidal marsh restoration. ■

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Ecological landscapes are ever changing. Drastic alterations to the New York City metropolitan area have been ongoing throughout the past century. The New Jersey Meadowlands are no exception. Once wooded with Atlantic white cedars and circulated with freshwater, the Meadowlands have become fragmented, deforested, brackish tidal marshes. These wetlands have had a strenuous and compelling history with anthropogenic developments. In more recent years, the Natural Resources staff at the NJ Sports and Exposition Authority have been working towards the enhancement of hundreds of acres of this valuable estuary system. Through years of use, abuse, and remediation, it can be difficult to keep up with the current status of productivity of a wetland. By creating on-going lists of the flora species found on a given site, it is possible to acquire quantitative and qualitative data describing the ecological value of a wetland. Using the Universal Floristic Quality Assessment online calculator, data from the past 30 years regarding the plant species found at individual sites in the Meadowlands were analyzed in order to label each site with a numerically-valued ecological importance. Given the biodiversity and impact of both native and invasive plant species, this information allows staff to appropriately plan for future remediation and/or management projects. ■


PRESENTATION 1236

PRESENTATION 1252

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

Presented during Monitoring and Assessment II, 5/30/2019 1:10 PM2:50 PM

ELEVATION CHANGE DYNAMICS WITHIN TIDAL FRESHWATER FORESTED WETLANDS IN THE JAMES RIVER ESTUARY Lopez, Ronaldo, Virginia Commonwealth University Rice Rivers Center Crawford, Edward, VCU Rice Rivers Center Neubauer, Scott, Virginia Commonwealth University

SHOREBIRD NEST SURVEY USING AN UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV) ALONG THE SOUTHWEST FLORIDA COASTLINE Miller, Matthew, Water Resource Associates Stiegler, Chris, WRA Hamilton, Marcus, Water Resource Associates

Understanding how tidal freshwater forested wetlands will respond to sea-level rise is critical due to their position within coastal estuaries, and because of the corresponding ecosystems services they provide. Accretion and elevation change rates in tidal forests in the upper James River Estuary in Virginia represent data gaps in the current body of literature pertaining to wetland resilience. The objectives of this study were to quantify short-term elevation change dynamics within these wetland ecosystems, and to establish a long-term dataset evaluating tidal freshwater forested wetland response to rising sea levels. Our study sites included wetlands within Kimages Creek and Harris Creek at the VCU Rice Rivers Center in Charles City County, VA, Powells Creek within James River National Wildlife Refuge in Prince George County, VA, and an unnamed tributary within Presquile National Wildlife Refuge, Chesterfield County, VA. At each site, Surface Elevation Tables (SETs) were installed to measure elevation change, and feldspar clay marker horizons were installed to measure accretion. We made measurements of elevation change and surface accretion every 8 weeks during the summer of 2017 before switching to annual measurements. During the first growing season of data collection, total mean monthly elevation change per site ranged from -2.94 mm to +0.2 mm, with three of the four sites experiencing net elevation loss. Total mean monthly accretion at each site ranged from +0.84 mm to +1.53 mm. Across our study sites, annual mean accretion rates (11.67 +/- 3.01 mm yr-1) varied significantly from elevation change rates (-20.22 +/- 8.1 mm yr-1). Comparing elevation change rates to local rates of sea-level rise (4.61 +/- 0.23 mm yr-1) suggests that, despite current accretion rates, our sites are not keeping pace with relative sea-level rise on the short-term. At the current temporal scale, we may be witnessing short-term oscillations not indicative of long-term trends of elevation change within tidal freshwater forested wetlands in the lower Chesapeake Bay watershed. ■

Florida’s Gulf Coast plays an important role in the Atlantic Flyway, specifically our beaches which provide nesting habitat for shore and seabirds. The Florida Audubon has long ranked coastal conservation among its highest priorities because of the value and vulnerability (due to development pressures, human disturbance, sea level rise, pollution, Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts) of these resources. Through local programs to monitor and reduce disturbances to beach-nesting birds, Audubon has demonstrated increased shorebird productivity in Florida. On-going data collection and analysis is an important solution that the Audubon outlines in their Restoring the Gulf for Coastal Waterbirds: A Long-term Vision (2012) report. Although UAVs have been used more broadly in real estate, marketing, agriculture and the oil and gas industries, they have only relatively recently been researched in ecological studies. A recent study (Monash University 2016) specifically compared avian survey results obtained from an UAV to those results collected by traditional survey methods from the ground. The study found that the UAV was repeatedly able to collect more accurate data than traditional survey methods in the Arctic and tropical climates studied. The reason is credited to the UAV’s ability to take high resolution imagery in which individual birds are able to be identified throughout a study area, while observes on the ground are unable to provide consistent, accurate counts due to issues associated with line of sight obstructions and areas that are inaccessible. The purpose of our study is to refine existing UAV survey methods by performing regular UAV surveys on shorebird nests along the Manatee/Sarasota coastline. An UAV survey will be performed two times per week between January and March 2019, typically between the hours of 8 am and 10 am. The study focuses on the Anna Maria, FL shoreline and includes the black skimmer, American oystercatcher, snowy plover, Wilson plover and willets. This study is on-going and results and conclusions will be included in our May 2019 presentation. We anticipate that the UAV survey method may reduce the potential impact to wading bird nesting populations and eliminate sample location bias by granting complete visual access to shorelines. The UAV method should also allow for a greater length of shoreline to be covered with fewer monitors. ■ Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 277


PRESENTATION 1291

PRESENTATION 1297

Presented during Closing the permitting-mitigation-monitoring (PMM) loop: A focus on the mid-Atlantic USA III, 5/30/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

Presented during Monitoring and Assessment I, 5/30/2019 9:55 AM11:35 AM

MDOT SHA HOLLYNECK COMPENSATORY WETLAND MITIGATION SITE MONITORING - LESSONS LEARNED O’Hare, Greg, RK&K Buettner, Bill, Maryland State Highway Administration

EVALUATION OF METHODS AND RESULTS IN THE BRADDOCK BAY WETLAND RESTORATION PROJECT OF LAKE ONTARIO Silva, Alexander, SUNY Brockport Wilcox, Douglas, SUNY College at Brockport Lawrence, Gregory, SUNY College at Brockport

The Maryland Department of Transportation State Highway Administration (MDOT SHA) Hollyneck Compensatory Wetland Mitigation Site (B-11) is a Palustrine Forested Wetland (PFO)/vernal pool/upland forest complex creation and preservation site located in Essex, Maryland. This site provides 20 acres of compensatory mitigation for forested wetland impacts associated with the construction of the MD 43 from US 40 to MD 150 Extension Project. The primary goals of the mitigation project were replacement of wetland functions impacted within the MD 43 construction corridor including production export, wildlife habitat including vernal pools for amphibian breeding, runoff filtration, erosion reduction, floodwater storage, and groundwater discharge and recharge. MDOT SHA completed construction and limited planting of approximately 10 acres of forested wetland creation within abandoned agricultural fields at the Hollyneck site in 2005 and 2006, with the remaining mitigation requirement being met through preservation of existing PFO/vernal pool/upland forest complex on-site. The wetland creation portions of the site were monitored for five years (2007-2011) postconstruction to ensure that wetland performance standards were met and functions and values were replaced in accordance with regulatory requirements. This presentation will describe lessons learned regarding innovative design and construction approaches, permitting, and post-construction monitoring efforts including: • Designing the site to sub-grade and assigning a designated specialist that was responsible for final wetland grading by the Contractor • Designing and sustaining vernal pool creation including proper pool depth, adequate hydroperiod, and maintaining an open water type habitat • Salvaging wetland topsoil from the MD 43 roadway construction alignment for use in the wetland creation cells • Natural regeneration as the primary re-vegetation method, with limited post-construction planting • Challenges associated with monitoring and final regulatory approval for the mosaic of wetland/upland habitat created on site ■

278 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

Braddock Bay is an open embayment wetland on the southern coast of Lake Ontario and is part of the Rochester Embayment Area of Concern (AoC). Over time, the protective barrier beach has slowly been eroded, leaving the coastal wetland severely impacted by wave action from Lake Ontario, leading to loss of wetland acreage. The erosion of the barrier has been facilitated by water-level regulations implemented in the late 1950s, resulting in little water fluctuation and a loss of plant diversity, bringing about a cattail (Typha sp.) monoculture and the loss of sedge/grass meadow habitat. The Braddock Bay restoration was completed in 2017 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. The plan called for the restoration of a portion of existing cattail-dominated wetland by cutting and herbicide treatment of cattail stands; channeling and potholing to improve wildlife access to the wetland; and the creation of spoil mounds along the channels and potholes to increase the elevation in these areas to discourage the growth of cattail. Two years of data collection from 2016-17 included preliminary invasive species surveys along with transect vegetation data used to calculate the Floristic Quality Assessment Index (FQAI). Preliminary surveys showed an increase in purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) from year 1 to year 2 across the restoration site, while non-native cattail decreased in both the sedge/grass meadow and the spoil mound habitats. Pre-restoration 2013 data compared to post-restoration 2017 data show a significant increase in floristic quality, with a similar significant trend across the 2016 to 2017 sampling years. Recommendations for future restorations include comments on construction, excavation, and planting/seeding standards. The approval of a new lake-level regulation plan that includes greater water level variability can increase the diversity of vegetation and wildlife at Braddock Bay and increase the potential for restoration success. ■


PRESENTATION 1306

PRESENTATION 1337

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN URBAN RUNOFF NATURAL TREATMENT WETLANDS Lieuw, Jessica, Irvine Ranch Water District Bonilla, Courtney, Irvine Ranch Water District

NUISANCE VEGETATION REMOVAL AND ITS EFFECT ON PLANT COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN A SPRING-FED POND Whaley, Hannah, Missouri State University

Constructed treatment wetlands are passive systems designed to reduce pollutants from wastewater and urban runoff using natural biogeochemical processes. These treatment systems consume less energy and require less maintenance, making them more cost effective than conventional treatment technologies. In addition to improving water quality, treatment wetlands act as storm buffers, cycle nutrients, add recreational and aesthetic values, and provide habitat for wildlife. Physical and chemical parameters are typically used to assess water quality, but investigating biodiversity can provide more detailed information regarding wetland health and ecosystem functionality. Aquatic macroinvertebrates are used as bioindicators due to their sensitivity to environmental impairment that is not reflected by water chemistry alone. Few studies have used macroinvertebrate surveys to assess urban runoff before and after treatment in constructed wetlands within the California Mediterranean ecosystem. In April 2018, macroinvertebrate communities were sampled using D-frame nets at the inlet (before treatment) and outlet (after treatment) of five treatment wetlands throughout the ~30,000ha San Diego Creek watershed in Orange County, California. Supplementary to macroinvertebrate sampling, water quality parameters were sampled at the same inlets and outlets to assess the overall health of the wetland. Taxa richness and diversity of macroinvertebrates were compared between inlet and outlet using sites as replicates. Taxa richness and Margalef Diversity were higher in the outlets than the inlets (P=0.039; P=0.027); however, tolerance value, abundance, evenness, and Shannon Diversity were not significant (P=0.245; P=0.781; P=0.844; P=0.525). The insignificance of the latter four indices may indicate that certain water quality parameters between inlets and outlets are too similar to induce biotic variability. The three most abundant taxa were collector-gatherers that typically thrive in habitats with increased organic matter and fine particulate sediment, factors often associated with urban runoff. Understanding the biotic composition and variability in treatment wetlands is necessary for implementation of restoration efforts to increase the effectiveness of these systems. These data will provide an important baseline for future monitoring and management in constructed natural treatment wetlands within the internationally recognized biodiversity hotspot of California. â&#x2013;

Wetlands are important to both wildlife and water quality. There are many different types of wetlands, including marshes, swamps, bogs, springs, and ponds. These ecosystems provide food, habitat, act as a filter, alleviate flooding, and serve as buffer zones intercepting runoff into water bodies. Numerous wetlands have been destroyed for alternative uses such as agriculture and development. This is detrimental to local ecosystems and can have large impacts on water quality. Restoration of wetlands is an important step in helping negate these effects. However, human-made wetlands are susceptible to various problems. For example, many human-made wetlands may lack a seed bank of native plants and can thus be vulnerable to weedy and opportunistic invasive plant species. These human-made wetlands can also be more susceptible to eutrophication due to their physical and chemical properties, hydrologic conditions, and watershed characteristics. Williams Pond is a spring-fed eutrophic pond at the George Washington Carver National Monument, in Diamond, Missouri. This pond contains both nuisance and invasive aquatic vegetation. We removed some of this vegetation by raking in the spring and summer. Before and after raking we conducted vegetation surveys to determine if there is a response in the native aquatic plant community in this pond. The Daubenmire method of transect sampling was used for these surveys, allowing us to calculate species composition, frequency, and average percent cover. Physical and chemical data were also collected to determine relationships with the aquatic plant community. A survey of other similar springfed ponds will also be conducted to determine their physical, chemical, and biological characteristics and to better understand these systems and their function. â&#x2013;

Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 279


PRESENTATION 1339

PRESENTATION 1368

Presented during Closing the permitting-mitigation-monitoring (PMM) loop: A focus on the mid-Atlantic USA II, 5/30/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

MITIGATION PERFORMANCE STANDARDS- TAKING SUCCESSION INTO CONSIDERATION A DOTS PERSPECTIVE Buettner, Bill, Maryland State Highway Administration

MONITORING WETLAND HYDROLOGY AND FLOODPLAIN STORAGE FUNCTION OF COMPENSATORY WETLANDS CONSTRUCTED AT TF GREEN AIRPORT, WARWICK, RHODE ISLAND Peterson, Jeffrey, VHB Brousseau, Patricia, VHB

The Maryland Department of Transportation- State Highway Administration has been performing mitigation for nearly 30 years. Performance standards for mitigation over that time have varied from qualitative to quantitative and since the 2008 Mitigation Rule have included standards for vegetation such as dominance, aerial cover, species richness, and density. In Maryland, performance standards for measuring the success of compensatory wetland mitigation have changed numerous times since the enactment of the 2008 Mitigation Rule. Standards for hydrology and soils have generally followed technical standards established by regulatory authorities or government agencies. On the other hand, standards for vegetation, beyond the required dominance of FAC or wetter to meet the regulatory wetland definition, are discretional and can be counter to natural succession and the role it plays in the long term outcome of the site. Standards that are counter to natural processes can lead to over management. We will explore how succession plays role in the wetland mitigation process and how succession should be considered when developing standards and evaluating the success of a site. Since obtainment of compliance with such performance standards is essential to site acceptance, several design and land management considerations should be explored. Drawing from decades of observation and monitoring we will discuss how utilizing successional processes can create functional and resilient wetlands. â&#x2013;

280 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

TF Green Airport is a medium hub primary airport serving southern New England. In 2015, congressionally-mandated safety improvements to the Runway 34 end required the unavoidable filling of 2.6 acres of wetland. We established a network of surface water staff gages in the wetland to be impacted, its outlet stream, and the brook that outlet stream flows into to characterize the interaction between water surfaces during storm events and collected two years of data prior to construction. These wells were leveled using optical field survey so all elevations were all tied to a common datum. The gages were instrumented to collect water level data at 15 minute intervals. These data revealed that the wetland to be impacted flooded rapidly during storm events and metered out the stored water over several hours to more than one day after the storm (floodflow alteration/ desynchronization). Using these data, two mitigation areas were designed to compensate for the loss of wetland area and the floodplain wetland function. After construction, a new network of groundwater wells and staff gages were installed and leveled to document compliance with minimum criteria for wetland hydrology, the compensation of the floodflow alteration/desynchronization function, and compliance with Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations against the creation of wildlife hazards by limiting periods of continuous surface flooding to less than 48 hours. Graphs depicting precipitation rates and the response of the compensation areas document the mitigation areas are providing compensatory flood storage and drain within the allowable FAA timeframe. These data were used to calibrate a HEC-RAS study of the project area which established a riparian flood zone in the vicinity of the Airport for the first time. â&#x2013;


PRESENTATION 1398

PRESENTATION 1404

Presented during Wetland Restoration and Creation Using Fine-Grained Dredged Sediments II, 5/29/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

LARGE SCALE COASTAL TIDAL MARSH AND BARRIER BEACH RESTORATION AT PRIME HOOK NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE - IMPLEMENTATION AND LESSONS LEARNED Wilson, Bartholomew, USFWS Rizzo, Al, USFWS Guiteras, Susan, USFWS

LAUNCHING A WETLAND MACROINVERTEBRATE SAMPLING PROTOCOL FOR THE CANADIAN AQUATIC BIOMONITORING PROGRAM McIvor, Emily, Environment and Climate Change Canada

Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge had faced substantial management challenges with its wetlands previously managed as coastal freshwater impoundments. Coastal storms led to overwashes and saltwater intrusion into the refuge impoundments, that resulted in a subsequent collapse of wetland vegetation (~4,000 acres), and conversion of large areas to open water. Hydrodynamic modeling utilizing extensive local water level and salinity data was used to design a marsh restoration plan for the refuge. A Recovery Phase involved closing large dune breaches using material dredged from a nearby offshore borrow area. This also created a vegetated back barrier marsh platform, to anchor the shoreline. The Marsh Resilience Phase involved the creation of a network of over 23 miles of historic tidal channels throughout the wetland complex to improve circulation and distribution of salinity and sediment. Material that was dredged during this process was sprayed directly from the channels into un-vegetated areas. This thin-layering approach was primary a disposal mechanism for the channel excavation, but was also seen as a means to develop elevation capital and differential elevations to create micro-topography. Lessons learned for the Pepper Creek thin-layering project were used to help develop a design for the application and improve the Refuges ability to adaptively manage the construction during the project. The restoration work began in June 2015 and was completed in the spring of 2016. A comprehensive data collection and restoration monitoring partnership has been in place with numerous state and academic partners since the wetland management challenges first arose, throughout ongoing restoration, and will continue into the future. The data from the monitoring has been used to guide the ongoing management with regards to vegetation colonization, invasive species control, and continued hydrology manipulations. This marsh restoration project represents one of the largest such restoration projects ever on the east coast. ■

Environment and Climate Change Canada’s (ECCC) mandate is to conserve and protect Canada’s water resources. The Canadian Aquatic Biomonitoring Network (CABIN) is the national biomonitoring program developed by (ECCC) that promotes data sharing among organizations through standardized nationally consistent sampling and assessments methods for rapid assessment of aquatic health using benthic macroinvertebrates. For the past 2 decades, CABIN assessments have been conducted on streams and rivers and the Great Lakes. Nationally consistent assessments have not been conducted in central and northern Canada where the predominant aquatic habitat are wetlands or small lakes. Using pilot studies from Northern Alberta, Saskatchewan and Quebec ECCC developed a standardized sampling protocol for macroinvertebrates in wetlands. CABIN wetlands protocol uses a sweep method standardized by sampling effort (time) to collect aquatic macroinvertebrates. The standard level of effort and integrated samples are important for comparisons among sites. Online training modules followed by a field-training course are set to launch the new CABIN Wetland Macroinvertebrate Protocol in spring 2019. Wetland invertebrate metrics and data analysis options are currently being investigated and will be incorporated into the CABIN wetlands protocol and training program. ■

PRESENTATION 1409 Presented during Wetland Restoration and Creation Using Fine-Grained Dredged Sediments I, 5/29/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

VEGETATION COMMUNITY RESPONSE TO TIDAL MARSH RESTORATION AT PRIME HOOK NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Guiteras, Susan, USFWS Wilson, Bartholomew, USFWS Rizzo, Al, USFWS Tymkiw, Elizabeth, University of Delaware Bush, Nathan, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge in Delaware has restored tidal marsh in nearly 4000 acres of wetlands previously managed as freshwater impoundments, which were impacted by saltwater intrusion through substantial dune breaches during storms, including Hurricane Sandy. Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 281


The restoration project consisted of reconstructing the breached dune and beach complex along 8900 feet of shoreline, planting marsh and dune vegetation on a created back barrier platform, dredging over 20 miles of historic tidal channels within the wetland interior to improve tidal circulation, thin-layer deposition of dredged material adjacent to channels, and aerial seeding,. To document ecosystem recovery associated with the restoration project, a comprehensive biological and abiotic monitoring program was developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in conjunction with the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC) and the University of Delaware. Most monitoring activities began around 2010 and marsh restoration activities were conducted during 2015-2016. Vegetation community response through three growing seasons post-restoration will be described, including results from salt marsh and beach/dune plant community field surveys, marsh elevation monitoring, photopoints, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) changes measured through remote sensing. Prior to restoration, the restoration units were dominated by shallow open water with very little vegetation except limited Spartina marsh colonizing along the periphery. Dramatic vegetation response is evident after the first two growing seasons, with overall vegetated cover throughout the restoration units increasing from 27% to 42%. Continued recovery is being monitored and updated findings will be presented. ■

PRESENTATION 1422 Presented during General Wetland Science, 5/30/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

CHARACTERIZATION OF FLOATING MARSH COMMUNITIES IN THE SAVANNAH NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Waller, Jessica, Clemson University Floating marsh ecosystems are distributed along the Atlantic Coast with significant patches found in the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR). Gasses generated during anaerobic metabolism in the substrate along with air space in plant tissues contribute to the buoyant nature for which these unique marsh types are named. Floating marsh types can range from no movement to free-floating mats and the degree to which marshes float influences the depth and duration of flooding. Current hydrology patterns in suspected floating marsh ecosystems within the SNWR have displayed a notable drainage lag during daily ebb tides compared to neighboring stationary marsh substrates. This study will quantify relationships between vertical movement of marshes and adjacent creek flood height in the SNWR. Vertical substrate 282 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

movement will be related to flood stage, and correlations to soil bulk density will also be explored. Finally, marsh plant species’ dominance, density and importance will be related to hydrologic variables and soil bulk density. Because below ground salinity is arguably the strongest variable in determining marsh plant community composition, we will restrict our sites to those in which monthly average interstitial salinity is < 3.0 psu in the preceding year and through the duration of the study. Staff gauges paired with interval timed photographs will be used to record continuous marsh surface level readings and soil substrate will be analyzed for organic matter content, salinity, and bulk density. Pressure sensors will monitor above ground, below ground and adjacent tidal creek hydrology. Better understanding of floating marsh dynamics and relationships with plant compositions may increase the accuracy of estuarine models that predict marsh conditions based on long-term hydrology data, relative sea level rise, and modifications of flow rates resulting from the Savannah Harbor Expansion Project Flow Rerouting Mitigation feature which is currently underway. ■

PRESENTATION 1434 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

HELPING HANDS: HOW FACILITATION BY BATIS MARITIMA MAY IMPACT MIGRATION OF AVICENNIA GERMINANS Adgie, Therese, Villanova University Increasing temperatures due to climate change is driving the range shifts of many species across the globe. Such is the case in mangrove wetlands along the Florida coast, in which decreasing freeze events are driving mangrove encroachment into salt marsh ecosystems. However, the specific means by which this occurs is not well understood. In the ecotone between these two systems, the species Batis maritima is often found growing in conjunction with the black mangrove, Avicennia germinans. Potentially due to its dense growth habit, B. maritima has been implicated in recruiting mangrove seedlings and promoting mangrove growth, and therefore may influence the northward encroachment of mangroves into salt marshes. This suggests that differences in plant community structure may influence mangrove encroachment and may specifically suggest a facilitative relationship between B. maritima and A. germinans. Working closely with Guana Tolomato Matanzas National Estuarine Research Reserve, I am currently investigating the growth response of A. germinans planted in community structures consisting of varying concentrations of B. maritima and Spartina alterniflora to determine potential


relationships between these species. I will be presenting preliminary findings regarding the relationships between these species and the impact these relationships may have on the northward encroachment of mangroves into salt marsh ecosystems. Plant-plant interactions are an important aspect of any ecosystem, especially in species-sparse systems such as mangrove wetlands and salt marshes. As global temperatures continue to increase, further change is on the horizon for both mangroves and salt marshes. It is important to understand the mechanisms by which these systems fluctuate, as well as the relationships between species within these systems to better understand their overall functioning and how they may change in response to our changing climate. ■

PRESENTATION 1456 Presented during Applying Adaptive Management to Restoration of the Herring River Estuary I, 5/31/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY MANAGEMENT ACTIONS TO RESTORE THE HERRING RIVER Derleth, Eric, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service The Herring River Restoration Project in the towns of Wellfleet and Truro on Cape Cod in Massachusetts is a planned restoration project to replace existing, aging and tidally restrictive tide gates (6-ft width on incoming tides, and 18-foot width on ebb tides) with a new tide gate structure to restore approximately 1000 acres of degraded estuarine wetlands. Primary actions include the installation and management of a new tide gate structure at the mouth of the river that will be composed of a system of two combination slide/ flap gates, 7 combination slidegates, and 16 fully removable concrete panels that in total span a width of 165 feet. Guided by an adaptive management plan, the tidegates are planned to be opened incrementally over a period of years based on comprehensive monitoring and evaluation of both existing conditions and future ecological and social outcomes. Other primary management actions include the removal of a floodplain-wide berm (High Toss Road) and the installation of two smaller adjustable tidegate structures (Mill Creek and Upper Pole Dike Creek) that would control tidal exchange to these two sub-basins. Concurrent with tidegate management, secondary management actions may be implemented that include vegetation removal (above ground woody vegetation), channel excavation to remove accumulated sediments and removal of spoil berms from historic river channelization both to improve tidal connectivity and drainage, sediment supplementation to increase the elevation of subsided marsh surfaces, and vegetation management to enhance the colonization estuarine wetland plants. ■

PRESENTATION 1509 Presented during GIS II, 5/29/2019 1:10 PM-2:50 PM

ADVANCES IN WETLAND SOIL FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT USING IRIS (INDICATOR OF REDUCTION IN SOILS) TECHNOLOGY Rabenhorst, Martin, University of Maryland College Park Over the last decade, IRIS (Indicator of Reduction In Soils) technology has emerged as a practical approach for linking wetland soils performance standards to sciencebased processes, and IRIS has moved from the periphery into common use in hydric soils studies. IRIS consists in specially prepared metal oxide paints that are applied to PVC devices installed in the soil. Under anaerobic conditions, portions of the oxide coatings are microbially reduced, solubilized and stripped. This can be easily observed visually, and when quantified can demonstrate reducing soil conditions. The appeal has been the ease of use and conceptual simplicity, and the use of IRIS technology has also been endorsed by the National Technical Committee for Hydric Soils (NTCHS). Most research efforts and applications have focused on Fe-coated IRIS but within the last two years, a new formulation for a Mn oxide (birnessite) coating has been developed, which permits rapid and easy manufacture of Mn-coated devices. In theory, Mn-coated IRIS devices should reduce and dissolve under less strongly (moderately) reducing conditions compared to those (strongly reducing conditions) required to solubilize Fe-oxide (ferrihydrite and goethite) coatings. Over the last two years, the performance of Fe-coated and Mn-coated IRIS devices have been examined under both field and laboratory conditions in a variety of settings where environmental variables were also documented. This paper will report on efforts to synthesize these data into an innovative protocol for using and interpreting Mn-coated IRIS devices. ■

Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 283


PRESENTATION 1524

PRESENTATION 1538

Presented during Monitoring and Assessment II, 5/30/2019 1:10 PM2:50 PM

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

TRENDS IN FLORISTIC QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR WETLAND EVALUATION DeBerry, Doug, College of William & Mary

RETROFITTING LONG-TERM REFERENCE WETLAND MONITORING WITH CURRENT CONDITION ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGIES IN THE NEW YORK CITY WATER SUPPLY WATERSHED Machung, Laurie, New York City Department of Environmental Protection

Over the past two decades, much has been written about the use of bioassessment tools to evaluate wetland condition. Interest in bioassessment has originated from a need to establish parameters for biological integrity in wetland ecosystems, whether for scientific research, natural areas assessment, inventory and monitoring, or in response to regulatory mandate. On the latter point, the need has been, in part, a reaction to Clean Water Act directives to ‘restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation’s waters.’ For wetland practitioners, identifying a sampling focus for chemical or physical integrity (e.g., dissolved oxygen, temperature) has been a much more straightforward task than finding adequate methods for measuring biological integrity, an ambiguous concept that defies precise definition. This puts scientists and managers in the difficult position of attempting to express a qualitative construct (biological integrity) in measurable or quantitative terms. Even more challenging for wetland practitioners is the decision about which model organisms to use among the diversity of biota that inhabit the ecosystems they study. In wetlands, vegetation is an important component of the biota that is frequently studied to evaluate condition. Rationales for this include: 1) plants are ubiquitous in wetland environments; 2) vegetation is used in scientific and regulatory contexts to define wetlands; 3) sampling protocols for vegetation are well known; 4) plants express sensitivity to disturbance and environmental stressors in measurable ways; and, 5) plants are sessile. Floristic Quality Assessment (FQA), an evaluative approach that takes advantage of these attributes, has been increasingly used for wetland condition assessment. The strength of the approach lies in its use of Coefficients of Conservatism (C-values) that are assigned by an independent panel of botanical experts knowledgeable about the flora of a region. C-values are used to calculate unitless indices (e.g., Floristic Quality Index and related metrics) that are generally considered to be adaptable to a wide range of habitat types and environmental settings. However, some have cited concerns with traditional application of FQA to wetland assessment. This study presents an overview of the scientific research on this topic and summarizes the benefits and challenges of the FQA approach to wetland assessment. ■

284 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

The New York City Water Supply System provides approximately 1.1 billion gallons of safe drinking water to over 9 million residents daily. The vast majority of this water is unfiltered and provided by watersheds which comprise nearly 2,000 square-miles north and west of the City. The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) is responsible for the operation and management of this system and has numerous watershed protection programs in place to maintain the high quality of surface waters, thereby avoiding the need for filtration. DEP’s Wetlands Protection Program is one component of this multifaceted watershed approach and incorporates wetland mapping and assessment to inform wetlands management. To this end, DEP has been monitoring 18 reference wetlands throughout its watersheds for over 15 years. These data have provided a benchmark for wetland creation and restoration and for future change analyses. The New York State Natural Heritage Program (NYNHP) has recently developed tools for a statewide wetland condition assessment that may also benefit implementation of DEP’s Wetlands Program. NYNHP’s protocol includes landscape, buffer, and plot level metrics for assessing wetland condition. DEP is exploring the feasibility of integrating these protocols into its wetland monitoring and management program. DEP calculated NYNHP landscape level metrics for its reference wetlands, and found landscape scores to vary among some drainage basins within the water supply watershed. DEP also calculated NYNHP site level metrics such as Floristic Quality Assessment Indices and mean coefficients of conservatism, and explored the influence of different sampling strategies on metric values. This study will enable DEP to determine the feasibility of retrofitting previously collected data to current NYNHP methodology and to adapt its monitoring protocols to achieve standardization and comparability with statewide methodology. ■


PRESENTATION 1579 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

NUTRIENT RETENTION AND CYCLING AND WILDLIFE USE IN A RESTORED URBAN WETLAND: PRELIMINARY TRENDS AFTER THREE YEARS OF ENHANCED MONITORING Cerny-Chipman, Kathryn, EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc., PBC Powell, Michael, EA Engineering, Science, and Technology Ciarlo, Michael, EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc. PBC King, Thomas, EA Engineering, Science, and Technology Durbano, Michael, EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc., PBC The 6.7-acre McDonogh Road wetland restoration on Scotts Level Branch in Randallstown, Maryland was completed in 2014, with ongoing post-construction mitigation monitoring since that time. In 2016, enhanced monitoring was initiated in addition to mitigation monitoring. The objectives of the enhanced monitoring were to 1) provide supplemental data on the functionality of the site for wildlife and wildlife habitat; 2) to determine if nutrient cycling in the restored wetland was increasing toward levels found in mature wetlands; and 3) to assess the site functioning in nutrient capture and retention. The three-year study included herpetological surveys and nutrient concentration sampling in sediment and plant tissue. Daytime reptile and amphibian surveys and nighttime frog call surveys were completed 3 to 6 times a year. Sediment and tissue samples were collected from the McDonogh Road site and upstream and downstream reference sites in mature forested wetlands. Samples were collected twice per year in May and August. Tissue and sediment data were analyzed using multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple comparisons to assess trends in nutrient development at the McDonogh Road restoration site in comparison with both upstream and downstream reference sites. Data were also assessed to determine trends across years and due to seasonality. Herpetological surveys found 12 species of reptiles and amphibians and evidence of breeding, indicating the site provides abundant habitat for established populations of several species. Initial trends in nutrient concentrations in sediment and tissue show that the McDonogh Road restoration site is similar to reference sites for several key nutrients, including total organic carbon, bulk density, and phosphorus. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations in sediment appear to be increasing at the restoration site, but levels were lower than at the reference sites. Many parameters of wetland nutrient cycling can take years to develop to concentrations found in natural wetlands, but initial monitoring suggests that the site is performing several wetland functions and developing nutrient cycling. Continued monitoring of wildlife, plant

tissue, and sediments with more replicates at less frequent time intervals is recommended to provide more statistically powerful data that still continues to provide valuable information on nutrient cycling development and increased nutrient capture. ■ PRESENTATION 1583 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

THE LOSS OF SEDGE MEADOW COMMUNITIES FROM 1935 TO 2018 DESPITE LANDSCAPE-SCALE RESTORATION EFFORTS IN SOUTHEASTERN WISCONSIN Schultz, Rachel, SUNY Brockport Loken, Zack, University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point Straub, Jacob, University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point To reverse wetland loss and to regain essential habitat, partners have joined to implement landscape-level restoration projects such as the 226,170-hectare Glacial Habitat Restoration Area (GHRA) in southeastern Wisconsin. We sought to assess the difference in relative plant community cover from 1935 (mapped by the Wisconsin Land Economic Inventory, ‘Bordner Surveys’) to 2018 to evaluate results of restoration activities that did not have quantifiable goals beyond increasing wetland acreage. We randomly selected restored wetlands based on hydrologic modification type and included untreated wetlands as reference. In summers of 2017 and 2018, we surveyed plant communities on 39 restored wetlands and 5 reference properties within the GHRA using a timed meander protocol. We then used the surveys along with aerial imagery to map covertypes to match the 1935 mapping effort including sedge meadow, cattail marsh, agriculture, forest, shrubs, and upland grass categories. We also added a category for marshes dominated by Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass). We recorded approximately 270 native plant species and 80 introduced species in 226 surveys conducted on 2786 hectares. As expected, the agricultural covertype decreased since 1935 to 2018 from 50% to 5% cover of our surveyed areas. However, sedge meadow cover decreased from 33% cover in 1935 to 1% in 2018, while cattail and reed canary dominated marshes increased from approximately 0% cover in 1935 to 18% and 30% cover, respectively, in 2018. Changes in plant communities were similar among restoration methods. Our results indicate that wetland communities in restored systems in southeastern Wisconsin are substantially different from native wetland remnants in 1935. In terms of management, we suggest that remaining intact native wetland communities in agricultural landscapes be protected to the extent feasible and not disturbed through excavation activities. We also recommend that programs require grantees to specify quantifiable goals to evaluate the extent to which restorations have met desired outcomes. ■ Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 285


PRESENTATION 1584

PRESENTATION 1600

Presented during Monitoring and Assessment II, 5/30/2019 1:10 PM2:50 PM

Presented during Applying Adaptive Management to Restoration of the Herring River Estuary II, 5/31/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

USING SITE SPECIFIC INTENSIVE MONITORING IN DECLINING SALT MARSHES OF NEW YORK CITY Hartig, Ellen, City of New York Parks & Recreation Haight, Christopher, NYC Department of Parks and Recreation Swadek, Rebecca, City of New York Parks & Recreation Larson, Marit, City of New York Parks & Recreation

UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF TIDAL RESTRICTION IN HERRING RIVER ESTUARY AND APPLICATION TO RESTORATION PLANNING Fox, Sophia Mittermayr, Agnes, Center for Coastal Studies Medeiros, Kelly, National Park Service

Coastal salt marshes world-wide are at risk from climate induced sea-level rise (SLR); however, some regions are deteriorating far more rapidly than others due to multiple exacerbating circumstances. These vary, and a close look at the combined forcings can elucidate the probable causes and aid in determining management options for salt marsh enhancements. While the global average SLR is 1.77 mm x yr-1, the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States is considered a hotspot of rapid relative SLR with local long-term tide stations indicating a doubling or more of the global rate. In New York City (NYC), nutrient overloading from sewage outfalls, poor sediment availability from channel armoring, and other factors typically associated with urbanization are also likely undermining the integrity of remnant salt marshes. In order to address significant marsh decline (not due to direct dredge and fill activity) at NYC salt marshes Site Specific Intensive Monitoring (SSIM) protocols are being followed at six NYC Parks. The primary objectives are to track the severity of marsh subsidence, dieback and sloughing at the waterward edge and to project future marsh loss given current trends and accelerated relative SLR. SSIM includes an array of Surface Elevation Table (SET) benchmarks and associated feldspar marker horizons (MH), a series of erosion pins installed starting at the vegetated shoreline edge, and real time kinematic (RTK) Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected by National Park Service to accurately compare elevation differences between marshes. Based on the RTK data, we know that the Jamaica Bay marshes located in south Queens occur at lower elevations (0.7m NAVD88) than those found in Long Island Sound located along the Bronx and northern Queens and along the Arthur Kill in western Staten Island (1.0m NAVD88). Preliminary SET-MH data analysis from mainly twice annual measurements initiated between 2010 and 2013 indicate that net elevation change in Jamaica Bay marshes is greater than at other comparable local marshes set at higher topographic elevations. SET-MH trends will continue to influence our understanding of future marsh integrity. The information on local accretion and subsidence will guide the design of upcoming NYC salt marsh restoration projects to address salt marsh decline. â&#x2013; 286 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

Monitoring and research are essential for understanding the Herring River system in Wellfleet and Truro, MA, and for informing and providing tools for the tidal restoration efforts to remove the restrictive dike which was built in 1909. Limits to tidal flushing have caused an 1100-acre loss of a salt marsh estuary, high mosquito production, increased coverage by invasive plant species, and water quality degradation, including oxygen depletion, acidification, metal toxicity, and high nutrient concentrations. This study aimed to understand the pre-restoration spatial distribution and movement of sediments, particulate organic matter, and nutrients in the system, and to design a monitoring and research plan that applies indicators and sentinel metrics to adaptive management and evaluation of restoration progress and success. The upstream portion of the Herring River has low salinities and total suspended solids, and the downstream (tidally-flushed) portion of the river has high salinities and suspended solids. High upstream dissolved nitrogen concentrations decline rapidly with tidal mixing to low concentrations near the restrictive dike. With a bioassay study, we show through stable isotopic and nutrient analysis that there is clear integration of changing chemical signals along a salinity gradient that can be measured in suspended particulates, oysters and sediments. In addition, benthic communities differ between the upstream and downstream portions of the river, with the highest diversity found where there is an abrupt salinity mixing zone at the dike. As the Herring River tidal flow is restored, high nutrient concentrations and degraded water quality in upstream waters will be improved and invasive plants will die back, allowing for native marsh grasses to thrive and for the recovery of estuarine fauna, including the economically important Wellfleet oyster. â&#x2013;


Management & Applied Science: Restoration, Creation & Mitigation

PRESENTATION 1083

PRESENTATION 1070

RESTORATION OF ATLANTIC COASTAL BOGS IMPACTED BY SALT WATER INTRUSIONS Rochefort, Line, Université Laval

Presented during Integrating innovative technologies, TEK and TRM for restoring /creating resilient wetlands for the future I, 5/30/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

USING FLOATING TREATMENT WETLANDS TO AMELIORATE STORMWATER IMPACTS ON SALMON IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST. Seebacher, Lizbeth, WA Dept. of Ecology Scientists investigating urban stormwater have found that nonpoint runoff is the leading aquatic pollutant, as road runoff was found to contain a complex mixture of chemicals. Researchers have stressed that these contaminants jeopardize aquatic systems worldwide. Water samples collected in the field have consistently shown mixtures of metals and PAHs, which can be toxic to salmon at different life stages and to other aquatic species. Despite millions of dollars spent on restoring estuaries, streams and rivers in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), salmon return to our freshwater ecosystems in various levels of degradation. Of particular significance are results of a study by Spromberg, et al. (2015) who found substantial coho mortality after exposure to storm water. Floating Treatment Wetlands (FTWs) planted with phytoremediative emergent macrophytes provide a novel opportunity for treating urban stormwater that has historically entered urban streams and lakes untreated. Stormwater runoff before and after exposure to media in bioretention columns on pre-spawn coho was found to be no longer lethal post bioretention. Bioretention, filtration ponds and swales have been shown to effectively remove metals and nutrients from sewer and storm water. However, older highly urbanized areas such as Seattle, do not allow for the addition of swales or ponds before entering water-bodies due to the high cost of land and the potential for contaminated sediments. Together these factors result in a major limitation and hurdle to urban stream and lake pollution reduction efforts intended to reduce coho mortality. FTW’s are an innovative approach in urban areas to improve stormwater quality at the entry site into the lake, stream or river system. Very few studies have gauged the effect of FTW’s on water quality when placed within the receiving waterbody at the point of entry of untreated stormwater. We tested juvenile coho mortality from direct stormwater with and without FTW’s, determined necessary contact time for stormwater with the FTW for adequate removal of metals and nutrients which will significantly reduce coho prespawn mortality; and ascertained metals, nutrients, suspended solids, and other water quality parameters of stormwater after exposure to FTWs for a determined time period relative to stormwater without FTW treatment. ■

Presented during Coastal peatlands in a changing world I, 5/31/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

The extraction of peat lowers the surface topography of coastal bogs and makes them vulnerable to salt water intrusions when high water levels occur during storms that are coupled with high tide events. With the expected sea level rises in eastern Canada cause by climate change pressure, such disturbances will become more frequent. Because of saline and acidic organic soil conditions combined with high water table conditions and reduced availability of nutrients, former commercial bogs that have been contaminated with salt water remain devoid of vegetation for a long period of time, at least in term of decades. The usual reintroduction of Sphagnum mosses, as done in cutover bogs in northern bogs, cannot be carried out as the mosses are intolerant to saline conditions. Without a carpet of mosses, establishment of other peatlands plants is problematic. Another approach must be developed for restoring a plant cover in these coastal bogs to counter soil erosion and any resulting sedimentation. To solve the problem of restoring coastal bogs under the pressure of climate change two approaches have been studied: the study of spontaneous revegetation patterns of a 27 years old abandoned coastal peat bog post-extraction and experimental reintroductions of plants in different bogs of New-Brunswick. The survey of the almost 30 years old cutover bog revealed that peatland plant communities do not re-establish spontaneously but rather, the colonization is achieved by salt marsh plants. From the three different vegetation reintroduction approaches tested by greenhouse and field experiments, we learned the following. 1. A salt marsh hay transfer approach provides an interesting recovery of the exploited coastal bog. This method has no significant effect on the donor salt marsh. 2. A salt marsh diaspore transfer method involves a late-summer harvesting of salt marsh vegetation with a tiller, followed by the transfer of the plant fragments to the bare peat. Introducing species through diaspore transfer is slower than transplanting but results in a greater diversity of species. 3. The approach of transplanting Carex paleacea seedlings (5 plants/m2) produces a good vegetation cover and a significant sub aerial biomass. This transplantation method is labor intensive but leads to a rapid greening of the bare peat substrate. Additional observations revealed that an application of phosphate rock fertilizer (50 g/m2) do improve the establishment of salt marsh plant material. ■ Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 287


PRESENTATION 1089

PRESENTATION 1090

Presented during Integrated Framework for Evaluating Wetland and Stream Compensatory Mitigation I, 5/30/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

Presented during Closing the permitting-mitigation-monitoring (PMM) loop: A focus on the mid-Atlantic USA II, 5/30/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

A MITIGATION PROVIDER’S PERSPECTIVE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF ECOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (EPS) FOR FORESTED WETLANDS Rolband, Michael, Wetland Studies and Solutions, Inc.

THREE PILOT BENEFICIAL USE OF DREDGED MATERIAL PROJECTS: LESSONS LEARNED Yepsen, Metthea, NewJersey Deparetment of Environmental Protection Pecchioli, Joel, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Aspinwall, Jill, The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Doerr, Patty, The Nature Conservancy Fanz, David, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection

Ecological performance standards (EPS) are often based on convention or best-professional judgement (BPJ) and not on empirical observations or experimentally derived relationships, largely because it is difficult to obtain and disseminate such information. To address this shortcoming, we created the Wetlands Research Initiative to fund applied research focused on improving aquatic resource restoration design practices and regulatory requirements. One 950,000 grant has funded field and mesocosm studies by the Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences and Christopher Newport University to develop a scientifically-based EPS for woody vegetation assessment in forested wetland compensation sites. Historically in Virginia the EPS for woody vegetation has been 400 stems per acre - some projects also have a height requirement and a survival rate of planted stock. This research determined that a more appropriate keystone metric for Ecological Performance is biomass; and that biomass is more highly correlated with woody stem area at ground level (SAG) than other measurement techniques. Forested mitigation sites that were determined to be successful by BPJ, as well as by current metrics and regulatory agencies, were evaluated with SAG at various ages to create a trajectory curve of SAG vs. time that is the minimum necessary to be deemed ‘Ecologically Successful.’ Multiple woody species were also evaluated under various hydrologic regimes to determine expected survival rates for various stock types to assist designers and regulators in determining the appropriate planting density necessary to achieve the required SAG levels over time - and to assist in developing adaptive management actions necessary to undertake if the SAG levels needed to achieve EPS are below the target trajectory necessary for success. The Norfolk District/Virginia Interagency Review Team has now included this EPS metric in its 2018 Mitigation Bank Instrument Template. ■

In 2013, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) and multiple partners initiated three pilot projects to evaluate the concept that the beneficial use of dredged material on existing, but stressed and vulnerable, salt marshes would improve their structure, ecological functions, and resiliency, thus helping them to persist into the future. The restoration team carefully documented what was done and developed an extensive list of ‘lessons learned’ during project design, construction, and post-construction marsh recovery. In addition, a more comprehensive and longer-term monitoring program than those typically associated with voluntary marsh restoration and mitigation projects has been implemented. The restoration team met with the NJDEP regulatory program throughout the project design process to minimize and resolve potential issues. In addition, the restoration team and regulatory program have been discussing ways that the lessons learned from these projects and others can be communicated to develop more effective salt marsh mitigation and voluntary restoration requirements to improve project outcomes. Lessons learned from the pilot projects, and recommendations to better inform the State regulatory processes, will be presented. ■

PRESENTATION 1094 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

IMPLICATIONS OF PAIRED OLYMPIA OYSTER (OSTREA LURIDA) AND EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA) RESTORATION ON FISH AND INVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES OF SOUTHERN CA Gavriel, Daniella, California State University Long Beach Howard, Marjorie, California State University at Long Beach Whitcraft, Christine, California State University Long Beach Wetland habitats along California’s coast have greatly decreased over time due to human activities. These valuable

288 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019


ecosystems minimize the effects of erosion, flooding, storms, and pollution. Therefore, restoration efforts in wetland communities serve to benefit all coastal communities, including humans. Some species found in wetlands are especially important because they are ecosystem engineers, creating habitat for other species. Examples include oysters and seagrasses, which provide shelter to fish and invertebrates and help filter the surrounding water. One solution to restore these habitats is paired oyster and eelgrass bed creation. Although oyster bed restoration promotes ecological diversity, it initially causes disturbance underneath by limiting water flow, potentially leading to reductions in the infaunal invertebrate populations. This experiment aims to offset the reductions by pairing restored native Olympia oyster (Ostrea lurida) beds with adjacent native eelgrass (Zostera marina). We created these paired plots in Newport Bay, CA and compared pre-, and post-restoration communities with sediment sampling for invertebrates and baited video monitoring for large fish. We hypothesized that overall fish and invertebrate abundance and diversity will increase in and surrounding paired treatments; however, infaunal populations will decrease directly below the oyster beds. Preliminary observations show that fish use both control and restored plots and that community composition is similar. Infaunal invertebrates have higher abundances in the nonoyster plots than below the oyster beds. This project increases understanding of how to restore these valuable ecosystems while also increasing our understanding of the natural history of both key species. ■

PRESENTATION 1099 Presented during Female Leaders in Wetland Science and Policy II, 5/29/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION IN PARTNERSHIP WITH THE MINING INDUSTRIES: HOW TO DEVELOP LEADERSHIP IN THIS MALE-DOMINATED WORK PLACE. Rochefort, Line, Université Laval From start I should say I only had male mentors. Developing good relationships with your supervisors and calling upon the experts of your field when feeling in trouble (here decode failed experiments or even lack of ideas) is a good start while developing a good autonomy as well. Second, you have to realize that during your graduate studies, you are the person reading most intensively about your narrow specialization and you quickly become an expert. This is the time to believe in your ideas and defend them even in front of hypothetically a Nobel prize person. When you believe in your ideas and if they are soundly argue scientifically, you will always finish by finding funds to realize them. Thirdly, I would say, choose

projects or write grants about subjects that you really like. In my case, it was my botanical love of mosses and to achieve something for the amelioration of the environment. Fourthly, in early career, try to sort out the 1-2 points of amelioration from negative critics - not all! - and thrive with the positive ones. Fifth, in early career we have to slowly built our confidence among our peers by accepting extra-research tasks such as conference organization, becoming members of administrative boards, etc. In this presentation, I will explain how I succeeded 1) to break away from what was known in moss ecology pre-1990 to develop means of manipulating and reintroducing mosses in extensive ecosystems, 2) to discover the key step to efficiently restore Sphagnum peatlands by knowledge transfer from agriculture practices, 3) to technologically transfer the knowledge of peatland restoration to other countries. Lastly I will present my future research program focused on how to solve the dilemma to assess the efficiency of Sphagnum-dominated peatland restoration and developing sounds approach to fen restoration (minerotrophic peatlands) and peaty swamps. ■

PRESENTATION 1102 Presented during Integrating innovative technologies, TEK and TRM for restoring /creating resilient wetlands for the future I, 5/30/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

BEYOND BEST MANAGEMENT: COLLABORATIVE PRACTICES IN CONSTRUCTED WETLAND ENVIRONMENTS Cole, Andrew, Penn State University Best management practices (BMP) provide a productive feedback loop between science, policy, and society offering standardized design strategies to achieve targeted socioecological outcomes in constructed wetland environments. However, when scientific parameters and/or policy priorities are in flux, society lurches forward and BMP’s fail to keep up. Designers are often asked to develop compromised construction and management practices in this feedback vacuum without the input of science and/or policy. This uncoupling of the science, policy, and society feedback loop increases uncertainty and risk to human health, the environment, and economic systems. This proposal presents Collaborative Management Practices (CMP) as an alternative approach that aims to be adaptive, iterative, and response ensuring that feedback loops remain intact in constructing wetland environments even while scientific, political, and/or social circumstances fluctuate. To illustrate the CMP framework, its effects, and how it differs from more conventional BMP’s and adaptive management regimes, presenters will share case studies and lessons learned from their experience launching a university research center Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 289


focused on Ecology + Design and forming a practice-based design research program focused on landscape infrastructure and collaborative processes. Specific project examples will emphasize wetlands, regional sediment management, riparian buffers, and climate adaptation. ■

PRESENTATION 1160 Presented during Applying Adaptive Management to Restoration of the Herring River Estuary II, 5/31/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

HYDRODYNAMIC MODELING TO SUPPORT RESTORATION DESIGN AND ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT Bosma, Kirk, Woods Hole Group The Herring River is a 1000+ acre estuary system located on Outer Cape Cod. Prior to a dike construction in 1909, Herring River was connected to Wellfleet Harbor through a natural inlet at Chequessett Neck and consisted of nearly 1,100 acres of thriving coastal wetlands, including a productive herring run, shellfishery, and salt marsh habitats. The dike construction, intended to control mosquitoes and create additional developable land area, significantly degraded the natural marsh ecosystem. Today, after over 100 years of diked flow, as well as numerous other anthropogenic impacts, hundreds of acres of intertidal salt marsh have been degraded. A comprehensive restoration project/plan is being developed to identify restoration actions and adaptive management strategies that will improve the system through a monitored and adjustable approach. As part of the restoration effort, a series of hydrodynamic and ecological models were developed to evaluate a range of alternatives, guide the engineering design of control structures, road crossings, and culverts, and provide predictions for an adaptive management decision framework. For example, the model suite provided valuable design assessments for the new bridge structure and tidal control elements that resulted in significant cost savings. The models were implemented to (1) provide detailed design requirements for the tidal control structures within the proposed bridge/dike system; (2) ensure that the proposed tidal control structure and operational strategy provide the required tidal control flexibility, while minimizing costs and complexity; (3) inform the development of an adaptive approach to achieve restored tidal conditions with minimal risk to property and the environment, and (4) provide flexibility for a range of physical conditions (storm surge, precipitation events), including projected sea level rise. The results of this high resolution hydrodynamic and salinity modeling have created the foundation for the restoration effort, including the potential impacts, permitting, engineering design, and adaptive management program. ■ 290 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

PRESENTATION 1164 Presented during Restoration, Creation and Mitigation I, 5/29/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

WATER QUALITY SAMPLING STRATEGIES MAY BIAS EVALUATIONS OF WETLAND AND STREAM RESTORATION PROJECTS Thompson, Joshua, Exponent Pelc, Carey E., Smithsonian Environmental Research Center Jordan, Thomas E., Smithsonian Environmental Research Center It is difficult to measure the net export of pollutants, such as total suspended solids (TSS), from restored wetlands and streams because pollutant concentrations are extremely variable during periods of high flow. Consequently, pollutant loads estimated from data collected at different temporal sampling frequencies have different degrees of accuracy. The accuracy of pollutant load estimates typically improves with increases in temporal sampling frequency, yet this comes with greater financial costs. Making robust monitoring affordable requires the optimization of sampling protocols to achieve the highest possible accuracy in pollutant load estimation for the least effort. We investigated the effect of temporal sampling frequency on estimates of the net export of TSS from a restored stream in Maryland, USA. We found that commonly-used temporal sampling frequencies can lead to erroneous conclusions of restoration efficacy, with sediment removal estimates having errors exceeding 300% compared to estimates from sub-hourly monitoring. Additionally, we analyzed 28 individual years of sub-hourly TSS data from Europe and North America to assess how sensitive different sampling strategies are to watershed hydrological characteristics. Our analysis indicated that compared to estimates using sub-hourly data, targeted storm sampling can lead to large over-estimation of pollutant export, particularly in watersheds with low hydrological flashiness. Flow-paced composite sampling provided the most accurate load estimates with the least effort and was one of the least sensitive to hydrological flashiness. The selection of monitoring methods may introduce bias that can influence the conclusions of how well a restoration project is meeting its objectives. Such bias may also limit the ability to compare multiple studies employing different sampling regimes. ■


PRESENTATION 1191

PRESENTATION 1219

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

Presented during Restoration, Creation and Mitigation II, 5/29/2019 1:10 PM-2:50 PM

THE EFFECT OF A SURFACTANT SEED COATING ON THE GERMINATION AND BIOMASS OF THREE NATIVE BULRUSHES Hart, Anders, Utah State University Martin, Emily, Utah State University Kettenring, Karin, Utah State University Madsen, Matthew, Brigham Young University

EFFECTS OF PAIRED OLYMPIA OYSTER (OSTREA LURIDA) AND EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA) RESTORATION ON FISH AND INFAUNAL COMMUNITIES IN NEWPORT BAY, CALIFORNIA Howard, Marjorie, California State University at Long Beach Whitcraft, Christine, California State University Long Beach Zacherl, Danielle, California State University Fullerton Nichols, Katie, Orange County Coastkeeper

Great Salt Lake (GSL) wetlands provide vital ecosystem services, including habitat for migratory birds. Alkali bulrush (Bolboschoenus maritimus), three-square bulrush (Schoenoplectus americanus), and hardstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus) play an important role in providing these services, but invasion by Phragmites australis has reduced the extent these species in GSL wetlands. Restoring these native bulrushes following Phragmites removal is a primary goal for GSL managers. However, climate change and increasing human water demands upstream may alter the hydropattern of GSL wetlands, leading to lower soil moisture availability and potentially inhibiting germination and establishment of these species. We conducted two experiments to test the effect of surfactant seed coating (SSC) on germination and biomass of B. maritimus, S. americanus, and S. acutus. In one experiment, we tested whether the addition of an SSC at a low and high dose to seeds of B. maritimus, S. americanus, and S. acutus, improved germination proportion when moisture level was kept constant in growth chambers. S. acutus had a significantly higher germination proportion at the low and high doses of the SSC compared to uncoated control, while the respective germination proportions of the other species was not different from control. In a second experiment, we tested the effect of a low and high dose of the SSC on the per-seedling above- and belowground biomass of these species in growth chambers at three moisture levels. For the low-dose SSC treatment, B. maritimus and S. acutus had higher per-seedling aboveground biomass than control at either the driest or intermediate moisture level. No clear pattern emerged in the belowground biomass across species and treatments. These results suggest that this SSC may enhance the germination of S. acutus, and under certain conditions may lead to higher seedling biomass of B. maritimus and S. acutus. â&#x2013;

Coastal wetlands provide complex biogenic habitat for a variety of species. Declines in wetland habitat result in a loss of ecological diversity and ecosystem services on a global scale, highlighting a need for research into effective restoration techniques. Combining multiple native habitats in a living shoreline design may be an ideal method of restoring natural structures for estuarine species. This study investigates the effects of paired oyster and seagrass restoration on fish and infaunal invertebrates in a California estuary. Beds of native Olympia oysters (Ostrea lurida) and eelgrass (Zostera marina) were restored, both separately and paired, at four sites in Upper Newport Bay, CA. The infaunal community was monitored via sediment core collection pre- and post-restoration. The fish community was assessed with video monitoring and quadrat sampling. I predicted that infauna would die back directly beneath oyster beds, but that eelgrass could enhance the community, offsetting these losses in paired treatments. I expected fish abundance and diversity to be greater in restored treatments than in controls and greatest in paired treatments. Results show significant shifts in infaunal community composition post-eelgrass restoration; at some sites, this shift included increases in abundance and species richness. Oyster restoration resulted in significant infaunal diebacks only under oyster beds as predicted. Restored eelgrass beds attract different communities of fish, potentially by providing food and refuge, and quadrat surveys have shown that large numbers of larval fish use the interstitial spaces of oyster reefs. Overall, the study lends support to the ecological effectiveness of oyster bed restoration accompanied with eelgrass. â&#x2013;

Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 291


PRESENTATION 1261

PRESENTATION 1281

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

Presented during Advancing Large-Scale Restoration in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, USA, 5/29/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF SALINITY AND NITROGEN AVAILABILITY ON THE GROWTH OF FRESHWATER TIDAL WETLAND PLANTS Crossman, Kelsie, Virginia Commonwealth University Neubauer, Scott, Virginia Commonwealth University

DESIGN PROCESS FOR THE POCOMOKE RIVER FLOODPLAIN RE-CONNECTION Jennings, Brian, United States Fish and Wildlife Service

Freshwater tidal wetlands play a vital role globally as habitats for a wide range of biota and their removal of excess nutrients from the water table. Unfortunately, these wetlands are also under increasing threat of salinization due to sea level rise. Our hypothesis was that the addition of nitrogen to freshwater wetland plants experiencing salinization would increase nitrogen availability and would therefore offset some of the negative effects of salinization. We used two common tidal freshwater marsh plants, Peltandra virginica (arrow arum) and Leersia oryzoides (rice cutgrass), that were grown in mesocosms that simulated regular tidal flooding. The plants were exposed to factorial combinations of salinity (0, 2, 5 psu) and nitrogen (0, 0.017, and 0.137 g N added m-2 week-1), with each of the nine treatment combinations replicated five times per plant species. At weekly intervals during the two-month experiment, we assessed plant growth/success by measuring plant height, number of leaves, and leaf-level photosynthetic rate. At the end of the experiment, we also measured aboveground biomass for all plants and belowground biomass on a subset of plants. In later weeks of the study, both species exposed to high salinities experienced a mass die-off of mature leaves, but those with elevated nitrogen levels produced young leaves. High salinity L. oryzoides with nitrogen inputs exhibited a total increase in leaf number, unlike P. virginica at that same salinity. Nitrogen was unable to help photosynthesis of high salinity P. virginica plants rise above those in 0 and 2 psu, but plants in high salinity that received high nitrogen inputs had a photosynthesis slightly higher than those with low/no added nitrogen. Although L. oryzoides in high salinity exhibited highly variable photosynthesis in early weeks, these plants had the lowest photosynthetic rates by the final sampling event, regardless of nitrogen level. Belowground biomass was greater than aboveground biomass for both P. virginica and L. oryzoides with the exception of plants with high nitrogen inputs and low/no salinity. L. oryzoides exposed to high salinity invested more energy to belowground biomass than aboveground. Although increased nitrogen availability did lead to new leaf growth in salt-stressed plants, it was not able to completely offset the negative effects of salinization on these freshwater wetland plants. ■ 292 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

The design process for the Pocomoke Floodplain Restoration projects can be used on any stream or river where a levee was constructed cutting off access to the floodplain. The process includes the following steps: define the project area, determine the flood plain acres, determine the number of breaches and placement, ground truth the breach locations, and finalize engineering designs. The process uses topographic data, stream gauge data, and Manning’s n equation to design the breaches and determine the best placement. ■

PRESENTATION 1290 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

THE USE OF DELAYED HYDROLOGY IN FORESTED WETLAND CREATION Routh, Karley, RK&K The US 301 Project, located in Middletown, DE, provided a unique opportunity to implement a delayed surface hydrology method to create a forested wetland mitigation site. The Pleasanton Wetland Mitigation site is a 30-acre parcel with mapped hydric soil units. Infiltration tests revealed the native soils had a slow infiltration rate, which could support ponded surface hydrology. The parcel, an old agricultural field, was previously manipulated to promote drainage off-site through a center drainage ditch and a perimeter drainage ditch to capture sheet flow from the gradually-sloping field. With these site characteristics in mind, the wetland-creation design incorporated construction of three strategically placed berms and plugged the center drainage ditch with a high-clay content soil. The intent of this design was to capture sheet flow precipitation from a large drainage area and thus create ponded hydrology within the site. The early establishment of woody vegetation is key to the success of creating a forested wetland using a delayed hydrology approach. The site was planted with a high density of hardwood seedlings four years before construction to acclimate the plants to the site and compensate for the loss of individuals during construction. Two years after construction, mitigation monitoring identified a vastly biodiverse seven-acre wetland complex, consisting of both forested and emergent wetlands that continue to evolve every year. ■


PRESENTATION 1293

PRESENTATION 1315

Presented during Restoration, Creation and Mitigation I, 5/29/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

Presented during Applying Adaptive Management to Restoration of the Herring River Estuary II, 5/31/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

INNOVATIVE ASSESSMENT METHODS AND DESIGN APPROACHES FOR RESTORING A CONCRETE-LINED CHANNEL TO AN INTEGRATED STREAM AND FLOODPLAIN WETLAND SYSTEM Hellmann, Karl, RK&K Altland, Drew, RK&K

UTILIZING A WEB-BASED EXPERT ELICITATION PROCESS TO COLLECT INPUT PREDICTIONS FOR TIDAL MARSH RESTORATION ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES Smith, Tim, Minnesota Board of Water and Soil Resources

The Anne Arundel County Watershed Protection and Restoration Program (WPRP) identified the restoration of Furnace Creek in their comprehensive assessment of the Patapsco Tidal Watershed, as a project to provide ecological enhancement, support the requirements of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4) permit, and help meet pollutant load reductions associated with the Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL). Restoring concrete-lined streams can be challenging due to the inherent extreme shear stresses and velocities that typically exist as a result of high lateral confinement and/or steeper longitudinal slopes that produced the need for concrete armoring in the past. However, since these systems typically lack natural stream and wetland functions, there is high potential for functional uplift and ecological improvement. Monitoring at Furnace Creek, both pre-construction (2017 to 2018) and post-construction (starting 2020), is focused on water quality and biological health. An automated sampler collected composite water quality and flow data for loading calculations (nutrients and metals) and grab samples were collected to measure instantaneous concentrations of other pollutants (E. coli, VOCs, etc.). Biological integrity (fish and benthic macroinvertebrates) was evaluated using modified Maryland Biological Stream Survey (MBSS) protocols. These data will provide insight into the pre and post-restoration health of the stream reach. This presentation will describe the degraded conditions of Furnace Creek and its associated wetlands, highlight innovative restoration design techniques that were used to promote a long-term, sustainable system, and emphasize collaboration with county, state, and federal agencies to achieve an overall successful design. The design promotes high ecological uplift by restoring lost functions, creates conditions to support long-term stability of the post-restoration design strategies using 2D hydrodynamic modeling tools, reduces construction cost, incorporates an extensive wetland floodplain complex over the existing concrete-lined channel, establishes effective hyporheic flow exchange, encourages local groundwater supported floodplain wetlands, minimizes impacts to existing wetlands and forests, and restores floodplain vegetation with an array of native species to stabilize the site and promote habitat diversity. â&#x2013;

The Herring River Restoration Project Adaptive Management Plan developed a hierarchy of fundamental and means objectives with corresponding performance measures and predictive methods. The range of objectives covers more than 40 ecological and socioeconomic factors that will guide decision analysis as the project is implemented. Predictions of expected conditions are necessary to distinguish advantages and disadvantages among the potential restoration scenarios and are a critical component of a structured decision analysis. For a subset of the ecological objectives, robust predictions are available from outputs directly provided by, or derived from, a comprehensive two-dimensional hydrodynamic model. However, for other objectives numerical models either have not been developed or are not cost-effective. For these objectives, a systematic process of expert elicitation has been developed. It is based on a web-enabled survey designed for subject matter experts in coastal ecology and wetlands restoration. An initial group of experts, identified by the Herring River project team, were contacted and asked to participate. Additional experts were suggested by the initial group of invited experts to further expand the respondent pool. All users are given a general overview of the restoration project, the decision analysis process, and the purpose of the survey. Participants were given access to sections of the survey that match their self-identified expertise. General topics covered by the survey include sediment dynamics, water quality changes, mosquito populations, carbon fluxes, and anadromous fish migration. Under each general topic, users were presented with targeted questions to elicit their predictions about how the parameter of interest will change in response to project-driven changes to tidal dynamics, as predicted by the hydrodynamic model. Users were asked to provide low and high ranges for their predictions, the most likely value, and their degree of confidence that the true value will fall within their stated range. Data output from the elicitation web survey was formatted for use in an R-based, web-enabled decision analysis application that summarizes all predictions and incorporates utility functions and objective weighing to provide a quantified evaluation of the restoration scenarios being considered. â&#x2013;

Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 293


PRESENTATION 1318

PRESENTATION 1327

Presented during Applying Adaptive Management to Restoration of the Herring River Estuary I, 5/31/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

Presented during Wetland Restoration and Creation Using Fine-Grained Dredged Sediments I, 5/29/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

HERRING RIVER ESTUARY: SITE HISTORY AND THE NEED FOR RESTORATION Smith, Tim, Minnesota Board of Water and Soil Resources

WETLAND SOILS DERIVED FROM ESTUARINE SEDIMENTS: GEOCHEMICAL OBSERVATIONS Cornwell, Jeffrey, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science Owens, Michael, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science Staver, Lorie, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science Stevenson, J. Court, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science

The Herring River estuary, located in Wellfleet and Truro on Cape Cod in Massachusetts, historically included more than 1000 acres of intertidal wetlands. The river supported the most significant anadromous fish run on outer Cape Cod and was a critical natural and economic resource for Native Americans and European settlers. In 1909 a dike was constructed across the river mouth with the intention of controlling mosquito populations and supporting development within the floodplain. While neither of these objectives were fully obtained, tidal restriction of the Herring River dramatically reduced tide range, degraded upstream habitat, and impaired water quality, making it one of the largest and most degraded estuaries on Cape Cod. Now, a multi-sector partnership is working to restore a healthy, functioning tidal marsh within the Herring River estuary. The major focus of the project is reestablishing natural tidal exchange and salinity in the river basin by replacing the dike at the mouth of the river with a bridge. The new bridge will incorporate an innovative water control system to allow incremental restoration of natural tide range in order to avoid unintended impacts and facilitate an adaptive approach grounded in comprehensive monitoring. The Project will also implement management and mitigation actions to accelerate or maximize the recovery of estuarine habitat, enhance the benefits of tidal restoration, and avoid or reduce potential adverse ecological and socioeconomic impacts of restored tidal flow; these include management of floodplain vegetation, prevention of tidal flow impacts to low-lying property, modification of marsh surface elevations through management of sediment supply and distribution, and restoration of connectivity and natural sinuosity of tidal creeks to enhance the circulation of salt water through the system. Project partners have developed methods and tools that link state-of-the art science to a broad community engagement process using innovative engineering and coastal modeling practices and a forward-looking adaptive management and decision analysis process. ■

The dredging of navigational channels in the upper Chesapeake Bay results in the transport of ~ 3.5 million cubic yards of sediment per year. Re-deposition of these materials in other bay subtidal environments has been eliminated by statute in Maryland, so the majority of ‘clean’ dredged materials are currently used at Poplar Island for the creation of wetland and upland environments in the footprint of an eroded island. In this presentation, we show how the geochemical characteristics of channel deposits are altered as they are used in wetland restoration. After dredging, transport and re-deposition, the drying of these sediments results in the oxidation of pyrite minerals, resulting in production of sulfuric acid and low pH’s. With time and introduction of tidal exchange, pH’s at the time of planting do not present an issue with fertility. Because the Chesapeake Bay is nutrient-enriched and eutrophic, rapidly deposited channel sediments have unusually high concentrations of pore water and adsorbed ammonium. A considerable proportion of the ammonium remains available in the wetland soils, which combined with high concentrations of sediment inorganic phosphorus, results in high nutrient availability within the plant root zone. High concentrations of plant biomass result from the nutrient content of the soils, and biogeochemical processes such as denitrification build in rapidly. ■

PRESENTATION 1329 Presented during Wetland Restoration and Creation Using Fine-Grained Dredged Sediments I, 5/29/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

INCLUDING THE ECOLOGY IN ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION: DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR TIDAL MARSH RESTORATION WITH FINE-GRAINED DREDGED MATERIAL Staver, Lorie, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science Stevenson, J. Court, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science 294 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019


Cornwell, Jeffrey, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science Owens, Michael, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science Many aspects of tidal marsh restoration are based on empirical data from projects where coarse-grained material with low nutrient availability was used as the substrate. The resulting trajectories of vegetation and sediment development took years, even decades, to reach functional equivalency with natural marshes. Over the last 15 years, studies of the restored tidal marshes at Poplar Island, in Chesapeake Bay, where fine-grained dredged material has been used as a substrate, have shown that vegetation and sediment development are much more rapid where nutrient availability is high. In particular, plant growth and colonization rates are rapid and biomass production is high, but root:shoot ratios (RSR) are low, and grazing and disease pressure are elevated compared to low nutrient marshes. In addition, the consolidated nature of fine-grained sediment means that conduction is minimal, promoting ponding in low areas which develop unfavorable conditions for plant growth. The abundance of fine-grained dredged material in some locations provides an opportunity for marsh restoration, but design and management of these projects should reflect the ecological effects on the marsh community in the early stages of development. Examples include planting configurations which take advantage of rapid growth and colonization, design features which promote aboveground biomass retention, grading the substrate to promote surface drainage, and potentially periodic burning to remove the overwintering refuge for insects and pathogens. ■

PRESENTATION 1331 Presented during Wetland Restoration and Creation Using Fine-Grained Dredged Sediments I, 5/29/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

THIN LAYER PLACEMENT AS A TOOL FOR SALT MARSH FUNCTIONAL MAINTENANCE AND RESTORATION: PROMISE AND CHALLENGES. Murray, Elizabeth, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers VanZomeren, Christine, US Army Corps of Engineers Coastal marsh areas offer critical ecological and storm protection functions, and recent loss of these ecosystems has become a national concern. Marsh loss or degradation can be attributed to sediment starvation, sea level rise, local subsidence, or increased wave energy. Once ecogeomorphic marsh processes fail to keep up with relative sea level, the decline is unlikely to be reversed without intervention. The placement of a thin layer of clean dredged material on the marsh surface (i.e. Thin Layer Placement, or TLP) is

a potential technique for maintaining and restoring marsh elevation and functions. While these techniques have been used in the Gulf of Mexico with notable success, new pilots on the east and west coasts will help determine how well the techniques transfer to other areas with different climate, soils, plant species, and tidal range. Early case study results in both the east coast (Avalon, New Jersey and Narrow River, Rhode Island) and west coast (Seal Beach, California) offer promise, lessons learned, and considerations for future efforts. ■

PRESENTATION 1332 Presented during Wetland Restoration and Creation Using Fine-Grained Dredged Sediments I, 5/29/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

WETLAND RESTORATION AND CREATION USING DREDGED SEDIMENTS. CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATIONAL CHALLENGES AND SUCCESSES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA Levine, James D., Montezuma Wetlands LLC Twenty years ago, the San Francisco Bay Area port, regulatory, environmental and political communities came together on an environmentally friendly way to continue the annual dredging of millions of cubic yards of sediment from the region’s channels, ports and harbors, and begin to restore the Estuary’s ‘lost’ wetlands. The region’s wetlands and habitat losses over the past 150 years are estimated at close to 90%, and along with streamflow, predation, temperature and other factors, have contributed to severe reductions in endangered populations of salmon and smelt. Those 20 years have seen the development of several major restoration sites to manage the wide range of chemistry and sediment types generated, investments in facilities and equipment to handle the sediment efficiently, and the development of a coordinated interagency regulatory program to streamline permits for dredging projects that go to beneficial reuse. We present some of the technical, development and operational challenges these projects faced, and innovative solutions that were implemented to successfully steer more than 20 million cubic yards of sediment to landscape-scale wetland and habitat creation and restoration projects in the region. ■

Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 295


PRESENTATION 1334

PRESENTATION 1335

Presented during Integrated Framework for Evaluating Wetland and Stream Compensatory Mitigation I, 5/30/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

Presented during The Critical Role of Wetlands in International Climate Solutions: Emerging Opportunities III, 5/30/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

DEVELOPING A FRAMEWORK FOR LONG TERM COMPENSATORY MITIGATION ASSESSMENT Topping, Brian, US EPA Hough, Palmer, US EPA

EFFORTS IN CANADA TO RESTORE C SEQUESTRATION FUNCTION OF DEGRADED PEATLANDS AND TO IMPROVE C SEQUESTRATION OF MANAGED PEATLANDS Rochefort, Line, Université Laval Strack, Maria, University of Waterloo

In 2008, EPA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers jointly issued regulations revising and clarifying standards for compensatory mitigation projects required to offset unavoidable impacts to wetlands, streams, and other aquatic resources under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act (CWA). Improving the ecological outcomes and sustainability of compensatory mitigation projects was a central goal of the 2008 Mitigation Rule, but a review of evaluations of compensation performance published since 2000 found that the frequency of compensation performance evaluations (particularly since issuance of the 2008 Rule) is on the decline. In addition, there are large gaps in the geographic coverage (e.g., southeast) and resource types (most notably streams), and when evaluations are done there is a lack of consistency among studies in how compensation performance is defined and assessed. Program managers tasked with implementing and overseeing compensatory mitigation for wetlands, streams, and other aquatic resources often struggle to identify rigorous, standardized approaches for conducting monitoring and performance assessments, and to access and manage data relevant to their compensatory mitigation projects. To encourage the development of more assessments of compensatory mitigation performance and provide recommendations for improving the consistency of compensatory mitigation performance assessments across the country, EPA, in partnership with the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP) and the Environmental Law Institute (ELI) created an integrated framework for evaluating wetland and stream compensatory mitigation. EPA, SCCWRP and ELI developed the framework based on peer-reviewed literature and agency reports on past mitigation practices and monitoring approaches, interviews with program managers from 15 state programs, and input from a team of nationwide technical experts. The framework is designed for state program managers because: 1) most of the past studies of compensation performance have been conducted by states or defined by state boundaries, 2) states have an interest in the long-term performance of compensatory mitigation project sites (e.g., all states have CWA Section 401 certification authority and 29 states have relevant independent state permitting programs), and 3) state agencies have mechanisms for conducting evaluations and access to resources to fund such evaluations (e.g., EPA Grants). ■ 296 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

Canada includes close to 1/3 of the peatlands of the world (2.86% abundance of terrestrial ecosystem) but since European colonization, degradation pressure from drainage has been continuously on the increase. In the past 25 years, the Peatland Ecology Research Group (PERG) has been quite active in developing methods to restore degraded Sphagnum bogs by re-wetting and revegetation. Impacts of drainage and the restoration effort on sinks and sources of carbon in Sphagnum peatlands will be presented, including multi-year measurements of net ecosystem exchange of CO2, methane and dissolved organic carbon. Our main whole-ecosystem research station (since 1999) reveals that a peatland degraded by peat extraction now has a mean net ecosystem uptake of 78 ± 17 g C m-2 year-1. Consequently, efficient rewetting measures, alongside re-establishing key species make it possible to restore the long-term C sink function of Sphagnum-dominated boreal peatlands similar to that of an intact peatland, or to significantly reduce C emissions of shorter terms. From another angle of research, we are led to believe that it could be possible, through management, to reduce, partially, peat C emissions. The addition of phenolic compounds to peatland soils has been proposed as a means of enhancing the suppression of enzyme activity, reducing the rate of organic matter decomposition and thus potentially enhancing the C sink function of peatlands. We will present a study designed to evaluate the potential of phenolic enrichment as a geoengineering strategy by adding wood chips to peat soil and determining the impacts on key components of organic matter decomposition and Sphagnum growth. Results indicate that through the addition of phenolic compounds to peatland soils, it may be possible to inhibit extracellular enzyme activities in order to reduce the flux of CO2 from soils to the atmosphere. ■


PRESENTATION 1338

PRESENTATION 1340

Presented during Applying Adaptive Management to Restoration of the Herring River Estuary II, 5/31/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

Presented during Restoration, Creation and Mitigation III, 5/29/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

CURRENT AND FUTURE HERRING RIVER MONITORING ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT THE ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT APPROACH TO TIDAL RESTORATION Lavallee, Katie, Woods Hole Group

FACTORS INFLUENCING ECOSYSTEM DEVELOPMENT IN CREATED MARSHES IN SOUTHWEST LOUISIANA Elsey-Quirk, Tracy, Louisiana State University Muench, Andy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Abbott, Katherine, Louisiana State University

Cape Cod National Seashore, in collaboration with the Town of Wellfleet (Massachusetts) and other local, state, and federal partners, is undertaking an ambitious project to restore tidal exchange and associated ecosystem functions to the Herring River estuary. A dike constructed in 1909 across the mouth of the river has restricted tidal flow and caused severe ecological degradation to the system. To avoid a number of potentially adverse ecological and socioeconomic effects, tide range will be restored incrementally, over a period of several years, with modifications to a water control structure incorporated into a new bridge to be constructed at the mouth of the river. This will allow project managers to monitor responses of the ecosystem to small increases in tidal range and will support an adaptive, data-driven approach as decisions are made about subsequent water management and other project activities. The current design and restoration strategy for the project is based on decades of physical, chemical, and biological monitoring performed by National Park Service scientists and cooperators. Hydrologic and water quality data have been used for the development of ecosystem models and predictive tools and to characterize the baseline, pre-restoration condition of the estuary. Data have also been collected and used in several focused studies and research projects. In 2017, a network of water level and water quality sensors was established to provide continuous, real-time data at key locations throughout the system. The network will be maintained and expanded during the multi-year project implementation period. Data will be used to evaluate modeled predictions of water levels and other variables and to inform refined models that will improve future decision-making and our understanding of the system. Real-time data will also be available on a public-facing website to keep stakeholders informed and to generate and maintain community support. â&#x2013;

Marsh creation using dredge sediment is increasingly used as a restoration approach to replace lost and create new coastal marsh habitat. In Louisiana, approximately 18 billion is allocated for dredge sediment marsh creation over the next 50 years, making assessments of how these systems function imperative for guiding restoration goals and management. In southwest Louisiana, tidal and salt water intrusion through constructed ship channels has triggered large-scale conversion of fresh and intermediate marsh to open water. Remediation measures include the installation of numerous water control structures and marsh creation using dredge sediment. Our research is focused on six marshes that represent a 32-year chronosequence of created wetlands. The vegetation is dominated by brackish and salt marshes species, and our research shows that species composition at early stages of succession is determined by competitive interactions, where pioneer species with greater tolerance to flooding stress, outcompete less tolerant species for available nutrients, particularly at lower elevations. Thus, species composition over time depends on both nutrient availability and elevation. Once established, vegetation plays a key role in the development of soil carbon stocks, which increased to a maximum of 1,973 g C m-2 in the 32-year old marsh. Carbon accumulation rates, however, were highly variable within and among marshes. Stem density had the greatest influence on carbon accumulation rates across marshes. Overall, we illustrate how elevation, nutrient availability, and marsh age influences species composition, and thereby stem densities, which, in-turn, affect the rate of soil carbon accumulation. Much of the accretion and C accumulation in these marshes is due to in-situ organic matter production rather than allochthonous sedimentation, and therefore the fate of these created marshes without additional sediment input remains tenuous with high rates of relative sea-level rise. These findings have important implications for marsh creation in Louisiana and in other sediment-limited systems. â&#x2013;

Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 297


PRESENTATION 1346

PRESENTATION 1347

Presented during Restoration, Creation and Mitigation III, 5/29/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

Presented during Invasiveness in wetland plants in temperate North America: what have we learned in 20 years? II, 5/30/2019 1:00 PM2:50 PM

ASSESSING RESTORATION STRATEGIES FOR RETIRED CRANBERRY BOGS IN THE NEW JERSEY PINE BARRENS Wentzell, Bianca, St. Thomas Aquinas College Shebitz, Daniela, Kean University DeVito, Emile, New Jersey Conservation Foundation The New Jersey Pine Barrens (NJPB) are a unique landscape encompassing Atlantic white-cedar swamps, bogs, and freshwater marshes. They are characterized by sandy, acidic soils that have historically been utilized for largescale cranberry farming. In 2003, 3800 hectares of retired cranberry farm (now known as the Franklin Parker Preserve) were the focus of wetland restoration efforts by the New Jersey Conservation Foundation. Two different agricultural strategies, including traditional and modernized, and three different restoration strategies, including self-design, microtopographic modification, and microtopographic modification with planting, have been employed in combination at this site. The purpose of our study was to examine the effects of these strategies on vegetation establishment over a decade later. Contrary to our expectations, no single strategy stood out as having the most similar vegetation composition to reference sites nor did one support more native vegetation than the others. However, while vegetation communities at each site were equally diverse, they supported the growth of very different species. This study reveals important implications for future restoration projects in the NJPB and similar ecosystems, especially because the results suggest that any restoration approach may be successful as long as basic hydrological modifications are made. â&#x2013;

HARVESTING TYPHA BIOMASS IN THE GREAT LAKES REGION: TARGETING THE ECOLOGICAL MECHANISMS THAT DRIVE INVASION Lawrence, Beth, University of Connecticut Lishawa, Shane, Loyola University Albert, Dennis, Oregon State University Tuchman, Nancy, Loyola University Chicago Typha x glauca is a problematic wetland invader throughout the Great Lakes region because it reduces native plant diversity, homogenizes wildlife habitat, and alters biogeochemical processes. Traditional restoration approaches (herbiciding, burning) have largely been ineffective because they do not address nutrient enrichment, a primary cause of invasion, or litter-associated feedbacks, which sustain the invaded Typha state. With support from the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (2011-present), we have been testing experimental Typha harvest (i.e., cutting and removing above-ground biomass) in northern Michigan at a variety to scales (4m2 mesocosms to 3600m2 field plots) and spatial configurations to quantify how this innovative restoration technique affects a range of wetland responses. Typha harvest increases plant diversity, produces a viable potential bioenergy source, and removes nutrients stored in plant tissues. However, relative to Typha-dominated controls, harvesting can increase porewater nutrient availability (by reducing plant demand), and increase wetland methane emissions. Together, our data highlight the importance of quantifying a range of responses during wetland restoration so that managers can evaluate potential tradeoffs when considering alternative management objectives. â&#x2013; PRESENTATION 1370 Presented during Applying Adaptive Management to Restoration of the Herring River Estuary I, 5/31/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

COMPLEX OBJECTIVES AND INHERENT RISK: APPLICATION OF DECISION-ANALYTIC METHODS FOR RESTORING THE HERRING RIVER ESTUARY Smith, David, US Geological Survey Eaton, Mitchell, USGS/DOI SE Climate Adaptation Science Center (This talk will extend over two 20-minute blocks presented by Eaton and Smith.) The collective set of decisions involved with the restoring of degraded wetlands is often more complex than considering only ecological responses and outcomes. Restoration is commonly driven by a complex interaction of social, economic and ecological factors representing 298 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019


the mandate of resource stewards and the values of stakeholders. The U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the National Park Service and partners, developed a decision framework to understand the implications of complex tradeoffs and guide decision-making for restoring the 1100-acre Herring River Estuary within Cape Cod National Seashore, which has been restricted from tidal influence for 100+ years. Over a 25-year planning horizon, decisions involve the rate at which newly constructed water control structures allow tidal exchange, and the timing and location of implementing numerous secondary management options. Decisions affect multiple stakeholders, including residents of two adjacent towns who value the watershed for numerous benefits and whose economy relies on seasonal tourism and aquaculture. System response to management is characterized by a high degree of uncertainty and risk, with both positive and negative outcomes possible. Decision policies will affect biophysical (e.g., sediment transport, discharge of fecal coliform bacteria) and ecological (e.g., vegetation response, fish passage, impacts to shellfish) processes, as well as socio-economic interests (e.g., flooding of private property, viewscapes, recreation). The framework provides a structured approach for evaluating trade-offs among multiple objectives (ecological and social), while appropriately characterizing relevant uncertainties and accounting for levels of risk tolerances and the values of decision makers and stakeholders. Consequences of policy options are predicted using a range of methods from quantitative physical process models to elicited expert judgement. We present the decision framework and introduce the software developed to implement the trade-off analysis. â&#x2013;

able for larger scale ecosystem restoration. Building marsh elevation with locally dredged material is a current practice that has been shown promise as an adaptive measure. The practice requires approval by many Federal and State regulatory agencies; however, its effectiveness is not widely understood or accepted by regulators. Additionally, not all elevation enhancement projects are appropriate and application of the practice can be maladaptive. Enhancement restoration projects (including marsh creation and thin-layer application (TLP)) are planned and designed in accordance to restoration goals and objectives of a team or area. Likely the trust resources of each regulatory agency are not considered in how that will impact the project ability to be permitted or even viewed by the regulator community. Commonly the final as-built project does not completely match the intended design, and then a common issue then ensues as teams then try to force a project toward that original vision in spite of the changing condition. Adaptive management should be used to optimize the project results to match the evolving conditions of the site and restoration methods. This creates an unusual issue for the regulatory community that is overseeing the projects and continually weighting the ecological cost/benefit. Resource managers and regulators need to understand the current science and rationale behind adaptation approaches in order to assess the need and appropriateness of these practices. The results of a regulatoryfocused workshop and several current completed and ongoing projects (in Delaware, Rhode Island, New Jersey, and Virginia) will be used to discuss the advancements of elevation enhancement and adaptive management; and the role that a better informed regulatory community can have on improving project outcomes. â&#x2013;

PRESENTATION 1377 Presented during Closing the permitting-mitigation-monitoring (PMM) loop: A focus on the mid-Atlantic USA II, 5/30/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

ROLE OF THE REGULATOR COMMUNITY (AND LESSONS LEARNED) ON ELEVATION ENHANCEMENT RESTORATION PROJECTS SUCCESS AND IMPROVING ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY Wilson, Bartholomew, USFWS Ferguson, Wenley, Save The Bay Chaffee, Caitlin, RI Coastal Resources Management Council Rizzo, Al, USFWS Rogerson, Alison, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control Poeske, Regina, USEPA Region III Finch, Darlene, NOAA Hanson, Keith, NOAA Fisheries As sea-level rise continue to affect the coastal natural resources of the Mid Atlantic, resource managers struggle to adapt to these changing realities and few options are avail-

PRESENTATION 1381 Presented during Integrating innovative technologies, TEK and TRM for restoring /creating resilient wetlands for the future I, 5/30/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

ECO-CULTURAL RESTORATION OF RIPARIAN WETLANDS IN CALIFORNIA: CASE STUDY OF WHITE ROOT (CAREX BARBARAE DEWEY; CYPERACEAE) Stevens, Michelle, CSU Sacramento This study defines the cultural and ecological significance of white root (Carex barbarae Dewey; Cyperaceae), and presents implications for wetland and riparian restoration utilizing Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Scientific Ecological Knowledge. White root is an herbaceous perennial understory plant in valley oak riparian woodlands, endemic to California and southern Oregon, and is an indicator species of cultural and ecological health. White root is an indicator species of both cultural and ecological health. Two-thirds of the California Indian tribes within the range of white root tended and Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 299


managed these sedges, which included as many as 13 species. Traditional management by Indian groups resulted in the creation and maintenance of homogeneous patches of white root throughout low-elevation riparian forests of California, maintaining a lawn-like understory and a park-like physiognomy. Gathering and tending white root beds significantly impacted the species, community, and landscape. Understanding how California Indians shaped their environment - including knowledge of white root tending practices and their ecological effects - is integral to successful restoration of riparian function and structure. White root is now very difficult for basketweavers to obtain due to elimination of wetland habitat and privatization of traditional gathering sites. White root is an important indicator of cultural and ecologic health. ■ PRESENTATION 1390 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

VEGETATION ESTABLISHMENT IN A RESTORED BRACKISH MARSH Howard, Rebecca, U.S. Geological Survey A goal of marsh restoration projects is the establishment of vigorous plant communities that will persist under a variety of environmental stressors, and vegetation plantings are sometimes used to facilitate the development of those communities. In this study vegetation characteristics of restored brackish marsh sites that were planted were compared to naturallycolonized (i.e., not planted) restored sites over two growing seasons. The marsh, located in the Barataria Basin of southeast Louisiana, had been restored several months prior to the study by the deposition of sediments dredged from an adjacent waterway. The following four native clonal macrophytes were planted: Bolboschoenus robustus, Distichlis spicata, Phragmites australis, and Schoenoplectus californicus. In addition to the not-planted dredge sites, nearby reference sites that did not receive dredge application were included in the study. There was 100% survival of all planted individuals, and all planted species exhibited rapid vegetative spread. Comparisons of the planted species indicated significant interspecific differences in total cover, with the highest-cover species varying over time. Vegetation cover was significantly lower at notplanted sites compared to reference and planted sites in the first growing season. By the conclusion of the two year study, however, cover at the not-planted sites was equivalent to that at the reference sites, but remained lower than at the planted sites. High cover at planted sites was attributed to an invasive lineage of Phragmites australis. Species richness was initially highest at the reference and lowest at the not-planted sites, but was equivalent among sites by the conclusion of the study. 300 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

The study indicated that the resiliency of restored wetlands, as suggested by high vegetation cover, can be enhanced by plantings when those plantings rapidly generate cover in areas where natural colonization is slow. ■

PRESENTATION 1395 Presented during Restoration, Creation and Mitigation III, 5/29/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

SITE EVALUATION FOR LIVING SHORELINE PROJECTS IN DELAWARE Smith, Kenneth, DNREC Janiec, Doug, Sovereign Consulting Inc. Hayden, Jesse, DNREC Hicks, Betsy, AECOM Marsh, Brian, USFWS Pfeifer, Chris, Cardno Norton, Ashley, DNREC Siok, Drexel, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control The Delaware Living Shoreline committee is a partnership of public and private environmental organizations and professionals, with the goal of facilitating the understanding, peer review, and implementation of living shoreline techniques within the State of Delaware. The committee has sub-committees that dig deeper into certain aspects of living shorelines, like the outreach committee which creates trainings and materials for living shoreline or the standard of practice committee who just created a monitoring framework to aide in monitoring of living shorelines. The Engineering and Design subcommittee has recently created a guidance document to assist landowners and professionals in the viability of a site for living shoreline construction. The guidance includes a written portion that leads you along a worksheet with the information that you should be looking at when evaluating a site for a living shoreline and the design constraints it could create or techniques it could eliminate. Evaluating the proposed project site is one step in the continuous process that also includes concept design, engineering, and construction. The document focuses on the resources where you can find the information you will need to make an informed decision on the tactic you should use on your project site while providing a worksheet to capture this information and organize it into a central location. The resources that we highlight are all publically available and can be used with minimal expertise needed, you will just need to follow along with the document and the information can be at your hands. The sub-committee feels this document fills a need for living shoreline practitioners to better understand the project sites and minimize the failure of living shorelines in Delaware. ■


PRESENTATION 1445

PRESENTATION 1462

Presented during Integrated Framework for Evaluating Wetland and Stream Compensatory Mitigation I, 5/30/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

Presented during GIS II, 5/29/2019 1:10 PM-2:50 PM

IMPROVING WETLAND RESTORATION OUTCOMES: AN EXPLORATION OF COMMON ISSUES AND POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS Stelk, Marla, Association of State Wetland Managers Harcarik, Thomas, Ohio EPA There is general agreement among restoration professionals that the science exists to achieve restoration goals and that wetland restoration performance will improve if certain barriers are addressed. In 2013, the Association of State Wetland Managers (ASWM) began to identify some of the barriers and established a work group of 25 restoration experts, including practitioners, academics, consultants, regulators, and policy makers, to further identify and analyze these barriers and develop recommendations to address them. A white paper was developed that highlights ten overall barriers identified by the work group, including: vague project goals and subjective evaluation of wetland restoration outcomes; insufficient monitoring horizons; narrowly focused regulations and permit conditions; altered landscapes and changing land uses; silos for wetland and stream restoration; underestimation of restoration costs in developing cost estimates; lack of certification, accountability and enforcement; limited access to technical expertise, training and knowledge sharing; and lack of an adaptive management framework. There is consensus among scientists and experienced practitioners that wetlands are highly variable, and there is no ‘cookbook’ approach for achieving desired outcomes of wetland restoration. Wetlands are complex and dynamic ecosystems, and different wetland types provide different functions at different levels in different conditions. However, while wetlands exhibit differences based on variables such as hydrogeomorphic (HGM)classification, the region of the U.S, in which it located, vegetation classes, and numerous other characteristics, there are features common to all wetlands that should be considered when attempting to restore them. This presentation will share some of the identified potential solutions to common issues and findings included in the white paper. The solutions explored through the ASWM work would support the recently completed compensatory mitigation evaluation framework through both improved design and monitoring. ■

INVASIVE MANGROVE REMOVAL AT SCALE: SUCCESSES AND CHALLENGES OF A RESTORATION PROJECT AT THE NEW HE’˜EIA NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE Falinski, Kim, The Nature Conservancy Rii, Yoshimi, Heeia National Estuarine Research Reserve Olegario, Anthony, Department of Aquatic Resources Winter, Kawika, Heeia National Estuarine Research Reserve Toonen, Robert, University of Hawaii at Manoa Shultz, Kanekoa, The Nature Conservancy We describe a biocultural restoration project to remove mangrove that has limited stream connectivity at the mouth of a windward stream in the He’eia watershed on the island of O’ahu, Hawai’i. Three native-Hawaiian-led community partners have led the charge to clear over 10 acres of mangrove in the last three years, and in 2017, the 200-acre wetland and 88-acre fishpond were designated as the He’eia National Estuarine Research Reserve, 29th in the system. Restoration of coastal wetlands in Hawai’i involves removing invasive species not typical for tropical wetlands in other parts of the world, including the red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) and the black mangrove (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza). The mangrove was intentionally introduced in 1923 to mitigate erosion from poor farming practices upland. While beneficial for multiple ecosystem services in other parts of the world, mangrove in He’eia stream prevents native diadromous fish from moving upstream, and does not provide habitat for native wetland bird species such as the Hawaiian moorhen, or ‘alae ‘ula. In the last two years, we have documented the effect of clearing on sediment loss, nutrient export, changes in soil carbon, fish connectivity, and native bird population recovery. Soil cores have revealed that over three feet of leaf litter and organic matter has built up over formerly predominantly clay soils. Immediately after removal, native bird species (Gallinula chloropus, ‘alae ‘ula; and Himantopus mexicanus, ae’o) have been observed utilizing the restored wetland. We continue to monitor changes in fish species utilizing the newly opened estuarine area and cleared freshwater stream. Lastly, the installation of six long-term relative surface elevation tables (R-SETs) has shown where the surface of the restored area is lowering or accumulating. The project has pioneered new methods for wetland restoration, including the use of equipment in sensitive areas to minimize sediment loss. This talk will describe both the successes and challenges of the restoration process and the results of the monitoring that document the effects of the restoration process. ■

Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 301


PRESENTATION 1477 Presented during Wetland and Wetland Wildlife of Concern III, 5/31/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

ACCOUNTING FOR EDGE EFFECTS; I.E., INTERSPERSION, ON WATERBIRDS AND FISH WHEN CREATING AND RESTORING EMERGENT WETLANDS ACROSS ESTUARINE GRADIENTS. Nyman, Andy, LSU O’Connell, Jessica, University of Georgia Sullivan, Lauren, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Patton, Brett, U.S. Geological Survey An edge effect is a pattern of population abundance near an edge that cannot be explained in terms of either habitat in isolation. Some edge effects are undesirable, such as in temperate and tropical forests, but edges between emergent vegetation and shallow water in North American prairie pothole wetlands have long been recognized as increasing waterbird richness and abundance. We conducted a series of field studies that demonstrate a similar edge effect on waterbird richness and abundance in coastal wetlands of the Gulf of Mexico. The edge effect varied among tidal fresh, brackish and saline marshes and also differed between new and old emergent wetlands and between natural and artificial emergent wetlands created by different restoration techniques. Generally, the edge effect declined as salinity and depth increased. Our estimates of edge effects can be used to improve predictive models of fish and wildlife habitat quality so that restoration planners can optimize wetland restoration techniques within the estuarine gradients. ■

PRESENTATION 1479 Presented during Working in Wetlands I, 5/29/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

KEEPING IT REAL: WORKING IN A GOVERNMENT RESOURCE AND REGULATORY AGENCY Harcarik, Thomas, Ohio EPA So, you’re a student anticipating graduation and starting a rewarding career. Maybe your you’re wondering if there is anything else you can do in school to prepare yourself. Maybe you’re asking if you should work in the public or private sector. What can you expect working for a government resource/regulatory agency? Tom will briefly discuss the highlights of his college experience that helped prepare him for his career, and then discuss both the opportunities and challenges of working for a government resource/ regulatory agency. Tom spent 18 years in the 401 water quality certification program and 10 years administering a program that has awarded 180 million to fund voluntary stream and wetland 302 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

restoration and protection projects through the State Revolving Fund Program. Tom also spend several years in the enforcement program including acting as a technical liaison to the Office of the Attorney General. Tom will share the pertinent highlights and describe the changes he has seen over his 33 years at Ohio EPA. ■

PRESENTATION 1480 Presented during Wetland Restoration and Creation Using Fine-Grained Dredged Sediments II, 5/29/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

DETERMINING THE SUITABILITY OF SEDIMENTS FOR RESTORING DROWNING COASTAL MARSHES Wilburn, Brittany, Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University Raper, Kirk, Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University Ibarra, Camila, Drexel University Gray, Andrew, University of California Riverside Raposa, Kenneth, Narragansett Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Watson, Elizabeth, Drexel University and the Academy of Natural Sciences Thin layer sediment placement (TLP) is being used to extend the lifespan of drowning wetlands, but recent work has highlighted the development of acid sulfate soils in TLP projects. The purpose of this study is to determine the viability of benthic sediments with three distinct sediment textures in TLP projects (medium silt, fine sand, medium sand) and to test the ability of soil amendments (biochar, compost) to facilitate plant re-establishment and ameliorate acidic sediment conditions. We grew Salicornia pacifica, Spartina alterniflora, and Spartina patens in a greenhouse for 130 days under simulated tidal conditions in raw benthic sediments of varying textures and in one type of quarry fines. Additionally, we tested the effectiveness of soil amendments by growing S. alterniflora in low nutrient coarse sand with and without biochar and compost and by growing S. pacifica in soils prone to develop acid sulfate conditions with and without biochar. Net ecosystem exchange rates suggest that coarse sediment textures promote plant re-establishment for flood intolerant plants (e.g., S. patens and S. pacifica), presumably due to better drainage. Soil additives were not found to enhance growth or mediate soil acidification; however, they were observed to increase total alkalinity. These results suggest that coarse sediments may overall be best for TLP and incorporating biochar may have added benefits unrelated to plant productivity, although further testing of biochar is required. ■


PRESENTATION 1506 Presented during Closing the permitting-mitigation-monitoring (PMM) loop: A focus on the mid-Atlantic USA I, 5/30/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

IMPROVING RESTORATION OUTCOMES THROUGH UNIVERSITY-AGENCY PARTNERSHIPS Yarwood, Stephanie, University of Maryland, College Park State and local agencies are often responsible for organizing and funding wetland restoration projects, but the linking between these agencies and scientists have traditionally been minimal. For example, only interacting when scientists approach them to use an existing restoration or conversations at meetings. This interaction is changing, however, to better incorporate experimental approaches. Agencies are increasingly eliciting the input and expertise of university scientists in the planning, implementing, and monitoring of restoration sites. This presentation will include examples in my own research where I am collaborating with Maryland State Highway Administration and Fairfax County Virginia. In both these cases the agencies are in the beginning stages of restoration and we have had the unique opportunity to discuss restoration strategies and make meaningful contributions in restoration improvement. In one example this has included establishing plots that include organic matter amendments with plans to samples over a longer timeframe, and in the second example, it includes pairing measures of microbial communities to an already rich dataset on nutrients and benthic invertebrates across numerous stream restorations that reconnect them to the flood plain. The value of these projects includes improved restoration outcomes and training of students in real world restoration scenarios. ■

PRESENTATION 1511 Presented during Closing the permitting-mitigation-monitoring (PMM) loop: A focus on the mid-Atlantic USA III, 5/30/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

JUXTAPOSITION OF THREE STREAM AND WETLAND RESTORATION PROJECTS ON A SINGLE RESTORATION SITE Phillips, Patrick, GreenVest, LLC GreenVest led the development of three stream and wetland restoration projects on the Spray Irrigation Field (SIF) Site located at the USDA Beltsville Agricultural Research Center (BARC) in Beltsville, Prince George’s County, Maryland. The SIF site is a 25-acre field formerly used for the disposal of treated wastewater from the BARC facility wastewater treatment plant. The practice was discontinued in the 1980’s and the SIF was unused until the implementation of the restoration projects in 2017. Three (3) separate restoration projects consisting of wetland restoration and stream restoration were completed on the SIF. The projects were com-

pleted for the Maryland Department of the Environment and the Chesapeake Bay Trust (CBT-MDE) under the non-tidal wetland grant program, for Prince George’s Department of Public Works and Transit (PG DPWT) as advanced mitigation, and for the State Highway Administration (SHA) as advanced mitigation. Each of the three projects are physically and hydrologically interconnected. Each project underwent a separate permit and approval process resulting in separate permits, and permit requirements, for each. Construction of the CBT-MDE Restoration Project and the PG DPWT Advanced Mitigation Project was completed in 2017. Construction of the SHA Advanced Mitigation Project was completed in 2018. Maintenance and monitoring of all three sites is ongoing. This presentation compares and contrasts the differences in permit requirements and the impacts on construction and maintenance & monitoring. ■

PRESENTATION 1513 Presented during Closing the permitting-mitigation-monitoring (PMM) loop: A focus on the mid-Atlantic USA I, 5/30/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

WETLAND RESTORATION FUNDAMENTALS: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE Herb, Andy, AlpineEco In 2021 the wetland community will celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. The Convention was a response to increasing concerns about global wetland losses and the participants agreed to ‘stem the loss and degradation of wetlands now and in the future.’ Among other things, they committed to the designation and management of Wetlands of International Importance, a.k.a ‘Ramsar Sites.’ The Convention now has 170 national government members that have designated over 2,000 of these sites, covering over 2 million km2. While this scale of interest in wetlands and the ecosystem services they provide is impressive, the designation and careful management of these sites is not the endpoint. Most Ramsar Sites and other wetlands around the globe have been degraded by various anthropogenic activities and would benefit from targeted wetland restoration efforts (and many have). But, are restoration projects restoring the original ecosystem services of these sites or are novel ecosystems being reinforced? Is reinforcing novel ecosystems a problem? In this presentation I will discuss some of the global trends in this regard and how they relate to wetland restoration in the midAtlantic, USA. I will briefly discuss the importance of: 1) accurate pre-restoration assessments, 2) setting clear restoration goals and expectations, and 3) understanding how resource needs and watershed management strategies affect restoration opportunities. ■ Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 303


PRESENTATION 1533

PRESENTATION 1536

Presented during Applying Adaptive Management to Restoration of the Herring River Estuary I, 5/31/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

Presented during Restoration, Creation and Mitigation I, 5/29/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

INTEGRATING COMMUNITY OUTREACH AND STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT WITH DECISION ANALYSIS TO INCREASE PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR THE HERRING RIVER RESTORATION PROJECT Craig, Martha, Friends of Herring River

ANALYZING LITTERFALL AND SOIL & ROOT RESPIRATION FOR AN ESTIMATE OF CARBON CAPTURE IN RESTORED PEATLANDS Doyle, James, Christopher Newport University Atkinson, Robert, Christopher Newport University Mirda, Christina, Christopher Newport University

Historically, the Herring River estuary and floodplain was the largest tidal river and estuary complex on Cape Cod, MA and included approximately 450 hectares of salt marsh, intertidal flats and open water habitats. It was also one of the most productive herring runs in Massachusetts. In 1909, the Town of Wellfleet constructed the Chequessett Neck Road (CNR) dike at the mouth of the Herring River to reduce salt marsh mosquitoes. The dike restricted tides in the Herring River from approximately 3 meters to about 0.8 meters upstream of the dike. In the mid-1930s, the river was also channelized and straightened. By the 1960s, the dike tide gates had rusted open and in the 1970s the dike was re-built, to repair the leaking tide gates and protect private properties. While the majority of the restoration occurs on public land (Cape Cod National Seashore-National Park Service (NPS)), restoration activities will also affect some private land, including a golf course (the largest private land owner) and several residential sites. These sites are both inside and outside the NPS boundary, and as such, each property has been approached in a unique manner. Hydrodynamic modeling was used to assess potential flood impacts throughout the project area, and low properties in particular. Friends of Herring River initiated outreach to low-property owners to inform them about the restoration project and its potential affects on their property and developed mitigation strategies for individual properties, as informed by hydrodynamic modelling, site-specific topographic surveys and landowner input. Site-specific surveys and engineering mitigation options then formed the basis for conceptual and eventual binding agreements, particularly with the golf course. Consent for work to be performed on individual private properties is a pre-requisite for many of the required permit applications and must therefore be accomplished well before restoration is implemented. Additional outreach continues to property owners throughout the former floodplain and within the Towns of Truro and Wellfleet. In addition, a Stakeholders Group has been formed to play an advisory role for the Herring River Executive Council, which will be charged with the actual implementation of the restoration project, as informed by the Herring River Adaptive Management Plan. The Herring River Stakeholders Group will also provide input on the social factors aspect of the Adaptive Management Plan. â&#x2013; 304 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

Cavalier Wildlife Management Area (CWMA) is a stateowned property previously drained by ditches. The site is undergoing restoration to a peatland ecosystem using weirs. We propose a carbon budget to evaluate the prospects for peat development using field studies of litterfall and soil carbon dioxide efflux, then later evaluating root and root-free effects; and laboratory simulations using 4 levels of hydrologic modulation. Litterfall rates among the two sites did not differ; however, soil and root efflux differed such that site wetness was positively related to root respiration and negatively related to soil respiration. In simulations, increased wetness negatively affected soil respiration; however, saturated and inundated treatments did not differ. Resource management decisions should seek to reconcile soil respiration goals with tree species composition and favor persistent soil saturation and establishment of native obligate wetland tree species. â&#x2013;

PRESENTATION 1537 Presented during Restoration, Creation and Mitigation I, 5/29/2019 9:55 AM-11:35 AM

THE USE OF ORGANIC MATTER AMENDMENTS TO STIMULATE IRON REDUCTION IN WETLAND RESTORATIONS - OR NOT Scott, Brian, University of Maryland College Park Yarwood, Stephanie, University of Maryland, College Park Baldwin, Andy, University of Maryland Our research raises the question: Do organic matter amendments promote hydric soil conditions in wetland restorations? Organic matter (OM) amendments are often used during wetland construction. Intended benefits include improved plant productivity, species richness, and diversity, but OM does not appear to increase these metrics. Several studies (as yet unpublished) on hydric soil development have reported how redoximorphic features respond to OM. Features develop as a result of iron cycling; therefore, we chose a more immediate and direct approach and measured ferrous ion production. Using a combination of lab experiments and field observations, we investigated ferrous iron production in saturated soils. Experimental factors include soil type (sandy loam, sandy clay loam), iron oxide (fer-


rihydrite or goethite) and OM. The soils differed in both texture and iron oxide content. Five different OM amendments were evaluated at three loading levels. We determined the important distinguishing factor of OM was the extent of digestion, or energetic content, so some amendments were evaluated further at varying ages. Saturated soils were incubated in nitrogen purged sealed glass jars for 60 days and during this time were periodically monitored for ferrous iron and biogenic gasses. Our study shows ferrous iron production by iron reducing bacteria is most sensitive to the energetic content of the OM. Even though the iron oxide form influences iron reduction, the organic substrate is the dominant driving force. Both soil types produced ferrous iron without amendment. Adding an energetic amendment, such as fresh hay or manure, increased the release of ferrous iron. Adding a low energy amendment, such as aged manure of composted yard waste, appeared to reduce ferrous iron in proportion to the dose. Further investigation revealed that ferrous iron production was not inhibited, but the iron was reversibly sorbed to the OM. This could result in a false negative hydric soil test with α-α dipyridyl strips which we observed in the field. All OM began producing methane gas within the first two weeks. Those amendments that produced more ferrous iron also produced more methane, so there is a trade-off of benefit and consequence in the use of OM. ■

PRESENTATION 1545 Presented during Integrating innovative technologies, TEK and TRM for restoring /creating resilient wetlands for the future II, 5/30/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

THE RESULTS OF PHYTOREMEDIATION AND MICROBIAL DEGRADATION PILOT STUDIES FOR A FORMER SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNIT IN NORTHERN CALIFORNIA LePage, Ben, Pacific Gas and Electric Company Gray, Bob, Pacific Gas and electric Company Warner, Jim, ERM Lind, Debbie, ERM Morris, Kevin, ERM A former 73-acre solid waste management unit (SWMU) is located adjacent to a coastal estuary with an extensive tract of non-impacted tidal wetlands. The SWMU contains a layer of historically-discharged waste composed of predominantly carbon black and chemicals of concern (COCs), including total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and metals. In addition, the material is saline and sodic due to past remedial activities. The results of phyto- and bioremediation pilot studies indicate native plants will grow in the

waste with plant diversity, density, and root zone penetration varying with plant type, compost, soil conditioning, irrigation, and meteorological conditions. The addition of compost was deemed to be a crucial element in establishing plant communities. Indigenous microbial communities were characterized, including population density related to the presence of roots, mechanical aeration, and amendments. Reduction of COCs through microbial degradation plant uptake by plants was also observed. Analytical test results show 26% and 16% reductions in the average TPH and HMW PAH concentrations. Furthermore, plant tissue analyses do not indicate increased risk of metals accumulation. Rhizosphere analyses indicated a transition from coastal sediment microbes to hydrocarbon and PAH degraders, an increase in aerobic and anaerobic hydrocarbon and PAH degrading enzymes, and evidence of COC degradation by microbes. The results of our studies demonstrate phytoremediation together with microbial degradation are cost effective and an efficient remedy for large scale restoration projects. ■

PRESENTATION 1569 Presented during Restoration, Creation and Mitigation II, 5/29/2019 1:10 PM-2:50 PM

TURION SIZE ADVANTAGE IN VALLISNERIA AMERICANA: THE IMPORTANCE OF GENETIC IDENTITY AND DIVERSITY Carew, Annie, Univ. of Maryland Center for Environmental Science The restoration and rehabilitation of damaged ecosystems has become a worldwide endeavor that utilizes vast resources and ecological knowledge to build functioning and resilient ecosystems. Biodiversity restoration, a critical step in this process, increases the likelihood that present species are well-adapted to the environment or can complement each other in resource use through resource partitioning. At the population level, genetic diversity may increase establishment rate, increase resistance to invasion, and enhance resilience in a changing world. In parallel field and greenhouse experiments, I established founder colonies of the submersed aquatic macrophyte Vallisneria americana to test the effects of genotypic identity and diversity on colony establishment and invasibility. Environmental conditions in the field affected survival and performance of colonies. Turion size differed among genotypes and source populations and, combined with genetic diversity in the greenhouse, affected plant height, suggesting that the genetics of founder colonies influence plant establishment. This size advantage may have longer-term consequences if effective establishment influences the success of future generaWetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 305


tions. In the presence of the invader Hydrilla verticillata, V. americana height was substantially reduced; however, biomass increased owing to a higher root-to-shoot ratio, suggesting resource partitioning in response to competition. These results suggest that genotypic identity and diversity are important in early establishment of plant populations and calls attention to designing restorations that incorporate genetic information about source populations. ■

PRESENTATION 1577 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

USE OF A BIODEGRADABLE POT, AND SEEDS FROM DIFFERENT HARVEST YEARS TO IMPROVE SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION RESTORATION Zinecker, Elizabeth, University of Maryland Little is known about how plastics affect/degrade in the aquatic plant-sediment environment, yet plastics pollution is a major concern in water bodies globally. Some submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) restoration approaches have used conventional plastic to wrap and transplant SAV seeds and plugs, without reporting evidence of plastic degradation nor of effects on plants. Potamogeton perfoliatus is an SAV species once widespread in Upper and Middle Chesapeake Bay, but has been in decline. Attempts to restore this species have met with mixed success. This research entailed two microcosm experiments and a field experiment to determine extent of degradation of pots (biobased polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and fossil-fuel based controls made of polyethylene (PE)), and whether the pots affected seed establishment and growth. There were no significant differences in plant growth between pot treatments, although PHA pots produced no inflorescences whereas PE pots produced an average of 2.5 inflorescences per treatment. Among all experiments PHA pots lost on average 60% mass compared with ~1% mass of PE pots. Seeds grown from harvests four years apart also showed no differences in yield (~0.56 gDW/m2/day). Planted PHA pots lost significantly more pot spindle diameter if planted than unplanted, and the portion of the spindle planted deeper in microcosm sediment lost on average 10% more diameter compared with the shallow portion. PHA pots planted in brackish sediment in the field degraded on average 9% more that those planted in freshwater sediments. These results indicate the potential for increased restoration success using PHA pots. The research also established that the PHA plastic is fully degradable in submerged sediments, particularly in the presence of the plants. ■ 306 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

PRESENTATION 1598 Presented during Integrating innovative technologies, TEK and TRM for restoring /creating resilient wetlands for the future II, 5/30/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT STRATEGIES: MAKING OR BREAKING A SUCCESSFUL PROJECT Peniche, Rosanna, On average, two in five construction projects fail due to poor communication and if your project is controversial, environmentally sensitive, or technically complex then the odds are worse. In California current law allows for, and requires, an open and public process in projects that impact people’s lives, but most of processes are one-dimensional, arcane, and too technical. The result is stakeholders feel left out, ignored, and angry and public outcry can derail a project indefinitely. We have found incorporating a proactive and targeted stakeholder engagement program substantially improves a project’s success. Using traditional and non-traditional outreach methods, we’ve designed a proven outreach program that involves and engages the community early and often, resulting in broad community understanding, and support of challenging and controversial projects. Components include identifying and knowing your ‘public’; traditional and non-traditional outreach techniques; cultural awareness and outreach for diverse populations; active listening; setting project expectations; crisis communications; and developing win-win solutions. We will discuss an example of this program in the diverse community of Bay Point, California in support of a wetlands restoration project where the community members are one of the company’s most vocal supporters. We will also discuss lessons learned and highlight other successes from other projects. The goal is to demonstrate how these programs can be used on a wide-range of projects to gain real community trust and support that drive project success and to give you the tools to develop your own outreach programs. ■


Management & Applied Science: Toxicology

PRESENTATION 1476

PRESENTATION 1051

A FIELD STUDY ASSESSING THE EFFECTS OF NEONICOTINOID INSECTICIDES TO AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES: IMPLICATIONS FOR WETLAND DEPENDENT TAXA Kuechle, Kyle, University of Missouri Webb, Elisabeth B., U.S. Geological Survey, Missouri Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit Mengel, Doreen, Missouri Department of Conservation Main, Anson, University of Missouri

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

PHYTOTOXICITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES ON LEMNA MINOR Tran, Trang, Missouri State University Kissoon-Charles, La Toya, Missouri State University Heiman, Jordan, Missouri State University Silver nanoparticles are common in consumer products such as textiles, storage containers, household appliances, and cosmetic products. Because of its antimicrobial properties, the use of nanoparticles has been quickly increasing in industrial and consumer products. Nanoparticles get into waterways and are unable to be filtered out at wastewater treatment plants due to the available technology. Silver nanoparticles have no biological functions, and therefore, pose harm to organisms in aquatic systems. Previous studies have shown that silver nanoparticles have negative effects on organisms’ cells and cell components by compromising the blood-brain barrier, damaging DNA, inhibiting growth, degrading protein, and causing chlorosis. We choose Lemna minor - a small floating aquatic plant, as the study subject for its fast-growing and direct nutrientuptake mechanism. We investigated the phytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles on this model organism in a two-week exposure time. Starting with different initial frond numbers of Lemna minor (20, 40, and 80 fronds), we exposed all samples to 160 µg/L silver nanoparticles or silver nitrate in their growth medium. The effects on growth were determined by comparing dry biomass and area cover. Preliminary results indicate that silver nanoparticles inhibit the growth of Lemna minor. ■

Presented during Wetland and Wetland Wildlife of Concern III, 5/31/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

Neonicotinoid insecticides (NI) are commonly used as seed-treatments on major agricultural row crops and can be readily transported in surface runoff into freshwater ecosystems. Previous field studies have documented neonicotinoid persistence in global surface waters with lethal and sub-lethal responses by aquatic invertebrates recorded in laboratory settings; however, less is known about neonicotinoid occurrence in managed public wetlands of Missouri. We investigated aquatic invertebrate community response to planting of neonicotinoid-treated seed in managed wetland ecosystems. In 2016, we sampled water, sediment, and aquatic invertebrates from 22 paired wetlands during spring (pre-wetland drawdown) and fall (postwetland flood-up) followed by a third sampling period in spring 2017. During summer, portions of sampled wetlands were planted to corn with either untreated (control) or neonicotinoid-treated seed. Water and sediment concentrations of the three most common neonicotinoids were used to calculate overall NI toxicity equivalents (NI-EQs) based on an additive model of NI toxic equivalency factors. Total mean NI-EQs for sediment (0.60 μg/kg) were an order of magnitude greater than water (0.02 μg/L). Water quality parameters and pesticide concentrations were used to evaluate effects of neonicotinoid treatment on aquatic macroinvertebrates using a series of generalized linear mixed effects models. Preliminary results indicate an overall decrease in aquatic invertebrate diversity and abundance with increasing NI-EQs in wetland water and sediment. Post-treatment, treated wetlands were observed to have lower benthic invertebrate diversity and abundance compared to untreated wetlands, but a recovery in abundance and diversity followed in spring 2017. Our results have implications for aquatic invertebrates and wetland-dependant species (e.g., migrating birds) as neonicotinoid concentrations - although below regulatory limits - are impacting these wetland ecosystems. Results from this research will be useful to state, federal, and private wetland managers in making decisions on the inclusion of neonicotinoid seedtreatments in their future wetland management and conservation plans. ■ Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 307


PRESENTATION 1546 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

EFFECT OF HEAVY METALS ON THE GENETIC DIVERSITY OF LAND CRAB (CARDIOSOMA ARMANTUM) IN A CONTAMINATED WETLAND IN SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA Akeredolu, Excellence, University of Lagos, Nigeria Taiwo, Idowu, University of Lagos, Nigeria Soretire, Idowu, University of Lagos, Nigeria Heavy metal pollution due to anthropogenic activities is potentially a threat to the economic potentials of wetlands and the genetic diversity of organisms in them. A six month study was carried out to determine the concentration of heavy metal and their effect on the health and genetic diversity of Cardiosoma armantum (mangrove land crab) occurring in three wetlands along the shoreline of University of Lagos, south western Nigeria. The study area Zoned into three sections namely : H 1 (heavily polluted), H 2 (Moderately polluted) and H 3 (Control) was analyzed for heavy metals( Lead, Nickel, Zinc, Cadmium and Chromium) in sediment, water and crabs from each of the wetlands using the recommended methodologies. The level of oxidative stress markers such Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activities, Catalase activity (CAT) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) were also determined.DNA samples were extracted and compared in crabs across all sites to determine genetic diversity. The trend of heavy metals at the control site was Zn > Pb > Ni > Cr with the values 0.502µg/g, 0.36µg/g, 0.18µg/g and 0.16µg/g respectively while the contaminated sites were Zn > Ni > Pb > Cr with the values 0.495µg/g, 0.23µg/g, 0.21µg/g, and 0.13µg/g respectively. The levels of SOD and CAT were significantly higher in organisms from the contaminated sites relative to those in the control sites with the mean values 2.784 ± 0.866; 6.906 ± 3.682 and 4.784 ± 1.899; 16.416 ± 4.252 respectively. There was however, reduced GSH and MDA level in the control wetland area. Results from genetic analysis revealed that the control wetland had greater genetic variability than the polluted ones therefore implying higher diversity. However, the study envisage the loss of Cardiosoma armantum in the future except appropriate regulatory framework is put in place to conserve the wetlands. ■

308 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

Management & Applied Science: Wildlife Management PRESENTATION 1036 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

WINTERING AMERICAN BLACK DUCK TIME ACTIVITY BUDGETS AND DAILY ENERGY EXPENDITURE Anderson, Jim, West Virginia University Yannuzzi, Sally, West Virginia University Peters, Michael, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources Gregg, Ian, Pennsylvania Game Commission Rota, Christopher, West Virginia University American black ducks (Anas rubripes) were once a plentiful species in northeastern North America, but have declined in abundance due to habitat loss, hybridization with mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and historic overhunting. Although the overall population of black ducks has stabilized and even increased in portions of its range, important wintering areas in western Pennsylvania and West Virginia have continued to see a decrease. Our objectives were to determine wintering black duck daily energy expenditure (DEE) in Central Appalachia through time-activity budgets, and calculate behavioral differences among wetland systems, levels of naturalness, management schemes, flock composition, year, date, and time of day. Between November and March 2015-2016 and 2016-2017, we conducted waterfowl surveys twice a month and recorded diurnal time-activity budgets when black ducks were encountered. We calculated DEE using a simple cost of thermoregulation model (684.94 kJ/bird/day) and a complex (1,542.95 kJ/bird/day) cost of thermoregulation model incorporating site-level wind speeds and temperatures. The most dominant behavior overall was swimming (35.2%), followed by foraging (26.2%), and sleeping (16.4%). Black ducks foraged the most in natural wetlands (56%) and riverine systems (34%) and swam the most in modified (43%) and created (26%) wetlands. Black duck behavior varied greatly within wetland systems, management schemes, and levels of naturalness. We recommend wetland and waterfowl managers incorporate the complex cost of thermoregulation DEE model for more accurate estimations of duck use days, and provide a diversity of nearby habitat types with differing levels of management for wintering black ducks and other waterfowl to meet their multitude of needs throughout the winter. ■


PRESENTATION 1040 Presented during General Wetland Science II, 5/31/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

MODELLING MULTIPLE ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN WETLANDS MANAGED FOR WILDLIFE IN CALIFORNIA’S CENTRAL VALLEY. Kahara, Sharon, Humboldt State University The Central Valley of California is the most important wintering site for waterfowl migration on the Pacific Flyway. Today, 90-95 % of its historic wetlands are lost or degraded due to agricultural and urban development. Most remaining wetlands are intensively managed to maximize resources for wildlife, particularly wintering waterfowl. However, many remaining wetlands are threatened by increasing frequency of extreme weather events such as drought. Since most remaining wetlands are currently dependent on artificial water delivery, in the drought years, supplying water for wetland management is the greatest challenge to wetland managers and farmers. Efforts are needed to improve the security of water supplies for optimal habitat management and water quality improvement. Eco-hydrologic modeling of wetland systems is an effective technique for assessing various biophysical processes occurring in managed wetlands. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of wetland management on water use, plant growth, and ecosystem services including water quality and wildlife. The Agricultural Policy and Environmental eXtender (APEX) model was used to simulate 17 managed wetlands in the Sacramento valley. Key components in wetland simulation include wetting and drying of wetland soils, competition and response of wetland species to wetland hydrology, and settling of sediment. These wetland models were validated using actual wetland plant morphological traits, soil quality and water quantity and quality variables monitored for three years (2015-2018) were used to evaluate model performance. The paper presents effect of wetland management on water balance, water quality, and vegetation and discusses the nexus of wetland management, water use, and ecosystem service functions of managed wetlands. ■

PRESENTATION 1054 Presented during Wetland and Wetland Wildlife of Concern II, 5/31/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

LIFE IN THE FAST LANE: CONSERVING SENSITIVE SPECIES IN A HIGHLY DIVERSE, EXTREMELY URBANIZED, AND RAPIDLY CHANGING ESTUARY Smith, Katie, WRA Environmental Consultants The San Francisco Estuary (SFE) is one of the most degraded estuaries in the world. While globally about 50% of wetlands have been lost, the SFE is much worse off, with over 90% loss. Further, despite costly, large-scale restora-

tion efforts charging forward, recent models of sea level rise project a complete loss of salt marshes in the SFE by the end of the century. On top of extreme habitat loss and degradation, wildlife in the SFE must cope with hydrologic changes upstream (e.g., dams, water projects), high levels of environmental contamination, and the highest levels of invasions by non-native aquatic species of any area in the world. It is not surprising that around one fifth of the 500 wildlife species that occur there are endangered or threatened. From the upland freshwater wetlands fringing the SFE, to the mudflats that are exposed during low tides, the variety of habitat types here combined with dense urban development has created dire situations for many species. A handful of high-profile species receive much of the public attention and conservation effort, but many others benefit by utilizing associated protected and restored habitats. The San Francisco garter snake utilizes freshwater wetlands around the SFE, and has become threatened due to habitat loss, illegal collection, and invasive competitors. The salt marsh harvest mouse utilizes the mid and high saline marshes of the SFE, and has become endangered primarily due to habitat loss. The California Ridgway’s rail utilizes the mid and low marsh. Populations of this species were decimated for market hunting in the early 1900’s, and are now threatened by habitat loss and non-native vegetation. In the SFE, the Western snowy plover utilizes beaches, levees, and salt ponds, and has become threatened due to habitat loss and human disturbance. Many challenges lie between these species and recovery, and it will take creative solutions to deal with looming threats like sea level rise. ■

PRESENTATION 1200 Presented during Wetland and Wetland Wildlife of Concern II, 5/31/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

CONSERVATION STATUS OF TIDAL MARSH BIRDS IN THE NORTHEAST, USA Shriver, Greg, University of Delaware Cohen, Jonathan, State University of New York Correll, Maureen, University of Maine Elphick, Chris, University of Connecticut Field, Christopher, University of Connecticut Kovach, Adrienne, University of New Hampshire Klingbeil, Brian, University of Connecticut Olsen, Brian, University of Maine Ruskin, Katharine, University of Maine Wiest, Whitney, University of Delaware Roberts, Sam, University of Delaware Tidal marshes of eastern North America support the greatest diversity of endemic tidal marsh vertebrates globally Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 309


and avian species restricted to these ecosystems have limited geographic ranges, relatively small population sizes, and are habitat specialists. Since 2011, the Saltmarsh Habitat and Avian Research Program has been implementing and coordinating monitoring tidal marsh bird and vegetation communities and estimating demographic parameters for focal bird species (clapper rail (Rallus crepitans), willet (Tringa semipalmata), Nelson’s sparrow (Ammospiza nelsoni), saltmarsh sparrow (A. caudacuta), and seaside sparrow (A. maritima)). Results of this effort provide the first estimates of population sizes, population trends, and population viability for these species. Three species show negative population trends with the global population of saltmarsh sparrow declining by 9.0% annually and clapper rails and Nelson’s sparrows declining by 4% annually. The situation for saltmarsh sparrows is especially dire with this species currently facing a high risk of extinction. Survey estimates suggest that the population numbers ~60,000 and has declined by ~75% since the 1990s. Local scale population viability models suggest that extinction is likely by the middle of this century similar to population growth rate estimates from sites distributed across the saltmarsh sparrow breeding range. Current strategies for managing these species include monitoring population trend, maintaining tidal flow, discouraging the invasive plant Phragmites, and considering sea level rise in relation to all land acquisition activities and management actions. However, given the documented population declines, more aggressive options must be developed quickly. Recent management ideas include using existing tide gates to temporarily dampen very high tides on marshes with breeding sparrows to reduce nest flooding, removing standing dead trees in areas where marshes are transgressing into forested uplands, developing methods to limit nest flooding at small spatial scales, and testing the effects of fine scale sediment deposition on salt marsh surfaces or reducing erosion along tidal creeks. Ultimately, tidal marsh bird conservation in the Northeast USA must maintain salt marsh habitat on the landscape that provides successful breeding opportunities that can limit, and ultimately stop, these population declines. ■

310 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

PRESENTATION 1564 Presented during Wetland and Wetland Wildlife of Concern I, 5/31/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

INCORPORATING AVIAN SPECIES OF CONSERVATION CONCERN INTO WETLAND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES: TRADEOFFS AND OPPORTUNITIES Webb, Lisa, USGS, Missouri Coop Unit Mengel, Doreen, Missouri Department of Conservation Nelson, Frank, Missouri Department of Conservation Raedeke, Andy, Missouri Department of Conservation MacPherson, Maggie, University of Missouri Hill, Evan, School of Natural Resources,University of Missouri Biologists constantly consider ecological tradeoffs as they conserve and manage wetlands to meet the diverse life history needs of wetland-dependent taxa. Empirical information on the ecology and various landscape settings can help inform wetland management decisions when weighing these choices. We will present examples of recent research efforts in Missouri evaluating potential wetland management decisions for several avian umbrella species in mid-latitude riverine wetlands. Specifically, we designed and implemented a study to quantify the implications of spring water-level manipulation used to promote moist-soil plant communities on the presence of spring migrating and nesting secretive marsh birds. Results of this study indicated that occupancy probability for Sora, American Bittern and Least Bittern during migration through Missouri were all influenced by wetland hydrology, as manipulated through water-level management practices, including drawdown duration, drawdown initiation date and water depth. An example of an annual management tradeoff within a wetland unit was the positive relationship between Least Bittern nest success and water depth in late-spring and early summer and conversely, incompatibility with spring water levels necessary to promote moist-soil plant communities. To further quantify other inherent management tradeoffs for multiple wetland-dependent species, we developed spatially and temporally explicit models linking wetland-dependent species life history needs to the range of historic and current habitats, landscape settings, and wetland conditions present in Missouri’s riverine systems. We used a Bayesian belief network (BBN) modeling approach because its usefulness in incorporating empirically-derived data and expert knowledge, in situations with missing data or an abundance of zero counts. We will present preliminary results of these BBNs for several wetland-dependent birds and demonstrate how these models can be used collectively to evaluate implications and weigh trade-offs among wetland management decisions. Evaluation of uncertainty within BBN models can be used to guide future research and monitoring efforts and evaluate tradeoffs of wetland management actions across both time and space. ■


PHYSICAL SCIENCES

Management & Applied Science: Other

Physical Sciences: Geomorphology, Hydrology & Watersheds

PRESENTATION 1602

PRESENTATION 1129

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

Presented during Physical Science, 5/29/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

BIO-REACTIVITY OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER FROM NUTRIENTS ALONG THE RIO GRANDE RIVER Rios, Orlando, Wayne State University Regier, Peter, University of New Mexico In arid-land ecosystems, climate and anthropogenic disturbances alter the river’s nutrient cycling at seasonal levels, as well as the bio-reactivity of organisms. The microbial communities of the Rio Grande River in New Mexico play a critical role in processing organic matter received from inputs such as wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and agriculture. To this day, the bio-reactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) over changes in nutrients availability remains unknown. Therefore, our research measured DOM using Ion Chromatography and Fluorescence Spectroscopy from water and soil samples. To understand the nutrient concentrations and potential shifts in microbial communities on the organic matter we simulated pulse effects over the samples bio-incubated for a period of 0-28 days. Overall, we found that bio-available DOM changes along a gradient of land use (highest in natural, lowest below WWTP) and enrichment of humification index at all sites except WWTP-influenced locations. Also, our results showed the role of nutrient enrichment altered DOC uptake at the upstream site and minimal change at downstream sites. While dramatic reductions in water level along the Rio Grande are occurring and shows increasing concentrations of nutrients, we conclude that our project is a step forward for the understanding of the bio-reactivity disturbances. ■

SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AT A TIDAL WETLAND RESTORATION SITE: PRIME HOOK NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, DELAWARE Runion, Kyle, University of Delaware Sommerfield, Chris, University of Delaware Moffat, Carlos, University of Delaware Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge in Delaware contains over 10,000 acres of wetlands along the coast of lower Delaware Bay. The refuge formerly contained two managed freshwater wetland impoundments, but starting in 2009 a series of coastal storms breached the barrier and introduced salt water to the system. As part of an ongoing restoration project, in 2015-2016 the breaches were closed and tide conveyance channels were dredged to improve circulation and promote growth of salt marsh vegetation. We are conducting an observational study to identify processes and pathways of sediment movement between the refuge and contiguous waters. Continuous measurements of flow and sediment concentration at four tidal channel locations are being used to compute time series of sediment flux, which are being analyzed to elucidate fluxes related to tides, waves, and freshwater discharge. Preliminary results indicate that the refuge behaves as a tidally choked coastal lagoon that is strongly impacted by local and remote winds. Average suspended sediment concentrations are high (75-110 mg/L) compared to typical tidal wetlands in the region (10-40m mg/L), perhaps due to resuspension of fine sediment from new tidal flats and channels constructed for the restoration. During typical conditions, tidal transport combined with freshwater runoff from the local watershed drives a small net flux of sediment out of the refuge. In contrast, during northeaster storms, the net sediment flux is large and into the refuge. These storm-driven imports have a disproportional influence on the seasonal sediment budget and are likely to contribute to the longterm stability of reestablishing salt marsh. ■

Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 311


PRESENTATION 1188

PRESENTATION 1221

Presented during Climate Change Effects on Wetlands and Our Role in Mitigating and Adapting II, 5/29/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

Presented during Physical Science, 5/29/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

COASTAL WETLANDS AS SEDIMENTARY ARCHIVE FOR HURRICANE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS: WHAT DO WE LEARN FROM HURRICANE HARVEY? Liu, Kam-biu, Louisiana State University Ryu, Junghyung, Louisiana State University Yao, Qiang, Louisiana State University Aragón-Moreno, Alejandro A., Louisiana State University Sedimentary records from coastal lakes and marshes have been used as an important source of proxy data for paleotempestology. Previous studies have focused on the identification of overwash sand layers or the detection of saltwater intrusion driven by storm surge processes in backbarrier wetlands, whereas little attention has been paid to the role of fluvial or freshwater flooding in storm sedimentation in estuarine or deltaic environments. Hurricane Harvey, which brought up to 2-3 m of storm surge along the Texas coast and up to ~152 cm (60 inches) of rain to southeastern Texas in August 2017, offers an excellent opportunity to study the evidence of both fluvial flooding and storm surge in the sedimentary records of coastal wetlands. We launched an extensive coring campaign at three coastal wetland locations impacted in different ways by Hurricane Harvey. Cores taken from the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge near the storm’s landfall location contain a sand layer at the top that is rich in Ca and Sr and marked by high Ca/Ti ad Cl/Br elemental ratios, suggesting that storm surge driven seawater intrusion was the primary depositional mechanism. Only a few cores collected from the San Bernard National Wildlife Refuge, about 160 km to the east, contain a distinct deposit attributable to the overbank flooding from the San Bernard River nearby, but an elevated Cl/Br ratio detected near the top of many cores could be interpreted as muted evidence of saltwater intrusion into otherwise low-salinity floodplain habitats. A 2.56 m core was taken from an estuarine lake near the mouth of the Trinity River (about 60 km east of Houston), a site that was impacted significantly by Harvey’s historic fluvial flooding but only slightly by its initial storm surge. Harvey’s impact was registered by a 9 cm-thick sand layer at the top marked by a slightly elevated Cl/Br ratio. Four other clastic layers below the Harvey deposit were identified down to about 70 cm, but they were each characterized by a sharp peak in the Cl/Br ratio, implying that storm surge-driven seawater intrusion was the primary depositional mechanism in these older storm events. Our study shows that freshwater flooding could be an important mechanism in hurricane sedimentation, and freshwater flood deposits can be distinguished from storm surge deposits by means of sedimentological and geochemical techniques. ■ 312 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

NEW GEOSPATIAL AND PROCESS-BASED MODELING TOOLS FOR WETLANDSCAPE RESTORATION Jones, C. Nathan, The University of Maryland Evenson, Grey, Virginia Tech McLaughlin, Daniel, Virgnia Tech Wetland restoration aims to restore hydrologic, biogeochemical, and ecological functions from local to landscape scales. While restoration goals are often achieved at the local scale (e.g., a specific wetland hydroperiod), management goals at the watershed and landscape scales are often only partially attained. Here, we focus on wetland restoration efforts across the Delmarva Peninsula - a low gradient system defined by an abundance of non-floodplain wetlands and an intensive agricultural ditch network draining those wetlands. To highlight priority areas for restoration, we employ novel geospatial and process-based modeling tools. Our geospatial analysis, a modification of the topographic depression index, quantifies current and restorable wetland storage capacity across the region. The analysis highlights that cumulative wetland storage capacity could be increased by 80% through restoration and, importantly, provides a tool for managers to target restoration efforts. Building on this, we employ SWAT-Depressional Storage and Flows (SWAT-DSF), a new watershed model developed specifically to simulate low-gradient, depressionalrich landscapes like Delmarva. We integrate our geospatial analysis of restorable water storage and SWAT-DSF to evaluate the impact of restoration scenarios on local- to watershed-scale hydrologic, biogeochemical, and ecological functions. Modeling results highlight optimal restoration scenarios (e.g., specific landscape positions) to achieve identified management goals for given constraints. Together, these emerging tools provide managers a new approach to optimize and assess restoration strategies in Delmarva and other degraded wetlandscapes. ■


PRESENTATION 1384

PRESENTATION 1427

Presented during The Wetland Underground: Frank Day’s Contributions to Wetland Ecology, Belowground Ecology, and SWS I, 5/31/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

Presented during Advancing Large-Scale Restoration in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, USA, 5/29/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

CONTRIBUTIONS OF PORE SPACE, MINERAL AND ORGANIC MATTER TO SALT MARSH SOIL STRUCTURE AND ELEVATION Swarzenski, Christopher M, U.S. Geological Survey Coastal salt marsh elevations are maintained through a series of positive and negative feedback loops involving local mineral sediment availability, rates of local sea-level change, and variability in above- and below-ground biological production. For long-term sustainability, salt marsh elevations need to remain within a critical range relative to local sea level. Using a large soil property data set for coastal Louisiana salt marshes from the Coastal Reference Monitoring system operated by the Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restoration Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey explored the relation between marsh elevation, local surface-water levels, pore space, and mineral and organic matter. Preliminary data analysis indicates that organic matter density increases linearly as mineral density increases. Marsh elevation tends to increase with increases in mineral matter in an asymptotic manner. Slight increases in mineral matter correlate with rapid elevation gains at low mineral densities, but then level off even as mineral matter content increases substantially. Pore space increases linearly as marsh elevations decrease relative to local mean sea level, suggesting that in the absence of a change in mineral sediment availability, marshes can adjust to increases in local sea levels through increases in pore space. Understanding the relations between pore space, mineral and organic matter in salt marsh soils is crucial to understanding how these habitats respond to changes in sea level. This knowledge can help identify where marshes can increase elevation sufficiently to keep pace with predicted rates of sea level rise and provide guidance about where to direct restoration efforts, for example sediment diversions, in coastal Louisiana. ■

HYDROLOGIC MONITORING REVEALS VARIABLE WATER QUALITY FUNCTIONS IN RECONNECTED FLOODPLAINS OF AN OUTER COASTAL PLAIN RIVER SYSTEM, MARYLAND, USA Boomer, Kathy, The Nature Conservancy Noe, Gregory, U.S. Geological Survey Jacobs, Amy, The Nature Conservancy Dryden, Michael, The Nature Conservancy Berm and levee excavations designed to reconnect river floodplains represent a simple, low-cost strategy to advance water quality goals, abate downstream flooding, and improve wetland habitat conditions. Design plans assume that excavation will facilitate overbank flooding and enhance sedimentation. Predicted benefits reflect volumetric estimates of flood waters based on river stage and floodplain topography. These estimates, however, fail to account for internal flooding by local discharge and direct precipitation. We compared water exchange among six floodplains along the Pocomoke River, a large Outer Coastal Plain tributary of the Chesapeake Bay, USA. Sites included a naturally connected floodplain, three reconnected floodplains, and two channelized sites. Three years of hourly water levels, recorded from networks of water table wells installed at each site, reinforced patterns in measured sedimentation rates and highlighted the difficulty of detecting measurable water quality benefits. Synoptic water sampling of dissolved, major ion chemistry confirmed that floodplains function depends on watershed position as well as floodplain condition. In headwater floodplains and where entrenched, straightened channel beds and dredge spoil piles have created incised channel morphology, local discharge primarily contributed to floodplain inundation. Farther downstream, a gradation of water sources occurred across the complex: local slope discharge and precipitation mainly contributed across most of the floodplain while river water was constricted to sub-areas near the channel. The most significant two-way interactions occurred just up-gradient of the tidal-freshwater boundary, within 1.5 m of sea level; however, variation in water chemistry associated with internal wetland processes again showed a limited direct exchange of river water across the entire complex. Evaluating floodplain function must account for how floodplains act as convergence zones and how perirheic mixing patterns influence water exchange processes. Traditional planning tools may misallocate benefits, especially in regions characterized by flat topography and deep, unconsolidated sediments. ■

Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 313


PRESENTATION 1475 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

EVALUATION OF A WETLAND WATER BUDGET MODEL FOR NON-TIDAL CREATED WETLAND DESIGN Sneesby, Ethan, School of Plant and Environmental Science Daniels, W. Lee, Virginia Tech Thompson, Tess, Virginia Tech Agioutantis, Zachary, University of Kentucky Whittecar, G. Richard, Old Dominion University Klopf, Sara, Virginia Tech Wetland creation is a common practice in the eastern USA as a component of the overall wetland impact mitigation process. Regulatory review and approval of wetland creation projects generally requires that a site-specific water budget be developed that predicts the overall annual site saturation/ponding regime (hydroperiod). However, many studies of created wetlands in the Mid-Atlantic USA have indicated that post-construction hydroperiods frequently are not representative of the wetland systems they were designed to replace. Due to the wide variation in water budgeting approaches utilized among wetland professionals and regulators, we designed and built the Wetbud model to allow for increased consistency in water budgeting methods for created wetland designs. Wetbud is a deterministic model which uses a combination of preloaded climatic data and user specified site-specific parameters to model and predict wetland water levels and the relative effects of changes in wetland design. The narrow objective of this study was to evaluate the Wetbud Basic Model (simple 1D level pond version) through comparison of model output variations to actual on-site water level monitoring data for two different cells in a created non-tidal forested mitigation wetland bank site in Northern Virginia. Sensitivity analysis for four parameters (surface water storage factor; runoff curve number; soil specific yield; and outlet height) was used as a part of the overall calibration, validation and assessment of the model on both daily and monthly timesteps. The model was most sensitive to curve number and outlet height and least sensitive to soil specific yield. Calibration and validation were performed using two sequential years of onsite observed water level and weather data. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and root mean squared error (RMSE) parameters were used to evaluate the goodness of fit various model output iterations against site monitoring data. Overall, the model reproduced the overall seasonal hydroperiod well once fully parameterized; quantitative measures ranged from -0.67 to 0.41 in calibration and -4.82 - -0.26 during validation for NSE; and 5.92 cm to 12.71 cm during calibration and from 8.26 cm - 18.54 cm 314 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

during validation for RMSE. It is important to note that Wetbud is intended for use as an apriori design model and not as a detailed predictive model for actual natural or created wetland conditions. â&#x2013;

PRESENTATION 1494 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

ESTABLISHING THE CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WETLAND SURFACE HYDROLOGY TO GROUNDWATER AND DOWNSTREAM FLOW Lee, Sangchul, University of Maryland McCarty, Gregory, USDA-ARS The connectivity of depressional wetlands with downstream waters has been a key research topic. In-situ observation is limited to elucidating their connection due to high complexities of hydrological processes between uplands to streams. The causal relationship between depressional wetlands with downstream waters (i.e., depressional wetlands affect downstream waters) can provide the supportive evidence for their connection. This study used highfrequency in-situ observations to demonstrate the causality between depressional wetlands with downstream waters on the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. We installed a well and piezometer to monitor surface water level (SWL) and groundwater level (GWL) of two depressional wetlands, respectively. We compared the temporal dynamics between two wetland water levels (i.e., SWL and GWL) and streamflow at the outlet of the drainage area, where the two depressional wetlands exist. Transfer entropy (TE) and convergent cross mapping (CCM) were used as the metrics for this study. TE and CCM are a statistical approach to measure the causality between two time-series datasets. We will substantiate the causal relationship between wetland water levels and streamflow. The expected outcomes would provide important implications for wetland management. â&#x2013;


PRESENTATION 1553

PRESENTATION 1574

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

APPLICATION OF LIDAR DATA ON ESTIMATING WETLAND CONNECTIVITY TO STREAMS IN A LOW-RELIEF WATERSHED Li, Xia, USDA-ARS McCarty, Gregory, USDA-ARS Huang, Chengquan, University of Maryland

CREATING RESILIENCY IN AN URBAN FLOODPLAIN BY WORKING WITH BEAVER Dulin, C. Tracey, Clean Water Services

Understanding hydrological connectivity between wetlands and streams is essential for evaluating wetland ecosystem function within landscapes. Efforts have been made to assess wetland-stream connectivity by combining wetland and stream maps, but the reliability of these assessments is impacted by the accuracy of input data and the feasibility for automated mapping of fine-scale aquatic features. The increasing availability of high spatial resolution geomorphic data due to the development of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data provides a promise for efficient delineation of wetlands and stream flows. In this study, we reconstruct wetland-stream connectivity based on topographic metrics extracted from the LiDAR-derived digital elevation model (DEM) in the Choptank River watershed, Maryland. Three topographic metrics are used including flow accumulation, topographic openness and relief enhance topographic wetness index. The flow accumulation is a foundational metric for stream and overland flow network delineation but tends to exaggerate the flow line sinuosity since its centerlines meander within streams and overland flows. The topographic openness is identified as a sensitive index in identifying stream channel networks and depressional wetlands due to its ability in delineating flow divides and detecting the degree of dominance or enclosure of a landscape point. The relief enhanced topographic wetness index is effective at predicting boundary and periodicity of inundated areas, which can further assist wetland estimation. We propose a method combining random forest and linear feature extraction to classify wetlands and stream networks based on the above topographic metrics. The method developed in this study is expected to provide scientific support for better water and soil conservation and wetland management. Results of this study will also benefit watershed modeling which is focused on the impacts of wetlands on hydrology and biogeochemistry. ■

The Rock Creek Floodplain Enhancement Project in the upper Tualatin River Basin in Northwest Oregon was initiated to improve hydrological functions of a 115 acre floodplain wetland while providing resiliency to the site for anticipated hydromodification effects from nearby urban growth. The project’s overall goal is to support natural processes that benefit flora and fauna by increasing floodplain inundation through prolonging residence time of surface water and groundwater storage. Rather than implementing a costly, earth moving construction project to create an engineered wetland complex, a multi-disciplinary project team incorporated the lessons learned from a five year bio-physical monitoring study and implemented a more cost effective method that incorporated the highly effective ecosystem engineering abilities of the sites’ resident beaver and works with the site’s natural processes. Enhancement activities included the strategic installation of large wood that decrease flow velocities, diverse wetland plantings that provide hydraulic roughness and structural complexity and improving beaver habitat by providing food and building material for dam building. Five years of groundwater monitoring show increase groundwater recharge and water storage functions while improving habitat for wildlife. Post implementation monitoring is critical to understanding the site’s response to both anthropological and ecological drivers and will continue to guide the adaptive management of the project. ■

Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 315


Physical Sciences: Soils

PRESENTATION 1371

PRESENTATION 1257

INNOVATIVE REUSE AND BENEFICIAL USE OF DREDGED MATERIALS Keene, Kristen, Maryland Department of Transportation Maryland Port Administration

Presented during Educating current and future wetland scientists II, 5/31/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

DEVELOPMENT OF WETLAND SOIL SCIENCE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS AT VIRGINIA TECH Daniels, W. Lee, Virginia Tech Galbraith, John, Virginia Tech Eick, Matt, Virginia Tech The advent of active federal and state regulation of wetland impacts in the late 1980s led to a rapid demand for welltrained college graduates, particularly those with applicable field skills and training in areas related to delineation. At Virginia Tech (VT), early efforts to bring wetland topics into undergraduate soils and forestry related coursework included using wetlands as a model for explaining redox potential in Basic Soils coursework along with the importance of depth to redoximorphic features in Soil Taxonomy. Wetlands focused coursework was developed in several different VT colleges over time including undergraduate and graduate classes in forested wetlands (1991), wetland soils (2002), and wetland ecology and management (2002). A particular focus was placed upon wetland creation and use of wetlands for water treatment across a number of courses, particularly those in environmental soil science, including our mined land reclamation courses. Our undergraduate soils courses are particularly field and lab work intensive and emphasize upland/wetland transitions and their accurate delineation. In 2009, the Environmental Science program introduced the interdisciplinary Wetland Science Minor (18 credits) which requires a mix of the courses described above along with a range of restricted electives and readily integrates into a range of existing major degree programs. At the graduate level, the Crop & Soil Environmental Sciences program currently offers two courses. Advanced Wetland Soils, our 4-credit conventional course, requires extensive local and statewide field trips and a team-based field project requiring wetland delineation and development of a conceptual plan for restoration/creation. We also offer an online 3-credit graduate level course, Advanced Wetland Soils and Mitigation. The School of Plant & Environmental Sciences formed in mid-2018 and is currently pursuing a new major in Ecological Restoration and wetlands will be a focal point for that program. ■

316 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

Presented during Wetland Restoration and Creation Using Fine-Grained Dredged Sediments II, 5/29/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

Sediment removed from the Port of Baltimore’s shipping channels has previously been viewed as a waste product, commonly referred to as ‘dredge spoil.’ Today, with extensive physical, chemical and geotechnical testing, and in conjunction with new regulatory guidance from the Maryland Department of the Environment, dredged material is recognized as a valuable resource with vast opportunities for reuse. The Maryland Department of Transportation Maryland Port Administration (MDOT MPA) is leading the way on innovative reuse of dredged material through the advancement of several demonstration projects and research studies. MDOT MPA has also demonstrated how dredged sediments can be beneficially used to restore lost island habitat once impacted by severe erosion. Come hear first-hand how dredged material can benefit the terrestrial and aquatic environments of the Chesapeake Bay. Dredged material is no longer a ‘spoil’ but a resource worth re-purposing. ■


Physical Sciences: Water Quality, Quantity & Hydraulics

PRESENTATION 1107

PRESENTATION 1047

UNDERSTANDING WATER QUALITY AND GENETIC SOURCE TRACKING OF E.COLI IN URBAN PONDS Olson, Erika, North Dakota State University

Presented during Integrating innovative technologies, TEK and TRM for restoring /creating resilient wetlands for the future I, 5/30/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

LONG-TERM TREATMENT OF FLY ASH LEACHATE WITH CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS: FOUR CASE STUDIES Hoover, Kevin, Buchart Horn, Inc. Rightnour, Terry, Water’s Edge Hydrology, Inc. Coal combustion byproduct (fly ash) disposal sites can generate leachate with elevated dissolved metals and other regulated contaminants. Constructed wetland systems have been used since the 1980s to treat fly ash leachate for regulatory compliance with low operation and maintenance costs. Long-term performance results are presented for four systems treating fly ash leachate at ages ranging from 15 to 31 years and having data availability from 14 to 20 years to the present. Removal performance was monitored at all four systems for pH, iron, and manganese, and at individual sites for aluminum, arsenic, selenium, and total suspended solids (TSS). Effluent concentrations of these parameters remained consistent with low variation over the observed periods, with no correlation between effluent concentration and time despite varying influent concentrations over the system lives. Median effluent concentrations for the systems ranged: pH 7.4 to 7.8 SU, iron 0.02 to 0.10 mg/L, manganese 0.01 to 0.27 mg/L, aluminum 0.02 to 0.04 mg/L, and TSS 1 to 4 mg/L, with arsenic and selenium near or below detection at 0.002 mg/L. Construction costs for comparable systems are estimated at approximately $15,000 per 1 L/min average flow treated, or $0.0015 per liter treated over a 20 year system life. It is concluded that properly sized constructed wetlands can provide reliable and economical long-term treatment for fly ash leachate applications. ■

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

Little is known about the spatial and temporal changes that occur with water quality and E.coli throughout urban ponds in both the surface and ground water. Wetlands in urban areas can provide beneficial filtering before stormwater enters larger watersheds. Urban water managers can benefit from properly designed stormwater ponds that mimic these conditions to improve water quality on the landscape. The objectives of this study are: 1) to assess surface water within detention and retention ponds and adjacent groundwater to determine how far E.coli travels within the system; 2) determine how precipitation events impact water quality and E.coli and whether this is different in standing water or flow through pond systems; and 3) genetically source track the E.coli and presence of pathogens to better understand the impact to humans. Methods of this study include sampling surface water during major storm events, followed by sampling of ground water and surface water one week later over two summers at both types of ponds. E.coli during storm events was also source tracked to determine if it is from dogs, birds, or humans, and to determine the presence of pathogens. Results indicate that E.coli quantities are often higher in detention ponds than retention ponds and E.coli decreases with distance from the surface water within the system. This research is important to researchers, scientists, water managers, and people in urban systems where they are retrofitting urban spaces, including stormwater ponds, to mimic the functions of wetlands as well as create usable recreational spaces. ■

Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 317


PRESENTATION 1156

PRESENTATION 1271

Presented during Physical Science, 5/29/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

CHANGES IN WATER LEVELS AND QUALITY WITHIN A FORESTED FEN AS A RESULT OF MITIGATION MEASURES USED DURING ROADWAY RECONSTRUCTION IN NORTHERN ILLINOIS Plankell, Eric, Illinois State Geological Survey Water levels and water-quality data were monitored at Trout Park Nature Preserve (Kane County, Illinois) to understand the effects of reconstruction of adjacent Interstate 90 (I-90). Baseline pre-construction data indicated negative impacts to the fen due to roadway runoff from I-90 and State Route 25 (IL 25), and dewatering of the fen due to a leaky storm sewer under I-90. Several mitigation measures were implemented during reconstruction to alleviate some of the observed impacts to the fen. Local storm sewers were removed, internally sealed, or realigned to prevent further dewatering of the fen and to reduce the possibility of exchange of water between the storm sewers and the groundwater system in the fen. Curb and gutter along the eastbound shoulder of I-90 was replaced with a sound barrier wall to prevent surface-water runoff and reduce aerial deposition from the roadway into the preserve. Lastly, a culvert that once directed surface-water runoff from the IL 25 interchange into the preserve via an eroded gully was removed, and the gully was filled with native materials and graded to better resemble the original landscape and to restore a more natural groundwater flowpath to the fen. Following construction, mean chloride concentrations decreased significantly in a groundwater-fed stream within the preserve (mean decrease of 90 mg/L across 4 stations, ranging from -14% to -26% of pre-construction means), and also at an off-site spring up-gradient of I-90 where background water chemistry is being monitored (-41 mg/L, -19%). Decreases in mean groundwater levels (-0.15 m) and mean chloride concentrations (-81 mg/L, -15%) were also observed in a monitoring well located near an overflow channel that previously carried roadway runoff from I-90 and IL 25 into the preserve, suggesting that mitigation efforts were successful in reducing the amount of chlorideladen runoff reaching this part of the preserve. Data from a second well, located lower in the landscape and farther from the former overflow channel, showed increases in post-construction mean groundwater levels (+0.27 m) and mean chloride concentrations (+79 mg/L, +21%). The increase in water level at this location suggests removal of the leaky storm sewer under I-90 has resulted in a localized rebound of water table, while the increase in chloride may be indicative of re-wetting and mobilization of chloride from salt-impacted soils in the vadose zone in this portion of the preserve. ■ 318 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

PERSISTENT ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN TWO VILLAGES (OJO AND ETEGBIN) ALONG BADAGRY CREEK, LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA Ndimele, Anita Efya, Aquatic Conservation and Ecological Restoration Network Ndimele, Bright Uchenna, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos State Ndimele, Prince Emeka, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State, Nigeria Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides in Two Villages (Ojo and Etegbin) Along Badagry Creek, Lagos State, Nigeria. This study considered the level of 13 persistent organochlorine pesticides (POPs) which are DDT, Endrin, Dieldrin, Methoxychlor, Aldrin, Alpha HCH, Gamma HCH, Delta HCH, Endosulfan 1, Heptachlor, PP-DDD, Endosulfan 11, Endrine ketone in water, fish and sediment. The analysis was carried out in Ojo and Etegbin water sides along Badagry creek, Lagos, Nigeria for a period of six months (June 2012 and January 2013). The mean concentration of organochlorine pesticides in Ojo water samples ranges from 9.31 ± 0.10 µg/L to 277.51 ± 0.10 µg/L for dieldrin and Methoxychlor respectively whilst the mean concentration of OCPs in Etegbin Water samples between dieldrin and Methoxychlor are 55.15 ± 0.23 µg/L and 297.53 ± 0.12 µg/L. The mean value concentration between Dieldrin and DDT in Ojo sediment samples are 65.67 ± 0.20 µg/g to 513.97 ± 0.13 µg/g. The mean concentration for sediment in Etegbin sediment samples between Dieldrin and Methoxychlor are 12.07 ± 0.15 µg/g and 111.83 ± 0.33 µg/g respectively. For fish samples, the ranges occur between DDD and Methoxychor (44.30 ± 0.10 t0 270.13 ± 0.25 µg/g). The results shows that not all organochlorine pesticides tested for were detected in all samples except in Etegbin sediment samples. All organochlorine pesticides detected in water and fish are above the maximum permissible levels (FAO/WHO, 2005; USEPA, 2006). ■


POLICY PRESENTATION 1361 Presented during Physical Science, 5/29/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

VERTICAL FLOW WETLANDS FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE NUTRIENT REMOVAL Merkelbach, Mark, Green Earth Operations, Inc Lucas, William, Sustainable Water Investment Group, LLC The accelerating frequency of algae blooms has caused hazardous and unattractive conditions for much of the world’s waterways. As existing natural systems cannot attenuate human generated nutrient loads, the adverse economic and health implications for the surrounding communities has prompted the search for viable nutrient removal solutions. Florida’s water management districts have been building stormwater treatment areas (STAs), very large settling wetlands systems that operate by accumulating algae rich in P and N. STAs require enough time for nutrients to be taken up by algae and then slowly settle at the bottom of the treatment area. STAs thus have a very low hydraulic loading rate (HLR) in order to meet nutrient removal targets. For example, the Everglade STAs daily HLRs are around an inch per day. In contrast, two proprietary technologies, the phosphorus elimination system (PES) and organic nitrogen elimination (ONE) systems utilize a high flow rate filter media capable of handling much higher HLRs and at high concentrations, while still discharging at low concentrations. With HLRs as high as 8 feet/day, the PES can treat 1,000 µg/L of phosphorus for a decade, and yet discharge only 90 µg/L, a 91% removal. ONE system organic nitrogen reductions of 2.5 mg/L have been attained with a 5 ft/day HLR. This removal rate of 33.5 lb/ac/d is 100 times that of wetland treatment systems. These high-performance systems and their resulting small footprints can be deployed in both urban and rural settings to provide a comprehensive watershed approach to nutrient removal. ■

Policy: Federal State Local Initiatives PRESENTATION 1308 Presented during Wetland Policy, 5/31/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

FIRST WETLAND MITIGATION BANK IN NEW YORK CITY RESTORING DEGRADED URBAN WETLANDS IN CURRENT ECONOMIC LANDSCAPE Apte, Sachin, Louis Berger US Jungst, Tahni, Louis Berger US Holthaus, Matthew, Louis Berger US McBrien, Margaret, Louis Berger US New York City, in collaboration with State & Federal agencies, is proving mitigation banking is possible in America’s most urbanized physical environment. To pilot this effort, the City is constructing a tidal wetland mitigation bank on Staten Island adjacent to Saw Mill Creek. The City expects the Saw Mill Creek Pilot Wetland Mitigation Bank, the first established in the City, will facilitate larger wetland restoration projects in the City’s ecologically sensitive coast while also directing more public & private funds for restoration of damaged ecosystems. The Site is located in an area of industrially developed land adjacent to salt marsh & coastal forest. Extensive dumping of trash, debris & fill occurred throughout the Site for decades. Sediment samples indicated that prior to restoration, the Site posed an ecological risk to wildlife due to presence of metals, pesticides, PCBs, & organic compounds. Post construction sampling was conducted to document improved sediment ecology, a requirement that regulatory agencies are now imposing in the New York Harbor estuary to demonstrate ecological restoration projects improve sediment ecology in addition to plant ecology, which greatly increases the significance of restoration due to the urban nature of the estuary. Mitigation banking is the restoration, creation, enhancement and/or preservation of a wetland, stream, or habitat area to offset permitted impacts to similar nearby regulated ecosystems. In accordance with federal & state permits, ecological, topographical, & hydrologic baseline studies were conducted to support the restoration design. Restoration actions have removed 40,000 cubic yards of contaminated soils & over 40 truckloads of tires & other debris from 54 acres of the Site to create tidal channels & marshland that have been planted with native wetland vegetation. The pilot project is improving water & sediment quality, plant diversity, & wildlife species abundance/diversity in the Staten Island Borough of New York City. After Hurricane Sandy, the City faced billions in infrastrucWetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 319


ture damage & a challenging task of how to rebuild with greater resiliency. Wetlands will play an important part in the recovery strategy. The Saw Mill Creek pilot project is part of a strategy to protect the property of residents & businesses by enhancing and protecting the city’s coastal resources & restoring damaged wetlands. Lessons learned at the pilot wetland bank will be applied to other degraded urban habitats. ■

management needs, which will be relevant for both the Chesapeake Bay as well as other large landscape-scale coastal wetland systems. ■

PRESENTATION 1320

Implementation of the Clean Water Act is interdisciplinary by nature and requires knowledge of both science and policy. As an Environmental Scientist at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Rose has worked on several high-profile agency Clean Water Act rulemakings. Specifically, Rose helps lead EPA’s technical efforts to provide clarity on the application and scope of the Clean Water Act, a challenging endeavor since the Act was passed. In this session, Rose will discuss her career path in the context of her work on developing national wetland and aquatic resource policy, which involved several stretches at EPA as a non-federal staff before becoming a federal employee as well as temporary assignments at different EPA Regional offices. Rose will also highlight the relevance of her interdisciplinary education to her work at EPA. ■

Presented during Wetland Policy, 5/31/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE FIRST MARSH RESILIENCE SUMMIT: A ROADMAP FORWARD IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY Sudol, Taryn, Maryland Sea Grant On February 5-6, 2019 the Chesapeake Bay Sentinel Site Cooperative hosted its first Marsh Resilience Summit for communities, scientists, managers, and policy and decision makers in coastal Virginia and Maryland. The goal of the summit was to share the latest science on, and best management practices for, tidal marsh resilience in the face of sea level rise and other stressors and to better understand the concerns and needs of managers, decision makers, and communities as they work to integrate ecological processes with societal needs to protect marshes and human communities. In preparation for the summit, the steering committee asked registrants their top three most pressing issues and top three biggest barriers for the marsh resilience. The most pressing issues identified were : 1) Sea level rise; 2) Human land use development; and 3) Conservation polices or regulations; and the biggest barriers included: 1) Lack of funding for research/implementation projects; 2) Uncertainty in restoration performance; and 3) Lack of community engagement. We had 50 presentations and 24 posters along with facilitated discussion for over 200 participants in the region. The presentations were organized into eight themed sessions, such as Marsh Migration, Lessons Learned from Management Techniques, Dredge and Beneficial Use, and Environmental Market Mechanisms. We also prepared questions for facilitated discussion sessions; these included knowledge gaps, research needs, and priority steps forward. This presentation will share the top issues and concerns on marsh resilience in the Chesapeake Bay as identified in the Marsh Resilience Summit as well as the top science and marsh conservation opportunities and priorities. The results of this Summit will serve as a ‘marsh conservation needs assessment’ that reflects critical future research and 320 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

PRESENTATION 1597 Presented during Female Leaders in Wetland Science and Policy I, 5/29/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

IMPLEMENTING THE CLEAN WATER ACT: THE INTERFACE BETWEEN SCIENCE AND POLICY Kwok, Rose, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency


Policy: International

PRESENTATION 1163

PRESENTATION 1078

THE WORLD BANK AND WETLANDS: NATURE-BASED SOLUTIONS TO THE GLOBAL CLIMATE CRISIS Hickey, Valerie, The World Bank

Presented during General Wetland Science II, 5/31/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING AND IMPLEMENTING WETLAND RESOURCE QUALITY OBJECTIVES IN SOUTH AFRICA Bredin, Ian, Institute of Natural Resources Awuah, Adwoa, Institute of Natural Resources Pringle, Catherine, Institute of Natural Resources Quayle, Leo, Institute of Natural Resources Kotze, Donovan, University of KwaZulu-Natal Marneweck, Gary, Wetland Consulting Services Wetlands are vital ecological infrastructure, both in terms of the value of the services provided to society and ecological importance. Significant wetland resources are the wetlands deemed to be of the highest value to society from either a water resource use perspective or ecosystem conservation perspective, or both. Resource Quality Objectives (RQOs) are a set of criteria used to safe guard the integrity of wetland resources. They are clearly definable numerical or descriptive goals used to sustainably manage ecosystem goods and services. The establishment and implementation of RQOs for all or part of South Africa’s significant wetland resources are required by law. Resource Quality Objectives are determined according to user and ecological requirements and guide the management of significant wetland resources. The developed procedure aims to provide a recommended standardized approach for determining RQOs for significant wetland resources. The procedure was developed with the understanding that currently there is typically limited wetland data available for studies of this nature and to undertake the level of assessments required to acquire the required data is currently too costly and time consuming. Any alternative approach to sourcing a sufficient level of understanding of significant wetland resources that will allow for the setting of RQOs was required. One that is both practical yet robust enough to result in the setting of RQOs. The key focal points of the procedure include: the assessment of supply and demand of wetland ecosystem services to determine significant wetland resources from a user perspective; the assessment of land cover within wetland resources and a zone of influence to determine condition of the significant wetland resources for the purposes of setting RQOs; the implementation of RQOs to ensure the management of significant wetland resources for continued supply of ecosystem services in demand; and the use of remote sensing to detect changes in condition for the purposes of monitoring significant wetland resources. ■

Presented during The Critical Role of Wetlands in International Climate Solutions: Emerging Opportunities II, 5/30/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

The World Bank is in the business of ending poverty and sharing the prosperity of economic growth. And business is good - the number of people living on less than $1.90 a day has fallen dramatically over the past thirty years. However, climate change threatens to push 100 million people back into poverty in the next thirty. We already know that we can’t eradicate extreme poverty without investing in nature because of the safety net she provides to families in the stubborn pockets of poverty at the rural frontier. Nor can we truly share prosperity with the bottom 40 percent in every country unless we help them reap the benefits of what is often the only capital they have access to - natural capital. And now, climate change has taught us something else: We can’t eradicate extreme poverty or protect the development gains of the bottom 40 percent in the face of climate change without investing in nature. But we have to do it in a different way - this isn’t simply about conservation-as-usual. The success of nature-based solutions must be measured in how effectively they enhance the resilience of communities and their capital assets. It is about nature helping communities sustain their hard-fought economic gains and climate-proofing future development wins. This is what our investments in wetlands are all about. ■

PRESENTATION 1189 Presented during The Critical Role of Wetlands in International Climate Solutions: Emerging Opportunities I, 5/30/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE RAMSAR CONVENTION ON WETLANDS: REPORTING, IMPLEMENTATION, AND PROBLEM RESOLUTION Ivanova, Maria, University of Massachusetts Boston International agreements guide states’ behavior to regulate pollution and manage conservation. Implementing the obligations under the conventions reflects the extent to which countries are committed to environmental protection. Yet, the level of implementation has not been empirically measured and is largely unknown. As a result, there is no baseline against which to assess performance or expectations; and without empirical evidence, we risk erroneous conclusions and inappropriate regulatory interventions. Importantly, in the absence of measurement of implementation, it is impossible to determine whether the convenWetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 321


tions help solve the problems they were created to address. The Environmental Conventions Index is an empirical tool to measure implementation of global environmental conventions by assessing the actions countries have taken to fulfill their commitments. It includes 6 conventions in two thematic clusters - biodiversity and chemicals & waste. In this presentation, we will discuss the implementation of the Ramsar Convention on wetlands across all 168 contracting parties and will focus on progress in Rwanda. We will analyze global reporting trends and outcomes, implementation actions in Rwanda, and the impact of international environmental law implementation in the Rugezi wetland. ■

PRESENTATION 1218 Presented during Female Leaders in Wetland Science and Policy I, 5/29/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

CONSERVATION OF A TROPICAL WETLAND LANDSCAPE Ewel, Katherine, University of Florida We all hope that our professional accomplishments will make a difference to someone somewhere some day. In 1994, on my first trip to Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), an island-state in the western Pacific Ocean, I was taken to an impressive forested wetland dominated by Terminalia carolinensis, which is endemic to the eastern Caroline Islands. I soon discovered that this 78-ha wetland was the largest intact stand of its kind remaining. The lower portion of the 566-ha watershed within which it is located was privately owned and threatened with degradation by planned road construction. Over the next several years, my colleagues and I documented many features of this wetland and the ecosystem services it provided, and we often discussed its significance with Kosraeans, including the landowners. We were very pleased when it was designated as an Area of Biological Significance in the FSM’s 2002 National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. Within the last few years, long after my retirement in 2005, The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and the USDA Forest Service were able to work with the landowners to put a large portion of the watershed, including most of the wetland, into the first conservation easement in the FSM, also making it the first conservation easement granted by TNC outside the United States of America. The rest of the watershed is currently being evaluated for additional conservation easements, as are completely independent parcels in two of the other island-states in FSM. My colleagues and I are very gratified to have played a role not only in protecting a significant wetland but also in bringing a useful strategy in conservation to another part of the world. ■

322 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

PRESENTATION 1276 Presented during The Critical Role of Wetlands in International Climate Solutions: Emerging Opportunities II, 5/30/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

RAMSAR CONVENTION’S RECENT (COP13 2018) DECISIONS ON WETLANDS AND CLIMATE CHANGE: KEY ISSUES AND IMPLEMENTATION SUPPORT OPPORTUNITIES Davidson, Nick, Nick Davidson Enironmental Although the vital role of wetlands in mitigating climate change (through carbon storage) and as natural infrastructure helping people adapt to the changing climate is increasingly widely recognised, the Ramsar Convention’s role in addressing such climate change issues has been historically contentious amongst the Convention’s member governments (Contracting Parties). However, Ramsar’s 13th Confernce of Contracting Parties (COP13: Dubai, October 2018) adopted five decisions (Resolutions) on different aspects of wetlands and climate change. This presentation will summarise the key points of these Resolutions and will identify scientific and technical implementation actions called to which SWS expertise could contribute. ■

PRESENTATION 1343 Presented during General Wetland Science II, 5/31/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

FROM ZERO TO A HERO? REFLECTION ON THE RAPID DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL WETLAND PARKS IN CHINA Lei, Yinru, Institute of Wetland Research, Chinese Academy of Forestry The conservation campaign of wetlands started to flourish until 1992 since China joined the Ramsar Convention. As one of the achievements, the number of National Wetland Parks around China has grown from zero to nearly 900 during the past two decades. The rapid growth lead relative topics of wetland parks become research hot fields, however, studies inspect the underlying causes of boom of National Wetland Parks in China, and examining its far-reaching impacts are rare. Thus, we first inspect the distributions and dynamic trends of China’s National Wetland Parks using Kernel Density analysis. Then beyond the standard illustrations of numbers and patterns, we explored deeper resource-oriented and legal drivers that promoted the growth. We also examine how the expansion of National Wetland Parks is both an important contributor to nature resource conservation and ecological civilization as it brings a suite of ecological, economic and social impacts. Based on our reflections, we suggest (1) the future development of National Wetland Parks should cohere with other conservation forms such as national parks and wet-


land reserves; (2) the approval and promotion of National Wetland Parks should go through a careful inspection to avoid repeated construction; (3) the construction of National Wetland Parks should follow the ecological principles to ensure the target ecosystems are conserved rather than suffering second disturbance; and (4) management is more important than construction. We need a long-term management and assessment mechanism for National Wetland Parks to use and protect wetlands wisely. ■

importance and accrue numerous ecosystem services to the local communities, most important being livelihood support to artisanal fishers. We recommend a holistic approach to manage and conserve these coastal wetlands and their associated biodiversity. ■

PRESENTATION 1573 Presented during Female Leaders in Wetland Science and Policy II, 5/29/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

PRESENTATION 1520 Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

GODAVARI DELTA AND ITS COASTAL WETLANDS IN A CHANGING LANDSCAPE OF INDIA Malla, Giridhar, Wildlife Institute of India Ray, Paromita, Wildlife Institute of india K, Sivakumar, Wildlife Institute of india With a huge catchment area of >3,00,000 km2, Godavari River forms the second largest delta in India encompassing an array of riverine and coastal habitats. At its confluence with Bay of Bengal in the eastern coast (16°N,82°E, ) extensive stretches of riverine mangrove forests are formed, making them the second largest contiguous patch of mangroves in India. These mangroves and associated wetlands support rich floral and faunal diversity including 36 species of mangroves, 383 species of birds and resident populations of threatened mammals such as Fishing Cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) and Smooth coated otters (Lutrogale perspicillata). During the period between 2013 to 2017 we carried out a study to assess the impacts of climate change on the biodiversity of the Godavari Delta. The results of our study indicate a potentially retreating coastline along the delta, particularly along the mangrove forests at the northern part which are protected in Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary (CWS). Evidences including sand ingression into the mangroves and signs of mangrove die backs were observed at several places on the seaward side of the Godavari delta. On the landward side, these mangroves are threatened due to enchroachment by aquaculture ponds, and urbanization, rendering them vulnerable to ‘coastal squeeze’. While expansion of shrimp-based aquaculture ponds is a major anthropogenic threat to the mangroves, river regulation is driving landscape-level changes in Godavari Delta. There are nearly 350 dams and barrages in the Godavari river basin, making it the most regulated river basin in India. The coastal wetlands, being important stop-over sites for migrating bird species, are of global

LINKING SCIENCE AND POLICY IN GLOBAL ASSESSMENTS: THE RAMSAR CONVENTION AND THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON BIODIVERSITY AND ECOSYSTEM SERVICES Fennessy, M. Siobhan, Kenyon College Wetland science is an incredibly diverse field, and it is important that this be reflected in the full diversity of perspectives that are necessary to meet global environmental challenges. There are increasing opportunities to work on international policy initiatives that can integrate wetland science into assessments of conservation, sustainability, biodiversity, and ecosystem services. This talk will report on several recent initiatives including the Americas Regional Assessment of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), the IPBES global assessment of Land Degradation and Restoration, and the work of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance. All of these recognize that water and wetlands are central to the relationship between biodiversity, ecosystem condition, and the capacity of nature to contribute to human well-being. These policy initiatives also recognize that a plurality of views is essential to develop the most effective tools possible to conserve nature. Here I will discuss my experiences working in these assessments, the inclusive strategies they employed, and end with messages on capacity building and how these can involve up and coming science-policy experts. ■

Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 323


Policy: Ramsar & International Agreements PRESENTATION 1178 Presented during Overview of key global wetland issues - threats, challenges and solutions II, 5/29/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

SCIENTISTS’ SECOND WARNING TO HUMANITY AND WETLANDS Davies, Gillian, BSC Group, Inc. In 1992 over 1,500 prominent scientists from around the world, including 99 out of 196 living Nobel laureates, signed the ‘Union of Concerned Scientists World Scientists’ Warning to Humanity’. This remarkable document was sent to governmental leaders around the world, stating unequivocally that humanity was on a collision course with the natural world, and proposed the steps necessary to change course. In December of 2017, BioScience published the ‘World Scientists’ Warning to Humanity: A Second Notice’, co-authored by an international team. Over 20,000 scientists from 184 countries have signed the article, which extends the 1992 warning by summarizing global trends since 1992 and identifying specific steps that we can take to transition from our current trajectory (towards catastrophic anthropogenic climate change and mass extinction) into an alternative and sustainable future. In March of 2018, a group of SWS wetland scientists and a climate scientist responded to this call by publishing an article, ‘The Second Warning to Humanity - Providing a Context for Wetland Management and Policy’, which places the current state of affairs for wetlands in the context of the scientists’ second warning, ongoing land use changes, climate change and international efforts to halt the loss of wetlands through the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. This article addresses how Ramsar, wetland scientists and scientific societies such as SWS can respond to the second warning and identifies specific steps that SWS is taking and can take in the future, in this regard. ■

PRESENTATION 1183 Presented during Overview of key global wetland issues - threats, challenges and solutions II, 5/29/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR BIODIVERSITY PURPOSES - HELPING TO REVERSE THE LOSS AND DEGRADATION OF WETLANDS Finlayson, Max, Charles Sturt University For more than 60 years constructed wetlands have been used in many parts of the world to treat polluted water. From their beginnings as experimental systems, the construction of wetlands for water quality improvement 324 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

and the delivery of wider benefits, is now widespread. As wetland loss and degradation has persisted, the construction of wetlands provides an opportunity to mitigate these impacts. Despite the availability of an increasing body of knowledge on how to improve the design of constructed wetlands, opportunities to optimise the benefits that creating and constructing a wetland can bring are often cursorily considered. With appropriate design, the restoration and creation of wetlands can provide opportunities to deliver multiple benefits. Similarly, the creation of appropriately designed constructed wetlands offers an opportunity to make landscapes and the biodiversity they support more resilient and robust. Whilst the primacy of focus for constructing wetlands is often on the improvement of water quality a broader recognition and appreciation of the potential benefits available, constructed wetlands have an essential role to play in the delivery of both the Ramsar Convention’s wise use principles and the wider mitigation of historical wetland loss and degradation. ■

PRESENTATION 1279 Presented during Overview of key global wetland issues - threats, challenges and solutions I, 5/29/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

CLIMATE CHANGE AND WETLANDS: OUR CURRENT UNDERSTANDING Middleton, Beth, U.S. Geological Survey Davidson, Nick, Nick Davidson Enironmental Ramsar’s work in wetland conservation is underlain by scientific research on best management practices. In particular, SWS can take a role in supplying cutting edge research and management information to the Ramsar Scientific and Technical Review Panel. Recently, several leading wetland researchers joined together to compile an interdisciplinary article describing best approaches for wetlands in changing climates (Moomaw et al. 2018). This paper suggests that wetlands can play a huge role in sequestering greenhouse gases, particularly if these are managed to maximize vegetation production and carbon storage. Protected lands (e.g., U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Ramsar wetlands) provide a unique opportunity to manage wetlands for carbon conservation. At the same time, the ability of wetlands to store carbon depends on their type and management. Case studies of climate adaptation and resilience in North America, Central America and India show that hydrologic management is an important aspect of maximizing production and carbon storage in wetlands. Wetland carbon storage can be improved by the removal of drainage structures e.g. in the Great Dismal Swamp of the southeastern U.S.


Freshwater remediation of stressed vegetation can increase primary production and soil carbon stocks. Ramsar-designated and publicly owned wetlands provide an opportunity to maximize sequestered carbon. These wetlands present opportunities to lower greenhouse gases in the atmosphere in some cases, as well as contribute to societal benefits related to the health of vegetation such as storm protection and water storage. ■

reconstructed land use to show that climatic fluctuation in wetland extent were the greatest driver of change until the last few centuries. Our reconstruction advances our understanding of the trajectory of wetland losses through time, filling an important gap for the study of soil drainage impacts on carbon and water cycles in land surface models, as well as prioritize conservation and restoration of highly degraded wetland types. ■

PRESENTATION 1435

PRESENTATION 1514

Presented during Overview of key global wetland issues - threats, challenges and solutions I, 5/29/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

Presented during Poster Session & Silent Auction Reception, 5/30/2019 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

HISTORICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF DRAINAGE OF THE WORLD’S WETLANDS Fluet-Chouinard, Etienne, Stanford University McIntyre, Peter, Cornell University Lehner, Bernhard, McGill University

WISER USE: CONSERVING BIODIVERSITY WITH COASTAL BLUE CARBON IN THE CARIBBEAN Munguia, Steffanie, Florida International University

Wetlands have historically been considered marginal land to be converted to productive use, but this view has largely transformed during the last decades as the numerous biogeochemical and ecological services provided by wetlands are recognized. Drainage of wetlands for conversion to agriculture, forestry or peat extraction is documented as being widespread throughout much of history, yet available regional records provide an uncertain wetland loss. To address the uncertainty surrounding global wetland loss, we reconstructed a history of wetland drainage 1700-2000 across the world’s land surface. To do this, we compiled national drainage statistics and mapped soil drainage according to gridded historical land use reconstructions. The drainage maps were then overlaid with a potential wetland cover simulated in the absence of human impact. We estimate that 17.3% (C.I. 14.1-31.4%) of the wetland cover from 1700 has been drained, with particularly important losses in the United States Midwest, central Asia and India. Temperate river floodplains and Indonesian peatlands are wetland types exhibiting highest losses, while the vast boreal peatlands are unmodified. Losses were primarily driven by cropland expansion, while forestry and peat extraction were important drivers in Northern Europe. A substantial fraction of wet rice culture is located in former wetlands, resulting in a conversion from natural to artificial wetland. These global estimates of wetland loss are lower than those indicated by meta-analyses of regional wetland records, suggesting an under-representation of high-latitude and remote wetlands. We further contextualize the wetland baseline in the year 1700 by evaluating the range of wetland conversion since 6000 BC given the

One of our planet’s largest carbon dioxide sinks, blue carbon, is in peril. By augmenting our understanding of the sociopolitical, economic, and ecological pressures of these carbon sequestering coastal landscapes we can improve conservation and resource management efforts. Multilateral environmental agreements like the Ramsar Convention and Convention on Biological Diversity support our knowledge of the linkages between regulatory services and various ecosystem services which are provided by wetlands, such as biodiversity maintenance, water filtration, and climatic resiliency. While blue carbon projects have been implemented across the world, the Caribbean has had few locally coordinated efforts, let alone larger regional ventures across island and continental stakeholders. Furthermore, the Caribbean is under significant threat due to climate change, standing to lose greatly if decisive climate action is not taken. This paper finds that the blue carbon sinks in the Caribbean are widespread and significant, regionally and potentially globally. Managing these sinks for carbon mitigation will likely provide biodiversity conservation co-benefits. Given the current political and economic conditions, there are likely ample opportunities for cross-framework collaborations building bridges between the Ramsar Convention, the Convention on Biological Diversity and existing blue carbon initiatives to benefit the Caribbean region. ■

Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 325


The Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE) is responsible for permitting unavoidable wetland impacts and overseeing the associated mitigation projects within Maryland. Although our hope is that when approved by MDE mitigation projects will replace lost functions, we find that some of these mitigation projects do not always fully replace all functions lost from the permitted impacts. MDE continuously works to improve mitigation project success through policy updates, including through updated design guidelines, monitoring protocol, and performance standards. However, MDE has few resources to dedicate to sponsoring scientific work; thus, it is important for MDE to stay abreast of the latest science being completed by practitioners and academia. This science is a critical element in MDE’s ongoing effort to close the permitting-mitigationmonitoring loop and improve mitigation success. ■

ner. This can be effective when large-scale complex projects are submitted for applicable water resource permits. Experience has shown that construction activities can be mitigated for resource and water quality protection using various approaches. Specifically, avoidance and minimization requirements of wetland/stream protection programs may not necessarily be compatible with more traditional stormwater management (SWM) strategies, seldom utilized today. Further, MDE’s process may necessitate the consideration of requirements and practices that can exceed those not historically required by the local municipality. This historically innovative example was the first of several development projects in a 405-hectare (1000 acre) watershed of the Potomac River in the greater Washington, DC area and is actually one of the region’s first ‘Environmental Site Design (ESD)’ or ‘Green Infrastructure’ approaches to nonpoint source water quality management before the strategy was formalized. Impacts were reduced and mitigated by innovative design revisions as well as creative approaches to wetland mitigation and contemporary SWM. These practices and strategies were subsequently utilized and refined for further current project in this watershed as well as generated State-wide policy. The positive outcome of this process is attributable to an effective partnering of engineering and ecology, post-construction evaluation, and a pro-active public involvement process. ■

PRESENTATION 1186

PRESENTATION 1215

Presented during Wetland Policy, 5/31/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

Presented during Closing the permitting-mitigation-monitoring (PMM) loop: A focus on the mid-Atlantic USA I, 5/30/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

Policy: Regulation PRESENTATION 1138 Presented during Closing the permitting-mitigation-monitoring (PMM) loop: A focus on the mid-Atlantic USA III, 5/30/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

INTEGRATING SCIENCE WITH MITIGATION POLICY IN MARYLAND - A REGULATOR’S PERSPECTIVE Neff, Kelly, Maryland Department of the Environment

BALANCING NONPOINT SOURCE WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT WITH WETLAND AND STREAM PRESERVATION: HISTORIC LESSONS LEARNED Der, Andrew, Andrew T Der & Associates LLC Current and contemporary regulation of development-related activities affecting receiving waters can require complex approaches to the management of stormwater and wetland avoidance including an on-the-ground historical basis for practicable regulatory decision-making. Such experience indicates growth can be accommodated in a manner that avoids and minimizes stream and wetland impacts and remain compatible with effective stormwater management (SWM) strategies - even improving post-construction conditions in some cases. In response to increasing regulatory authority over its water resources, the Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE) in cooperation with the regional civil engineering industry has, over many years, combined programs and processes into a ‘one stop shop’ where various issues can be addressed in a consistent man326 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

NAVIGATING THE PERMITTING PROCESS TO IMPLEMENT A MITIGATION PROJECT IN NEW JERSEY Paist-Goldman, Mary, Rippled Waters Engineering, LLC Since the launch of the Clean Water Act in 1972, New Jersey has been at the forefront of environmental regulations. In addition to typical regulations for floodplains, coastal regions, and freshwater wetlands, many of the regulations in New Jersey serve to protect special resources like the New Jersey Pinelands, Meadowlands, and Highlands. When the regulations were initially developed, the focus was to regulate construction projects when New Jersey underwent rapid development and growth in the 1980s and 1990s. As a result, restoration projects were forced to comply with cumbersome regulations that they did not fit into. In the last several years, NJDEP has made a significant effort to reduce the confusion and better align the regulations for restoration projects through revisions to the Flood Hazard Area Control Act and the Freshwater Wetlands Rules. During


this presentation, several case studies will be explored as they relate to navigating restoration in a heavily regulated state like New Jersey. From large-scale restoration projects with many stakeholder groups and budgets to small-scale restoration in your own backyard. New restoration projects like the beneficial reuse of dredged material for salt marsh restoration, removal of berms for the restoration of wetlands, and floodplain reconnection and wetland creation in urban settings will all be explored. As regulations and those enforcing them shift, new efforts to permit restoration activities are increasing. With the shift to allowing more fluid restoration monitoring requirements are being imposed as well. Monitoring for projects has included water quality, photo documentation, vegetative cover, velocity, and water depths in wetland cells among others. ■

PRESENTATION 1397 Presented during Wetland Policy, 5/31/2019 3:20 PM-5:00 PM

COMPENSATORY MITIGATION IN INTERTIDAL AND SHALLOW SUBTIDAL HABITATS French, Emily, Environmental Protection Agency Topping, Brian, US EPA Section 404 of the Clean Water Act requires compensatory mitigation for unavoidable impacts to aquatic resources. Guidance emphasizes the importance of mitigation occurring in-kind, through restoration, enhancement, establishment or preservation of same aquatic resource type. A broad range of aquatic resources exist in the U.S., and compensatory mitigation science is more advanced for some resources than others. Reviews of compensatory mitigation effectiveness for a specific resource type can be incredibly useful for agencies, as they develop new or modify existing policies that prevent the loss of aquatic resources. There has not yet been a comprehensive review of compensatory mitigation effectiveness in coastal intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats, an aquatic resource type that within the §404 program has been impacted less frequently relative to streams and inland wetlands. We chose to review mitigation in a subset of coastal habitats: oyster reefs, mudflats and seagrass beds. These habitats often co-occur nationwide, and despite their relatively small area, provide disproportionately large ecosystem benefits, such as water quality improvement and structure for habitat. Our reasoning for selecting this project was twofold: to build reference material for agency use during permitting processes, and to lay the groundwork for a future comprehensive evaluation of compensatory mitigation in these coastal aquatic resources. We compiled monitoring methods and performance stan-

dards used in state and nationwide programs and projects across mitigation strategies and providers, and reviewed US Army Corps of Engineers permitting records to characterize the scope and scale of compensatory mitigation occurring in these habitats. Preliminary results from the literature and methodology review and the permitting records review will be presented for discussion. ■

PRESENTATION 1563 Presented during Closing the permitting-mitigation-monitoring (PMM) loop: A focus on the mid-Atlantic USA I, 5/30/2019 9:45 AM-11:35 AM

DESIGNING & CREATING RESILIENT VEGETATED TIDAL WETLANDS IN TODAY’S REGULATED ENVIRONMENT Slear, Gene, Environmental Concern Inc. A Living Shoreline is a tidal wetland created at the terrestrial aquatic interface to recreate the natural functions of a shoreline ecosystem. It is a specific approach to shoreline stabilization intended to maximize primary productivity - thereby improving water quality, enhancing habitat and sequestering carbon. The hydrology of the tidal wetland is driven by the tides. The tidal wetland can be divided into three segments: 1) low marsh - typically submerged at high tide; (2) high marsh - flooded during spring tides, but sometimes free from tidal inundation for extended periods; and (3) upper border - above high marsh elevation, inundated only infrequently during the highest spring tides. The highest margin of a tidal marsh is an important transition zone linking marshland with inland habitats. Around the Bay, this upland ecotone has been damaged by human changes to the landscape, some of which have been mandated by well-intentioned but uninformed regulators who have embraced a one-size-fits-all regulation, without regard to physiographic and watershed specific guidelines. In the past, a hardened shoreline was permitted. However, altering the landscape of the upper border to encourage landward migration of the tidal wetland was not permitted. A managed upland border is necessary in order for the tidal marsh to thrive. Marshlands naturally expand and contract due to fluctuating sea levels and sedimentation rates. This expansion can occur only if there is a flexible landward edge. As sea levels rise and land subsides in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, the value of a natural buffer zone above the high marsh becomes more obvious. Regulations must embrace vegetated tidal marsh designs that incorporate a high buffer, graded as necessary to permit landward expansion of the tidal wetland. Restoring the upland ecotone with a suite of native plants will build a seed supply so that tidal marshlands migrate inland in the future. Permitting the natural expansion of the tidal marsh will improve water quality, enhance habitat and sequester carbon. ■ Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 327


Policy: Wetland Valuation & Free Market Considerations

Policy: Other

PRESENTATION 1011

Presented during Female Leaders in Wetland Science and Policy II, 5/29/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

Presented during Overview of key global wetland issues - threats, challenges and solutions I, 5/29/2019 1:00 PM-2:50 PM

THE WORTH OF WETLANDS: REVISED GLOBAL MONETARY VALUES OF COASTAL AND INLAND WETLAND ECOSYSTEM SERVICES Davidson, Nick, Nick Davidson Enironmental Published 2011 global monetary values of wetland ecosystem services have been re-estimated using new information on the areas of different coastal and inland wetland classes, and included estimates for forested wetlands. The 2011 global monetary value of wetland ecosystem services is now estimated at US 61.8 trillion per year, just over half the value of all biomes. Despite forming only about 16% of global natural wetland area, nearshore marine and coastal wetlands are estimated to deliver over half (US 34.8 trillion per year) of the total global ecosystem services monetary value of all natural wetland classes. There is a need to further refine these value estimates by factoring in other determinants of wetland ecosystem service monetary value, by disaggregating unit monetary values to each wetland class and by updating unit monetary values with more recent sources, especially for ecosystem services with no, or few, value estimates. ■

328 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

PRESENTATION 1244

MY TANGLED ROOTS: SCIENTIFIC ILLUSTRATOR TO MANGROVE ECOLOGIST Feller, Ilka, Smithsonian Environmental Reserach Center My objective is share my history to show that there is more than one route to a productive career in wetland science. I will discuss the highlights of my non-traditional career path, which has taken me from scientific illustrator to ‘Navy Wife’ to federal employee as a Smithsonian scientist/mangrove ecologist, and finally to an emeritus position SERC. I will share highlights of my career and describe some of the various tipping points and opportunities that prompted my decisions to change directions. I will also address some of the consequences, including possible advantages as well as distinct disadvantages, of these changes and my unconventional approach to career planning, or non-planning. I will also share my perspective on possible expansion and developments in wetland science over the 20 years and what new skills, experiences, and approaches might contribute to a fulfilling career. Given that it is hard enough to start a career in science right out of college or wherever you start from, I will try to provide some suggestions/advice for young, or not so young, women who want a career in science. ■


Policy: Other - Integrated Framework for Evaluating Wetland and Stream Compensatory Mitigation

Policy: Other - Military Installation Initiative

PRESENTATION 1416

RIPARIAN BUFFER USE BY AVIAN SPECIES AT MCCONNELL AIR FORCE BASE, KS Fagnant, Dailee, Oklahoma State University Smith, Loren, Oklahoma State University Seemayer, Tina, United States Air Force Mendenhall, Laura, U.S. Fish and Wildlfe Service

Presented during Integrated Framework for Evaluating Wetland and Stream Compensatory Mitigation II, 5/30/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

AFTER THE PERMIT - RESILIENCY AND DURABILITY: CONSIDERATIONS FOR LONG-TERM STEWARDSHIP AND MONITORING OF WETLAND MITIGATION Gause, Matthew, Westervelt Ecological Services The long-term durability and resiliency of restored wetlands requires a commitment to stewardship and management over decades, long after permit specific performance measures have been met. Compensatory wetland mitigation projects following the 2008 Wetland Mitigation Rule are required to describe long-term management and the management financing mechanisms that will ensure the project’s long-term sustainability. Effective long-term management programs and long-term stewardship financing can maintain or even improve the durability and functional capacity of wetland mitigation and restoration projects in the face of the changing environmental and regulatory climates. Wetland restoration practitioners can help define the management actions and financial mechanisms necessary to manage sites for resiliency and durability while also generating monitoring data to help inform programs that evaluate wetland and stream compensatory mitigation over time. Since the 2008 mitigation rule there has been little guidance on what constitutes an adequate or effective long-term management plan or financing mechanism. Additionally, since 2008 only a handful of wetland mitigation projects have entered into their long-term management phase. A case study of a 472acre floodplain wetland restoration project in California and other restoration projects that are currently in their long-term management and monitoring phase can illustrate and recommend components of long-term management and financial planning that can facilitate resiliency, bolster adaptive management processes, and contribute both level 2 and level 3 monitoring data over time. ■

PRESENTATION 1298 Presented during Wetland and Wetland Wildlife of Concern III, 5/31/2019 3:10 PM-5:00 PM

As civilian and military air traffic increases, so does concern about aircraft and avian collisions. An air strike is defined as aircraft colliding with avian fauna. Air strikes pose serious economic and safety problems to society. There are many different methods used on military bases and airports throughout the country to decrease air strikes through avian management and deterrence practices. Consistent with U.S. military mission, installations actively conserve and protect natural resources. One method of supporting natural resources is through implementation of vegetative buffers in riparian areas. McConnell Air Force Base (AFB) in Wichita, KS has implemented riparian buffers within the last three years. This study is examining the effects of riparian buffer implementation on avian communities and how that may influence air strike potential. We are comparing avian community composition and abundance in riparian areas with buffers strips, to riparian areas without buffer strips (sections of mowed buffer) at McConnell AFB. We are also sampling vegetation to determine possible impact on avian species abundance and species composition based on available flora. From these data, we will determine the influence riparian buffer introduction has on avian abundance in riparian areas. Preliminary data indicate that riparian buffers are not leading to an increase in avian communities that might cause an increase in air strike potential. Initial results show that these vegetative communities also would not result in an increase in avian communities associated with an increased potential for air strikes. Studies will continue in all seasons to determine the consistency of the results. ■

Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 329


INDEX BY AUTHOR

Abbott, Katherine, Louisiana State University Adame, Christy, University of Texas at El Paso Adgie, Therese, Villanova University Agioutantis, Zachary, University of Kentucky Ahn, Changwoo, George Mason University Akeredolu, Excellence, University of Lagos, Nigeria Albert, Dennis, Oregon State University Alexander, Laurie, USEPA Al-Quraishi, Ali, University of Florida Altland, Drew, RK&K Ameen, Alex, Nicholls State University Anderson, Christopher, Auburn University Anderson, Jim, West Virginia University Anderson, Neil, University of Minnesota Anderson, Steven, North Carolina State University Ansari, Sadiqa, The Pennsylvania State University Anthony, Tyler, University of California Anwana, EnoAbasi, University of Uyo Anwan, Henry Robert, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State, Nigeria Aponte, Héctor, Universidad Cientí­fica del Sur Apte, Sachin, Louis Berger US Aragón-Moreno, Alejandro A., Louisiana State University Ardon, Marcelo, North Carolina State University Arsenault, Julien, Université de Montréal Aspinwall, Jill, The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Atkinson, Robert, Christopher Newport University Atwood, Trisha, Utah State University Auyeung, Novem, NYC Department of Parks and Recreation Awuah, Adwoa, Institute of Natural Resources Ayala Crespo, Carla, University of Puerto Rico-Río Piedras Backhaus, Peter, The Pennsylvania State University Baird, Steve, Kachemak Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Baldocchi, Dennis, University of California Baldwin, Andy, University of Maryland Baldwin, Michael J., U.S. Geological Survey Balentine, Karen, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Ballard, Bart, Texas A&M University- Kingsville Bansal, Sheel, U.S. Geological Survey Barry, Aidan, University of Connecticut Battaglia, Loretta, Southern Illinois University Bean, Eban, University of Florida Benavides, Juan Carlos, Pontifical Javeriana University Benscoter, Brian, Florida Atlantic University Benthem, Adam, U.S. Geological Survey Berg, Joe, Biohabitats Berkley, Brett, GreenVest Berkowitz, Jacob, US Army Corps of Engineers 330 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

297 181, 181 282 314 193 308 298 188 187 293 178 250 161, 162, 308 261, 263 195 191 164 241 222, 236 245 319 312 195 175 288 304 179 267 321 273 258 191 164, 167 206, 304 202 225 190 229 172, 175 201, 268 200 171 172 205 246 208 244


Bernhardt, Emily S., Duke University Biddle, Mark, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control Bishop, Nathan, Environmental Law Institute Bisson, Alaina, University of Connecticut Blosser, Gavin, Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science Blount, Keyyana, University of Oregon Bolton, Nicholas, Michigan Technological University Bomer, Edwin, Louisiana State University Bonilla, Courtney, Irvine Ranch Water District Boomer, Kathy, The Nature Conservancy Bordelon, Sarah, Texas A&M University at Galveston Bosma, Kirk, Woods Hole Group Bourg, Norman, U.S. Geological Survey Bowles, Nadia, Tuskegee University Brady, Valerie, University of Minnesota Duluth Bragin, Brett, New Jersey Sports & Exposition Authority Brahmstedt, Evie, Clarkson University Brasher, Michael, Gulf Coast Joint Venture Bredin, Ian, Institute of Natural Resources Bridges, William, Clemson University Bridgham, Scott, University of Oregon Britson, Aliana, Penn State University Brix, Hans, Brooks, Robert, Pennsylvania State University Brotherton, Sarah, University of Sussex Brousseau, Patricia, VHB Brown, Jeff, Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Brumley, Jessica, National Research Council Buettner, Bill, Maryland State Highway Administration Buffington, Kevin, USGS Burton, Kristen, Virginia Commonwealth University Bush, Nathan, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Butnor, John, U.S. Forest Service Callahan, Michael, Office of Columbia River Canuel, Elizabeth, Virginia Institute of Marine Science Cao, Kun-fang, Guangxi University Capooci, Margaret, University of Delaware Carew, Annie, Univ. of Maryland Center for Environmental Science Carter, Jacoby, US Geological Survey Carty, Aila, VESI Environmental Ltd. Cerny-Chipman, Kathryn, EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc., PBC Chacon-Olivares, Marco, Texas A&M University at Galveston Chaffee, Caitlin, RI Coastal Resources Management Council Chamberlain, Sam, University of California Champlin, Lena, Drexel University and the Academy of Natural Sciences Chanton, Jeff, Florida State University Chapman, Samantha, Villanova University Chen, Dan, Guangxi University Cheng, Kai-Hong, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan Chen, Kai-Wei, National University of Tainan Chen, Liang Hsien, Chinese Culture University

195 252 273 232 179 218 180 190 279 246, 313 250 254, 290 205, 233 194 206 276 273 190 321 179 218, 223 226 227 185, 258 236 280 273 207 278, 280 231 199 281 167 191 170 189 228 305 213, 266 216 285 193 299 167 173 196 163, 192, 198, 221 189 204, 247 204 185

Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 331


Cherry, Julia, University of Alabama Chimner, Rod, Michigan Technological University Chmura, Gail, McGill University Chow, Alex, Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science, Clemson University Ciarlo, Michael, EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc. PBC Claggett, Peter, U.S. Geological Survey Clay, Tiffany, SUNY Brockport Cohen, Jonathan, State University of New York Cole, Andrew, Penn State University Collins, Samantha, Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Conn, Christine, Maryland Department of Natural Resources Conner, William, Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science Conway, Warren, Texas Tech University Cooper, Matthew, Northland College Cornish, Christine, Missouri State University Cornwell, Jeffrey, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science Correll, Maureen, University of Maine Corvacho Cárdenas, María Fernanda, Universidad Científica del Sur Cott, Grace, University College Dublin Craft, Christopher, Indiana University Craig, Martha, Friends of Herring River Cranney, Chad, Utah Department of Wildlife Resources Crawford, Edward, VCU Rice Rivers Center Crill, Patrick, Stockholm University Crossman, Kelsie, Virginia Commonwealth University Dalbotten, Diana, University of Minnesota Dame, James, Chowan University Daniels, W. Lee, Virginia Tech Davidson, Nick, Nick Davidson Enironmental Davies, Gillian, BSC Group, Inc. Davis, Bruce, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Davis, Dave, VA Dept of Environmental Quality Davis, Jenny, Charles Darwin University Davis, Joshua, George Mason University Davis, Nicole, HDR Day, Donnie, Louisiana State University Day, Frank P., Old Dominion University DeBerry, Doug, College of William & Mary Deis, Don, Atkins DeKeyser, Edward, North Dakota State University Der, Andrew, Andrew T Der & Associates LLC Derleth, Eric, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service DeSutter, Thomas, NDSU DeVito, Emile, New Jersey Conservation Foundation DeVries, Ben, University of Maryland Dilustro, John, Chowan University DiNuovo, Adam, Audubon Florida Dix, Junetta, ACT Engineers, Inc. Dobberfuhl, Dean, St. Johns River Water Management District Dodd, Adrienne, National Cheng Kung University Doerr, Patty, The Nature Conservancy 332 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

170 241 240 179 285 205 254 309 191, 289 242 239 179 190 206 177 294, 295 309 245 197 169, 232 304 265 277 196 292 261 214 314, 316 223, 322, 324, 328 220, 324 190 275 225 165, 180 206 197 167, 183 284 175, 188 253 326 254, 283 235 298 256 214 235 250 260 247 288


Dolbin, Emily, McCormick Taylor 251 Doody, Thomas, U.S. Geological Survey 205 Dorrepaal, Ellen, UmeĂ&#x192;ÂĽ University 196 Dorset, Erin, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC) 210, 229, 230 Dorsey, Sharon, George Mason University 193 Doss, Teresa, New Jersey Sports & Exposition Authority 276 Douglas, Aubin, Utah State University 179 Doyle, James, Christopher Newport University 304 Drake, Bert, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center 167 Drexler, Judith, US Geological Survey 164 Dronova, Iryna, University of California at Berkeley 258 Drown, Devin, University of Alaska Fairbanks 219 Dryden, Michael, The Nature Conservancy 210, 313 Drzymulska, Danuta, University of Bialystok 194 Duberstein, Jamie, Clemson University 202 Dulin, C. Tracey, Clean Water Services 315 Dullo, Bikila Warkineh, Addis Ababa University 201 Durbano, Michael, EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc., PBC 285 Eagle Gonneea, Meagan, U.S. Geological Survey 168, 171, 217 Eaton, Mitchell, USGS/DOI SE Climate Adaptation Science Center 186, 298 Edwards, Rebecca, Ducks Unlimited Canada 240 Eichelmann, Elke, University College Dublin 167 Eick, Matt, Virginia Tech 316 Elizondo, Elisa, University of Delaware 238 Elphick, Chris, University of Connecticut 172, 175, 309 Elsey-Quirk, Tracy, Louisiana State University 166, 166, 234, 297 Emanuel, Ryan E., North Carolina State University 195 Endris, Charlie, Elkhorn Slough National Estuarine Research Reserve 230 Endter-Wada, Joanna, Utah State University 246 Engel, Dan, U.S. Geological Survey (Contractor) 269 Ervin, Gary, Mississippi State University 251 Evans, Kristine, Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Aquaculture, Mississippi State University 161 Evenson, Grey, Virginia Tech 312 Ewel, Katherine, University of Florida 322 Ewenla, Oyindamola Lois, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State, Nigeria 183 Fagnant, Dailee, Oklahoma State University 329 Fajardo, Paola, McGill University 240 Falinski, Kim, The Nature Conservancy 301 Fanz, David, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection 288 Fatoyinbo, Lola, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center 256 Faust, Derek, Clover Park Technical College 209 Feller, Ilka, Smithsonian Environmental Reserach Center 170, 328 Fennessy, M. Siobhan, Kenyon College 323 Fergus, Craig, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute 205 Ferguson, Wenley, Save The Bay 299 Fernandez, Corina, Pennsylvania State University 185 Fern, Rachel, U.S. Geological Survey 229 Ferrier, Elaine, Great Lakes Commission 269 Feura, Jared, Coastal Research and Extension Center, Mississippi State University 161 Field, Christopher, University of Connecticut 309 Finch, Darlene, NOAA 299 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 333


Finlayson, Max, Charles Sturt University Fitch, Amelia, Dartmouth College Flanagan, Neal, Duke University Wetland Center Flannagan, Claire, The Mosaic Company Fleeger, John, Louisiana State University Floro, Kelly, U.S. Geological Survey Fluet-Chouinard, Etienne, Stanford University Fournier, Auriel, Mississippi State University Fouse, Jacqualyn, Yale University Fox, Sophia Fredrickson, Leigh, Wetland Management and Educational Services, Inc. Freeman, Chase, USGS French, Emily, Environmental Protection Agency Fuller, Joe, North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission Galatowitsch, Susan, University of Minnesota Galbraith, John, Virginia Tech Garner, Morgan, Georgia State University Gause, Matthew, Westervelt Ecological Services Gavriel, Daniella, California State University Long Beach Gedan, Keryn, George Washington University Geoghegan, Emily, Villanova University George, Sophie, Georgia Southern University Gillenwater, Dan, Gillenwater Consulting Girard, Paul, Catholic University of Lyon Glade, Kent, Planet SWAMPY Goertler, Pascale, California Department of Water Resources Goldberg, Liza, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Graham, Andie, The College at Brockport Graham, Sean, Nicholls State University Granger, Teri, Washington Department of Ecology Granville, Kayleigh, University of Connecticut Gray, Andrew, University of California Riverside Gray, Bob, Pacific Gas and electric Company Gregg, Ian, Pennsylvania Game Commission Groseclose, Gina, LSU Grosso, Cristina, San Francisco Estuary Institute Guangming, Zhao, Guiteras, Susan, USFWS Guntenspergen, Glenn, USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center Haag, Scott, Academy of Natural Science Hager, Rachel, Utah State University Haight, Christopher, NYC Department of Parks and Recreation Hall, Dianne, St. Johns River Water Management District Hamilton, Anna, Tetra Tech Hamilton, Marcus, Water Resource Associates Hanson, Keith, NOAA Fisheries Harcarik, Thomas, Ohio EPA Hargiss, Christina, North Dakota State University Harrington, Caolan, VESI Environmental Ltd. Hart, Anders, Utah State University Hartig, Ellen, City of New York Parks & Recreation 334 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

221, 324 218 165, 169, 173 255 175, 188 226 325 161 163, 171 286 242 231 327 162 260 316 225 329 288 217 163, 221 238 253 197 212 261 256 254, 265, 266 175, 178, 188, 252 211 175 302 305 162, 308 195 275 227, 234 281, 281 231 257 249 267, 286 260 226 277 299 301, 302 235 216 291 267, 286


Haukos, David, Kansas Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit Hayden, Jesse, DNREC Hayes, Matthew, Villanova University Haywood, Brittany, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control Hazelton, Eric, Utah State University Heiman, Jordan, Missouri State University Hellmann, Karl, RK&K Helton, Ashley, University of Connecticut Hemes, Kyle, University of California Hengel, Benjamin, North Dakota State University Henicheck, Michelle, Virginia Dept of Environmental Quality Herb, Andy, AlpineEco Herbert, Ellen, Virginia Institute of Marine Science Herold, Nate, NOAA Office for Coastal Management Hess, Kayla, University of Florida Hickey, Valerie, The World Bank Hicks, Betsy, AECOM Hill, Evan, School of Natural Resources,University of Missouri Hinkle, C. Ross, University of Central Florida Hinkle, Raymond, AECOM Hodgetts, Jon, Territory NRM Hodgkins, Suzanne, The Ohio State University Hoefke, Kristen, US Geological Survey Hofmeister, Kathryn, Michigan Technological University Hoge, Victoria, St. Johns River Water Mgmt District Hollis, Lauris, Louisiana State University Holmes, Clara, NYC Department of Parks and Recreation Holmquist, James, Smithsonian Env Res Center Holsen, Thomas, Clarkson University Holthaus, Matthew, Louis Berger US Ho, Mengchi, Duke University Hoover, Kevin, Buchart Horn, Inc. Hopkins, Kristina, U.S. Geological Survey Hou, Aixin, Louisiana State University Hough, Moira, The University of Arizona Hough, Palmer, US EPA Hovick, Steve, The Ohio State University Howard, Marjorie, California State University at Long Beach Howard, Rebecca, U.S. Geological Survey Howard, Tim, New York Natural Heritage Program Howell, Doug, North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission Huang, Chengquan, University of Maryland Huang, Wendy, Villanova University Hu, Kui, North Dakota State University Hunter, Dakota, William and Mary Hupp, Cliff, U.S. Geological Survey Hwang, Gwo-wen, Hydrotech Research Institute, National Taiwan University Hwang, Taehee, Indiana University Hyde, Charles, Villanova University Iannone, Basil, University of Florida Ibarra, Camila, Drexel University

190 300 163, 198, 221 210, 229 265 307 293 172, 175 164, 167 253 275 303 212 256 200 321 300 310 167 270 225 196 225 165, 180 260 176 267 218 273 319 165, 169 317 205 175, 188 196 296 189, 263, 265, 267 288, 291 300 243 162 315 172 223 269 205, 226, 233 244, 251 232 192, 221 200 215, 302

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Iglay, Ray, Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Aquaculture, Mississippi State University 161 Ikemefuna, Deborah Abolanle, The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria 248 Ito, Emi, University of Minnesota 261 Ivanova, Maria, University of Massachusetts Boston 321 Jacobs, Amy, The Nature Conservancy 210, 246, 313 Jacobsen, Nicole, WA Department of Natural Resources 213 Janiec, Doug, Sovereign Consulting Inc. 300 Janousek, Christopher, Oregon State University 231 Jansen, Marcel, University College Cork 197 Jecker, Scott, Whitenton Group, Inc. 245 Jennings, Brian, United States Fish and Wildlife Service 246, 292 Jiang, Ming, Northeast institute of Geography and Agroecology,CAS 176, 178 Jimoh, Olajuwon, Nicholls State University 252 Jin, Wang, 234 Johnson, Chloe, Georgia Southern University 238 Johnson, Darren, Cherokee Nation Technologies 266 Johnson, David, Virginia Institute of Marine Science 188 Johnston, Carol, South Dakota State University 205 Jones, C. Nathan, The University of Maryland 312 Jones, John, USGS 256 Jones, Miriam, USGS 225 Jones, Scott, United States Geological Survey 204 Jordan, Thomas E., Smithsonian Environmental Research Center 290 Joyce, Christopher, University of Brighton 236 Jungst, Tahni, Louis Berger US 319 Kahara, Sharon, Humboldt State University 309 Kajita, Tadashi, University of the Ryukyus 189 Kalin, Latif, Auburn University 250 Kane, Evan, Michigan Technological University 241 Kang, Hojeong, Yonsei University 165 Kansal, Mitthan Lal, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 215 Kanwal, Khilendra Singh, G.B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment & Sustainable Development 203 Kao, Yi-an, Hydrotech Research Institute, National Taiwan University 244 Kaplan, David, University of Florida 187, 259 Kasak, Kuno, University of California 164, 167, 228 Kauss, Ken, 227 Keene, Kristen, Maryland Department of Transportation Maryland Port Administration 316 Kelsall, Megan, Louisiana State University 166, 166 Kettenring, Karin, Utah State University 179, 222, 246, 249, 263, 263, 264, 265, 291 Khalid, Noreen, GC Women University Sialkot 216 Khanna, Shruti, California Department of Fish and Wildlife 261 Kholodov, Alexander, University of Alaska Fairbanks 219 Kihslinger, Rebecca, Environmental Law Institute 273 Kill, Keit, University of Tartu 228 Kim, Jae Geun, Seoul National University 184, 196 Kim, Jinhyun, Yonsei University 165 King, Christian, The Ohio State University 265 King, Ryan, Baylor University 191 King, Sammy, U.S. Geological Survey 198, 242, 242 King, Thomas, EA Engineering, Science, and Technology 285 Kirchner, William, U.S Fish and Wildlife Service 257 336 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019


Kirwan, Matthew, Virginia Institute of Marine Science Kissoon-Charles, La Toya, Missouri State University Kiviat, Erik, Hudsonia Kleindl, William, Montana State University Kleinman, Peter, USDA Agricultural Research Service Klingbeil, Brian, University of Connecticut Klinges, David, Smithsonian Env Res Center Klopf, Sara, Virginia Tech Knezevic, Stevan, University of Nebraska Knox, Sara, USGS Kolka, Randy, USDA Forest Service Koser, Sarah, EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc. Ko, Szu-Yu, Hydrotech Research Institute, National Taiwan University Kotze, Donovan, University of KwaZulu-Natal Kovach, Adrienne, University of New Hampshire Kowalski, Kurt, U.S. Geological Survey Krauss, Ken, U.S. Geological Survey Krishnapillai, Shadananan Nair, Centre for Earth Research and Environment Management Kroeger, Kevin, U.S. Geological Survey Kroschel, Whitney, Louisiana State University K, Sivakumar, Wildlife Institute of india Kuechle, Kyle, University of Missouri Kuo, Pin-Han, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary Kushoro, Hijrah Yetunde, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State, Nigeria Kwok, Rose, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Lagomasino, David, NASA/GSFC Landry, Shawn, University of South Florida Langley, Adam, Villanova University Lang, Megan, USFWS Larkin, Daniel, University of Minnesota Larson, Marit, City of New York Parks & Recreation Laubhan, Murray, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lavallee, Katie, Woods Hole Group Lawlor, Stephanie, University of South Florida, College of Arts and Sciences Lawrence, Beth, University of Connecticut Lawrence, Gregory, SUNY College at Brockport Lawson, Daniel, University of Delaware Leduc, Elise, Woods Hole Group Lee, Sangchul, University of Maryland Lee, Sean, Villanova University Lefevre, Kara, Florida Gulf Coast University Leggett, Zakiya, North Carolina State University Lehnen, Sarah, USFWS Lehner, Bernhard, McGill University Lei, Guo, Lei, Yinru, Institute of Wetland Research, Chinese Academy of Forestry Leonard, Emily, Utah State University LePage, Ben, Pacific Gas and Electric Company Lerberg, Scott, Chesapeake Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve of Virginia Levine, James D., Montezuma Wetlands LLC Lieuw, Jessica, Irvine Ranch Water District

168 177, 307 197 192 185 309 218 314 260 167 165, 180 248 244 321 309 269 202 219 168, 171, 217 198 323 307 244, 251 222 320 256 255 163, 192, 221, 259 256 268 286 242 297 255 172, 175, 187, 232, 298 278 162 254 314 259 235 194 190 325 227 322 263 305 230 295 279

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Li, Jing, Institute of Wetland Research, Chinese Academy of Forestry 182 Lind, Debbie, ERM 305 Lin, Qianxin, Louisiana State University 175, 188 Lishawa, Shane, Loyola University 298 Liu, Fengjing, Michigan Technological University 165 Liu, Kam-biu, Louisiana State University 312 Liu, Xingtu, Northeast Institute of geography and agroecology, Chinese academy of sciences 249 Li, Xia, USDA-ARS 315 Lobato de MagalhĂŁes, Tatiana, Autonomous University of Queretaro 222 Lockaby, Graeme, Auburn Uiversity 179 Lodhi, Mahendra Singh, G B Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment & Sustainable Development 203 Logan, Lydia, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science 174 Loken, Zack, University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point 285 Lopez, Ronaldo, Virginia Commonwealth University Rice Rivers Center 277 Lougheed, Vanessa, UTEP 181, 181, 183 Lovelock, Catherine E., University of Queensland 170 Lowe, Scott, McCormick Taylor 251 Lucas, William, Sustainable Water Investment Group, LLC 319 Machung, Laurie, New York City Department of Environmental Protection 284 Mack, Sara, University of Maryland 244 MacPherson, Maggie, University of Missouri 310 Madsen, Matthew, Brigham Young University 291 Maedke-Russell, Kristopher, Savannah State University 179 Main, Anson, University of Missouri 307 Malla, Giridhar, Wildlife Institute of India 323 Mander, Ă&#x153;lo, University of Tartu 228 Marburger, Joy, Adjunct Purdue University Northwest 210, 262 Marinelli, Carmen, Nicholls State University 175 Marley, Philip, USFWS 190 Marneweck, Gary, Wetland Consulting Services 321 Marsh, Brian, USFWS 300 Martin, Emily, Utah State University 222, 264, 291 Martinez-Cruz, Karka, Universidad de Magallanes 175 Martinez, Mahinda, Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro 194 Martin, Steven, US Army Corps of Engineers 208 Mason, Daniel, National Park Service 271 Matthews, Jeffrey, University of Illinois 264 Mattingly, Kali, The Ohio State University 189 Mattson, Michelle, USACE Institute for Water Resources 239 Ma, Zhongcai, Guangxi University 189 Mazurczyk, Tara, Pennsylvania State University 262 McAndrew, Emmett, Villanova University 221 McBrien, Margaret, Louis Berger US 319 McCabe, Samantha, The Ohio State University 196 McCarty, Gregory, USDA-ARS 185, 314, 315 McCullough, Albert, Sustainable Science LLC 231 McGuire, Heather, Chowan University 214 McIntyre, Peter, Cornell University 325 McIvor, Emily, Environment and Climate Change Canada 281 McKenna, Owen, United States Geological Survey 184, 229 McLaughlin, Daniel, Virgnia Tech 312 338 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019


McLaughlin, Erin, Maryland Department of Natural Resources McLean, Josette, St. Georgeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s University McLean, Kyle, U.S. Geological Survey McMartin, Louanne, US Fish and Wildlife Service McQuade, Drew, New Jersey Sports and Exposition Authority Medeiros, Kelly, National Park Service Megonigal, Patrick, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center Mendelssohn, Irving, Louisiana State University Mendenhall, Laura, U.S. Fish and Wildlfe Service Mengel, Doreen, Missouri Department of Conservation Merchant, Michael, Ducks Unlimited Canada Merino, Sergio, US Geological Survey Merkelbach, Mark, Green Earth Operations, Inc Merritts, Travis, Anchor QEA, LLC Metes, Marina, U.S. Geological Survey Metzger, Kris, USFWS Middleton, Beth, U.S. Geological Survey Miller, Haley, Marine Biological Laboratory Miller, Matthew, Water Resource Associates Mills, Christopher, U.S. Geological Survey Minkin, Paul, US Army Corps of Engineers Mirda, Christina, Christopher Newport University Mitchell, Lara, US Fish and Wildlife Service Mittermayr, Agnes, Center for Coastal Studies Mobilian, Courtney, Indiana University Moffat, Carlos, University of Delaware Moody, Natalya, George Mason University Moomaw, William, Tufts University Mooney, Aleshanee, NJSEA Moon, Jena, USFWS Moore, Tim, McGill University Morales, Kristina, University of North Carolina Greensboro Morris, Kevin, ERM Moseman-Valtierra, Serena, University of Rhode Island Moss, Kellis, Ducks Unlimited Mozdzer, Thomas, Bryn Mawr College Mudrzynski, Brad, CC Environment and Planning Muench, Andy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Munguia, Steffanie, Florida International University Munksgaard, Niles, Charles Darwin University Murphy, Gwendolyn, Southern Illinois University Murray, Elizabeth, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Mushet, David, US Geological Survey Nassry, Michael, Penn State Ndimele, Anita Efya, Aquatic Conservation and Ecological Restoration Network Ndimele, Bright Uchenna, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos State Ndimele, Prince Emeka, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State, Nigeria Neale, Patrick, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center Needelman, Brian, University of Maryland Neff, Kelly, Maryland Department of the Environment Neill, Christopher, Woods Hole Research Center

246 219 184, 241 261 275 286 168, 170, 186, 218 175 329 307, 310 240 266 319 250 205 190 223, 324 200 277 184 247 304 261 286 169 311 193 220, 220 276 190 175 203 305 171 212 259 266 297 211, 325 225 201 295 176, 184, 223, 241 185, 226 318 318 183, 236, 318 170 217 326 200

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Nelson, Frank, Missouri Department of Conservation Neubauer, Scott, Virginia Commonwealth University Ngenzi, Lambert, Washington State University Nichols, Katie, Orange County Coastkeeper Noe, Gregory, U.S. Geological Survey Noh, Nam Jin, Western Sydney University Normand, Catherine, Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Norman, Kathryn, George Washington University Norton, Ashley, DNREC Noyce, Genevieve, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center Noyszewski, Andrzej, University of Minnesota Nyman, Andy, LSU O’Brien, Elizabeth, Villanova University O’Connell, Jessica, University of Georgia O’Hare, Greg, RK&K Ohm, Hannah, North Dakota State University Oikawa, Patty, California State University East Bay Olegario, Anthony, Department of Aquatic Resources Olowokudejo, James, University of Lagos Olsen, Brian, University of Maine Olson, Erika, North Dakota State University Ong, Jamie, NYC Department of Parks and Recreation Ooi, Sean Khan, University of Connecticut Osland, Michael, U.S. Geological Survey Osorio, Sara, Southern Illinois University Otte, Marinus, North Dakota State University Owen, Randy, VMRC Owens, Michael, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science Paist-Goldman, Mary, Rippled Waters Engineering, LLC Park, Hyekyung, Seoul National University Pärn, Jaan, University of Tartu Patton, Brett, U.S. Geological Survey Pecchioli, Joel, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Pedersen, Emily Pickering, University of Copenhagan Pelc, Carey E., Smithsonian Environmental Research Center Pellerin, Holly, University of Minnesota Pendleton, Maya, Utah State University Peniche, Rosanna, Perez, Lin, Academy of Natural Science Peters, Michael, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources Peterson, Birgit, USGS Peterson, Jeffrey, VHB Pfeifer, Chris, Cardno Pfeiffer, Joseph, KCI Technologies Inc. Phillips, Patrick, GreenVest, LLC Pina, Anna, University of Texas at El Paso Pinsonneault, Andrew, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center Plankell, Eric, Illinois State Geological Survey Poeske, Regina, USEPA Region III Polloni, Pamela, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Polzer, Eli, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 340 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

310 199, 277, 292 256 291 205, 226, 233, 313 165, 180 261 217 300 168, 186 261 233, 271, 302 198 302 278 235 167 301 181 309 317 267 172, 175 224 268 176, 178 243 294, 295 326 196 228 302 288 196 290 261 179 306 257 162, 308 256 280 300 182 303 183 170 318 299 200 266


Ponzio, Kimberli, St. Johns River Water Management District Post van der Burg, Max, U.S. Geological Survey Powell, Elisabeth, Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University Powell, Michael, EA Engineering, Science, and Technology Price, Edward P. F., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Pringle, Catherine, Institute of Natural Resources Pypker, Thomas, Thompson Rivers University Quade, Adam, Nicholls State University Quayle, Leo, Institute of Natural Resources Quirk, Tracy, Louisiana State University Rabenhorst, Martin, University of Maryland College Park Raedeke, Andy, Missouri Department of Conservation Rains, Kai, University of South Florida Rains, Mark, University of South Florida Ramesh, Rasika, Auburn University Ramirez, Dámaso, Universidad Cientí­fica del Sur (Lima-Perú) Ramirez, Lina, Florida Gulf Coast University Raper, Kirk, Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University Raposa, Kenneth, Narragansett Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Rappolee, Eleanor, U.S. Geological Survey Ray, Paromita, Wildlife Institute of india Regier, Peter, University of New Mexico Reinhardt Adams, Carrie, University of Florida Reisinger, AJ, University of Florida Rhower, Frank, Delta Waterfowl Richard, Nyombe, IIT Roorkee Richardson, Curtis, Duke University Rich, Roy, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center Rich, Virginia, The Ohio State University Rieb, Emma, U.S. Geological Survey Riera, David, Florida International University Rightnour, Terry, Water’s Edge Hydrology, Inc. Rigney, Kristen, EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc., PBC Rii, Yoshimi, Heeia National Estuarine Research Reserve Rios, Orlando, Wayne State University Ritenour, Karis, Louisiana State University Rizzo, Al, USFWS Roberts, Brian, Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium Roberts, Sam, University of Delaware Robinson, Amber, HDR Rochefort, Line, Université Laval Rogerson, Alison, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control Rohal, Christine, Utah State University Rolband, Michael, Wetland Studies and Solutions, Inc. Rosina, Eric, ACT Engineers, Inc. Rota, Christopher, West Virginia University Routh, Karley, RK&K Rover, Jennifer, U.S. Geological Survey Runion, Kyle, University of Delaware Rush, Scott A., Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Aquaculture, Mississippi State University Ruskin, Katharine, University of Maine

205, 260 229 257 285 264 321 165, 180 188 321 190, 195, 197 244, 283 310 255 191, 192, 255 250 245 235 302 230, 302 205 323 311 202, 263 200 190 215 165, 169, 173, 224 168 196 205 209 317 248 301 311 242 281, 281, 299 204 309 237 287, 289, 296 210, 229, 230, 299 265 288 250 162, 308 292 256 311 161 309

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Ryu, Junghyung, Louisiana State University Sachs Lambert, Erica, US Environmental Protection Agency Sadofsky, Emil, University of Oregon Saleska, Scott, The University of Arizona Sandoval, Christopher, University Of Texas at El Paso Santofimio-Tamayo, Gina Alejandra, Pontifical Javeriana University Sapkota, Yadav, Louisiana State University Sari, Dwi, James Cook University Scharlemann, Jorn, University of Sussex Schenk, Edward, National Park Service Scherff, Eric, U.S. Bureau of Land Management Schmidt, Stephanie, George Mason University Schroeder, Rachel, Old Dominion University Schultz, Matthew, University of Oregon Schultz, Rachel, SUNY Brockport Schulze, Anja, Texas A&M University at Galveston Schutte, Charles, Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium Schweisberg, Matt, Wetland Strategies and Solutions, LLC Scott, Brian, University of Maryland College Park Seebacher, Lizbeth, WA Dept. of Ecology Seemayer, Tina, United States Air Force Sepulveda-Jauregui, Armando, Universidad de Magallanes Shannon, Joseph, Michigan Technological University Shannon, Robert, The Pennsylvania State University Shappell, Laura, New York Natural Heritage Program Shebitz, Daniela, Kean University Shih, Shang-Shu, National Taiwan University Shoemaker, Cory, Mississippi State University Short, Aidan William, Guangxi University Short, Frederick, University of New Hampshire Shriver, Greg, University of Delaware Shultz, Kanekoa, The Nature Conservancy Silva, Alexander, SUNY Brockport Silver, Whendee, University of California Simpson, Lorae, Whitney lab for Marine Bioscience Simpson, Matthew, WWT Consulting Siok, Drexel, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control Slacum, H. Ward, Oyster Recovery Partnership Slear, Gene, Environmental Concern Inc. Smith, Alan, University of Minnesota Smith, David, US Geological Survey Smith, Katie, WRA Environmental Consultants Smith, Kenneth, DNREC Smith, Loren, Oklahoma State University Smith, Tim, Minnesota Board of Water and Soil Resources Snedden, Gregg, U.S. Geological Survey Sneesby, Ethan, School of Plant and Environmental Science Solohin, Elena, Indiana University Sommerfield, Chris, University of Delaware Son, Ga-yeon, Seoul National University Song, Bo, Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science 342 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

312 247 218 196 181, 181 171 174, 217 272 236 205, 226 184 193 167 218 285 193 204 207 304 287 329 175 165, 180 208 243 298 251 251 189 240 238, 309 301 278 164 170 215 274, 300 248 327 261 186, 298 309 210, 229, 300 329 171, 254, 274, 293, 294 166 314 232 173, 311 184 179


Soretire, Idowu, University of Lagos, Nigeria Spaetzel, Alana, U.S. Geological Survey Spanier, Nicole, Villanova University Spendiff, Kyle, WSP Spitzig, Adam, Ducks Unlimited Inc Spivak, Amanda, University of Georgia Stanton, Samantha, Great Lakes Commission Staver, Lorie, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science Stein, Eric, Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Stelk, Marla, Association of State Wetland Managers Steven, Blaire, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station Stevens, Michelle, CSU Sacramento Stevenson, J. Court, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science Stiegler, Chris, WRA Stimmel, Elisabeth, Michigan Technological University St. Laurent, Kari, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control Stover, Daniel, U.S. Department of Energy Stoy, Paul, Montana State University Strack, Maria, University of Waterloo Strait, Kenneth, Estuary Enhancement Program Strano, Steve, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service Straub, Jacob, University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point Stricker, Craig, US Geological Survey Strong, Conor, University of Brighton Sudol, Taryn, Maryland Sea Grant Sullivan, Lauren, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Sunoj, V.S. John, Guangxi University Sutton-Grier, Ariana, Nature Conservancy and University of Maryland Swadek, Rebecca, City of New York Parks & Recreation Swarzenski, Christopher M, U.S. Geological Survey Sweetman, Jon, North Dakota State University Szutu, Daphne, University of California Taddeo, Sophie, University of California at Berkeley Taiwo, Idowu, University of Lagos, Nigeria Talbot, Julie, UniversitĂŠ de MontrĂŠal Tang, Jianwu, Marine Biological Laboratory Tang, Jim, Marine Biological Laboratory Thompson, Joshua, Exponent Thompson, Tess, Virginia Tech Thorne, Karen, USGS Timm, Anne, USDA Forest Center, Tobias, Vanessa, US Fish and Wildlife Service Toonen, Robert, University of Hawaii at Manoa Topping, Brian, US EPA Torio, Dante, University of New Hampshire Tran, Trang, Missouri State University Travis, Steven, University of New England Tsui, Martin, University of North Carolina Greensboro Tuchman, Nancy, Loyola University Chicago Tully, Katherine, University of Maryland Turner, R. Eugene, Louisiana State University

308 272 221 270 240 168 269 294, 294 273 301 172 299 294, 294 277 165, 180 230, 274 167 192 296 270 239, 246 285 164 255 320 302 189 245, 246 267, 286 313 223, 241 164, 167 258 308 175 171 168, 217 290 314 204, 231 261 261 301 296, 327 240 307 262 203 298 177 176

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Twiss, Michael, Clarkson University 273 Tymkiw, Elizabeth, University of Delaware 281 Tzortziou, Maria, City College of New York 170 Uche, Shulamite Ngozika, Aquatic Conservation and Ecological Restoration Network 248 Uhelski, Dominic, Michigan Technological University 241 Umoh, Ubong, University of Uyo 241 Ury, Emily, Duke University 195 Uzarski, Donald, Central Michigan University 206 Vaccare, Jessica, Louisiana State University 174 Valach, Alex, University of California 164, 167 Vallette, Yvonne, USEPA Region 10 257 Van Ardenne, Lee, McGill University 240 Van Grinsven, Matthew, Northern Michigan University 165, 180 VanZomeren, Christine, US Army Corps of Engineers 295 Vargas, Rodrigo, University of Delaware 228 Veith, Tamie, USDA 185 Velinksy, David, Drexel University and the Academy of Natural Sciences 173 Vembar, Rohini, The Ohio State University 265 Verfaillie, Joseph, University of California 164, 167 Verhulst, Stephanie, University of Florida 202 Vile, Melanie, Villanova University 172 Vining, Sarah Rose, University of Arizona 196 Vradenburg, John, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 242 Wagenbrenner, Joseph, USDA Forest Service 165, 180 Walker, Coowe, Kachemak Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve 191 Walker, Samantha, University of Connecticut 187 Wallace, Carlington, Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin 185 Waller, Jessica, Clemson University 282 Wang, Faming, Marine Biological Laboratory 168, 171, 217 Wang, Hongjun, Duke University 165, 169, 173 Wang, Hsiao-Wen, National Cheng Kung University 204, 247 Wang, Yi-Kuang, National University of Tainan 204 Wardrop, Denice, Penn State University 226, 258 Warner, Jim, ERM 305 Warren, Rebecca, Ducks Unlimited Canada 240 Wasson, Kerstin, Elkhorn Slough National Estuarine Research Reserve 230 Watson, Elizabeth, Drexel University and the Academy of Natural Sciences 173, 234, 257, 302 Webb, Elisabeth B., U.S. Geological Survey, Missouri Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit 307 Webb, Lisa, USGS, Missouri Coop Unit 310 Wee, Alison K.S., Guangxi University 189 Weissman, Dani, University of Maryland 177 Weitzel, Spencer, Coastal Research and Extension Center, Mississippi State University 161 Wen, Bolong, Northeast Institute of geography and agroecology, Chinese academy of sciences 249 Wentzell, Bianca, St. Thomas Aquinas College 298 West, Jennifer, Narragansett Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve 230 West, Jordan, EPA 226 Whaley, Hannah, Missouri State University 177, 279 Whigham, Dennis, Smithsonian Institution 191 Whitcraft, Christine, California State University Long Beach 288, 291 White, Elliott, University of Florida 259 White, John, Louisiana State University 174, 218 344 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019


Whiteman, Christina, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control Whittecar, G. Richard, Old Dominion University Whittemore, Michael, Woods Hole Research Center Wieder, R. Kelman, Villanova University Wiest, Whitney, University of Delaware Wilburn, Brittany, Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University Wilcox, Douglas, SUNY College at Brockport Willard, Debra, US Geological Survey Williams, Chris, University of Delaware Wilson, Bartholomew, USFWS Wilson, Carol, Louisiana State University Winter, Kawika, Heeia National Estuarine Research Reserve Wolf, Katie, ERM Wong, Jesse, George Mason University Woodrey, Mark S., Coastal Research and Extension Center, Mississippi State University Woolfolk, Andrea, Elkhorn Slough National Estuarine Research Reserve Wright, Justin P., Duke University Wurster, Frederic C., U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Xian, George, USGS Xigui, Ding, Xue, Li, Yannuzzi, Sally, West Virginia University Yao, Qiang, Louisiana State University Yarwood, Stephanie, University of Maryland, College Park Yepsen, Metthea, NewJersey Deparetment of Environmental Protection Ye, Siyuan, QIMG, CGS Yetter, Susy, Pennsylvania State University Yuan, Hongming, QIMG, CGS Yuan, Yuxiang, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Yu, Xiaofei, Northeast Normal University Yu, Xueyang, Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology Zacherl, Danielle, California State University Fullerton Zedler, Joy, University of Wisconsin, Madison Zhang, Jitao, Northeast Institute of geography and agroecology, Chinese academy of sciences Zhu, Qilin, Northeast Institute of geography and agroecology, Chinese academy of sciences Zhu, Xiaoyan, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Zinecker, Elizabeth, University of Maryland Zollitsch, Brenda, Association of State Wetland Managers

274 314 200 172 309 302 206, 266, 278 225 162 281, 281, 299 166, 190 301 199 193 161 230 195 225 256 234 227 162, 308 312 303, 304 288 227, 227, 234 185 227, 227, 234 176, 178 236 227 291 214 249 249 176, 178 306 207

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WSP SUBMISSION GUIDELINES

About Wetland Science & Practice (WSP)

W

etland Science and Practice (WSP) is the SWS quarterly publication aimed at providing information on select SWS activities (technical committee summaries, chapter workshop overview/ abstracts, and SWS-funded student activities), brief summary articles on ongoing or recently completed wetland research, restoration, or management projects or on the general ecology and natural history of wetlands, and highlights of current events. WSP also includes sections listing new publications and research at various institutions, and links to major wetland research facilities, federal agencies, wetland restoration/monitoring sites and wetland mapping sites. The publication also serves as an outlet for commentaries, perspectives and opinions on important developments in wetland science, theory, management and policy. Both invited and unsolicited manuscripts are reviewed by the WSP editor for suitability for publication. Student papers are welcomed. Please see publication guidelines at the end of this issue. Electronic access to Wetland Science and Practice is included in your SWS membership. All issues published, except the the current issue, are available via the internet to the general public. At the San Juan meeting, the SWS Board of Directors voted to approve release of past issues of WSP when a new issue is available to SWS members only. This means that a WSP issue will be available to the public four months after it has been read by SWS members (e.g., the June 2017 issue will be an open access issue in September 2017). Such availability will hopefully stimulate more interest in contributing to the journal. And, we are excited about this opportunity to promote the good work done by our members. HOW YOU CAN HELP If you read something you like in WSP, or that you think someone else would find interesting, be sure to share. Share links to your Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and LinkedIn accounts. Make sure that all your SWS colleagues are checking out our recent issues, and help spread the word about SWS to non-members! QUESTIONS? Contact editor Ralph Tiner, PWS Emeritus (ralphtiner83@gmail.com). ■ 346 Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019

WSP Manuscript – General Guidelines LENGTH: Approximately 5,000 words; can be longer if necessary. STYLE: See existing articles from 2014 to more recent years available online at: http://www.sws.org/category/wetland-science-practice.html TEXT: Word document, 12 font, Times New Roman, single-spaced; keep tables and figures separate, although captions can be included in text. For reference citations in text use this format: (Smith 2016; Jones and Whithead 2014; Peterson et al. 2010). FIGURES: Please include color images and photos of subject wetland(s) as WSP is a full-color e-publication. Image size should be less than 1MB – 500KB may work best for this e-publication. REFERENCE CITATION EXAMPLES: • Claus, S., S. Imgraben, K. Brennan, A. Carthey, B. Daly, R. Blakey, E. Turak, and N. Saintilan. 2011. Assessing the extent and condition of wetlands in NSW: Supporting report A – Conceptual framework, Monitoring, evaluation and reporting program, Technical report series, Office of Environment and Heritage, Sydney, Australia. OEH 2011/0727. • Clements, F.E. 1916. Plant Succession: An Analysis of the Development of Vegetation. Carnegie Institution of Washington. Washington D.C. Publication 242. • Clewell, A.F., C. Raymond, C.L. Coultas, W.M. Dennis, and J.P. Kelly. 2009. Spatially narrow wet prairies. Castanea 74: 146-159. • Colburn, E.A. 2004. Vernal Pools: Natural History and Conservation. McDonald & Woodward Publishing Company, Blacksburg, VA. • Cole, C.A. and R.P. Brooks. 2000. Patterns of wetland hydrology in the Ridge and Valley Province, Pennsylvania, USA. Wetlands 20: 438-447. • Cook, E.R., R. Seager, M.A. Cane, and D.W. Stahle. 2007. North American drought: reconstructions, causes, and consequences. Earth-Science Reviews 81: 93-134. • Cooper, D.J. and D.M. Merritt. 2012. Assessing the water needs of riparian and wetland vegetation in the western United States. U.S.D.A., Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Ft. Collins, CO. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-282.


QUEBEC RE3 2020

wetland science practice

&

WSP is the formal voice of the Society of Wetland Scientists. It is a quarterly publication focusing on the news of the SWS and providing important announcements for members and opportunities for wetland scientists, managers, and graduate students to publish brief summaries of their works and conservation initiatives. Topics for articles may include descriptions of threatened wetlands around the globe or the establishment of wetland conservation areas, and summary findings from research or restoration projects. All manuscripts should follow guidelines for authors listed above. All papers published in WSP will be reviewed by the editor for suitability and may be subject to peer review as necessary. Most articles will be published within 3 months of receipt. Letters to the editor are also encouraged, but must be relevant to broad wetland-related topics. All material should be sent electronically to the current editor of WSP. Complaints about SWS policy or personnel should be sent directly to the elected officers of SWS and will not be considered for publication in WSP. n Wetland Science & Practice July Special Issue 2019 347

Profile for Society of Wetland Scientists

July 2019 Wetland Science & Practice Special Issue  

Wetland Science and Practice (WSP) is the SWS quarterly publication aimed at providing information on select SWS activities (technical commi...

July 2019 Wetland Science & Practice Special Issue  

Wetland Science and Practice (WSP) is the SWS quarterly publication aimed at providing information on select SWS activities (technical commi...