Electrical Review – Summer 2024

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Voltage victory Could voltage optimisation help us successfully cut energy waste? Second charge at life Unlocking the potential of second life EV batteries. Grid goals Is ‘Beyond 2030’ our path to net zero? Summer 2024 Volume 258 | No 2 www.electricalreview.co.uk Informing the electrical industry for over 150 years The European Market Leader in Home Life Safety #Alarms Save Lives 30 0 0 SERIES FULL CIRCLE PROTECTION Add the Ei3000MRF for wireless interconnection and data extraction via the Ei1000G Gateway Smart, connected and future-proof. The technologically advanced 3000 Series includes both Multi-Sensor and Single-Sensor alarms, detecting Fire and Carbon Monoxide from just one range, while maintaining the simplicity that installers love. www.aico.co.uk | 01691 664100 | enquiries@aico.co.uk 3000 Series NEW.indd 1 13/05/2024 09:33:59 16 18 21


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08 Cabling

What should you take into consideration when it comes to selecting a cable protection solution?

12 Renewables

Chris Sadler of Kimble Solar highlights the financial, environmental, and marketability benefits of solar for renovation projects.

14 Sustainability

Does the future of electrification rely on circular supply chains to meet sustainability targets and reduce environmental impact?

18 Energy Storage

Matthew Lumsden reveals how repurposed EV batteries are revolutionising stationary storage solutions for a sustainable future.

21 Power Generation, Transmission & Distribution

Can National Grid ESO’s ‘Beyond 2030’ plan drive the UK to net zero? Peter Ridge of Cundall explores the transformative blueprint.

23 Lighting

Chris Anderson of Ansell Lighting reveals how smart lighting is changing energy efficiency, design, and wellbeing in modern spaces.

26 Building Services

Are you ready? That’s the question being asked by Paul Collins from the NICEIC, as he discusses the upcoming heat pump revolution.

www.electricalreview.co.uk 3
04 Editor’s Comment
14 23



Race to the bottom

The UK led the world through the industrial revolution at the beginning of the 20th Century. In the fight against Covid-19, the UK was the first country to administer a vaccine outside of clinical trials. And in the race against climate change, the UK threw its support behind offshore wind – which has helped us decarbonise faster than any other G20 country since 2000.

It’s a fact to say that on many fronts, the UK leads, while the rest of the world follows. However, it seems that some in the ruling Conservative Party would rather we take a step back from that role, especially where it concerns decarbonisation.

In an interview with the Metro, Lord Callanan, the Minister for Energy Efficiency and Green Finance, called for the UK to slow down in its quest for net zero, as it risks putting the UK at a ‘competitive disadvantage’. Words that echo those of the Prime Minister.

The problem with that assessment is that the world is decarbonising, whether we like it or not. Just take a look at some of the UK’s top firms –97 of the FTSE 100 have started their journey to net zero, as of October 2023.

By leading the way in decarbonisation, the UK is being competitive –maybe not in the industries of the past, but it’s ready to capitalise on the economy of tomorrow. Already, there have been numerous success stories for the UK on this front – whether it’s homegrown EV charging outfits, or innovative energy providers.

That’s why I say instead of taking our foot off the pedal, we should be looking at ways to harness our early lead to help the rest of the world decarbonise. That way British firms and the wider UK economy can benefit, rather than fighting over who gets the last of the gas money.

Instead, it seems the Government is willing to capitulate to the likes of the Chinese on almost every front – whether it’s building the batteries that we’ll need for electric vehicles and energy storage, or the solar panels that will help much of the world generate clean power.

Thankfully, the industry as a whole here in the UK continues to innovate and look for ways to engineer our sustainable future. For those of you who missed our most recent Powered On: Sustainability event, it gave a thought-provoking insight on that very topic, and you can catch it all on the Electrical Review website.

Plus for those who want to learn even more about the direction the UK electrical industry is headed, the main Powered On Live event will be back on June 12-13, 2024.


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4 Electrical Review | Summer 2024
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Digital Substations – The Next Step into the Future of our Grid

As Product Manager for DANEO 400, I am working on exciting and pioneering solutions for utilities to support their transition to Digital Substations. Our goal is to provide an efficient tool for testing and commissioning the new aspects of substations based on IEC 61850. Our DANEO 400 device records and analyzes all conventional signals, GOOSE and Sampled Values in the substation communication network. These features make it ideal for merging unit testing, network communication testing, and troubleshooting.


www.electricalreview.co.uk 5
Matthias Wehinger Product Manager

The European Market Leader in Home Life Safety


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#Alarms Save Lives

Smoke alarm installs: the hidden requirement in BS 7671

Aico shares an important insight into an occasionally overlooked requirement of BS 7671, ensuring that you won’t be caught out.

Don’t get caught off guard! Even if you’re familiar with BS 7671 and the electrical wiring regulations, you might be missing a crucial detail lurking within its pages. This seemingly innocuous line tucked away at the back holds major implications for electricians – and your next smoke alarm installation could depend on it.

That line simply states: “Fire detection and fire alarm systems shall comply with the relevant parts of BS 5839 series.” But what it truly means is that BS 5839:6, another British Standard specifically dealing with fire alarm systems, is inseparable from BS 7671 when it comes to smoke alarm installations. Remember, the word ‘shall’ in the appendix clarifies – complying with BS 5839:6 isn’t optional, it’s mandatory.

Membership matters: why compliance is key

For electricians, adhering to BS 7671 is essential. It’s the foundation for maintaining your NICEIC or equivalent membership – and your good standing in the industry. So, that paragraph linking BS 7671 to BS 5839:6 leaves no room for ambiguity. New smoke alarm installations or partial upgrades must meet the minimum requirements of BS5839:6, which vary depending on the type of property:

• Rented properties: Grade D1 Category LD2 is the minimum.

• Private dwellings: Grade D2 Category LD2 (New/Materially altered property or where rewire is undertaken), Grade D2 Category LD3 in existing properties.

The standard states that the level of protection for occupants needs to be directly related to the fire risk. The categories of system describe the level of protection provided:

• Category LD2: A system incorporating detectors in all circulation areas that form part of the escape routes from the premises, and in all specified rooms or areas that present a high fire risk to occupants, including any kitchen and the principal habitable room.

• Category LD3: A system incorporating detectors in all circulation areas that form part of the escape routes from the premises.

Real-world example: avoiding costly oversights

Working alongside local housing providers in your area, upgrading kitchens and bathrooms, heat alarms get installed in kitchens during the upheaval – a smart move. But what about the rest of the house? If the living area is not equipped with a smoke alarm, the entire installation fails to comply with BS 5839:6, and consequently, BS 7671.

Missing that single alarm could mean trouble:

• Rework and frustration: You might need to rip up carpets and floorboards to install the missing alarm, adding time and complexity to the project.

• Damage and delays: Unforeseen property damage and potentially upset clients are never desired outcomes.

Radio frequency:

a modern solution

But there’s good news! Wireless Radio Frequency (RF) technology offers a convenient and flexible alternative to traditional wired systems. With RF products and accessories, you can avoid the hassle of lifting floorboards and keep everything neat and tidy.

Products like Aico’s Ei3000MRF Module are part of the next generation of Radio Frequency Wireless Interconnection. The Ei3000MRF Module allows for wireless interconnection and data extraction when installed into any of Aico’s 3000 Series alarms.

Stay in the know, stay compliant

For electricians in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, complying with BS 7671’s point 560.10 boils down to one thing: mastering BS 5839:6. Remember, Grade D1 Category LD2 is the minimum for rentals, and Grade D1 Category LD2 is the standard for private dwellings. Don’t let a hidden requirement trip you up – stay informed, stay compliant, and keep your clients safe.

To stay up to date with the latest legislation and British Standards, visit www.aico.co.uk

www.electricalreview.co.uk 7 SPONSORED FEATURE

Corrosion-resistant cable protection: Key considerations for external applications

Robert Sprason, Technical Sales Manager from Atkore, explores some of the considerations when selecting cable protection that can withstand corrosive environmental impacts and ensure system longevity.

Electrical cabling in external applications is typically exposed to harsh operational environments. Whether it’s the damaging effects from UV radiation, potential water ingress and salt spray conditions, to name a few, it is vital that this cabling is protected, and due consideration is paid when specifying and installing protective conduit systems and cable management solutions.

However, many operators may be unaware that their conduit systems and fittings have not been specified correctly. Corrosion can result in system failure and the exposure of cables, which can have a significant impact on operational performance and uptime – not to mention profitability.

What is corrosion?

Corrosion is a process of deterioration within metals caused by chemical reactions within the surrounding environment. Metals with low or no chromium will naturally corrode and deteriorate due to long-term exposure to moisture naturally present in the air, and this process can be accelerated by exposure to certain properties and environmental factors. It can affect the electrical system, potentially compromising electrical reliability for wired terminations, leading to increased resistance and electrical system faults.

Metallic, flexible liquid-tight conduit systems are used as an effective means of cable protection, but if specified incorrectly could contribute to potential system failure. Cable protection is often overlooked with the lowest cost option specified, resulting in a false economy when considering whole life costs.

Cable protection should therefore be specified as a complete end-

to-end system, considering not only the flexible conduit used, but the range of termination and fittings used too, as well as appropriate cable management and routing.

Challenging environments

One of the first areas to consider is the range of external hazards that the cables and infrastructure may encounter. For example, in harsh marine environments, electrical infrastructure can be exposed to salt-laden air, UV radiation and extremes of temperature.

Another area of concern for electrical contractors and installers is meeting the challenges of electrical vehicle charging. The EV charging point will likely be installed outside and exposed to the elements, with the electricity supplied through cables running underground.

These cables will typically be buried in concrete, with a platform or pre-cast slab supporting the charging point above. The flexible conduit solution specified must therefore have excellent resistance to compression, as well as considering the highly corrosive nature of the concrete itself.

Polypropylene conduit can be an ideal option in this scenario, as opposed to metallic systems. With high impact and abrasion resistance, the material also provides good electrical insulation and weathering qualities.

It also offers excellent chemical resistance should the concrete start to degrade through exposure to chlorides present in water or through carbonation, which affects the natural alkalinity of the concrete.

A further consideration is in solar PV installations. As solar PV installations gain momentum, so too does the need to protect vulnerable electrical cabling and equipment that will be exposed to the elements.

These are subject to a wide variety of hazards, with interconnected cabling typically experiencing prolonged exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Over time, these incorrectly specified protection systems can become degraded or damaged, exposing necessary cabling and leading to potential failure.

Not only does cable protection play a part, but additionally, the shelter of vital electrical equipment components such as inverters or battery storage must be considered. New modular solar shelters now available on

8 Electrical Review | Summer 2024 CABLING

the market can offer an ideal solution to providing additional protection from harsh weather elements.

Corrosion resistance

Materials can often fail due to corrosion, pitting and deposit attack. For this reason, stainless steel is often used in the industry due to its high levels of corrosion resistance.

However, this resistance can be compromised when exposed to chlorides, which are prevalent in supply waters and detergents. Furthermore, the grade of stainless steel will also dictate its effectiveness, with Grade 316 often specified where there is risk of pitting and crevice corrosion.

Elastomeric materials are commonly used for seals and gaskets, but performance properties can vary depending on the compound mix. Chemicals present in cleaning agents and processing fluids can also determine the performance of elastomeric materials and their resistance to corrosion.


High temperatures can cause materials to degrade faster and significantly reduce service lifespan, while low temperatures can make materials brittle and potentially lead to cracking. Elastomeric materials can expand or contract depending on the ambient temperature, requiring special consideration if used in conjunction with metallic products.

Ingress protection

Exposure to water ingress and extreme temperatures are commonplace and the effects of these can result in premature product failure, which in turn leads to increased downtime and operating costs.

If specified correctly, there are a range of suitable flexible conduit systems that can offer effective cable protection, it’s important to look for a minimum IP66 rating. For high-risk locations or environments where enhanced IP levels or temperature performance are required, nylon systems could be used to achieve IP66, IP67, IP68 and IP69 performance using technically advanced fittings.

Chemical composition

Materials and coatings need to be durable and resist damage and abrasion. While manufacturers typically publish data demonstrating a material’s relative performance against attack from one chemical, should a combination or greater concentration of chemicals occur, then this needs to be considered. The impact elevated temperatures can have on chemical composition is another important consideration.

“ As solar PV installations gain momentum, so too does the need to protect vulnerable electrical cabling

Explosion protection

Some environments require consideration for explosion protection, for example, resulting from the presence of airborne fine dust particles from ingredients and chemicals or in hazardous ATEX environments.

Users should ensure that electrical cables are protected adequately and terminated using appropriately rated hazardous area fittings such as Ex d barrier glands or Ex e fittings.

Bottom line

The importance of correctly specified cable protection in external applications cannot be overstated. Harsh operational environments pose significant challenges, from corrosion to temperature extremes and ingress of water to name a few.

By understanding the diverse environmental risks and selecting appropriate materials and fittings, operators can ensure the longevity and reliability of their electrical infrastructure.

Investing in correctly specified flexible conduit systems not only safeguards against potential failures but also contributes to cost savings and operational efficiency in the long run. In an era of expanding renewable energy installations, such as solar PV, the need for robust cable protection solutions is more pertinent than ever.

www.electricalreview.co.uk 9 CABLING

Signify presents LumXpert The ultimate tool for electrical installers

In today’s technologically advanced and ever-evolving world, electricians are constantly on the lookout for tools that can make their work more efficient and convenient. The 2000s have seen a surge in mobile applications designed specifically for electricians working in the UK. These apps cater to various needs such as project management, calculations, and electrical planning, becoming an essential part of a modern electrician’s toolkit.

Whether it’s a scenario of installing lighting in an office space or warehouse, or simply replacing the lights in a facility, a job like this can come with a myriad of challenges. Finding the right products, partnering with suppliers, getting accurate quotes, and ensuring compliance with specific workspace regulations and requirements are just a few of the hurdles. As an electrician in the UK, you know that keeping up with the latest technology can be a real challenge.

How can the app help?

Market studies show that ordering online, either through traditional wholesalers, marketplaces, or new online pure players, is increasing. Studies and market trends also show that:

• Working on the go: Electricians are always on the move, working at various job sites or in different locations. With a mobile app, they can carry a comprehensive toolkit in their pocket, eliminating the need to lug around bulky manuals, reference materials, or physical tools.

• Staying up-to-date on the latest trends and regulations: Electrical codes and standards continuously evolve, and electricians must stay current with the latest regulations. Access to real-time information helps electricians make informed decisions, ensure compliance, and maintain high standards of safety and quality.

• Handy tool for electrical jobs: Leading their companies and running daily operations, electricians/installers have a busy day with a diverse range of tasks, from finding customers to purchasing equipment, to

SPONSORED FEATURE 10 Electrical Review | Summer 2024

installation, invoicing, and after-sales service. While they are a superskilled workforce, having a companion like Signify LumXpert can make the job easy while on the go.

Introducing Signify LumXpert

Signify, the manufacturer of Philips Lighting, strongly believes in supporting the personal and professional growth of the electrician and installer community by providing training and upskilling on a wide range of topics, innovative solutions to create new business opportunities,

as well as keeping professional installers up-to-date with industry regulations and new trends and technologies.

Built on more than several years of industry collaboration, LumXpert is the new marketplace specialised in lighting, developed for and with small and medium-sized installation companies to allow them to create fast quotes, compare prices and availability, order products through the platform from wholesalers, design and expand their lighting expertise.

The purpose of the app is to constantly create possibilities for installers to make their jobs easier, faster, and simpler. The app offers installers instant quotes from multiple wholesalers based on project and product details, with a simplified purchasing process directly within the app. This enables users to buy from associated wholesalers with transparent information on prices and availability. Additionally, installers will have access to exclusive financing options.

LumXpert is now available on the App Store and Google Play Store in the UK. Scan the QR code to download the app and get a 15% discount on your first purchase of Philips products.

The all-in-one tool:

• Quickly find the right products for your lighting job through the extensive Philips portfolio of LED lamps and tubes, luminaires, and more.

• Compare prices, check product availability, and get immediate quotes across multiple wholesalers with your LumXpert account – no need for one with each of them.

• Buy and track your order and delivery status, receiving it in a maximum of 48 hours.

• Create simple light plans based on projects, download them, and share them with your customer.

• Get direct access to our lighting experts’ customer service.

The tools of the trade for a modern-day electrician include more than pliers, screwdrivers, wire strippers, and power drills. Today’s electrical expert uses technology to help get the job done. Your smartphone holds the key to everything from making calculations to invoicing clients. While apps won’t take the place of professional knowledge, Signify LumXpert can be the tool to make working life easier. From Signify, along with the wholesale sector, LumXpert arrives with installers’ needs in mind to assist them in their daily work and contribute to the digitalisation of the lighting industry.

www.electricalreview.co.uk 11 SPONSORED FEATURE
Download the
off on your first purchase.
app and get 15%
Why solar should be installed on all

renovation projects

12 Electrical Review | Summer 2024

Sadler, CEO


explains why he believes that solar is the obvious

choice for developers, and why it should be adopted on all renovations.

s the world becomes increasingly conscious of the need for sustainable and eco-friendly practices, the construction industry is under pressure to adopt greener solutions. One such solution that has emerged as a game-changer is solar energy.

For developers, embracing solar power in their renovation projects is not just a responsible choice, but a strategic one that offers numerous benefits. It’s also easy to install, relatively low cost in the grand scheme of renewable solutions and helps to work towards the government’s carbon targets of 2025.

Here are some of the other major benefits developers can see when adding solar to their projects.

Meeting customer expectations

With consumers seeking sustainable living that also delivers on cost savings, knowing that the property they purchase is contributing to a greener future, as well as saving on monthly costs by having solar already installed is a major plus. By incorporating solar energy into renovation projects, developers can position themselves as forward-thinking and responsive to consumer demands. Actively showcasing sustainable energy options can set them apart from standard developments and make them more appealing to the energy and environmentally-conscious buyers of today.

Increased property attractiveness and marketability

With energy costs being a major concern for homeowners, properties equipped with solar systems offer a significant advantage. Developers can

market their renovated properties as energy-efficient, promising to lower utility bills for prospective buyers or tenants. During times of economic uncertainty and rising costs, this can be a great selling point that sets their properties apart from the competition. Reputable solar installers will be able to provide the developer with a comprehensive outline of potential energy and cost savings which can then be passed onto the potential buyer.

“ By putting the needs of the planet first and being genuinely green, developers can know that they have caused as little damage as possible to the environment

Improved Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs)

In England, properties are required to have an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) that rates their energy efficiency. The integration of solar power systems can significantly improve a property’s EPC rating, making it more attractive to potential buyers or renters who prioritise energy efficiency. Higher EPC ratings not only enhance marketability but also help developers meet energy efficiency targets and regulatory requirements.

Genuinely reducing environmental impact

It’s not just enough to talk the talk, developers also need to walk the walk and want their projects to be as low impacting on the environment as possible. Ultimately, solar energy is a clean, renewable source that reduces our reliance on fossil fuels. By putting the needs of the planet first and being genuinely green, developers can know that they have caused as little damage as possible to the environment, whilst still operating a highly profitable business.

Bulk purchasing power and long-term partnerships

By committing to solar power across multiple renovation projects, developers can leverage their purchasing power to secure favourable pricing from solar installation companies. Establishing long-term partnerships with reputable solar providers can lead to cost savings, streamlined installation processes, and ongoing support and maintenance services.

It also shows a longstanding commitment to renewables. Businesses can share their partnership on social channels, through internal and external comms and share within their marketing material therefore also benefiting the solar provider and upping the developer’s green credentials and reputation.

As the world transitions towards a more sustainable future, the construction industry has a crucial role to play in reducing its environmental impact. By embracing solar power in their renovation projects, developers can position themselves as leaders in the movement towards eco-friendly construction practices. Not only does solar energy offer financial benefits and increased marketability, but it also aligns with the growing demand for sustainable living options and contributes to a healthier planet for future generations.

www.electricalreview.co.uk 13 RENEWABLES

The future of electrification is circular

A circular supply chain will be critical if we are to meet all our sustainability targets, according to Olimpia Bertarini, Global Purchasing Director, ZAPI GROUP.

The quiet hum of electric vehicles gliding through city streets and the growing adoption of renewable resources paints a picture of a world shifting away from fossil fuels. However, this transition presents a new question: how can we ensure the sustainability of the supply chains driving this transformation?

In today’s ‘normal’ supply chain model, materials are produced, used, and then discarded, which is wasteful and damaging to the environment. Concerns about these supply chain practices have led to increased interest in circular supply chains, systems designed to minimise waste and maximise resource reuse throughout the product life cycle. Electrification comes with its own environmental burdens. Mining the raw materials required, like cobalt, lithium, and manganese, can have a significant environmental impact. Circular supply chains offer a path forward by recovering and reusing valuable resources from used batteries

and components, leading to a smaller environmental footprint. While implementing a circular supply chain may have higher initial costs due to new processes and infrastructure, these can be offset by reduced reliance on virgin materials, avoiding price fluctuations of materials, lower logistics costs due to localization, and, in some cases, government incentives like tax breaks.



demands a circular approach

As circular supply chains gain traction in the industrial and commercial equipment sectors, they present some unique challenges. One hurdle is catering to the varied life cycles of different product generations within the same equipment category. Weak regulations and different practices across regions also add complexity. Despite these challenges, the potential benefits for resource security and sustainability are undeniable.

As electrification grows, so does the need for circularity. But how should companies scale their circular supply chains? I was honoured to be part of a recent panel discussion on this topic, and one of my fellow panellists was Tom Nguyen, Vice President of Business Development and Product Strategy at Inventus Power. In his opinion, “It has to be design heritage. Although implementing new processes takes time, it will have a rolling impact and eventually become ingrained in your company culture.”

Adopting a regional approach

Building circular supply chains isn’t one-size-fits-all. Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) may have different definitions of circularity depending on their markets. According to another fellow panellist, Zhao Wang, Strategy and Business Development at TE Connectivity, “It’s valuable to understand what circularity means to our customers. We can translate their requirements into technical aspects of our product design, ultimately embedding the concept of circularity.”

14 Electrical Review | Summer 2024

Understanding regional variations allows manufacturers to design solutions that meet their customers’ needs, follow local regulations, make products easier to recycle, and utilise recycled materials available in the region.

The widespread adoption of electrification presents some challenges in the UK and Europe. The level of progress and regulations around electrification vary greatly across regions. This lack of consistency can make collaboration across the supply chain difficult. Additionally, navigating the availability and suitability of recycled materials across Europe can be challenging.

Education can overcome initial resistance to the adoption of circular supply chains. Government initiatives, campaigns by non-profits, and even company marketing strategies can raise awareness about circularity and its benefits. Governments can also incentivise circular practices. For example, financial incentives or tax breaks can make or break a company’s decision to adopt circular practices.

Using the carrot, not the stick

While regulatory mandates are undeniably driving companies to adopt circular supply chains, they can be a double-edged sword. An overemphasis on compliance can lead to short-sighted approaches. Successful circularity requires upfront planning and collaboration across the entire supply chain. The European Union’s well-crafted battery directives serve as a prime example of how regulations can drive meaningful and sustainable change.

Once a company has decided to implement a circular supply chain, focusing on key strategies can help them do so effectively. Designing products with the principles of ‘reduce, reuse, recycle’ in mind minimises waste. Prioritising component and material reuse lowers reliance on raw materials. Developing robust component tracking systems further supports this goal. By having access to a

component’s usage history, manufacturers can determine suitability for second-life applications.

Technology such as Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP) systems can be adapted to manage the complexities of circular supply chains. Real-time data from Internet of Things (IoT) sensors and AI analysis can further improve component tracking and optimise the recycling process itself.

Building a clean, circular supply chain starts with open communication between all stakeholders. By agreeing on standardised methods for measuring and reporting recyclability and emissions, progress towards ESG goals can be tracked, and areas that need improvement can be identified.

“ Successful circularity requires upfront planning and collaboration across the entire supply chain

Standardisation gives a baseline to measure suppliers against to ensure they are compliant with regulations and ESG goals. Companies can leverage third-party platforms to track each component and supplier, enabling them to provide their customers with a snapshot of compliance for each finished product.

Good communication within the supply chain also allows stakeholders to learn from each other. Sharing best practices and new ideas fuels innovation, accelerating progress towards a more sustainable future.

The future of industrial and commercial equipment sector electrification hinges on embracing circular supply chains. While challenges exist, like managing different product lifecycles and navigating weak regulations, the benefits are undeniable.

OEMs who prioritise designing for circularity from the start, collaborate across the supply chain, and adapt to regional variations will be best positioned to thrive. By focusing on component reuse, leveraging technology for tracking and optimisation, and working towards standardised measurement practices, circular supply chains can become a true force for environmental sustainability.

The road ahead requires long-term commitment and innovation, but the rewards – a secure resource future and a cleaner planet – are well worth the effort.

www.electricalreview.co.uk 15 SUSTAINABILITY


How it can help UK businesses decarbonise

If humanity is to transition to Net Zero by 2050, we’ll have to completely phase out fossil fuels in the next 30 years.

Developing renewables is essential, but we’re making the job 8% harder than it has to be, says Ged Hebdige, Technical Director at voltage optimisation specialist, Powerdown220.

According to the Climate Change Act, the UK is legally required to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 0% of 1990 levels by 2050. There’s no doubt that switching from a fossil fuel powered energy system to a renewable electricity powered one is the way to do that. But a hangover from the standardisation of European grid voltages means that, across the country, many of us are using around 8% more electricity than necessary.

Meet in the middle

Historically, the grid supply in the UK and Commonwealth nations was approximately 240V, while it was 220V in Continental Europe. In 1993, to streamline manufacturing and avoid the need for two separate sets of equipment for different regions, the European Union opted to standardise the voltage to 230V.

As a result of this decision, the UK National Grid is required to provide voltage at 230V, with a tolerance of plus 10% or minus 6%. In other words, the voltage supply in the UK should fall within the range of 216V to 253V.

All electrical equipment marked with the CE symbol is designed to function properly at 220V. That’s within the range of UK grid voltage

but well below the average supply of 242V. This means that electrical equipment in the UK is being consistently overvolted. The grid supply voltage is higher than necessary, and the extra voltage is wasted energy.

Financial consequences

For businesses, perhaps the most significant consequence of overvolting is an increased electricity bill. On average, I normally see companies paying 8% more than necessary, though it ranges from five to 12. This was felt most keenly in August 2022 when day-ahead baseload contracts hit a record high of £364 per MWh.

For companies with high consumption, 8% is not negligible. In 2022, the UK used 320.7 TWh of electricity and, even at 2024’s relatively low tariffs of £76 per MWh, 8% of that consumption would be worth £1.9 billion.

Running electrical appliances at higher voltages can also shorten their potential lifespan, increasing maintenance costs. According to UK Wiring Regs, the BS 7671 requirement for electrical installations, state that “any CE marked appliance with a design voltage of 230V, when required to work at a constant voltage of 240V and above, will consume more energy and suffer a shortened working life of up to 46%.”

16 Electrical Review | Summer 2024

One reason for this is that overvolting increases heat in an electrical appliance. It’s difficult to quantify exact numbers but, in general, every increase of 10°C halves an appliance’s lifespan.


Arguably far more important than short-term financial impact are the long-term environmental effects of wasting that much energy. To achieve net zero as quickly as possible, efficiency is the name of the game. The more energy we waste, the more we have to produce, and while renewables are an essential part of the energy transition, minimising wastage should be a priority.

Voltage optimisation (VO) technology can help here. The basic principle behind VO is to reduce the voltage level from the average 242V of the incoming grid supply to match the 220V that electrical equipment needs.

VO is a transformer-based technology and acts as a buffer between the incoming electrical supply and the equipment receiving it. An optimiser lowers the voltage by a fixed amount, reducing it to the level equipment was designed to receive.

If it is adopted more widely, strain on the grid will decrease, meaning

that less power needs to be generated using fossil fuels, a greater percentage can come from renewables and overall efficiency will increase.

What about complex electrical systems?

Quite often, the best solution is simply installing a large VO system at the incoming power supply. This is not always the case, though. For example, I worked with a large bank to reduce the energy consumption of its data centres without drastically changing the existing electrical infrastructure.

The servers at each data centre drew their power from an uninterruptible power supply (UPS), essentially a large battery which was fed from the mains supply. Because the UPS dictated the voltage the servers received, installing a VO system before the UPS wouldn’t have made much difference to what the servers received, so would have a longer payback period.

However, for many data centres, the biggest electricity cost is caused by the cooling systems that stop the servers overheating, rather than the servers themselves. At the bank, we were able to install a smaller VO unit on the system that ran the cooling fans and pumps. The smaller VO unit not only cost less and so paid for itself sooner, it let us target the components where we could maximise energy savings – overvolting was making the cooling system components themselves produce extra heat, so stopping that was a double win.

“ To achieve net zero as quickly as possible, efficiency is the name of the game

Integration with renewables

For the UK, integrating more renewables into the grid could cause more fluctuations in voltage because generation is weather dependent. For instance, voltage might rise on a windy night when demand is low. Using VO would protect a facility with high consumption round the clock from finding its components being overvolted or its consumption suddenly increasing while national demand was low.

Furthermore, though people often consider electricity from wind or solar to be free after installation of the system, they are still paying for it. The tariff is the overall cost of installation divided by the value of power you get out of the system over its lifetime.

VO offers two main benefits when integrated with renewables. Firstly, reducing waste enhances the system’s power output, effectively reducing the tariff. Secondly, by minimising energy losses, VO can potentially negate the need for additional renewable energy system installations to meet desired power demands. For example, a planned £24bn project will connect the UK to a solar and wind farm in Morocco. When completed, what percentage of the UK’s electricity demand do you think it aims to supply? 8%.

While renewables are an essential part of the energy transition, minimising wastage should be a priority. Voltage optimisation provides a great opportunity for organisations to instantly reduce energy consumption by around 8% and improve the efficiency of equipment, reducing energy wastage from heat and extending equipment lifespan.

www.electricalreview.co.uk 17 SUSTAINABILITY

Unlocking the opportunity for second life batteries in stationary storage

It is thought that over 100 million electric vehicle (EV) batteries are expected to be retired in the next decade, a significant percentage of which could be repurposed into stationary storage. Matthew Lumsden, CEO, of Connected Energy discusses findings from the first 10 years of designing and operating second life stationary battery storage revealing how the industry is turning this opportunity into reality.

The market for spent EV batteries has the potential to be an exciting, high value sector extending beyond the current limits of recycling. While EV batteries were not originally designed with a second life in mind, through comprehensive testing it has become clear that batteries entering the waste stream with around 75% capacity or more could be economically repurposed as stationary storage.

Extending the battery’s useful life by up to 100%, it presents an alternative option for automotive original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and EV fleet owners, while offering a more sustainable, low risk and readily available battery alternative, serving the fast-growing energy storage market with similar performance capabilities to new batteries.

Indeed, according to a recent report from RenewablesUK, the pipeline of battery projects has grown by two-thirds in the last 12 months, increasing demand for batteries and the critical materials required for their production.

How do you repurpose an EV battery into stationary storage?

With safety paramount, the first step in determining a battery’s suitability for repurposing it into stationary storage is to understand its history and perform state of health checks as well as physical inspections to assess damage and corrosion. Only batteries that have ‘naturally’ reached their end of life are used by Connected Energy, rather than those that have been involved in a collision or ended up as scrap.

At present, most second life battery stock considered by Connected Energy for stationary storage comes from fleet vehicles, such as vans via automotive OEMs. There are several practical reasons for this, not least because EV manufacturers are enthusiastically engaged in exploring new avenues to reuse spent batteries, which regulations require to be collected and disposed of. This means large volumes of batteries are increasingly available.

Fleet vehicles typically have excellent traceability with good service history which provides a baseline of high-quality data. Most fleet vehicles also have predictable daily duty cycles and are charged steadily overnight which makes them relatively homogeneous in terms of use and degradation.

Altogether this has made fleet vehicle batteries ideal as a basis on which to develop the necessary technologies for a stationary storage solution using second life batteries.

A noticeable learning to date has been that battery degradation has not been as significant as was once expected. In fact, our own test data has revealed that under normal operating conditions, most second life batteries offer 80-85% efficiency with theoretical lithium always being the high end of 90% – not dissimilar to what is experienced in a car.

Similarly, we have now gathered more data on second life battery performance than has existed before covering a wide range of duty cycles. This is being used to continually improve prediction capabilities and ensure robust safety processes.

“ Under normal operating conditions, most second life batteries offer 80-85% efficiency

Using second life batteries in stationary storage

In Connected Energy’s second life stationary storage solution, battery packs are controlled in pairs. Containerised systems consist of between 24 and 100 packs, depending on the minimum system capacity, while utility scale systems will be much larger.

A control system manages each pair, allowing for greater flexibility in operation. This is particularly beneficial for systems built from packs with different states of capacity – over the first few years, the operator can call on higher capacity packs more frequently allowing the packs to reach the same state of health over time. This has the benefit of reducing downtime to replace packs.

As the peak power requirements of an EV are much higher than what is required of stationary storage, the packs are charged and discharged at a rate about three to four times lower than in peak EV use, making for gentler operation and lower degradation. Power can also be rebalanced across the system to minimise the batteries being subjected to a prolonged high state of charge, thereby increasing efficiency overall.

18 Electrical Review | Summer 2024

The positive impact of this approach becomes apparent in utility scale systems where larger numbers of packs enable greater levels of dynamism and flexibility to be used to optimise how the batteries are used and monetised.

Once in operation, each pack is monitored remotely 24/7. Data from the packs including operating temperature, charge, efficiency and exception alerts are analysed to assess the system’s health and machine learning is used to identify anomalies, trends and relationships between the variables. The results inform real-time operation to enhance performance as well as identifying preventative operation and maintenance strategies to optimise the system. The data is also used to update the models and assumptions to improve future systems and business cases. In some cases, the data is fed back to the battery OEM so they too can better understand how their batteries operate in later life and update their own models.

Finally, the OEM’s original battery management system remains in use too – the same system that is trusted by millions of EV users to get their families and goods from A to B – to ensure continued safety.

The future of second life batteries

The forthcoming introduction of the Battery Passport in the EU in 2027 will go some way to improving the data available from batteries, with statistics on performance and durability expected to be made available which will support better decision making at the end of a battery’s first life.

The industry is also likely to experience a move away from transactional relationships as the EU Battery Regulation Amendment begins to have an impact. With the goal of achieving sustainable battery lifecycles, battery manufacturers will be increasingly interested in novel ways to extend battery lifecycles particularly given the current lack of battery recycling facilities that is impacting the supply chain UK and EU-wide. This could see battery manufacturers increasingly working

collaboratively with stationary storage providers, potentially retaining ownership of their batteries and receiving revenue from their use.

Finally, as a market for second life batteries develops, we are likely to see increased engagement from large fleet owners, who will be interested in maximising the value that they can get from the sale of their batteries by balancing use and degradation.

The potential for using second life batteries in stationary storage is hugely exciting with the next five years set to see a significant increase in the volume of batteries reaching the end of their first life along with the benefits of a more supportive policy environment.

Offering a comparable alternative to new batteries, second life storage helps to solve several of the UK’s key energy challenges all at once; from the need for grid storage to support greater renewables penetration and improve energy security to providing additional power capacity to support the electrification agenda.

ENERGY STORAGE www.electricalreview.co.uk 19
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Is National Grid ESO’s ‘Beyond 2030’ the blueprint for our net zero future?

APeter Ridge,

Director at Cundall, discusses the ‘Beyond 2030’ blueprint by the Electricity System Operator, and how it could help the UK achieve its net zero ambitions.

s nations globally intensify their efforts to combat climate change, the United Kingdom stands committed to achieving net zero carbon emissions by 2050. Paramount to these goals is an electrified future, necessitating a decarbonised energy system.

The Electricity System Operator (ESO) recently published ‘Beyond 2030 – a national blueprint for a decarbonised electricity system in Great Britain,’ a critical document that builds upon the pathway to 2030 and is the next step towards achieving our objectives. But what are the implications from a design and planning perspective that come from this new document?

Future energy demand predictions are becoming more accurate, with ESO’s Future Energy Scenarios being updated annually.

As part of those predictions, significant efforts are being made to plan for an adequate supply of renewable energy sources. Projects like ScotWind are leading the expansion of offshore renewable energy, a field in which the UK is already a global leader.

However, integrating these green power sources into the national electricity grid presents substantial challenges. The existing grid infrastructure, largely designed for a different era of energy generation, requires comprehensive upgrades to handle the variable and decentralised nature of renewable energy effectively.

One of the most important areas of focus is the adaptability and resilience of the power grid. The grid must evolve as we move away from traditional energy sources, such as oil and gas, towards renewable sources, such as wind and solar. This evolution will require expanding physical infrastructure and integrating advanced smart grid technologies to improve the monitoring and management of energy flow.

Getting the public on-board

It’s not a case of just building the infrastructure, however. It is also crucial to address the public resistance faced by local renewable projects, despite

the widespread support for green energy in principle.

It’s no secret that the practical implementation of many of these projects often meets opposition from local communities, but to tackle this issue, the ‘Beyond 2030’ plan introduces a Strategic Spatial Energy Plan to streamline the development of necessary infrastructure throughout the UK.

This plan will provide a clear framework for developing infrastructure and its locations, ensuring that investments are efficient and equitable across all regions. It will balance national needs with local concerns. Strategic community engagement and transparent planning processes are essential to integrate infrastructure developments into local environments harmoniously. Therefore, for the plan to succeed, it is crucial to prioritise them.

“ There are only a handful of people who truly understand how the grid works, and they all have grey hair

Dealing with the industry’s skills shortage

With a plan in place to address local concerns, the energy industry urgently needs skilled professionals who can drive its transformation.

Drawing from early career insights shared by a mentor who once told me, “there are only a handful of people who truly understand how the grid works, and they all have grey hair” – a comment from nearly 20 years ago – it’s clear that developing the necessary skills to design (and deliver) what could be considered the modern equivalent of the original super grid is essential. We must make careers in renewable energy appealing and competitive and inspire future generations about their potential impact on energy systems.

If the UK is to achieve net zero carbon, then first and foremost, the infrastructure that will power this move needs to be in place. While the investments in the national grid lay the foundation for a resilient, lowcarbon infrastructure, the success of the ‘Beyond 2030’ plan hinges on collaboration across all sectors of society. From Government bodies and industry stakeholders to local communities, a unified approach is crucial.

As we forge ahead, continuous innovation, regulatory reform, and community engagement will be key to realising our ambitious vision for a sustainable energy future in the UK. Although it’s a good step in the right direction, urgent action is required to accelerate our progress towards our targets.

www.electricalreview.co.uk 21

Laser focused on arcing faults

The InsuLogix® G2

The InsuLogix® G2

The InsuLogix® G2

The InsuLogix® G2

The InsuLogix® G2 accurately measures low levels of acetylene, providing reliable detection of arcing faults in their early stages. The InsuLogix® G2 empowers transformer owners to take necessary actions to mitigate further damage to their transformers preventing costly unplanned outages.

The InsuLogix® G2 accurately measures low levels of acetylene, providing reliable detection of arcing faults in their early stages. The InsuLogix® G2 empowers transformer owners to take necessary actions to mitigate further damage to their transformers preventing costly unplanned outages.

The InsuLogix® G2 accurately measures low levels of acetylene, providing reliable detection of arcing faults in their early stages. The InsuLogix® G2 empowers transformer owners to take necessary actions to mitigate further damage to their transformers preventing costly unplanned outages.

The InsuLogix® G2 accurately measures low levels of acetylene, providing reliable detection of arcing faults in their early stages. The InsuLogix® G2 empowers transformer owners to take necessary actions to mitigate further damage to their transformers preventing costly unplanned outages.

Monitoring acetylene, along with hydrogen and moisture, provides you with the important actionable information needed to help protect your power transformer.

Monitoring acetylene, along with hydrogen and moisture, provides you with the important actionable information needed to help protect your power transformer.

Monitoring acetylene, along with hydrogen and moisture, provides you with the important actionable information needed to help protect your power transformer.

Monitoring acetylene, along with hydrogen and moisture, provides you with the important actionable information needed to help protect your power transformer.

Some of the key features of the InsuLogix® G2 are:

Some of the key features of the InsuLogix® G2 are:

Some of the key features of the InsuLogix® G2 are:

■ Laser technology - detects down at 0.5 ppm acetylene in oil

■ Laser technology - detects down at 0.5 ppm acetylene in oil

Some of the key features of the InsuLogix® G2 are:

■ Laser technology - detects down at 0.5 ppm acetylene in oil

■ Hydrogen detection for early fault awareness

■ Hydrogen detection for early fault awareness

■ Laser technology - detects down at 0.5 ppm acetylene in oil

■ Easy to install - Proven installation in 1.5 hours

■ Easy to install - Proven installation in 1.5 hours

■ Hydrogen detection for early fault awareness

■ Long life, low maintenance 10+ years

■ Long life, low maintenance 10+ years

■ Hydrogen detection for early fault awareness

■ Easy to install - Proven installation in 1.5 hours

■ Easy to install - Proven installation in 1.5 hours

■ Long life, low maintenance 10+ years

■ Long life, low maintenance 10+ years

Megger’s InsuLogix® G2 … the unique solution for detecting potential dangers before they damage your transformer.

Megger’s InsuLogix® G2 … the unique solution for detecting potential dangers before they damage your transformer.

Megger’s InsuLogix® G2 … the unique solution for detecting potential dangers before they damage your transformer.

Megger’s InsuLogix® G2 … the unique solution for detecting potential dangers before they damage your transformer.

Learn More
Learn More
Learn More

How to approach smart lighting implementation

Chris Anderson,

discusses the many benefits of smart lighting systems and how they should be approached.

f there is one technology that has been a complete game changer in the lighting realm, it’s smart lighting. From automation and energy optimisation to enhancing design, as well as health and wellbeing, it is the ultimate solution, revolutionising the way we live and interact with our environments.

IWhilst not a brand-new technology, the popularity of smart lighting has gained rapid momentum over the last couple of years, with significant and widespread adoption of the innovation in homes, public and commercial buildings.

No longer confined to the manual ‘flip of a switch’, smart lighting offers users an intricate level of control and customisation and is highly adaptable to changing lighting conditions, usage requirements, and personal preferences.

With wireless technology integrated in each fitting, smart lighting systems use communication protocols such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and Zigbee to create a seamless network of connected luminaires that can be centrally controlled and effortlessly automated.

The myriad of benefits offered by smart lighting

Operated using a remote control, a smartphone app, voice control or even ecosystems such as Alexa, Hey Google and Siri, users can easily programme their lighting settings, creating different schedules and moods. From the timings of operation to the colour, brightness, intensity and combination of luminaires in use, every individual light fitting can be programmed and controlled to the most minute detail.

As well as offering users complete personalisation and control, this

www.electricalreview.co.uk 23 LIGHTING

automation is also hugely energy efficient, with power used only where, when, and to the exact degree necessary. It also eliminates any reliance on human intervention, preventing energy being wasted when lighting is accidentally left switched on. Incorporating motion or presence/absence detection sensors further enhances its energy saving functionality, providing an immediate and dynamic response to lighting needs.

This reduction in energy use should also translate to a reduction in energy bills which is one of the main attractions of smart technology. A well-designed and operated smart lighting system can lower lighting energy use by up to two thirds, providing significant cost savings. In domestic settings, this is commonly found to translate to a 10% reduction in electricity bills, whilst in commercial settings this can be in excess of 25%.

An added bonus of smart lighting is that installation is also incredibly straightforward. Operating wirelessly via Bluetooth and Wi-Fi, systems are controlled and hosted on the cloud, so there is no hub or wiring required and most units are simply installed like a lamp or switch.

These user-friendly interfaces and intuitive installation processes ensure that the transition to a smart lighting system is seamless and incurs little downtime, making it an ideal option for organisations which are undergoing retro-fit renovations.

In commercial environments, smart lighting can also help to relieve managers of some of the burden of maintenance and monitoring requirements. Many smart systems have controls such as dashboard monitors which provide a visual display of a building’s lighting system in real-time. This can be used to carry out vital maintenance testing on emergency lighting, instigating tests automatically and wirelessly to highlight remotely whether an individual luminaire or driver is operating outside of expected operational parameters.

Dashboards can also be used to identify opportunities to reduce unnecessary wastage – even beyond lighting. For example, if data highlights certain areas of a building that have not been used in a day, building managers can use this information to update heating and air conditioning settings or even cleaning schedules, reducing additional operational costs.

Home and building security is another area where smart lighting

can have a positive effect. Automated lighting schedules can be used to simulate the appearance of an occupied space even if it is vacant, deterring potential intruders.

Likewise, occupant health and wellbeing can really benefit too. Whether in the home or at work, lighting hues can be set to help regulate circadian rhythm, resulting in improved focus and productivity during the day and fewer sleep disturbances at night.

“ A well-designed and operated smart lighting system can lower lighting energy use by up to two thirds

Considerations when selecting smart lighting

Smart lighting systems can be implemented in both indoor and outdoor settings and there are a vast array of smart enabled fittings available.

From interior downlights, strip lights, and bulkheads to outdoor bi-directional wall lights and garden spikes, almost every type of lamp or fitting can be found.

When planning and specifying an installation, there are a number of practicalities to consider. As smart lighting systems need Wi-Fi or Bluetooth to operate, the fabric and the structure of the property needs to be thought out, with any factors that might restrict signal and functionality – such as the thickness of walls – addressed.

Product interoperability is another key consideration. Selecting a system that works across a variety of ecosystems is a must to make the scope of illumination possibilities and functionalities wider. Products that are compatible with a wide array of modules, drivers, sensors and switches and can be paired with any ecosystem on the market should be selected.

Transcending mere functionality, smart lighting is providing users with unparalleled control, customisation, and convenience when illuminating their spaces. It has the power to transform the built environment, supporting the creation of a more connected, efficient and sustainable world

24 Electrical Review | Summer 2024 LIGHTING
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The heat pump revolution is here – are you ready?

As we strive to achieve net zero by 2050, electrifying home heating is becoming increasingly important. That’s why upskilling in heat pump installation could be a smart move, according to Paul Collins, Technical Director at the NICEIC.

The UK is transitioning towards more sustainable energy solutions. It is widely established that heat pumps have a significant role to play in enabling the UK’s transition to low carbon heat. After all, fossil fuel heating systems are a significant source of carbon emissions. Heat pumps, however, extract heat from the air or ground, using electricity to efficiently convert it for space heating and hot water. This significantly reduces carbon footprint and reliance on fossil fuels.

According to the Department for Energy, Security and Net Zero (DESNZ), the UK has some of the oldest housing stock in Europe, and more than 80% of buildings still rely on fossil fuels for heating and have low levels of thermal efficiency.

Beyond hindering net zero goals, fossil fuels are a finite resource with fluctuating prices, making heating costs unpredictable and likely to rise over time. This inefficiency in homes translates to wasted energy and higher heating bills for consumers. Heat pump technology presents a significant opportunity to improve energy efficiency in these homes.

How technological advancements are driving down installation costs

According to my colleague, Dani Putney, Head of Standards at the NICEIC, “While there may be initial hurdles, such as upfront costs or compatibility with older homes, these are temporary setbacks.

“Technological advancements are continuously driving down installation costs, and a growing emphasis on energy efficiency is pushing homeowners towards sustainable solutions like heat pumps. Many older homes can benefit from a combined heat pump and insulation upgrade, presenting a chance to provide a comprehensive home improvement solution that addresses both heating needs and energy efficiency.”

Initiatives like the Heat Training Grant offered by the Department for Energy, Security and Net Zero (DESNZ) provide financial assistance to

eligible participants taking heat pump training courses. This grant can reduce the upfront cost of acquiring heat pump training opportunities, making upskilling a more accessible option for a wider range of tradespeople.

It’s important to note that Government grants and incentives are subject to change, so be sure to visit the DESNZ website.

The future of heating is electrified

New figures from the Boiler Upgrade Scheme show applications to the Government’s heat pump grant rose by 75% in February 2024 compared to the same month in 2023.

With various incentives and grants derived from Government backing, heat pumps are poised to become the leading heating technology. This means a surge in demand for qualified, competent professionals who can install, maintain, and repair them.

Tradespeople are the key to driving forward change

It is great to see the number of installers training to install heat pumps to help us on our journey to net zero. However, the industry needs to continue to push to ensure we can meet the targets ahead of us. A lack of qualified and competent tradespeople could lead to delays and bottlenecks in heat pump installations, hindering the pace of this green revolution.

“ The heat pump revolution presents a win-win scenario for both consumers and tradespeople

Upskilling will enable those in the sector to futureproof their careers

While heat pump installation is crucial for achieving the UK’s net zero goals, it also presents a golden opportunity for tradespeople to futureproof their careers.

By upskilling in this growing field, not only will tradespeople contribute to a greener future, but also gain a competitive edge. This expanded skillset will allow professionals to offer a wider range of services, increasing their value to clients and unlocking new business opportunities. Investing in proper training and understanding these technologies positions them to facilitate the surge in demand for competent and qualified heat pump installers.

As Dani put it, “Overall, the heat pump revolution presents a win-win scenario for both consumers and tradespeople. Consumers can enjoy a more sustainable and cost-effective heating solution, while tradespeople can secure their futures and contribute to a greener future. By embracing this evolving technology and taking advantage of available resources, tradespeople can pave the way for a more sustainable and energy-efficient home heating landscape.”

26 Electrical Review | Summer 2024

1500 V photovoltaic systems are on the rise. So is the need for more comprehensive electrical safety and performance testing.

The MI 3115 PV Analyser offers just that. A versatile testing suite in a single rugged case for testing even the largest systems in accordance with the IEC 62446 standard.

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