Page 1


Rare, prized and fabled - then and now .. . smooth as the kiss of spindrift, dangerous as the broadsides of England's walls of oak, this is the original "Nelson's Blood" - the British Tar's splendid 8 -bells answer to Napoleon's brandy. At the Battle of Trafalgar on October 21, 1805, the daily FUSSER'S RUM ration was 72 pint per man - and oftimes before battle ( and always after victory) , the order was given to "Splice the Main

Brace!" -which meant a double issue for all on board. From before Trafalgar to the victory toast at the Falklands, the Royal Navy's rum has been the most famous of its traditions. Excellent mixed- but first, try sipping it their way: "neat" - or undiluted. This superb rum is not a drink; it is an Experience. Ask for it. Taste it-you're tasting history-and the world's finest rum.


ISSN 0146-93 12

No. 30

SEA HISTORY

OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE WORLD SHIP TRUST

SEA HISTORY is the journal of the National Maritime Historical Society, an educational , tax-exempt membership organization devoted to furthering the understanding of our maritime heritage. Copyright © 1983 by the Nationa l Maritime Historical Society. OFFICE: 132 Maple St. , Croton-on-Hudson , NY 10520. Telephone: 914 271-2177. MEMBERSHIP is invited: Sponsor $1,000; Donor $500 ; Patron $100; Family $30; Regular $20; Student or Retired $10. ALL FOREIGN MEMBERS , including Canada and Mexico , please add $5 for postage. CONTRIBUTIONS may be made for any recognized project. Makeoutchecks "NMHSShip Trust ,'' indicating on the check the project to which you wish support to be directed. OFFICERS & TRUSTEES are Chaimwn: F. Briggs Dalzell ; Vice Chairmen: Thomas Hale, Barbara Johnson; President: Peter Stanford ; Secretary: Alan G. Choate; Treasurer: A. T. Pouch , Jr. ; Trustees: Norman J. Brouwer, John Bunker, Alan G. Choate, F . Briggs Dalzell , Thomas Hale, Harold D. Huycke, Barbara Johnson , James F. Kirk , Karl Kortum , Robert J. Lowen , A. T . Pouch Jr. , Richard Rath , John H. Reilly , Jr. , Kenneth D. Reynard , Walter F. Schlech , Jr. , Howard Slotnick, Peter Stanford , John N . Thurman , Alen York. Chairmen Emeritii: Walter F. Schlech , Jr. , John M . Will , Karl Kortum. President Emeritus: Alan D . Hutchinson. ADVISORS: Chaimwn: Frank 0. Braynard ; Francis E. Bowker , Oswald L. Brett, George Campbell, Robert Carl , Frank G . G . Carr, Harry Dring, John Ewald , Joseph L. Farr, Timothy G. Foote, Richard Goold-Adams , Robert G. Herbert, Melvin H. Jackson , R. C. Jefferson, Irving M. Johnson , Fred Klebingat, John Kemble, Conrad Milster, William G. Muller , John Noble, Capt. David E. Perkins , USCG (ret.), Nancy Richardson , Ralph L. Snow, John Stobart, Albert Swanson , Shannon Wall , Robert A. Weinstein , Thomas Wells , AICH, Charles Wittholz. Curator-at-Large: Peter Throckmorton. WORLD SHIP TRUST: Chairman: Frank G. G. Carr; Vice President: Sir Peter Scott; Hon. Secretary: J . A. Forsythe; Hon. Treasurer: Richard Lee; Erik C. Abranson; Maldwin Drummond ; Peter Stanford. Membership: £10 payable WST , c!o Hon. Sec., 129a North Street, Burwell , Cambs. CBS OBB, England . Reg. Charity No. 277751. AMERICAN SHIP TRUST: International Chairman: Frank Carr; Chairman: Peter Stanford; George Bass; Norman Brouwer; Karl Kortum ; George Nichols ; Richard Rath ; Charles Lundgren; Senior Advisor: Irving M. Johnson. SEA HISTORY STAFF: Editor: Peter Stanford; Managing Editor: Norma Stanford ; Associate Editor: Norman J. Brouwer; Accounting: Maureen Conti ; Membership: Heidi Tepper; Corresponding Secretary: Marie Lore.

WINTER 1983

CONTENTS 3 LETTERS EDITOR 'S LOG 7 IN CLIO' S CAUSE: A CALL TO ACCOUNTABILITY , James D. Watkins 8 WHAT ' S IN A NAME: HOW WARSHIPS GET THEIR NAMES R .E. Shrubb and Eric J. Berryman 11 WHITHER THE DAINTY? Thomas Hale 12 MARINE ART: CHARLES ROBERT PATTERSON, Oswald L. Brett 21 MARINE ART NEWS 22 MASTER BUILDER: MELBOURNE SMITH , Christine L. Parker 24 THE STEPHEN TABER , O.K. Barnes 28 STEAM TUG MATHILDA COMES TO KINGSTON , Arthur G. Adams 32 SAILING CRAFT OF THE CARIBBEES , Philip Thorneycroft Teuscher 34 SAIL TRAINING: DAY'S RUN, Report of the American Sail Training Association 37 COLLECTORS' ALLEY: THE BARBARA JOHNSON WHALING COLLECTION II 38 "THE CANOE IS OUR GARDEN: " A REPORT ON THE TAMI CANOE PROJECT, Terry Linehan 40 SHIP NOTES, SEAPORT & MUSEUM NEWS 44 BOOKS COVER: A tall Down Easter sails out of the sunrise, as hands on the schooner she is overtaking stand by in silent tribute. This painting explains in one motion how proud and glad we are to render report on the sailorman's painter Charles Robert F"atterson. Photo courtesy Kennedy Galleries.

The National Maritime Historical Society is saving America's seafaring heritage. Join us. We bring to life America 's seafaring past through research , archaeological expeditions and ship preservation effo rt s. We work with museums, hi storians and sail training groups and report on these acti vities in our quarterly journal Sea History. We are also the American arm of the World Ship Trust , an international group working worldwide to help save ships of historic importance.

Won't yo u join us to keep alive our nation 's seafa ring legacy? Membership in the Society costs only $20 a year. You ' ll receive Sea History, a fascinati ng magazi ne filled with articles of seafaring and historica l lore . You ' ll also be eligib le for discounts on books , prints and other items. Help save our seafaring heritage . Join the National Maritime Historical Society today'

TO: National Maritime Historical Society, 132 Maple St., Croton-on-Hudson, NY 10520

YES

I want to help . I understand that my contribution goes to fo rward the wo rk of the Society 'and that I'll be kept informed by receiving SEA HISTORY quarterly. Enclosed 1s: 0 $t ,000 Sponsor 0 $500 Donor 0 $100 Patron 0 $30 Family 0 $20 Regular Member 0 $10 Student/ Retired NAME

(please pri nt)

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~--,-,-....,,.-,~Z IP~~~~~~~-

Contribu1i ons to NM HS are lax deductible.

NATIONAL MARITIME HISTORICAL SOCIETY


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LETTERS Drawing Boards and Drawing Beer...

Carrying Cargo Under Sail

Without wishing to cast any reflections on either the excellence of the beer in Greenwich pubs, or the expert ise of the National Maritime Museum round the comer, I cannot help feeling that the true setting of A . 0 . Jones's story ("Lette rs", SH 28) was not Greenwich on the Thames but Greenock on the Clyde. But please do not be di verted from your course, put off your stroke, o r otherwise discouraged , either by the occasional gremlin in the typesetting department or by the chronic flipp ancy of one reader, Sea History is valuable reading, on the banks of both the Clyde and the Thames.

What have we been doing wi th the &Ina ? She is an iron-hulled fo rmer Dutch fis hing vessel, 150-ton capacity, lOOft x 22 ft x llft d raft loaded . In October we sailed from New Bedfo rd wi th a cargo of bricks and

R.ICKHOG DEN

London , England Greenock is right. And it wasn't the typesetter's fa ult, we blush to say, but ours.- ED

A Treasured Program I returned from visiting a round of maritime museums in Great Britain , including the not so well known but very fine, " Town Docks Museum" in Hull , Yorkshire, to find in my mail the Autumn Sea History featuring Snug Harbor and its maritime heritage program . From the dramatic cover photo of the USS New York 's bowpiece to the solid tribute of John A . Noble, the great New York artist of ships and their men, this issue is indeed a sto rehouse of ma ritime treasures. On behalf of all of us at Snug Harbor who worked long and often discouraging hours to launch a maritime heritage prog ram , I thank Sea History fo r giving Snug Harbor such international recognition. MICH AEL SH EEH A

Staten Island Mr. Sheehan was formerly executive director of Snug Harbor and was instrumental in seeing that the history ofthe Harbor was kept alive when the landmark buildings became a contemporary arts center.

Weathering the Worst I was indeed sorry to hear that the Society has had such rough going during the last year. I am reminded of the voyage of the ship British Isles from U.K . to Pisagua, Chile in 1905. She hung on, and while 13 other ships gave up and failed to round Cape Stiff, the old BI stuck it out and made Pisagua, even though 70 days overdue and posted lost by Lloyds of London. I am convinced that the super people at the National Maritime Historical Society will weather the wo rst with such a crew on deck. R OLAN D B ARKER

Key West, Florida Mr. Barker, a distinguished marine artist, sailed as Third Mate in the fu ll-rigger Tusitala under his father James 's stern but able command. - ED. SEA HIS1DRY, WINTER 1983

timber which was discharged in Bermuda and Barbados. During the winter we made three trips to Paramaribo, Surinam where we loaded hardwood fo r the British and US Virgin Islands. The last trip we also loaded for Martha's Vineyard and Gloucester, hardwoods again . We are bringing up purpleheart , greenheart , silverballi and several lesser-known species. It is going fo r boatbuilding, furniture-maki ng and house construction. B RAD IVES

Deep Water Ventures, Ltd. Roadtown, To rtola

Patterson Recognized Your item on Charles Patterson moved me to examine Carl Cutler's Greyhounds of the Sea and Bas il Lubbock's The Downeasters, fo r I recalled that some pictures in the fo rmer were Pattersons. In the fo rmer work , five of his paintings, of the Rainbow, Young America, No rthern Light, David Crockett and Game Cock a re reproduced . Only eleven paintings are, and only one other artist, Vi ning Smith , did mo re than one of them (two). In The Downeasters, which has a great many fin e photographs, o nl y two pai ntings are reproduced , of the Henry B. Hyde and the Benj amin Packard. Both are by Patterson! These ships are also pictured in photographs. All this probably is well known to those who have the books but I thought it wo rth bringi ng out to your general readers as part of your tri bute to Patterson. JOHN M. KENNADAY

Captain , USN (Ret.) Castine, Mai ne That Lubbock wanted his readers to see Patterson's vision of ships already ii-

lustrated in photos confirms our high opinion ofhis taste and judgment. Recognition by such sailormen as Cutler, Lubbock and Kennaday is recognition indeed !-ED.

Barclay H . Warburton , III Your appreciation of Barclay Warburton in SH 28 was , by fa r, the nicest tribute to him that I have seen. Barclay and I knew one anothe r as youngsters in the Philadelphia area , but he had a few years on me and , as we grew up, we pl oughed different wakes . We went off to different wa rs, he to the big one and I to Ko rea, and it wasn't until somewhere around 1962 that we met again . I was living aboard my 46-foot sloop, out of the water at Bert ram's old ya rd, near the head of the M iami Ri ver, while Bert ra m's artisans we re healing a leak around the rudder post. One boring day Barclay in his brig Black Pearl came sailing up the ri ver with a load of youngsters aboard headed fo r Bertram's. As they brought the wharf abeam , kids swarmed aloft , the sails furl ed as though by magic, and the vessel slid to a stop cl ose enough fo r lines to be dropped over the waiting pilings. I applauded thi s perfo rmance, duly impressed , and Buzzy and I renewed a long-lost fri endship. Of course, we met often when I was involved with The Skipper magazine and , late r, with Pride of Baltimore, but I don't think I ever got enough of Barclay 's company. I envy you the long, relaxed journey with him , that yo u described in yo ur tribute. THOMAS F RENCH NORTDN

Annapolis, Maryland

Picking Up Dories Since I enjoy Sea History and pass it around to associates and fr iends who comment most favorably, I thought I'd try to stimulate some acti vity down my way. You deserve more support- let's pick up some miss ing dories! I don't see why I could not help in your development program by generating about fi fty new members and some new sponsors and patro ns. No strings , j ust real interest. So- perhaps you might have some extra copies of past Sea History's that I can use as bait. ARTHUR ALLAN PENDLETON

South Miami , Florida I# sure do. Extra copies ofSH are on their way to Mr. Pendleton and are available to any other member who would like some "bait . " -ED.

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Keeping Things Together SEA HISTORY occupies a unique position and fills a need . Unlike too many publications integrity and high quality are very evident in each issue. That it is a labor of love for someone is quite evident . Your own passion for the craft is telling. Each number amazes and inspires me. Keep things together, sir! ROB ERT B. CHAPEL Bainbridge Island , Washington Tugs Triumphant Sending me a copy of SEA HISTORY 25 was like throwing a log on a flickering fire! I promptly joined the National Maritime Historical Society, signed up three of my regular cruising companions with gift memberships and for myself joined the International Tug Lovers Club. So you can see you made my day. You may be interested in a few vignettes of history that caused this flurry of activity. I currently cruise the New York canals (viva ICONN-ERIE!), the New England coast and the Maritimes in my trawler

Nawat II, named after my first World War II command of the same name. Nawatwasasmall Navy tug built in 1938 in Houston, Texas logically for service in New York harbor, assigned to installing the anti-submarine nets and booms in the winter of 1941-42. Having been built in Houston , there was no heat on board-a cold winter for officer-in-charge Meyer and his crew of eight. While this was my second assignment , I quickly learned from my crew of regular navy enlisted men that an Ensign USNR, fresh out of college, ranked in every respect substantially below an apprentice seaman . I also learned that New York harbor in 1941 was no place for a timid tug skipper. Today the harbor has few tugs, no freighters and fewer ferries. In those days the activity was impressive. Tug and ferry skippers with the right of way pursued their missions with grim determination. Even burdened vessels created the impression that they had the right of way. Early in my career, I was sent to Iona

Island up the Hudson to pick up an ammunition barge. This was pretty exciting for an inexperienced Long Island Sound small boat sailor. On the way back, coming down the Jersey Shore, a Lackawanna ferry suddenly gave her signal and headed out- for me. I was convinced he was going right through me. I did what any prudent skipper would do: I stopped . That fixed him. He had to stop. We were at a total impasse. He stared down at me for about thirty seconds and then : " Sonny, will you make up your gawd-damned mind." That, in front of my already convinced crew, established irrefutably the fact that all reserve officers were utter nincompoops! My humility was complete. I stayed in tugs, going on to command the USS AIR-11, an ocean going rescue/salvage vessel of 1200 tons built by Frank Sample in Boothbay Harbor, Maine. I recently ran across the July 1945 issue of Motor Boating that featured an ATR on the cover. SCHUYLER M . MEYER , JR. Commander, USNR (Ret.)

Patterson , like his student, the late John Noble, was at odds with yachtsmen, and not just yachtsmen but with half the world beside. Like our friend John he was what the world calls a "difficult" man: difficult to know, on occasion difficult to get along with , or to understand. Life for both , perhaps, was a tall order, calling for the utmost in service to really towering objectives . Both left tall monuments behind .

But we are also in Kingston , a well scrubbed little city halfway up the broad reaches of the Hudson River, where the corner druggist bears the same name you'll find on a directory drawn up in the Dutch era 300 years ago- a town now undergoing a remarkable waterfront renaissance launched and borne forward by this Society four years ago. This brave new center, now an independent institution, has reached out to save its first ship, as recorded on page 28. We're in Houston, where the bark Elissa of 1877 received our Fifth Annual Ship Trust Award , the second award going to her crew of volunteers- see page 40 (and SH 15 and 26) . We're in London where Her Majesty the Queen presents the World Ship Trust Award to Prince Charles for his leadership in saving the Mary Rose- see page 40 (and SH 23) . We're in Brooklyn , in the shadow of the Great Bridge whose lOOth birthday we celebrated earlier this year (SH 28) , where volunteers maintain a small dockside museum under our aegis, and across the East River aboard the ~ver­ tree (SH 19) whose restoration is supported by our Ship Trust Committee, led by the redoubtable Jakob Isbrandtsen. But. . .we are really right here, now, I should have said . We are everywhere where caring people seek out the truths of seafaring, everywhere our members are. They, and they alone, make possible every blessed thing we do. PS

EDI1DR'S LOG In our last, that redoubtable Cape Hom sailorman Tom Wells suggested that the yachtsmen who today venture forth to brave the icy gales and avalanching seas of the Hom are bolder than those who went that way in big square riggers half a century ago. I wonder: no radar, no radio contact with the outside world , no electric light , even .. . but one may honor both breeds of seaman. Chay Blythe, who has done some extraordinary ocean sailing (and rowinghe has crossed the Atlantic!) is taking up the challenge to beat the clipper Flying Cloud's record New York-to-San Francisco passage of just under 90 days, set in 1851. He'll set out from South Street on November 10 to round the Hom in the Cloud 's wake in a 65ft trimaran called Beefeater. See page 34, and get a chart to follow the two voyages . Charles Robert Patterson, a sailor-artist of heroic mold , and hero of this issue of SEA HISTORY, held yachts and yachtsmen pretty light. He once said: We have just seen an example of the modern racing yachts of today, the America Cup racers, fair weather machines too high strung for anything over a thirty knot breeze, gear reduced to a minimum and spars extended until the sailing of them in stiff weather becomes dangerous to life. Who ever heard of such nonsense in the old days? But even in the more wholesome days of these races the yachts never made over thirteen knots, even with their tons of lead fastened under the keels, and their lines finer than anything afloat. They never approached the old clippers in speed and probably never will.

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* * * As readers may have caught on by now, we are pursuing a special interest in primitive navigation- see the Tami Canoe report in this issue. These unrecorded ways of seaborne life are in danger of passing from among us. We are proud to be associated with such people as Terry Linehan and " Spider" Anderson of the Tami adventure, and the film makers Sammy Low and Philip Teuscher, who have been among the dedicated crew who seek not only to record but to keep alive the traditions of primeval voyaging, the parent root from which the clipper Flying Cloud and rocket Voyager have sprung.

* * *

"Where is the Society these days?" I was asked again at a reception in the Pouch Terminal in Staten Island held to introduce SEA HISTORY 29. Well , our operating headquarters has moved to Croton-on-Hudson , some 45 miles north of New York , while we maintain a small office with the Masters, Mates, & Pilots in the city.

www SEA HIS1DRY, WINTER 1983


USS Intrepid viewed from one of her own aircraft during the 1944 Battle ofLeyte Gulf, with battleship Iowa in background. Both survived, the Iowa re-commissioned as a rugged gun and missile platform in today's fleet, the Intrepid restored as a museum ship bringing new understanding of the purpose and price of sea control to all who board her in New rork City. Photo courtesy Intrepid Museum Foundation.

The Navy Is Here! The aircraft carrier Intrepid, one of 24 Essex-class carriers built to meet the challenge of World War II, is seen here heading into action-action resulting in the sinking of the Musashi, biggest battleship ever built. lntrepid's air group helped to sink Musashi far beyond the range of Musashi's huge 18-inch guns, an example of the mastery of a new form of conflict at sea which proved vital to US victory in World War II . Today, lntrepid's battleship consort Iowa has been re-commissioned as a formidable fighting machine adding depth and flexibility to the US Navy's capacity to respond to challenge in the present-day contest for mastery of the oceans. In this contest, we must keep the sea lanes open in the face of threat, or even strong free nations can succumb to creeping or avalanching aggression, leaving the US potentially isolated in a conquered world. Today, Intrepid serves a role fully as vital as Iowa's. She serves as a remarkable museum exhibit, full of fighting aircraft, with dramatic re-enactments of the battles she survived. She also presents the story of space exploration (in which she played a vital role as recovery ship for the US space program), and opens up vivid scenes of future air, sea and space navigation. Intrepid Museum Chairman Zachary Fisher has said: "It is fitting that the Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum is opening during a time in our nation's history when the spirit of patriotism has been re-awakened . She is, first and foremost, a tribute to the American spirit which has spurred this nation to greatness." The New York Council of the Navy League of the United States is proud to play a supporting role in the Intrepid

Museum. We believe deeply in the importance of such educational works. And we are proud to support the work of the National Maritime Historical Society, particularly in the good words they have published from such Naval leaders as Admiral Arleigh ("31-knot") Burke. We share the Society's conviction that the story of American seafaring includes the story of our fighting Navy. We cordially invite you to join the Navy League. You'll receive the monthly publication Sea Power, and through our active New York Council, you'll have the opportunity to visit Naval ships and to foregather with Naval people on various occasions. Above all, you'll be helping to keep the old motto current in today's troubled world: "The Navy is here! "

NEW YORK COUNCIL, NAVY LEAGUE OF THE UNITED STATES

,----------------------Rear Admiral Edwin Dexter, USN (ret.) President New York Council, Navy League of the U,S. 37 West 44th Street New York, New York 10036 Dear Admiral Dexter: I'm interested in what you have to say about the Navy League. Please send me information ab.out joining this good outfit. NAME

ADDRESS

CITY

STATE

ZIP


The A111erican Sea111an Is he an endangered species like the bowhead whale? For many years our U.S. State Department has been energetically and commendably engaged in giving the oceans back to the whales. F or many more decades, however, our foreign policy makers have ignored another rare and dwindling species, the American seaman. They have, in fact , actively contributed to his wholesale disappearance. Successive U.S. Administrations have continued to sanction and encourage major American oil companies and corporations to flee the American flag and operate their ships under the shabby legalism of "flags of convenience." This "runaway" flag fleet now numbers 481 ships, whose massive tonnage dwarfs the legitimate U.S. flag merchant marine. Unfortunately, the American citizen on Main Street is not informed that this policy has brought us to the incr edible point of now allowing foreign ships to carry 97% of our vital import t rade and 98% of our critical and strategic raw materials without which our factories and armed forces cannot survive in a world hovering at the flashpoint of war . It is our belief that given the facts the American people would favor a radical change of outworn policies such as this. So far, powerful multinational lobbies have blocked President Reagan's Eight Point Maritime Program, which pledged to reverse the longstanding and foolhardy disregard of the role of seapower in our country's future. NMU invites all ship lovers and all Americans to join with us in the continuing endeavor to keep t he seafaring tradition, the skills and t he way of life that are so basic a part of t his nation's history flourishing under our own American flag.

National Maritime Union Shannon J. Wall , President Thomas Martinez, Secretary-Treasurer National Headquarters: 346 West 17 Street, New York NY 1001 1 • (2 12) 620-5700


IN CLIO'S CAUSE

A Call to Accountability by Admiral James D. Watkins, USN Chief of Naval Operations, United States Navy Thirty-one years ago this week, an anonymous but perceptive edito rial in The Wall Szreet Journal told readers that "on the sea, there is a tradition older than the tradition of our country itself. .. and still wiser in its age. It is the tradition that with responsibility goes authority and with them both goes accountability." That editorial , titled " Hobson's Choice," lucidly surfaced in the media during a furious public outcry surrounding the investigation of the trag ic accidental sinking of an American destroyer with the loss of her captain and 175 of her offi cers and men . Perhaps the public outcry against the subsequent but inevitable investigation raged because the ship's captain lost his life in the mishap and could not answer for himself. But I believe public misunderstanding of the concept of "accountability" was at the root of it. By way of calming the troubled waters, the editorial continued to explain that " the captain of a ship, like the head of a state, is given honor and privileges and trust beyond other men. But let that ship set the wrong course, let it touch g round , let disaster fall to the ship or its crew, and the capta in must answer for what has happened . No matter what , he cannot escape." The fated captain of that ship, like the patrons ofHobson's fam ous riding stables in 18th century England (who were given the next horse out of the barn no matter what their preferences) , had no choice. The demand for accountability must always be swift and absolute, no matter how innocent one's intentions, no matter how unexperienced , no matter how unwanted . But why is "accountabil ity " so impo rtant? The editorial had a precise and clear res ponse to that question with which I fu lly ag ree. It said : "and when men lose confid ence and trust in those who lead , order disintegrates into chaos and purposeful ships into uncontrollable derelicts." Today, thirty-one yea rs later, afte r so much in our society has evolved .. .after so many principles and standards have changed ... after society's perception of the value of " hono rable service to God and to country" has been alte red , it is important fo r all of us to recognize that accountability (and the trust it fos ters in those who lead) continues unchanged , unalte red and in fact strengthened in our nation's Army, Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force. Every man is answerable to his conscience fo r his own behavior. And in all soc ieties there are men who are honest and true to themselves who can live comfo rtably with their consciences and their SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1983

peers ... even when mistakes are made. But there are also men less than honorable who fa il to confro nt their mistakes and choose instead to suffer their consciences accordingly. In our military society, such demands on its members are even greate r than in society as a whole. Accountability, that old and wise tradition, requ ires more than just a clear conscience. It requires a justifyi ng analysis and a detailed explanation of how we discharge our responsibilities. And while there is an element of cho ice available in the way we face up to accountability, just as at Hobson's famous stable, there is no choice but to face it head on! This "call to accountability" is an important measure of the success of a military officer. A rare few are j udged by never needing to account. But ma ny more of us are j udged when requi red to answer by doing so honestly and fo rthrightl y. Through trad ition and tra ining, most military people seem to gras p this concept of responsibility earl y on. But the same is not true fo r many of our civilian colleagues ... o r for our society at large, wherein the concept is not well understood and is frequentl y rejected. One of the best indexes of the concern which any society fee ls fo r its members is the manner in which it treats them . .. the manner of its expectations of them . It is fa ir to say that the military community's insistence and dependence on "accountabil ity" is a direct reflection of the high level of respect the community holds fo r its members. And , as a direct result of this respect, those in positions of autho rity at all levels receive the full service of their subordinates. The insightful editorial in The Wall Street Journal I quoted earlier effecti vely summarizes why I place so much importance on the philosophy of accountability. Thearticle concludes : " It is cruel, this accountability of good and well -intentioned men. But our o nl y alternati ve is an end to responsibility, and fin all y, as the cruel sea has taught , an end to confidence and trust in the men who lead , fo r men will not long trust leaders who feel themselves beyond accountability for what they do." '1i

As Chief of Na val Operations, Admiral Watkins is a senior serving admiral in zhe US Navy, accountable to his Commander-in-Chief, the President of the United States. This article is abstracted from remarks deli vered at the Eighth Annual Homer Ferguson Confe rence, US Court of Military Appeals, on May 19, 1983 in Washington, DC.

Enjoy Christmas with the likes of

~

W

COLIN GLENCANNON !

Your Soc iety offe rs, w ith some trepi datio n , not onl y Guy Gilpatric's Glencannon sto ries, immo rtalizing the tramp steame r ln chclijfe Castle and confi ning he r sottish Scots chief e ngineer in ha rd covers, for $7. 95, but also- No rma n Re illy Raines's Tugboat Annie, also for $7.95! Or bo th (what a combination! ) fo r $15. And still at large is the Society 's rambunctio us Curato r-at-Large Pete r Th roc kmo rton , whose pioneering repo rt from the Medite rranean in the earl y days of ma rine archaeology, Shipwrecks and Archaeology, is available, hardcover, 360 pages, 45 photos , fo r $17.75. And the re is o ur Soc iety's Senio r Ad visor, that g rand sailorman Captai n Irving Johnson , writing as a youth abo ut a Cape Ho rn passage in squa re rig-and coming back to view it all 48 years late r in The Peking Battles Cape Horn, hardcover, 225 pages, 40 photos, $11 . 95, o r $5. 95 pape rbac k. A sailo r a rti st ofuniqu e di stinctio n is authoritati vely depicted in Anton Otto Fisch er, Marine Artist, by Katrina Sigs bee Fi scher, a 9 x ll 1h " book, 260 pages, with 235 illustratio ns including famil y photo graphs and ma ny full -color reproductio ns of AO F's inimitable wo rk- now at $50. Don't fo rget, also, that most precio us of gifts, the one that brings yo u SEA HIS1DRY every three months: that is, me mbe rship in the National Society, available to me mbe rs to buy as a g ift for someone else for just $10.

*JO percent off all prices above for Society members* National Maritime Historical Society 132 Mapl e Street, C roton-on-Hudson NY 10520 Or call in your order fo r hurry-up service and we'll bill you. Call 914 271-2177.

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WHAT'S IN A NAME: A Tour Through the Actual Practices of How Warships Get Their Names by Lieutenant Commander R. E. Arnold Shrubb, RN and Lieutenant Commander Eric J. Berryman, USNR That every ship has her own personality is not a matter for debate amongst seafarers. It follows naturally that owners should give their ships a proper name. Early ships tended to be named in much the same way as the boat owner of today dubs his yacht. Girls' names such as Katherine or Mary were used by the loving or flattering, animal names like Golden Hind or Tigre by the imaginative. Adjectival Defiance by the bold , and cautious Owner 's love by the doubtful. Politics certainly played a part and was reflected in the Dutch tendency to use geographical names such as Vries land and Hollandia . Religious associations were particularly preeminent in Spanish and Portugese ships during their long explorations around the world. Political tides could change names even in the very early days, and Sir Walter's Ark Raleigh changed to Ark Royal (a name that went on to make history in the British Navy) when the monarch took an interest. As the custom of converting merchant ships to warships was overtaken by the production of full-time warships, the pride and passion of kings took a hand , as in Henry VIII's great ships Mary Rose and Henri Grace a Dieu. fo the 18th century there was a surprising concurrence in ship naming between the two great rivals Britain and France, with France taking a lead in the use of names from mythical sources-a fashion which spread rapidly to Britain, particularly through capture of Bourbon ships. So Arethusa, Hermione, Penelope, Bacchante and Bellerophon appeared to tie the sailor's tongue. This, of course, they failed to do. Instead " Hermy-one," "Pennylope," " Bag-shanty" (a slang term for houses of ill-repute), and "Bully Ruffian" emerged as the standard pronunciations-from which Jack did not deviate! The emergence of the United States into the ship-naming business was at first a reflection of national aspiration , as Constitution and President took places in the maritime halls of fame. At the same time, the names of former national heroes began to emerge in the navies of Europe, and Drake, Imperatrice Eugenie and Tromp joined Amerigo 1-espucci on the high seas. Although some ships took their names from their tasks like 1-esuvius and Stromboli, which were fireships, and Speedy which was a fast brig designed for a guerre de course, it was not until the rapid advances in technology produced large numbers of smaller vessels with specific tasks protecting the fleets , that class names began to appear. By the time of the Battle of Jutland in 1916, it was no accident that 23 destroyers' names in the fleet began with "M" and 14 with "N". Despite the loss of the battleship Victoria by collision in 1863, the British went on naming ships for reigning monarchs; but by World War II they'd decided against this, naming their new battleship class King George V while King George VI was on the throne. Germany's pocket battleship Deutsch/and was prudently rechristened Lutzow after the sinking of her sister Graf Spee in the first year of the war. Disgrace did not automatically exclude a good name from the list. The Admiralty still use Hermione in spite of one of the worst mutinies in British history when the ship was handed over to the enemy by mutineers ; and bad luck is no bar, as evidenced by the continued use of Sheffield-a ship which was torpedoed by Ark Royal aircraft in mistake for the Bismarck, and whose namesake was sunk by Argentine Navy aircraft off the Falklands in 1982 . The massive British Navy of yore used a number of devices for classifying names, which are still reflected in today's small fleet. The initial letter device, used in the Grand Fleet for swarms of "V" 8

Three generations of HMS Bacchante: a finehulled sloop of Queen Victoria '.s reign in 1881, with auxiliary sail to serve as backup and stretch the limited cruising range of her primitive engines; the big , heavily engined cruiser, bristling with ordnance, built to serve in &lward Vl/'s navy just prior to World War l; the clean-lined contemporary frigate ofthe navy of Elizabeth ll.

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Th e "O" class destroyers Opal , Ophelia , Opportune and Oracle prepare to leave the nest where they were born-a yard redo/em ofth e iron and coal technologyofth eirday-to join the swarming flot illas that swept the sea lanes and served as handmaids to th e battlejleets of World War I.

and " W" class destroyers, is found in the Amazan class of frigates two of which, Ardent and Antelope, were lost in the Falklands (the latter, with a backward bow to " Penny-lope," is pronounced "A ntellipee~ '). The mythological names are reflected in the Leander class of frigates, while destroyers are named after towns and counties. Capital ships (now aircraft carriers and nuclear submarines) bear a variety of names taken from history. Another device adopted is the "suffix ." Ton class minesweepers use names like Maxton and Wilton. Another historical system reflecting the " weapon ," " battle" and "captai n" classes is the present-day " tribal " class of frigate such as HMS Zulu. Occasional flashes of wit have emerged. Thus HMS Zulu (stem blown off by a mine in 1916) and HMS Nubian (bow blown off by a German destroyer in 1916), had their revenge when their joined halves under the name HMS Zubian sank the German U-50 in 1918.

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A few ships have become generic because of their dramatic effect on naval warfare. The Dreadnought made all other battleships obsolete and led to the generic terms "dreadnought" and "superdreadnought ," while the USS Monitor gave her name to whole classes of big-gun ships after her famous fight with the Confederate raider Virginia ex-USS Merrimac. The United States, as befits a peace-loving democracy, has generally eschewed aggressive and violent names, and has used ship names to honor states, cities, citizens, supporters of the Revolutionary War (like the Spruance class Comte de Grasse) , or even on one occasion a foreign warship : the Canberra, named to honor an Australian ship sunk at the Battle of Savo Island , 1942 . American sailors, no less than their counterparts overseas, bestow nicknames on their ships, or render the unpronounceable into manageable segments. The 19th century's zeal for Indian names became so much grist for the irreverent mill . Thus Sassacus became " Sassy-cuss," Shaknmaxon turned into " Shacky-macks on," Miantn omah simply " My aunt don't know." It is safe to say that every ship in the fleet is known by a name other than what appears on her transom. In orthodox vein , aircraft carriers were named for famous ships formerly on the Navy List, important battles, bays, island and sounds. The first exception to this scheme was the Franklin D. SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1983

Roosevelt in 1945. Thereafter the practice of honoring prominent Americans became common: Forrestal, for the first Secretary of Defense, and the John F. Kennedy are examples. With the new big deck nuclear Nimitz class came the first carrier to recognize a living person , the Carl Vinson. He was victor of many naval appropriations battles in the US Congress! By Act of Congress, battleships have always been named for states. Cruisers were named for cities and towns in the United States, her possessions and territories with the exception of Canberra, noted above. Of that era , however, only the Long Beach remains in commission . The latest cruisers carry names of states, battles and famous ships. Destroyers and frigates honor people who distinguished themselves in the annals of Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard history, including one living Admiral , the destroyerman's ln 1916 when the "tribal" class frigate Nubian had her bow blown off by a German destroyer, and her sister Zulu lost her stem to a mine, their joined halves were rechristened Zubian-a happy inspiration of Admiral Sir Reginald Bacon commanding the Dover Patrol, in which these destroyers served.

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r-91~ ,....---HMS Antelope in Malta in 18'78 elegantly reflects the self assurance of a nary strong enough to dominate any comer ofthe world's seas and oceans by the mere presence of one of its ships. In the Falklands a century later (below) the frigate Antelope is destroyed by an Argentine "iron " bomb during an attempt to disarm it.

destroyerman Arleigh Burke. (For some of31-knot Burke's reflections on writing history under fire, see SH26.) Secretaries and ~ssi~tant S~cretaries of the Navy, Members of Congress closely identified with naval affairs, and inventors, have also been included of late. An exception was Norfolk. Destroyer escorts recognized personnel of the Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard killed action. The type is out of service today, and the category has shifted to other construction. The new Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided missile fast frigates, for instance, includes names of heroes killed in Vietnam. Submarines were once simply named for denizens of the deep Nautilus, Ray, Albacore, and so on. Modern custom separate~ SSBNS (nuclear ballastic missile subs) from SSNS (nuclearpowered subs) and names cover an eclectic pantheon of historical notables, not all American . The general rule is described as recognizing famous persons whose lives have paralleled-and contributed to-the growth of democracy. Our nuclear boats run a ran~e that covers ~~tesmen, patriots, a comic, an Hawaiian king, an inventor, a lyricist, former enemies, and cities: Thomas Jefferson, Nathan Hale, Will Rogers, Kamehameha, Thomas F.dison, Francis Scott Key, Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee. In the seemingly innocent "city" class, the only example of a US warship's name being changed in response to protest occurred when Corpus Christi was officially redubbed City of Corpus Christi. European Continental navies continue to reflect both their national character and their long maritime histories. The Dutch honor former heroes and ships from De Ruyter and De Seven Provincien of the 17th century, to Karel Doorman of the 20th. The French, also with a long history of maritime endeavor draw on their history with such names as Surcoufand De Grasse'. Italy has few fixed criteria. The latest fast frigates are named for the winds. ~ubmarines honor naval heroes and famous commanding officers in both ~orld wars. An older class of destroyers recognizes eminent navigators, and some modern vessels describe warrior-like characteristics such as bravery and courage. Older minesweepers an~ minehunters are named for plants and fish, and new ones are being named for small towns which have seafaring traditions.

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Danes name all destroyers, frigates and fast missile boats after naval heroes. Minesweepers bear island and other geographic place names_, submarines, sea animal names, and surveillance ships, small islands. All oceanographic escorts have names connected with. the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Few names in the Royal Danish Navy are new; most are carried over from the past. For t~~ Norwegians, frigates (and one tender) are named for large cities : Bergen, Oslo, Stavanger. Submarines honor islands like Skolinna and Utvaer, and fast patrol boats use the bird and fish category in addition to antique projectiles: Hauk, Hai (shark), and Pil (arrow). Ttsta and Tona are minesweepers and recognize rivers, and Norse mythology supplies identity to corvettes like Sleipner and Aeger. . Traumatic changes in national aspirations do not necessarily interrupt the sense of history which the mariner feels. Germany has named some new destroyers after heroes of World War II one for each service: Rommel (the legendary Desert Fox), Moelders (an air ace), and Luetjens (Commander in Chief Fleet embarked on Bismarck when she was lost). U-boat aces like Prien and Kretschmer still wait their tum. But most German ships take their names from enduring national geography. The Hamburg class of destroyers is named for large states, the Cologne class of fast frigates honor big cities, and the fast frigate Bremen class mix counties and states. Fast patrol boats are named for predatory birds and animals, minesweepers for small cities, stars and, for the modem minehunter, names of mythological sea deities. Landing craft have fish names and supply ships honor cities that end in the word "burg" (castle), as in Freiburg and Gluecksburg. Lakes, mountains and forests are also used. Tugs honor islands and tenders, nvers. The U-boat, which has come close to defeating the most powerful navies in the world twice in this century, continues the menacing tradition of bearing only its number. No matter what nation, there is one constant theme.The sailor remains proud of his ship. Her name is important to his pride. The communications officer on that famous landmark the Rock of Gibraltar, should not have been surprised at the legendary response to his signal: "What ship, where bound?"..."What rock?" .t Lt Cmdr Berryman is Deputy Chief of Information on the staff of the Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT), the only NATO headquarters located in the United States, and is Hon. Secretary to the American Ship Trust. Lt Cmdr "Bushey" ArnoldShrubb also serves on SACLANT staff He edited The Royal Navy Day by Day and before moving to the US in 1982 published a number of articles on international maritime affairs.

SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1983


The Chesapeake Bay Portfolio by Paul McGehee

The "Pride of Baltimore" -1980

Skipjacks of the Chesapeake Bay

The City Dock, Annapolis, Maryland

Thomas Point Lighthouse, Chesapeake Bay

The Abandoned Workboat

Chesapeake Bay Crab Boat

The Hilton Inn, Annapolis, Maryland

PAUL McGEHEE, renowned marine and landscape artist, presents eight of his exquisite pencil drawings of the Chesapeake Bay region. The Bay is one of America's most beautiful and historic areas, and McGehee' s fine pencil work accurately captures its past and present. This special portfolio edition of eight signed prints is printed on the finest acid-free paper stock under the artist's supervision. The prints (image size each 9Y• x 163/4) are $80 per set of eight. Please include $5 shipping. Order by mail, or phone Art Recollections. Visa and Mastercard accepted. © 1983 by Paul McGehee

COLOR CATALOG-$1

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Original Prints Of Thomas Wells "Moshulu" is o ne of 4 prints being offered in limited editions of 950. Thomas Wells, himself, has sailed upon th e maj estic ships h e has since immortalized on canvas. He is, in fact , one of the surviving few to have sailed aro und Cape H orn o n a square-rigged vessel. Also available are th e "Star of Scotland," "Sch ooner Vega Off The Farallons," and " Big Cape H omers of Ha mburg," sign ed a nd numbered for $115. SEND FOR YOUR FREE COLOR CATALOGUE. International Fine Art Marketing 8195-C Ronson Road· San Diego, California 92111 · Phone (619) 277-5005

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SEA HIS1DRY, WINTER 1983


Marine Art News The 1983 Mystic International Exhibition held at Mystic Maritime Gallery in May proved a great success, with 83 works accepted from 2'if7 entries submitted by 146 artists from 6 nations. Gallery Director Peter Sorlien notes: " Rather than suffering in the recent recession , Mystic Maritime Gallery has grown dramatically. A catalog including illustrations of each exhibited work is available for P from Mystic Maritime Gallery, Mystic CT 06355. The Rudolph J. Schaefer Award for work "which documents our maritime heritage" was given to Tom Hoyne at the Mystic International. The Mystic Invitational Exhibition held in September featured a variety of styles in work selected by Gallery staff. A color catalog is available from the Gallery for $8. Future exhibits scheduled by Mystic include " Ports of New England ," opening November 19, "The Steam Era," opening January 28, and " Fishermen ," opening March 19. Raymond Massey is back from Chinese waters , where he has been soaking in seaport scenes for a series he is doing on the opening of the American-China tradewhose 200th anniversary will be celebrated next year. We expect to be publishing some things on this in SEA HISTORY . Fred Freeman's 45-year production of marine art will be celebrated in a major exhibition at the US Coast Guard Academy in New London , set to open May 12 , 1984. An illustrated catalog of some of Freeman's work as exhibited in another show a year ago may be had for $5 from the Mystic Maritime Gallery. Mark Myers, who has done distinguished work for the National Maritime Museum , San Francisco, and for the National Society, will have a show of 20-30 watercolors at Seattle's Kirsten Gallery, November 20-December II. Mark , a native Californian , lives now in a remote corner of Devon , England and is a Fellow of both the Royal Society of Marine Artists and its offspring the American Society of Marine Artists. The Greenwich Workshop Gallery of Southport , Connecticut, will open " Of Ships and the Sea '83" on November 13. An Ocean Arts Exhibition will be held November 25-Yl at the Hyatt Hotel in Union Square, San Francisco. Willard Bond, Tom Hoyne and Don Stoltenberg have been named Fellows of the American Society of Marine Artists. This outfit, universally known by its acronym ASMA , was founded as a committee of the National Society in 1976, and now sails on its own bottom . Membership fee is $25, sent to Ann Rogers, ~5 Tilley Street , New London CT 06320. PS SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1983

DARWIN

In 1832, the Admiralty assigned Captain Robert Fitzroy to explore and map the dangerous waters surrounding Tierra def Fuego. Charles Darwin, a young, unknown naturalist, accompanied this historic five year voyage of the Beagle. From his notes and observations of this adventure, Darwin published his ORIGIN OF THE SPECIES in 1859 and rocked the civilized world . Now available in limited edition of 1000 full color print is Th e H.M.S. Beagle by marine artist, Ra ymond A. Massey, A.S.M.A. The print image size is 25" x 20". Signed print$75 . Signed and remarqued print$125 . VISA/ MC accepted. Also available is Shackleton's Endurance. Direct orders to:

TYNE PRINTS 112 Walton Drive, Buffalo, New York 14226 (716) 839-0185

Sailing Adventures aboard the SCHOONER HARVEY GAMAGE -a windjammer in true " down East" tradition. U.S. Coast Guard inspected 95' o.a. in length

COLLEGE STUDENTS SEA QUARTER Plan a college semester aboard the SCHOONER HARVEY GAMAGE. Credits in arts and science you earn from Northeastern University, Marine Studies Department, may be transferred. Curriculum includes visits to many educational and historical places from Maine to the Virgin Islands. For curriculum, schedule and cost, write or phone-

Summer months the ship cruises the Maine coast out of Rockland ... winter months in the Virgin Islands from Charlotte Amalie. Enjoy a week under sail ... make new friends ... relish hearty meals ... return relaxed, filled with happy memories. Write or phone-

DIRIGO CRUISES Dept. SH, 39 Waterside Lane Clinton, Conn. 06413 Tel: 203-669-7068 21


MASTER BUILDER: As His Baltimore Clipper Pride Returns from the West Coast, Melbourne Smith Will Launch Two New Historic Schooners Next Spring; But the Big Challenge Lies Ahead. by Christine L. Parker On a public beach in San Diego, just a stone's throw from that grand lady Star of India~ a vessel of an earlier tide is being created . She is the Revenue Cutter Calif ornian , whose design is based on the early US Revenue Marine schooners , charged with keeping order on the California coast of 1849. It will come as no surprise that this topsail schooner has ken designed and is being built by Melbourne Smith of Annapolis , Maryland . Ask Melbourne how he got into boatbuilding and he's likely to say that he must have been drinking in the wrong bars . But the truth is he's been building, painting and designing boats ever since he first slapped together a rowboat out of aluminum as a teenager in Hamilton , Ontario. As a young man he joined the Royal Canadian Sea Cadets and served on RCSCC lion. After rebuilding the Dutch botter Wooden Shoe in Toronto, he brought her to New York , where among other jobs, he recorded harbor noises for CBS. All this while he also worked as a commercial artist, and had begun painting boats. He went to England as a merchant seaman , saving funds for another and larger vessel. This was Sans Pareil, a Brixham trawler. She didn't stand up to a December crossing of the English Channel, and broke up on the French Coast near Cherbourg. Undaunted , Melbourne searched for a vessel with which he could earn a living as a charter captain . This was the Scottish built composite schooner Annyah (exGolden Hind) , a Milne design . Melbourne brought her from Gibraltar to the Caribbean where he operated her as a charter vessel as part of the Nicholson fleet. Later he taught navigation aboard her to Cadets of the Guatemalan Navy. In 1960 Melbourne found himself in British Honduras, having parted with his schooner, and there made an alliance with master shipwright Simeon Young. As a team they built tugs for sugar barges, 60 to 90 foot schooners for Mexican interests, and six small yachts of 33 feet. One of these was the topsail cutter Appledore still sailing near Mystic, Connecticut. Appledore was designed for Melbourne *British ship of 1863, part ofSan Diego Maritim e Museum (SH5).

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by naval architect Eric Steinlein of Galesville, Maryland , with the idea that Simeon Young & Co. would build these Belizean Cutters and be successful in selling them as very handy, practical traditional sailing yachts on the American market. Everything went according to plan except sales . Nonetheless, it was through this effort that Melbourne made his way to Annapolis. Having sailed to Annapolis with Appledore , he obtained a commission from the US Naval Institute to do a series of paintings of historic sailing ships of the American Navy. For the next several years he did intensive research on sailing vessels of many types, with special concentration on American craft. To date more than 150 of his works have been published as prints. Melbourne Smith is that rare individual , as historical scholar who knows sailing and knows how vessels really work. Moreover he has been fortunate enough to have enjoyed the conversation of a number of individuals who have spent their energies in similar pursuits. Notable among these are Eric Steinlein, Thomas C. Gillmer, Fred Hecklinger and Gerald Trobridge. Eric Steinlein conceived and headed the Merchant Marine Survey for the Works Progress Administration in the 1930s. It was the scope of this project to survey and record every existing indigenous boat type on the coasts of the United States. Thereafter for many years Eric was Lloyds Wooden Boat Surveyor for the Chesapeake, and has been busy designing and building small craft for most of his life. Melbourne recalls that it was Eric who taught him his first lesson in naval architecture when he said: "Neither you nor I can argue with the laws of gravity." With such a background and such friends , it was a natural step for Melbourne to think of building recreations of historic types. His first attempt along these lines was to propose building a replica of Nonsuch for the Hudson Bay Company. Melbourne says they liked the idea so well they had her built in England. Later he collaborated with naval architect Thomas C. Gillmer in a proposal to build the early tobacco brig Peggy Stewart as a Bicentennial project. Success did not come until he convinc-

Melbourne Smith, builder, historian, ocean sailor, ban vivant and raconteur par excellence, decided some years back to devote his considerable energies to bringing traditional sailing ships, built oftraditional materials, back to our seaways. For the results, you may look around you-but more, much more, is to come! Here he is with the lovely Ca li fornian in frame, his sea-dreamer's eyes fixed on a fature Sea Witch.

ed the City of Baltimore to build the clipper schooner Pride of Baltimore in lfJ76-77. "The idea was to build a vessel that would really sail , that would be of historic value, and yet would be able to promote the City wherever she went." Pride was built, over a period of ten months , in full public view using traditional shipbuilding techniques right in the center of Baltimore. When she was commissioned and began her maiden voyage in May lfJ77 she was a surprise and shock to maritime historians, and there were many who were skeptical. In fact she became an apt symbol for the revitalization of Baltimore itself: the old cliches have fa llen by the wayside. Is it true that all the old craftsmen are gone, and that the old techniques are forgotten? No. There are still practicing shipwrights and shipsmiths around , there are men who know how to make large canvas sails , there are master caulkers, and on the Chesapeake Bay there are even men who make a living dredging oysters under sail. The absolute demise of wooden shipbuilding and boatbuilding has been long heralded , but is not here yet. In building the Pride, Melbourne depended on the skills of a few key individuals, such as shipwrights Simeon SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1983


Our Adve rti se rs a re o ur Sta ndin g Ri gg in g

Young of Belize and Japheth Hazell of Bequia, shipsmith Gerry Trobridge (originally of South Africa) , and naval architect Thomas C. Gillmer. Melbourne recalls : " I was often asked where I would ever find the workmen, and I found that most of them just showed up at the site. Oh , many of them knew 1ittle about boats or boatbuilding, but they were eager to learn , and were willing to put everything they had into making it a success. In many ways they were probably better and more willing workmen than you had in the heyday of wooden shipbuilding." Today many of these apprentices who built and sailed the Pride continue in boatbuilding, rigging , and maritime-related fields, and several have worked with Melbourne on other projects . To him this is what real apprenticeship and real sail training are all about: not taking 50 kids at a time sailing, for a few hours, but taking just ten for several months, whether in boatbuilding or sailing. Over the last few years since Pride, Melbourne has built two skipjacks, now both working commercially dredging oysters, and has designed five or six schooners for passenger-carrying or sail training uses. Among these is the Fredonia model schooner Spirit of Massachusells, presently under contruction in Charlestown, Massachusetts , and the Revenue Cutter Californian being built under Melbourne's direction in San Diego for the Nautical Heritage Museum at Dana Point. While modelled very closely after the original vessels, there have been some compromises made with the designs in order to meet Coast Guard requirements for carrying passengers for hire. Melbourne says his strongest influences in naval architecture have been Tom Gillmer, Eric Steinlein, and John Willis Griffiths, extremely outspoken designer of the earliest New York clipper ships. With the desigrr of Spirit and of Californian, Melbourne is putting some of Griffiths' theories into practice. SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1983

For example, John Griffiths was a great advocate of steam bending the frames of large wooden vessels. A steam-bent frame, being made of one piece and with the grain in the best possible configuration , is more than twice as strong as the traditional doub le-sawn frame and of less weight. Griffiths put this idea to the test in the bark New Era, and by all accounts she lived a long and productive life. Today it is possible to move a step further and fabricate frames exactly as lofted of laminated hard pine which has been dried and pressuretreated with a wood preservative, thus producing a stronger construction, with more rot-resistant wood, with less expenditure of labor. Both Spirit of Massachuse11s and Californian have been designed for this type of construction. Another Griffiths idea was to make a vessel's framework strong in the middle where the greatest loads and strains were and to lighten the ends of the vessel where the loads are least. Further, he said the massed weight of timbers (sometimes due additionally to excessive sheer) in the ends of a vessel would make it certain to hog prematurely through sheer force of gravity. His emphasis was on making the frame of a vessel "strong" not through massiveness, but in by design. What would Melbourne Smith like to tackle next? Not one of his own designs, but perhaps the most successful and best known design of John W. Griffiths: the clipper Sea Witch.* She was among the best of the clippers, and holds speed records that have remained unbroken to this day. Yet , she is not too large a vessel to build and reasonably operate. Melbourne envisions Sea Witch as a representative, not of one city or one state, but of the entire nation. What more fitting evocation of an entire people than such a ship, the fastest at a time when American sh ips without question led the world. w *See SH 13, p. 19

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THE STEPHEN TABER: After 112 Years, She Still Earns Her Way by Captain O.K. Barnes OCTOBER 21st: "LAUNCHED-The Schooner Stephen Taber was launched from the yard of Mr. Bede!, Glenwood , on Thurs. of last week. She is a well built, natty schooner-she bears a good name and no doubt will prove a profitable investment for all concerned.''

Like some1hing in a dream , the 68joo1 schooner lies close inshore aboul 1900, like a member of1he family. Look at her1owering rig and that cocky sweep ofsheer to the stern! Below, Captain Hallock's family and friends enjoy a meal in the shade ofa generous awning. Photos, Byron Hallock.

The year was 1871, the place Glenwood Landing, New York. The unknown journalist who in 1871 heralded the launching of that "well built natty schooner" had no way of knowing just how prophetic a statement he had made, for in 1983 we are proud to say that following a major overhaul during the winter of 1981-82 , the Stephen Taber is as good as new. At 112 she can boast of being the oldest documented sailing vessel in continuous service in the United States. She has never missed a season. She has never been de-commissioned or had her rig changed. She remains today a two-masted, gaff-rigged schooner-a pure sailing vessel , her only auxiliary power being her attending yawl boat. Without fanfare or federal funding , the Stephen Taber has earned her way year after year. Only the nature of her cargoes has changed . A centerboard vessel, she was designed to sail up into small harbors and coves , creeks and inlets and with her board up, to ground out at low tide, discharge and take on cargo. Sometimes this was done via wagons across the mud fl ats, sometimes lying nicely against a quay or pier. With the fl ood tide floating her once again , the Taber wou ld be on her way. She was not unique. There were many such schooners in New England's harbors and roadsteads-coasting schooners, so called because of thei r coastw ise trade routes . Unlike big corporate-owned vessels, the smaller coasters were usually owned by just one or two people, often brothers, or perhaps just a family unit , the owner and captain one in the same man . This was the case with the Stephen Taber. What were the enduring qualities? What sets her apart as a survivor in a world that watched countless hundreds of such vessles pass from view? I recall hearing a doctor once remark that the best way to retain function, was to never lose function . This is the key. The Taber has in effect never lost fun ction . And she has had a fortunate continuum of caring owners. Many such coasters were family operations often sailed by a captain and wife team wi th perhaps a child or two along as crew. More than one child has been raised treading the Taber's decks .

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The skipper who had he r longest was Captain Byro n Hallock of East Setaucket, New York , and from him we know much ofl ife aboard in her trading days. Fortunately for us he was also a gifted amateur photographer. His time in her extended from about 1892 , when he bought the 20-year old schooner, until failing health forced him to sell her in 1920. She then went Down East , where in a slower-paced economy, sailing vessels could still compete for cargoes . His son Albert and wife Minnie often served as the crew as the Taber plied southern New England coastal waters from South Street in New York to Newport. Many adventures were recorded in the skipper's log. She carried families for summer cruises from Hell Gate to Newport's fashionable strand in the summers of 1900 and 1902 , she anchored in the Hudson Ri ver near Grant's Tomb to watch the parade of ships when Admiral Dewey brought the fl eet back from its victory in the Spanish-American War. But mostly the job was to move the freight, be it coal , brick, seed oysters, pulpwood , lumber, stone or what have you. The captain who could load quickly, get underway and deliver fast was the one who would make a livi ng. Seamanship and sailing skill determined how well he performed . How high will she point with this deckload on? How much canvas can I crowd on? Will she fetch the mark on this tack? Such questions were as real as the

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SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1983


':4. well built, natty schooner"

problems facing the driver of a big truck barreling down one of our superhighways today. She continued her fa mily ways Down East, where Captain Fred Wood had her for a long stretch after Bill Eaton brought her Down East. Captain Wood's son Paul wrote a poem about the vessel that had been home to him , while he lay sick in bed during World War II . One stanza referred to the rebuilding Captain Wood had given her along about 1930: " Cause you see, when dad Bought her, we gave Her another birth , And she is the best Sailing vessel of Her class upo n God's ea rth ."

Subsequent Taber families include the Havilah Hawkinses . Captain Hawkins, Sr. along with his wife Mary owned the Taber fo r some eleven years. During that time sons Hav ilah II and Ronnie grew from small children into two-for-the-price-of-one hired deck hands. Havilah II , now captain of the schooner Mary Day, sailed the Taber the two seasons prior to my getting my papers. For him it was coming full circle . Other Camden captains who at one time owned the Taber include Jim Sharp and Orvil Young. The Stephen Taber gained the reputation early on as being the " lucky ship" she is.

*

*

*

*

*

Which brings me to explai n how it is that a schooner in Camden , Maine is now in the hands of two people who as recently as 1979 were based in Greensboro, North Carolina-my wife Ellen as vice president in a manufacturing firm , and myself as a blacksmith , a trade I followed five years , maki ng restoration and traditional ironwork ranging from rose-headed nails to customdesigned gates . Before that we had pursued careers as uni versity professors , serving three university faculties in our seven-year tenure before say ing farewell to academia and returning to Greensboro to take up these new careers. Just afterour arrival in Piedmont North Carolina a very significant event took place. Ellen and I took a vacation and sailed the Maine coast aboard a traditional schooner. The discovery that such sailing vessels were alive and well in Maine was overwhelming. Of all the th.ings we had done and seen, nothing came close to feeling as " right" as that single experience. From that point we began a "seven yea r plan" to relocate in Camden and to operate our own schooner. One evening over coffee in year three of our seven year plan , we decided to step up our timetable. The revised version called fo r us to be established in Camden within six months. Robin and Lauren , our oldest daughters were by this time out of high school and off to college leaving us with Susan (13) and Noah (6) at home, ages we felt to be highl y mobile. Fired with this fresh attack , I left for Maine to find some sort of business in the Camden area for us to get into to keep body and soul together until such time as a schooner could be found . Armed with a Wall Street Journal, I spent several days going over the books of various businesses, none of which had any real attraction other than the fac t they were in the state of Maine. On a Thursday morning I was s ipping a cup of coffee in the local chowder house talking with Andrea Young, the co-owner. Andrea is the wife of Capt. Orvil Young of the schooner Roseway and cooks aboard during the season. She happened to mention that she thought Capt. Anderson had the schooner Stephen Taber for sale. I left immediately to find Anderson. Within the hour I found myself helping to drag a weatherbeaten skiff across the ice-clogged beach. We rowed o ut through a gentle snowfall to SEA HIS1DRY, WINTER 1983

•

The schooner was built to creep in sandy coves and marshy creeks, and sometimes dried out over a tide so that wagons could take her cargo to its destination. Here in relative luxury at a pier, she loads coal at Strong's Bridge, F:ast Setaucket, New York, about 1885. Photo, Byron Hallock. And here's the Stephen drifting along with 63 cord ofpulpwood on deck , about 1930. She continued in this trade through World War 11, with Captain Wood's sons serving as deckhands. Photo, Lou Wood.

25


The time came, in 1981, to put the ship ashore. She has lost her shape (note that sadly drooping stern) and a great deal of her fabric is perished or giving way. Masts have been pulled, a shed is about to be built around her, and replacement timbers are air-drying all around her. She was completely rebuilt around 1900, aged about 30, and again in 1930 by Captain Wood. Only the excellence of his work and the care the ship has since brought her through the next 50 years to this rebuilding. Thirty years is the usual rebuilding interval in a wooden ship's life. Photo, Jeff Julian.

Stout new oak planks fit in among their older mates , all spiked home and plugged with wooden bungs. Photo, OK. Barnes.

The whole deck is renewed-partly so that people can get at the hea vy work of building a massive new centerboard trunk below. Photo OK. Barnes.

The Stephen Taber renewed and ready to face her second century.

26

survey the schooner. I had never been much for love at first sight but I knew enough to recognize it when it struck. That evening I called Ellen from an open phone booth on the public landing. It was snowing quite hard with a biting cold wind blowing out of the north , but I felt nothing but a warm glow as I told her to fly up to Portland the next day and see the business we were to buy. The Taber road on her winter moorings just yards away. She was beautiful. Ellen flew in the following day and we went together. Ellen's reaction was the same as mine. The Stephen Taber was for sale, but did we have a deal? The only snag was the spectre of a firstrefusal bidder. From our standpoint we were ready to strike a bargain immediately, but we had to live in the shadow of that spectre for nearly three weeks. Finally a phone call from Captain Anderson asking: "Are you still interested?" We had a deal. From that point on things really began falling into place; selling a house-buying a house-moving-renovating a house and just becoming citizens of Camden, Maine. The feeling was deliriously wonderful , as though I had finally come home after nearly forty years in exile. The first summer was quite a busy one. With Anderson committed to the Taber for that season, it was agreed that we would not close until theend of the sailing season and that I would sail in the meantime as deckhand. This was the perfect situation for me to break into working aboard a schooner. By the end of September I felt at home aboard the old schooner. I was just beginning what would develop into an intimate relationship. October I arrived and we closed. She was ours now. The Taber had a new family in a long line of families. We, the Barnes family, felt a sense of historic order. There was a great deal to do and learn. Our new friends in the fleet supplied countless answers to our endless questions. A new life had begun both for us and the Stephen Taber. Although as far as we were concerned it was love at first sight, love was not entirely blind. We recognized the fact that a major overhaul was not far away. We are romantics to be sure, however we are also realists and pragmatists. The Taber needed attention. It had been nearly fifty years since her last major overhaul. Captain Hallock had overhauled her sometime around the turn of the century and Captain Wood had done so about 1930. It was once again time. SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1983


"We ... felt a sense of historic order." To do this effectively would mean really opening her up to see exactly what was what. Fresh water is a source of deterioration; salt water preservative. Thus the majority of work would be done above the water line. Our major goals were to : (1) do away with the hog that had developed in her keel, (2) restore the saucy sheer she had in 1871 and (3) to ensure the integrity of her structure and hull. Anything questionable would be replaced. This was to be no mere cosmetic job. The work would be done at the North End Shipyard in Rockland-only yards away from the spot where the famous clipper ship Red Jacket was built and launched in 1853. This particular shipyard suited our needs perfectly. It is owned and operated by Doug and Linda Lee and John Foss, fellow schooner owners and captains. The shipyard would haul and launch the schooner and provide access to the large equipment such as the shipsaw, planers, grinders, steambox and threading machine. We would provide our own crew, but would enjoy the advice, skilled experience, good-natured badgering and encouragement of the Lees and John Foss, who would be engaged at the same time with the building of a new coasting schooner, Heritage. Materials to be gathered and stockpiled included pine planks for the decking, oak in a number of rough-sawn dimensions for everything from plank stock to deck beams to framing stock, galvanized fastenings from large boat spikes to 20ft lengths of drift rod, and a myriad of ironwork from chainplates to deadeye irons to futtock shrouds to jib hanks. It was hard to get used to such quantities as sixty-five thousand board feet of oak and pine; three tons of boat spikes; two and a half tons of drift rod and so on. The first winter we owned the Taber I worked at the forge making all the ironwork that needed replacing. This was taken to Boston to be galvanized and then carefully put away awaiting the time it would be needed. The pine for the deck was also laid by at this time in order to gain as much drying time as possible. The more it dried the less shrinkage we would realize when it was laid down, thus minimizing deck leakage. By the end of the 1980 season I began to cruise the woodlots of the surrounding counties in search of the oak trees that would become the needed timbers for the Taber. These would be felled, twitched out of the woods and delivered to the sawyer to be transformed into the desired dimensions. From the sawyer to the shipyard to be organized and "stickered" in our designated lot. A mountain of wood soon began to grow. Would we really need that much? Yes-and much more that would be cut while work was in progress. Work began at the close of our 1981 season. We had engaged the services of David Johnson as our foreman and lead man for the project and Paul Cartwright as the second lead man-both experienced shipwrights of the traditional school. As word was passed of the Taber overhaul, skilled workers began emerging and by the time we left for the shipyard, a crew of about ten had been assembled . Thanks to these leaders and workers, we met all our goals and tore down the shed we'd built around the ship to launch her mid-April 1983. We returned to Camden with all flags flying to complete below decks accommodations and to fit out for the coming season . The Stephen Taber was ready to face another 112 years with a new lease on life. u,

Each Monday morning from June through September the Stephen Taber sets sail from the small seacoast town of Camden for a week's cruise along Maine's rugged coast. She carries 23 passengers and a crew of 6, and is Coast Guard licensed. For more information: Capt. Ken and Ellen Barnes, 70 Elm Street, Camden, Maine 04843: 207 236-3520. SEA HIS1DRY, WINTER 1983

12,000 sq. ft. new Duradon sails for iron bark Elissa, Galveston Historical Foundation, Galveston, TX

NATHANIEL S. "'IJ_,SON SAIJ.,~IAl(EU - Box 71, Lincoln Street, East Boothbay, Maine 04544 (207) 633-5071

Eklof Marine Corp. Since 1926

Marine transportation of petroleum and chemical products. New York harbor based tugs, barges, tankers. Shipside bunkering a specialty.

1571 Richmond Terrace Staten Island, NY 10310 Telephone: 212-442-1271 Shipyard tel: 212-273-8300 Dispatcher' s tel : 212-442-1112 TWX: 710-588-4152


The Doughty Steam Tug Mathilda Comes to Kingston by Arthur G. Adams Luckily the ship people of South Street, having seen that museum established, went on to found another, some years back, under the aegis of the National Society. This was the Hudson River Maritime Center, which functioned for its first year as a division ofthe Society. This year, under the presidency of Arthur Adams (whose latest book is reviewed on page 44), the tug Mathilda, formerly of South Street, was safely received at the Center, her wanderings over. September 24 she was re-christened by Mrs. Matilda Cuomo, wife ofthe Governor of New York State, leading James McAllister to avow he had room in his heart for two Mat(h)ildas. It is only T75 miles from Rondout Landing to Sorel, Quebec, where the 72ft 114 gross ton steam tugboat Mathilda was launched in 1899. Yet, to get to Rondout the Mathilda sailed 1,700 nautical miles by ri ver and ocean-1,600 of them under her own steam-taking 14 years to make the journey. The Mathilda is the first major vessel to be acquired by the Hudson River Maritime Center. She arrived at Rondout Landing Friday, July 8. Mathilda is one of24 steam tugboats on the World Ship Trust Historic Tug List, and was the last steam tugboat in commercial operation in North America when she was retired in 1969 by the McAllister Towing Co. , Ltd. of Montreal . Destined for the breakers, at the last moment she was purchased personally by James McAllister of New York , who had formerly worked at the McAllister Montreal facility, becoming very fond of the little Mathilda. Sailing from Montreal on November 14, 1969, she was brought around by sea under her own steam- down the St. Lawrence River, through the Gulf of St. Lawrence, through the Cabot Strait, and out to the open Atlantic. Then she sailed all around Nova Scotia and down the New England coast to New York City1,600 nautical miles. Her former crew vied for the honor of bringing her around , as she was a favorite with all the McAllister Montreal men . After some minor repairs at McAllister's New York yards, she was Survivor of many vicissitudes, the Mathilda is lifted to glory at Rondout in Kingston, a traditional center of river tugboating. The giant crane heels to within a few degrees ofher stability limit as the little giant is hoisted ashore. South Street historian Norman Brouwer, HRMC President Arthur Adams, Witte Vice President Tony Prasa, and NMHS Trustee James McAllister II with their ship.

28

given on December 28, 1970 to the South Street Seaport Museum for use as a floating display in the East River. She was on display there for five years but she sank at her dock on January 24, 1976. Raised by the floating crane Century, the Mathilda was brought to McAllister's yard , cleaned and repaired and set in a simple wooden cradle on Pier 94, North River at the end of West 54th Street. As South Street concentrated more and more on shoreside restoration work and deep sea heritage, the Mathilda, in her solitary cradle, became less of an integral part of the South Street project. Touched only by the snow and rain, she accumulated a significant amount of water in her hull. But the Mathilda had not been forgotten. George Kelly, HRMC Director, saw her often , while on the Dayliner, and the thought of her at Rondout Landing became ever more appealing. These thoughts were shared with myself and HRMC Director Lynn Bottum , MasteroftheDayliner, who passed the Mathilda daily. George mentioned the Mathilda to HRMC Directors Frank 0. Braynard and Pete r Stanford , who had close ties to South Street. They brought the matter up with former South Street Seaport President, John B. Hightower in late 1981. John discussed the matter with the Chairman of their Waterfront Committee, Jack Aron . Jack suggested to James McAllister making a gift of Mathilda to the Hudson River Maritime Center. It soon became apparent that only the floating crane Century, with a 500-ton lifting capacity, could lift Mathilda off her Manhattan pier and unload her at Kingston . This meant that the Century would have to carry Mathilda all the way to Rondout , in tour slings, and set her ashore in a permanent cradle. Test borings were done along the Rondout Landing to determine a place that would not have settlement problems. As Century is not self-propelled, she mu st be moved by a large tug boat- a major expense. Another problem was that , as the largest floating crane in this hem. isphere, the Century is in constant demand for salvage work and heavy lifts. The heavy demand for her services created long delays in setting a date for moving the Mathilda. Still more of a problem was the cost of the move. The HRMC is indebted to McAllister Bros., and Witte Heavy-Lift for tdonating both tow and lift . .t Conrributions to support the tug in her new home may be made to HRMC, 1 Rondout Landing, King~ston NY 12401.

SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1983


Universal Maritime Service Corporation One Broadway, New York, New York 10004 • (212) 269-5121

Multi-gate truck complexes, complete with truck scales and pneumatic tube document transfer systems, assure rapid and accurate handling of trucks and cargo entering or departing Redhook and Port Newark terminals .

Universal Maritime Service Corp. is one of the largest, most versatile and technologically advanced terminal operators in the Port of New York. Now in its 55th year of operation, the company serves over 20 of the world's most prominent ocean carriers; maintains facilities on both sides of the harbor, and has repeatedly been relied upon to carry-out some of the most varied, complex and extensive cargo movements in the history of the port. Within the past two years, Universal has invested over $15 million in new facilities and equipment, with additional commitments on the way.

FACILITIES, EQUIPMENT & SERVICES With its latest expansion in Brooklyn and Port Newark, Universal's active terminals offer : • 6 container berths • 2 Ro-Ro berths • 9 breakbulk berths • 1, 150,000 square feet of shedded/ consolidation space and breakbulk handling area • 140 acres of container storage and open cargo area • 5 Paceco container gantry cranes, ranging from 4070 long-tons in capacity • 14 forty-two-ton top loaders • 45 Ro-Ro and yard hustlers • 27 heavy lift forks (15-30 tons) • Hundreds of forks, hilos and other pieces of support equipment • An on-line data-flow system, based on an IBM 433111 central processing unit, serving all facilities ADDITIONAL EXPANSION Under negotiation now are plans for expanding the Redhook container terminal in Brooklyn, which would result in a doubling of its capacity in the near future. Expansion in both area and equipment is also planned for the Port Newark container terminal. Universal looks forward to adding to its list of distinguished steamship services at all three of its locations - Port Newark, Redhook and Piers 1, 2 and 3 in Brooklyn - and highly recommends these facilities to importers and exporters of international cargo which moves through the Port of New York.

As illustrated by the photos above and at right, Universa/'s combination terminals are designed to handle all types of cargo operations - including heavy lifts and project moves - simultaneously and with equal ease and efficiency.

Universal's president, James G . Costello, recently capsulized the company's market position and business outlook as follows: "At no time in our history has Universal been better prepared to serve the commercial fleets of the world, and we remain committed to do whatever is necessary to help the Port of New York retain its ranking as the world's number one market for international cargo."


Sand)' Hook Pilots Making a Lee in an Easterl)' ©John A. Nob le

JOHN A. NOBLE IN MEMORIAM 1913~1983

New York and New Jersey Sandy Hook Plots Serving the pilotage needs of New York Hubor since 1694 One Bay St. , P.O. Box 1694, Staten Island, N.Y 1030 1 • 2 12 448-3900

30

SEA HISlDRY, WINTER 1983


LLOYD McCAFFERY

24 gun ship BOSlDN, 1748.

Scale 16' = I''.

Overal l length 11 ' .

Box 954 Westbrook , Ct. 06498

On April 23, 1838. the wooden-hulled paddle steamer SIR IU S arrived at New York , re sponsible for starting the first North Atlantic steamship service , heralding a new era.

On April 25, 1981, we, the men and women comprising the SIRIUS crew of today, moved across the East River and settled into our own and permanent berth alongside this historic shore. Please note our new address and communications numbers below.

Capt . Wolf Spille, President

212-330-1817

TANKER DEPARTMENT:

S IRIUS HOUSE - 76 Montague Street Brooklyn Heigh ts, New York 11201 Telephone: (212) 330-1800 Cable: .. SIRIUS NEWYORK" lnt'I Telex: TA T 177881 / ITT 422871 / ACA225111 Domestic Telex: WU 126758/645934/ TWX 710 -584-2207

SEA HISlDRY, WINTER 1983

Theo Theocharides, V.P. Ed Willis Hugh Bellas-Simpson

212-330-1810 212-330-1812 212-330-1806

DRY CARGO DEPARTMENT: James A . Bergonzi , V.P. Phil Romano

212·330·1843 212·330·1845

OPERATIONS AND RESEARCH: Capt . Arnaldo Tassinari, V.P.

212-330-1830

Janet Forti FINANCE AND ADMINISTRATION: Jose Fiorenzano, V.P.

212·330-1833 212-330-1835

31


Sailing Craft of by Philip Thorneycroft Teuscher,

A typical sloop of the Windward Islands carrying fresh produce north to Saint Barrs or Saint Maarren. On her return she'll carry our-ofbond liquor, canned goods and other merchandise.

A Bahamian sloop with a load of conchs. Th ese sloops are identical to those immortalized by Win slow Homer a hundred years ago.

Vessels in Haulover Creek, Belize City, fis h and trade in waters sheltered by a coral barrier reef

The Trade was blowing a fresh breeze. Whitecaps shimmered in the noonday sun . My cutter Statis bowled along with the wind on her beam making knots for the Caribbean island of Dominica. Off the port bow I sighted a sail between Iles des Saintes, near ' Guadaloupe, and Cape Capuchin , Dominica. The distant vessel was to windward of Statis heading toward us. Soon I could make out a gaff mainsail. We were still too distant to get a good view of her hull which alternately appeared and disappeared in the troughs between the swells. She proved to be a 35-foot sloop, typical of the craft trading in the Windward Islands. Her jib was a patchwork of repairs. The deck was cluttered with fruit and provisions, a tire casing, water casks, a dinghy, baskets, deck cargo and a couple of guys sprawled in repose. Her helmsman waved and she swooped by us on a broad reach , her gaff mainsail bellied out driving her at a good 7-8 knots. The wind is free and for millenia man has harnessed this gift of Aeolus to propel his ships. Windships have carried cargoes and culture worldwide on the earth's waterways . The composition and political relationships of societies today are very much the result of the countless voyages of history 's sailors. The big, square-rigged wind wagons transiting oceans have disappeared over the horizon of history. However, there are still many pockets around the world where native sailing craft fulfil the mercantile needs of indigenous peoples. The Caribbean Sea is one of these pockets. Craft of the Carib bees range from the classic dugouts of Carib Indian origin* to sloops and schooners. In the 1950s a transition from sail to power began . Topmasts were unstepped and " iron topsails':_ auxiliary engines-were installed in island vessels . I was told that a huge auction by the United States navy of bargain priced 6-71 diesels and hurricane losses in the sixties made inroads on the sail powered fleet of the Caribbean. In the past decade, however, a reprieve has been granted- the energy crisis. Newly constructed vessels, mostly sloops, are built with their full rigs since the wind is cheaper than fuel oil. Less than a hundred miles from the coast of Florida a fl eet of Bahamian sloops work under sail. Paradoxical as it may seem that commercial sail exists so close to the highly developed United States, it underscores the major reason why. The romanticism and aesthetic properties of sailing craft appeal to the student of maritime history. To the indigent native, however, it is a matterof practicality and survival at his livelihood , utilizing the free wind . Native craft are a synthesis of local materials and design requirements for specific usage. Their design and appearance also reflect those of craft once used by colonists and traders to the Caribbean . The most striking example of this borrowing of design are the whaling boats built and sailed out of Bequia , an island in the Vincentian Grenadines. These craft are virtual replicas of those one can see at Mystic Seaport Museum in Connecticut or the Whaling Museum in New Bedford , Massachusetts. It is as if the clock had been turned back a hundred years. The Bequian whalers stalk , harpoon and are towed on wild "Nantucket sleigh rides" aboard their double-ended , centerboard, lug rigged whale boats. In 1982 the Bequian whalers caught four whales . The protein-rich meat and whale by-products of oil , bone and ivory teeth supplement their diets and income. Belize, on the western shores of the Caribbean Sea, has a unique geologic formation , the only coral barrier reef in the Western Hemisphere. The outer or eastern edge of the reef is a 1ine of island archipelagos stretching north and south. These atolls calm the lagoon to leeward from the effect of the north east trade winds. Here, the majority of the time, the native sloops sail reaching on north-south courses with the Trade Wind abeam. The sailors take advantage of *See the auth or's "Karaphuna Canoes," Sea History 27, p. 47.

32

SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1983


the Caribbees: I photographs by the author the fresh breeze and at the same time are protected from the ocean swells by the barrier reef. The Belizan sloop with low freeboard , shallow draft and a longfooted mainsail is well suited to this beam-reach sailing. The dugout " kanawa" or " pirouges" of the Windward Islands of Guadaloupe, Dominica, Martinique, Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent are copies of the canoes used by the Island Caribs, the fierce Indians who were masters of these islands in Colonial times. The Creoles and remnant Caribs build these canoes because of their proven seaworthiness and because large trees are still found in the rain forests on some of the Windwards. As I coasted the leeward shores of these islands in Statis, no more than two cable lengths off, I observed many beak-bowed pirouges painted in brilliant primary colors. Many now use outboards but the Caribs, too poor to afford engines, still sail their kanawa. Anguilla , a flat , dry island in the Leeward Islands, was base for a large fleet of sailers into the 1950s. According to Donald Street, dean of yachtsmen and charter captains in the Caribbean , the Anguillans were the last to unstep the topmasts from their schooners. After slavery was abolished in the 1830s the Anguillans turned from their dry, unproductive land to turtling and trading. " Yes sir, she used to be one of de smartest schooners in dis Caribbean. How ole you tink she is? Warspike, dats what dey call her when she was built , dey name her Warspike cause dey built her in spite of der being no materials .. .dat was during World War One. Mon, she was some slick boat ." That was how the owner/captain of Warspite described his schooner to me in his West Indian drawl. Warspite is indeed a piece of work. She is clipper-bowed with a graceful sheer terminating in a transom stern reminiscent of the clipper Gloucestermen. The ubiquitous, greasy 6-71 nestles aft in the bilge and she is " bald-headed " and her fore and main masts have been docked at the heel. Still , she looks smart and can give a good account of herself under lowers, jib and staysail. Warspite used to trade from Trinidad to Cuba but now she is under contract to service the manned light on Sombrero Cay located between Anegaba and Anguilla reefs. She is the direct derivative of the smaller New England schooners that traded the Caribbean. They brought ice, bacalao (salt codfish) and general cargo and returned wi th salt and rum. When sai l was phased out in the north, coasters and Banks fishermen were often sold south as island traders. Here they finished their working lives. If a reef did not claim them , the tropical sun and toredo worm did . The lives of the Down Easters might have been short in the tropics but their legacy lived on . The island natives appreciated their seakindly qualities and copied these designs in local materials. It is not uncommon to find a patent steering gear and traditional winch cast in Lunenburg Foundry aboard a native schooner having been salvaged from some old Down Easter. Sloops are the most common commercial sailing craft in the Caribbean Basin. Hull design and rigs vary due to local tradition and conditions. These sloops are reminiscent of the Friendship, Noank and New York sloops of our Eastern seaboard- like the sloop I passed off Ile des Saintes and Dominica in Statis. This tradition of freighting under sail will probably be around for some time- providing a living link to hull forms , practices and traditions long vanished from their points of origin. Ji

A handsomely shaped and finish ed canoe of Carib origin in Belize.

Thes e Bequian whaleboats are ready f or launching yet look like well kept museum displa ys.

This brand new Grenadian trading sloop is testimony to the islanders 'faith in the fa.ture of trading under sail.

To be continued Mr. Teuscher photographed and researched this article aboard his cutter Statis during the filming of "Last of the Karaphuna " (SH27:47). He is currently working on a film about sailing ships and the effect of windpower on man 's migrations.

SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1983

33


DAY'S RUN Report of the American Sail Training Association Eisenhower House, Fort Adams State Park, Newport, RI 02840 Tel: 401-846-1775

EDITORIAL Sail training races and port events scheduled through 1986 and the agenda for ASTA's Eleventh Annual Sail Training Conference at Annapolis in October both augur well for the wider implementation of ASTA's primary role of developing opportunities for sail training and of providing services for ASTA members and vessels engaged in sail training. The new vessels being laid down for full time sail training activity such as The Californian and The Spirit of Massachusetts in this country, Pacific Petrel in Canada and a Vancouver brigantine (yet unnamed) promise to surface the values to be derived from sail training experience further and further throughout North America. The programs being dealt with at our Annual Sail Training Conference such as establishment of the proposed Regulations under the Sailing School Vessels Act, accreditation of vessels under the Act and the Syllabus and Logbook for use in sail training are services essential for all ASTA's constituents and are the product of the type of volunteer labor which makes ASTA work. The races which ASTA and STA of the United Kingdom arrange in connection with port events such as Quebec, Lake Ontario, Op Sail '86, Expo '86, and the Cruises-in-Company in connection there-

with add to the opportunities for the ships and the trainees. That ASTA's staff and Trustees are able to provide support and arrange these events is largely by reason of consulting fees paid ASTA and modest income derived from sale of ASTA copyrighted properties. In order to continue to open up sail training opportunities and to provide expanded services ASTA must broaden its base of support. Membership, now numbering in excess of 500 people is open to all, with dues beginning at a modest $25 an nually. Members receive SEA HIS1DRY and receive in addition more detailed notices and schedules and invitations to special events. HENRY H. ANDERSON, JR. Chairman

The Black Pearl This lovely little (54ft) brigantine, which was owned and sailed by the late Barclay H . Warburton III , and which Commodore Anderson has rightly called the flagship of the sail training movement, is now up for sale by ASTA, having served as stationary flagship during the Cup Race summer. A great deal of her wood fabric has been renewed under ASTA ownership. It is earnestly hoped that she will be picked up and sailed to the purposes Barclay wished PS for her.

"Dirty work, long hours, no pay."

"It is important," says Rod Stephens, "that this ship Wavertree be restored, in true sailorly fashion, right through to the skysail clewlines." Thanks to the generous help we've had, the ship is now in good shape and is receiving visitors on a limited basis. (Call South Street Seaport Museum , 212 669-9400, to find out when you can go aboard .) A beginning has been made on the crew's deckhouse, which was dedicated on October 21 to the memory of the late Allen Rupley, co-chairman of the Friends of Wavertree. We have a long way to go to get to the skysail clewlines, which we very much want to do by the old Cape Homer's 100th birthday, December 10, 1985. With many hands working to our now-famous motto (see the head of this ad) , our main need is funds-funds for materials, which can 't always be donated , and for heavy industrial work beyond the capacity of our volunteer gang . Rod Stephens has sent a letter to his sailing friends asking their help in the terms set forth above. Such good friends as Yachting Magazine's publisher Ed Muhlfeld and Bowne & Co.'s president Franz van Ziegesar have contributed to this effort. Won't you join in , and send a check or ask your company to contribute?

FRIENDS

OF THE

WAVERTREE

2 Lafayette Court, Greenwich, Connecticut 06830 CONTRIBUTIONS ARE TAX DEDUCTIBLE AND SHOULD BE MADE TO " SHIP TRUST-WAVERTREE."

34

Tailing onto a line aboard the three-masted schoonerC. A. Thayer, these people bring new life to the ship and gain new understanding of how she worked and kept the sea. Photo by Myron Gershenson.

Maritime Education: Introducing Young People to Tall Ships and Historic Sites

By George Moffet Chairman, ASTA Education Committee How can we combine a desire to introduce more young people to our maritime heritage with the equally strong desire to make better use of our restored historic vessels? Interesting answers to this challenge are being developed in successful programs aboard such vessels as Mystic's little full rigger Joseph Conrad, San Francisco's lumber schooner C. A. Thayer, and the brig Pilgrim at California's Dana Point. There seems reason to believe that other historic tall ships could serve as the focal point for additional programs. Restored historic sailing ships which are unseaworthy or too costly to put to sea also prove to be expensive ladies as pure exhibits. Why not put them to work in valuable educational service? By combining the function of display with the function of liveaboard education , an historic vessel can work harder to earn her keep and can contribute more to keeping alive the skill s and traditons of our maritime heritage. The American Sail Training Association is deeply interested in this kind of development, and we are working with the National Society's Ship Trust to see if such an activity cannot be designed from the very outset into the program of the big square rigger mzvertree at South Street Seaport Museum . Here, in the meantime, is a summary of what we are learning from the other ships .

The C. A. Thayer David Nettell , Environmental Education Technician of San Francisco's National Maritime Museum , has given us the background of the " Environmental Living Program" aboard the C. A. Thayer, a retired 156ft lumber schooner from 1895. This program is part of a larger scheme and educational philosophy which has SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1983

l


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-. numerous other organized activities on historic, prehistoric and cultural sites. These programs are overnight experiences for school-aged children . The emphasis is on achieving understanding through experiencing and doing. An important component of the program is the preparation of teachers through a series of workshops and visits before the actual event of the overnight visit. The group of25-35 children is also required to make at least one visit to the Hyde Street Pier before the event .

The Brig Pilgrim Mike Reeske, Program Director for the Orange County Marine Institute, has helped to develop the environmental living program aboard the brig Pilgrim , 87ft rep I ica of the vessel featured in Dana's Two >ears Before the Mast. The Pilgrim overnight program is a direct outgrowth of the environmental living program developed for the C. A. Thayer. As with the Thayer overnight , a great deal of emphasis is placed on preliminary training for visiting staff (group ¡leaders and teachers) . A useful publicaton "Ocean Adventures for Schools in the Field- 1983" is of particular interest because it shows how much can be done for school children under an interdisciplinary approach with the sea as a common element. In addition to the Pilgrim overnight , there are eight other programs ranging in time from one hour to three days and in age from fourth grade to high school and college.

The Ship Joseph Conrad Mystic Seaport has two separate educational programs which use the Conrad as sleeping quarters for the children and staff. Kathy Gill, Coordinator of Overnight Programs, works with two to four other staff in the supervision of20-50 children . One adult group leaader for every ten children must come with every school group. There are one and two night options ; but unlike the Thayer and Pilgrim overnights, a preevent visit is not required of the children. The Mariner Sail Training Program is much larger and more diverse than the Overnight Program and is directed by Constance Boehm. Constance deals with independent groups (rather than schools) of up to 50 trainees who sleep five nights on the Conrad and experience a rich variety of activities during the day. The emphasis is on small boat sailing but the daily routine varies from week to week to take advantage of Museum events . This is an ever-changing plan which helps to keep the program alive for the regular staff, four college-level assistant instructors. SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1983

7he Flying Cloud, noted for her beauty of line, racing down rare sunlit seas off Cape Horn. From the painting by Warren Shepherd.

Trimaran Beefeater Challenges the Flying Cloud's Record Run, New York-San Francisco Chay Blyth , an adventurous sailor who started a career of ocean feats by rowing across the Atlantic with a pal , is taking on the most famous of the American clippers in an attempt to beat the Flying Cloud's record-breaking run of 89 days 21 hours from New York to San Francisco in that annus mirabilis of American sailing, 1851the same year the America's Cup was first won by Commodore Steer's handsome schooner yacht in England. Beefeater's voyage is sponsored by Beefeater Gin , who also were instrumental in the donation of the Vicar of Bray, a surviving ship of the California Gold Rush, to the National Society to hold in trust for the American people. Beefeater departs on her voyage November JO from South Street Seaport Museum , under the lee of the fullrigger 11izvertree, which put back dis masted from her final attempt to round Cape Horn in 1910. The Flying Cloud of 1851 was built at the height of the sailing ship era as a supreme expression of the wood-and-hemp-andcanvas technology of her day. Her record of twice making the tough passage around Cape Horn from New York to San Francisco in under 90 days has never been broken by any sailing ship. Blyth's trimaran Beefeater in 1983 exploits the most advanced technology of our own day. Tiny compared with the Flying Cloud, the threehulled sailboat sets two sails where the Flying Cloud could set as many as 32- and just one of the Cloud's topsails would be larger than Beefeater's two sails together. The Flying Cloud was designed to carry as much sail as possible and slug it out with the fierce winds and mountainous waves she would encounter off Cape Horn.

Massive timbers and planking armored the ship for battle. Her backbone was over ten feet thick-solid New England oak! The Beefeater, by contrast , relies on light, strong fiberglass , reinforced with high-tensile steel, to make her way through the same savage conditions met by the Flying Cloud off Cape Horn . Beefeater's three slender hulls enable her to slip through the water with minimum opposition to the boat's passage. The Beefeater also relies on superior information gathering and processing to avoid damaging storms and exploit favorable conditions. Flying Cloud could determine where she was only by measuring the angle of the sun above the horizonwhich can't be done in heavy overcast or fog , common weather conditions off Cape Horn . Beefeater, however, can determine where she is with great precision , thanks to satellite position reports. Also by satellite, she can determine weather conditions ahead , whereas the Flying Cloud had to go in blind and slug it out with whatever hit her. But regardless of technology, both ships face the same brutal conditions, far from any harbor in the world's stormiest waters. Both depend in the final analysis on the determination, endurance and skill of skipper and crew- the human beings that have to drive the boat.

Length Width Depth Weight

Flying Cloud 1851 229ft 40.8ft 21.6ft :2,000 tons

Beefeater 1983 65ft 40ft !Oft 6.5 tons

35


The Barbara Johnson Whaling Collection: Part IV

Impmtant and rare American Painting: Ship Huntress Off the Cape of Good Hope by Frederic Stiles Jewett, signed and dated 1860, 35 x 59 inches.

Auction: Friday, December 16 at 2 pm and Saturday, December 17 at 10:15 am and 2 pm. Exhibition opens Saturday, December 10. This auction includes 19th and 20th century paintings, prints, rare whaling photographs, scrimshaw, folk art, whaling gear and whaleship equipment, manuscripts, logs, journals, Presidential papers, rare 17th and 18th century Dutch journals, manuscripts and tiles, Japanese and Chinese works of art, stamps, coins and a session of Eskimo whale-related material. Illustrated catalogu e available for $16. Order by sale no. 5130 and send your check to Sotheby's Subscriptions, Dept. A130AC, P.O. Box 4020, Woburn, MA 01801. A special reception and private viewing for the Benefit of the Mystic Seaport Museum will be held Wednesday, December 14 at Sotheby's. Inquiries: Karen Jones, (212) 472-3511. Sotheby Parke Bernet Inc., 1334 York Avenue at 72nd Street, New York, N.Y.10021.

SOTHEBY'S Founded 1744


COLLECTOR'S ALLEY The Barbara Johnson Whaling Collection II: "Because They Deserve This Respect" Being a whaling collector is not like being a collector of paintings, sculptures, stamps, or paperweights; it is more like being a collector of real life itself. Herman Melville referred to his ship as "my Yale and my Harvard ." My whaling collection has been my Yale and my Harvard . The objects I collected have been not only a vehicle of pleasure, but also of learning -and there was so much to learn! Much like Don Quixote, I became an explorer. I travelled all over the world on a small cramped ship smelling the ocean, the wind , the sun-an explorer, exploring new islands, poss ibly even the Antarctic -a cartographer, charting these islands -an-anthropologist , meeting the inhabitants and studying their customs-a polygot, trying to speak their languages, Spanish and Portugese, Hawaiian and thousands of dialects , but also enjoying the vernacular of my shipmates-a sociologist, living with my fellow whalemen on a ship and adapting to a lifestyle where men and their families were often separated for three or four years-a zoologist, observing incredible wildlife, especially the whale, whom I learned to love and eventually protect. These disciplines are only a fraction of my whaling education. There was navigation , meteorology, music, art, poetry, penmanship, religion , coopering, rigging, carpentering, sailmaking, caulking, shipbuilding, tool making, and even cooking. Like any whaling captain, I wore the hats of an ambassador, a lawyer, an accountant , an economist, a doctor, and even a hero. This preoccupation seems to be enough for any one collector, but there actually is so much more. There is the relationship with others, the most intense of which is the one with the dealers, because next to buying from the descendants themselves, these old time dealers knew where to find the real stuff. Moreover, they knew how to talk to the sometimes mistrusting descendants, and I depended on them to get the provenance which was so important to me. I would like to mention my first dealer and mentor. I think of him with great affection ; because of his appearance and eccentricities he was a piece of folk art himself. He called himself Captain Scrimshaw. He was a hotel clerk by night and a vacuum cleaner salesman by day. He went from house to house in Nantucket and often traded a vac uum cleaner for whal ing items . I will never forget the day when he pulled into my driveway in Princeton , and out of his car came the most unbelievable array of treasures in all sizes and shapes. I felt like a child in a cirSEA HIS1DRY, WINTER 1983

cus, watching an endless stream of clowns peel out of a small car. There are many unique people I encounter while collecting. He was the first , so I feel it is only fitting to mention him as part of my collection . There is always a new discovery to be made. Recently, for instance, a crimper that I had for several years suddenly revealed itself to me all anew. I noticed the even-spaced fluting on its wheel . This intrigued me and I next inspected the wheels on all my crimpers , and I saw that even the most primitive one has these very even spacings of each fold. It was a joy to P" ' them all next to each other, and I reflected how difficult it must have been to carve these wheels so evenly, knowing that the whalemen practiced their craft under adverse conditions such as choppy seas, frigid temperatures, and cramped quarters. The cooper of the ship Saratoga , William H . Chappel, wrote in his journal : " On April 21 in 1854 ... spent my time below at the lathe an uncomfortable job in this weather. .. of importance was to set up the stove in the cabin .. .while I continue to scrimshand ." He wrote this passage while in the Kamchatka Seas ...while he made a miniature showcase, one of the finest and most intricate pieces of scrimshaw I ever saw. Swifts with their exact staves, carefully turned bodkins, meticulously inlaid boxes and finely engraved teeth , all were executed under similar conditions. It was never easy. Now as the items leave me, I fear, probably like any other recent "college graduate,'' that the continuity of their history might be overshadowed by their concrete beauty and their apparent monetary value. The collection has grown to an enormous size and complexity and people borrow pieces for important shows in distinguished museums . Sometimes even very plain pieces get this honor and I am glad because they deserve this respect ... for having been made under great odds, for having travelled all over the world , for having fulfilled their function ... and for having survived. The objects will remain alive only ifthe new owners remember their origin and preserve the fragile connections which run from the men that created them , to the descendants who kept them , to the dealers like Captain Scrimshaw who found them , to the collectors who conserve and learn from them . These connections are the manifestation of the marvel of human endeavor, and they ex ist as continuing evidence of the worth of this endeavor. B ARBARA JOHNSON

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~ Above, samples of crimpers, or jagging wheels. Below, William Chappell'sivoryandmahogany picture "show case" of 1855 is accompanied by this note: 'it present to Ephraim Harding, master ofthe ship Saratoga ofNew Bedford, Mass. This will probably out-last the builder and present owner... .This miniature show case was designed and manufactured by the undersigned during a whaling voyage in the Northern Ocean and under many disadvantages; hence the charitable will overlook the imperfections. Wm. H. Chappell, Cooper."

Ms. Johnson, past president of the Museum of American Folk Art and vice chairman of the National Society, has reflected on her world-famous whaling collection in the catalogs published to accompany its auction. This essay is adapted from one of these catalogs (which are also becoming collectors' items!) and follows another offered in our last issue. Part of the collection will be on view at auction, December 16-17, at Sotheby Parke Bernet in New York.

37


''The Canoe is Our Garden'' A Report on the Project Sponsored by the National Society to Build and Sail a Traditional Tami Canoe by Terry Linehan, Expedition Leader Some time ago a member wrote rather wrathfully inquiring why we got mixed up with kids splashing about in canoes in the Pacific. Here, at last, is the answer-a report from the young Midwestern American, Terry Linehan, who organized, financed and led an expedition to help some islanders off the New Guinea coast recover fading tribal beliefs and traditions by building-and sailing!-the canoe which was the major achievement and focal point of their culture. "A man needs certain things to look after his family with," says Teophil Makili from the village of Malasiga. "He needs tools and knowledge; to work a garden and build a house. When the family is hungry for fish , he will use his tools and knowledge to build a canoe." For centuries the Tami islanders from Papua New Guinea built canoes; beautiful two-masted sailing canoes. They were used to trade for the one thing the Tamis needed mostfood . The Tami Islands are a group of four low-lying coral islets just eight miles off the eastern tip of the Hu on Gulf. Their small garden plots have always been an inadequate means of sustaining the population. "The canoe is our garden," the Tamis say, and until the 1930s when the Australian government gave the Tamis land on the mainland to settle and farm, the canoe really was their garden ... their mother, father, and mountain . They used it to trade their famous carved bowls, sleeping mats , baskets, and cocoanuts to distant Siassi, Morobe, and Bukawa. The construction of canoes declined dramatically after World War II . The last great sailing canoe or "uang saliu" Anzanec was completed in 1968. Only six elder craftsmen remained and it appeared that the art was dead and the culture finished.

That was the situation when I first visited the Tami Island mainland settlement ofMalasiga or "big place" in 1979. The outboard motor had replaced pandanas sail and the folding kina the need for barter. "But could they still build the old canoes?" I asked myself. With an understanding of the local language I approached the villagers about building a new canoe. "We need support," they said, " but we will try." Thus I found myself raising funds and staff for three years prior to commencement of the undertaking- to build and sail a new canoe! With an international team of six from the US, Australia, and England , plus backing from explorers clubs, societies, commerce and individuals from four countries, we were back in Malasiga late in 1982 for the Tami Canoe Voyage. The project recorded intricate construction methods for the first time and helped revive the canoe culture by passing on the-techniques from the old to the young. A sail training program was also organized to instruct young sailors, most of whom had neer been aboard one of their canoes. The canoe began to take shape after the New Year and by the end of January 1983, the two ends of the canoe called " poret" had been carved with the traditional pig, crocodile, fish , bird , snake and "tambaran" or dead spirit motifs. The planks were secured with bush rope lashings, and caulked with the inner bark of a tree called "ngim." What once were trees and vines in the jungle became a canoe. "I must tell you why I cry," said the old man Maliaki as we viewed the shapely lines of the completed hull. " I cry because all week long I have been showing the young men how to lash the canoe. Before they didn't know, but now they do. As we lie down tonight, we will hear noises coming from the canoe house. We

Th e Tami canoe is sailed with the outrigger always to windward and is tacked end for end, each porer being both bow and stern.

TERRY LINEHAN


"It appeared that the art was dead and the culture finished." TERRY LI NEHAN

JAMES HOWARD

Martin Kataka , one of six elders with canoe building knowledge, paints a plank on the canoe Tami Island. Below, Peter carves th e "porer" of the canoe.

believe the spirits of our fathers and their fathers are feeling the canoe to see if we have done a good job. I remember when I was a young boy learning how to build canoes from the old men . Now I see all the faces of my ancestors, so I cry." The village had reason for tears during this time, as two of the last remaining canoe builders died during a two week period . Sem Doalau had led the construction during our three year absence, and Silas Gwape was the famed builder of Anzanec. With the passing of these two master craftsmen, the need for more skilled canoe carpenters became very apparent. Recording the construction was also essential. Spider Anderson, a round-the-world sailor and artist from Australia was with us to draw each step of the construction and provide valuable artworks for the villagers and ourselves . His drawings, along with photos and descriptions will be used as an educational "workbook" for future use in the islands. "When a new canoe is launched ." said Reuben Sickawa, the oldest Tami Islander, "it is a time to be happy and sad. We think of our ancestors who have died in canoes and we cry." Thus, when the new 43 ' uang saliu appropriately named Tami Island was launched on April 8, 1983, the Tamis laughed and cried. This was the first large sailing canoe ever built in the 50 year histo ry of Malasiga. It was the first built as a community project, and the first to carry the markings from many families. After the emotional launching, traditional singing and dancing continued as the canoe made historical voyages to Tami Island, Dregerhafen, and Tamigidu along the southern shores of the Huon Gulf. The local sailing reminded the Tamis of the days when they traded freely among the warring mainland tribes and sailed great distances to continue trade relationships. Our sail training program began during the final weeks of construction and was led by Lt. Col. Frank Esson , a helicopter and SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1983

sail training specialist from the British Army Air Corps. Lt. Col . Esson stressed the need for the Tamis to be familiar with coastal navigation techniques including compass and chart reading. Traditionally the Tamis followed three stars at night to find their way back to the islands and these methods were also taught by the older Tami sailors. 'We also used stars to tell us the bad time for sailing," said Teophil. These stars, (the last three in the handle of the "big dipper"), form a bird called " mbwang." When one of the stars goes below the horizon the Tamis know the bad season is near because, "one wing of the bird is in the water flapping up a big sea." Thus, old ways mixed with new, and the culture adapted to modem times. The canoe was built entirely from traditional materials down to lashings and caulking. The great Tami Island canoe was also sailed in the traditional manner. It is sailed with the outrigger balance always to windward and therefore is classified as a "shunting" canoe. It is not tacked bow into the wind , but rather end for end , each poret being both bow and stern. The "V" shaped masts are also unique to the area as are the great square sails called " lak." Another feature of the canoe is that it is never paddled like the smaller canoes, but rather, large rowing oars called "goleng" are lashed to the canoe and it is rowed in times of no wind or when going upwind along a reef. The success of this cultural expedition became apparent as six new smaller canoes went under construction during our six month stay in the village. New sailors were trained and the art and culture has a chance for survival as never before. Although the outboard motor has found its place in developing countries, the quickest way to Tami Island is still by the fast, sleek uang saliu. "We built this canoe with the help of God, our government, and from overseas." said elder Sem Reuben in a launching prayer. "It is the greatest thing we have ever done." .i, 39


SHIP NffiES, SEAPORT & MUSEUM NEWS

19th Century American Marine Painters Anists availnble: Antonia Jacobsen Granville Perkins Reynolds Beal William Bin:hall Walter Lansil Franklin Briscoe W. P. Srubbs Edward Moran Unsigned ship portrailS of the battleships Maine and Texas. Partial list.

HANOVER SQUARE GALLERY 3 Hanover Square, New York , NY 10004 Tel : (212) 344-4406 H.ours: Mon .- Fri . 11:00am-5:00pm

On October 28 HM Queen Elizabeth will present the World Ship Trust Award to Prince Charles, in recognition of hi s leadership in the most remarkable ship save of our time, the Mary Rose. The ship herself was opened to the public earlier in October at Portsmouth , alongside Nelson's Victory. Two important publications are expected to be issued under World Ship Trust imprimatur next year, Erik Abranson's majestic work on historic ships preserved , entitled Cathedrals ofthe Sea, a nd Norman Brouwer's newl y completed Historic Ships Register. The role of the Trust in upholding high standards and encouraging more widespread understanding a nd support of the world 's seafaring heritage as embodied in its ships, is clearly adumbrated in these publications which will both be standards in their field ... a fie ld which seems to grow ever more popular but not always more wise.

John B. Comstock & Co. Museum grade ship model building and repairing. Also display cases & tables.

OUR ALL NEW 1983 CATALOG IS HERE! SIGN ABOARD . CATALOG/ADVIS ORY S ERV ICE NEWS LETIE R-$6.00 POST PAID $7.0 0 O UTSIDE USA

THE DROMEDARY SHIP MODELER 'S CENTER 5324 Belto n Drive El Paso, Texas 79912 (915) 584-2445 VISA and MuterCard acce pted

40

As noted on page 28, the H udson River Maritime Center has acquired its first major hi storic vessel , the steam tug Mathilda . Two other vessels operate out of the Center in summer months: the William 0. Benson, a former steam launch now gaso line powered, built in 1915, and the 30ft electric steam launch Diana E. Banks of 1898. Alan Bendelius, owner of the Diana , is the new president of the Center, succeeding Arthur Adams. A first-class newsletter, Foscs'le News is mail ed to Center members. HRMC, One Ro ndout Landing, Kingston NY 12401. Rudo lph 1. Schaefer ill was elected president of Mystic Seaport Museum at its annual meeting on October I. He succeeds Clifford Mallory Jr. , who becomes chairman after eight years at the helm as president. Also at Mystic, the 1841 whal ing bark Charles W Morgan has received 48

6 Book Hill Woods, Essex CT 0642 6 Telephone: 203-767-2288

We are speci al ist su ppliers for a ll aspects of the m od~I boating sce ne . (Not cars, trains , planes.) We can start you off with bas ic kits or provide you with plans and materia ls. Our range also covers working or static models, and we carry an extensive selection of fittings for all types of ships and boats.

The National Society also sponsored , on October 19, with the City of New York and Snug Harbor Cultural Center, a conference called "A Use of R ich es." Held at Snug H a r bor, th is effort was devoted to seeking out balanced and complementary co mme rcial , ind ustrial and cultural development of the waterways and waterfronts of New York Harbor. Proceedings of the conference will be available in a month or two, cost $10.

The Fifth Annual American Ship Trust Award was presented to the bark Elissa by Peter Stanford , President of the National Society and Chairman of the Ship Tru st , at informal-nay, breezy-outdoor ceremonies o n the Houston waterfront on the evening of October 18. A second award was made to that special bunch of dedicated and by now quite skillful souls, the Elissa Volunteers, who maintain and sail the ship (see SH 26). A special commemorative issue of SEA HISlURY was printed for the occasion , combining articles in past issues o n the restoration. Copies of thi s may be had in return for a contribution of$10 or more made to the Galveston Historical Foundation , PO Drawer 539, Galveston TX 77553. Elissa will celebrate her 106th birthday off the shores of Galveston October 27-at sea under sai l! " This birthday celebration mea ns more to Elissa and her c rew than just one more candle on the cake,'' says Project Director David Brink . " It is a n opportunity to show the world she can sail again , that the fine work ofone of the leading shipbuilders of her day has stood the test ofome." The Elissa restoration is the work of a gang now formed up as W hite E le pha nt Managem ent, an outfit prepared to take on the challenges of historic ships in a positive way, dealing with problems from fundraising to locating sources of rare materials-and rare skills! The Elephant is now at work on the battleship Texas at San Jacinto National Monument , doing some interpretive signage. We plan to take up the history of this remarkable survivor of the Dreadnought era, and would like to hear from battleship veterans about shipboard drill , in everything from maintaining the engines to running the galley. We hope to see an oral history project evolve, and this testimony could be vital to its success. Write NMHS, 132 Maple Street, Croton-on-Hudson NY 10520.

huge 4.5ft diameter casks originally made of Tennessee oak fo r agi ng sherry in Spain, a nd later shipped to Scotland for ag ing whisky. They will be tilled with seawater (ugh) and used to ballast the ship when she returns to her native element at the end of October. And fi nall y, at Mystic, an active Christmas season program is planned . Your editor and his family like visiting Mystic in the snow, and so will you: so don't argue, just go. Museum , Mystic CT 06355.

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A team led by veteran diver and author Clive Cussler believes it has found the sunken wreck of the fast steamer Lexington, owned by CommodoJre Vanderbilt , which burned and sank near Port J<efferson in Long Island Sound on the night ofJantuary 13, 1840. All but four of the ISO people ab)Qard were lost.

SEA HIS1DRY, WINTER 1983

8


WHITE ELEPHANT MANAGEMENT Caretakers of Maritime History The white elephant of Hindu tradition was given to a prince by a rival head of state. Impossible to refuse, the sacred elephant was received with veneration and trepidation alike, for the care and adornment of such an animal was no small drain on the state budget. Stewardship of an historic vessel is also both an honor and a challenging responsibility. If it is not to become an impossible burden on its owner, it must be carefully managed. That is what we do. THE RESTORATION OF SHIPS is an aggregation of many skills , both traditional and technical. Some are readily available and some nearly forgotten. White Elephant is a management core with a network of contacts developed over the years among people involved in maritime preservation. W e can research and design for restoration , provide on-site supervision of the work, owners' representation for shipyard jobs , and experienced craftspeople on a contract basis for jobs requiring traditional skills. We can get the job done in a style which does credit to the builders whose work we preserve. PLANNING, in the long and short term , with accurate budgets , and specified intermediate objectives, is the key to successful restoration. The White Elephant administrative staff is well exp erienced both in the nitty-gritty realities of the modern marine-service industry , and the problems of cash flow and credibility peculiar to private non-profit organizations. We offer consultation , from initial evaluation of objectives and options, through detailed surveys , production p lanning and hard estimates of costs. FUNDRAISING expertise of the White Elephant team has been responsible for millions of dollars in foundation , corporate, governmental and private support to maritime projec ts. Never more than today have Americans been willing to Well-conceived and well-planned lea rn from the past. undertakings on our field can receive the funds they need . We can help. PUBLIC RELATIONS, when purposeful and planned, is more than a timely press release . It must function as an in tegral part of fundraising , establishing the indentity , goals and credibility of a project to its community. It presents the project as process as well as product, and as such can further its educational goals.

INTERPRETATION: No ship stands mute -- she has much to say of craftsmanship and courage, commerce and conflict; of Nature's wild waters and those who spend their lives upon them . But to make her message accessible to most of her visitors requires an appropriate " interpretation" pro . gram. White Elephant has the experience in research , writing, graphic techniques , audio-visual media and film to make history live . MAINTENANCE: Even after a sound initial restoration , a ship on the water requires constant care and renewal. It must have both daily maintenance and periodic attention from a variety of craftspeople . White Elephant can design and manage cyclical maintenance as well as day-to -day upkeep. We can undertake total maintenance on contract, or advise and train your own staff. MANAGEMENT, finally is what we are about. In restoration , from a dory to a battleship; in events, from a shipboard wedding to a gathering of tall ships; in program, from operating a hundred -year-old schooner as a passenger vessel for hire to crew training and the thousand details needed to sail a square-rigger : White Elephant represents the sound management approach which can see the job through . DOES ANY OF THIS APPLY TO YOUR PROJECT? If so , please contact us . We would enjoy discussing the possibilities .

2104 Strand, P .O. Box 1049, Galveston, Texas 77553

(713) 762-8555

WHITE ELEPHANT MANAGEMENT


SHIP NafES, SEAPORT & MUSEUM NEWS j

The44ft gaff topsai l schooner Gallant, designed by the late Pete Cu ll er, has been acquired by the Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum. She' ll be used in sail training beginning next summer, add ing an activist educational element to thi s museum's varied a nd ex panding programs. She is the gift of Pennsylvania State Senator Richard A . Tilghman. Museum , St. Michaels MD 21663. "Another g reat one gone," notes our Boston correspondent Captai n Al Swanson of the passing of the master hi storian of the Gloucester fi shing fleet , Gordon W. T hom as. Authorofthe book Fast and Able, Thomas was a widely recogniz.ed authority in hi s field , and a marine park in G loucester was named in his honor after his death in September at age 76. Son of a shipbuilding fam ily, Thomas was forb idden to go to sea a nd ran fish markets instead. He was at sea at age 70 in the schooner Adventure, built by his futher, and schooner's skipper Jim Sharp recalls: " We had wind that day. It was the first time Gordon had been at the wheel of a saili ng vessel since the tria ls of the schooner Puritan [in the 1930s] ... . His eyes were shining. Even in the rain , he stayed at the wheel about three hours." The 1985 National Marine Education Association annual conference will be he ld at The Col lege of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia o n July 28- August 3. Conference coordinatio n is prov ided by the Virginia Sea Grant Program at VIMS, CoLlegeofWi lliam and Mary, and the Mid-Atlantic Marine Education Association. Coll ege, Gloucester Point VA 23062.

Th e Edmonds, Washington water/ront about 1910, when theciry dock , shingle mills, a lumber yard and a box factory dominared rhe scene, is rh e subjecr of a new diorama ar the Edmonds Hisrorical Museum. Th e exhibir includes a working model shingle mill builr ro !4 in scale, wirh saws rhar buzz, a mill whisrle rhar blows and shingle machines operared by tiny ca rved figures. In rh e engine room rhe boilerisfired up and rhe sream engine runs-all acrivared by a ren cent coin drop ! The proj ecr, conceived and designed by Douglas Egan , museum maritime curaror, was funded by a marching granr from the Na tional Trusr and built by the Swamp Creek & Western Railroad Model group, who are building a model

railroad in the Edmonds Amtrack starion. The mill model was built by Boyd Satterlee, a retired machinist and model maker, now deceased. Th e Edmonds Museum, which celebrated its 10th anniversary on August 6, displays historical artifa cts relating to the area. The Marine Room, a popular allraction , is filled with paintings, ph otog raphs, na vigating instruments and models relaring to Puget Sound maritime hisrory. 771 e museum building , a former Carnegie library erected in 1910 and listed on the Narional Register, is owned by the ciry and operated by th e Edmonds-Sou th Snohomish County HistoricalSociery. Museum , 1185thAve. N , Edmonds WA 98020.

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Gathered to dedicate the crews deckhouse:from the left, Jakob lsbrandtsen, Richard I. Morris , Rev. James Whittemore. Photo, Bob Atkinson.

Wavertree to Windward A Trafalgar Day celebration was held on October 21 by the National Society aboard the Wavertree, Cape Horn square rigger undergoing restoration at South Street Seaport Museum on downtown New York's East River waterfront. This was also a celebration of the life of Allen S. Rupley, cochairman with Jakob Isbrandtsen of the Society's Friends ofWavertree Committee. Allen who died earlier this year, was remembered by his longtime friend Richard I. Morris, President of the Grace Foundation, who brought greetings also from J. Peter Grace, Chairman of W. R. Grace & Co. who wrote the memoir " Remember ing Rup" appearing in SH 29. Jakob Isbrandtsen said that as Allen worked his way up from the forecastle in W. R. Grace, it was fitting that the new crew's deckhouse aboard the ship be dedicated to him. And accordingly, this was done by Rev. James Whittemore, director of Seamen's Church Institute a nd a notable deepwater sailor himself. The first rivets in the new steel were then punched ho me. On Saturday afternoon , December IO, the ship will celebrate her 98th birthday. The National Society will present her with a builder's plate, as shown below, and friends and supporters will be on hand to wet it down suitably.

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BOOKS The Hudson Through the Years, by Ar-

HISTORYm PHOTOGRAPHS by Jeffrey Simpson I

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The Hudson River: 1850-1918 A Photographic Portrait " He re is a piece o f gen uine Americana .. An <:nd uring effo rt, The H udso n River : 1850- 19 18 wi ll m ake an ideal boo k fo r lovers o f picLO ri al histo r y." - United Press I ntern a t i o nal 208 pa ges , 150 B & \XI p h o t og r ap h s, <: lo th bo und , S29.9 5

Officers And Gentlemen Historic West Point in Photographs In 200 pho tographs and i ll ust ra t io ns, Offi· ce rs and Gen tlem en c h ron ic les the gr o wt h o f t he acad em y and the ex p lo its of its grad ual<:S fro m Wes t Po int's fo u nd in g in 180 2 unti l W o rl d War I hero D o ugl as ~ l acA rthur b eca m e supe rintend e n t in 19 19 . 224 p ages , 20 0 B&W pho t og r aphs, c lo thbo und, 2 4.9 5

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thu r G. Adams (Lind Publications, Westwood NJ, 1983, 334pp, illus, $18.95) . In this engrossing work, Arthur G. Adams has given us another readable and comprehensive contribution to the history of the Hudson River. Together with his previous works, The Hudson, A Guidebook to the River and the Hudson River in Literature, Adams's most recent effort goes to make up a valuable small reference shelf of material on the Hudson Ri ver. The author's well established and longstanding acquaintance with the river, and part icularl y its now-vanished steamboats, is brought out in a fasc inating personal memoir and appreciation which opens the work . The book is detailed and well organized and should be of interest to every Hudson River enthusiast-as well as giving an authoritative introduction to those who seek a better understanding of the ri ver's mighty contributions to our national story. The wo rk is handsomely produced and is heavily illustrated with maps and photographs. Its reference value is enhanced by generous appendi xes and extensive index . Certainly one of the most histo ric and scenic ri vers in the country, the Hudson River has suffered from a period of neglect. However, interest in the Hudson appears to have been increasing in recent yea rs. Sustai ned efforts by organized groups in the Hudson River Valley such as Scenic Hudson Preservation Conference, the Hudson River Maritime Center, Sleepy Hollow Restorations, Boscobel Restoraton, and the Hudson River Valley Association have created a public awareness of one of our great natu ral resources. A cooperative spirit prevails among these organizations. Sleepy Hollow was a constituent member of the committee which the National Maritime Historical Society set up to establish the Hudson River Maritime Center, and the decision to locate the center in Kingston was taken at a meeting in Sleepy Hollow's orientation center at Ph ilipsburg Mano r, as Pete r Stanford recently reminded me. Mr. Adams served as founding president of the new organization . Next year will mark the 375th Anni versary of Henry Hudson's famous sail up the lordly ri ver which bears his name. The event should help continue interest in the Hudson Ri ver Valley and readers can reacquaint themselves with the area through books like The Hudson Through the ~a rs.

Mr. Procario is director of Publications for Sleepy Hollow Restorations of Tarrytown , a principal focus of historic learning and restoration in the Hudson Valley.

The Big Ship: The Story of the S.S. United States. by Frank 0. Braynard (The Mari ne rs' Museum , Newport News VA , 1981, 283 pp, illus, $25) . The greatest merchant ship built in the United States, and arguably the queen of the regal race of North Atlantic superliners, the SS United States of 1952 came forward in the twilight of ocean liners (they are all gone, today, except the QE2, a supetliner turned cruise ship), and made a spectacular 17-year career against odds. She took a good half century to evolve into her 990-foot shape in the mind of her designer William Francis Gibbs, and the story of he r evolution is the story of the great days of he r breed . And of course-she was the fastest. Not just by a little bit , but incomparabl y so, steaming at speeds over 38 knots, faste r than any cruiser or destroyer, faste r than any other liner by a staggering margin . Her average speeds in her ocean crossings exceeded the top speed of any me rchant ship afl oat. In Frank Bray nard, the United States was lucky: she fo und her ideal chronicler. Bray nard is the outstanding liner historian, and was acti vely involved in the press debates that helped shape merchant marine policy after World War II . He played a key ro le in having our first nuclear-powered merchantman named Sa vannah , afte r the firs t steamer to cross the Atlantic. He wrote a book about that fi rst Sa vannah , and has published several volumes of a giant biography of the liner Leviathan ex- Vaterland, which Gibbs used as a mental stal king horse fo r the super ship he ultimately launched in the United States. Braynard is al so the maes tro of Operation Sail- 76, and of other occasions that bring Americans to the ir waterfronts, his current venture being a monster parade of ships to celebrate the New Orleans World\ Fair next year, and to honor the heritage of the rivers of America. In short , a great ship, shaped by the whole history of ocean liners, has fo und her proper historian here. PS THE BOOK LOCKER In our last we ruefull y acknowledged that we had fa llen behind in reviewing books. We th ink it impo rtant to cover the range of books that come cascading down upon us, a range that makes it all the more important to seek out excellence. So, while we certainly intend to return to our practice of at least a few reviews in some depth , let us here resume our catchup efforts. This fall saw publication of two books of special interest to yachtsmen, but so obviously classic in scope and quality that they m ay be said to belong in any well rounded maritime library. T he books are first, Elbert S. Maloney's new edition of SEA HISlDRY, WINTER 1983


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The handsome steam packet Martha's Yineyacd leaving Port Jefferson, Long Island Sound.

SEA HISTORY PRINTS

by WILLIAM G. MULLER Celebrating the IOOth anniversary of the Bridgeport-Port Jefferson Steamboat Company, the distinguished marine artist William G. Muller has painted superb portraits of the old river steamboat Grand Republic and the soon-to-be retired propeller Martha's Vineyard. A limited supply of fine prints of these works has been made available, signed by the artist, to support the work of the National Society in saving America's maritime heritage. An illustrated history of the Bridgeport-Port Jefferson Steamboat Company is also offered.

SEA HISlDRY, WINTER 1983

711 e sidewheel excursion steamer Grand Republic in the Hudson Highlands.

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Charles F. Chapman's Piloting, Seamanship and Small Boat Handling (Motor Boating & Sailing, New York, 1983, 623pp, illus, $23. 95), a marvellously comprehensive, seasoned and lucidly presented g uide that tells you how to back off a downwind pier, how to lie to two anchors without their getting tangled , how to read navigation lights, and how to do many other things that people who splash about in river and coastal waters quite a bit , often don 't know how to do. Things are put fo rward in an engaging manner in this latest , full-blooded revision of Chapman's original work of 1922; you can actually read through the book o n winter evenings, after you've scurried privately to the sections that answer questions you had worried about for years. The other classic is new, but wi ll earn its sobriquet immediately : this is John G. Alden and His Yacht Designs (International Marine Publishing, Camden ME , 1983, 445pp, illus, $55 through December, $65 thereafter) , a monumental work undertaken by the late Robert W. Carrick and completed by Richard Henderso n. Alden's career ran from the early 1900s to 1955, e ncompass ing the whole development of modern ocean racing, in which for over a decade after World War I his schooners , epitomized in the famous Malabar series, really dominated the fie ld . This production is worthy of a great seaman and designer, and because of Alden's stature it provides an illuminating history of yachting developments, events and personalities. The level of excellence and indeed excitement in this work is indicated by the fact that Olin Stephens, who nea rl y went to work in Alden's shop, but went on to become his successor as independent designer of the world 's fastest yachts, writes a warmly appreciative preface to the book. · One al ways wonders how far one should go with private know ledge in assess ing published work . One of the great Alden schooners was built Down Easter style in Soule's famous yard in South Freeport , Maine, in 1925. I owned her-if one may be said to "own" such a creation , a schooner which modern draggermen came in from the horizon's edge to exam ine, so visi bl y did she embody everything true and noble in the Gloucester tradition . I had to give her up, following Karl Kortum's dictum which I did not believe when it was uttered but later learned to: " You can't run this beautiful thing and a museum too." It is not this vessel that is illustrated here, but her trivialized , "yachty " replacement. And while the museum in question later

SEA HISlDRY, WINTER 1983


saved the Lettie G. Howard, perhaps giving rise to some natural confusion , it's not the Howard's model Alden worked from, but her predecessor Lottie S. Haskins. I will await word from wiser heads as to whether errors of this kind exist elsewhere in the work. I doubt it. I think the young author was plain unlucky to have mistaken the identity of a boat once owned by his reviewer! Down on TWharf, by Andrew W. German , a photographic record of the noble schooners, the swarming inshore fishing craft and thriving harbor life of Boston's famous T Wharf in the first quarter of the century is highly evocative stuff, supported by a dense-woven accompanying text which gets you in amongst ships and people, so you get to know what happened to a vessel before she sailed into the picture, and what happened after (Mystic Seaport Museum, Mystic CT 06355, 1982 , 156pp, illus, $24). Another great bunch of pictures that give a true feel for the heft and hustle of working ships and people is Bernard Kilian's The Voyage of the Schooner Polar Bear: Whaling and Trading in the North Pacific and Arctic 1913-1914 (New Bedford Whaling Museum, MA 02740, 1983, 106pp, illus, $25). Based on the photos and journals of a fortunately articulate young man, the book takes you out with sailing ships among icy wastes, following a way of life eons removed from our ways. The Mystic and New Bedford museums are to be congratulated for producing these works of the first quality, in which high scholarship brings an extra dimension of understanding to the photographic record. Teredo Publications have brought forth another of their splendidly produced efforts, Damned by Destiny, by David L. Williams and Richard P. De Kerbrech (Teredo, Brighton, UK, 1982, 350pp, illus, £19.80)-a history of ocean liners planned but never built, or built but never entered into their intended service. This tale of might-have-beens sheds light on the thinking behind the ships that did happen, and on imaginative unrealized concepts in an always-fascinating field. An engrossing , well illustrated history of a fabled liner that was completed , lived out an adventurous and often-imperilled life and survives today is Steve Harding's Gray Ghost: The RMS Queen Mary at War (Missoula MO, Pictorial Histories , 1982, 84pp, pbk $8.95) . On a humbler, is Bob Whittier's entrancingly illustrated Paddle Wheel Steamers and their Giant Engines (Seamaster Boats, PO T, Duxbury MA 02331, 1983, pbk, 48pp, $8.70 ppd)-an exploration of the vanished world of steamboating. SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1983

Speaking of books that exploit the evocative power of photographs to some purpose, let me reach back to Peter Elliott's The Cross and the Ensign: A Naval History of Malta, 1798-1979 (Naval Institute Press, Annapolis MD 21402, 1980, 217pp, $16.95), which , recounting the whole modern history of the island of Malta, focuses in visually on the stream of great ships that came to this hot spot of Mediterranean conflict. There are grand portraits of the ships of the two world wars of this century, in the second of which Malta played an heroic and indeed pivotal role, sending out from under siege the submarines and aircraft that hobbled Rommel's panzerkampfwagen across the way in Africa. But this is only one of a rich array of books issued by the Naval Institute of late: write them for a catalog! All history is local at root, and I must make note of three important books in this fast-growing genre : Douglas Egan's Ship-Benjamin Sewall, a portrait of a famous Down Easter and her people, which includes such inimitible lines as this , in a phone call from Captain Arthur Sewall: "Douglas, the ship Tusitala is in port and I am going out to see my old friend Captain Barker. ...Come along with me!" (Ye Galleon Press, Fairfield WA , 1983, 145pp, illus , $14.50) . Further in this genre let me note the beautifully produced Schooner from Windward: Two Centuries of Hawaiian Interisland Shipping, by Mifflin Thomas (University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu , Hawaii 96822, 1983, 238pp, illus, $21.95) which unfolds a panoramic story from canoes through brigs to jetfoils-richly illustrated and full of the details of business dealings of another day. Who wouldn't want to step back on the decks of one of those lovely little schooners, and set out for a surf-washed island down the chain? For a kind oflocal history that spans the ocean world, do get hold of Rear Admiral Daniel P. Mannix 3rd, The Old Navy (Macmillan, New York, 1983, 294pp, illus, $16.95) . This lively memoir traces a naval life from China in the 1880s through the Spanish-American War, down to the troubled Hellespont in the 1920s. David Mannix 4th, a sensitive editor of his father's wonderfully colorful writing, notes : "Father was always ready to die for America but he disliked living here." Our next issue will be heavily naval in this era , and this will ·make good background reading . We have got to get more pages for a bigger "Books" section . I am horrified at the excellent titles, the good friends left out in the cold.... PS

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BYE B YE BIRDIE J AMES R . CADY

THOMAS ] . GOCHBE RG JAM ES E. GOLDEN PRODUCTIONS

BOYD W . CAFFEY

PETER GOLDSTEIN

HARRIET CAMPBELL, INC. 0. CAREY MRS . JOSEPH R. CARTER HAROLD ] . CASEY

CARL GOOD R . A. GRANT JIM GRAY

CENTRAL GULF LINES

C. A. CHAPIN JAMES E . CHAPMAN R. CHAR.MAN

DR. ROBERT W. GREENLEAF ROBERT H. GREGORY HENRY F . GREINER R OLAND D. GRIMM

CAPT. & MRS. FREDERJCK GUILD

ALBE RT C. CIZAUSKAS, JR .

LCDR EMIL GUSTAFSON WALTER A. H AGSTROM CHARLES W . HALL M ORTIM ER HALL

DAVID CLAR.KE GEORGE F. CLEMENTS ARTHUR CLEVELAND

CDR. W. H . HAMILTON S. HANSEN-BURBANK CO., LTD. CAPT. ROBERT HART USN {RET.)

F. S. COLLINS ]. FERRELL COLTON

CHRISTOPHER HEG

CONSOLIDATED EDI SON Co., lNC. TREVOR CONSTABLE L. CDR. MICHAEL CORDASCO

H ELLENIC LI NES LIMITED THOMAS HENRY W.R. HERVEY HERBERT H EWITI CARL W . HEXAMER A. E. HEYDENREICH JUDSON HIGGINS

CAPT. GLEN R. CHEEK, USN {RET.) ALAN G. C HOATE C IRCLE LINE

HENRY A. CORREA RICHARD C. CORRELL

]AM ES COSTELLO JOHN C. COUCH ]AMES W. COULTER

CAPT. ]AMES E. H EG

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PETER MANIGAULT ANTHONY MARQUES ELISABETH M. MARTELL

THOMAS F. MA SON ROBERT MASTROGIOVANN! PETER MAX

JOHN G. M CCARTHY JEROME M CG LYNN RAYMOND T. MCKAY R. M . M CINTOS H E.F. MCSWEENEY III ROBERT MCVITIIE

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MONOMY FUND M ONTAN TRANSPORT (USA) INC. C.S. MORGAN CHARLES MORGAN ]. R. MORRISSEY ANGUS C . M ORRISON MR. & MRS. EM IL MOSBACHER , JR. FRANK MOSCATI , lNC . RICHARD MOSES MYERS & G RI NER/CUESTA MYSTIC WHALER NANTUCKET SHIPYARD

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NEW YORK TELEP HONE CO .

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COMPANY JOHN CURRY CU'ITY SARK SCOTS WHISKY

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ROBERT A. N ICHOLS JOHN NOBLE DAVID]. NOLAN CAPT. WM .]. NOONAN ]. A. NORTON

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J OHN & CAROL EWA LD

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R . A. BOWLING ] . W . BOYLE

MISS HAzEL ANN Fox

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MARBURY B . Fox

MR . & MRS. T. E. LEONARD

CAPTAIN ROBERT G. BRAUN FREDERICK BREWSTER

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8LOOMINGDALES

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DAVID PARTRJDGE PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL.SHIP

HAVEN C. ROOSEVELT

JEFF BLINN

EDNA & ISAAC STERN FDTN. W. T. STEVENS ]. T . STILLMAN

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EYEVIEW FILMS

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RICHARD K. PAGE

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DAVID W . SIMM ONDS

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J OYCE SC HOBRJCH JOSH UA M . SCHWARTZ

MALCOLM WILSON

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HENRY A. YOUMANS ANNE YOUNG

DAVID F. RYAN

M. J . RYAN

ST. ] OE MINERALS


District 2 Marine Engineers Beneficial Association , Associated Maritime Officers ,\f

JO 650 Fourth Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11232 (212) 965-6700

Raymond T. McKay President

John F. Brady Executive Vice President


A rea l workhorse of a ship, the CS Long Lines neverthe less makes a beautiful sight as she cruises serenely off the cost of Hawaii against the backdrop of the Ho nolulu skyli ne an d Diamond Head peak.

,..,

This Is MM&P Country Cable Ship Long Lines, a unique cable-laying vessel operated by the Transoceanic Cable Ship Company and manned by MM&P officers, ranges the oceans around the world laying sophisticated cable that is able to transmit 4 ,000 simultaneous conversations- more than four times the capacity of the older syste m. Calling upon their considerable skills, the officers aboard CS Long Lines are capable of guiding the ship via a satellite navigational system through receiving equipment able to interrogate the system of transit satellites orbited for purposes of navigation. Thus, the ship can avail itself of the last word in navigatio nal aids no matter where it is. And no matter where the ship is, it is truly in MM&P Country.

ROBERT J. LOWEN International President

LLOYD M. MARTIN

ALLEN C. SCOTT

International Secretary-Treasurer

International Executive Vice President

International Organization of

Masters, Mates & Pilots 39 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10006/(212) 425-3860/Cable: BRIDGEDECK/Telex No.: 12-5858

Sea History 030 - Winter 1983-1984  

7 IN CLIO'S CAUSE: A CALL TO ACCOUNTABILITY, James D. Watkins • 8 WHAT'S IN A NAME: HOW WARSHIPS GET THEIR NAMES R.E. Shrubb and Eric J. Ber...

Sea History 030 - Winter 1983-1984  

7 IN CLIO'S CAUSE: A CALL TO ACCOUNTABILITY, James D. Watkins • 8 WHAT'S IN A NAME: HOW WARSHIPS GET THEIR NAMES R.E. Shrubb and Eric J. Ber...