Sea History 097 - Summer 2001

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No. 97

NATIONAL MARITIME HISTORICAL SOCIETY

SUMMER 2001

SEA HISTORY:.

75

THE ART, LITERATURE, ADVENTURE, LORE & LEARNING OF THE SEA

1851: AMERICA SAILS TO VICTORY An 18th-Century Naval Dockyard in Sweden ASMA: The 12th National Exhibition The Coronet in Miniature


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SEA HISTORY

No. 97

SUMMER2001

CONTENTS FEATURED IN THIS ISSUE 7

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Winning the America's Cup in 1851 , by Peter Stanford j ust 15 0 years ago, the schooner yacht America sailed to victory over a fleet of renowned racing yachts. What could match that glorious sail? Earl of Wilton: Protagonist for the America's Cup, by Commodore Henry H. Anderson , Jr. Under Commodore Wilton, the Royal Yacht Squadron initiated a new era in international yachting events.

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SS American Victory: The Making of a Mariners' Memorial, by Charles M. Fuss, Jr.

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Vision and political, corporate and community support go a long way toward making a ship memorial possible, but volunteers give it life and make it reality.

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OCEANIC MISSION II: How Initiatives Bred Up in the Ocean World Led to the End of Slavery, by Peter Stanford

ROBERT LEROY

Slaves and free blacks found a voice and support in the seafaring communities of the English-speaking Atlantic.

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Preserved in Amber: The 18th-Century Dockyard at Karlskrona, Sweden, by William S. Lind The dockyard at Karlskrona is a remarkable legacy ofthe 17 00s, when Sweden was a major naval power and F. H. Chapman revolutionized ship design and ship building.

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MARINE ART: The American Society of Marine Artists Twelfth National Exhibition, by Pete Rogers The lively variety and richness of marine art in America is displayed in this year's two-venue show featuring works by 8 1 artists.

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MODELMAKER'S CORNER: The Lovely Coronet: A Miniature Exposition, by Lloyd McCaffery America's oldest extant yacht is revealed in all her former glory by a renowned craftsman.

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Taking the Measure of Coronet, by John Summers and Richard Anderson D etailed drawings of Coronet arejust one step in the long road to restoration ahead ofthe International Yacht Restoration School.

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COLLECTOR'S ALLEY: The Oaken Snuffbox, by Dr. Louis Arthur Norton Connections between an oaken snuffbox, Merino sheep and USS Constitution.

CO VER: It's 22 August 1851, and the schooneryacht America salutes Queen Victoria aboard the royal yacht as the schooner sweeps to victory in the world's most famous yacht race. ("America Salutes the Royal Family, " by Tim Thompson, used with permission from Ranu!f Rayner, Ashcombe Manor, Ashcombe, Dawlish, Devon, UK Tel: +44 162 686 3 178. Our thanks as we!L to the ]. Russe!L j inishian Ga!Lery.) (See pp. 7-11)

DEPARTMENTS 2 DECK LOG & LETTERS

38 AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE

6 NMHS: A CAUSE IN MOTION

MUSEUM NEWS 41 CALENDAR 42 REVIEWS 48 PATRONS

28 MARINE ART NEWS & CALENDAR 36 SHIP NOTES, SEAPORT & MUSEUM NEWS

30 SEA H ISTORY (issn 0146-9312) is published quarrerly by rhe Narional Maririme Hisrorical Sociery, 5 John Walsh Blvd. , PO Box 68, Peeksk ill NY 10566. Periodicals posrage paid ar Peekskill NY 10566 and add '! mailing offices. COPYRIG HT © 200 1 by rhe Narional Maririme Hisrorical Sociery. Tel: 914-737-7878. POSTMASTER: Send address changes ro Sea Histo1y, PO Box 68, Peekskill NY 10566.

NATIONAL MARITIME HISTORICAL SOCIETY


DECK LOG "Don't lose sight of Sea History," said a voice from the back of the room. It was F. Carrington Weems, a distinguished nautical collector, whose collection of historic maps and ship models was on display in the lobby of one of Houston's big office buildings. He was one of the NMHS members gathered in Brennan's Restaurant in the great Texas port to exchange ideas on the future ofNMHS. In truth, we had gone pretty deeply into the programs our education director David Allen runs for us in New York and Miami-which we aspire to see established with teachers institutes in cities like Houston. But Carrington reminded us, in his cheerful, emphatic way, that our home base is in this journal which binds together our purposes and our people. Members do every kind of thing for our Society and for the seafaring heritage, and in this gathering, kindly held for us by Scott and Diane Duncan, it was good to meet the retired shipbuilder Jam es Manzolillo, who earlier this year opened the new Houston Maritime Museum, housing a rich, eclectic collection embracing past, present and future marine interests. With him was Richard Bricker, chronicler of the great barkentines built on the Gulf Coast after World War I, just back from a visit to Italy researching the trades these big wooden ships were in. And it was a pleasure to see our member Peter Herbert, who is sorting the papers of his father, NMHS Advisor Robert G. Herbert, whose words often graced these pages during his long, productive life. And it was splendid to meet four volunteers from the Elissa in nearby Galveston. They were too young to have been involved with our NMHS role in savingthatlovely Scottish bark of 1877, but, caring people that they are, they were aware of it. From Houston I went to Dallas, where the American Merchant Marine Veterans of World War II were rash enough to invite me to speak at their convention. I took my cue from our Overseer Walter Cronkite's letter to the AMMV (see "Letters," this page) on carrying the message of their wartime service forward. Seated with dinner chairman A. J. Wichita, I lost count of the number of NMHS members who came up to say hello. But I certainly have not lost the pride I felt in being among these quiet, seamanly American heroes. At our Annual Meeting in Boston the following weekend, I gratefully laid down the president's role I have endeavored to fulfill for 31 years, turning over the helm to Pat Garvey. I have a book or two to write in retirement, and writing to do for Sea History as long as our members can stand it. And, thanks to my son Anthony, I have the 25-foot gaff-rigged sloop Whisper of 1917 to see to, which I sailed in the 1950s. As we say in the old wooden boat business, she "needs a little work. ... " -PETER STANFORD, Editor at Large W hisper, as depicted in 1956 by Fred Freeman, who sailed in her.

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LETTERS Confident Sailors

Thank you for the remarkable maritime experiences the NMHS "History at Sea" program provided our students in Floating the Apple [a non-profit educational organization that works with students to build and sail rowing gigs in New York Harbor] during the past three summers. Some day, I feel sure, they will be telling their grandchildren of sailing USCG Barque Eagle into New York Harbor at the head of the parade on the Fourth of July, 2000. The confidence your organization has shown in these youngsters has, in turn, given them confidence in themselves. This was demonstrated last summer in many ways, including their taking on the responsibility for instructing Sea Scouts and other groups of young people, planning rowing events such as the Evacuation of Brooklyn, and training four crews of students for rowing races at New York State's Maritime College. By fall, the students were discovering that their "short ships," the gigs, were great for sailing and were loath to miss a good breeze after school until the shortened days and colder weather closed down our onwater operations. Several of those who sailed aboard "HMS" Rose with NMHS are building a Whitehall gig at the Worldwide Plaza at West 50th Street to make neighborhood residents aware of their waterfront and encourage them to become active in planning the park and community boathouse intended for that stretch of the Hudson River. MICHAEL K. DAVTS, Founding President Floating the Apple New York, New York To the Merchant Marine & Armed Guard Veterans

Fraternal greetings to all hands gathered in Dallas to celebrate andhonoragreatshared heritage of service at sea! Having sai led with you on Atlantic convoys in 1942, I well remember the anxious nights and perilous days which you had to face up to month-in, month-out, in the most terrible war in history. You don't have to hear from me that without your service delivering America's message and might across dangerous seas that most awful of wars could never have been won- not a chance of it. Yo u delivered the knockout punch that won the war, SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 2001


freed millions of captive people in Europe, Africa, Indones ia and Asia, and kept the running lights of freedom burning bright in our own United States. The cost was high . More than 6,000 seamen left our shores and never cam e back. I and my associates in the National Maritime Historical Society are dedicated to carrying th at story to all Americans, today and into the future. We can' t forget your wartime service, and we are dedicated to carrying that noble story into the future. WALTER CRONKITE New York, New York

old ships. I strongly urge NMHS members to visit the O 'Brien on their next trip to San Francisco. RODNEY HOUGHTON, NMHS Trustee Rumso n, New Jersey

A Raft that Went Too Far I very much enjoyed RADM Calla's fine review of Bermuda's maritime history and US/British naval history. One bit of US naval histo ry that remains there rill this day, however, was not mentioned. In 1863, with the C ivil War raging,

Completely Absorbed by a Liberty On a recent trip to San Francisco, I spent an afternoon aboard the World War II Liberty sh ip Jeremiah O'Brien. I was fortunate to have my 30-year-old son with me. Ir turned out to be a memorable experience. The O'Brien is remarkably well preserved. Going from deck to deck gave us a real sense of what life must have been like for our seamen and troops during WWII on these marvelous ships which contributed greatly to our victory. We were especially fortunate that o ur visit rook place on the one weekend of the month when the engines were running. In the bowels of the ship, we were confronted with the heat and smell of a massive working engine with cylinders that looked to be 20 feet high in motion. Scenes of the

The remains ofthe Union raft in Bermuda. Rear Admiral Samuel DuPont, commanding the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron , had been ordered to capture Charleston, South Carolina. Though he had several Monitor-class vessels, obstructions prevented them from bypassing Fort Sumter and entering the harbor.John Ericsson was asked to devise a means of removing the obstructions. His answer was a 50 ' x 27' raft to be pushed by a monitor. One end of the raft had a 20-foot "V" notch to receive the bow of the monitor, while the other

end had two cylinders, 11.5 ' in length and 10" in diam eter, each containing 350 pounds of powder. A trigger was to set off the explosion when contact was made with an obstruction . 0 n 30 Jan uary 1863, the steamer Ericsson, under Volunteer LieutenantE. H. Faucon , left New York with four rafts in row. Encountering extrem e weather, only one survived the journey to Port Royal, South Carolina. In 1868, a derelict object was spotted off Sr. D avid's Island in Bermuda. To salvage the heavy 18-inch-square timbers the object was rowed to Dolly's Bay, but3 ' lo ng nails holding the two laye rs of timbers made salvage too difficult, and the raft was abandoned. T hen o n 11 January 1872, Captain Faucon arrived and identified the object as one of the rafts lost off Cape H atteras in 1863. The US government number still was attached . EUGENE B. CANFIELD Jamestown, New York

Sit Down, You're Rocking the Boat! Thank yo u for publishing my letter about my sail training cruise aboard Bafcfutha in 1936 in Sea History 95. Salt water has always run deep in my veins, bur I had grave doubts one afte rnoon in 1945 when I applied for qualification to operate a sailing dinghy at the C harles River Yacht Club in Boston. I had spent many hours sailing on San Diego Bay, qualified in boating at rheNaval Academy, andconsid-

Join Us for a Voyage into History The SS Jeremiah O 'Brien in San Francisco Bay, 1983 (Photo: Donald Kearns) engine room in the movie Titanic were filmed on the O'Brien. The volunteers tending the ship and acting as docents appeared to be mostly WWII veterans, and it was especially moving to observe their devotion to and reverence for their ship. I was particularly interested in my son's reactio n to this visit, which was one of complete absorption in the history of this remarkable ship in a war of which he has no personal recollection. Bringing alive the role of our historic ships in our seafaring heritage is the m ost important benefit from the preservation of these

SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 2001

Our seafaring heritage comes alive in the pages of Sea History, from the ancient mariners of Greece to Portuguese navigators opening up the ocean world to the heroic efforts of seamen in this century's conflicts. Each issue brings new insights and new discoveries. If you love the sea, rivers, lakes,

and bays-if you love the legacy of those who sail in deep water and their workaday craft, then you belong with us. Join today! Mail in the form below, phone: 1 800 221-NMHS (6647) or visit us at:

www.seahistory.org.

Yes, I want to join the Society and receive Sea History quarterl y. My contribution is enclosed. ( 17.50 is for Sea Histo1y; any amount above that is tax deductibl e.) Sign me up as: 0 $35 Regular Member 0 $50 Family Member 0 $100 Friend 0 $250 Patron 0 $500 Donor 97 Mr.IMS.--------------------------_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Z IP _ _ _ _ __

ational Maritime Historical Society, PO Box 68, Peekskill NY 10566

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LETTERS NATIONAL MARITIME HISTORICAL SOCIETY OFFICERS &TRUSTEES: Chairman, Howard Slotnick; Vice Chairmen, Richardo R. Lopes, Edward G. Zelinsky; President, PatrickJ. Garvey; Vice Presidents, Burchenal Green, Nor ma Sranford; Treasurer, David B. Vietor; Secretary, Marshall Screiberr; Trustees, Donald M. Birney; Walre r R. Brown , Sabato Carucci, Richard T. du Moulin, David S. Fowler, Jack Gaffney, Fred C. Hawkins, Rodney N. Houghton, Steven W. Jones, Richard M. Larrabee, Warren G. Leback, Guy E. C. Mairland, Karen E. Markoe, Michael R. McKay, James J. McNamara, Cecil J. North Jr. , David A. O'Nei l, Ronald L. Oswald, David Plattner, Craig A. C. Reynolds, Bradford D. Smith , Ha rry E. Vinall , ll l , William H. White, Jean Worr, Alexander E. Zagoreos; Chairmen Emeriti, Alan G. Choate, Guy E. C. Mairland , Craig A. C. Reynolds President Emeritus: Peter Stanford FOUNDER: Karl Kortum (1917-1996) OVERSEERS: Chairman, RADM David C. Brown; Walter Cronki te, Alan D. Hutchison, Jakob lsbrandtsen, John Lehman, Warren Marr, II, Brian A. McAll ister, John Stobarc, William G. Winterer AOV1SORS: Co-Chairmen, Frank 0. Braynard, Melbourne Smith; D. K.Abbass, Raymond Aker, George F. Bass, Francis E. Bowker, Oswald L. Brett, Norman]. Brouwer, RADMJoseph F. Callo, William M. Doerflinger, Francis J. Duffy, John W. Ewald, Joseph L. Farr, Ti mothy G. Foote, William Gilkerson, Thomas C. Gillmer, Walter J. Handelman, Cha rl es E. Herdendorf, Steven A. Hyman, Hajo Knuttel , Gunn ar Lundeberg, Conrad Milster, William G. Muller, David E. Perkins, Nancy Hughes Richardson, Timothy J. Runyan, Shan non J. Wall, Thomas Wells NM HS STAFF: President, Patrick J. Garvey; ChiefofStaff, Burche nal Gree n; Director ofEducation, David B. Allen; Membership Coordinator, Nancy Schnaars; Membership Secretary, Irene Eisenfeld; Membership Assistant, An n Makelainen; Advertising Secretary, Carmen McCallum ; Accounting, Jill Romeo; Secretary to the President, Karen Ritell; SEA HISTO RY STA FF: Editor, Justine Ahlstrom; Executive Editor, No rma Stanfo rd; Editor at Laige, Peter Stanford T O GET IN TOUCH WITH US:

Address: 5 Joh n Walsh Boulevard PO Box 68 Peekskill NY I0566 Phone: 914 737-7878, xO Fax: 914 737-78 16 Web site: www.seah istory.o rg E- mail: nmhs@seahistory.org MEMBERS HIP is in vited. Afterguard $10,000; Benefactor $5,000; Plankowner $2,500; Sponsor $1,000; Donor $500; Patron $250; Friend $100; Conctibu to r $75; Fam ily $50; Regu lar $35 . AJ I members outside the USA please add $10 for postage. SEA HI STORY is sent to all members. Individual copies cost $3.75. Advertising:

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800 22 1-NM HS (6647), x235

ered myself to be a pretry fair sailor. Qualification should be a breeze, I thought, until my rwelve-year-old "qualifier," who was to test my abiliti es to handle dinghies, yelled, "Sir down , stupid! You neve r stand up when the boat is underway." He was unimpressed with my uniform and lieutenant's stripes, and sure let m e know that he was also a sailor. I guess salt water ran in his vei ns, too. CDR. WILLIAM M. GOODE, USN (Ret.) C irrus H eights, California

Catwalk Takeoff from USS Cabot N ews of the scrapping of the light aircraft carrier USS Cabot in Brownsville, Texas, brought to mind one of my experiences while aboard her. On Easter Sunday, 1 April 1945, during the invasion of Okinawa, my battle station was in the ball turret, sitting o n top of a TBM-3 G rumman Avenger to rpedo bo mber, where I sat facing aft. Howard Skidmore, pilot, Danny McCarthy, radioman, and I had begun flying to geth er as a crew in February 1944 and had accrued 120 carrier landings, 96 catapult shots and 27 deck lau nches. W hen I felt the plane turn to port during this 28th deck launch, I assumed Mr. Skidmore was maneuvering for a better rake-off position. Bur I felt the plane drop off to port, followed by a series of bumps and scraping sensations. We were gliding along and slightly above the carwalk that provided a safe walkway to the anti-aircraft guns whil e fli ght operations were underway, about four feet below the level of the flight deck. Now our plane was hitting these obstacles, and our starboard wing was scraping along the edge of the flight deck. I looked down the port side of the carrier and saw nothing bur water. Co nvinced that we were about to make a water landing, I grab bed the emergency-hatch release lever so I could open it quickly; I wanted to be ready to get o ut on the port wing, where I could get at the rubber life raft. Bur we were still flying! As I looked back, I saw a wake being churned up along the surface of the ocean by our prop-wash. W irhour a doubt, Mr. Skidmore had retracted the landing gear in the nick of rime. We made an emergency landing on USS Essex, as Cabot had aircraft spotted aft the flight deck. Danny and I checked to make sure that Mr. Skidmore hadn' t been

injured; we marveled at his prowess in the air. The plane was repaired and, after a pleasant visit aboard the large carrier, we returned to Cabot on 3 Apri l and continued our invas ion co mbat missions. D ONALD T. H AMBIDGE Danbury, Connecticut

An Issue Written for Me Many thanks for sending the extra co py of Sea History 96 with my review of Capt. Boudreau' s The Man Who Loved Schooners. I believe this who le issue was written for m e. From the time I was ten years of age I have been in love with sailing ships. I sailed in them, and I have traveled wherever I co uld to see them and to talk to m en who also sailed them . Now I am living o ut my life at what used to be known as The Sailors' Snug Harbor (now Snug Harbor) . Once located in Staten Island, New York, it is now in North Carolina. Times have changed from the days when Sailors' Snug Harbor was filled with destitute old seam en. We take bo th men and women into our home, and they no longer need to have had sea experience. CAPT. FRANCIS "BIFF" BOWKER Sea Level, North Carolina ERRATUM & ADDENDUM I read with great interest the rwo-part early historyofNMHS and the Kaiulani Project featured in Sea History 94 and 95. One derail, however, jumped out at me. Kaiulani was indeed launched in Bath , M aine, bur not at Bath Iron Works. The bark was built by Arthur Sewall and Company, about a mile upstream rhe Kennebec River from BIW. After building wooden vessels since the 1820s, the Sewalls converted to steel production in 1893. The first product of th e shipya rd was the bark Dirigo, laun ched o n 10 February 1894. Nine mo re vessels fo ll owed her off the ways. Arthur Sewall and Company was signifi cant as the o nl y shipbuilder in Maine, if not the US, to convert directl y from wooden to steel production and build a fl eet of steel square ri gge rs for US service. BIW did bui ld square- rigged vessels, bur o nly for sail training or as steam-auxiliary yachts, rather than commercial use. THADDEUS LYFORD Education Coo rdinator Maine Mari tim e M useum Bath, Maine

SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 2001


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NMHS: A CAUSE IN MOTION

38th Annual Meeting Is a Time of Transitions The 2001 Annual Meeting of the National Maritime Historical Society, held at the USS Constitution Museum in Boston on 19 May 2001, marked a time of transition for the Society, as President Peter Stanford stepped down from the position he held for 3 1 years. His vision and boundless knowledge and dedication to the world's maritime heritage have given the Society its mission and definition for more than three decades. As trustees and friends noted in their tributes to his leadership ofNMHS, he has been, and will continue to be, a viral force in making Americans aware of what we owe to the men and ships that have traveled the oceans, coasts and inland waterways. What was also clear in the comments made by the assembled is that Peter Stanford is expected to contribute as much to the heritage as an independent scholar and writer and editor at large for Sea History magazine as he ever has as president. The members have also elected a broad slate of new trustees; ten have joined the Board in 2001 , bringing the total to 31. Howard Slotnick, long-rime trustee and

Annual Awards Dinner Friday, 19 October 2001 Honoring CLIVE CUSSLER

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: Reception at 5:30PM; dinner at 7PM : • $275 per person •

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For reservations and information contact:

NMHS PO Box 68 Peekskill NY 10566 phone: 914 737-7878, xO Seating is limited to 200, so please reserve your space immediately.

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lent introduction to the institution and led a tour of the Museum and the newly opened library later in the afternoon. A buffet lunch in Building 5 of the Navy Yard, formerly the officers' piano bar, overlooking USS Constitution, followed by tours of the Navy Yard, the Museum, USS Constitution, USS Cassin Young and the Commandant's House, rounded out what everyone agreed was an enjoyable, informative and memorable Annual Meeting. -JUSTINE AHLSTROM

Incoming chairman Howard Slotnick presents outgoing president Peter Stanford with a collection of tributes and reminiscences from members and friends. -----~

A TRIBUTE TO PETER PRINCIPLES Ir is a unique experience in my career to its current state, I returned to Peekskill and

NATIONAL MARITIME HISTORICAL SOCIETY

New York Yacht Club 37 West 44th Street New York, New York

chairman ofOpSail Miami, became chairman as Guy E. C. Mai rland stepped down. David B. Vietor of The Acorn Foundatio n is raking up the job of treasurer, as Willian H. White steps down. Ronald Oswald will rake over the position of Program Chair from Captain Jean Wort. In addition, Patrick]. Garvey, who has served NMHS as executive director and executive vice president since January 2000, was elected president by the Board, and Burchenal Green, NMHS' s chief ofstaff, joins Nor ma Stanford as vice president. The formal business of the Society done, we welcomed the leaders of a variety of maritime heritage projects to speak to the members who attended the meeting. We heard from Gregg Swanzey of the Schooner Ernestina Commission about the second Ships to Save the Waters Conference, to be held in Massachusetts in June, and abo ut the restoration of rwo vessels, the tugboat Luna and the steamship Nobska, which was in drydock at the Charlestown Navy Yard, just outside the museum. Margherita Desy, curator of the museum, provided an excel-

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contemplate succeeding a living legend. When you reflect on what Peter has accomplished berween the South Street Seaport Museum and NMHS, you get a real sense of what an exceptional creative force he has been for the maritime history field and that he, probably earlier than anyone in the business, recognized that all history is maritime history, and he set about to act on that conviction. Peter Stanford has never operated under any conven rional operating principle that any of us have been able to find. Peter is a card-carrying member of Tom Brokaw' s "Greatest Generation," those who fought and won World War II and came home ready to rake on any challenge-and that's the way Peter has always operated. I recently visited South Street with Rodney Houghton, one of our trustees, to meet with the museum's chairman, Lawrence Huntington, and president, Peter Neill. After standing at the helm of the Wavertree and contemplating the Herculean efforts it rook for Peter with Karl Kortum, Jakob Isbrandtsen, and untold others to bring that ship to New York and

told Peter if he had done nothing else but save the Wavertree, he would deserve immortality. But more than that, I am convinced that, because of his foresight, South Street Seaport Museum in the wake of the departure of the Fulton Fish Market and the power of the New York C ity economy, will emerge as an even more extraordinary maritime institution than he or anyone could have imagined. At the trustees' tribute to him prior to our Annual Meeting in Boston, Dr. Karen Markoe observed that Peter's preeminent character trait, after tenacity, is his generosity ofspirit. For Peter, "a rising ride floats all boats," and he always looks to people and institutions to create coalitions and to share the credit for what is accomplished. As Peter Stanford shifts his flag from the quarterdeck to the flag officer's sea cabin, we are confident that we will see a revitalized outpouring of his special brand of creativity that will keep your Society and the maritime history field stirred up. PATRI CK ]. GARVEY

President

SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 2001


Her broad quarters lifting to the swell as her fine bow plunges ahead, America lopes by the royal yacht on the final run to the finish line ofher famous race of22 August 1851. John C. Stevens raises his hat and the ensign is dipped in salute to Queen Victoria and Prince Albert aboard their steam yacht as America opens a new chapter in yachting history. (''America Salutes the Royal Family" by Tim Thompson, used with permission from RanulfRayner, Ashcombe Manor, Ashcombe, Dawlish, Devon, UK Tel: +44 162 686 3178. Our thanks as well to the J Russell jinishian Gallery.)

WINNING THE AMERICA'S CUP IN

1851

Just 150 Years Ago, a Remarkable Group Built the Schooner Yacht America and Sailed to Victory Over a Fleet ofRenowned Racing Yachts to Give Her Name to the World's Longest-Lived Sporting Trophy. What Could Match that Glorious Sail? by Peter Stanford

hen John Cox Stevens, prominent New York businessman, sportsman and society li on, was born in 1785, New York was just beginning the soaring takeoff that would make it the leading city of the yo ung American Republic. John Cox grew up in the Stevens family mansion in Hoboken, New Jersey, on a bluff overlooking New York C ity across the Hudson River. His father, John Stevens, had served as colonel in Washington's army during the American Revolution and had gone on to become a leading businessman and inventor of steam engines. John Stevens built the first steam ferry across the Hudso n in 1804, using it to commute to work with his eldest son John Cox at the helm. In 1809, blocked by the Fulton-Livingston monopoly from operating steamboats in New York, he sent his new steamer

W

SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 2001

Phoenix down rhe Jersey coast to Philadelphia-the first steamboat to brave the open sea. John C. Stevens and his brothers Edwin and Robert followed their father in business, adding a steamboat line up the Hudson to other interests afrer the Fulton monopoly was broken . By 1850 when the America's story opens, John C. was in his mid-sixties. A wealthy leader in New York society, h e held court in a house he built on fashionable Washington Square, a mansion which his friend Mayor Philip Hone described as palatial, adding rhar irs owner was "a migh ty good fellow and a most hospitable host." Adding these convivial qualities to his interest in rhe track, he became president of the elite Jockey C lub. The brothers were ofren our o n the water in New York harbor, picking up scratch 7


his boxy little schooner Gimcrack. races when they could, and on 30 But rhe new vessel would be no July 1844 John met with eight Gimcrack. Starting in 1848, Steers friends aboard his stout 51-foot built his vessels on rhe new model schoon er Gimcrack, anchored off developed in New York's East River the Battery, to form the N ew York ya rds, in which long, sharp bows Yacht C lub. H e became rh e Yacht replaced the traditional bluff round C lub's first commodore, a pos t he bows, with rhe point of grea test was to hold until 185 5. beam moved aft, from a position So in the autumn ofl 85 0 when close to the bows ro about midan English businessman wrote an ships. His fas t pilot schooner Mary American colleague in N ew York Taylor, built on this plan in 1849, sugges ting that New York should Steven '.s 97-foot M aria was designed by his brother Robert. She had made him famous. So Stevens enter on e of irs fast pilot boats in carried 7,890 square feet ofsail on a broad, flat huLL drawing the G reat Exposition of 185 1, it only 5 feet. She was a pure racing machine, not a vessel in which had a pretty good idea of what he wo uld be getting-and William was natural that Commodore you would want to cross the North Atlantic. Brown 's faith in his young designer Stevens gor wind of rhe idea-and that he responded to ir. As a perso n who thought big and rel ished was stro ng enough to get him to sign a contract rhat would make a sporting gamble, he decided to build a fas t vessel to sail across rhe a lawyer of the present day fall down laughing. All this was heady Atlantic and enter in rhe G rear Expos ition. H e turned ro rhe well- stuff in an age when fo rtunes were made and lost by the perforknown East River yard of William Brown to build rhe vessel. H e mance of sailing ships. And the G rear Expos ition fo r which the new vessel was destined chose to do rhis through a syndicate of six friends, led by himself. The others were his younger fri end George L. Schuyler, a wealthy was a wo rld stage of a kind rhar had never existed before-as all the steamship promoter and scion of a prominent N ew York family, participants and indeed all New Yorkers were well aware. Britain, Stevens' s brother Edwin, des igner and builder of ironclads fo r rhe rolling down the express track of the Industrial Revolution, had U S Navy and founder of Steve ns Institute of Technology; James seized on this special project of Prince Albert, rhe 33-year-old Hamilton, son of Alexander H amilto n and former secretary of German husband and prin ce consort of Queen Victoria. Britons, stare; Yacht C lub vice commodore H amilton Wilkes, so n of rhe who adored rhe yo ung queen, looked ar Albert somewhat askance president of rhe Bank of N ew Yo rk; and John K. Beekman Finlay, fo r his stiff, earnest, fo reign ways. Albert's proposal for an exhibian upstate fri end of rhe others with no particular interest tion of "The Arr and Industry of All Nations" was meant in sailing. Schuyler was deputed ro draw up rhe to encourage every counuy of the world to come to agreement under which rhe new vessel was ro be London, center of rhe industrialized wo rld, to built. The terms are worth pausing over- they show their most advanced products, learn from were extraordinary. each other, and make further progress toward rhe uni ty and well-being of mankind. T his Brown was to build a yacht of nor less than 140 tons, "[r] he model , plan and rig of rhe towe ring rheorerical concept, utterly alien vessel" robe entirely ar Brown's discretion, to the normal English mindset, somehow with the proviso rhat she was to be "a strong took hold of rhe imagination of England's merchant class, and of the manufacturers seagoing vessel, and rigged fo r ocean sailwho made rhe mines and factories huming." For this vessel of un kn own rig and form , h e wo uld ch arge $3 0,000-apincluding rhose making rhe rails on which America srill depended for its growing railproaching the $4 5,000 initial cost of rhe road network. The project even attracted superb 1, 780-ton clipper FlyingCloudbuilt rhe landed aristocracy, which was beginat East Boston that year. Bur- and here the sport begins-she wo uld be delivered ning to use more farm machineryatAlbert's subject to trials to see if she were "faster urging, and seized the interest of the press, rhan any vessel in rhe U n ired States brought and the English people-and then rhe world. to compete wi rh her. " If not, rhe syn di care In June 1850, ground was broken in john Cox Stevens, head ofthe America syndineed nor accept her. Andi f she were beaten London 's Hyde Park for an unprecedented cate, was the eldest son of a distinguished and by any vessel in England, she could also be accomplished family. His brother Robert in- glass hall (soon dubbed rhe C rystal Palace) refused. T his proviso was a wild one, giving vented the T-rail, the track in use by railroads and the gigan ri c transparent structure, the syndicate an easy out and a free summer's today, and with another brother, Edwin, seem ingly built of air, bega n to take shape. sailing if they fa il ed to win just one race! designed and operated the first commercial U nder its lofty roofir acco mm odated some Schuyler undoubtedly met with George railroad in the United States. Edwin also of the park's giant elms, which Parliament Steers, actu al des igner of rhe vessel, who designed and built ironcladsfor the US Navy, had insisted on saving: the trees of the city's had recently joined Brown's 12th Street and on his death in 1868, his will established common green were not to be shorn for a yard , to wo rk out these terms, which were the Stevens Institute of Technology (where mere exhibiti on, however distinguished . in Steers's bravura style. Stevens knew the many Americas Cup contenders have been European rulers, still shaken by the revolutionary uprisings of 1848, were not too 3 1-year-old builder well. Steers had built tested) on Stevens property in Hoboleen.

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SEA HISTORY 97 , SUMMER 2001


happy about the massive unglossy black and polished co dertaking. The exposure of perfection for the social whirl at Cowes in England's Isle of new ideas co the crowds it would draw made a scene rife Wight, where the hospitality with opportunities for trouble. and presumed racing ri valry of the Royal Yacht Squadron But they could not stay away, for these vulgar English were awaited them. Butwhilechehospicalitywas the super power of the world. there, as Lord Wilton, comAs for ViccoriaandAlbert, they knew they had co involve the modore of the Squadron, had public from the outset. So promised Stevens, no one could 30,000 attended the opening, be found to race the America and before the Exhibition for the steep wagers Stevens ended its five-month run over offered. America had sailed 6 million people had come co Approaching Sandown Bay, America, now well ahead ofthefleet, receives right through the fast cutter three cheers ftom fellow countrymen watching the race ftom their vessel. marvel at chumping steam enLaverock when the cutter came (''Three Cheers for America, " by Tim Thompson, courtesy the artist) out from Cowes to meet her, gines, clicking telegraphs, blazBelow, George Steers accepted the impossible challenge of designing an and chat may have put a damper ing electric lights and ocher ocean-going vessel that could beat all comers. on things. Finally, on 8 Auwonders of the age. Six million people was over ten times the population of the City of New gust, Wilton wrote co invite Stevens co enter America for the New York Yacht Club ina race around theisleofWight fora "hundredYork! And across the ocean , on 1 May 1851, the day chat Victoria guinea cup" put up by the Royal Yacht Squadron "co be sailed for opened the Great Exposition, Jam es Gordon Bennett's New York by vessels of all rigs and nations" on 22 August, just rwo weeks Herald announced chat the well-known shipbuilder William H. lacer. Stevens accepted. The buildup had been incense. Syndicate member Colonel Brown "has finished his yacht for the World's Fair." le was also noted chat she would shortly "test her powers of sailing in a match Harrison, who came from Paris co join the America before the race, reported chat Horace Greeley had warned him co withdraw the with Mr. Stevens' yacht Maria. " Now Maria was a huge sloop with a 95-fooc main boom, America, or if they persisted and lost, not co bother coming home. Friday, 22 August opened with light airs, but things picked up almost as long as the vessel herself. Her 97-fooc hull was just rwo enough co make the srart at lOAM. Mainsails were co be feet longer than America's, and it looked somewhat like the schooner's-but there all similarity ended. She hoisted at the warning gun, 9:5 5-then, at the sran, anchors were co be weighed while full sail was set. spread 7,890 square feet of sail, 50 percent more Unaccustomed co the strong Solem tides, than America's 5,263. And chis acreage of canAmerica overrode her anchor as the making vas was carried on a flat-bottomed hull drawwest wind drove her forward against the last ing only five feet! She used a cumbersome of the west-turning ebb. She had co lower centerboard to get co windward, and was sail, gee the anchor up and then chase afte r difficult ro control in a breeze. An ouc-andche fourteen competitors ahead of her. out racing machine, she was in no way a fie These ranged from vessels of half co rwice match for an ocean-going schooner like her size. America. Owned by Stevens, principal of The race was without time allowances che America syndicate, she had been defor size or sail area. Her opposite numbers signed by his mechanically gifted brother carried three jibs and club topsails over huge, Robert, who also designed the T-shape rail baggy main and foresails. America, having arused in railroads today. Stevens himself sailed rived with her simple rig of main, foresail and her in the test matches against the America in jib, had added a flying jib on a jibboom extending which, after some fumbles, the raptor ace up her beyond her bowsprit, presumably to meet Scevens's designated prey, and George Schuyler was cold co fears about her performance in light airs. H e need not offer $20,000 cash for the America rather than the agreed $30,000, si nce she'd failed co beat Maria . T he builder had li ctle have worried. By the time America reached the Nab lightship at the ease end of the Isle of Wight, she had sailed through the fleet and choice but co accept. None of the America's syndicate were available for the crans- into the lead. T he course had been mostly downwind, sharpening Adancic passage, so George Steers was invited co fill their places. up co a reach coward the Nab as the coast trended southward. On With him he brought his older brother James and James's rwo the run, America caught all but four boats, slipping through the sons, making up a complement of fifteen, under the redoubtable water on an even keel with no visible fuss . On the reach, getting her skipper Richard Brown, owner of America's prototype, the pilot powerful quarters down into it, she began co show what she could schooner Mary Taylor. After an uneventful 20-day crossing, the do. The Times of London in its comprehensive report noted how vessel put in at Le Havre. There Commodore Stevens and his she performed when the wind got up, "with all sails set as flat as a brother Edwin joined the schooner, which was hauled, painted a drumhead, and without any careening or staggering, she 'walked SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 2001

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The Americas clean lines and graceful ends made her exceptionally handsome. H er raked masts made a dashing appearance, but did not add to her performance. H ere she sports her English flying jib- which she did not need.

along' past cutter and schooner." She made her turn inside the Nab to begin the windward beat up the southern shore of the Isle of Wight, for she had not received the notice that the Nab had to be rounded as a mark of the course, and their English pilot Robert Undeiwood made the rightest turn he could without running aground. Most of the fleet followed America, and a protest by a schooner that went around outside the Nab was later disallowed. T he Times reporter noted the boat's fine performance going to windward: "While the cutters were threshing through the water, sending the spray over their bows , and the schooners were wet up to the foot of the foremast, the America was dry as a bone." Wallsided, bluff-bowed vessels have a way of making the sea their enemy, seeming to hit the same wave twice to make sure of killing it. The America was simply not of this ilk. On the windward leg the flying jib was being hardened in by the crew to make it set flatter, when it broke the slender jibboom that had been rigged out to set it. Dick Brown was "damned glad it was gone." He said he didn 't believe in carrying a flying jib to windward-and undoubtedly he was right. He luffed the vessel for a quarter hour while the crew cleaned up the mess, then bore away to sail without the baggy English sail offlax to compromise the hard, flat curves of American canvas. Many people, including the Times co rrespondent, noticed the flat sails, and it has become fashionab le to say sails alone earned America's victory. But there were many factors in her superiority, including a sweet hull that made her slippery in light air and powerful in a blow. The very simplicity of her rig was another factor-big sails well set tend to work better than a multiplicity of small ones, and there's an added bonus in reduced windage in a simple rig. Just hanging out more laundry isn't productive. Then there's the matter of skipper, helmsman and crew, and how they pull together. And finally there is the balance of all these factors, which make what sailors call a happy ship. So America worked her way to windward, in gradually lightening airs. Off the Needles, those spiky rocks off the western end of

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the Isle of Wight, we may imagine the pleased atmosphere aboard as the plain black schooner with her modest rig ran down the easy seas toward the finish, past the royal yacht. John Cox Stevens lifted his hat to Queen Victoria and Prince Albert with the Prince of Wales, and all hands gave three lusty cheers. The Queen did not, as far as we know, ask: "Who is seco nd?" to get the memorable but fictive response: "There is no second, Ma' am." But that caught the sense of the occasion, and the Times man caught people saying something similar when America glided across the finish line off Cowes at 8:37PM. So the hundred-guinea cup became "the America's C up," and resided in New York from 1851 until it was won away by Australia II in 1983. 1(To be continued) NOTE: A full, seamanlike, and beautifit!ly illustrated account ofthe race is to be found in john Rousmanieres The Low Black Schooner: Yacht America, 1851-1945 (Mystic Seaport, Mystic CT, 1986). I mages courtesy the New York Yacht Club unless otherwise noted.

Jlmerica's Cup Ju6i!ÂŁe More than 200 boats from nearly 20 co untries will gather at the Isle of Wight in August 2001 to celebrate the l 50th anniversary of the America's C up competition. All the America's C up winning skippers or helmsmen since 1970 will be in attendance and many of the world's most important and historic yachts will be racing. Racing will take place 16-25 August and wi ll involve boats in five categories: the International America's C up Class; International 12-Meter C lass;] Class and 23-Meter Class; Modern Yachts-IMS and IRC; and Vintage, C lassic and Sp irit of Tradition Yachts. Follow the race and other events on line at www.americascupjubilee.com. The organizing authority is the Royal Yacht Squadron in association with Louis Vuitron.

SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 2001


The Earl of Wtlton: Protagonist for the America's Cup by Commodore Henry H. Anderson, Jr.

W

hile Prince Albert was the protago nist for the G reat Exhibit - the first world's fair- the Earl of W ilton , commodore of the Royal Yacht Squadron (RYS) in 185 1, was the pro tago nist for the fl 00 C up. T his was the first signi fica nt international regatta that led to the transfo rmation of the sport of yachting fro m a national pastime to an international one. T he Earl of Wilton is described in Mem orials of the Royal Yacht Squadron as a "Nobleman of unfailing urbani ty and a fin e manner, a capacity for business, and a love of order and punctuality . .. a skilled musician, amateur surgeon, 1 sportsman." His legendary personality is succincdy captured in the following doggerel: Next upon a switch-railed bay with wandering eye Attenuated William canters by His character how difficult to know A compound of psalm tunes and tally-ho, A forwa rd rider half inclined to teach T hough less disposed to practice than preach An amorous lover with a sai n dy twist And now a jockey, now an orga nist.

T he stage was set for the transfo rmation when at a May 1851 meeting chaired by Co mmodore Wilton the RYS resolved to present a cup of fl 00 for a race open to the yachts of all nations, to be sailed fo r under the sailing regulations of RYS around the Isle of Wight. According to Memorials it was "a decision which was the natural

The Earl of Wilton, commodore of the Royal Yacht Squadron, headquartered at Cowes in the Isle ojWight-the senior Englishyacht club, chartered to fly the Royal Navy's white ensign. (From The Royal Yacht Squadron (1903))

complement to Lord W ilton 's offer of hospitality in his Jeerer of February [to the New York Yacht C lub)," bur elsewhere it is noted that the event may have been militated by the plan "to entice yachts fro m Sr. Petersburg and Germany to visit the Great Exhibition- they turned out to be no-shows." Regardless, it was Lord Wilto n who had already taken the "initiative on the part of myself and the members of the Royal Yacht Squadro n to welcome visitors to the clubhouse at Cowes during their stay in England ." W ithout the creation of the ÂŁ 100 C up regatta the gesture, as it turned out, wo uld have been fu tile, since the only racing available to the America wo uld have been matches with individual yachts on a wager without handicaps. T he traditional regattas on th e Solent we re open only to members of the clubs co nducting them. The sailing regulati ons of the Squadron p rescri bed time allowances based on ton-

The course for the 1851 H undred Guinea Cup took competitors around the Isle of Wight, the same course that wiff be run this summer to commemorate the l 5 0th anniversary of the race. (From T he Lawson Histo ry of the America's C up (1902))

SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 2001

nage fo r fl eet racing. At some point, perhaps swayed by Commodore John C ox Stevens [of the N ew York Yacht C lub] , the RYS had waived "the already accepted principle of time allowance for tonnage, which if applied wo uld have reduced America's lead to less than two minutes." In conjunction with the waive r also granted was the America's request to be allowed to boom o ut h er sails. As no ted in Bell's Life, "America's [raked] mas ts prevented her having full advantage of her sails unless she booms them our. " Typifying the character and leadership role of Lo rd W ilton is the comment in the press, 'The note ofh armony, indeed, which h ad been struck by Lord Wilton's letter to Commodore Stevens in February had continued to vibrate throughout the season. " T his observation was repeated by others in statements such as "Wilton set the stage for the fri endl y spirit .. ."; "Stevens and his afterguard were also praised for their comportment, as were the British yachtsmen. " A potential protest over the failure of the America to observe the Nab when rounding the Isle of W ight was dropped. 2 T hus th e America's C up Jubilee recognizes no t only the victory of the yacht America but also the role of the commodore, T he Earl of W ilton, in creating the venue that led to the transformation of yacht racing into an international sport. ,!, H enry H . Anderson is a former commodore of the New York Yacht Club and chairman emeritus of the American Sail Training Association. This piece is reprinted with permission from the New York Yacht Club N ewsletter 14: 1 (March 2 001). 1 His practice appears to have been Limited to operating on a friend in an emergency and saving his Life. 2 Respecting the course sailed by the America, there is reference to the two sets ofconflicting sailing instructions that were issued to the yachts: one, "containing the names and colors ofthe yachts in which the course is described as merely round the Isle ofWight, "which were the ones received by the America, "while theprinted program stated, 'around the Isle of Wight and outside the Nab (Tower)."' (Bell's Life) Not having to observe the Nab provided her with a comfortable weather berth over her opponents.

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SS American Victory: The Making of a Mariners' Melllorial by Charles M. Fuss, Jr. at does it take to make a firstate memorial and museum for he US merchant marine and its Naval Armed Guard protectors? First, it takes vision. Captain John C. Timmel, a Tampa Bay harbor pilot, got the idea for a floating memorial, interactive museum and cruising ship during a voyage aboard the restored Liberty ship SS john W Brown of Baltimore as part of a Propeller Club of the United States National Convention. With the seed planted, Timmel had to find a ship . Captain Brian Basel, USCG, steered Timmel to the US Maritime Administration, which had plans to scrap several World War II-era Victory ships. T his course led Timmel and Tampa marine surveyor C harles Harden to the James River Reserve Fleet near Norfolk, Virginia. The two men inspected several vessels and selected the SS American Victory, which was in remarkably good conditi on for a 53yea r-old ship.

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Political help is important as well. Congress man Jim Davis (D-FL) introduced legislation tO transfer the ship from the Maritime Administration to Victory Ship, Inc., a not-for-profit organization fo unded to secure, restore and operate the SS American Victory. Less than a year later, the ship was in Tampa. A lot of corporate and community acceptance is needed to undertake a project of this magnitude. The Tampa Bay maritime comm unity has responded with vigor: Gulfcoast Transit towed the ship from Virginia; Tampa Bay Shipbuilding and Repair hauled her out for cleaning and painting; International Ship Repair and Gulf Marine Repair provided welding and related services. Sea Bulk Services donated tugs to shifr the ship on several occasions. A number of other firms have given much needed services of every description. Perhaps most important to the project are the individual volunteers who have contributed over

13,000 hours to restore the old girl. These people, yo ung and old, from all walks of life, have given new life and personality to the ship. Even before the SS American Victory arrived in Tampa on 16 September 1999, volunteers were hard at work. C harl es Harden, who once served as a US Navy deck officer on USS Glynn (a Victory ship converted to an assault-transport), led the way. A native of Tidewater Virginia, he has applied his encyclopedic knowledge from more than 54 years of maritime industry experience to solve the challenges related to recommissioning the ship . Captain Robert Valentine, a 1943 graduate of the New York Maritime College who commanded the SS Lynn Victory in the mid-1950s and worked for 25 years as a Panama Canal pilot, serves as the ship's master. Jim Schaut, who at age 36 became the yo ungest chief engineer on the Great Lakes, leads the "black gang." A native of Wisconsin, Jim

The author with grandson Connor Cureton and the drydocked SS American Victory in the background at Tampa Ship. (Photos courtesy Tim Teahan)

The SS American Victory at her launching on 20 June 1945 from the California Shipbuilding Company, Terminal Island, California. The ship was named after American University in Washington DC to recognize the school's involvement in war training programs. (Photo courtesy American University)

SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 2001

CMDR Lud McKay, USN (Ret), and cadets ofthe Robinson High School Naval junior ROTC, pause during a work party on board the Victory ship.

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Volunteers Sue Vavisza and Frank Mascioli chip years ofpaint from the SS Ameri can Victory'.> wheelhouse portholes. As ship volunteers across the world understand, it is hours ofpatient work like this that make a ship live again.

Tim Teahan chips away rubber andfiberglass mesh sealing from the ships deck openings.

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SS American Victo ry under tow to her new ==--------~--------' home in Tampa.

began his career as an ordinary seaman in 1953, going down to the engine room in 1959. Jim's wife Beverly, a registered nurse, pitched in to help restore rhe ship's sickbay. Bi ll Simmons, who se rved on board rhe SS Antioch Victory and the SS Haiti Victory, is the ship's chief electrician. Simm ons has spent untold hours rewiring rhe SS American Victory's electrical sys tems and bringing life back into the windlass, winches, motors, and other machinery. As word spread about the SS American Victory's resurrection, more volunteers came to help, including five former crewmen living in the Tampa Bay area: Stavro Mago (1946), Mike San Felippo (1947), Joe Sinopli (1951 ), Charles Hall (1968) and Tom Vain (1968). Other SS American Victoryveterans have pieced together rhe ship's history, including Charles White (1945), Hemy Ross (1953), M ax Moore (1966) , Ralph Nilsen (1947), Tom Fox (1968) and Mike Wholey (1969). Ex-merchant mariners and N aval Armed G uard members are prominent in the volunteer ranks. Retired military men like Lieutenant Colonel Ted Keiler, USA, Sergeant Marr Damon, USAF, and Master Chief Dick Longo, USCG, are valued contributors. Retired corporate attorney Jim Smith rode by the shi p one day on his bike and decided

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to rake part in the effort. Volunteer Earl Q uenneville, who des igned rhe SS American Victory's dockside fac ili ty and museum layo ut, is an ex-Navy en listed man and officer with 46 years of design experience and degrees in civil and structural engineering and architecture. The Boy Scours, Sea Scours, Naval Junior ROTC and Navy Sea Cadets are willing and valuabl e helpers. A unique and dedicated volun teer ream is husband and wife Jack and Judy Held. Jack, an ex-US Navy boatswain 's mate with 20 additional years in the merchant service, and his wife Judy, a mariner in her own right, both in their 70s, came to Tampa specifically to help restore the SS American Victory. They left Omaha after helping in the renovation of an old US Navy LST (Landing Ship Tank) like the one rhar Jack served on in Wo rld War II. T he salty couple can be fo und almost every day aboard the ship wielding scrapers and paintbrushes, rigging cargo booms and doing rhe odd jobs rhar always crop up. Victo1y ships were designed ro replace the 9- to 10-knor Liberty ships that carried the bulk of cargo to Europe and the Pacific during World War II. A total of534 Victorys were built between 1944 and 1946. They were relatively fast at 16- 17 knots, with a range of24, 000 nauti cal mil es. The 7,600-

gross-ton ships measured 455 feet in length with a beam of 62 feet and a loaded draft of 28 feet. Steam turb ine engines delivered 6,000-plus horsepower. Victorys were expected to become the mai nstay of our postwar fleet of fast merchant carriers. Ir was nor to be. Foreign competition and a nationwide network of highways with emerging truck carriers interve ned. The SS American Victory was launched on 20 June 1945 from the California Shipyard in Los Angeles. She cost $2.5 milli on to build. T he ship deli vered war supplies to the Pacific and later served during the Korean and Vietnam conflicts. Deactivated in 1969 and pl aced in the James River Reserve Fleer, the American Victory was briefl y brought to full operational status in June 1985 as part of the Victory Ship Validation Program, designed to determine the rime and expense necessary to activate mothballed Viccorys . While a grateful nation is finally building a monument on the Mall in Washington DC for our W orld W ar II military heroes and hom efront defense workers, the "civilian" merchant sailors who went in harm 's way from the dawn of hostilities until rhe last day have received little recognition. These merchant mariners suffered a terrib ly high casual ty rare, and many of the dead had only rhe sea for a grave. T hose who survived waited more than 40 years to be recognized as veterans. The SS American Victory will help to fill that void. T he American Victory Mariner's Memorial & Museum Ship will be a li vin g piece of American mari time history, memorializing fallen merchant seamen. The museum wi ll be a source of maritime education and interactive museum exhibits and wil l provide entertaining cruises. Boilers should be fu ll of steam by Fall 2001 ! ,t

Charles Fuss retired from NOAA with 3 1 years of service. He first went to sea in a Victory ship in 1947 as a teenage messman. Fuss is the author of numerous articles and Sea of Grass, published by the Naval Institute Press in 1996 SS Anm¡ican Victory is open to the public for Restoration Tours. (SSAn1erican Victoiy, Berth 271, 705 Channelside Drive, Tampa FL 33602; Tim Teahan, Public Relations Director, ph: 813 228-8766; e-mail: AMVIC @aol.com; web site: www.americanvictory.org) SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 200 1


AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE MEMORIALS In at least 29 states and the District of Columbia, yo u can find memorials chat honor American merchant mariners, to those who sailed on or were lost with merchant ships in wars from the Revolutionary War through the 20th century. An extensive list of all these sites, ranging from plaques and statues co flagpoles and obelisks aro und the country, can be found on the web at http://www.USMM.o rg. The memorials pictured here are two of the most powerful. T he eighteen-foot bronze statue showing two mariners climbing a Jacob's ladder was dedicated in San

Pedro, California, on National Maritime Day, 22 May 1989. The American Merchant Marine Veterans Memorial Committee, Inc., is now working to construct a National Memorial Wall at the site, listing the mariners who sacrificed their lives from World War II on as well as those who were prisoners of war and who received the Distinguished Service Medal. (PO Box 1659, Wilmington CA 907481659; 310 830-7899; fax: 949 215-3237; web site: http:/ / members.home.net/ nan4tedked/ammvmc.html) The monument in New York City off the Battery in Manhattan, dedicated in 1991, is based on a photograph taken by the captain of the Uboat that sank these men's ship. The seamen never made it to shore. J,

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THE OCEANIC MISSION II:

How Initiatives Bred Up in the Ocean World Led to the End of Slavery by Peter Stanford A year ago, reflecting on the World Marine Millennial Conference which NMHS co-sponsored with the Peabody Essex Museum, we offered some thoughts on new perspectives opened by "those wider horizons and longer spans of time, which otherwise pass unnoticed, like the slow groundswell which tells us of the past and carries messages of vital import for the future." Here we return to that quest to rediscover the oceanic compact that led to the end of slavery.

working li fe had been spent on the banks of the East River branch of this estuary and I was a trustee of Operation Sail. But neither I nor anyo ne I knew on the waterfront had seen anything quite like the wooden schooner of the 1930s which sailed in carrying nameboards reading Amistad for the occasion. This was in honor of the C uban schooner that was seized in a mutiny led by the African prince Singbe Pieh in 1839, when slavery was still legal in much of the United States. When the Africans landed in the US, they were put on trial, and, in revulsion at the prospect of returning a haunter of seaports, last year I fo und myself trudging Singbe to slavery and death for himself and his companions, a legal he rainy streets of D eptford, downstream from London defense was mounted which succeeded in freeing them all. n the River Thames. My quest was the memorial I had A remarkable leader in civil rights, Warren Marr, II, h ad raised been told of marking the site where Francis Drake, at the Queen's the funds to charter the schooner and to sail her asAmistad. He did command, had put his ship Golden Hind as hore in April 1581. She this to deliver her message and to launch the movement that led was to be preserved as a monument celebrating Drake's round- to the building of the new schooner Amistad, which sails US waters rhe-world voyage-and to encourage others to today, teaching Americans about the winning of the first great venture greatly by sea. antislavery victory in America and the awakenThis was an act of defiance to the powerful ing of the American resolution to wipe out Spanish Empire, which dominated Europe and slavery in this nation. claimed sway over all the world's oceans by In the story of the Amistad, mos t acco unts, divine right-an ordinance reinforced just the including the recent Spielberg movie, overlook a year before by Spain's takeover of the fo rmidable critical fact, one that speaks volumes for the Portuguese navy. But the knighting of Sir Francis gro undswell movement toward freedom then Drake and enshrinement of his ship was accomtaking shape in the oceanic wo rld. Starting in plished in a festival atmosphere. It was a moment 1808 , England and the United States had joined to be alive! The ceremonies were conducted wi th in outlawing the transArlantic slave trade. verve and high spirits not commonly found on It was this 1808 ban against the slave trade, a those rare occasions when histo ry seems to come compact which came to include Spain and other to a pause before taking off on a new course. European powers, that led the US Supreme The leaden October skies had opened in a Co urt to free Singbe. For it was determined that chill downpour, driving people off the streets, he and his fello w Africans had been brought to bur at length I found my way to the waterfront Singbe Pieh, who led the revolt of the Americas after the ban was in force and were and the marker commemorating the Golden Africans illegally carried into slavery held illegally. Their seizing of the ship by force H ind. The hulk of the ship was gone, bur I aboard the Amistad. and killing the ship's officers, was no cause for wanted to see how this critical step in opening holding them, since the Co urt recognized a the Modern Age was remembered. Reading the inscription, person's innate right to defend his own liberty-unless he were a however, I felt a growing chill deeper than any the English climate slave, which these Africans were not! So, by the skin of their teeth, Singbe and his African followers could produce. What I read in turgid prose was how Drake and those who sailed in his wake were to blame for the African slave were freed. T he funds for their defense had been raised by Lewis trade, the "exploitati ve trade in African people ... to enrich Tappan, publisher of New York's journal of Commerce, who quit England for centuries and impoverish Africa." his business to wo rk forrheAfricans' freedom. With leftover funds Was this, then, the principal legacy of the voyaging that opened the American Missionary Association was formed, which endured up the ocean world? A longer perspective, and perhaps a steadier through rime, and after the C ivil War established numerous look at what actually happened to end the slave trade and then schools and colleges in the South to deal with the massive slavery itself, would have told quite a different story. challenge of providing the education that African Americans had This is the story of how strong black leaders found their voice been denied. It was while working for the American Missionary and a vibrant support system in the communiry of the English- Association that Warren Marr became seized of theAmistad story speaking sea trades. Let me pursue it here as I learned it, tracing the and determined that more Americans should know it. experience of those noble spokesmen for the cause of freedom. Ir took the brave and charismatic African Singbe Pieh to lead the Amistad mutiny, bur this wo uld not have led to freedom Voyaging to Freedom without the developing awareness within the Atlantic communiry In 1976 Sea History reported news of an unusual entrant in the that the evil of slavery had to be fo ught, and the willingness of Operation Sail parade of tall ships up the Hudson River, which business leaders like T appan to fund the enforcement of a viral law ends as a tidal estuary embracing New York C iry. Much of my barring the transport of Africans into slavery by sea.

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How did that awareness and that sense of a wider communi ty wanted to speak not only about the horror of slavery but abou t the of concern in the seafaring wo rld come into being?T he story of the great needs of the African-American communi ty and the chalgreat African-American leader and former slave Frederick Doug- lenge of freedom once secured . lass sheds light on that scene. He had learned how to make his way and acc umulate savings Born in 1817 as FrederickAugustus Washfrom his $1.00 daily wage on the waterfrontington Bailey, Douglass had the so ul of a poet. that was a vital element in the way he had won freedom. It was vital to his gaining a sense of He found a metaphor of escape from the clutch of slavery in the Chesapeake world in independence and with it a strong sense of responsibility and self worth. In the first verwhich he lived, watching the ships that sailed up and down the bay, many of them bound for sion of his autobiography published in 1845, far corners of the ocean. On the Fells Point he had left out the telling details of his escapewaterfront in Baltimore, where h e worked as a how, for instance, during his break for freedom caulker, the word from fellow blacks was that people who knew him as a slave did not recognize him in the seaman 's clothing. across the ocean there was a city whe re slavery did not exist. T hat city was the English capital, But in that first tract he cold how the slave breaker he had once been sent to had nearly London. "More blacks from distant regions congresucceeded in reducing him to the status of a gated in London than anywhere else," says brute- with little memo ry of the past, uncarJeffrey Bolster in Black j acks, his studied acing about what happen ed from day to day, count of African-American seafaring under Warren Marr, II, civil rights leader and with no hope for the future. H e had found sail, "making it the hub of the black Atlantic." NMHS Overseer who took up the himself, in his words, "broken in body, soul Bolster notes: "London's black society helped Amistad cause to build a ship of.freedom. and spirit. " His escape had been a road back lucky West Indian seamen learn the ropes of from a living death. And in his Narrative ofthe sys tems far more complicated than full-rigged ships, giving them Life ofFrederick Douglass he dwelt on the need for Americans of the confidence to negotiate for freedom"-confidence, and the color to learn achievement, to strike out into the mainstream of friends, connections and support systems to make freedom real. society as he had done, regardless of all odds. Garrison, who Douglass did not attempt to ship out immediately, as he might supported Douglass financially and wrote a preface to his book, have, to go to London. H e was American. But he was resolved to tended to co-opt his message for his own, which trended toward be free. He borrowed the certificate of a free black sailor-of whom defiance of all government. Garrison 's use of Douglass seems clear there were many in the multifaceted seaport wo rld- donned in his preface to D ouglass's book- that book in which the free seaman's clothes, and simply walked off the job at the shipyard. black man's determination to write the plot of his own life, not just The description in the certificate bore little resemblance to the tall, in words, but in deeds, comes through with ringing clarity. powerful yo ung man people called Fred, but, in his sailor's togs and A more threatening problem facing the popular young speaker walking with the free and easy stride of a free man, he found he was that as he became known, he became vulnerable to being retaken as a slave-even in the "free" states of America, like New didn't need the certificate. No one ever asked him for it. H e stayed in New York long enough to get married to his York and Massachusetts. T he doctrine was simple: A slave is fiancee, Anne Murray, a free black woman who had followed him property. Where slavery was legal, the slave was owned by his north. Then, in fear of recapture in New York where he lived with master in the same way a horse is owned. This was to be spelled out friends working for the abolition of slavery in the US, he and his in the Dred Scott decision of 1857, in which by a 7-2 vo te the US new wife headed east for New Bedford, where he co uld vanish into Supreme Court denied the suit of the slave Scott to be free, even in the waterfront scene more readily than in New York. He took up states where slavery was illegal. ChiefJustice Roger B. Taney said speaking and writing about his experiences as a slave, under the slaves had "no rights which any white man was bound to respect. " The solution to this was obvious: take ship for England! adopted name of Frederick Douglass. Even as he achieved growing recognition as Frederick Doug- Douglass had known si nce his time in slavery that there was lass, he found obstacles to his achieving his full potential as a free freedom across the ocean, in the country that gives its name to the man . One was unwittingly erected by white activists working for language he spoke. T he rest ofDouglass's story is one of steady, albeit som etimes the abolition of slavery. In the 183 0s the United States existed in the painful state later to be described by Abraham Lincoln as "h alf painful progress . In England he said: "I live a new life," and "I gaze slave, half free. " T hese activists, led by W illiam Lloyd Garrison, arou nd in vai n fo r one who wo uld question my humani ty." New got to know Douglass when he sallied forth from New Bedford to friends raised the $700 he needed to buy his freedom. Returning attend anti-slavery rallies on the island of Nantucket. Nantucket to the US in 1847, he went back to Baltimore to pay the money had never permitted slavery on its sh ores. T he trouble was that into his master's hands. The elderly Hugh Auld received him Garrison wanted Douglass to testify as a slave. He and his fellow graciously and coolly accepted the blood payment. Douglass was reformers wanted to have people learn the full horror of servitude cool about that too-as a free person paying the fee demanded by an illegitimate system. as Douglass had experienced it. For Douglass, this was not enough . He had become a thinker, Douglass went on to move out of Garrison's orbit, settling in indeed a philosopher, on the conditions oflife and labor, and he Rochester, New York, to p ublish his own newspaper. H e cold his SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 2001

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musr make no small reckoning of a man," what was called the English settlement was taking shape. T his was based on an evolving commo n understanding of what was fit and appropriate action, rather than to a prescribed code of law. One sees this vital principle of the Common Law in M ansfi eld's very decision, in his fi ndings that slave ry is "odious" and that we must let the slave go free despite the violation of properry rights invo lved . Unfortunately, the very flexibiliry and sinewy strength of this principle entailed granting broad powers to colonial governments-particularly the wealthy plantation governments of the Wes r Indies and the American South. C onditions in the French coloni es were actually better for slaves, since local planters were firml y held to the laws of the mother country. But freedom did nor come ro rhe British West Indies until the 1830s, and to the American South until rhe 1860s. In England and Canada, however, freedom from slavery came to stay in 1772. This challenge to what had been a worldwide institution since recorded It Just Wasn't Done history began did not come out of thin air. QuesSeafaring gave Frederick D ouglass as a child his first dreams of a better life in freedom, suggestively, in rhe tions about slavery had fermented for years in the free movement of sailing craft on rhe bay. T he English language. Among the first protests were those against the enslave ment of white people by support sys tem of black seafarers, more practically, Muslim corsairs in the Mediterranean world, a masgave him the impetus and the occasion for his escape from slavery in Baltimore. And embarking fo r Enter-slave relationship that might strike one as strange gland bro ught him to the fo untainhead of freedom roday, but which was all too common in rhe 1600s for black .Africans. T h at freedom had been achieved and 1700s. M ary Rowlandson published in Camin England in the previous century. bridge, Massachusetts, in 1682 a narration of her Slave1y was never actually abolished on English captiviry and restoration under the ti de The Soveraignty so il. It was simply determ ined that it could not exist Frederick Douglass, whose and Goodness of God-and there were others. under English law. Just before the American Revolu- walk to freedom Led him to By the end of 1772, the year of the Mansfield tion, this was conveyed in a decision rendered by a cross the Atlanticfor support decision, Jam es Albert Gronniosaw' s Narrative of an African Prince had been published. Works by other seasoned 67-year-old judge, one William Murray, to end slavery in the US. Baron M ansfield, Lord Chief Justice of the King's black authors fo llowed. Perhaps the most remarkable Bench, a jurist noted fo r his contributions to commercial law. T he testament was that of G ustavus Vassa. Born in Nigeria as O laudah case was bro ught by James Somersett, a black man fro m the Equiano about 1745, he was captured in a tribal raid at age 10 and American C olonies who claimed his freedom, having been bro ught sold ro English slave traders. H e went through th e ho rrors of the ro England by his maste r on a visit there. T he case came before M iddle Passage to Jamaica and then to Virginia. There he was M ansfield because the maste r claimed Somersett as his properry. bought by a British naval offi cer, M ichael H enry Pascal, as his No jury was involved, for rhe fac ts were not in dispute-it was a servant. In the Royal N avy he learned a seaman's skills-and, by his plain question of whether a person could legal ly be owned as own acco unt, a seaman 's attitude of hard work, initiative and pro perry. inde pendence-serving in the Royal N avy through the Seven M ansfield heard extended arguments that Somersett sh ould be Years' W ar until 1762. H e was promised his freedom bur Pascal returned to his mas ter, but he fo und that slavery is so "od io us" a reneged and sold Equiano back inro slavery in the W es t Indies. co ndition that it cannot be upheld without positive law affirming Equiano then proceeded ro earn his freedom by managing moneyit. In the absence of any such law, slavery could not exist. In maki ng ventures for his new maste r, saving enough ro buy his own summing up Mansfi eld observed: freedom. Whatever inconveniences, therefore, may follow fro m a Of his four years sailing as a slave in rhe West Indies he says: "I decision, I can nor say this case is allowed or approved by the made every exertion ro obtain my freedom and return to Old law of England, and therefore the black must be discharged . England," but fi rs t he felr obli ged to continue sailing in the interAnd Lord M ansfi eld ruled, on 22 June 1772, that "as soon as any island trade for his former mas ter in the West Indies . This slave sets foot in England he becomes free." included a stint of setting up a slave plantation on the Mosquito Why had this forwa rd stride in the progress of humani ry taken Coast in Central America. Finally he broke away from the place in England? It was perhaps due ro rhe burden of history islands-in all he had traded ro fifreen of th em in his four years' embedded in the English language. Language is shaped by expe- service, and to Savannah, C harl eston, Richmond and Philadelrien ce, and in turn language does much to shape people's views of phia as well , surviving dismas ting and shipwreck. the world. English is a language sh aped by invasion, resistance and He secured a berth fo r England, "where my heart had always comprom ise. By rhe rime of Francis Drake, who said once, "We been," and went ro live wirh rwo sis rers, cousins of Pascal, in the fri end Sojourner T ruth that slavery could end only in bloodshed , but he strongly counseled John Brown against his armed raid on H arper's Ferry, warning rhar violence wo uld "rive r rhe fetters of bondage mo re firmly." During the C ivil War he urged Presiden t Lincoln ro declare all blacks in America free, rather than j usr rhose behind the Co nfederate lines . Late r rhis step was taken . Bur to Douglass, who generallyaccep red rhe need fo r srep-by-step progress, it should have been "freedom now" fo r all Americans. H e preached-and practiced- the education of black Americans in rhe skills and attitudes needed fo r economic and social independence. H e told rhe wo rld-fam ous abolirionisr aurhor Julia W ard H owe rhar rhe funds she generously gave to black charities were more needed for independence-oriented educa tion rhan fo r welfa re measures . H e urged peo ple to wo rk hard and save fo r rheir future, saying: "This part of our destiny is in our ow n hands."

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Before he left them Equiano encountered a sneering Captain Pascal walking in Greenwich Park and had the pleasure of reducing the proud officer to fury by instructing him on the illegality ofhis behavior. Thameside village of Maze Hill. He had stayed with them years whom he had two daughters. He left a sizable estate, as noted in before while visiting with Pascal. These two ladies helped place The Gentleman Magazine. Equiano' s life, his book, and his lectures undoubtedly helped to Equiano in trade as a barber in London. Before he left them he encountered a sneering Captain Pascal walking in Greenwich get the Parliament finally to oudaw the slave trade-the vital Park and had the pleasure of reducing the proud officer ro fu1y by measure that allowed Singbe Pi eh to walk free after leading a violent instructing him on the illegality of his behavior. mutiny against slavers aboard the Amistad. "Being still of a roving disposition, " he emSo the ships that Frederick Douglass watched barked on voyages to Spain, Italy, Turkey and sailing through Chesapeake Bay over 150 years the West Indies, from which he was glad to ago were more than poetic harbingers of a better future-they were carrying the seeds of that return, but ready to sail again. In 1773 he embarked on a voyage to reach future in the English language with its burden of law and custom, which the grown Douglass, like the North Pole (which people still felt might be Equiano before him, made so resoundingly his reached by open water), getting as far as 81 °N, within 540 miles of the Pole-an adventure he own, and in which indeed Singbe Pieh found was lucky to escape after eleven days locked in justice and freedom. the ice. This was the trip on which 15-year-old The Oceanic Mission Midshipman Horatio Nelson had his encounAnd Francis Drake, two centuries earlier, adjurter with a polar bear, which passed unnoticed by ing his people to "make no small reckoning of a Equiano, who had other things on his mind! man," who at first accepted slavery, ended up So Equiano pursued his career as seaman and Olaudah Equiano Narrative as trader, venturing small shipments on his own as allied with free blacks barding their former slave andfree seaman in the Atlantic he had done in rhe island trade. Always he overlords in the Americas. In opening the ocean world helped end the slave trade. returned to London, the home port of his farworld, he and his fellow voyagers spread the flung travels in the Atlantic and Mediterranean. In London he was English language, in whose root concepts slavery, Lord Mansfield caught up in the Methodist Christian revival and became involved was to find, simply could not exist. So in the English-speaking sea in the campaign, pursued from the pulpit and in Parliament, to community action was finally taken, for the first time in mankind's abolish the slave trade. Equiano began to write letters to the story, to end slavery throughout the world. How that just reckoning of a man was reached, to give a newspapers on this-a topic on which he was well qualified to speak as a former slavemasrer, as well as a former slave himself. Mansfield the sense of j us rice he found implici r in the law, could He held no brief for slavery, particularly the plantation slavery be matter for another report on the oceanic mission-if you've of the West Indies and the American South. He put the case rime for it. ,!, succinctly in one memorable letter of 1778 to Lord Hawkesbury, president of the Board of Trade: "Torture, Murder, and every To VOYAGE FURTHER ... other imaginable Barbarity are practised by the West India Planters upon the Slaves with impunity. I hope the Slave Trade will be W. Jeffrey Bolsrer's Black jacks: African American Seamen in the abolished: I pray it may be an Event at hand. " AgeofSail(Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA, 1997, $27) Even as a free black he had encountered bearings and intimi- develops a full picture of how black seamen found their own ways dation in the Caribbean plantations and in the American colonies. in the ocean world, sometimes achieving positions of authority in W ith remarkable reserve, he describes the threats of one West seafaring and seaport trades despite all obstacles. The author, a Indies merchant he had to deal with, saying: "I was astonished at professional sailor and distinguished academic, uses carefully this usage from a person who was in the situation of a gentleman." gathered statistics to show how the African American presence Amidst the horrors he relates he had picked up on the distinction grew in seafaring and what it contributed. made by the London journalist Sam Johnson between a gentleman by birth or station and a gentleman by behavior. Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting Narrative and Other Writings, In a stream of letters published in the London press he ed. Vincent Carretta (Penguin Books, New York NY, 1995, $10.95) denounced rhe Christianity that could tolerate, much less seek to conveys, with Equiano's richly derailed account of his experiences justify, slavery. At one point he even thought of moving to Smyrna afloat and ashore, an important 28-page introduction and comin Turkey, which he had twice visited. They traded slaves there, prehensive notes on use of special terms and sources ofEquiano's bur with no hypocritical defense of slavery. Eventually, being references, ranging from Dr. Johnson's two definitions of a gentleembroiled in arguments with all kinds of people in the newspa- man to obscure practices and beliefs of the times. pers, he was prevailed on by his friends to publish his Interesting Narrative ofOlaudah Equiano, in order to establish his credentials. Frederick Douglass, The Life and Times ofFrederick Douglass (orig. Issued in 1789, the Narrative was a great success, with many 1881; Carol Publishing Group, New York NY, 1995; $22.95). wealthy subscribers signed on as patrons. Equiano embarked on a This full account covers Douglass' s later years, including details of career oflecrures on the slave trade. The work went into numerous his walk to freedom and his dealings with Garrison, Sojourner editions before his death in 1797, aged about 52. In 1792 he had Truth and Abraham Lincoln, which won't be found in the simple married a white Englishwoman of a Cambridgeshire family, by narrative of 1845 which was intended simply as an antislavery tract.

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Preserved in Amber: The 18th-Century Dockyard at I<arlslcrona, Sweden by William S. Lind

W

hile few Americans today think of Sweden as a naval power, in the 17th and 18th centuries Sweden was a major European power with a substantial navy. In 1790, when Sweden was at war with Russia and Denmark, the Swedish fl eet included 25 ships of the line and fifteen frigates. (To put this in context, Lord Nelson won Trafalgar, the decisive battle of the Napoleonic Wars, with a fleet of 27 ships of the line.) Ten of Sweden 's frigates were designed to carry 24-pounder guns (not carronades) as their main armament, making them the first 24-pounder frigates in the world, preceding the American Constitution and her sisters. The "wooden walls" of Sweden are of course long gone. But surprisingly, the facilities where they were built and equipped remain largely intact, at the main Swedish naval base of Karlskrona. The author recently had an opportunity to tour the Karlskrona shipyard 1 and see the unique heritage preserved there, almost as if trapped in that famous Baltic product, amber.

Karlskrona's History Karlskrona was founded in 1680 by an act of royal absolutism typical of the era. Sweden's main naval rival was Denmark, and because Copenhagen became ice-free weeks earlier than Stockholm, the Danish fleet could go into action each year sooner than the Swedish. Sweden needed a new naval base in the so uth, on roughly the same latitude as Copenhagen. Instead of choosing an existing port ciry and developing its facilities, King Karl Xl looked at the map, spotted a couple of small islands with farms on them, and said, in effect, "Build it here." At the king's command, town, naval base and protecting forts were built as a combined enterprise, under the direction ofAdmiral Hans Wachtmeister. Work proceeded quickly, and in 1681 the first ship was launched from Karlskrona. While the original grandiose plans were never carried out in full, a handsome town was built, including one of the largest town squares in Europe. The main channel into Karlskrona was protected by two large forts , Drottningskar and Kungsholmen. Drottningskar

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remains today a classic example of 17thcentury trace Italienne fortification, while Kungsholmen was repeatedly modernized and had guns in service until a few years ago. Perhaps because of its excellent fortification, Karlskrona was never assaulted, and by the late 1700s it had become the third largest ciry in Sweden.

AfChapman Nor only did late-18th-century Sweden possess a significant fleet, it also had the services of Europe's most famous naval architect, Fredrik Henrik af Chapman. Swedish naval construction had been controlled by Englishmen since 1659, when King Karl X Gustaf asked O liver Cromwell to send him some shipbuilders. In fact, one family, the Sheldons, were Sweden's Master Shipbuilders for three generations. Fredrik Henrik af Chapman was born in the Royal Dockyard at Goteborg, Sweden, in 1721. His father was a British naval officer who had joined the Swedish navy in 17 16, becoming captain of the dockyard in 1720. F redrik was drawing competent ship plans by age ten. He went on to study shipbuilding in England, Holland and

France; the English first arrested him, then tried to hire him! But Chapman remained loyal to his fami ly's adopted country, and in 1757 he was appointed assistant shipwright at the Karlskrona naval dockyard. Chapman represents a major departure not only in shipbuilding but in the military profession , a transformation that was raking place in all of western Europe in the late 1700s: professionalization. Previously, sh ipbuilders, like military and naval officers, were craftsmen. They learned their trade by copying their seniors and were guided by empiricism, not theory. By the 1770s, this was beginning to change. Military and naval officers were starring to see themselves as members of a profession which had guiding ideas to be learned by study of history and theory. Chapman represents this change in the field of naval ship design. He was recognized in his day, and still is today, as the first scientific ship designer in Europe. And not only ships: Chapman also app lied the principles of the "Age of Reason" to the ways in which ships were built and the facilities to build and equip them. Some of those facilities are still standing in Karlskrona today, including a building

A model of Chapman 5 Type A artillery landing craft and gunboat. (Swedish Maritime Museum, Stockholm)

SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 2001


Chapman designed the neoclassical central portion of the Model Chamber (a bove). The world's first drydock hewn from solid rock and equipped with a (manual) pumping system (righ t) dates to the 1720s.

which housed what may have been rhe world's first assembly line.

* * * * * In the 1700s, Sweden h ad not one navy, but two : the sailing fl eet, built and based in Karlskrona and made up of ships of the line and frigates, and the "skerry fleet," a "mosquito fl eet" of small vessels desi gned fo r use in the skerries, the island-strewn Finnish coast (Finland was then part of Sweden). C hapm an desi gned and built chem bo rh . The skerry (or "inshore") fleet had originally depended on galleys, but starting in 1760 Chapman des igned a series of new ship types for the fl eet, all of which were highly innovative. Resembling small fri gates or corvettes, they included such features as collapsing sides chat converted into rowing benches, main batteries with pivo ting guns, very shallow drafts , and heavy armaments: the H emeenmaa, the larges t type, carried twenty-two 36-pounders on a ship only 142 fee t long. M ost successful of all were a series of gunboat designs, which again showed innovative fea tures, including guns ch at could be readily dismounted for use ashore. H ere is Chapman 's description of a demonstration he staged fo r King G ustav III in June of 1776: When construction of nine gun-sloops was fini shed, I armed one of them, and proceeded up the Vaerten [a small body ofwater north of Old Stockholm] where the king came aboard . I rowed and fired the gun, made land, lowered rhe ramp, we nt ashore with rhe gun, and advanced, firing all the time. T hereafter, I retreated, firin g all the time until the gun was back in its place on board the sloop. T he king was so impressed he made Chapman a lieutenant colonel in the Inshore SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 2001

Fleet (which was manned by the army and used army ranks) and gave him the coveted "af," raising him to the nobility. Trolle, commander of the skerry fleer, said: "Now we can damn well be as strong as our neighbor [Russia] in the skerries, since these new weapons do not cost much money, and don't require many men. "2 0 n 9July 1790, Chapman 's skerry fl eet proved its worth, giving Sweden a decisive victo ry over Russia ar th e Bartl e of Sve nsksund . In 1780, Chapman was appointed to a new royal commission established to consider the future of the sailing fleet. T he commission quickly became a battleground as Chapman 's new scientific approach to ship design was contested by the Sheldons, who represented the es tablished craftsman approach . Ch apman biographer D aniel G . H arris writes: G ilbert Sheldon knew little of mathematics and physics .... Sheldon wo uld adjust [his designs] . . . to suit his hunches, taste, and experience, and consequently, his ship 's draught and sailing capabilities would be evident only upon completion .... T he designs of the vessels Ch apman offered to the commission were derived from mathematical calculations and consideration ofthevessel' s purposes, length of sea time, the weight of ammunition, guns, and stores she was expected to carry, and the size of her complement. But the admirals on the commission refused to approve Chapman 's designs, and Chapman savagely attacked Gilbert Sheldon 's submissions .. .. Francis Sheldon's (Gilbert's son) protests were swept aside on the hearing's thi rd day, when Trolle astounded the

comm1ss1on by producing a comprehensive plan for the composition and construction of the new fleet. T his was something of a pre-emptive strike by C hapman, for he had collaborated with Trolle. 3 It seems that bureaucratic warfare and stubborn admirals were as familiar in l 8thcentury Sweden as in today's Pentagon! In any case, Ch apman's new scientific approach might h ave yielded little result except for a remarkable stroke of luck. Sweden was a poor country, and building a ship of the line was very expensive-it was the most industrially complex task of the preindustrial age. But just as Chapman's design won over the commission, Sweden received a large subsidy from France for building warships. France hoped to counter British naval superiority not only by expanding h er own fleet, but by helping her allies to expand their fleets as well. Pres umably, when war came, chose allied ships would be available to help fight the British. In 1782, Chapman was made superintendent of the Karlskrona dockyard and was ordered to get cracking; the Swedes knew the French subsidy would not last. Chapman responded by anticipating H enry Kaiser by 150 years and establishing an assembly line for both ships of the line and frigates. His ships were small, just 60 guns, but designed to carry 36-pounders on the lower deck and 24-pounders on the upper deck (though not all were so armed in full by the time war broke our with Russia in 1788). What was remarkable was less the designs than the speed of co nstruction. Between July 1782 and O ctober 178 5, Chapman built and launched ten ships of the line and ten fri gates. Previously, Swed21


Above, the Vasa building shed ofI 763stands over a building berth dating to 1756. At left, a beam supporting the roofofa woodshed at Karlskrona is an 18th-century ships mast; the writing is in runic. (A ll photos courtesy the author unless otherwise noted.)

ish ships had been on rhe srocks for years; by 1784, C hapman was raking as lirrle as 45 days berween laying a keel and launching rhe ship. Bow and srem secrions were prefabricared, using srandardi zed drawings and remplares. Somerimes rhe speed of consrrucrion was such rhar rhe oak was nor even debarked . Co nservarive admirals warned rhar rhe ships were poorly builr, bur, in facr, some of rhem lasred unril rhe second half of rhe 1800s. C hapman's scienrific approach proved irselfin pracrice. In 1782, rhe cap rain of an earlier C hapman ship of rhe line, rhe Hedvig Elisabet Charlotta, reported rhar: T he ship sailed exceprionally well , especially when close-hauled, and she has made 8 1/z knors under jib and ropsai ls. I encounrered no ship which I could nor overrake. She is in all respecrs a good seaworrh y crafr and a good fighring ship.4 The execurive officer of rhe Diana, one of rhe 40-gun frigares built in rhe Frenchsubsidized program , reported in 1787 rhar: The frigare wirh rhe besr wi nd, a fresh breeze, made 13-14 knors; of all rhe sailing vessels which we have seen, in roral ab our one hundred and fifry which have sailed in our company [on a voyage ro rhe Medirerranean], none has been able ro fo llow eirher when sai ling closehauled or running free- rhe majoriry have been overtaken in rhree ho urs and rhen ho urs larer again were our ofsighrif only ir will blow hard because she can wirhsrand much wind. 5 U nfortunarely, rhe l 8rh-cenrury Swedish sailing navy (nor rhe skerry fleer) had a remarkable if coincidenral similari ry ro rhe Spanish navy of rhe sam e period: borh designed and builr fine ships bur gave li rde

22

rhoughr ro manning rhem . Senior officers were chosen for rheir ski lls ar court, nor ar sea; junior officers received lirrle rraining; and rhe crews were wrerched, farmers and soldiers rhrow n o n board shorrl y befo re rhe fl eer wenr inro barde. The Danish ambassador ro Sweden wrore rhar "rhe Swedish crews would consisr m ainly of farm laborers transformed inro seamen by a couple of dips in salr warer." 6 When rhe fl eer was mobilized in 1788, " rwenry percenr of rhe crews of rhe ships of rhe line were raken from infanrry regimenrs, and rhirry percenr of rhe crews of rhe heavy frigares were foor soldiers. "7 In 1788, Sweden began a war wirh Russia, which ar rhar rime was also fighring rhe Orroman Em pire. Denmark soo n came in o n rhe Russian side; like Sweden, Denmark possessed a subsranrial navy, numbering 28 ships of rhe line in 1800. 8 King G usrafIII of Sweden prompdy made his brorher, Duke Carl, commander-in-chiefofrhe navy. Duke Carl's real inreresrwas Freemasonry, andhe is supposed ro have said ofhis naval role thar he did nor like being "an apprenrice seaman ro plunge around for weeks on end like a duck on rhe waves and nor see anyrhing bur ships, rhe sky and rhe sea." 9 The Swedes h ad rwo good oppo rruniries ro carch rhe Russian fleer un awa res and win a decisive vicrory, bur Duke Carl borched rhem borh. Againsr professional advice, in 1790 rhe King and Duke Carl ordered rhe sai ling fleer inro rhe Finnish skerries, for which ir was nor suired. Ir was prompdy blocked in Viborg Bay by a superior Russian fleer. At rhe king's order, rhe Swedes broke out on 3 July, in a co lumn led by C hapman's 60-gun Dristigheten. Bur six Swedish ships of the line ran agro und in the

shallow ware rs and were caprured, wh ile a sevenrh , along wirh a frigate, were set afire and destroyed by a Swedish fireship rhar was badly handled. Two more Swed ish ships were raken ar sea by rhe Russians. Only rhe vicrory of the army's skerry fl eer six days larer ar Svensksund allowed Sweden ro obrain an honorable peace. 10

The Karlskrona Dockyard Today Ar rhe sa me rime rhar C hapman was building up rhe sailing navy in rapid-foe fashion, he was also building many of rhe dockyard facilities rhar remain srandinga r Ka rlskrona. Indeed, were he ro rerurn romorrow, he could easi ly have a new frigare or ship of rhe line under consrrucrion in a few weeks. My rour of rhe dockyard, in March of rhis year, began ar the careening quay, a woode n dock with rwo capstans near the original building berrhs; ir dates ro 1683. Behind it lies rhe magnificenr model chamber building, the neoclassical central porrion of which was designed and bui lt by C hapman. Beside it is a long building designed by C hapman as an assembly line for ships' firrings; as noted earlier, this may have been rheworld' s first assembly line. Ir includes Chapman's gate, which leads ro rhe Commandant's House, whi ch C hapm an des igned and builr and in which he lived and worked . A short bridge leads ro a peninsula, rhe Lindholmen, where rhe visiror finds the first drydock in the world cut from solid rock and fined with a pumping sysrem (o riginall y manual). Builr berween 17 17 and 1724 and considered one of rhe wonders of Europe ar rhe rime, it is srill in use roday by the Swedish Navy. Nexr ro ir srands what may be rhe dockyard's crown jewel, rhe Vasa building shed. An immense

SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 200 1


The 1, 000-faot-long ropewalk.

structure of stone pillars and wood, it was erected in 1763 over a building berth dating to 1756. N ear it stand many of the woodsheds, with wood still in them, and the 1,000-foot-long rope walk. The steaming shed, where wood was steam ed and shaped, is part of the same complex. Across the water lies the vast Inventory Ch amber I, another Chapman construction, where ships' fittings were kept, each ship being allotted one vertical "slice" of the structure. At the end of the peninsula is the so-called "Finnish Church," which it supposedl y resembles, a building used in the 18th century for tarring rope. South of the main dockyard lies a slightly newer area that includes five drydocks arranged in a "five fingers" formation; today, they are used by Swedish submarines. N ear them stands the immense mas t crane, nine stories tall, built between 1803 and 1806 to lower masts into ships of the lin e and frigates. The author could not get a photograph of it because the Swedish N avy's new "stealth" corvette was tied up nearby! Karlskrona' s mixture of 18th-centu ry facilities, modern facilities and 18 th-century structures used for modern purposes is at times as tounding; the shipyard guide noted that "it is really amazing how those 18 th-century Swedes knew just what size to build a drydock for a modern submarine!" T he fact that Sweden has not been at war since 1814 has obviously helped in preservation, but innate Swedish conservatism and conservation are also at work. Swedes just plain don' t like to was te things.

Skarva and Stumholmen In the mid- l 780s C hapman received the king's permission to build a small summer

SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 2001

cottage across the water from Ka rlskrona. What emerged (m uch to the king'sdispleasure) was a 24-room summer palace, Skarva. A unique combination of neoclassical and traditional Swedish archi tecture, Skarva, now owned by the Wach tmeister family (a source of Swedish admirals fo r many generations), is largely original inside and out. T he original furni shings include C hapman 's work table, to the right side of which a small window with a telescope allowed him to oversee the dockyard, and a rare collection of about 200 C hinese prints of diffe rent types of river vessels, sent to Chapman by his bro ther, wh o captained a Swedish Eas t Indiaman. Connected to Karlskrona p roper by a short bridge, the island of Stumholmen is home to Karlskrona's superb National Naval Museum . H ere visitors can see both models and plans of Chapman 's ships and gain an in-depth sense of Sweden's naval history. It also holds a number of facilities built to support the Swedish navy in the age ofsail. These include an 18th-century guard house, the Barge and Longboat shed completed in 1787, the crown bakery, a threefloor fac to ry built in the 173 0s to bake shi p's bread, the Kunghall Bastion and W arehouse, the latter designed for storing salt meat, and the barrel store, constructed in 171 8 to hold ships' stores in barrels.

Preserved in Amber M ore than perhaps any othe r age-o f-sail navy, Sweden's 18th-century fleet is alive today in the remarkable range of preserved structures at Ka rlskrona. T hey stand as a memorial to the fleet of a major naval power, and also to the man most responsible fo r building that fleet, F redrik H enrik

af Chapman , the world's first scientific naval architect. Should Sweden decide to build a new fri gare or ship of rhe line, perhaps as a naval training ship, the facilities to do so are intact and ready. The visitor to rhe naval dockyard and Skarva is left with no doubt that Chapman 's ghost wo uld be at hand to oversee and direct any such p roject. ,!, William S. Lind is author ofthe M aneuver Warfa re H andbook and many journal articles on military and naval history, tactics and doctrine. H e works at the Free Congress Foundation in Washington D C N OTES

A nore o n sources : Un fo rrunarel y, English-language writings o n C hap man and rh e Swed ish Navy in rh e 18th ce ntury a re few. The best is unqu es tion abl y F H. Chapman: The First Naval A rchitect and H is Work by Da niel G . Ha rri s (Co nway Maritime Press Ltd. , London , 1989) . H arri s is a C anad ian who has devo ted a lifetim e of research ro C hapm an . See also 'The Swedi sh N avy, 1780- 1820 " by Lars O rto Berg in Between the Imperial Eagles: Swedens Armed Forces during the Revolutionary and the Napoleonic Wars, 1780- 1820, edi ted by Fred Sa nd stedt (A brahamso ns Tryckeri AB , Karl skron a, 2000) and Naval Wars in the Baltic in the Sailing Ship Epoch, 1522-1850 by R. C. Anderson (Londo n, 19 10). I. M y pa rric ular rh anks are du e co my esco rr in Kar lskro na, Majo r Nik las Jo hansson of t he Swedi sh Marin e Co rps; my superb gu ide ro rh e nava l shi pyard , C uracor Ivar W enster, H ead of th e C ul ture D eparr men r o f th e Municipali ty of Kar lskrona; and Mr. T homas Skrod er, rh e owne r of Skarva, who very kind ly o pened the house for me in th e "off" seaso n and showed me through. 2. F. H. Chapman: The First N ava/A rchitect and His Work, by D a ni el G. H a rr is (C o nway Ma ritime Press Ltd. , London , UK, 1989), pp38- 9 3. ibid. , p 105- 6 4. ibid., p1 3 1 5. ibid. , ppl 3 1-2 6. ibid., p 136 7 . ibid., p 138 8 "Th e Danish Arm ed Forces 1800- 18 14," by O le L. Fra n rzen, in Between the Imperial Eagles: Sweden's A rmed Forces during the Revolutionary and the Napoleo nic Wars 1780-1820, ed. by Fred Sa ndstedt (A bra hamsons Tryckeri AB, Karl skro na, 2000), p 187 9 H arri s, op. cit., p 135 10 ibid., pp 143-4

23


MARINE ART

The American Society of Marine Artists Twelfth National Exhibition by Pete Rogers

A

quarter cenrury ago, with much help and midwifery from NMHS, the American Society of Marine Artists was born and held small exhibitions at the New York Boat Show and the US Capitol. The next year, 1978, marked the "o ffi cial" birth, as indicated by ASMA's incorporation as a non-p ro fit, the firsc Nacional Exhibition and annual meeting, and, not lease, that indispensable keystone of organizational identity, our logo. T hat device, designed by frequent Sea H istory contribu tor Bill M uller, remains unchanged, and many of ASMA's original plankowners remam acnve. ASMA's preceding national juried exhibition first was hung at the Frye Museum in Seaccle, W ashington, and then moved to the C ummer Museum in Jacksonville, Florida, drawing large crowds at both venues. T he current show runs fr om 28 April to 15 July at the Cape Museum of Fine Arts in Dennis, Massachusetts, and from 27 September to 18 N ovember at the First USA Riverfro nt Arts Center, Wilmington, Delaware. A full-color catalogue is available from either institution. At the same time as the seco nd show, a small satellite exhibition will hang at the Downtown G allery of the D elaware Art Museum . The exhibition and catalog are dedicated to the late Carl Evers, one of Ameri ca's greatest marine painters, a Fellow of ASMA and a stalwart member of the Society from che beginning. ASMA now has over 700 members from 46 states, and this regional dispersal has subtly, bur surely, give n greater breadth to the exhibitions and to the look of marine art in general. O ne hundred and fo ur works compose this exhibition including oils, watercolors, pas tels, etchings, drawings, sculpture and scrimshaw. Eighty-one artists are participating in the sh ow.

T he variety and richness of marine art resulting from this new bread th has surprised many members of the public who have come to our recent shows. T he surprise comes because many peo ple thought they knew everyching marine art had to say.

The Problem of Water An example of how limited that outlook can be is the matter of water. It is a standard part of the vocabulary of virtually all marine painters, and yet year after year there is no end to the variety of ways in which artists "solve" the problems of water. For the mos t part, no artist's water looks like any other's. Beyond rhe ships, th e people, the sky and the nuances of composition, the many moods and states of water remain the enduring challenge for marine arn sts. T h is show has an uncomm only large number of paintings dealing primarily with water-seascapes that p resent special challenges fo r the artists, since there is no ship, structure or o ther props on whi ch to hang the pai nting. T he seascapes range from June Carey's brigh t gliscening surf at Monterey Bay to A. M. M urphy's stark minimalist painting of evening light on wet sand and water. N ot one of these many paintings bears the slightest resemblance to any other, and they are a tes tament to the skill and originality of the painters. Mood and Atmosphere Like seascapes, ride marshes, backwaters and harbors are m ore difficult than they appear. T he mood and atmosphere have to be well handled, che work muse be well composed, interestingly lit, and personally felt to avoid predictabili ty. (Cont. on p. 27)

ROBERT LEROY, "Boacing Buddies," wa-

tercolor, 28 x 36 inches. "The "Jay" boat, with a mainsail and jib, is pop ular fo r two-man crews at the Carolina Yacht C lub, W rightsville Beach, No rch Carolina. In chis painting two teenagers are hoisting sail and getting ready to shove off the beach into Banks Ch annel. This painting is not only about the commonly seen activity of setting sail, but of the light coming thro ugh the sails, the reflections on the water, and the effecc of the wind. I have used a loose watercolor technique to suggest the constant morion of the water and the refl ections. The use of ocher and violet helps to minimize the use of blue in a subj ect that can often become - RL too blue in its overall effect. " 24

SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 2001


LOIS SALMON TOOLE,

ASMA logo

"C. A. Harrington," watercolor, 29 112 x 36 inches.

"On one of our visits ro rhe Sronington, Maine, boatyard, we came upon this rug out of Boothbay, up on the rack for repair. Though it was clear and sunny there had been a heavy rain which produced a large puddle in which the boat was perfectl y reflected . Since I grew up in a rown with commercial fishing docks I am more intrigued with 'boats of character' -workboats bearing the scars of a brave, hard, dedicated life plowing the high seas in search of a catch. This tug wore the many colors of rust and rested in strong blue shadows beneath its hull. There were strong reds against the blues of sky and water, bisected by warm undulating sand. The small figure I put into the backgro und for human interest and scale is my husband. " - LST

DAN OOLITTLE, "Low Tide Blacks

Harbour, New Brunswick," scrarchboard, 14 1/ 2 x 17 112 inches. "One finds rhese massive docks along rhe sou rheas rem shore ofN ew Brunswick's Bay of Fundy. From a distance rhey appear ro be looming boxy suucrures wirh li rde appeal. Close up rhey can be quire dramaric and inreresring. Here we find a !are afrernoon scene wirh bright sunshine playing on the boats and the massive structure of the dock with long deep shadows-and, of course, low tide. I changed very litde in the composition. The choice was what ro leave dark and what ro show in detail. In a few short hours this scene will be entirely different. There will be forty more feet of water under these boats. " -DD

SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 2001

25


IAN MARSHALL, "HMS Kent, Last Hope Inlet, Queen Adelaide Archipelago, Chile, 1915," watercolor, 32 x 39 inches. "At the so uth ern extremity of the chain of the Andes, fearsome, jagged mountains rise directly out of the deep waters of the Pacific. Eight weeks after the Battle of the Falklands the one surviving ship of Van Spee's squadron, SMS Dresden, was still a fugitive pursued by the Royal Navy. She had taken refuge in the archipelago of ironbound islands and peninsulas which comprise the sourhwest coast of Chile, much of it still at that time uncharted. "British warships doggedly stalked the German cruiser. Creeping up gloomy fjords, Kent unshipped her 56-foot steam picket boat and sent her ahead to sound our a passage between the hidden rocks. The small craft was provided with two 14" torpedoes in case she should stumble on the enemy. 'The Kent had been engaged at the Falklands, sinking the Dresden's sister ship Niirnberg after a long chase. Kentwas hit by 38

German 4.1" shells and suffered 16 cas ualties. She herself was armed with fourteen 6" guns, including twin turrets fore and aft, and she had a top speed of over 23 knots. "During her fruitless search through the channels between Tierra del Fuego and countless smaller islands which lie to the west on both sides of the Straits of Magellan,

"Monterey Bay," oil, 22 x 32 inches. "On the day I took rhe photos I am using for this painting, there was an intensely co ld wind blowing the mist from the surf onto my camera lens and I kept having to refocus because the wind wo uld

change the setting on my camera. The view of beautiful golden California light often does not betray the fierceness of the icy northern current that helps to keep the popular Mo nterey Coast unspoiled. T he bit of land silhouetted in the backgro und here is part of Pebble Beach." - JC

J UNE CAREY,

26

Kent intercepted a signal indicating that her quarry had left the area. Dresden was now near the island of M as Afuera in the Juan Fernandez group, 1,100 miles out in the Pacific to the northwest of the Straits. The Royal Navy followed suit, and within days three British ships closed in on Dresden and cornered her. " - IM

SEA IHISTORY 97, SUMMER 2001


HOWARD SCHAFER, "Bahamian Shipwreck," oil, 29 x 33 inches. "A Hai rian sloop lies wrecked in the surf along the Exuma Islands in the central Bahamas. Reggie, a local Bahamian, has probably seen many such incidents in his lifetime. Hastily built, crude and wirhour engines, these sloops are sailed between Haiti and Nassau. They are usually cargo vessels, bur some bring refugees willing to bet their lives on getting to America by way of the Bahamas." -HS

This exhibition also includes some extraordinary paintings of historical vessels, both sail and steam. These subjects add to the challenge of capturing light, sea and movement, the considerable tasks of recreating vessels long vanished, often in settings much changed by rime. I must concede that to discuss so many splendid works in hasty prose scarcely does justice ro the subtleties of texture, edges, brushwork, color, draftsmanship, composition, and the sense of depth, movement, atmosphere and light that go into each of these works. Despite the inadequacies of the words, this show, perhaps more than any other ASMA exhibit, really proclaims the Society's

funcrion-ro inspire its audiences, its pamc1pants and other artists and to make the world that we, and the readers of Sea History, care so much about come alive. We hope that each of you can attend and that you are richly rewarded for your efforts. J, Pete Rogers is a Fellow andformer president ofthe American Society ofMarine Artists. ASMA, PO Box 369, Ambler PA 19002; 215 283-0888; e-mail: asma@icdc.com; web site: www. marineartists. org (For exhibit dates and locations, see Marine Art News Calendar, p. 28)

AL STINE, "Hugo's Wrath," oil, 25 x 30 inches. "This painting was done shortly after Hurricane Hugo struck the coast of South Carolina. A wall of water and hurricane force winds carried this shrimp boar a long way from its moorings at McClellanville. "When I rook rhis photograph it had been returned to the dock area bur was severely damaged. She was offered to us as 'yard arr:' all we had to do was move her to the opposite end of the state. We didn't. Shrimp boats have so much character that I really enjoy painting them." -AS

SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 2001

27


MARINE ART NEWS Summer Exhibit Celebrates the Boston Waterfront John Stobart's Boston Maritime Gallery is hosting "Art of the Boston Waterfront," a juried invitational art exhibition and sale. The show, which runs from 28 June to 28 August 2001, is in celebration of the Port of Boston and its maritime heritage and will feature recent original paintings focusing on the Boston waterfront from Charlestown/ USS Constitution to the JFK Library with emphasis on the view from the water, particularly the easily recognized areas and structures that make Boston "Boston. " Several awards have been promised, including one from the Stobart Foundation for plein airepainting as well as others in categories such as the Boston Skyline, best young artist, and environmental, historic/maritime heritage and recreational themes. (Boston Maritime Gallery, 113 Lewis Wharf, Boston MA 02110; 617 227-6868; Stobart Gallery@aol.com)

Marine Art Books Peter Monamy (1681-1749) and His Circle, by F. B. Cockett (Antique Collectors' C lub Ltd. , Woodbridge, Suffolk UK, 2000 , 128pp, illus, index, ISBN 1-85 149-339-5; $49.50hc) Available from Antique Collectors' Club, 91 Market Street Industrial Park, Wappingers Falls NY 12590; 800 252-5231; fax: 845 297-0068; e-mail: info@antiquecc.com. A detailed account of the life and work of the first English born and trained specialist marine artist. Charles Brooking (1723-1759) and the 18th Century British Marine Painters, by D avid Joel (Antique Collectors' Club Ltd., Woodbridge, Suffolk UK, 2000, 208pp, illus, appen, biblio, index, ISBN 1-85149-277-1; $69.50hc) Available from Antique Collectors' C lub , 91 Market Street Industrial Park, Wappingers Falls NY 12590; 800 252-5231; fax: 845 297-0068 ; e-mail: info @antiquecc.com. A catalogue raisonne of Brooking's paintings, together with his drawings and engravings, with chapters on Dutch m arine painters of the 1600s, British marine painters of the 1700s, and London marine engravers of the 1700s. Waters of Life: The Russian Painters of Water (17501950), by Sutherland Lyall (ParkstonePress Ltd., Bournemouth UK, 1999, 200pp, illus, ISBN 185995-567-5; $55hc)Available from Books International, 22883 Quicksilver Drive, Dulles VA20166; 703 661-1500; fax: 703 661-1501. Most of the 150 beautifully reproduced color images fall into the category of marine art, although some are landscapes or portraits with water running through them or with water in the form of snow, and some of the paintings are by European artists to provide the context for the Russian work. The illustrations unfortunately occasionally cross the binding, but this is well worth perusing for the introduction to lesser known artists. ,!, 28

PETER MONA.MY 1(;8!-li.('J.\!<n l ll:;CiktU:

CALENDAR •Cape Museum ofFineArts: 28April- 15 ] uly 2001, 12th National Exhibition of rhe American Society of MarineArrisrs (CMFA, PO Box 2034, Rte. 6A, Dennis MA 02638; 508 385-4477; web sire: www.cmfa.org; ASMA, PO Box 369, Ambler PA 19002; 215 283-0888; web sire: www.marine arrisrs.org; e-mail: asma@icdc.com) • Delaware Art Museum: 28 Seprember25 November 2001, 12th National Exhibition of the American Society of Marine Artists satellite exh ibit (10th & Marker Streets, Wi lmington DE 19806; 302 571-9590; ASMA, PO Box 369, Ambler PA 19002; 215 283-0888; web site: www.marine artists.org; e-mail: asma@icdc.com) •Denver Art Museum: through 6 January 2002, "Ming Dynasty Ceramics from a Chinese Shipwreck" (100 West 14th Avenue Parkway, Denver CO 80204-2788; 720 8655000; web site: www.denverartmuseum.org) • First USA Riverfront Arts Center: 27 September-25 November 2001, 12th National Exhibition of the American Society of Marine Artists (800 South Madison St., Wilmingron DE 19801; ASMA, PO Box 369, Ambler PA 19002; 215 283-0888; web sire: www.marincarrists.org; e-mail: asma@icdc.com) •The John Stobart Gallery: 28 June-28 August 2001, "Art of the Bosron Waterfront, " a juried invitational arr exhibition and sale (113 Lewis Wharf, Bosron MA 02110 ; 888 267-6868) • Lake Champlain Maritime Museum: 1 May-14 October 200 1, "The Maritime Models and Watercolors of H. Richard H eilman" (4472 Basin Harbor Road , Vergennes VT 05491; 802 475-2022; lcmm@sover.net; web site: www.lcmm.org) •The Noble Maritime Collection: 31 March-14 October 2001, "Herman Zaage: Print Retrospective" (1000 Richmond Terrace, Staten Island NY 10301 ; 718 4476490; web site: www.noblemaririme.org) •San Diego Maritime Museum: 12 February-August 2001 , "Arr of the Sea: 17th Century Dutch Masters and Their Legacy"; 15 J une-14 December 2001, "Masterpieces in Miniature" (1306 North Harbor Drive, San Diego CA 619 234-9153; web site: www.sdmaririme.com) •Seamen's Church Institute: 22 May-5 September 2001, "Vintage Steamship Poster" (241 Water Street, New York NY 10038-2016; 212 349-9090) • South Street Seaport Museum: from 11 January2001, "Hudson River Journey" (207 Front St. , Ne'w York NY 10038; 212 7488600; web siHe: www.southsrseaporr.org) SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 2001


THE CONSTITUTION AND THE GUERRIERE

LEN TANTILLO

Color prints (30" X 23") of the second of four paintings by Michel Felice Corne of this battle in the War of 1812 are now available for purchase at a cost of $95

Beyond the Point The Essex near Greal Point, Nantucket, 18 19

Other fine histori cal and marine prints available. For additional information and free brochure call, write, or visit our website: THE NEW HAVEN COLONY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 114 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06510, 203-562-4183 For information, contact James W. Campbell , Librarian Checks, MasterCard or Vi sa may be used for payment

www.lftantillo.com L.F. Tantillo, Fine Art 243 Irish Hill Road , Nassau, NY 12123 518-766-4542

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* Order3 copies or more, and we' ll bring the discount to 50% off to get the word out: $37.50 hardcover, $23 softcover. To order by credit card, call 800

221-NMHS (6647) , or pay by check and mail your order to:

National Maritime Historical Society, PO Box 68, Peekskill NY 10566. SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 2001

29


MODELMAKER'S CORNER

The Lovely Coronet: A Miniature Exposition by Lloyd McCaffery

This broadside view gives some idea ofthe lovely shape of Coronets hull. Such details as room and space ofthe framing are

based on written descriptions, checked against actual measurements taken down in her bilge area. (All photos courtesy the author.)

Looking forward along the deck and down on the starboard side shows the fine entrance and sweeping lines of Coroner '.s hull. A crewman stands on the bow grating. Almost all the deck plank was left offto show the structure and details below. Most fittings are made ofapple wood cut in Oak Creek Canyon, Arizona.

30

y involve ment with Coronetgoes back almost two decades. She was hauled our at Gloucester at the rime, and I went up to lookherover. She was very impressive, even in her dilapidated state. I was amazed to discover that her garboard was at least 17" wide, and ran for something like 50 feet. The information I gathered was used on my first model of her, a plank-on-frame miniature at 16' = l " scale. Pulling together and using all the research material resulted in a small model of delightful appearance. Coronet has had a special place in my heart ever since. I recently learned of the good work being done by the International Yacht Restoration School in N ewporr, Rhode Island, to restore the schooner yacht Coronet, built byC. &R. Poillon in Brooklyn, New York, for Rufus T. Bush in 1885. I know it can be difficult to visualize what a ship can look like in her prime, especially if she has lost sheer, had her masts removed, and has had changes made elsewhere. I thought a largescale, cutaway hull model would be valuable to show her as she will once again be and to serwe as an educational tool for both students air IYRS and the average visitor. I decided tco construct her plank on fram e, and leave 1 most of the hull and deck plank-

M

SEA fHISTORY 97, SUMMER 2001


ing off. This approach would result in a 50" model showing derails of construction nor usually seen or understood. Leaving off most of rhe skin and curring open her port side would allow one to view the interior construction and fittings. In April last year I made a crip to Newport and spent nearly three days crawling around inside her, taking measurements and photos. John Summers, curator of the Coronet proj ect, provided extensive information on all aspects of h er construction and fittings. I thought I knew something about this vessel, but he has an encyclopedic knowledge of her and was always kind enough to put up with my interminable questions. The model would not have been possible without his help. Richard K.Anderson of Cultural Resources Documentation Services was measuring her interior with a laser and drawing up plans, which also provided valuable information . T heframewasassembledfollowingwritten descriptions in contemporary magazines and newspapers, notably Forest and Stream. The keel is of various shades of apple wood. I used both hardwood and sapwood to achieve this variety. The false keel or worm shoe is of boxwood for contrast. The scarf joints are fabricated following contemporary draughts and documents, among them the plans of Donald McKay. There are some different possibilities as to how her covering board or waterways would have been fitted, and I have shown two different approaches. On the starboard side the covering board ends flush with the outside of the frames and the side plank runs up over it to the planksheer. The port side has the waterway extended out to end flush with the side plank. The ballast bars were cast to fit down between the frames, thus prevenring shifting, and I have shown this on the model. I based the water tanks on information in Howard I. Chapelle's H istory ofAmerican Fishing Schooners and rhe books on Gloucester fishermen by Dana Story. The sizes were determined by calculations derived from information in Forest and Stream. Once the lower hold was complete, I started detailing the cabins and saloon. Most fittings were made of apple or cherry. The grand staircase has a faux marble pattern painted on, with rails and turned balusters

SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 2001

With the port side cut away, we can look into the hull from the side. The galley features a cook taking a turkey from the oven while a cat watches, his tail twitching. This view has elements taken from the book Yachting's Golden Age.

The ballast bars were cast to fit down between the frames, thus preventing shifting, and I have shown this on the model.

31


The figures in this view are based on old photographs. Cap tain Crosby stands near the wheel with spyglass in hand, while a crewman stands at the wheel. At the scale of l '=318'; the figures are just over 2" high. The curved shapes ofthe skylight sides had to be built up of many strips ofapp le wood, each p recisely beveled on the edges to accommodate the changing curves. The rop ework running through the brass stanchions is oftwisted wire. The saloon was the most elegant and refined area ofthe yacht. It featured stained glass windows in the main entrance doors, marble treads on the grand staircase, etched glass mirrors, and carved mahogany paneling throughout. The interior of the model is fitted with dollhouse Lighting, using grain-of rice flame-tipped bulbs to resemble the oil Lamps Coronet had.

of apple. T he mirro rs in the saloon and cabins are of scale thickness mylar, engraved with a carbide bi t to replicate the cur glass of the originals. T he interi or was lighted using grain-of- rice fl ame- tipped bulbs from a dollhouse supplier. Derails in the galley are based on the only known photo of an actual yacht galley, reprod uced in Yachting's Golden Age. I added the ship's cat here, positio ning it near the stove, where the cook is removing a turkey fro m the oven. Because most of the deck is left unplanked, it is possible to see in to the in terior fro m above the model, as well as fro m the side. T he deck planki ng is fitted aft and is laid our in a sprung curve, so the outside planks fo ll ow the curve of the shi p's sides. T he deck fittings are based on original pi eces or reconstructed fro m photos and other research ma terial . T he curved skylights are of apple, fitted with brass port-

32

h oles. Brass was also used fo r the signal gun, the vessel while giving the viewer a good binnacle, and bell. T he wheel rim is built up display of the structure and interior of this of three layers of appl e, with turned spokes grand old yacht. Ir now has a good home as of the same wood . T he grating at the bow is part of the Combs collection ofshipmodels. Coronet h as survived this long through built as a full-sized grating, with battens fitted into thwarrs hip ledges . O ne batten chance and th e care of many dedicated has been left out to show how this was done. individuals. Ir is my hope that this model T he scrollwork decorations on either will hel p people understand how beautiful side of the bow are based on old photo- she is and what she will look like when graphs. T he des ign is slightly asymmetri- resto ration is fini shed . NMHS president cal, with a dolphin on the port side and an emeritus Peter Stanford says we should "do eagle on the starboard. somethin g fo r th e ship"; this is my small T here are five figures on the model. T he contribution. Long live Coronet! She is cook in the galley and a lady seated at the wo rthy of our best efforts , whether in modsaloon table are based on old phoros. One eling her or in giving her new life for future of th e crew stands on the grating at the generations to behold and learn from. .t bow, and anoth er mans the wheel. Captain Crosby stands on th e quarterdeck holding Mr. McCajfery has been working as a p rofesa telescope whi ch shows up in a scene fro m sional model builder for 38 years. H e works the 189 0s. T he deck chair is based on that on commission as well as on speculation and same ph otograph . his ship models have won awards at such T he model shows the overall shape of p restigious shows as the Mystic I nternational.

SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 2001


Taking the Measure of Coronet by John Summers and Richard Anderson, Jr.

T

he last time Coronet sailed through the pages of Sea History was in the Summer of 1999 (SH89) . One could be forgiven for thinking that nothing has happened on her since. After all, the big white schooner is still tied up at the International Yacht Restoration School in Newport, Rhode Island, looking a little worse for the wear of her 116 years. Beneath this tranquil exterior, however, intensive preparations are underway for her to be hauled from the water in 2002. Over the last two years, the IYRS has worked painstakingly to build up a detailed archive of information about the historic schooner yacht. Particular attention has been paid to documenting Coronet's as-found condition. Hull lines were lifted electronically with the assistance of Mystic Seaport. These are being compared to the lines taken from two half models in the collection of the New York Yacht Club to answer important questions abo ut Coronet's original sheerline and bow profile. Her interior structure and joinery are being recorded in measured drawings by Richard K. Anderson Jr., the world's foremost practitioner of the arc of documenting historic technology. He began by making detailed notes, photographs, and measurements on board. A construction laser was used to establish longitudinal reference lines, and measurements were rrilaterated and/ or triangulated to these lines. Each measured point then could be plotted on the drafting board (or in this case, the monitor) . Particularly detailed joinery elements such as carvings and mirrors were photographed close up. These photos were then scanned and incorporated into the computer-assisted design program as a layer. After being traced, the photographs were dropped out, leaving behind an exact image of the element. As well as documenting Coronet's asfound condition, these drawings will be used to catalogue and identify joinery elements as they are removed so that they can be replaced later in the restoration. Beginning in the fall of 200 1, the yacht's entire interior will be systematically dismantled to prepare for next year's haul-out. J,

Above, a berth in the starboard aft (owner's) stateroom. Courtesy I nternational Yacht Restoration School. Richard Anderson taking measurements in the forecastle. (Photo: john Summers)

Below, the port side ofthe main saloon with carved panels. (Courtesy, !YRS)

john Summers is Project Curator for the IYRS's restoration a/Coroner. (International Yacht Restoration School, 449 Thames St., Newport RI 02840; 401 848-5777; web site: www.iyrs.org)

SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 2001

33


e oaken Snu 6 1' fi A<tb~ iffl Q (\':

COLLECTOR'SALLEY

by o,. WW.

Ships have their stories to tell-and so do lesser artifacts. Take a round oak snuffbox embellished with a bright medallion on its cover now resting on the fireplace mantle ofan old New England house not far from the sea. If it could speak, this artifact would tell a curious tale; a tale involving the frigate Constitution, Merino sheep (then the most prized in the world), a Jeffersonian American diplomat stationed in Portugal, a naval captain who fought against the Barbary pirates, and a business opportunity arising from Napoleon's conquest of Spain. illiam Jarvis was a successful Boston merchanr, prominent in local sociery. In 1797, rhe year of rhe launching of rhe frigare Constitution in Boston, Jarvis became a pan owner of a merchant brig and made several rri ps to Europe aboard her. As an observant businessman he became familiar wirh rhe intricacies of foreign commerce, and, in 1802, his enrrepreneurial skills were broughr to rhe arrention of President T homas Jefferson. Alrhough Jarvis, a Boston Federalise, was nor of Jefferson's polirical persuasion, rhe newly elecred Jefferson needed ralented people for his adminisrrarion. So he asked rhe New Englander to represen r rhe Uni red Srares as consul and charge d'affaires ar Lisbon, Porrugal, an imporrant Norrh Arlantic rrade and ship building center. Being appointed ro a diplomaric posr was an honor, and Jarvis, recognizing rhar rhis was also a business opporruniry, happily accepred rhe appointmenr. Ir was a very rense rime polirically in American history. The Brirish were sropping American vessels ar sea, impressing many American sai lors whom rhey deemed Brirish inro rheir navy. The Quasi-War berween rhe Unired Srares and France had jusr ended, Napoleon was in rhe midsr of his European conquesrs, and rhewaragainsr rhe Barbary Pirares of Norrh Africa had jusr begun. Shipping and commerce were rhe lifeblood of maririme narions bur, because of rhe hosriliries, rhere was a shorrage of sailors. One way ro augmem rhe crew of an undermanned ship was to sail ro a busy port such as Lisbon and obrain foreign sa ilors, eirher rhrough legirimare recruirment or from lawless press gangs. Sropping ar Porrugal's capi ral, however, had irs problems. Foreign ships anchored in Lisbon

W

34

Nmton

charge d 'affaires. He showed no concern rhar orher ships in Lisbon harbor also had need of manning and repairs. In rime a supplementary crew composed mosdy of foreigners was obrained, a new bowsprir insralled, and all repairs complered. To rhe relief of Co nsul Jarvis, Rodgers sailed Constitution from Lisbon on 9 February 1805 . His desrinarion was rhe coasr of North Africa, rhe ongoing Barbary Pirare War, and naval hisrory. On 3 June 1805, rhe Treary of Tripoli was signed on board Constitution amid exchanged cannon salures from ship and shore barreries marking rhe end of rhe Barbary War. The three-inch snuffbox made.from a piece of Despire rhe annoying six-week delay of Consrirurion 'soak andgiven toJarvis. (Photo USS Constitution, Jarvis became known as courtesy the author) rhe zealous prorecror of American seamen harbor were in danger of being placed in in Portugal. He persuaded rhe government quarantine, a control measure ro hair rhe ro make press gangs illegal, lobbied for a spread of an epidemic of yellow fever. change in rhe quarantine law, negoriared a On6November 1804,Maryland'sJohn decrease in rhe rariff againsr American Rodgers was given command of rhe frigare goods, and helped expand commerce beConstitution. On 27 November Rodgers rween America and Portugal. was ordered ro sai l rhe vessel from SyraOne unusual opportuniry in particular cuse, Sicily, ro Lisbon ro acquire new sails, engaged his arrenrion. Over hundreds of cable and, mosr of all, 80 new crewmen. years Spanish shepherds had developed While en roure rhe vessel encountered a highly prized Merino sheep, righdy consevere Adantic srorm rhar sprung rhe bow- rrolling rhe val uable breed. Spanish srarures sprir and delayed her arrival ar Lisbon until imposed a dearh penalry on anyone caughr 28 December. Constitution had departed exporting a si ngle ewe. The sheep produced from Sicily, an endemic yellow fever port, fine, soft fleece admired rhroughour rhe rherefore rhe frigare was ordered ro berth in Wesrern world. Spain had used rhe profirs a quarantine anchorage far from rown. from sales of Merino wool to pardy finance Alrhough communicarions wirh rhe au- explorarions and enlarge irs colonial emrhoriries and rhe American consul were pire. Bur in 1808 Napoleon conquered his difficulr from rhis remore area, Rodgers ersrwhile ally Spain, confiscaring properry advised Jarvis abour his need for seamen and esrablishing new laws. The French govand repairs. Progress was slow. Rodgers, a ernment was in dire need of funds to ficaprious, arrogant and imparient naval of- nance milirary campaigns, and rhey seized ficer, wrore Jarvis heared, discourreous ler- on rheir newly acquired Spanish sheep as a rers. In whar would be unheard-of conduce source of ready revenue. Being an opporruroday, rhe naval caprain was crirical ofwhar nisric businessman, Jarvis purchased 3,500 he perceived as laziness on rhe part of rhe Merino sheep and shipped rhem to America Merino sheep ~--------------------------------~

SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 200 1


Watercolor and gouache painting of USS Constitution, c. 1803, by Michele Felice Corne (Courtesy Naval Historical Foundation/USS Constitution Museum, Boston)

under the first Spanish Merino export license. Shorrly thereafter Jarvis resigned as consul and returned to the US. The exdiplomar sold most of the sheep and with rhe profit purchased a farm near the Connecticut River in Weathersfield, Vermont, his home for rhe remainder of his life. With an eye toward additional returns, Jarvis retained 350 Merinos for breeding, and with the help of Spanish animal husbandry produced the valuable VermonrArype subspecies. The introduction of Merino stock starred a new agriculturally based enterprise in rhe Stares and the wool helped fuel the developing New England textile industry. In 1810 Thomas Jefferson wrote to Jarvis commending him for his services as consul to Lisbon, for the casks of Portuguese wine of which Jefferson was fond, and particularly for promoting the breeding of Merinos. The frigate Constitution distinguished itself during rhe War of 181 2 and became rhe most successful combat ship in the history of the American navy, a floating national icon. Now a sheep farmer in Vermont, Jarvis expressed pride in his role providing for the needs of the famous vessel during his service in Lisbon. By 1830 Constitution had fallen into disrepair. Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote the poem "Old

Ironsides", which captured the hearts of rhe American people and led to a reprieve for the ship and brought about its ultimate preservation. Ar rhe drydocking ceremony for her restoration in 1833 , Isaac Hull initiated a tradition by ordering salvaged wood from her hull turned into canes and other articles as presentation pieces for dignitaries and other fortunate recipients. Around this rime Jarvis was given a three-inch snuffbox made from a piece of Constitution's oak. Snuffboxes were the marks of genrlemen during rhe 18th and early 19th centuries and Jarvis' singular box had a cover with an inscribed gold medallion that read "Constitution or Old Ironsides ... Mr. Miller to the Honorable Mr. Jarvis." Unfortunately "Mr. Miller" cannot be positively identified amo ng the many possible men with rhar surname, bur the oaken snuffbox became a prized nostalgic possession of one of America's most important importers and breeders ofsheep.

William Jarvis died at the age of 88 in Weathersfield, Vermont, on 21 October 1859. This dare marked the 62nd anniversary of Constitution's 1797 launchi ng in Boston only a short distance from rhe house on State Street where Jarvis was born. The frigate Constitution, America's Merino sheep and the snuffbox are still with us. Thar old snuffbox on the mantle improbably links rhe grand old ship, those wonderful sheep and some major figures in the histo1y of the yo ung American Republic. 1Dr. Norton is professor emeritus at the University of Connecticut H ealth Center and author ofthe Naval!nstitute Press book Joshua Barney: Hero of the Revolution and 1812.

6TH MARITIME HERITAGE CONFERENCE:

A Gathering of the Maritime Clans in Wilmington, North Carolina, 25-28 October 2001 • 1

•• 1

•• •• :

The 6th Maritime Heritage Conference, which will also incorporate the 4th International Ship Preservation Conference, will be hosted by the Battleship North Carolina and headquartered at the Wilmington Hilton Riverside, across the Cape Fear 1 River from the historic ship. •

If you consider yourself a steward of maritime heritage or a student of this

•:

heritage, this conference is a must attend, as all segments of the maritime community come together to address the challenges of the 21st century. The tentative cost of the conference is $225. The final cost will be in the registration packets which will be mailed out in midsummer. To ensure that you are on the mailing li st, send your name and address to Battleship North Carolina, PO Box 480, Wilmington NC 28402-0480; phone: 910 251-5797; fax: 910 251-5807; e-mail: ncbb55 @aol.com. Reservations at the Wilmington Hilton Riverside can be made at the conference rate of$120 by calling l 800 32 1-3232 and mentioning the 6th Maritime Heritage Conference. Additional blocks of rooms will be reserved in other hotel s and li sted in the registration materials. You may also contact the Cape Fear Coast Convention & Visitors Bureau at 800 222-4757 or www.cape-fear.nc.us. For updates on the conference, see the National Park Service web site at: www .cr.nps.gov/maritime. Groups wi shing to conduct business meetings are welcome to do so on Monday, 29 October. To reserve facilities contact Captain David R. Scheu at the Battleship North Carolina (contact information above). SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 200 l

35


SHIP NOTES, SEAPORT & MUSEUM NEWS SPUN YARN The non-profit South Carolina Maritime Heritage Foundation is beginning a twoyear, $3-million construction project to build the Spirit of South Carolina, a recreation of a mid-19th-century Charleston pilot schooner for sail training and sea education programs. The vessel is rhe beginning of a broader effort ro preserve and

The new schooner's design is based on drawings ofan 1850s pilot boat built by Pregnall & Company Shipyard in Charleston. interpret South Carolina's maritime heritage. (Charlie Sneed, Executive Director, SCMHF, PO Box 22405, Charleston SC 29413; 843 722-1030; web sire: www .SCMaririme.org) ... The Delaware Bay Schooner Project has acquired the 54-foot schooner Ca.shier, an 1849 oyster boat built in Cedarville, New Jersey, which has dredged for oysters on Delaware Bay since

The Cashier in her last season dredging for oysters. (Photo: DBSP) her launching, first under sail and later under power; she is reportedly the oldest working vessel in the United States. (Delaware Bay Schooner Project, 2800 High Street, Bivalve, Port Norris NJ 08349; 856 785-2060; web site: www.ajmeerwald.org) ... The Philadelphia Ship Preservation Guild is replacing the entire deck and waterways of the 1883 barkentine Gaze/a ofPhiladelphia, involving removal of the

(Continued on page 38) 36

Rose Surprise Fans of Patrick O'Brian have been thrilled to learn rhat a film based on the late author's Aubrey/Marurin series is planned, although it is currently in the limbo of "in development." One exciting result of this plan has been the choice of the replica frigate Rose to portray Jack Aubrey's command HMS Surprise. Sold by the HMS Rose Foundation in March 2001 the ship is currently in Newport, Rhode Island, for alterations and is owned by Seven Seas Venture, Inc. of Providence, Rhode Island. Built in 1970 in Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, the ship has been based in Bridgeport, Connecticut, for the past 14 years. Kaye Williams, president of the HMS Rose Foundation, writes: "It is certainly with mixed emotions that we announce rhe sale of rhe ship. While Rose has largely been self-supporting over the years, it should be remembered rhar most sail training ships the size of Rose are owned by maritime nations. There has always been a daunting HMS Rose under sail. financial challenge overshadowing all our ven(www.tallshiprose.org) tures, beginning with rhe near total re-build in the late 1980s and through the development and delivery of all the sail training sessions and port visits around the Atlantic rim. Needless to say the challenge to keep her safe, inspected and magnificent has cost our very small foundation many long days and nor a few sleepless nights. The film production for which rhe ship has been purchased will lavish funds on her rhar would never have been otherwise available. So, although ir may seem an unfortunate development to the many who have sailed with us from schools, colleges, universities and rhe general public, you will all be pleased to know that when Rose returns ro her education mission when filming is completed, she will be a vastly improved ship. Modificarions and improvements scheduled to begin soon should include new decks, sails, running rigging, engines, bow and stern decoration and more. The Rose Foundation is still very active; her mission is also rhe care and maintenance of the National Historic Landmark Nantucket Lightship #112, based here in Bridgeport." (HMS Rose Foundation, One Bostwick Avenue, Bridgeport CT 06605; 203 335-1433; fax: 203 335-6793) Capt. Richard Bailey, without whom rhe Rose would nor be sailing today, goes with his ship ro steer her through the rocks and shoals ofHo llywood. Bailey's leadership in sail training has been widely recognized; he and the HMS Rose Foundation created a broad constituency for the ship and developed an educational mission rhar has given her a unique role and made her popular and successful on rhe East Coast of rhe US and in Western Europe. At the conclusion of her service in Hollywood, the owners have invited Tall Ship Newport, run by Barr Dunbar, to submit a proposal to rake over rhe ship and return the Rose to sail training. (A web sire at www.rallshiprose.org is being maintained independently by a former crew member to keep up with news of the ship in the expectation that she will be available for sail training voyages in the nor-too-distant future.) Rumors about rhe movie have been flying since before the sale rook place in March. Ir has been widely reported rhar Australian filmmaker Peter Weir (of Witness, The Truman Show, Gallipoli, and The Dead Poets' Society) is developing a film under the working ride of Master and Commander, which is the ride of the first of O 'Brian's twenry novels following rhe saga of Capt. Jack Aubrey and Dr. Stephen Maturin. An attorney for 20th Century Fox confirmed ro Newport This Week rhar rhe company plans to distribute the film if it is made by the independent film company slated to produce ir. -JA SEA HlSTORY 97, SUMMER 2001


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AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE MUSEUM NEWS NEW TO TH E PUBLIC: The Museum is proud to announce char irs Passenger List and Photographic Collections are available to the public. These collections, which date back to the early 20th century, provide a unique perspective on our maritime past. Over the last several months, the museum staff, wirh several volunteers and midshipmen, has sorted and organized these collections in preparation for making them public. Both are available for viewing during Museum hours, however rhe staff does request that researchers make an appointment before visiting. Received from United States Lines upon rheir closing, the Museum's Passenger List Collection comprises over four thousand lists from that company and from its predecessors. Included among these are rhe subsidiaries of rhe famed Internacional Mercantile Marine Company, rhe American, Red Star, and White Star Lines. All rypes of vessels are represented, from groundbreaking liners such as the New York and St. Paul to the USL queens America and United States. Though the collection dates from 1902 to 1969, the majoriry deals with the period between 1905 and 1935. Researchers will find that the material allows an introspective examination of the ethnic and socioeconomic origins of immigrants in chis era, while genealogists may have luck tracing their ancestors. The Museum's Photographic Collection includes a wide array of maritime images ranging from ships at sea to on-shore activities and personnel. Central to the collection are sizable segments pertaining to Grace Line, Moore-McCormack, and the United Scates Lines, including rare images featuring the interiors of the noted liners Manhattan and Washington , as well as rhe world's fastest ship, rhe United States. Researchers will also find photographs relating to numerous other shipping companies, rhe merchanr marine in World War II, and the US Merchant Marine Academy. For those seeking pictures of foreign-flagged ships, the Museum 's "Merchant Ships of the World" collection includes a wide selection of vessels dating from rhe lace l 9rh century to rhe present day. Photo repruJuction service is available for a small fee, and chose seeking maririmc images are encouraged to conracr the Museum office. The Museum's new exhibit, "Crafts of the Sea," which examines maritime art forms ranging from scrimshaw co ships-in-a-boccie, will be open from June through 1 October 2001. -KENNEDY R. HICKMAN, Curator For research appointments and photo requests, contact: The American Merchant Marine Museum, USMMA, Kings Point, NY 11024; 516173-5 515; e-mail: ammmuseum@aol.com

windlass, deckhouses, and all rhree masts, as well as demolishing the entire foredeck. (Philadelphia Ship Preservation Guild, 801 S. Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia PA 19147-4306; 215 218-0110; web sire: www.gazela.org) ... The replica of HMS Bounty, builr for the 1962 movie Mutiny on the Bounty, was sold by the Tall Ship Bounry Foundarion, which had owned rhe vessel since 1993, to Long Island NY businessman Richard Hansen, who has formed rhe HMS Bounty Organization and plans to conduct training voyages and use the ship for ship festivals, corporate entertaining, filming and private charter afrer a major refit. (PO Box 141, Oakdale NY 11769; 631 588-7900; fax: 631 471-4609; e-mail: mailbox@rallshipbounry.org; web sire: www.rallshipbounry.org) ... The Tall Ships Challenge series of races, rallies, cruises and port visits sponsored by the American Sail Training Associarion will

bring historic and sail training vessels to the Great Lakes chis summer. The following ports have been scheduled: Kingston, Ontario, 28 June-1 July (Kingston Tall Ships Challenge, phone: 6 13 544-2250; web site: www.kingstomallships.ca); Port Colborne, Onrario, 5-8 July (Tall Ships Challenge Port Colborne: phone: 888 PORT-FUN; web site: www.porrcolborne .com); Cleveland, Ohio, ll-16July(Cleveland Harborfesr: phone: 866 865-5979; web sire: www.clevelandharborfest.com); Detroit, Michigan, 19-22 July (Detroit 300 and Sail Derroir: phone: 877 DET2001; web site: www.detroir300.org); Bay Ciry, Michigan, 26-30 July (Tall Ships Celebration: Bay Ciry: phone: 888 BAYTOWN; web site: www.tallshipcelebrarion .com; Mmskegon, Michigan, 9-13 August (Tall Shijps Challenge M uskegon 2001: phone: 8WO 585-3737; web sire: www .sailmuskeegon.com). (Steve Baker, Race SEA JHISTORY 97, SUMMER 200 1


Director, ASTA, PO Box 1459, 559 T hames Street, Newport RI 02840; 401 846-1775 ; web site: http: //www.tallships .sailrraining.org) ... In October 2000, The Glacier Society, dedicated to the restoration and operation of the icebreaker USS/ USCGC Glacier, was granted title to the icebreaker. Glacier, built for the US Navy at Ingalls Shipbuilding Company in Mississippi , was Adm iral Richard Byrd's flagship during the first Operation Deep freeze (1955-56) in Antarctica on her maiden voyage. (TGS, PO Box 1419, Bridgeport CT 06601; 203 375-6638; web si re: www.glaciersociery.org) ... Japanese and

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USSIUSCGC Glacier in Suisun Bay CA American yo uth wi ll sail aboard the schooner Californian on the West Coas t this summer as part of the Navy Memorial's US-Japan Maritime Youth Exchange Program, which unites eight American and eight Japanese yo uth in a month-long program including travel, Navy-related activities, and cultural experiences in the US and Japan . (Navy Memorial Foundation, 701 Pennsylvania Aven ue, NW, Suite 123, Washington DC 20004; 202 737-2300, x739; web site: www.lonesailor.org) .. . A Norwegian ream has discovered the remains of the German battle cruiser Scharnhorst, sunk on 26 D ecember 1943 in the last major surface engagement of the German Navy in World War II. The Norwegian military said it informed German authorities of the find and any further action would be up to them , Naval History reports .... O n 9 March 2001, the Port Columbus National Civil War Naval Museum in Col umbus, Georgia, opened its new 40,000-square-foor, $8-million faci li ty. Among the museum's premier col-

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SHIP NOTES (cont.)

Simpl y th e b es t se lec ti o n o f CO N T EM PO RARY & A N TI QUE On e o f a Kind Shi p Mo d els By Intern ationa lly Accla imed Ma rin e Mod el Arti st s. Documented to Museum Stan dards

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The Art of the Sea Calendar for 2002

The era of sailing ships recalls a glorious past that inspires brilliant images on the canvases of contemporary marine artists, from fullrigged ships and gaff-rigged fishing boats, to America's Cup yachts, grand liners, and workin g tugs. Royalties from sales of this calendar benefit the National Maritime Historical Society. Calendar is wall hanging, full color, 11" x 14"; $11.95 + $3.50 s/h. To order, send $15.45 (or $14.25 for NMHS members; NYS residents add applicable tax) check or money order to:

NMHS, PO Box 68, Peekskill NY 10566. Or to order by credit card, phone

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lection of Civil W ar artifacts are the remains of the ironclad CSS Jackson and the gunboat C SS Chattahootchee, recovered in the 1960s from the Chattahootchee River. (PC N CWNM, PO Box 1022, Columbus GA 3 1902; 706 327-9798; web site: www .porrcolumbus.org) ... The Lake C hamplain M aritime M useum in Vermont will expand its research efforts through the es tablishment of the Maritime Research Institute, which will oversee projects including archaeological studies, historical research, underwater resource management, and other initiatives. (MRI, LCMM, 4472 Basin H arbor Road, Vergennes VT 05491 ; 802 475-2022, x l02; e-mail: cohn@lcmm .org; web site: www. lcmm.org) ... The centu ry-old main building of The Navy Museum in the Washington N avy Yard will reopen this summer after an 18-month renovation. The refurbished space will display an expanded Civil War exhibit, "Securing the Seas for Union Victory," highlighting strategies that led to Union victory as well as U S naval efforts to interrupt the transAdanric slave trade. (The Navy Museum/Navy Art Gallery, W ashington Navy Yard, 9 th and M Streets, SE, Washington D C 20374; 202 433-6897; web site: www .history.navy. mil) .. . The Maine Maritime Museum in Bath has concluded its major resto ration of the historic Percy & Small Shipyard. (MMM, 243 Washington Street, Bath M E 0453 0; 207 443-1 3 16; email: maritime@bathmaine.com; web site: www. bathmaine.com) . . . The Maritime and Seafood Industry Museum in Biloxi, Mississippi, fo unded in 1986 to preserve and interpret the maritime heritage ofBiloxi and the G ulf Coast, is undertaking a $ 1.5million expansion project which will double th e museum 's space. (MSIM, 115 First Street, PO Box 1907, Biloxi MS 39530; 228 435-6320; web site: www.maritime museum .org) .. . T he Havre de Grace Maritime Museum will open the doors of its first building in June. (HGMM, 100 Lafayette Street, PO Box 533, H av re de G race M D 2 1078; 4 10 93 9-4800) ,t

Full information on these and other stories are in the bimonthly Sea History Gazette, January/February 200 J. To subscribe for one year, send $18.75 (+$10 for foreign postage) to NMHS, PO Box 68, Peekskill NY 10566. For credit card orders, call 800 221-NMHS (6647). SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 2001


CALENDAR Festivals, Events, Lectures, Etc. • Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum: 6 October 2001 , Mid-Arlamic Small Craft Fesrival (M ill Sr., PO Box 636, Sr. Michaels MD 21663; 410 745-29 16; web site: www.cbmm.org) •Great Lakes Lighthouse Festival: 13-14 October 200 l, at the Civic Center,Alpena MI (7406 US 23 North , Alpena MI 49707; 517 595-3600; e-mail: info@gll f.org) •Project Liberty Ship: 1 September 2001 , Liberty ship john W Brown Living History Voyage in C hesa peake Bay (PO Box 25846, Hi gh land town Station, Baltimore MD 2 1224; 4 10 661- 1550; we b site: www. liberryshi p.co m) • Salem National Maritime Historical Park: 14- 15 July 200 1, 2001 Salem Maritime Festival and the Comm iss ioning of the Eas r Indi aman Friendship (Essex Nation al H eritage Co mmiss io n: 978 740-0444; Nat ional Park Service: 978 740- 1680; Peabody Essex M use um: 978 745-9500) • South Street Seaport Museum: 4-5 August 2001 , 11th Annual Ship & Boar Model Festi val (207 Front St., New York NY 10038; 212 748-8600; web site: www.so uthstseapo rr. org) •Tuckerton Seaport: 18-19 Augusr 200 1, 2nd Annua l Classic Boat Show (120 West Main Srreer, PO Box 52, Tuckerton NJ 08087; 609 296-8868; e- mail: Tuckcport@ao l. co m; web site: www.tuckertonsea port .o rg) • Victoria Real Estate Board & Monday Publications Classic Boat Festival: 3 1 August-2 September 2001 , 24th Ann ual (Classic Boar Festival, c/o V ictoria Real Estate Board, 3035 Nanaimo Street, Victoria BC Ca nada V8T 4W2; 250 385-7766; fax: 250 385-8773; e- mai l: vreb@vreb.org) •Wooden Boat Foundation: 7-9 September 2001 , Wooden Boat Festival (380 Jefferson Street, Port Townsend WA 98368; 360 3853628, e-mail: info@woodenboa t. org; web site: www. wooden boar. org)

Conferences • Kendall Whaling Museum: 13- 14 October 2001 , 26th Annual W haling History Symposium (27 Everett Sr., PO Box 297, Sharo n MA 02067; 781 784-5642; web sire : www.kwm.org) • Maritime Heritage Conference and International Ship Preservation Conference: 2528 October 2001, in Wilm ingto n NC (Kevin Foster, Nation al Park Service, 202 343-5969; web site: www.cr.nps.gov/ maritim e; e- mail: kevin_fosrer@nps.gov) • Nautical Research Guild: 4-7 October 200 1, 28 th An nual Conference in Rockville MD (Washingto n Ship Model Sociery, Richard Yorczyk, J 726Yo un gb lood Street, McLean VA 221 01 ; e-mail: yorczyk@aol. com; web site: www. naur-res-guild.org)

SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 200 1

•Wooden Ships Conference 2001 : 13-16 September 2001 , in Solomo ns MD (Dr. Julia A. King, Director, Maryland Archaeological Co nserva tion Laboratory; 4 10 586-8551; email: king@dhcd.srate. md.us)

Exhibits •Burke Museum: 14 June-3 1 December 2001 , 'The End uran ce: Shacl<leton 's Legendary AntarcricExpedition" (Univers ityofWashingto n, Box 353010, Seattle WA 98 195; 206 543-5590; web site: www.burkemuseum.org) • Connecticut River Museum: from May 200 l , "The Con necticut Ri ver: A to Z" (67 Ma in Street, Essex CT 06426; 860 767-8269) • Hudson River Maritime Museum: 5 May8 October 2001 , 'Thom as Co rnell & T he Co rn ell Steamboat Co mpany" (O ne Rondout Landing, Kingston NY 12401; 845 338-0071 ; web sire: ulster. net/ ~ h rm m) • Independence Seaport Museum: from 24 May 200 J, "Selection s from the Collection: Something for Everyone" (Penn 's Landing at 2 11 South Columbus Blvd. & Walnut Street, Phi ladelphia PA 19106-3 199; 2 15 925-5439) •Lake Champlain Maritime Museum: from 1 May-14 October 200 I, "The D aw n of Steam Navigarion and the Paddle Sreamer Lady Sherbrooke" (4472 Basin H arbor Rd. , Vergennes VT 0549 1; 802 475-2022; web site: www.lcmm.org) • Maine Maritime Museum: 25 May-Fall 2001 , "Launchings": T he History and Lore of Launching Ships in Maine (243 Washington Street, Bath ME 04530; 207 443- 13 16; web site: www.barhm aine.com) • Michigan Maritime Museum: from 5 May 2001 , "Summer in South H aven: Postcards to Home"; from 3 June 2001 , "Fish Today, Go ne Tom orrow: A Sto ry of Grear Lakes Fishing" (260 D yckman Avenue, So uth H aven MI 49090; 800 747-38 10; web sire: www .michiganmaritimemuse um.org) •Naval Undersea Museum: from 22January 2001 , "U nd e1water Range Technology," a new permanent exhibit (61 0 Dowell Srreet, PO Box 408, Keyport WA 98345; 360 396-4 148) • Naval War College: 26 March-3 1 O ctober 2001, "Naval Air at N inety" (686 C ushing Road , Newport RI 02841; web site: visir newport.com / buspages/ navy) • New Bedford Whaling Museum: from June 2001 , "New Bedfo rd and th e Sea"; "A Whaling Voyage 'Round the World: Melville's Inspiration Revisited" (18 Johnny Cake Hill, New Bedford MA 02740; 508 997-0046; web site: www.whalingmuseum .org) • Penobscot Marine Museum: 26 May- 15 October 2001, " Bark to Canvas: The Evolution ofa Maine Canoe" (5 C hurch Sr., PO Box 498, Searsport ME 04974; 207 548-2529; web sire: www.penobscormarinemuseum.org)

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The American Neptune Enjoy the leading scholarly journal of maritime history and arts in the US. The American Neptune, a quarterly publication of the Peabody Essex Museum, is a great read fo r collectors, model makers, and all who love ships and the sea. We offer Sea History readers an opportunity to subscribe to The American Neptune fo r $33, a $6 savings over our regular subscription rate ($36 for non-US residents. Institutions: call for rates). To start your subscription, send a check or money order to : The American Neptune

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Visit our website at www.pem.org/neptune 41


IEWS Joshua Barney: Hero of the Revolution and 1812, by Louis Arthur Norton (Naval Institute Press, Annapolis MD , 2000 , 245pp, notes, biblio, index, ISBN 1-55750490-3; $32.95 hc) Joshua Barney was one of the few men involved in the birth and infancy of our country who did not fade away to relative obscurity after the American Revolution. He continued to stay involved and, in what turned out to be his final action agai nst the British, was the hero of Bladensburg immediately before the British burned the nation's capital. He was, in fact, the one American officer who, with his men, stood his ground and gave the British their sole fight in the action, and both sides referred to him as an exceptional leader. Unfortunately, Barney is not generally considered a hero of both the revolution and the War of 1812 as he should be, probably because he went to work for the French between the two American wars. His decision was a model of bad timing: in 1798, America went to war against the French, and Barney was on the wrong side. Norton has done a fine job of researching this colorful patriot. He provides insight to his character and mind set and shines a bright light on a neglected figure who helped shape the yo ung Republic. The material is presented in a most readable manner. A few editorial errors and some convoluted sentence structure detract only slightly from the pleasure of reading this book, which serves as more than just a biography. Indeed, it offers a crash course in American and European history from 1775 through about 1815, a period roiling with momentous events. WILLlAM H. WHITE Rumson, New Jersey

Frigates of the Napoleonic Wars, by Robert Gardiner (Naval Institute Press, Annapolis MD, 2000, 208pp, illus, notes, biblio, gloss, index, ISBN 1-5575 0-288-9; $59.95hc) In his third book about frigates, Robert Gardiner delivers a unique combination: immutable truths about the naval component of maritime power interwoven with details of one of the most intriguing ship types in naval history. His knowledge of the subject is more than impressive. As interesting as the author's technical knowledge is his ability to place design, construe42

tion, armament and performance details in a broad and provocative perspective. The book's large format accommodates more than 220 illustrations and tables that happily are interwoven with the text. Twelve chapters provide illuminating commentary on the particulars of square-rigged frigate technology, including derails as precise as how excessive tumblehome compromised the strength of a sail rig by reducing rhe spread of irs shrouds. Bur rhe steady flow of rhose details is constantly related to larger points, such as how compromises in British frigate design during rhe Napoleonic Wars were driven by overall naval strategy. Thus, for example, Gardiner establishes rhat rhe designs developed for Britain's frigates during the period were influenced as much by rhe need for range and endurance as by a need for hull speed. In rhe process, he debunks the popular wisdom rhar French ship design was superior to British. This book dramatically reminds us of important constants of maritime power. These include challenges (such as determining a rational "high-low mix" of ships) and ever-present realities (such as rhe symbiotic relationship between naval power and economic muscle). Arguably rhe most important of those constants waylays rhe reader in the last chapter, "Frigates in Action, " wirh rhe sraremenr, "the crew was rhe frigate's most flexible asset." RADM JOSEPH CALLO, USNR (RET) Kansas City, Missouri

Captain Ahab Had A Wife: New England Women and the Whalefishery, 1720-1870, by Lisa Norling (Universiry of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill NC and London UK, 2000, 372pp, illus, no res, biblio, index, ISBN 0-8078-2561-1; $45hc; !SB 0-8078-4870-0 ; $19.95pb) Lisa Norling has produced a thorough and penetrating history of the whaling masters' wives of Southern New England and rhe complex culture created through their interactions wirh their often absent husbands and each other. Nantucket is the nexus of much of the book, starting in the 1660s when rhe island was firsr serried. The changes in its societal structure as whaling shifted from onshore to deepwarer to rhe far oceans is a fascinating story. As voyages srrerched from months to years, rhe matriarchal leadership of rhe

whaling masters' families and rhe maritime paternalism of rhe economic system are well explored. A limitation in rhe system was rhe concept of coverture, whereby a woman's identity upon her marriage became covered by her husband's, such that she could not own property, keep her own wages, nor serve as rhe legal guardian of her children. Debt could only accrue against rhe husband, who might nor be home for several years. Nanrucker society was also shaped by a strong Quaker presence, wirh irs own strictures on behavior and rradirion of equality between men and women. The social structure ashore of necessity reflected that afloat. In the early days the officers and crew were typically from local family groups, whereas later crews were increasingly made up of foreigners and farm boys from the hinterlands with no local ties. By the 1820s the longer whaling voyages in larger, deeper ships req uiring more men and more water at the harbor entrance necessitated the move from Nantucket to New Bedford, a much larger and more open community. While in the 18th century rhe departure of whaling fleets left homeports such as Nantucket disproportionately female, in mid 19th-century New Bedford only some ren percent of rhe men actually wenr to sea. And as rhe business became larger and better organized, factors or agents rhat owned shares in rhe ships and provided the capital ro operate them came between the officers and crews, and between rhe wives and their sources of support. Thus, many of rhe matriarchal, Quaker and Victorian concepts rhar had shaped the New England whaling communities were diluted. TOWNSEND HORNOR Osterville, Massachusetts

In Armageddon's Shadow: The Civil War and Canada's Maritime Provinces, by Greg Marquis (McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal QC, 2000 (pb), 1998 (he), 389pp, illus, notes, biblio, index, ISBN 0-7735-1792-8; $65hc; ISBN 0-77352079-1; $27.95pb) The Maritime Colonies (they were not yer part of rhe greater Dominion of Canada) viewed rhe US Civil War with a degree of ambivalence thar produced internal turmoil and occasional cases of international con flier. Officially constrained by Britain's policy of neutrality between rhe combatSEA HISTORY 97 , SUMMER 2001


Old 6 Rare Maritime Books Bought and Sold

• Exploration and voyages by sea • Shipbuilding, seamanship and navigation • Naval history •Whaling •Yachting and Cruising • Commercial fisheries • Lighthouses, pirates and shipwrecks • Logbooks, documents and manuscripts • Sea charts • Books relating to marine art, antiques and ship models

We are eager to purchase single volumes or entire collections in these subject areas. Ten Pound Island Book Co. 76 Langsford Street, Gloucester, MA 01930 (978) 283-5299 e-mail: tenpound@shore.net web: www.tenpound.com Catalog available on request.

THE CHINESE STEAM NAVY 1862-1945 By Richard N.J. Wright. 208 pages. 219 illus. 12 maps. Apps. Bibliog. Index. 1-86176-144-9. $48.95

AMERICAN MARITIME PRISONERS IN THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR The Captivity of William Russell By Francis D. Cogliano. 224 pages. Notes. Bibliog. Index. 1-55750-194-7/$45.00

THE SCHOONER: Its Design and Development from 1600 to the Present By David R. MacGregor. 192 pages. 225 illus. 1-55750-987-5. $29.95 (Paperback)

NELSON SPEAKS: Admiral Lord Nelson in His Own Words By Joseph F. Callo. 256 pages. 12 photos. Notes. Bibliog. Index. 1-55750-199-8. $29.95

WARSHIPS OF THE GREAT LAKES By Robert Malcomson. 192 pages. 100 illus. 1-55750-910-7. $45.00

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These handsome paintings by William G. Muller are beautifully reproduced on notecards printed by NMHS. The cards measure 6 1/ 4 x 4 1/z inches. Box of ten with white envelopes: $13.95 (or $12.55 for NMHS members). All orders add $3.SOs/h. (NYS residents add applicable sales tax.) Specify blank card or holiday greeting.

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NMHS merchandise NMHS NECKWEAR Made of 100% silk fabric woven in Italy and sewn to high standards in the USA, our neckties, bowties and scarves are navy blue with the MHS logo woven in white, blue and gold. Mens ' Neckties. $45 + $5 s/h Bow tie (not shown). $35 + $5 s/h Women's scarves. Rectangular, 4" x 45", lined with navy silk. $35 + $5 s/h

NMHS CAP & SHIRTS Cap. Navy with NMHS emblem of our flagship Kaiu/ani in seven colors, green underbill , one size fits all. High quality. Made in USA $25 + $5 s/h Collar Shirt. I00% cotton pique. White (MXXL) or navy (M, XXL only) with NMHS emblem in six colors. Sizes M-XL $32, XXL $35 + $5 s/h Emblem Sweatshirt. (Not shown. ) 90% cotton , I 0% polyester. Navy or ash grey with NMHS emblem in six colors . Sizes M-XL $37, XXL $40 + $5 s/h Initial Sweatshirt. 90% cotton, 10% polyester. Navy or as h grey with NMHS in capital letters across front in contrasting colors . Si zes M-XL $37, XXL $40 +$5 s/h Emblem T-Shirt. 100% hea vyweight cotton jersey . White or navy with NMHS emblem in six colors. Sizes M-XL $16, XXL $19 + $5 s/h Initial T-Shirt. 100% heavyweight cotton jersey . White or navy with NMHS in contrasting colors. Sizes M-XL $16, XXL $19 + $5 s/h

MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS Burgee. Nylon pennant with NMHS logo in royal blue and yellow on white background with red border. 22" x 12". Made in the USA. $15 shipping included Cloth Patch. Metallic gold braid on navy background, ship and sea embroidered in white and blue. 3" diam. Made in USA. $5 shipping included NMHS 1999, 2000 & 2001 Medallions. Circular 23/4' brass ornaments with our fl ags hip Ka iulani as she appears in our logo (1999), an ancient Roman ship (2000) or an East Indiaman (200 I). $5 shipping included. (NYS residents add appl icable sa les tax; for-

Order from: eign shipping on clothing is $ 11 ) National Maritime Historical Society PO Box 68, Peekskill NY 10566, call in your credit card order to 1-800-221-6647 or shop online at www.seahistory.org 44

REVIEWS ants, many influential residents were emotionally supportive of the Confederacy, a position often based on romantic images of Southern culture. The colonies' economic well-being, however, was much more closely linked to the Union. One of the key incidents addressed was the December 1863 seizure of a privately owned Union vessel, Chesapeake, by persons (many of them Mari times residents) claiming to have authority granted by the Confederate States. The seizure and its aftermath were surrounded by a political and diplomatic morass compounded by extralegal recovery actions by Union naval forces. The author's account does little to resolve the incident's inherent confusion . Marg uis 's book is well documented with abundant notes, but it is difficult to read. Like a pointillist artist using an arrangement of tiny dots rather than brush strokes to create an image, the author presents a carefully organized array of facts and anecdotes but doesn' t supply much of a narrative thread to tie them together. CAPTAIN HAROLD]. SUTPHEN

Kilmarnock, Virginia

USS New Ironsides in the Civil War, by William H. Roberts (Naval Institute Press, Annapolis MD, 1999, 188pp, illus, biblio, index, ISBN 1-55750-695-7; $49.95hc) "This book," according to the Preface, "describes the design, construction , and wartime career of the armored frigate USS New Ironsides, America's first seagoing ironclad and the on ly seagoing ironclad to see combat in the American Civil War. " She was the "other ironclad. " Whilemany know that the Union built ironclads like the Monitor, few are aware of the existence of a totally different kind of ironclad. Roberts details the choosing of a builder and shows the problems of material selection and procurement that attend the construction of the first vessel of a class (in this case also the only vessel of its class). He reviews the "political engineering," as Chief Engineer Stimers, General Inspectoroflronclads, called it, that led to the decision to build more ironclads of the Monitor type and not of the New Ironsides type. New Ironsiales played a major role in the blockade of Clharleston. H er top speed of about seven kmors limited her ability to chase blockadee runners on th e open sea, bur her 11 " gums gave her such tremendous SEA HISTrORY 97, SUMMER 200 1


firepower that Confederate captains wo uld not challenge her in the res tricted waters of C harlesto n H arbor. She could put from ten to fifteen rimes as much metal per h our onto a target as a coastal M oni to r iro ncl ad could. H er 4" solid armor provided effective protection, making her especially valuable in naval gunfire reduction of forts pro tecting C harleston. Later she bro ught her strength to bear in the U ni on's successful amphibious assault on Fort Fisher. Roberrs's book cove ring the birth, life and death of a unique vessel is a wo rthy addition to any naval library. B RADFORD

D. SMITH

Pleasan tville, New York FDR and the US Navy, edi ted by Edward ]. Marolda (S t. Martin 's Press, New York NY, 1998, 202pp , notes, index, ISBN 03 12-2 11 57-0; $49. 95hc) T his collection of eleven papers presented by distinguished biographers and historians at a 1996 conference on "Franklin D. Roosevelt and the US Navy" traces Roosevelt's long association with the N avy, fro m his days as Assistant Secretary o f the Navy (19 13-2 1) through his service as president until his death in 1945-an association sometimes cooperati ve, at other ri mes te nse, and occasionally stormy. T he perspectives presented here take in Roosevelt's role in modernizing the Navy's organization, shaping naval strategy and upgrading the status of the enlisted m an. Several contributors describe the differing tactics he used-at times getting involved to the point of "meddling" in internal m atte rs, at times remaining aloof and avoid ing diffic ul t issues and distas teful decisions. H is politically based pattern of placing perso nal frie nds in key positions is also noted. T he sum of th e individual contri butio ns creates a balanced picture of o ne aspect of FDR's crucial role in 20th -century Am erican history, revealing som e sho rt comin gs as we ll as impr ess ive strengths. T his book portrays FDR's m anner of dealing with people and questio ns; it documents how he achieved his obj ectives, but seldom sheds much light on how he developed those obj ectives. CAPTAIN HAROLD ]. SUTPHEN

Chesapeake Rumrunners of the Roaring Twenties, by Eric M ills (Tidewater Publishers, Centreville M D , 2000 , 192pp, illus, SEA HISTORY 97, SUMME R 2001

notes, bibli o, index, ISBN 0-87033-5 18-9; $25.95hc) Eric Mills has produced a significant contribution to the scanty literature of the Prohibition period, those wild thirteen years between 1920 and 1933 when our country was nominally "dry." T his book ranks alongside Carse' s Rum Row, Van de Water's The Real McCoy, Mo ray's The Diary of a Rum-Runner and the few others written years ago . It brings new knowledge to the subject and is very entertaining to boo r. The book quotes the Puritan Increase Mather, who stated in 1673 that "Drink is in itself a creature of God, and to be received with thankfulness. " W ith the aid of radio, the silver-tongued orator, former pro-baseball player and heavy boozer Billy Sunday, and the axe-wielding wa rriorqueen Carry Nation of the Women's Christian Temperance U ni on spent 25 years challenging that statement. G radually the movement rook on a life of its own, and, on 16 January 1920 at midnigh t, the 18th Amendment to our Constitution became law, making the co untry legally dry, and insuring a new and profi table industry: rum runmng. Other authors have covered the East Coas t in general, with emphasis on Rum Row, the supply ships lyin g just off our three-mile limit fro m Maine to Florida acting as wholesalers . Mills concentra tes on the inshore and onshore activities in Chesapeake Bay and th e D el marva Atlantic Coast. The book ch ro nicles in detail many episodes of derring-do as the "gothrough guys," with their small, high-speed boats, barded the local co ps and the Coast G uard to satisfy the infini te thirst of the people. Finally, on 5 December 1933, it was over and that glo ri ous celebration known as Repeal-a wild parry up and down the coast las ti ng for days-was on. T his well told story offers a fascinating look at an improbable period in our history.

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2000. Paine has already demonstrated, in his encyclopedia Ships of the World, his ability to sum up a formidab le amo unt of data in readable, yer informative paragraphs. Down East spans the centuries from the time of the Abnaki (including a very interesting discussion of the birchbark canoe), to rhe state of the ship- and boatbuilding trades of the 21st century, along with the impact of tourism. The political background and local impact of European discovery and settlement and rhe consequences of revolution and independence are investigated and readers of Sea History should be enthralled with the discussio n of shiptypes-schooners in particular-that were developed by the shipbui lding industries in response to market demand. Well-drawn maps, illustrations, a chronology and notes help to make the book accessible. JOAN DRUETT Wellington, New Zealand

edyof che Franklin expedirion- rh e disappearance of two ships and 129 m en- bur other drama tis personae are brought equally to life: Barrow the visionary; fastidious, obstinate Parry; Ross and his n ear-paranoia; resourceful Amundsen; and a favo ri te of mine, Robert Peary, who rega rded the Arctic almost as private property, displaying the territoriality of a tomcat. This book is hi ghly recommended for anyone intrigued by rhe lengths rha r humans will go in rhe face of remarkable challen ges. JOAN DRUETT

Let Heroes Speak: Antarctic Explorers, 1772-1922, by Michael H. Rosove (Naval Institute Press, A nnapolis MD , 2000, 358pp, illus, biblio, notes, index, ISBN 155750-967-0; $36.95 hc) This compi la rion of the experiences of more than 20 Antarctic explorers covers a period of200 years. Ir begins wirh rhe 1772 circumnavigation o f the continent by Jam es Cook, who failed to sight the Antarctic landmass bur did prove thar it was not a part of any oth er known continent. For m ost of rhe next 100 years, explo ration was an incidental benefit of the efforts of sealers and whalers to find new herds. A norable exceprion was the 1838 scientific expeditio n led by US Navy officer C harles Wilkes-an effo n plagued by lack ofleadershi p, fund s and planning. Expeditions for rhe principal purpose of garhering scientific d ata and discovering n ew territory began in earnesr in rhe 1890s. Fo r those who are familiar with the wo rk of Amundsen, Scott and Shackleton, this vo lum e wi ll fill in the gaps in the sto ry by providing much information about the many lesser known explorers who accomplished so much of rhe discovery and ga rhering of data.

Arctic Grail: The Quest for the Northwest Passage and the North Pole, 18181909, by Pierre Berton (Th e Lyons Press, New York NY, 2000, orig 1988, 672pp, illus, maps, chron, biblio, index, ISBN 158574-116-7; $ 19.95pb) Ir is always a delight to pick up any book by Canadian author Pierre Berton, and a particular pleasure to see what is debarably rhe finest of his more than twenty volumes back in print. Though reliably thorough in research, Berton's forte is rhar he puts rhe humanity into historiography, a nd n ever more so than in this comprehensive study. Covering a broad reach of space and rime, rhe story of rhe laborious charri ng of the vast blank space of rhe Arctic could have been as numbing for rhe reader's mind as the endless ice was for the participants. However Berton paints a canvas rhar is large enough for fluent narration , bur is nor afraid to slow the pace w hen events DAVlDE. PERKINS demand a more precise acco unt. An evocaSebring, Florida tive description of the first enco unrer between Commander John Ross a nd Lieu- The Race to the White Continent, by Alan tenant William Edward Parry- "resplen- Gurney (W.W. Norto n & Co., New York dent in cocked hats, tailcoats, and white NY and Lo ndon UK, 2000, 320pp, illus, gloves, swords dangling from their waists, biblio,i..ndex, ISBN 0-393-05004-1; $26.95hc) the points of the buckled shoes rhar once In th e 1830s a nd '40s E uropean and trod rhe parquet floors of Mayfair sinking American explorers were serring o ur to into the soft snow"-and a bemused audi- discover what lay at rhe farthest reaches of ence offur-muffied Eskimos grips rhe reader the oceans . Especially fascinati ng were the from the first page of chapte r one. northern and sourhernmost ends of the Particular attention is paid to rhe uag- earth. The challenge of rhese regions lay in

SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 2001


a covering of ice, barring the entrance of men and ships. While whalers and sealers probed these areas, until the expeditions of the 1830s there is little documentation of mariners attempting to penetrate the iceberg-fraught waters below rhe Antarctic C ircle. National exploring expeditions were mounted by the Americans, led by Charles Wilkes, the French, guided by Durmont d'Urville, and the British, under James Clark Ross, for both scientific and patriotic purposes. Competition was fierce and rivalries escalated as each new expedition tried to best another's accomplishments. This book probes all aspects of Antarctic exploration , from the political environment of the expeditions' sponsors, to life aboard the vessels and the hardships seamen suffered in the brutal Antarctic environment. Colorful descriptions of the lands encountered and experiences of the explorers feed our imaginations, while maps and illustrations enhance the descriptive narrative to make this book a informative and intriguing read. ALENA DERBY

East Carolina University Greenville, North Carolina Captain Cook's World: Maps of the Life and Voyages ofJames Cook, RN, by John Robso n (University of Washington Press, Seattle WA, 2000, 212pp, illus, maps, gazetteer, biblio, ISBN 0-295-98019-2; $40hc) This meticulously researched, derailed arias of Cook's voyages is a wonderfully appropriate way to look at his world. The maps bring into focus the enormous contributions he made to our understanding of our world. They also remind us of exactly what he set our to do: to make and record scientific discoveries-a mission no one else had embraced in such a fashion-without searching for treasure, convening heathens, or setting up colonies or trading posts. The Anthony Roll of Henry VIIl's Navy, Pepys Library 2991 and British Library Additional MS 22047 with Related Documents, edited by C. S. Knighton and D. M . Loades (Ashgare Publishing Co mpany, Burlington VT, 2000, 2 l 5pp, illus, appen , ind ex, !SB'-.! 0-7546-0094-7; $139.95hc) Published for Britain's Navy Records Society, this volume brings together the three segments of Anthony SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 2001

Anthony's 1546 survey of England's fleer, placing the color reproduction of the painting of each ship alongside the relevant text with the original spelling. The Navy, edited by RADM W.]. Holland, Jr., USN (Rer) (Hugh Lauter Levin Associates, Inc., Southport CT, with the Naval Historical Foundation , Washington DC, 2000, 352pp , illus, index, ISBN 088363- 100-8; $75hc) A dramatic presentation of the story of the US Navy through history, lavishly illustrated with action photos and drawings depicting scenes from the Revolution down through the Persian Gulf War, and including a section on museums and memorials. Captain Blakeley and the Wasp: The Cruise of 1814, by Stephen W. H. Duffy (Naval Institute Press, Annapolis MD, 2001 , 255pp, illus, notes, biblio, index, ISBN 1-55750-176-9; 34.95hc) Blakeley, who went down with the sloop-of-war Wasp in 1815, defeated a larger force, with fewer resources, in waters closer to British soil, and in less time than any other American co mmander in the War of 181 2. The author looks at Blakeley's life, pulling information from scattered records in the US and Britain. The Shetland Bus: A WWII Epic of Escape, Survival, and Adventure, by David Howarth (The Lyons Press, New York NY, 2001, orig 1951 , 225pp, illus, index, ISBN 1-58574-288-0; $ l 4.95pb) Howarth, second in command of the Shetland naval base, records the valor of rhe men who manned the small boars sailing to Norway in WWII to support the resistance to Nazi occupation.

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SEA HISTORY 97, SUMMER 2001


New York Harbor Salutes America's Celebrated Tall Ship EAGLE -a print by William G. Muller-

The US Coast Guard Academy's beautiful and historic square-rigged barque Eagle carries our nation's proud tradition of deep-sea sail into the 21st century. This lively painting by renowned artist Will- The image, printed in colorfast inks, is 28" iam G. Muller captures the spirit of the tall wide by 15 1 I4" high on an acid-free sheet 33" ship festivals that have commemorated im- x 21". The total edition size of 1,500 will be numbered and signed by the artist. portant dates in American history.

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