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Mats Fredriksson

The English Handbook The English Handbook är indelad i avsnitten Speaking, Listening, Writing, Reading och Vocabulary and Grammar. Handboken är skriven för svenska elever med Gy 2011 i fokus. Den innehåller information, tips och praktiska övningar för klassrummet och verkligheten. Här finns bland annat: ●

15 kommenterade exempeltexter

Arbetsgång och struktur för skriftlig produktion

Riktlinjer för förberett tal och samtal

Nyttiga konversationsövningar

Strategier för förbättrad läs- och hörförståelse

Tekniker för textanalys och källhantering

De vanligaste språkliga misstagen och hur de kan undvikas

The English Handbook finns också som digitalbok ISBN 27-42964-2. På www.nok.se/laromedel finns extramaterial för lärare och elever.

The English Handbook

Handfast struktur genom Engelska 5, 6 och 7

The

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Contents Speaking � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 5

Guidelines for interactive Take a breath – and go for it! � � � � � � � � � � 5 situations � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 30 Unprepared speech � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 6 Seminar � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 30 “Warmers” � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 6 Debate � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 31 Making up topics and Interview � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 33 Discussion forum and handling silences � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 8 Developing a topic � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 10 Democratic meeting � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 36 Handling an unfamiliar topic � � � � 10 Formal meeting � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 38 Keeping a conversation going � � 11 Rehearsal and delivery � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 39 Disagreeing politely � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 15 Linking words and “Swedish” problems � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 16 transitions � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 40 Prepared speech � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 18 Register � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 42 Speeches/presentations and Variation � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 43 Pace � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 44 interaction – what is the Pausing � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 44 difference? � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 18 The working process � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 20 Intonation � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 44 Guidelines for speeches and Pronunciation � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 45 Breathing � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 45 presentations � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 22 The basic “five-paragraph Body language � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 45 Cue cards � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 47 speech” � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 22 Special occasion speech � � � � � � � � 24 Visual aids � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 47 Informative speech � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 26 The audience is your friend � � � � � � 48 Demonstrative speech � � � � � � � � � � � � 27 IF you have a blackout � � � � � � � � � � � � � 49 Argumentative/ Rhetoric � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 50 Ethos, pathos and logos � � � � � � � � � 50 Persuasive speech� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 28 Sales pitch � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 29 Rhetorical devices � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 52

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Listening � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 57 You are lucky! � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 57 Strategies for listening � � � � � � � � � � � � � 58 Predicting the content � � � � � � � � � � � � � 58 Listening for gist or detail � � � � � � � 60 Common tricks to fool you � � � � � � � � � � 63 Figuring out the main points � � � � 64 Listening to understand and retrieve � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 66 Active listening � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 66 Taking notes � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 67 Using the world around you � � � � � � � � 68

Working on language � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 121 Register (Level of formality) � � �121 Variation � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 123 Punctuation � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 126 Process writing � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 131 Peer response � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 134 Working with sources � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �135 Quotations � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 136 Summary of thoughts � � � � � � � � � � � � 136 Paraphrasing � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 136 Referencing systems � � � � � � � � � � � � � 138 Reference lists � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 139

Writing � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 71 Reading � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 141 Yes you can! � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 71 The working process � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 74 Guidelines for texts � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 76 Genres � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 76 The basic “five-paragraph essay” � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 78 Informative texts � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 80 News article � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 82 Feature story (Opening of) � � � � � � 84 Argumentative essay/ Opinion Letter � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 86 Review � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 88 Summary – response paper � � � � 90 Investigative paper (Scientific style) � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 92 Informal letter � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 94 Formal letter � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 96 Job application: Cover letter � � � � 98 Job application: CV/Résumé 100 Personal narrative � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 102 Short story � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 104 “A not-so-good text” � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 106 Working on structure � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 108 Writing introductions � � � � � � � � � � � � � 108 Writing conclusions � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 111 The paragraph � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 113 Linking techniques � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 116

Keep reading, please � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 141 Genres – types of texts � � � � � � � � � � � � 142 Factual texts � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 145 Strategies for reading � � � � � � � � � � � 145 Common reading problems � � � �148 Reading to respond � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 150 Guessing or knowing? � � � � � � � � � � � 151 Reading to remember � � � � � � � � � � � 155 Critical reading � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 157 Fictional texts � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 160 Literary concepts (Tools for analysis) � � � � � � � � � � � � 163 Analyzing fiction � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 168 Reading and re-reading � � � � � � � � � �169

Vocabulary and Grammar � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 171 Building your language � � � � � � � � � � � � �171 Homophones � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 173 False friends � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 174 Grammar top-5 � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 175 1. Subject – verb agreement� � �176 2. The apostrophe � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 178 3. Adjectives and adverbs � � � � � �179 4. Capital letters � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 180 5. It is – there is, than – then, a – an � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 180

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Speaking In this chapter you will find pointers on how to prepare and deliver different kinds of speeches and presentations� You will also receive tips and instructions for how to handle interactive situations, both with and without preparation�

Take a breath – and go for it! Speaking English is without doubt the most important way in which you use the language – you will definitely speak more English in your life than you will write it� A fact that can be quite intimidating is that, in class, you are expected to be rather fluent in English� When it is your turn to speak it sometimes happens: your heart races, you feel your breathing getting out of control, and you may even break into a sweat and start shaking� This is nothing to be concerned about – it is merely a misunderstanding that occurs in your body, your nervous system telling you that you are in danger and that you need to run� It is an ancient reaction called the fight-or-flight response� This instinct was of good use to us once, at the dawn of civilization when we were chased around the plains by sabertoothed tigers, but today, in class or at a meeting; we do not need it! The easiest way to get rid of these unpleasant sensations is to take a few deep breaths (really deep – yawn discretely if you can!), think of your body posture, and tell your primitive brain that all is well� This behavior will counter your nervous system and calm you down� Then, just say what you want to say�

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Unprepared speech Unprepared speech does not mean standing up and giving an impromptu speech on a random topic, or being interrogated about something you do not have a clue about� As a matter of fact, an unprepared speech situation occurs any time you strike up a conversation with someone, and includes all situations that require some level of improvisation� One nice and relaxing thing about everyday conversation is that you can use slang and informal language, and getting the grammar right is simply not your main priority� There is no need to get it a hundred percent correct, as long as you keep talking and focus on communication� The exchange of ideas and thoughts is very much the basis of any conversation� The fact that this exchange sometimes needs to take place in English, in class or outside, does not change anything at all� There are many strategies to become better at improvising, ranging from how to get started to keeping the conversation going� Here we will have a look at some of them: ●

“Warmers”

Making up topics and handling silences

Developing a topic

Handling unfamiliar topics

Using your partner in a conversation

Interjections

Turn-taking and changing direction

Disagreeing politely

A few typically “Swedish” problems

“Warmers” As a student you run from lesson to lesson and many times it can be difficult to switch your brain from German, to Social Science, to Math – and then to English� You need a way of getting yourself in the right mode� “Warmers” can act as starting points for bigger speaking activities� Use them in class or before a presentation to to understand that it is English time!

Socio-cultural competence Work in pairs or on your own� Explain and give details to an exchange student (or tourist) about a typical cultural occurrence� Examples: a traditional event, fika, a particular TV show, how to stand in line for the bus …

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s pe ak ing

One-minute talk Work in pairs� Student 1: Write a topic on a piece of paper (e�g� freedom or sports)� Show it to student 2� Student 2: Talk about the topic for 1 minute – exactly� (Time it!) Try to keep going, even though it is tough� If you have absolutely nothing to say, your partner may ask a question� Switch roles� After a few turns you will find it becomes easier and you will have improved your ability to improvise�

Word hooks Work in pairs or on your own� Write a noun (physical or abstract, like rock, heroes or imagination)� Put the noun in a circle with six “hooks” attached to it� Now, quickly find six other words to put on the hooks, all associated with the original word� Then, talk for 1 minute about your noun, using and exploring all the “hooked” words�

Rock

The martian

Work in pairs or on your own� Welcome an alien to Earth by explaining to them how things work around here� It can be very fundamental things, like defining what objects on Earth are edible, teaching them how traffic lights work or why the sun goes down at night� It is not as easy as it sounds!

The telling off Work in pairs� Quickly decide what relationship you have and imagine a situation in which you get very upset� Come up with a reason for why you are angry – then tell your partner off for 1 minute without using foul language (that is, no cursing!)�

Things beginning with … Work in pairs� Challenge each other to come up with as many English words as possible starting with the same letter� All word classes are ok� Time limit: 1 – 2 minutes� Example: Things beginning with F? Fish, frisky, float, fantastic, fraternity … Make it more difficult by limiting yourself to one word class or a particular area (e�g� only verbs or adjectives, or only animals)�

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Guidelines for speeches and presentations The basic “five-paragraph speech” For many kinds of speeches and presentations you can follow a basic five-paragraph structure, where you go from paragraph 1 to 5 without detours:

1 Introductory paragraph 2 Body paragraph 3 Body paragraph 4 Body paragraph 5 Concluding paragraph

The core content of your speech is framed by an attention-grabbing introduction, and a snappy conclusion� For examples of introductions and conclusions, see Working on structure (p� 108)� The main part of your script is made up by three body paragraphs, in which you develop the details� (There can be more, but three is standard�) You may distribute the information within the body paragraphs in different ways; choose the structure that fits your topic and your purpose: ●

chronological body structure. Let your three paragraphs describe a chronological order of events: First X happened. Then Y occurred. Lastly there was Z.

Thematic body structure. Have each paragraph treat one theme, one perspective or one idea: One way to look at this is 1. Another way is 2. Yet another way is 3.

in order of size or importance. Present the most important areas or the strongest arguments first – one per paragraph� X is an important factor. Y is also important. Z is the most important factor.

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A FIVE-PARAGRAPH SPEECH (The Robomatic sales pitch )

I trust that you, just like me, strongly dislike having to clean up at home? Doing the dishes, vacuum cleaning the floors, and dusting all those places impossible to reach? Relax, I have the solution for you: the Robomatic housekeeper. It’s a revolution: it cleans, it takes no breaks, and it charges itself!

introduction: You only have a very short moment to raise interest. Catch your listeners’ attention and gain their trust by showing that you are like them. Introduce your three main ideas (cleans, takes no breaks, charges itself).

First of all, the Robomatic housekeeper takes care of all the chores around the house. It has a vacuum cleaner built in, it has expandable arms to reach the most impossible of places, and it’s flexible enough to get around any obstacle, to all the tricky corners the dust is hiding in.

Body paragraph 1: Develop the first main idea: it cleans. To create a line of thought that is easy to follow; connect your ideas together by using linking words (e.g. first of all).

Secondly, no breaks are needed for this trustworthy house companion. The integrated computer system adapts to your house, and after only one tour around the house, the Robomatic will find its way around your home, every day, around the clock.

Body paragraph 2: Develop the second main idea: it takes no breaks. use linking words (e.g. secondly).

Thirdly, there’s no need for the proud owner to fear any costs after buying this incredible product: the Robomatic housekeeper charges itself via a genial battery charger system that transforms the dust and the dirt into clean energy.

Body paragraph 3: Develop the third main idea: it charges itself. use linking words (e.g. thirdly).

So if you want to let go of the stressful house chores, there’s only one way to go: Robomatic housekeeper! You get an assistant that will do all the things you don’t like doing, you get a tireless worker; a worker that never stops, never eats, and never costs a penny more. The future is here and it’s right in front of you: Robomatic housekeeper!

conclusion: Repeat the overall theme + your three main ideas once again (in other words). Find some memorable last words.

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Listening LISTENING LISTENING

In this chapter you will find useful strategies for how to handle listening skills in real-life and school situations (and the most common tricks used to fool you)� There will be a section on how to take notes when listening, to help you recall information, and some advice to help you take advantage of the English you hear every day�

You are lucky! Compared to other non-native English speakers, Swedes are generally quite skilled at listening comprehension� The reason is simple; you are used to hearing English almost all the time� Just think of all the movies, TV series and talk shows you can tune in to every day� This provides you with enormous language input and gives you a great advantage when it comes to understanding spoken English� Listening can still be hard though, and you need quite a bit of practice to become really good at it� The first step is to realize how different situations demand different strategies� In a conversation, you do not have to keep information in your head for a long time, but you need to grasp it quickly to give an immediate answer� In school situations, on the other hand, you might be expected to answer questions after listening, at a listening test� Therefore it is a good idea to develop both your listening and your memory skills�

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Strategies for listening In any situation where you are supposed to listen and understand spoken English, the key is to sort out what information is important, to store that information in your head and to respond appropriately� There are three major strategies to get better at this: to predict the content, to know if you are listening for gist or detail and to figure out the main points�

Predicting the content If your brain is prepared and already knows (roughly) what is coming up, the edge and fear of not understanding can be effectively removed� To “predict the content” means that you picture typical situations, check information beforehand and imagine what kind of language may come up� You will then activate old knowledge that you can relate to this new situation� This way your brain can relax and your chances to understand will increase� In school there are many situations that are meant to imitate real-life listening� Typical authentic situations where it is very useful to be able to predict the content are: business meetings, weather forecasts, interviews and lectures�

BUSINESS MEETING ●

Find old agendas and meeting protocols (on the internet) to see what kind of language is used. Look at old agendas to learn in what order issues are usually dealt with. Look through today’s agenda to see what will be discussed – are you familiar with the topics?

LECTURE ●

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Check what the topic is: how much do you already know about it? If you have any written material on the topic of the lecture; read up in advance to be familiar with language and content. Go on the internet and see if you can find similar lectures to watch. Sometimes, lecture notes are handed out in advance – if so, make sure to read them.

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Writing In this chapter you will find pointers and information on how to get started writing; on forming ideas and organizing a draft� You will also find several examples and guidelines for writing the different types of texts that are common in school assignments and professional life�

WRITING

Yes you can! Regardless of whether you are an experienced writer or one who usually struggles to express yourself in writing, it can happen – writer’s block� It is that horrible feeling when you simply cannot get the words inside your head down on paper – or worse still – when there are no words inside your head� This is particularly common and frustrating if you have a deadline to keep� The good news is that there are ways to get around it� Writer’s block can be of two types: a) getting stuck in the middle of a text and b) not being able to start at all� If you are of the kind who gets stuck halfway through your text the problem is easily solved – it usually means that you have been working too long without a pause� Do something else for a while – take a walk, do the dishes, or anything to get your mind off your text� When returning to it, it will be with new eyes and fresh energy� In order not to get stuck when writing an essay in school make sure you are well prepared and plan your writing session so as to have enough time to revise your text� On the other hand, if your writer’s block is of the kind where you simply cannot get started you might need some more assistance� Read the advice on pp� 72 – 73�

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maKe a mind maP. Put your main idea, or the core topic, in a big circle in the center of an empty sheet of paper, and scribble all the related facts and minor ideas in circles around it. Connect the circles with lines and number them in the order you would like to present your ideas. Voilá – there is your outline! maKe a BRainSToRm LiST. This is a mind map shaped like a list. Take an empty sheet of paper and jot down all the words and phrases that you can think of in relation to your topic. When having run out of ideas, go through the words one by one. Cross out the ones that you deem irrelevant and underline the ones that fit in nicely with what you want to write. Rearrange the words into a logical order. You can brainstorm on your own, but if you have a friend to help you out – all the better.

Idea �

Idea � Shopping habits

Idea �

environmental issues

consumerism

Global consequences

Idea

Possible solutions

WRiTe an inTRodUcTion – oR don’T. Base the introduction on your mind map or your plan. Start with a quotation, or perhaps with an anecdote, then introduce the topic and briefly mention the aspects that you will bring up. The rest will come naturally. Should you find it impossible to write an introduction, try saving it till last when you have written the rest of your text.

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maKe an oUTLine. Let’s say that you are working on an argumentative essay. Write one sentence with your main thesis (the idea that you will argue for). Then write down your three strongest arguments (the reasons why you think as you do), and number them from 1 to 3. Write one sentence with your conclusion (a brief repetition of your main idea). From this rough outline, start building your text by constructing one paragraph around each sentence.

uct

ion

LooK aT YoUR Hand. This may sound strange, but fan your fingers and say to yourself: “Ok, so these are the five paragraphs I will write. Thumb – introduction, little finger – conclusion, and the three remaining fingers – the three body paragraphs.” This gives you a visual representation of your full text and you can start by writing one sentence per finger.

rod int

r pa

ph 2

ra rag

y pa

Bod

writing

dy

1

r

ag

Bo

h ap

Body paragraph 3 con

clus

ion

Read anoTHeR TexT. Try to find a text to read that is similar to yours. Take inspiration from the tone and the language, and study how it is opened and organized. This is not cheating but a good way of getting ideas for your own text. SimPLY GeT STaRTed. Sometimes, the major problem is actually pressing the first key, or physically putting the pen to paper. Overcome this by writing anything (it does not even have to be related), and get the words flowing. It will release your mental block and trigger your creativity.

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Guidelines for texts In this section we will look at examples and instructions for how to write a number of different text types, all of which are common both in school settings and in professional contexts� Use the sample texts to get a rough idea of how to structure your particular text type and how to fit your language with the genre� tips ! Also study Working on structure (p� 108) and Working on language (p� 121)�

Genres The word genre comes from French (and originally from Latin) and means kind, type, or sort� We can use the term to define what sort of text or speech we are dealing with� Different genres, or text types, have different characteristics: from the choice of individual words, to the structure of sentences and paragraphs� Compare the writing style in a newspaper article to a page in a novel� For you as a writer it is very important to be certain about what genre you are writing in, in order to adopt the correct style�

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GENRES/TExT TYPES:

The basic “five-paragraph essay”

P 80

Informative text

P 82

News article

P 84

Feature story (Opening of)

P 86

Argumentative essay (Opinion letter)

P 88

REVIEW

P 90

Summary-response paper

P 92

Investigative paper (Scientific style)

P 94

Informal letter

P 96

Formal letter

P 98

Job application: Cover letter

P 100

Job application: CV/Resumé

P 102

Personal narrative

P 104

Short story

P 106

“A not-so-good text”

WRITING

P 78

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News article Purpose: To report on an incident or development Format:Printed or digital newspaper (local, national, or international) Reader: The general public Register/tone: Formal, strictly objective, no personal opinions The purpose of a news article is to inform the reader about an incident, to summarize an event or to report on some kind of public affair, on local, national or international level� The language is objective – the writer’s voice is “hidden” and you do not see any personal opinions� You will see how the following news article quickly gets to the core of the topic by presenting the most important information first, giving a general picture, and then going into more and more detail� The most characteristic feature of a news article is probably that it gives answers to the questions: ●

Who?

When?

Why?

Where?

What?

How?

The structure of a news article is fixed: 1 Headline 1 Lead (an introduction to summarize the most important facts) 1 Story

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Volcanic Activity Found in Sweden By Claudine Nichols

The headline: It is brief and without helping verbs, prepositions and articles (a/an/the).

On Tuesday morning, a team of geologists from the University of Uppsala, Sweden, announced that volcanic activity had been discovered in the region of Dalarna, right in the heart of the Swedish countryside.

The lead: What? – volcanic activity Where? – Dalarna, the Swedish countryside When? – Tuesday morning Who? – a team of geologists

Around Lake Siljan, in Dalarna unusual geological activity came to draw scientific interest – there were a series of seismological events, something that is highly uncommon in this region. Lars Janzon, professor of geology at the University of Uppsala says: “We became interested after receiving several phone calls from people in the region last year. They reported on experiencing earthquake-like tremors in the ground and we were called out to investigate.” After making measurements, Janzon and his team could conclude that the disturbances were caused by volcanic activity. “This conclusion was actually a rather simple one to reach by the process of elimination,” Janzon explains. “Nothing else could account for the activity, and we found measures of magma gases as well as sulfuric acids in the air and on the ground, which clearly indicate volcanic activity.” According to the Swedish Institute of Geological Research, the news came as a “pure shock” to the scientific community. Available graphs and statistics showing Earth’s active volcanoes have, up to this point, never indicated Sweden as a potential volcanic area. Inhabitants of the region were interviewed on Wednesday morning by local reporters and expressed considerable worry. “We immediately thought of moving from the area”, farmer Peter Svensson tells the Dalakuriren newspaper. Another neighbor says: “I wonder what will happen to house prices now when people know they are sitting right on top of a potential explosion.” According to authorities and the Uppsala geology report, there is no need for locals, or other Swedes, to worry. Janzon explains: “The kind of activity discovered here is defined as passive. It’s a kind of gas pocket of volcanic nature – which doesn’t automatically mean that it will become active. In fact, such a scenario is highly unlikely.”

The story: Further details on Who? Where? What? and background to the situation. The story includes comments by people involved. Further details on Why? How?

WRITING Typically, definite articles are left out (the inhabitants, → inhabitants). The impersonal, passive voice is used (We interviewed inhabitants→Inhabitants were interviewed)

News articles often end quite abruptly, with no summary.

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The paragraph You do not have to look too closely at any text to see that it is never made up of only one long block of text, but always divided into shorter sections� The term for each section is paragraph� One paragraph can consist of only a few lines or almost a whole page� It all depends on the content� Let’s look at an example of one paragraph:

WRITING

Throughout human history, our relationship to fire has been incredibly important. From the beginning, we used fire to cook food and to protect ourselves from the cold, but with time we found more and more uses for it. Later, we noticed that certain things burned faster than others; gun-powder for example, and oil. People started putting fire into inventions, developing things like rifles, engines, and new and more effective heating systems that could warm whole houses. Fire is the one thing in history that we would not have survived without, and at the same time; it is one that has caused much despair. How is it structured? The very first sentence is called the topic sentence� It indicates that nothing other than fire will be dealt with in this paragraph� Look back and see – is it true? The rest of the paragraph develops the topic sentence, giving facts and explanations� In this case it is done by giving examples of how fire has been important to us and how it has helped us develop inventions� In another text, one paragraph could be dedicated to the introduction; one of several perspectives; an argument to support an opinion; a step in a process; an anecdote; or a conclusion� It is up to you to decide the content of each paragraph, as long as you keep it neatly tied together� Now, look at the very last sentence� This is the link to the next paragraph� What might it be about? Well, most likely about how fire is the cause of both good and evil from a historical point of view� The method for connecting ideas like this is called linking technique (see p� 116)�

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In each paragraph: 1 Find a good topic sentence� 2 Stick to and develop the topic sentence by giving examples or reasons� 3 Use the last sentence of the paragraph as a link, or a bridge, over to the next paragraph (that will also be introduced by a topic sentence)�

Develop topic sentences Choose one or more of the following topic sentences and develop them into full paragraphs� Make sure you stick to the topic� Compare your paragraphs with a friend’s� ●

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Ever since I was a kid, I have been afraid of ghosts. This is why … (Introduction) On the other hand, since the anti-piracy law was put in effect, more and more people are convicted as criminals. This is a tragedy because …(The second of several perspectives) Cars have done nothing good for us from an environmental point of view …(One of three arguments for the thesis: “Cars should be banned”) As long as you are careful with the following safety procedures, there is no need to worry: make sure you … (Explanation) If you follow four simple steps, you will succeed in no-time. The first step is to … (Instruction, one step in a process) When Jamie opened the door and stepped into the room, nobody was there. She … (Anecdote) To sum up, as we have seen, there are a lot of advantages with surf-pads compared to conventional laptop computers. They are … (Conclusion)

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Working with sources When writing that Social Science report, and searching the web for information, sometimes it is only too tempting to sneak in a couple of lines or ideas from a smart expert on the matter� That, however, is plagiarism� In its simplest form, plagiarism means that you take someone else’s text and claim that you wrote it, or take someone else’s idea or theory and pretend that it is yours� It goes without saying that this is wrong, and the higher up in the educational system you come the harder plagiarism is punished� A university student trying to pass someone else’s lines off as their own would be expelled immediately� However, avoiding to copy other people’s texts or ideas is not the same as avoiding them altogether� Drawing inspiration from other texts is what builds knowledge, and it is not only necessary but very good practice to become better writers ourselves� We just need to know how to do it properly, using these techniques: Quotations

Summary of thoughts

Paraphrasing

WRITING

Imagine you are working on an article and want to use the information in the following paragraph without being accused of plagiarism: Music is something that almost all of us have encountered and that most have a relationship to. In our everyday lives, we meet music in many different ways: through TV, radio, and even in public places like in stores. Every time we go to the movies, the experience is enhanced with music that helps reinforce the drama or suspense of the movie. Avdic & Fredriksson (2005), bachelor thesis in Psychology� University of Örebro�

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Quotations When quoting you use the exact same words as the original� If you leave out words or sentences, mark those with […]� Indicate the excerpt with quotation marks and directly in the text state the name of the author and the year of the publication� Just like Avdic and Fredriksson (2005) say: “In our everyday lives, […] we meet music in many different ways”. This is all very true and I believe that …

Summary of thoughts When summarizing, you trim a long text down to a few sentences� You do not use quotation marks, but still make a reference to the original writers because the ideas are clearly theirs� Also, make sure you understand what you have read so as to make a correct summary� What seems to be the core of the matter, according to Avdic & Fredriksson (2005), is that we have music all around us in our lives and it seems to be used for many different purposes.

Paraphrasing This is the most difficult one� It is not as exact as a quotation, but it is more detailed than a summary� The challenge is to extract the information but use your own words� Paraphasing can be described as “how you would have written it if you had created the idea”� We all know that music is all around us, and if we go out, we cannot avoid it. It is everywhere and we cannot choose whether we want to listen to it or not: like when going to the movies, or going shopping. (Avdic & Fredriksson, 2005)

A good way to paraphrase is to… 1 Read the source� 2 Write down a list of facts� 3 Write your own text based on those facts (not on the text in the source)�

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Reading In this chapter you will learn to identify the style of different text types� We will look at some effective strategies for handling typical reading test questions, pinpointing the main idea of a text and getting past words you do not understand� You will also learn to evaluate the credibility of factual texts� For fictional texts you will study some literary concepts and learn to analyze literature�

Keep reading, please

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RE ADING

Reading is a receptive, passive activity that does not require you to produce anything� However – as with any other skill – we need to practice it continually to become good at it� Decoding letters in a text is in fact a very complex and unnatural process for our brains and we need to train our neural synapses to work effectively and successfully at this� When learning to read, once we have acquired the basic skill of translating letters into sounds and words, hypothetically we can read any text, but far from everyone can understand any text� When going on to higher education, the ability to digest, understand and memorize large masses of text (often with tight deadlines and often in English) is vital, and we need to equip ourselves with effective strategies to cope�

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Genres – types of texts Different texts have different things in common� For instance, when reading a news article you immediately recognize it as such, not only because it is placed in a newspaper and displays all the typical layout features, but because something in the text itself tells you that it is, in fact, an article and not a piece of fiction� All news articles have common linguistic features regarding what kind of words are used, the way sentences are constructed and how information is organized� These common traits make up what is known as a genre or text type� Examples of written genres are: ●

Factual texts: investigative paper, news article, personal letter, essay, review, instruction� Fictional texts: horror, science fiction, drama, comedy, romance, fantasy, personal narrative�

The reason why you will find a particular kind of language in a particular genre is because it is aimed at one group of readers� A scientific paper, for example, is written for an audience that is interested in and accustomed to sharing scientific findings, while a personal letter is aimed at a friend or a family member� Knowledge about different genres will improve your understanding of everything you read�

Spot the genre Work with a partner� The three texts below deal with the same basic story, but in different ways� Working with them should enable you to grasp of what is meant by genre, and some typical traits of each� 1 Skim the three texts and match one genre to each: personal narrative (fiction) news article scientific paper 2 Read again, more closely: What is it exactly that tells you what genre it is? Try to describe the particular style of each text (vocabulary, sentence structure and information structure)� 3 Point out where the texts differ the most and what similarities they have� Which one is the most informative? The most entertaining? The most objective?

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1. MAGIC ROCK FOuND IN BORNEO Last Tuesday a team of researchers from the University of Cambridge, UK, were amazed when they literally stumbled across a seemingly insignificant piece of rock, deep in the jungles of remote Borneo� “This geological oddity has apparently been known to the locals for generations,” reports geologist Leyla Adams� Local tribes of the region claim the rock to be magic, and an important component in traditional medicine and for ceremonial purposes� What does the rock actually do, and why has it been labeled magic? Adams explains, “The rock is bright red and it seems to be able to cure diseases� If placed on a person with a heart condition, it will gleam brightly and the patient is, according to locals, instantly cured� Supposedly, it works for everything from the common cold to serious life-threatening conditions�” Samples of the rock are now on their way to the UK for further testing, and it is still too early to comment on its potential medical qualities� This will not be the first time that a medical breakthrough occurs by coincidence, nor is it the first time that it occurs in one of the most remote areas of our planet� Each year, medical researchers find new components for drugs in jungle-covered regions of the world� RE ADING

2. BORNEONITE – A PROPOSED TEST SERIES Even though no empirical evidence is yet available for the recently discovered geological matter named borneonite, its benefit for medical purposes is certified by indigenous tribes in Borneo, where it was unveiled� The find is exciting enough in itself, being previously unknown to scientists and showing geologically unprecedented features of fluorescence� Fluorescent qualities in rocks

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are common, but previously only seen when provoked under controlled conditions, not in its natural state (Riesling, 2001)� As for borneonite’s acclaimed medical potential, traditional uses will function as the basis for clinical trials� Placebo effects and other psychological biases have to be controlled, but since borneonite supposedly functions via direct contact with human skin, clinical testing should be relatively easy� Dr� Adams, present in Borneo at the time of its discovery, witnessed the powerful effect borneonite had on patients’ health status, even after relatively short exposure� This, however, may be a result of strong psychological belief in its power� There is a healthy skepticism towards borneonite, but note that even quinine before passing clinical trials, was once frowned upon� The proposed series of testing will commence with a standardized, randomized, double-blinded procedure� Subjects (n=100) with the same medical conditions will be divided into two groups of equal size and assigned treatment with either borneonite (test group), or regular granite (control group)� Significance levels are set to p = 0�05, and variables are based on personal reports by subjects and on professional assessment�

3. THE DAY OF THE DISCOVERY Nothing can still my excitement� We had been toiling through specimens and samples from the region for weeks on end now, and come up with nothing more than clay and insects, but today was different� What we witnessed is nothing short of magic� This morning, our team was up in one of the local villages and it was after we had taken out our lunch (some kind of rodent in a stew and rice) that a man, tall but bent over with pain, arrived asking for the witch doctor� I followed them into the house where they would give him his treatment and what ensued made me speechless� The old man was arched; his spine bent as a banana� From a cupboard in the corner the witch doctor drew a small leather bag, from which he produced a brightly colored stone� The old man lay down on his belly and the doctor started rubbing his back with the piece of rock� A light filled the room; it was like the blaze of a fire, and it seemed to come from that stone� Stunned by the experience I had my translator ask about the stone: the doctor gave me its name in the native tongue and explained how they have used it for centuries to cure all sorts of diseases�

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I have to get a sample of the stone for closer inspection tomorrow� This could mean a breakthrough in the field of medicine� It seems that people here do not suffer from any serious diseases at all – is it due to a magical device? It reminds me of the first stories from the Amazon regions, where locals ate bark, knowing that it would prevent malaria� The substance in the bark was quinine, from which the British later learned to make tonic� I am too excited to sleep now and I still see the light of that marvelous stone before my eyes� I have to have it�

Follow-up The three texts differ a lot in tone and vocabulary, even though they communicate roughly the same content� ●

What is the “feeling” you get from them? How much emotion is put into each one? What different purposes do they have, and how might that affect the way language is used?

Factual texts Strategies for reading Whatever the text or the situation; make a habit of asking yourself a few questions before starting to read� They will save you a great amount of time and effort�

RE ADING

1 What type of text is this? (short story, news article, letter, etc�) Based on the text type you can probably predict what the structure will be like, and reading it will become less daunting� 2 What do i already know about the subject? By activating the area of your brain that deals with the topic you can try to predict some of the content and by this feel more prepared and familiarized� 3 What is my purpose? You will read differently if your purpose is to answer questions, summarize the text for colleagues or learn for your own pleasure� 4 can i take notes? Reading is easier if you have a chance to write and underline in the text, or use a notepad� 5 does the language seem complicated? If it does, use a dictionary�

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Vocabulary and Grammar In this chapter you will receive useful tips on how to expand your vocabulary in your everyday life, and learn to avoid a couple of linguistic traps when doing so: homophones and “false friends”� You will also look at a list of the five most common grammar mistakes, along with quick explanations to help you dodge them�

Building your language Vocabulary and grammar studies are aspects of your language development that are as important as learning numbers and symbols in Math, or countries and oceans in Geography� You simply cannot do without them, and so you might as well make a conscious effort to actively work on those areas� You do not need to look for long to find great places and opportunities to pick up more English, it is literally all around you! Just keep your ears and eyes open and take it in actively� The easiest and best way of doing that is to make it a habit of keeping a notepad next to you while you watch something in English, or by repeating new words in your head as you hear them� Go over the tips and see which ones you think you could make a habit of�

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SYNONYMS Every now and then, stop at words that you hear or read and check how many other words you know that mean roughly the same thing�

Hungry → starving … famishing … peckish …

By doing this you will keep your vocabulary alive as it stops you from forgetting old words� Whenever you learn a new word, make sure to repeat it together with the synonyms you already know�

CAN YOu SAY IT DIFFERENTLY? This is similar to “Synonyms”, but this time you change whole expressions by saying the same thing in different words�

When you hear: That’s exactly how it is! In your head, you go: That is the way it is, The situation looks exactly like that, or It is precisely like that!

Try to use the different versions when you speak and write�

FIVE-TEN When watching a movie, write down five interesting expressions that you already knew and ten totally new ones that you had never heard before� This way, you will learn new vocabulary and at the same time you remind yourself of what you already know�

WORD/ExPRESSION OF THE DAY The word-of-the-day principle means simply: every day, in class or outside, try to use one new word or expression that you just picked up�

LOOK WORDS uP When you hear words or expressions that you do not recognize; look them up immediately� It takes a little effort but if you make a habit of it your vocabulary will grow quite quickly�

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LExIS A final concept that is important is lexis� Usually, when talking about learning new vocabulary, we mean individual words in a glossary� Learning lexis, on the other hand, is to work with sample sentences as a way of remembering new words and expressions� When new vocabulary is put into a meaningful context it is a lot easier to memorize� Moreover, if you add a brief explanation to each sentence, it will be it even easier to understand and remember� See the difference between a list of words and a lexis list:

GLOSSARY

LExIS

meticulous = mycket noggrann

She dressed meticulously. (She was very careful with what clothes she put on.)

elaborate = genomarbetad

Her new creation was really elaborate. (It was very well worked through.)

Pretext = förevändning

Under the pretext of being hurt, he left the field (He made an excuse to leave.)

Homophones Sometimes we put our foot in it by using the wrong word completely� Quite commonly, it is the fault of homophones (homo= the same, phone = sound, or sounding)� Homophones are words that sound exactly the same but are spelled differently and have totally different meanings� Beware of homophones, and look them up if you are not sure�

Define the meaning… … of the following homophones: whole/hole their/there/they’re his/he’s its/it’s than/then where/wear aloud/allowed meet/meat lose/loose

Do you know some more?

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vocabul ary & Gr ammar

board/bored brake/break genes/jeans plain/plane coarse/course peace/piece made/maid straight/strait pain/pane

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Mats Fredriksson

The English Handbook The English Handbook är indelad i avsnitten Speaking, Listening, Writing, Reading och Vocabulary and Grammar. Handboken är skriven för svenska elever med Gy 2011 i fokus. Den innehåller information, tips och praktiska övningar för klassrummet och verkligheten. Här finns bland annat: ●

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The English Handbook finns också som digitalbok ISBN 27-42964-2. På www.nok.se/laromedel finns extramaterial för lärare och elever.

The English Handbook

Handfast struktur genom Engelska 5, 6 och 7

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k o o b d n Ha Mats Fredriksson

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