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86 PROOF BLENDED SCOTCH WHISKY OISTlllrDA NO BO TH[Q !N SCOTLAND IMPORTED BY THE BUCKINGHAM CORPORATION. N[W YORK, NY

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HERE'S TO GUT FEELINGS AND THOSE TILL FOLLOW THEM. Ted Turner does lots of things people advise him not to do. And he succeeds at them. He turned Atlanta's WTBS-TV into a "Superstation" using a communications satellite and recently founded Cable News Network, the world's first 24-hour TV-news network. He bought the Atlanta Braves and moved them out of last place; won the 1977 America's Cup after being fired in the '74 races; and as named "Yachtsman of he Year" four times. Ted Turner puts his feelings where his mouth is. He also puts a great scotch there: atty Sark. And ~hiie he's been called Capta1iyOutrageous by some, one thing's sure: Ted Turner's enjoying himself.

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No . 24

SEA HISTORY OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE WORLD SHIP TRUST

ISSN 0 146-93 12

SUMMER 1982

SEA HISTORY is the journal of the National Maritime Historical Society, an educational, tax-exempt membership organization devoted to furthering the understanding of our maritime heritage. Copyright © 1982 by the National Maritime Historical Society.

3 LETTERS

OFFICE : 2 Fulton St., Brooklyn, NY 11201. Telephone: 2 12-858-1348.

5 IN CLIO'S CAUSE: TRUST YOUTH, GIVE THEM ROOM, John Gardner

MEMBERSHIP is invited and should be sent to the Brooklyn office: Sponsor, $1,000; Patron, $100; Family, $20; Regular, $15; Student or Retired, $7.50.

11 USS CONSTITUTION: LIVING TO FIGHT ANOTHER DAY

OVERSEAS: Outside North America, add $5 or sub scribe via World Ship Trust. CONTRIBUTIONS may be made for any recognized project. Make out checks "NMHSShip Trust," indicating on the check the project to which you wish support to be directed . OFFICERS & TRUSTEES are Chairman: Karl Kortum; Vice Chairman: F. Briggs Dalzell; President: Peter Stanford; Secretary: Alan G. Choate; Trustees: Norman J. Bro uwer, John Bunker, Alan G. Choate, F. Briggs Dalzell, Thomas Hale, Harold D. Huycke, Ba rbara Johnson, James F. Kirk , Karl Kortum, Robert J . Lowen , Richard Rath , John H. Reilly, Jr., Kenneth D. Reynard , Walter F. Schlech, Jr., Howard Slotnick, Peter Stanford, John N. Thurman, Barclay H. Warburton III , Alen York. President Emeritus: Alan D. Hutchinson. ADVISORS: Chairman: Frank 0. Braynard ; Francis E. Bowker, Oswald L. Brett, George Campbell , Robert Carl, Frank G. G. Carr, Harry Dring, John Ewald , Joseph L. Farr, Timothy G. Foote, Richard Goold-Adams, Robert G. Herbert, Melvin H . Jackson, R. C. Jefferso n, Irving M. Johnson, Joh n Kemble, Conrad Milster, William G. Muller, John Noble, Capt. David E. Perkins, USCG (ret.), Nancy Richardson, Ralph L. Snow, John Stobart, Albert Swanson, Shannon Wall, Robert A. Weinstein, Thomas Wells, AICH, Charles Wittholz. Curator-at-Large: Peter Throckmorton. WORLD SHIP TRUST: Chairman: Frank G.G . Carr; Hon. Secretary: J .A. Forsythe; Hon. Treasu rer: Philip S. Green; Erik C. Abranson; Maldwin Drummond ; Peter Stanford. Membership: £10 payable WST, c/ o Hon. Sec., 129a North Street, Burwell, Cambs. CB5 OBB, England . Reg. Charity No . 277751. AMERICAN SHIP TRUST: International Chairman: Frank Carr; Chairman: Peter Stanford; George Bass; Norman Brouwer; Karl Kortum; Richard Rath; Peter W. Rogers; Barclay H. Warburton, III ; Senior Advisor: Irving M. Johnson . SEA HISTORY STAFF: Editor: Peter Stanford; Managing Editor: Norma Stanford; Associate Editors: Norman J. Brouwer, Naomi Person ; Accounting: Jo Meisner; Advertising: Janet Schiller; Membership: Marie Lore.

CONTENTS

12 USS CONSTITUTION AND THE AMERICAN SPIRIT, Peter Sterling, introduction by Adm. Arleigh Burke 18 THE CHANGING FACE OF BOSTON HARBOR 21 BOSTON HARBOR: A WHARF RAT'S REVERIE, Peter W. Rogers 22 MARITIME MUSEUMS AND SOCIETIES IN THE BOSTON AREA 24 SAIL TRAINING: DAY'S RUN, Report of the American Sail Training Association 26 THE BLIND BEAK OF BOW STREET, Dr. Ronald Hope 27 SHIP NOTES, SEAPORT & MUSEUM NEWS, Naomi Person 34 MARINE ART: ASMA'S FIFTH NATIONAL EXHIBITION, James E. Mitchell

40 A FAREWELL SALUTE: WILLIAM AVERY BAKER, Erik A.R. Ronnberg, Jr. 42 BOOKS COVER: Frigate Constitution, caught by a British squadron, kedges her way to freedom in this painting by Julian 0. Davidson. See page 11.

The National Maritime Historical Society is saving America's seafaring heritage. Join us. We are making America's seafaring past a our nation 's seafari ng legacy? living heritage. The National Maritime Membership in the National Maritime Historical Society discovers and Historical Society costs only $15 a year. You'll receive Sea History , restores the few remaining ships SEA HIS'J;ORY and seagoing artifacts-and helps , a fascinating magazi ne filled keep them in trust for future with articles of seafaring and generations. historical lore. You'll also be And the Society helps get eligible for discounts on books, young people to sea to keep alive prints and other items. the spirit of adventure, the disciHelp save our seafaring pline and skills it took to sail the heritage. Join the National magnificent vessels from our past. Maritime Historical Society Won't you join us to keep alive today!

TO: National Maritime Historical Society, 2 Fulton Street, Brooklyn, New York 11201

YES

I want to help. I understand that my contribution goes to forward the work of the Society ' and that I'll be kept informed by receiving SEA HISTORY quarterly. Enclosed is: 0 $15 Regular

NAME

0 $100 Patron

0 $1,000Sponsor

0 $7.SOStudent/ Retired

(please prmt)

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~- Z IP~~~~~~~~

Conlribulions to NMHS are tax deduclible.


DARWIN

Our finished working, semi-scale model features a painted wood hull, stained and varnished spars, a brass centerboard, working brass rudder and fittings. Sails are handmade.. Of robust construction, this little vessel should stand up to years of service. Ready to sail, just add water Overall length 22W', Catalog of this and other boats $2.00

The Dockyard

Jn 1832, the Admiralty assigned Captain Robert Fitzroy to explore and map the dange rous wate rs surrounding Tierra del Fuego. Charles Darwin , a young, un known natura li st, accompanied this hi storic fi ve year voyage of the Beagle. From his notes a nd observations of th is adventure , Darwin publi shed hi s ORIG IN OF THE SPEC IE S in 1859 and rocked th e civili zed world. Now available in limited edition of 1000 fu ll color print is The H.M.S. Beagle by marin e arti st , Ra ymond A. Massey, A.S.M .A. The print image size is 25" x 20". Signed prin t $75. Signed and remarqued print $125. VISA/MC accepted. Also avai lab le is Shackl eto n's Endurance. Direct orders to:

TYNE PRINTS

Box 74, South Freeport, Me. 04078

112 Walton Drive, Buffalo, New York 14226

(716) 839-0185

The Barbara Johnson Whaling Collection: Part II Important 'Susan's tooth,' Frederick Myrick, December 28, 1828, length 5'h inches.

Bomb lance shoulder gun, 19th century, length 33 inches; bomb lance shoulder gun, 19th century, length 3ยง.'h inches; early and primitive whaling shoulder gun, 19th century, length 26 inches.

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Auction in New York at Sotheby's York Avenue Galleries Friday and Saturday, September 24 and 25. Exhibition will open approximately five days before the auction. This auction will include a selection of prints, scrimshaw, whaling gear, folk art, whaling logs, journals and related marine arts. Illustrated catalogues will be available approximately four weeks before the auction. For more information contact Nancy Druckman or William W Stahl, Jr:, Sotheby Parke Bernet Inc., 1334 York Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10021, (212) 472-3512.

SOTHEBY'S Founded 1744

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982


LETTERS Lighting an Historical Blind-side We seek details of Constitution 'sconfiguration during the period 1795-1871. After years of probing the files of the National Archives and those of most relevant naval and marine institutions, we have concluded much data must still lie scattered outside the public domain. Personal logs, journals

sphere. The one on the left was, in the last analysis, what the captain or first mate wanted-usually an "ordinary" anchor, about the same size (200lb smaller, 2 Y2" shorter) than the best bower. In the channels, quickly available in an emergency, right side would be the sheet anchor, left side another best bower or regular anchor. The others were below, under the main hatch, atop the ballast. I never saw reference to Mr. Herbert's "ancre desperance" in 18th century literature. Maybe a couple of centuries earlier? NORMAN N. R UBIN

Silver Spring, Maryland What Ho, Wavertree! When I asked about visiting the Wavertree at South Street Seaport Museum last autumn, you told me visitors were not encouraged at that time, so we decided to wait until the spring. Is she now open for visitors on a regular basis? HENRY F. GREINER

or letters, shipyard records, drawings contemporary with Constitution 's operational period-that's the kind of thing we need. We welcome help from all to restore visibility to the historical blind-side of the greatest ship of our naval history. WILLIAM P . BASS Shipresearch 2307 St. Andrews Circle Melbourne, Florida 32901 Received with Payment for an Ad This incredible magazine was a sensory delight that regales my eyes! Be great as a monthly-even daily? Happy Easter! RI CHARD ANGERMAYER

Seaways Books Salisbury Mills, New York

Bonhomme Richard's Anchors In the Winter 1979 Sea History, page 4, there is a letter from Robert G. Herbert, Jr., on the anchors likely to have been carried by John Paul Jones's Bonhomme Richard. All evidence (logbooks, inventory of Duras later Richard, Romme 1781, Reamur 1723, Colomb 1719, etc., etc.) credit a ship of her size with 8 anchors: I sheet, 2 best bowers, 2 "ordinary," I small bower, and 2 stream anchors. There were not two anchors on the bows; there were four, as I'm sure Eric Berryman, author of the article on the Richard in the preceding issue of Sea History, is well aware. Two were on the forecastle or "anchor" deck, two were in the fore channels. The one on the righthand side (I refuse to be an "expert" and use the archaic "starboard") was a best bower, kept there because of the veering tendency of storms in the northern hemiSEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982

Glen Moore, Pennsylvania Mr. Greiner, as a supporter of the ship, deserves a special tour. But for the public, with his help, the old Cape Horner will be open sometime this summer-we hope. Her story is partly told in SH19 and 20the rest of it, the Museum and our Ship Trust are writing today!-ED.

Ernestina Redivivus How important your work is! You are preserving things of a past not so far back; but with the world changing so rapidly, how easily they might slip away, never to be retrieved . Consider the paddlewheelers; I don't suppose one exists except for the Delta Queen. I took the trip north from Davenport, Iowa to St. Paul , Minnesota on the Queen and recommend it highly. Or consider Ernestina, ex-Effie M. Morrissey. Here she is, on a halcyon Sep-

tember day in 1957, arriving US in Buzzards Bay, flags astream. W. ALLEN TRAVER, JR. Banner Elk, North Carolina If you like these celebratory flags, wait till you see what we and the world hang out to greet her when she returns to the US this summer, rebuilt, as a gift of the Cape Verdean people to the people of Massachusetts-and the nation!-ED.

Editor's Log Vessels like the skipjack Mamie Mister, shown here at the Society's East River pier, bring new life and interest to an urban waterfront. This is happening on our Brooklyn waterfront, and of course, across the river in Manhattan, where the South Street Seaport is becoming one of the commercial success stories of New York's economic renaissance. Galveston and New Bedford, of late, and San Francisco for some twenty years now, have similar stories to tell. The maritime cultural experience brings refreshment to the spirit, and the tides of interest it generates also brings economic gain. Members of the Society, and the Society itself, have been in the vanguard of this movement and we are rather proud of the contribution we make to the vitality of American seaport cities. Ironically, power-addicted local pols now see commercial possibilities in our headquarters pier and building and threaten to throw us out. May we invite all who read these lines to write our Mayor to avert this ill development? He is Hon. Edward I. Koch, Mayor of the City of New York, New York 10007. At the Annual Meeting aboard Olga's MusicBarge members heard that our membership is nearing 10,000. Trustees look confidently to the time when we shall number members in tens of thousands. But we want to keep the "band of brothers'' spirit with which we have come thus far. It is not too early to begin to guard against the dangers that come with success ~the dangers of' 'bottom line'' opportunism and of grey bureaucratic imperialism. F. Briggs Dalzell of New York, longtime supporter of the Society and its works, succeeded Karl Kortum, Curator of the National Maritime Museum, San Francisco, as Chairman, Barbara Johnson of Princeton and Tom Hale of Martha's Vineyard were elected Vice Chairmen, and Alan Choate re-elected as Secretary and your scribe as President. Tim Pouch of New York was welcomed as a newly elected trustee, and other trustees recommended by the Nominating Committee were reelected. At the outset of the meeting, one minute's silence was observed for the young men who lost their lives in the sinking of the Argentine cruiser Belgrano and the British destroyer Sheffield. We have many friends on both sides of the tragic conflict over the Falkland Islands, and we ask your prayers for them all. PS 3


KEEPING SHENANDOAH MOVING How do you move a 108', 170-ton boat through all kinds of weather just about every day of the season year after year? and average 12 knots?With 7000 sq. ft. of sail made by Manchester!

SHIP MODELS SOLD• APPRAISED• PURCHASED• RESTORED America's largest ship model emporium-over 350 clipperships, whalers, schooners, riverboats, tugboats, admiralty models, partial cutaways, etc. presently in inventory. Models range from 8" to 8' in length! Our clientele includes numerous collectors, dealers, restaurants, museums, banks, etc. Long recognized as realistic investments, ship models have become one of the country's major art forms which offer pleasure as well as a key hedge to inflation. The pleasure of viewing a beautiful ship model never wanes! Our integrity and reputation in this very specialized field has led to our receiving no less than 11 national writeups! It has also al· lowed us to acquire many of the country's finest collections and estate settlements. If you desire a museum quality scale model of your own yacht, one of our 38 qualtiy model builders will build it for you! NOTE : Please write for a spectacular color photo of our shop! Visitation by appointment only. Thank you.

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MANCHESTER~ SAILMAKERS

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278S El m St. , So. Dartmouth, MA 02748 • (6 17) 992-6322

259 Harvard Street, Quincy, Mass. 02170Tel: 617-479-5091

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Write or call day/night. Conveniently located 7 mi. south of Boston

George Wales: American Maritime Printmaker (1868-1940) Child s is the exclusive representative o f th e es tate of George Wales. We have a vast selec tion of his etc hings and lithographs as well as original drawings, man y of which are studies for th e prints.

(Since 1861)

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Th e Wales prints are priced at $50 and up and a 4-page catalogue is available free upon req uest.

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Also, send $5 for our 1981· 82 Print Annual, a 44-page illustrated catalogue o f o th er fin e prints in stock by Dilrer, Rembrandt, Bellows, Sloan, etc.

Martha's Vineyard Shipyard

A full service yard specializing in sailboats and auxilliaries. New boat construction in both wood and fiberglass. Complete hull and engine repairs. Rigging work of all kinds including swaging and rope-to-wire splices. 16 ton mobile lift. Over 1/z acre of inside stor· age completely sprinkler protected. Builders of the 291 Vineyard Vixen and the Vixen 34, cruising auxilliaries built with traditional detail and craftsmanship.

Beach Road, Vineyard Haven, MA 02568 Telephone 61 7-693-0400 4

"Niiia" lithogra ph 1928

CHILDS

169 Newbury Street • Boston, Massachu setts 02116 • (617) 266·1108 fine American and European paintings, prints and draw ings since 1937.

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982


IN CLIO'S CAUSE

Trust Youth, Give Them Room! by John Gardner

In November, 1820, ten-thousand seatossed miles from his native Stonington, Capt. Nathaniel Palmer of the sealing sloop Hero was the first to view the continent of Antarctica. Capt. Palmer was barely twenty-one. Of his four-man crew two were younger than he; and Palmer himself had shipped before the mast at fourteen. Of the six Crowninshield brothers of Salem, Massachusetts, of the generation prior to Palmer's, five were captains of ships before they were twenty, sailing to the East Indies, to China and Sumatra. Only the youngest, Edward, did not attain a command, having died at Guadeloupe on his first voyage to the West Indies when he was fourteen. At twenty-one Donald McKay, of clipper ship fame and a contemporary of Palmer's, was already a full-fledged shipwright making a name for himself in the shipyards of New York City, then one of the foremost shipbuilding centers in this country. Of the generation that followed Palmer and McKay, John Brown Herreshoff of Bristol, Rhode Island, at the age of seventeen and already blind, founded the Herreshoff Manufacturing Company of which he was president, principal owner, and the driving force for fifty-seven years until his death in 1915. And coming down to the present day, our foremost contemporary designers of fine yachts, Olin and Rod Stephens, both dropped out of college. After barely one semester at MIT in 1926, Olin withdrew from academia. Within three years he had designed the phenomenal ocean racer Dorade, first in a line of winners that still dominate American yachting. He was twentyone. This list could go on and on. Significant accomplishments in our American past by young people who had talent, energy, enthusiasm, and total commitment, but who were without formal academic credentials are simply too numerous to record. We are so much under the spell of the new scholasticism that we often forget that the building of this country down nearly to the close of the last century was to a large extent accomplished without benefit of degrees and diplomas. This is neither to reject formal academic training nor to deny its worth within limits, but to insist that it is not the only way, that it is not for everyone all the time, that it should not be made a Procrustean bed on which all are forced to lie. It should hardly be necessary to say that the educational needs of different individuals are different and differ at different periods of their lives. Some are never comfortable or fully SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982

There is a mistaken notion that schooling and education are the same thing. They are not. productive in a classroom setting. Some are not ready for it at the appointed time. Others outgrow it quickly. And some need to expend physical energy and to manipulate the physical environment, thinking with their hands and the muscles of their backs, as it were, as well as their heads, and reaping enormous satisfaction when they get tangible results as successful craftsmen and builders. There is a mistaken notion that schooling and education are the same thing. They are not. Schooling is, or should be, only a minor and specialized part of the larger educational process. In constricting that process within the narrow confines of formal schooling, we have too often turned schools into detention centers, into holding tanks, as it were, for youthful talent and energies for which our society seems unable to provide wholesome and satisfying outlets. It is an anomaly of this present age that although we idealize youth, we do not trust it. Youth is shielded and pampered but denied responsibility and held back. Maturity is postponed. Not only does the conventional academic routine-classes, lectures, papers, exams, credits, and so forth-tend to be removed from reality, but also its demands on students are narrow and limited, too frequently failing to tap their deeper powers or capabilities or to inspire anything approaching total commitment. Because their involvement is partial and superficial, students tend to take neither their studies nor themselves seriously. Idleness, boredom, and frustration inevitably follow, opening the door to all manner of aberrant and self-destructive impulses and influences . What passes for education, and especially higher education, turns out so often under present circumstances to be mis-education . The building of the Restorationshop at the Maine Maritime Museum demonstrates facts about youth and education which merit our attention. Largely out of recycled materials salvaged from ancient barns, an abandoned railroad machine shop, a burned-out lumberyard, and the like, young, inexperienced volunteers in less than eight months and with a total cash outlay of not more than $24,000 constructed a handsome, substantial 2 Vi story building, 70' x 32', that has been appraised at more than $124,000. From high schools, college campuses and classrooms the volunteers came for a course such as could not

be found within the halls of academe. As previously demonstrated in The Apprenticeshop at Bath, youth in our time is desperately eager for meaningful activity, starved for it, in fact. They badly need to be needed by others, and are ready to give unstintingly of themselves in direct measure to what is asked. They seek total commitment and will be satisfied with nothing less. Under favorable conditions they are self-reliant, resourceful, inventive, and learn amazingly fast. They are capable of sustained effort, eat up work, and find hard physical labor expended in a good cause satisfying both to body and spirit. It now appears that Veblen came very close to the truth in positing a human instinct of workmanship. It likewise appears that humans are instinctively social, not solitary animals, with an elemental need to serve and support the group and to be approved and emotionally supported by it. Thus, it seems that paired with an instinctive need to achieve excellence in manipulating the physical environment is an instinctive altruism expressed as a deeply rooted need to serve, and to be served by, the group. Primarily because it fulfilled these fundamental human needs, the educational experience provided by the construction of the Restorationshop was one of extraordinary effectiveness and quality, as those who participated have testified. I suggest that the basic principles underlying the success of this project are universally valid and workable and, if inventively applied on a broad scale, could bring about a beneficial transformation in current educational practice. Trust youth, give them room, permit them to develop as whole persons; ask, and set no upper limits in asking, and they will rebuild the world. ..t Mr. Gardner, dean of the traditional boatbuilding movement, is Supervisor of Small Craft at Mystic Seaport Museum. This essay is from his introduction to Barns, Beams & Boats, available for $7.95 from The Restorationshop, 375 Front Street, Bath, Me. 04530. 5


KEEPING THE BIG SHIPS SHIP-SHAPE

"Britanis" on dry dock at Todd Brooklyn.

"Pacific Princess" drydocking at Todd Los Angeles Todd Shipyards Corporation is called upon frequently to give a face-lift or perform overhaul and repairs to the cruise ships of many flags. Our seven shipyards , located on all 3 U.S. coasts , are fully equipped to handle any type of ship repair work . We have the facilities and skilled personnel to do the job and do it well.

"Ocean Independence" entering dry dock at Todd San Francisco.

Todd is currently spending millions of dollars on upgrading its shipyards . A new 40,000 displacement ton capacity floating drydock will be operational at the Galveston Division in March of '82. Construction of a 13,500 displacement ton capacity syncrolift system, capable of handling 5 vessels simultaneously , is cu r rently underway at Los Angeles . A new 14,000 displacement ton capacity dry dock is now under construction to be placed at Houston , while a 40 ,000 displacement ton capacity dry dock will be modified and transferred from San Francisco to Seattle, to be operational June 1982. Recently a new 3,500 ton dry dock was placed in operation at the company 's New Orleans Division to service the inland waterway fleets . Big or small , TODD will repair them all!

Todd Shipyards Corporation One State Street Plaza, New York, N.Y. 10004 Telephone: (212) 668-4700 Russian cruise ship "Odessa" on dock at Todd New Orleans

Cable: "Robin" New York

NEW YORK/LOS ANGELES/SAN FRANCISCO/SEATTLE NEW ORLEANS/ HOUSTON/GALVESTON


On April 23, 1838, th e wo oden-hulled paddle steamer SIRIU S arrived at New York, responsible for starting the firs t No rt h Atlantic steamship service , heralding a new era.

On April 25, 1981 , we, the men and women comprising the SIRIUS crew of today, moved across the East River and settled into our own and permanent berth alongside this historic shore. Please note our new address and communications numbers below. Capt. Wolf Spille, President

SIRIUS HOUSE - 76 Montague Street Brooklyn Heights, New York 11201 Teleph one: (212) 330-1800

212·330·1810 212·330· 1808 212·330·1812 212-330·1806

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SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982

7


The A111erican Sea111an His record productivity remains an untold maritime achievement. THE MYTH PREVAILS that this country cannot compete in the world markets because the American worker is not sufficiently productive. Nowhere is this shown to be more patently untrue than in the American merchant marine. Today's oil tankers, for example, carry more than ten times the loads hauled by the standard T-2 vessels of the early 1960s. And the new ships operate with a crew of 27 compared to 45, a more than 15-fold per man productivity increase . Another myth holds that Americans have somehow lost their touch when it comes to innovation, that we don't have that old "Yankee ingenuity" anymore. NMU, for one, does not buy this argument. In shipping, for instance, Americans were first with the container ships,

roll-on, roll-offs, LASH, Seabee and other high technology vessels. But we've let others, notably Japan, grab the ball and run with it. Japan's greatest success has been in the field of government policy and simple loyalty to country. If the Japanese government makes up its mind to beat the rest of the world in turning out automobiles or in shipping, they rally their energies nationally- banks, companies, workers-everybody gets behind the big push. And we all know what happens . Compare this to our own U.S. policies which actually encourage the export of American seamen's jobs and have placed our country's lines of national defense in foreign hands under foreign "flags of convenience." 11 11 11111 ••

11111 111 ' 1111

Today's seaman works with traditional mar/inspike skills and state-of-the-art electronics.

National Maritime Union Shannon J. Wa ll, President Thomas Martinez, Secretary-Treasurer National Headquarters: 346 West 17 Street, New York NY 10011 • (212) 620-5700


Paintings by this artist sell for up to $10,000.00 . . . now JOO can acquire

(hartes Lundgrens

(}olden Jlge (JfSall Twelve fme porcelain plates featuring original art by one of America's foremost maritime artists Edition Limit: 5(0) Worldwide Limit: Two sets per collector Reervation Deadline: June 30, 1~

~merica's Majestic Clipper Ships .. . they

raCed over the great ocean routes at speeds only drearn:d of before. Shattering record after record, they sped from New York, around Cape Horn, to the supply-hungry gold mining camps of the 1850's. . This was truly America's Golden Age ofSail. Never before had man come so close to commanding nature's ultimate frontier of wind and waves . . . and never had the American people been so proud of their young country's noble maritime achievements. 'Ibe First P1ate Series to Bear the Art of Maritime Artist, Charles Lundgren Now - for the first time, you can relive this fleeting era of rCinance, beauty and drama. For the sailing masterpieces of yesteryear are about to cCine to life for you . . . in Charles Lundgren's Golden Age of Sail porcelain plate collection This important series brings to life twelve of the mait renowned s~ ships in America's proud history . . . through tlie original artwork of Charles Lundgren. One of the finest maritime artists in the world today, Lundgren's original

works ccmmand as much as $10,00J.00 each Of Of course, each plate includes a Certificate special interest, this is the my first time Charles of Authenticity and a display stand suitable for Lundgren has agreed to create works of art for a shelf or wall use, also at no additional charge. fine porcelain plate series. Fasy to aaiuire . . . modestlr priced A Strictly Limited Edition To reserve Charles Lundgren s Golden Age Charles Lwidgren's Golden Age of Sail will of Sail Collector's Plates, you need only send be issued only once. And, only in a very Limited $19.50 now. With the shipment of your first Edition of ~ collections worldwide . . . a plate, you will be billed for the balance of very small number, especially considering that $19.50. Thereafter, you will receive one plate demand for this important series will most every other mcnth and will be billed in two certainly be intense among the world's equal monthly installments of $19.50. All estimated six million collectors. There is a strict shih;~' handling and insurance costs are further limit of two collections per perinc . And, by using your credit card son . . . each individually crafted specifically to account, }VU mli send no mmey now. your order. Remember, once the limit of 5CXXJ In addition, the 24-karat gold backstarnp collections is reached, applications will be will forever certify the Limited Edition status of returned and the edition closed forever. Thus, to the collection For the backstarnp will bear not be certain of acquiring these important Plates only Lundgren's signature, but also your for your personal collection, do fill out and mail personal serial number, carefully hand applied in the Reservation Application today to: The 24-karat gold. Fleetwood Collection, One Unicover Center, Cheyenne, Wyoming~ Historical Information. c.ertificate and Display Stand ••• at NO EX'IRA CC>S'I' ,..._._.,_ - - - - - - - - - _ _ With each plate in Charles Lundgren's I . - Golden Age of Sail you will receive an I RFSERVATION APPLICATION authoritative information booklet. Thus, you Cllartes wndgrens will learn about the amazing Clipper Ship I Lightning, the fastest ship that ever sailed the seas . . . the Sea Wrtch, which left the gold-rush I route to achieve swift passages to I The Fleetwood Collection China unequalled to this day. I HS26 One Unicover Center

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yoldenJlge lfJail

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Cheyenne,

Wyoming~

Please accept my reservation for LIMIT Golden 2 A§ o( Sail Collection(s), a series of twelve fine porcelain plates fearuring original artwork by one of America's premier maritime artists, Charles Lundgren. I will receive one plate every other month, beginning in late August, 1982. I may promptly return any plate I am not satisfied with for refund or replacement. Price stated below includes all shipping, hanclling and insurance. I prefer to pay as follows:

D DIREGILY. Please bill me for each plate in two equal monthly installments of $19.50 each. I enclose $19.50 for the first payment. D BY CREDIT CARD. Please charge my credit card indicated below in two equal monthly installments of $19.50 for each plate. Charge the first payment as each plate is shipped, and the second payment one month later. D MasterCard D Visa D American Express D Diners Club D Carte Blanche Cacd No. - - - - - - - - Expires _ _

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Fleetwood, "toblished in 1929, ha< long been cerognized by rollect°" for outstanding quality. It is a division of Unicover Corporation.


The heritage of the coastal trade lives on in the Wawona. magine the coasting schooner Wawona cutting smartly to a freshening b reeze. A work boat , lumber laden from Northwest forests or fishing the Bering Sea. Its gaff rigged sails and smaller crew continued to

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Traditional scrimshaw from leading maritime museums and contemporary scrimshaw now available in replica - teeth, boxes, desk accessories, j ewelry. These fine reproductions have been painstakingly recreat ed in a specially formulated material, polymer ivory, to provide you with the beauty of the original without using whale products . Do your own scrimshaw with our kits and blanks. For a full color brochure of our "Save the Whale Collection " of scrimshaw send $1 .00 to

ARTEK, INC. Dept . S

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trade the waters the square riggers first explored. Tcxiay the Wawona calls Seattle home. And even now you can see this three-masted lady of coastal waters at Northwest Sea(X>rt. Your purchase of this print by lliiiiiii~;._~ Thomas Wells, one of America's foremost marine artists, will help North· west Seaport to reclaim her for today's and future generations. All profits from the sale of this limited edition print will be used for her -Limited Edition A rt Print O{feringrestoration. Ships History lncluded Make an investment in the future that keeps the To order send $65.00 past alive. (Washington Res. add sales tax) plus S2.50 Title. . . . . . . . Wawona shipping and handling to: Painter .. Thomas Wells Medium ......... Oil Wawona Sheet Size .... . . 18x24 Bayless Enterprises, lnc. 427 Ninth Avenue North Limited Seattle, WA 98109 &lition ...... . . . 550 {509) 622·6395

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A spirit of hard work, enterprise & cooperation sailed the tall ships of yesterday, and the Liberty Ships of World War II. .. and that's what makes things move today!

BAY REFRACTORY MARINE REFRACTORY AND MARINE INSULATION 164 WOLCOTI STREET • BROOKLYN, NY 11201

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SEA HI STORY, SUMMER 1982


USS CONSTITUTION:

Living to Fight Another Day

The big frigate's boats run out an anchor to pull the ship to safety, in a memorable act ofseamanship. Painting by Julian 0 . Davidson, courtesy USS Constitution Museum.

She was a supership. She had to be, to survive and win in an ocean controlled by the omnipotent, universally victorious ships of the Royal Navy. The "24s" that Fletcher Pratt mentions in this story of her escape from a British squadron off the Jersey coast in July 1812 are ship-killing guns throwing a 24-pound shot. This was battleship armament. No British frigate carried long guns heavier than 18-pounders. Fletcher Pratt 's story, from his book The Navy: A History (New York, 1941) brings out in bold relief another critically important strength of this history-making cruiser: her people. Caught in a desperate situation, Captain Isaac Hull simply refused to admit he was caught; with superb seamanship he used every wile in the book and a few for which he wrote the book, to get away free, and his men responded with ultimate vigor and elan. This H'as part ofConstitution'ssecret, part of the traditions that Hull, and Preble before him consciously laid down for the fledgling American Navy. It was well she got away. Just a month later, Hull, having evaded the orders that would have kept him in port, met Dacres in the British Guerriere, and won the first of those smashing single-ship victories of the war that gave everyone, Americans included, a new appreciation of what their ship designers, captains and sailors could achieve at sea. PS

On the morning of the 18th, off the Jersey coast, he spied four big ships off north; at six, a fifth, nearer. Thinking they might be Rodgers' fleet, Hull set signals; but they were not answered, and in an hour he had the truth-it was Broke's squadron, four frigates and a ship of the line, just out of gunshot and bearing down with everything that would draw. The wind was light and various; Hull cleared for action and turned east with all sail set, while the gunners moved two 24s to bear out the cabin windows. Toward evening the wind died altogether; Constitution hoisted out boats and began to tow, but so did the British astern, and their leaders began to gain, as they put the boats of two ships to pull one. Few were the men who could match Isaac Hull in any trick of seamanship. He sounded; got twenty-six fathoms, or enough to reach bottom with an anchor, and had all the spare cable in the ship gotten up. To the end of one line he attached a light anchor, a kedge, loaded it into the frigate's cutter and had it carried out ahead to the full length of the line and dropped into the water. At the signal Constitution's crew gave a heave-ho on the capstan and literally walked the ship forward to the anchor. Meanwhile another line and another kedge were being carried out; the cable was capstanned in on the run, and away went Constitution in these long strides, gaining a good half-mile before the British became aware of what she was doing and imitated her. By this time they had learned the American was too downy a bird to be caught with ordinary methods; Commodore Broke had the boats of the whole squadron put on his ship, Shannon, nearest of the pursuit, and pulled amain. They gained the half-mile back and more; were closing in, when at nine in the morning a light air from the southward struck the ships. Constitution went tearing through the water, picking up her boats on the run with marvelous seamanship, where an inch of miscalculation would have lost them and the crews too. The British could not match this; they

had to stop for their boats, and Constitution recovered her advantage. Yet the air died away into baffling cat's paws; it was out boats and kedge again, all through that day, with the enemy on either beam and astern, not quite able to close, firing occasionally, always short. The British oarsmen relieved each other, but Constitution's weary people had no relief till eleven in the night, when another series of little gusts carried the ship ahead briefly, once more running in her boats as she passed them. Two in the morning brought more calm; by a kind of mutual agreement neither British nor Americans towed for a while, but toward morning the halfdead men were routed out and sent to the oars once more. Constitution gained hand over fist now; the British were wearing down, could not stand the racket as well as Hull's men, and he gained on them too, by cleverertrimming of his sails to every puff. By the third morning he was a good two miles ahead of Belvidera, which held him nearest in chase. Toward noon a pleasant little breeze sprang up; all the ships profited without changing relative positions much; but in the afternoon the eastern sky began to lower, and rain could be seen dancing on the water far ahead. Constitution was nearest to the squall; Hull sent up his topmen and had everything pulled down to close reefs as though it were a regular hurricane aproaching, and just as he expected, the British, away behind, began to reef down tight as well. But he was a better weatherman than they; had seen the squall was thin, and as soon as it hit, concealing his frigate for a minute behind sheets of rain, he shook out the reefs, set his light sails and went booming through the water at a staggering twelve-knot pace. Away behind the curtain of rain the squall wrenched the British ships a moment and passed; before they could set full sail again Consititution had them all hull down on the horizon and was traveling faster than their fastest.

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982

11


USS Constitution and the American Spirit by Peter Sterling, Director, USS Constitution Museum with an introduction by Admiral Arleigh Burke, USN (Ret.)

It is most difficult to conjecture all the thoughts that come to mind when a sailor looks at that grand old ship, Constitution, or to represent all that she means within the confines of one museum-when she carries a message reaching out over the horizon! The old frigate is a living inspiration to all the men of our present-day Navy. The retired veteran looks with pride as he remembers his first days at sea in a coal burning man-o- war and wonders if the pointers on the 24-pounders in Constitution had as much trouble as he had in learning to lay his broadside 511 gun on the target. The brand new recruit just out of the training station looks with amazement at the old relic and wonders how the crew ever got along without TV and electronic devices. They each have pride in that early ship which pioneered in what was needed to def end the interests of the United States at sea-an example for all sailors to follow. Everything in the Navy changes so rapidly that each succeeding generation deals with completely different equipment in a completely di//erent manner to accomplish the same basic tasks that confronted the skippers of Constitution and their men. And so we look back with wonder at men who were faced with nearly insurmountable problems, yet developed equipment and methods to deal with those problems and win. They accepted the challenge and did what was needed for their nation. Every American sailor has his own idea of what Constitution stands for, why she is important, what she means, even as men do about their nation. She is the symbol of what Americans have stood for from the beginning, and she represents what will have to be done again and again by Americans skilled in their profession, devoted to their duty, and working together in common cause. ADMIRAL ARLEIGH BURKE, USN (RET.) 12

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982


Michel Felice Corne captures the look of a proud ship (left) and the ebullient spirit of an age in his 1803 portrait of the Constitution painted a decade before she won the startling victories that made her world-famous. And the frigate still lives today (below left), a commissioned ship in the Navy, still with a vital mission to perform. At right, the USS Constitution Museum provides marvellously evocative and engaging exhibits which allow visitors to "explore" the Constitution in ways the real ship cannot provide. The construction exhibit (right) features a full size cross section of the hull revealing parts of the vessel that are totally hidden away in the ship. Below, visitors are invited to turn the ship's wheel and try their hand at clewing up a sail. The fighting top (bottom photo) can be studied-and even climbed on, as these youngsters are doing. Photos courtesy USS Constitution Museum.

USS Constitution, the oldest commissioned ship afloat in the world at 184 years ofage, has been called a "living symbol." But a symbol of what? A symbol to whom? What feelings does she evoke compared to Monticello, the Washington Monument, Ellis Island, the Alamo or many other national symbols? In planning a museum whose major purpose is to illuminate the ideas and ideals exemplified by ''Old Ironsides,'' we have wrestled with what story to tell the hundreds of thousands of visitors who come to the Ship and Museum each year. We decided that "the story" is at least five stories and so we launched a five-year program to develop evocative exhibits about each of them.

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The Building of Old Ironsides

In the 1790s, the US literally had no Navy. The Navy that had existed during the Revolution had disintegrated at a time when America's need for naval power to protect our swelling maritime interests was escalating. Britain counted over 500 ships in her Navy, and to match that number would have been impossible. So Congress authorized the construction of just six ships¡: Frigate "D," later named Constitution with Hercules as her figurehead, was to be constructed in Boston, the United States at Philadelphia, the Constellation at Baltimore, and the Chesapeake at Norfolk. While the authorization for six frigates was the most ambitious shipbuilding project as yet undertaken in North America, we also wanted to emphasize the technological ingenuity that went into building Constitution. A complex problem confronted the designer, Joshua Humphreys: how to build the most advanced warships in the world? If successfully resolved, his solution would provide the young nation with a distinct competitive advantage, even with a Navy of only six ships. To build anything exceptional, whether battleship or cathedral, requires foresight, keen analysis of the problem and superb technological skills. These frigates had to be different from anything else their size-faster, stronger, better armed and more maneuverable. To compete on the high seas, America had to become simply the best shipbuilding country in the world. Constitution turned out to be all that Humphreys had hoped for-she ran when outmatched, slugged it out when the odds were acceptable, wiggled out of jams, was never holed, never dismasted and never defeated. The "Building of Old Ironsides" Exhibit shows how the blending of fresh ideas with innovative materials made Constitution the technological marvel of her time. Life at Sea But one can develop the most sophisticated piece of equipment and marry it with an elaborate strategy and still have very little. If 20th century military hardware has demonstrated anything, it has shown that unless the machinery is operated by people who are well-trained and resourceful, sophisticated technology can become "spare parts" very quickly. The 475 men and boys who lived and worked aboard Constitution made for a good sized village in the 19th century, but one that the anthropologists and social historians have largely ignored. The "Life at Sea" exhibit was developed to show everyday life on Constitution for a 10-year-old boy, a midshipman, a marine, an able-bodied seaman and the surgeon's mate.

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982

13


The great ship spreads her wings, outfitting in Boston, 1931 ,for her tour ofAmerican ports on both coasts in the next three years. Strongly built and heavily armed to outfight any frigate afloat, she carried a huge press of canvas, making her also one of the fastest warships of her time.

We have learned, for example, that over half the crew of "patriotic Americans" was foreign-born. Constitution reflected the American melting pot as much as any port town did. And while medical attention on board ship often meant amputation, there is no evidence that a sailor was medically worse off in an American Navy ship than on land. In fact, the records suggest that preventive health care was practiced on Constitution to a higher degree than when a sailor was ashore. What did this cosmopolitan crew symbolize? What about them endures? What message can a "Life at Sea" exhibit carry? We think it can be summed up in one word: pride. When you are the underdog, you must train harder and perform better than your adversary or you cannot win. In every instance, Constitution's crew proved it could match and beat the best. This Daviddefeating-Goliath mentality spawned a national pride in the War of 1812 that was one of the most significant consequences of the war. Jackson at New Orleans, Dolly Madison in Washington and Oliver Hazard Perry on Lake Erie-all represented a spirit of nationalism that overwhelmed the Hartford Convention, the sacking of Washington and a series of military defeats. This spirit of victory carried forward into the strong nationalistic period that followed the war. Command at Sea If the "Building of Old Ironsides" exhibit symbolized technological ingenuity and the "Life at Sea" exhibit symbolized a strong community and national pride, there was still another important story to be told: that of the inordinately capable leaders who were captains of Constitution. Almost every important Naval officer prior to the Civil War served in Constitution. The ''Command at Sea'' exhibit explores how young men were trained for leadership responsibilities in the sailing Navy and how senior officers carried out these duties. Alone, often thousands of miles from help, without means of communication, usually serving as the sole representative of the US Government, the captains of Constitution had responsibilities almost incomprehensible in the modern world. Even astronauts on the moon are not so isolated or so dependent on their own judgments. As our ambassadors in many parts of the world, captains had to make decisions which affected our foreign and military position as no modern field officer would today. The "Command at Sea' exhibit emphasizes the need to train young people for leadership responsibilities and the need for leaders who can make critical decisions. It is no accident that some

14

of this nation's most capable leaders served in the sailing Navy. Preservation: An Ongoing Challenge

The ship, her men and her captains-each tells a major story of what Constitution symbolized. Another story we felt we must tell was how Constitution has been preserved from the time of Oliver Wendell Holmes' poem in the 1830s until the present. Old Ironsides floats majestically in Boston harbor today only because time and again the American people demanded she be saved. The story of Constitution's reprieves give great hope for all of us concerned about preserving the best of our historical buildings and artifacts. Every time the wrecking ball threatens, we can point to Old Ironsides and say, "Look what the American people did to save this grand old lady!" A Living Symbol

This leads to the final story the Museum has chosen to tell:

"Constitution, a Living Symbol." Holmes' poem was only one example of how artists, poets and craftsmen have evoked the spirit of this vessel. She has intrigued them since the day she was launched. We want to keep that spirit alive by encouraging present-day artists and artisans. The "living" ingredient in Constitution is not only that she is manned by Navy men today, but that artists, modelmakers, and artisans of all types-young and old-see her as alive on canvas, in their models and other art forms . An exhibit itself takes on this vitality and organic spirit. If indeed Old Ironsides is a living symbol, then the museum which bears its name must also be alive. Exhibits may connote a static display of relics and memorabilia or they may excite the imagination and curiosity of the visitor. We have chosen to make the visitor as much a participant in Constitution's messages as possible. The continuing challenge is to create an atmosphere where lively learning sparks a sense of pride, of understanding, of challenge. USS Constitution is a living symbol not only because of what she did, but also because of what she continues to do today.

NOTE: An authoritative ship's biography is found in TyroneG. Martin 's A Most Fortunate Ship (Chester CT, Globe Pequot Press, 1980, $17.95). An account of theformation of the Museum is given by its founding president, Rear Admira/J. C. Wylie, USN (ret.) in Sea History 17, p19. To join the Museum and be in continuing touch with this ship and her story, apply to USS Constitution Museum, Box 1812, Boston MA 02129.

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982


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Facts About Membership • You receive The Dolphin Book Club News 15 times a year (about every 311.! weeks). Each issue reviews a Selection plus scores of Alternates. Most books are offered at special Club discounts. • If you want the Selection do nothing. It will be shipped to you automatically. If you want one or more Alternate books-or no book at allindicate your decision on the reply form always enclosed and return it by the date specified. • Return Privilege. If the News is delayed and you receive the Selection without having had 14 days to notify us, you may return it for credit at our expense. • Cancellations. Membership may be discontinued, by either you or the Club, at any time after you have purchased 3 additional books.

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NEW YORK WELCOMES UNITED STATES - 30TH ANNIVERSARY COMMEMORATIVE PAINTING BY STEVEN CRYAN

"NEW YORK WELCOMES UNITED STATES" Famous passenger liner United States steaming past Battery Park in 1952 reduction-geared turbines - a combination that would give her a remarkable speed never to be equaled by any other liner.

on June 23, 1952, the United States steamed into New York Harbor for the first time. As this magnificent new flagship of U.S. Lines moved out of the Narrows into Upper New York Bay, a flotilla of harbor craft joined an escort of destroyers to give her an unforgettable welcome.

THIRTY YEARS AGO,

on July 3rd, she sailed from New York, bound for Le Havre and Southampton. She swept the 2942 miles between Ambrose Light and Bishop Rock in a record 3 days, 10 hours, and 40 minutes. Her average speed was 35 .59 knots. In November of that same year, she received the Hales Trophy, symbolic of the Blue Riband of the Atlantic.

which was based on a photograph taken by his father, talented American artist Steven Cryan captures the poetry of this graceful liner as she and her escort of harbor craft head upriver past Battery Park on June 23rd. IN THE PAINTING ,

TEN DAYS LATER,

DESIGNED BY G IBBS AND COX , under

the masterful guidance of William Francis Gibbs , and built by Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company, United States measured 990 feet overall with a gross tonnage of 53 ,300. Her slender hull held eight boilers and four double-

STEVEN CRYAN is noted for his unique ability to capture the character and detail of the ships and smaller craft that frequent New York Harbor, Long Island Sound , and small New England fishing villages . His paintings are to be seen in many private and corporate collections including those of the late Governor Ella Grasso , actor Art Camey, Red Star Towing Company, Witte Marine Equipment Company, Thames Shipyard and McAllister Brothers. Steven runs his own studio on the Connecticut River in Old Saybrook.

the original watercolor suitably framed (28" x 48") for $5 ,500; the reproductions are 25" x 15" (including border) 300 remarqued and signed at $110 each; 700 signed and numbered at $45 each.

MR CRYAN IS OFFERING

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please send me: _ _ remarqued and signed copy(ies) of the United States at $1 10 each _ _ numbered and signed copy(ies) at $45 each D I enclose payment (check or money order) (Add $2 for postage and handling) D Please bill to my MasterCharge _ _ or Vi sa _ _ or American Express Account - -¡ Card Number _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Exp. date _ _ _ __ CT residents please add 71->% sales tax.

NAME ADDRESS C ITY,

STATE, Z IP

Mai l to: Beau Art Ltd. , P.O. Box 355 , Guilford , CT 06437 ~ Checks should be made payable to Beau Art Ltd. ~ You may order by Phone Toll Free 800-45 1-4453. ~ Please have thi s order fo rm and charge card at hand.


Aport is more than sailboats and condominiums. To Massport, the Port of Boston is a thriving seaport. Asource of jobs and commerce. Amajor international shipping center. Just below the Charlestown end of the Tobin Memorial Bridge sits one of the busiest container berths for its size in the world: Moran Container Terminal. Last year, Moran handled a record 601,000 tons of containerized cargo-from shoes and steel mill goods to electronic components and frozen meat. Lumber, imported automobiles, steel, and other commodities reach New England through Massport's Paul W. Conley Terminal at Castle Island in South Boston. We lease this 105-acre complex to private steamship lines, including Sea-Land Services, one of the world's largest containership operators. To meet growing demand for Port facilities, we are opening an $18 million modem container berth at Castle Island. And we've started construction on Massport Marine Terminal, a $75 million marine terminal at the site of the old South Boston Naval Annex. These two development projects will create 2,500 jobs and pump $100 million annually into the region's economy. So, while it's nice to see sailboats in Boston Harbor, we think it's essential to see containerships as well. David W. Davis Executive Director

Mass--porl

Martin.c. Pilsch, Jr. Port Director

Creating a seaport for the 1980's and beyond.


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Boston in 1803, showing the Constitution's track as she left her anchorage off the Navy Yard, put in to be careened , and then lay at anchor off Long Wharf loading stores-leaving the Inner Harbor August 12, 1803. Map by William P. Bass. The six year-old Constitution looms grandly over harbor craft and the huddled buildings of Boston's waterfront in 1803. She has just been refitted and careened (hove over on her side to clean her bottom and replace missing copper sheets), and tough old Edward Preble, who had been a privateer in the Revolution, is about to take her to the Mediterranean to battle the Barbary pirates. This she did with notable success, becoming the pride of a young nation still not sureofits place in the world. It is a good moment for Boston, a lusty young metropolis already sending ships around Cape Horn to the Pacific Northwest and the China Seas, as well as back to Europe and the Levant. Painting by Roy Cross; fine art prints available from USS Constitution Museum.

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The Changing Face Sail still dominates the harbor scene more than half a century later, and the wooden walls of the sailing navy cluster about the Navy Yard piers, where USS Constitution underwent her first rebuilding in the early 1830s, in response to public outcry led by Oliver Wendell Holme's famous lines beginning '' Ay, tear her tattered ensign down'' when it was thought she would be scrapped. This photograph made from Bunker Hill Monument shows a light easterly blowing across the harbor water, wafting a covey of schooners in past the harbor islands as an early spring day draws in toward evening. And deepwater sailing ships tower over the brick and granite waterfront buildings; the tall-masted Down Easter seen across the piers of downtown Boston epitomizes the challenge of 200 years' seafaring from this port. Courtesy Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities.

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982


By 1900 steam-powered vessels have taken over with a crash, or in the case of the walking-beam engine passenger boats in right foreground, a wheeze and a thump. Here is a smoky industrial port, throbbing with vitality, bursting at the seams with immigrant population-including Congressman John F. (Honey Fitz) Fitzgerald, President Kennedy's grandfather, who brought the Constitution back to Boston for her hundredth birthday in 1897.

.of Boston Harbor NOTE: Those interested in the development of Boston Harbor today as a unique resource to " meet the needs of the people who depend on it for their livelihood, recreation and personal enjoyment" are invited to be in touch with Boston Harbor Associates, 75 Broad Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02109. They get out an excellent, informative newsletter, $15 / yr.

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982

In the background, one can count a half-dozen of the big Down East schooners that brought in the coal that fueled these steamers, and a couple of square riggers in deepwater trades. In the foreground, to the right, a handful of baronial yachts; and to the left, the splendid early 1800s buildings of Long Wharf, which still stand today. Courtesy Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities.

Pulling back, a camera in 1980 shows us a Boston profile swollen through landfill, and a downtown waterfront with only one major vessel at its piers, a passenger boat docked with two smaller sisters at Long Wharf, in the shadow of the Harbor Towers on old India Wharf. In the near foreground, the Boston Tea Party Ship and Museum can just be made out at the Congress Street Bridge across Fort Point Channel. Up at the top of the photograph, in Charlestown, is the giant Tobin Bridge leaping the wide, lazy waters of the Mystic River in surroundings eloquently described by Mr. Rogers on the ensuing pages. The bridge comes to earth in Charlestown, near the Boston Navy Yard and the tiny USS Constitution, a vessel dwarfed by the city that has grown up around her since she was built here, but still performing a vital function in reminding citizens where we came from, what it was really like, and what it cost along the way . Courtesy Aerial Photos International , Inc .

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'

Cruise into History with Bay State-Provincetown Steamship Co.

Traditional Service For The Finer Yacht

Sail around Boston Harbor on the Constitution Cruise, and go aboard "Old Ironsides." Cruise to George's Island and view the panoramic beauty of the outer harbor islands. Enjoy a cool sea breeze on the cruise to Nantasket Beach on the South Shore. Venture to Cape Cod for a day's pleasure aboard the M/V PROVINCETOWN II.

Half way down the Eastern shore of Falmouth Harbor lies MacDouga lls' Cape Cod Marine Service, Inc ., one of the Eas1 coas1's largest and most experie nced hauling, repair and s torage ya rd s.

In addition to their regularly scheduled cruises, all Bay State-Provincetown Co. vessels are ava ilable for charter. BAY STATE- PROVINCETOWN STEAMSHIP CO. 20 Long Wharf, Boston, MA. 02110 • (6 17) 723-7800

Complete Dock Services• 30 Ton Travelift • Railways to 100 Tons • NMEA Certified Electronics Technicians• Gas and diesel Engine Repairs• Electrical and Refrigeration Service • Sail Loft and Custom Canvas Work • Rigging and Furling Conversions• Paint and Varnish Shop • Fiberglass Repairs• Carpentry Shop • Marine Supplies Store • 20,000 Replacement Parts• U.S. Government Chart Agency• Inside, Outside and Bubbler Wet Storage .

~~~~~e~~~'.

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20

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982


Boston Harbor: A Wharf Rat's Reverie by Peter W. Rogers Nahant, Massachusetts is a square mile lump of rock in the ocean, connected to the mainland by a causeway. At the end of the town lies East Point, and I often walk over the crest of a hill, past mouldering gun mounts and ammunition bunkers and settle into the windblown grasses at the edge of a cliff. Below lies the heaving, bright Atlantic and the end of Boston North Channel where the pilot boat waits. Out there a great slab of a freighter will pause, and the ladder will be pulled back aboard. A puff of smoke, the thrash of the screw, and in stately time the image melts into the horizon. This silent evolution in the sparkle of morning light is Boston in step with its history. In the popular imagination, Boston is either a dead or a dying port, take your pick. It is neither. In 1981, 1,001 ships and 1,300 barges entered Boston; in 1913 2,050 vessels arrived, three-quarters of them coastwise. In 1849 roughly 9,000 vessels of all types cleared Boston; but in 1849 we were not dealing with 930' x 108' x 30' container ships with turnaround times of a few hours . In 1979, over 26 million tons of cargo passed through the port of Boston, and in 1981 only six times as many ships cleared the port of New York as cleared Boston. Dead port myths spring from two sources-the layman's intense aesthetic aversion to container ships and LNG carriers, and old photographs of harbors teeming with ships, the latter as much a reflection of inefficient cargo handling as anything else. The reader may now breathe easy, for we have cleared the shoal water of statistics and can proceed on an anecdotal tour of the Port of Boston. The harbor is a complex profusion of islands, bays, disgorging rivers and manmade channels, but in general terms the outer harbor is a semicircle with the flat side facing Northeast. It is protected to the north by the long arm of Winthrop and Deer Island and to the south by the peninsula ofNantasket and Hull. The semicircle is neatly bisected by Squantum, Moon Island, a causeway and Long Island. Across the seaward face lie the outer islands and Graves, Boston and Minots Lights. Boston Inner Harbor lies at the northwest corner of the semicircle. Historically, the harbor was much bigger than it is today, for a great deal of Boston and East Boston were built on landfill. Up in the far corner is Chelsea Creek, girdled by tank farms, and a fine place to locate older tankers because of the limited depth of water and the narrow confines of the Meridian and Chelsea street bridges . On the Chelsea side of the Meridian Street bridge is a fine little shipyard, Munro SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982

Drydock, and on the East Boston side an agglomeration of yard craft-tugs, lighters, crane barges and LCM's belonging to Perini Construction. One of these vessels, an old dragger, is ironically named Flying Cloud-ironic for the fact that right around the corner lies General Ship Corporation, on the site where Donald McKay's famous clipper was built. Further along the shore were the piers for many noted British steamship lines and the terminus for a thriving grain and livestock trade. At the end, under a commanding bluff sits the Bethlehem Steel Shipyard, built in 1859. Much of my time in Boston Harbor was spent at the bottom of it, and my first job out of diving school was right here at the Beth Steel yards, replacing transducer plates on the ship I was assigned to. Since scuba gear doesn't allow much purchase on a big Allen wrench, we waited until low tide, dug our feet into the mud and had about five feet of clearance to the ship's bottom overhead. A fine plan until the wake of a passing tug abruptly changed the headroom. Ships float on what's there to float them, a lesson not fully covered in the classroom. Opposite the entrance to Chelsea Creek stands the mouth of the Mystic River. Overhead is the vaulting mass of the Tobin Bridge. In its shadow, back to a tank farm, is the Chelsea Yacht Club where they do not wear red pants.* Along the south side of the channel are US Gypsum, the big J.F. Moran Docks (a Massport Container terminal) and the Schiavone Scrap terminal (ferrous scrap is one of Boston's leading exports). On the north shore, under a bluff crowned by the stately buildings of the old Chelsea Naval Hospital, are sugar refineries and piers, and Distrigas, where the massive LNG carriers from Algeria tie up. Several of these *Red pants were introduced in yachting circles right after World War II by Royal Ocean Racing Club members who picked them up from Breton fishermen. Today they are chic also on the golf course. -ED

ships have been built in Quincy, Mass. At the end is an enormous generating plant, an American Taj Mahal, dazzling and majestic in its own reflecting pool. Past the bridges and further up this narrow creek lies Medford where they built clipper ships, and the aspect of this place is such that that fact utterly defies the imagination. Around the corner lies Charlestown and Little Mystic Channel, once the center of the River Plate lumber trade. Passing the former Charlestown Navy Yard, one arrives at a bridge. Tucked into a corner here, and jutting out from City Square, is the GSA Pier. In this direction the message flashed from Old North Church, and standing here you could draw fire from Bunker Hill. Next door is the Hoosac Pier, named after the famous tunnel cut under the Berkshire Mountains, and through which passed 60% of Boston's exports in the 1890s. But on this site before that stood a landmark even more distinguished in the history of the city-Tudor Wharf, the center of a huge trade that was perhaps the paradigm of Yankee ingenuity. From here Frederick Tudor sent ice, the useless product of New England ponds, to India and South America, revived the Calcutta trade and made a bundle. And what is the purpose of the GSA Pier, surrounded by the richest aspects of American history? It is used to store IRS forms. Between Hoosac Pier and the Navy Yard lies a marina and a hundred-year-old barge. Below decks the massive timbers, low overhead, weak light and reeking bilges conjure imaginings of brutal surgery on orlop decks, thoughts soon dispelled by the aluminum lawn chairs stacked in a corner. On the other side of the channel is historic Boston proper and the North End, with a wonderful view of the harbor from Copp's Hill Burial Ground. At the apex of this section is the Coast Guard Base where I spent much time under water on coffeecup retrieval jobs. But there was also serious work, like looking for a lost 45 automatic. Lash Larue, the Quartermaster 21


Maritime Museums and Societies in the Boston Area by Daniel W. Perepelitza and Naomi Person of the Watch, had been spinning it on his finger. The gun vanished in the ooze, but we did find three rusted hedgehog ASW missiles. Since they were unarmed, we were allowed to keep them as souvenirs. The other fellow buried two of them, fins out, in his neighbor's flower garden and said the Russians had dropped them. When asked about the rust, he replied that Mongolian aviators clearly weren't up to basic maintenance. One of my ships was moored outboard of her sister, the famous icebreaker Eastwind which had, at the time, a valve handle, including an arrow with the legend "open," for a helm. A flap ensued one morning when the ship's helm was found two-blocked up a signal halyard next to the Captain's Absentee Pennant. Such was life in the Hooligan Navy. Past the Coast Guard Base is Constitution Wharf, where Old Ironsides was built, and located here is an abbatoir of the famous Old Quincy Market and Cold Storage Company. Since the loading dock for the dead cows was 10 feet from the gate of the base, we feared they might get it all mixed up one day, that we would become the catfood and Howdyburgers. The cows would become Bosun Mates and Junior Officers and the system would proceed as before. After this begins a row of piers, names as famous as any in the world-Battery Wharf, Union, Sargents, Lewis, Commercial, Long Wharf, Central Wharf, India, Rowe's and Fosters. This was the proud old Boston, wedded to the oceans of the world. The stately granite warehouses remain, home to outfits like Roche Bobois, upscale furniture. Now there is a lovely waterfront park, but here can also be heard the squeal and desperate cackle of dating bars . Here too is that gate count marvel, Quincy Market, the Parthenon of impulse purchases. Further along is the spectacular aquarium and the cruise boat pier. Boston has a delightful and very civilized institution, the concert cruise-classical music, Rhine wine, little pastries and the throb of a couple of big Detroit diesels . This draws a different crowd from the evening booze cruise, and I went out once with a group of elderly academics. This lyric throwback to the Danube of 1900 was abruptly altered by a steely, swirling fog sent express from the Gulf of Maine. Soon the dainty cakes were gone and we were a bum boat of shivering DP's. The orchestra, true to the traditions of the Titanic, kept at it-Straus waltzes syncopated by a big mother air horn. Past the downtown is Fort Point Channel, home of two museums, the brig 22

Beaver and some wonderful iron bridges. No doubt some renewal ace will put brushed aluminum panels on them . On the other side is South Boston, densely packed warehouses, rail sidings, the pile of Commonwealth Pier and the Fish Pier. There is also a rabbit warren of fish brokers who, like the Gnomes of Zurich, have global power. One hell of a lot more fish is brokered out of Boston than ever comes near the place. What these people can do with telephones and numbers Ma Bell and Einstein together couldn't do. Constitution Pier, a stately relic, draws some trade shows and the odd tallow ship. After the Fish Pier is the huge former South Boston Naval Annex, home of the East Coast's second largest graving dock. The face of the finger piers is now being filled in for a new container terminal . Next is the Reserved Channel, a busy section, including a big Sea-Land terminal. Here also, at the knuckle of Castle Island, is the classic architecture of Fort Independence and a cenotaph to the memory of Donald McKay. Around the corner runs Carson Beach, home of a curious "Southie" institution, the L Street Brownies, a midwinter bathing club. Each winter the paper shows a picture of a beefy, bullet-headed guy in a tank suit. Either it's the same file photo, or the Brownies demand uniform physiognomy. This year, for the first time ever, they admitted women. With bullet heads? Further down, in the corner of Dorchester Bay and the Neponset River, facing Columbia Point and the JFK Library, is a curious monument, the Dorchester Gas Tanks. Several years ago an artist was commissioned to gussy up the tanks, which she did with a sprawling abstract rainbow. At the time, the scuttlebutt spread throughout the fevered Boston underground that the middle stripe, the blue one, was a portrait of Ho Chi Minh . And there it stands, a resemblance convincing but oblique. If the intent were conscious, did it strike the artist that the medium for her Rushmore of Disdain was, after all, a huge bottle of trapped gas? Down in the same corner is another classic Boston touch . Here stands the Dorchester Yacht Club, hard by the major NorthSouth highway, the notorious "Southeast Distressway." Why waste an opportunity? The pilings of the yacht club are covered with political posters . Nowhere else in America! .t

Mr. Rogers, Chairman of the American Society of Marine Artists, served in the Coast Guard in Arctic and Antarctic waters and lives today in a house in Nahant overlooking the approaches to Boston Harbor.

Boston's Harborfest '82 events scheduled for the July Fourth weekend include waterfront ' concerts, vistis by US Navy ships, USS Constitution's annual turnaround cruise, fireworks and many other festivities. The Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities has one of the region's largest collections of New England yachting photographs of 1883-1923 . Prints are available for a small fee . Inquire: Ms. Ellie Reichlin, SPNEA, 141 Cambridge St., Boston MA 02114. Hours: Mon.-Fri., tours at !Oam, I lam, 1, 2, 3 pm; admission: $2. The Bostonian Society has artifacts from the China trade, whaling ventures and the Clipper Ship era, and a collection of mid-19th century Boston waterfront paintings by artists such as Fitz Hugh Lane and Robert Salmon. Society, Old State House, 206 Washington Street, Boston MA 02109. Hour s: Mon .-Fri., 9:30am-4:30pm, admission: 75Q:. The Boston National Historical Park consists of various sites in Boston connected by the Freedom Trail. The Park includes the Charlestown Navy Yard which opened in 1800 and for 174 years built, repaired and supplied the ships of the US Navy. It is the site of the USS Constitution Museum and the berths for that vessel and the destroyer USS Cassin Young . Ropewalk, foundry, marine railway and shipway are all standing and open to visitors. Hours: Daily 9-5, special tours available, free admission. Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston 02129. Also in Boston are the ship model collections of the Museum of Science and the Museum of Fine Arts; the boat building shop at the Museum of Transportation; the Boston Tea Party Ship and Museum on the Boston waterfront. Further afield , the Peabody Museum of Salem traces its beginnings to the East India Marine Society founded in 1799 by Salem captains and merchants. It now has a collection of international importance including over 3,000 paintings and a half million photographs, ship models, artifacts, plans, library and much more. Museum, East India Square, Salem MA 01970. The Francis Russel Hart Nautical Museum at MIT in Cambridge records the technological history of ships and marine engineering, with 42 sail and steam models on permanent 'exhibit. FRHNM, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 55 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139. By contrast, the Gloucester Fishermen's Museum is a participatory adventure where one can use the tools and touch the artifacts of Gloucester's fishing and ship building industries . Retired fishermen help explain the exhibits and bring life to the collection. GFM, Box 159, Gloucester MA 01930. Other important institutions beyond the Boston area are the New Bedford Whaling Museum (617-997-0046), the Marine Museum at Fall River (617-678-3533) devoted to power vessels, and the (battleship) USS Massachusetts Memorial (617-678-1100) also at Fall River along with the destroyer Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr., and sub Lionfish, all of World War II. SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982


'

A Time of Change ...

An upgrader at the Seafarers Harry Lundberg School of Seamanship learns automated engine controls on a training simulator.

Seafaring is in a period of great change and challenge. Radical new types of very costly ships that bear little resemblance to their predecessors. New methods of cargo handling. Changes in propulsion and ship design for energy efficiency. Widespread use of automation replacing manual jobs on board ship. The use of electronic data processing to expedite cargo movements and monitor ship operations. At the Seafarers Harry Lundeberg School of Seamanship at Piney Point, Md., we are up-grading the skills of our seamen to meet the technical challenges of this new age of seafaring . We are doing our part to maintain a strong, competitive and job-making American merchant marine on the trade routes of the world.

Seafarers International Union of North America 675 Fourth Avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11232

Frank Drozak, President


DAY'S RUN Report of the American Sail Training Association

Gron/and: A 114-year-old Polar Jagt Takes the Young Idea to Sea An historically significant museum ship which is successfully operated as a sail training vessel, the 114-year-old Gron/and was built by the naval architect Toleff Toleffsen in Skanevik on the Norwegian west coast in 1867-8. A gaff-rigged cutter, she was intended for polar sailing, and especially for seal hunting. Acquired by the German Polar Committee, after some refitting she sailed on May 22, 1868 under a Captain Koldewey, with a complement of two officers and seven able-bodied seamen from Germany, and two Norwegian sailors (the latter having had previous experience in Arctic sailing). Travelling to the east coast of Greenland, she went along the ice boundary to Spitzbergen, exploring the region up to latitude 81 ° 05' North, the most northerly point ever reached by a sailing ship without auxiliary engine. At that point, the ice forced her to turn about, and on October 9 the small wooden ship reached her new homeport of Bremerhaven, after a long and successful voyage without major accident. In a short time, enough money was collected to send a second German Arctic expedition on its way. However, this time it was aboard Germania rather than Gron/and (which was then resold to Norway in 1871). She survived there as a coaster until after the First World War, when she fell into oblivion somewhere in Germany. Little is known of this part of her history except that she was equipped with a small diesel engine. In 1972, her Norwegian owner, Emil Bjorn Hansen, was persuaded to show the ship during the Olympic Games in Kiel. She was one of the greatest attractions during the Sail Training Association's visit to Kiel in conjunction with the Olympic sailing competitions. The Deutsches Schiffahrtsmuseum became her new owner, and on September 5, 1973, Captain Wulf brought Gron/and back to the River Weser. She was welcomed to her home port of Bremerhaven with all honors, and is now an integral part of the museum fleet in the historical "Old Harbor" of the Deutsches Schiffahrtsmuseum. The return of Gron/and to Bremer haven intensified the wish to keep her under sail, and in June 1976 when the Deutsches Schiffahrtsmuseum entered into an agreement with the Bremerhaven Polytechnic School, stating: ''Staff and students alike are to make an experience of seafaring, going beyond the limits of pure training in navigation and 24

''TALL SHIPS'' FESTIVITIES The cities of Philadelphia and Newport have planned many activities for the Captains, crew, and cadets, of the visiting "Tall Ships," as well as offering opportunities for the general public to see the ships and their trainees at work and play. Inport schedules are subject to change. For last minute information, contact the "Century IV Tall Ships" office, Philadelphia (215-923-9030) or the ASTA office, Newport (401-846-1775).

seamanship. Their aim is to develop an attitude of their own towards Gron/and and towards sailing an historic vessel." Staff members and interested students turned to on a volunteer basis to begin restoring the ship to enable her to go again on long voyages under sail. Now in peak condition, Gron/and is under sail almost every weekend in the summer, carrying ten trainees aboard. The lasting enthusiasm of the crew and the Deutsches Schiffahrtsmuseum is a safeguard for her future under sail-as a true museum ship totally committed to sail training.

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Two new ships are making their entry on the sail training scene: the brigantine Ji Fung, recently launched in Hong Kong, and the new Mexican bark Quetzacoatl, which will be commissioned in July. We expect to review both ships further in a future Sea History.

New Classifications The division of sail training ships into classes was amended by the Sail Training Association at its November 1981 meetings in London. New classifications are: Class A: All square-rigged vessels and any fore-and-aft rigged vessels of 160 feet LOA and over. Square-rigged vessels include ships, barks, barkentines, brigs, and brigantines Class B: Fore-and-aft rigged vessels between 100 and 160 feet LOA. Fore-and-aft rigged vessels include topsail schooners, schooners, ketches, yawls, cutters, sloops. Class C: All other fore-and-aft rigged vessels with a waterline of at least 30 feet. Class A may be sub-divided into Division I and Divison II, according to size, so that the small square-rigged vessels are not in the same division as the large full-rigged ships. Classes Band C will ony be divided if the numbers demand it.

PHILADELPHIA Tues. , June IS-Ships finish Race from LaGuaira, Venezuela off Delaware Capes. Wed., June 16-Ships make their way up the river and anchor near Philadelphia. Thurs., June 17-8AM Ships assemble for Parade of Sail into Port of Philadelphia. 12 Noon Class A Ships dock at Penn's Landing. 3PM Class B & C Ships in place at Penn's Landing. SPM Captains' call on Mayor William Green. By invitation only. 7PM Buffet Supper for trainees on the quay. Sponsored by Council for International Visitors. By invitation only. 8PM Mayor's Reception for masters and officers. By invitation only. Fri., June 18-9AM Trainees to parade from Penn's Landing to Independence Square. IOAM Ships open to public until 6PM. HAM Awards Ceremony at Independence Square. 2PM Picnic for trainees in Fairmont Park. Sponsored by Women for Greater Philadelphia. By invitation only. 6PM ASTA Reception for Captains and officers at Penn Mutual Tower. By invitation only. Sat., June 19-8AM Vessels will dress ship. IOAM Captains' Briefing for Race 2 (Cape May to Newport) and Cruise-in-Company (Philadelphia to Newport) with exchange of cadets in the auditorium of the museum building at Penn's Landing. IOAM Ships open to public until 6PM. 7PM Buffet and Philadelphia Style Party for trainees in Judge Lewis Quadrangle in Independence National Park. Sponsored by Friends of Independence National Historical Park. By invitation only. Sun., June 20-9AM Roman Catholic mass at Stephen Girard Pavilion. Interdenominational service at the overlook. IOAM Ships open to public until 6PM. 7:30PM Dockside Concert for trainees and invited guests at the Stephen Girard Pavilion at Penn's Landing. Sponsored by the Century IV Committee. By invitation only. IOPM Fireworks over the Delaware River. Mon., June 21-IOAM Ships depart for Newport. NEWPORT Wed., June 23-Class Band C Ships will finish Races 2 and 2B. Thurs., June 24-IOAM Trainees will participate in Inshore Regatta. HAM Ships open to public until 6PM. 4PM Naval Captains call on RADM Edward Welch, President, Naval War College. SPM Captains' call on Mayor Paul Gaines and Governor J. Joseph Garrahy at the Colony House. By invitation only. 6PM AST A

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982


Eisenhower House, Fort Adams State Park, Newport, RI 02840

Tel: 401-846-1775

INTERNATIONAL RACES-1982 Reception for Captains and officers at Beechwood. By invitation only. 7PM Trainee Picnic at First Beach. Fri., June 25-lOAM Inshore Regatta continues, Fort Adams. HAM Ships open to public until 6PM. 5PM Mayor and Governor host reception for Captains and officers at Ochre Court. By invitation only. Sat., June 26-lOAM Inshore Regatta continues. HAM Prize Giving Ceremony in Queen Anne' s Square. HAM Ships open to public until 6PM . lOPM Tall Ships Ball at Rqsecliff. By ticket only. Sun., June 27-SAM Ships depart Newport in Parade of Sail.

1982 DIRECTORY One of ASTA's yearly projects is the publication of a "Directory of Sail Training Ships and Programs." The Directory gives a fairly comprehensive listing of sail training ships and programs in this country and a broad over-view of some European organizations, as well as a listing of all the "Tall Ships" throughout the world. Edited by Ms. Nancy Richardson, the 1982 edition of this Directory is hot off the press and is available at a cost of $3.00, plus 95<1: for postage, by writing to: Directory, ASTA, Fort Adams State Park, Newport, RI 02840.

CRUISES-1982 Spaces are rapidly filling on ASTA's sail training cruises for this summer. Open to young people between the ages of 15 and 26, this program consists of six one-week voyages aboard a deepwater sailing ship . On these cruises, the emphasis is on participation and learning. No prior experience is necessary. Trainees stand regular watches and learn to perform all duties in the ship as part of a watch team on alternating fourhour duty around the clock (although climbing the rigging is optional depending on the individual's preference). They are expected to care for their own gear, take a turn at cleaning and galley duty, and participate in sail handling-among other responsibilities. Training is provided by the ship's officers and crew. An ASTA counselor provides general guidance. Adventuress: 101 ' schooner, accommodates up to 30 trainees, she sails regularly on one-weekplus sail training cruises in Puget Sound, embarking and disembarking near Seattle, Washington. July 17-25 (ASTA session; ages 19-26) July 29-August 6; August 9-17 (ages 15-18). Cost: $250/ 8 days. Harvey Gamage: 115 ' Schooner, 27 trainees or parents/ relatives/ other adults. Individuals over

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982

The American Sail Training Association's 1982 program of four sail training races is well on its way to becoming a splendid event. Over forty ships have signed on to date, with many others expected before the races begin. Race One, the Inter-American Race, begins with a visit to La Guaira, Venezuela, in honor of their Navy's brand new sail training ship, the Simon Bolivar. In addition to this 270-foot bark named for the Venezuelan liberator, participants will include Esmeralda (Chile), Stargate (Senegal), Elinor (Denmark), Cisne Branco (Brazil), and Our Svanen (Canada). Four Venezuelan yachts (names and rigs not known at press time) have also indicated their intention to race. Unfortunately, not a single American flag-bearing ship has entered this race. Ships will leave on May 29th and race about 1725 miles to the Delaware Capes. On June 16th, the "Tall Ships" will cruise up the river to Philadelphia for a visit in conjunction with that city's 300th Anniversary which will be hosted by the Century IV "Tall Ships" '82 Committee. They will enter the harbor in a Parade of Sail the next day. After four activity-filled days, they will sail back down the river to Cape May. The Class A ships will be participating in a Cruise-in-Company to Newport with a crew interchange. The Class B and Class C ships will start Race Two to Castle Hill, a distance of approximately 315 miles. After four days of inport festivities at Newport, including the In-Shore Regatta and a Prize-Giving Ceremony for Race 2, the ships will start the series' third age 26 accommodated on this cruise only; number of adults is limited so that crew and adults do not exceed 500Jo of those on board. Cruise departs Mystic, Conn. June 20, arrives Newport, R.I. June 27. Itinerary includes Windjammer Weekend at Mystic Seaport; competition in ASTA's Class B race, MysticBlock Island-Newport; two days' sailing in Buzzard's Bay and Vineyard Sound with a stop at Martha's Vineyard; "Tall Ships" events and Inshore Regatta over Saturday; participation in "Tall Ships" Parade of Sail and observation of start of "Tall Ships" Transatlantic Race with return to Newport. A special feature is that parents of trainees-up to ship capacity-will be embarked free for the Sunday, June 27, events. June 20-27, cost: $395/8 days. Providence: 110 ' topsail sloop, replica of John Paul Jones' first command, 12 trainees. Cruise #1 departs from and returns to Newport, Rhode Island. Visits will be made to offshore islands, including Martha's Vineyard or Nantucket,

race-the New World Race to Lisbon, Portugal, a distance of approximately 2850 miles-on June 27th. Vessels expected on the starting line include: Esmeralda, Gloria (Colombia), Sagres (Portugal), Our Svanen, Stargate, Lindo (U.S.), Elinor, Cisne Branco, and Christian Venturer (Bermuda). On August 1st, the ships will be joined in Lisbon by many European-owned Class A, B, and C ships for the Silver Jubilee Celebration in honor of the 25th Anniversary of Sail Training Races. After an eventful visit, all of the ships will start a Cruise-in-Company to Vigo, Spain on August 7th under the auspices of the Cutty Sark "Tall Ships" Races. The last part of the series will be a race to Southampton, England which starts on August 14th. The Cutty Sark "Tall Ships" Races are organized and run by the Sail Training Association of Great Britain. The three-month-long series of Sail Training Races scheduled for the summer of 1982 again link up three continents. "Tall Ships" events serve to bring thousands of young people together from many countries in a world-wide program of continued growth in international understanding and goodwill. Although closing dates for entries have passed, additional ships are still being accepted at the discretion of Race Committee Chairman, Perry Lewis. The fee for these late entries is double the usual amount. The two basic requirements for participation in an American Sail Training Association race series are: a) minimum of 30 feet at the waterline and b) at least half of the ship's complement must be between the ages of 16 and 26. weather permitting. Sailing round the clock is stressed . Cruise #2 departs from Gloucester, Mass. and arrives Newport, R.I. via Cape Cod (whale watching) and the offshore islands. Cruise #1, June 28-July 5, Cruise #2 Aug. 22-29, cost: $275/8 days. Sheila Yeates: 66' gaff-rigged ketch, up to 10 trainees, sails regularly in Lake Superior along the rugged Minnesota and Canadian coast; offshore islands add to the charm and adventure. Cruise embarks (and debarks) at Grand Portage, Minn ., travels along the coast with excellent fishing and piloting opportunities. July 18-25, $325/8 days. Young America: 130' brigantine, 24 trainees, departing from Newport, R. I. Trainees welcome to board early June 27, participate in Parade of Sail and witness start of "Tall Ships" Transatlantic Race. Sail next day for offshore islands and southern New England coast, returning to Atlantic City, New Jersey. June 27-July 4, $325/ 7 days.

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The last issue of Sea History recorded that in 1981 The Marine Society (of England) was 225 years old. Jonas Hanway, who is otherwise remembered for having made the umbrella acceptable to London's gentlemen, is recognized as the Society's founder. But there is strong reason to suggest that Sir John Fielding, the "blind beak" (or magistrate) of Bow Street, should be given credit as cofounder, just as he is for co-founding the famous Bow Street Runners, prototypes of the ·modem police force. Sir John was half-brother to novelist Henry Fielding of Tom Jones fame and both were City of London magistrates who sat at the court in Bow Street directly opposite the Covent Garden Opera House . John Fielding was the first magistrate to send bad boys to sea, and English magistrates were still trying to do that as late as 1956, 200 years later. It seemed a convenient way of getting rid of them . Fielding became the Bow Street magistrate in 1754, two years before the founding of The Marine Society. Like brother Henry, he saw the "idle poor"-the unemployed and the neglected-as potential criminals. What better solution than to fill the King's ships with them, especially when war was looming up? On the 14th March 1756 the following news item appeared in the Public Advertiser: Ten fine Boys, from Twelve to Sixteen Years of Age, who had entered voluntarily to serve in the station of Captain's Servants on Board his Majesty's Ship the Barfleur, the Hon Henry Powlett, Commander, and had been cloathed from Head to Foot by his Lordship, set out from Mr Fielding's in Covent Garden, for Portsmouth. These Boys are the Children of the Industrious Poor of this Town, most of them fatherless, many of them Orphans, all of them friendless. They are healthy and strong, and expressed a great Desire of being on Board his Majesty's Fleet, where they will certainly be of more Use, and come to less Mischief than in this Town .

Given eighteenth-century practice there can be little doubt but that writer Henry penned this news item. Between its appearance and early that year John Fielding sent some 300 more boys to sea and Jonas Hanway was among those who subscribed to the cost. Not until 28th May, two days after the declaration of what is now known as the Seven Years War, did the name of The Marine Society appear in an advertisement which called for subscriptions 'for fitting out Boys and young Landsmen for the Royal Navy.' The initial meeting of The Marine Society does not appear to have been held until 25th June, when many City worthies, including Hanway and Fielding, came together at the King's Arms Tavern, Com-

Sir John Fielding, painted by N. Hone. Courtesy, National Portrait Gallery, London.

hill, a main thoroughfare in the City of London. One of those who has delved recently into Marine Society records is Professor G. Hewitt Joiner of Georgia Southern College, who has concluded that Jonas Hanway-a merchant in the Russia Company who was already known for other good works-rapidly emerged "as the guiding spirit, functioning administrative head, resident philosopher and apologist." As early as 1758 serious differences divided Fielding and Hanway, and Fielding's co-operation with the society-never amicable-was at an end. It is probable that Hanway never saw the role of the Society in quite the same light as the magistrate. Mr. Joiner puts it this way: "The boys whom Fielding was most anxious to see removed from the streets of the metropolis were those who had already fallen afoul of the law, and since this group contained the most likely prospects for scarpering with their clothing or jumping ship at the first opportunity, naval captains were not enthusiastic about being assigned such boys ." Within 20 years of its foundation The Marine Society was showing a reluctance to accept boys from the City magistrates . The emphasis given by the Society came to be more and more on a proper education as a way of preparing boys for life at sea, and in 1786 Hanway established the first training ship for this purpose. Fieldingand no doubt many of the City gentlemen who supported the work-thought of The Marine Society as a palliative for social ills . Hanway, on the other hand, saw it as an instrument for social change.

Dr:. Ronald Hope, OBE, isDirectorofThe Mmrine Society. SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982


SHIP NOTES, SEAPORT & MUSEUM NEWS by Naomi Person

INTERNATIONAL Friends of Ernestina/Morrissey held a conference at Mystic Seaport Museum on February 9 to plan for the imminent return of their fabled schooner to the United States from Cape Verde, off the West Coast of Africa, where she has been undergoing restoration (SH 23 : 21; 18-14, 15). Built in 1894, the Gloucester fishermanArctic explorer-immigrant packet has been rebuilt fit for sea, and is undergoing sea trials as we go to press. Those wishing to play a part in this historic undertaking should be in touch with Laura Pires Houston, Chairperson of Friends, c/ o NMHS, 2 Fulton St., Brooklyn NY 11201. Bermuda Maritime Museum has worked over the past year to provide better access for the public, proper storage and maintenance facilities for its small craft and work boat collection. The Museum is excavating a former dockyard on their site, and dives to probe the wreck of what is believed to be Sea Venture have uncovered artifacts including a late 16th century Bartmannskrug flag . Museum Assn., PO Box 273, Somerset, Bermuda. The 121 ' schooner Sofia sprang a severe leak, capsized and sank in late February in 40 mph winds off the north coast of New Zealand, with the loss of one crewmember's life . The vessel, built as a Baltic trader, had been fitted with a giant false keel last year in an effort to halt the worsening hog in her original keel. According to Capt. Evan Logan, "She may have become too stiff with the new keel and this could have shifted stresses from one point to another until a weak spot gave way." Sixteen survivors were rescued by a Soviet freighter five days after the vessel had gone down. Sofia had left New Plymouth on Feb. 21, heading north 150 miles to Auckland to participate in a film project. Mother-B.J. Traynor-Boats, PO Box 3121 GPO, Sydney, 2001, NSW Australia. Mariners International is offering berths in ships in the Cutty Sark Race from Falmouth, England to Southhampton via Lisbon (organized by the Sail Training Assn.) and the Tall Ships Races from Venezuela to Newport to Lisbon (organized by the American Sail Training Assn.). Share-expense berths are available on vessels for cruises throughout the summer in Europe and the Caribbean. Vessels include the 59 ' French pilot cutter Jeune Arian, the 107 ' gaff schooner Stina, the 3-masted tops ' ! schooner Elinor, the 216 ' full-rigged ship Sorlandet. MI, 51 Woodville Rd ., New Barnet, Herts ENS 5EG, England . The former sail training brig Unicorn is up for sale for $600,000 US, according to Mariners International. She was sold in 1980 to a St. Lucia owner, who chartered her for day sails. Built in Finland in 1948 by Helge Johansson, Unicorn was significantly rebuilt in the US in 1975-6 so that she is eligible to operate under the US flag in US waters with paying passengers or trainees. For further information: Mariners Int'!., address above.

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982

Various French cultural organizations, including the Regional Federation for the Preservation of our Maritime Heritage in Brittany, will hold their second Fetes de Pors Beach-a regional maritime heritage festival, July 23, 24, 25-in Brittany. The program includes: a regatta for 70 gaff-rigged boats, workshops in seamanship, boatbuilding, exhibits on harvesting from the sea and music of the sailing fleet. Festivities take place in Logonna Daoulas (named for Saint Monna who came from Ireland in a "stone trough," probably a curragh). Groupe Finisterien de Croisiere, cl o La ChasseMaree, Abri du Marin, 291000 Douarnanez, Brittany, France.

ding to a report in the Hull Daily Mail. Discovered a year ago, she is apparently resting in about 2 ' of silt, 210' below the surface, with a couple of holes in her hull. Museum, HM Naval Base, Gosport, Hampshire. HMS Warrior, launched in 1860, revolutionized concepts and technique in battleship construction; the push she gave shipbuilding led to her own obsolesence within a couple of decades (SHl6: 12-15). She served as a floating oil jetty at Pembroke Dock from the 1920s until 1979, when she was handed over to the Maritime Trust for reconstruction. Her impressive figure-

UNITED KINGDOM 1982 is Maritime England Year, with 2,000 special events planned both on the coast and inland. These include exhibitions on the Vikings, the Royal Navy, Darwin's voyages; heritage and shipyard tours, regattas, fishing and lifesaving demonstrations. Further reading and a full listing of events is available from: British Tourist Authority, 680 Fifth Ave., New York NY 10020. The wreck of King Henry VIII 's warship Mary Rose has been declared an ancient monument. Hence, the Mary Rose Trust will receive a ÂŁ150,000 grant from the Environment Department and a chance to apply for an additional ÂŁ50,000. A full report on the Mary Rose project was featured in SH23: 5-13. Trust, Old Bond Store, 48 , Warblington St., Portsmouth, Hampshire, PL! 2ET. SS Great Britain Project, in Bristol, reports that the iron hull of this 1843 vessel-the first oceangoing iron, propeller-driven ship in history-is now fully restored and watertight. In 1970, she was towed from the Falkland Islands-where she had been abandoned in 1886-back to the Great Western Dock in Bristol, where she had been launched . Much work has been accom. plished on the ship, including reconstructing much original structure, and progress has been made on the full scale replica of the original 1843 engine. Donations, visitors welcome: Project, Great Western Dock, Gas Ferry Rd., Bristol, Avon. Manxman Steamer Society aims to foster public interest and support for the TSS Manxman, the last of the classic packet boats, still in regular use for the Isle of Man Steamer Packet Co. They hope to see her taken on by the Merseyside County Museum when the vessel retires from service. Society, 56 Forest Lane, Papplewick, Nottinghamshire. "Vikings in England," an exhibit installed this spring at the Yorkshire Museum, displays artifacts from Scandanavia and Britain, and a replica cross-section of one of the Viking cargo ships found at Roskilde Fjord in 1962. The Royal Navy is determining whether Holland 1, Britain's first submarine, which sank off Eddystone in 1913, can be raised and preserved at the Royal Naval Museum in Gosport, accor-

head, a 12 ' warrior, existed until 10 years ago. Jack Whitehead is carving a new one on the Isle of Wight, out of 3 tons of yellow pine. Warrior is open to the public on weekends from Easter to August. Donations welcome. Ship Preservation Trust, Ltd., The Custom House, Victoria Terr., Hartlepool, Cleveland TS24 OSD. The 11 year-old Humber Keel and Sloop Preservation Society has launched a membership drive to raise funds to meet the costs of unexpected, extensive repairs to the sloop Amy Howson . Under full sail on the Humber River during 1981 for the first time since 1939, the Howson needs extensive replating to sail this year. Society, Mr. C.C. Lodge, Sec'y., Glenlea, New Ellerby, near Hull, Humberside.

UNITED STATES Marine Workers Historical Association, made up of former and present-day maritime workers, was formed in 1979 to "record a true account of the maritime struggle." Working closely with the Tamiment Library of New York University, the group hopes to add documents, personal histories and photos to their labor archives. A newsletter, The Hawespipe, "encourages all to join . . . to record their history." Assn., 10 Mitchell Pl., New York NY 10017. The Baltimore Clipper Pride of Baltimore will set sail from Baltimore in October 1982, bound for the West Coast-re-enacting several voyages of her predecessors, which made a few trips west over a century ago . Pride will call at Kingston, Jamaica before going through the Panama Canal, north along the western coast

27


SHIP NOTES, Sailing Adventures aboard the

SCHOONER HARVEY GAMAGE -a windjammer in true " down East" tradition. U.S. Coast Guard inspected 95' o.a. in length .

COLLEGE STUDENTS SEA QUARTER Plan a college semester aboard the SCHOONER HARVEY GAMAGE. Credits in arts and science you earn from Northeastern University, Marine Studies Department, may be transferred. Curriculum includes visits to many educational and historical places from Maine to the Virgin Islands. For curriculum, schedule and cost, write or phone-

Summer months the ship cruises the Maine coast out of Rockland ... winter months in the Virgin Islands from Charlotte Amalie. Enjoy a week under sail ... make new friends ... relish hearty meals ... return relaxed, filled with happy memories. Write or phone-

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The Log is a new monthly publication which serves as an information exchange, showcase and support for remote-control ship model builders. Each issue has articles on power, scale and sail. Intro. offer: $15/ year. Scale Model Ships Unltd., 54 Rockbille Ave., Staten Island NY 10314. USS Norton Sound Association's 11th Annual Reunion will be held July 29th-August I in Oxnard, California. PO Box 487, Port Hueneme CA 93040. I st National Conference/ Workshop on the Applications of Sail Assisted Power Technology was held in Norfok, Virginia, May 19-21, to address the economics of sail-assisted vessels . The Tugantine Norfolk Rebel was tied up at a nearby pier as an example of sail-assisted technology. Jon Lucy, Sea Grant, VIMS, Gloucester VA 23062. Capt. Francis "Biff" Bowker, master of the schooner Brillian/ at Mystic Seaport received the American Schooner Association Award for 1982, at the Association's 10th Anniversary Meeting in January . Bowker, who has been a leader in sail training programs for years, sailed in coasting schooners and is an Advisor of the National Society. Assn., PO Box 484, Mystic Ct 06355. The 1982 Directory of Sail Training Ships and Programs-new and improved-is now available. Compiled by Nancy Richardson, it explains the goals of sail training and provides a complete guide to operating vessels and organizations with programs or interest in the field, both in the US and abroad. $3 plus 95 .. handling. ASTA, Eisenhower House, Ft. Adams State Park, Newport RI 02840. The International Ships-In-Bottles Association, and the Maritime Museum Association of San Diego are sponsoring the first North American International Ships-In-Bottles Exposition, August I- September 30 aboard the 1863 iron-hulled bark Star of India, which is open daily to the public. All ship-in-bottle builders (members and non-members) are invited to join as exhibitors. Don Hubbard, Pres., Ships-In-Bottles, N. Am., PO Box 550, Coronado CA 92118.

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of Central America, Mexico and the States, to Canada. Upon completion of this 17 ,000 mile voyage, she will have sailed to every coastal state in the Union. Pride, 100 Light St., Baltimore MD 21202 .

EAST COAST Old Sardine Village Museum in Lubec was conceived, constructed and operated by Barney Reiser to tell the story of the sardine industry's role in that town where it flourished during the late 1800s till WW II . Reiser, who'd been collecting and tinkering with sardine equipment since the '50s opened his museum in 1977. Musuem, Lubec ME 04652. SE1A HISTORY, SUMMER 1982


SEAPORT & MUSEUM NEWS Maine State Museum staff helped move the Maine Maritime Academy's Allie Ryan Maritime Collection into the newly renovated Quick Hall on Academy grounds. This collection of New England steam navigation includes a replica of the pilot house of the steamer Goldenrod, which is open to the public. Funds were provided by National Endowment for the Humanities. Museum, State House, Augusta ME 04333; Academy, Castine ME 04421. The Wooden Boatbuilding Apprenticeship Program of Enterprise Marine Corp. in Newcastle is a private, profit-sharing enterprise that concentrates on the skills necessary to build small (8-17 ')boats. Tuition is based on length of stay in program. Speculation building and customer contract work make a profit-sharing income available. Enterprise, Box 33, Newcastle ME 04553 . The 68' schooner Stephen Taber, built 1871 at Glenhead, Long Island (New York), traded in Long Island Sound until sold Down East in the 1920s, where she carted cordwood, coal and similar supplies until going into the passenger trade in 1946. The oldest documented sailing vessel in continuous service in the US, she has undergone thorough rebuilding this winter, her first in ha! f a century. Taber, 70 Elm St., Camden ME 04843 . Sherman Zwicker, last of the Grand Banks fishing schooners, is undergoing extensive restora-

tion at Samples Shipyard. Built by Smith & Rhuland in Lunenberg, Nova Scotia in 1942, she sailed for a quarter century in the Grand Banks fishery, and has served as a museum ship in Boothbay, Maine, these last 14 years. Museum Trust, 100 Commercial St., Box 123, Boothbay Harbor ME 04537. "A Century of Maine Steamers," major new exhibit at the Maine Maritime Museum, opens June 26. It includes stories and design evolution studies of day boats and night boats, introduces the people who built and sailed the boats ... . Researcher Steve Bailey is compiling data on coastal fishing methods under a grant from the Endowment for the Arts . . . . A benefit auction, including a 12 ' cedar skiff built by the Apprenticeshop, will be held at the Museum July 10. Museum, 963 Washington St., Bath ME 04530. Sea Education Association's oceanographic programs aboard the RIV Westward celebrated their 10th yearofoperation last year . Over 1300 students have completed the Sea Semester program for which they received a full semester of

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982

college credit. The program includes a 6-week shore component and a 6-week sea component aboard Westward. SEA, PO Box 6, Woods Hole MA 02543. The Kingston Boat Yard on the Jones River has been in business since launching the brig Kingston, built in 1717 by Stephen Drew. It was recently sold to Marjorie and Neale LaPlante, whose home, a 1780 sail loft, is adjacent to the yard. After cleaning up and selling derelict boats, they plan to rebuild the old marine railway. Yard , Town Landing Road, Kingston MA02364. Pledges to Mystic Seaport Museum's Preservation Fund put the drive over halfway toward its $7,715,000 goal as of January. The volunteer Gung Ho squad, meeting Saturdays, has lightened the task by building 9 new finger piers for visiting craft .... A new tide house now sits on Bartram Dock to accommodate the recently acquired "Standard Automatic Time Gate" which records tides . ... Redecking continues on whaleship Charles W. Morgan at Museum's DuPont Restoration Shipyard .... Summer events include centennial celebrations for ship Joseph Conrad which Alan Villiers sailed round the world in the 1930s; Sea Music Festival, June 11-13; Windjammer Weekend, June 19-21; Independence Day 1880s re-enactment, July 4; Antique & Classic Boat Rendezvous, July 24-5 . .... Museum's Munson Institute offers graduate courses in American Maritime Studies, June 28-August 6; applications due June 11 .... Museum's distinguished journal The Log offers a $500 prize and publication for the best scholarly article submitted by December I-entry rules sent on application . Seaport, Mystic CT 06355 . Traditional Great South Bay oyster sloops Modesty and Priscilla alternate their sailings from Suffolk Marine Museum, so that one is always at dockside for visitors , while the other carries news of the Museum to nearby ports .... Retired baymen now serve as interpreters for exhibit on oystering and the old Dutch community in Randolph Oyster House . ... An oral history group meets every other Wednesday. All are welcome! Museum, Box 144, W. Sayville NY 11796. Full Sea, Inc. has moved its wood shop and office into the old post office in Sea Cliff. Their growing fleet of historic vessels, including the recently donated yawl-rigged 1905 New York 30 Ibis are kept at Brewer's Marina in Glen Cove. Volunteers helped in setting up shop, refinishing spars and refastening old hulls. Courses offered this season include marine biology, literature, seamanship and boatbuilding. Volunteers sought to lend a hand or teach . Full Sea, 256 Sea Cliff Ave., Sea Cliff NY 11579. The 1885 iron fullrigger Wavertree at South Street Seaport Museum has undergone extensive cleanout, painting, restowing of ballast, etc., with some 2000 hours of volunteer labor put in by The Wavertree Gang. Volunteers, donations are sought for this National Society Ship Trust project .... A major exhibit on restoration work in the Seaport area opened in the Museum Gallery on Water Street in April. Museum, 203 Front St., New York NY 10038.

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SHIP NOTES, SEAPORT & National Maritime Historical Society News ... Sail training programs aboard the Chesapeake Bay skipjack Mamie A . Mister and the sloop Francy are being conducted by Captain Neal Parker this summer, under the auspices of the Society, the vessels sailing from the Society's pier at Fulton Ferry Landing .... The Society's summer schedule was launched on Saturday May 22 with SEA DAY-the annual waterfront maritime heritage festival . Pete Seeger joined a host of musicians, boatbuilders, model builders and education groups to celebrate the public waterfront-and to call on New Yorkers to keep it public! . .. Walking tours will be sponsored by the Society throughout the summer. Society, 2 Fulton Street, Brooklyn NY 11201.

models and lumber for outfitting the new shop. The Museum is also the new home of the Titanic Historical Society's archives. Museum, 321 Chestnut St., Philadelphia PA 19106-2779. Society, P .O. Box 53, Indian Orchard MA 01151. A campaign is underway to raise $250,000 for the restoration of the US Coast Guard ice breaker cutter Mohawk, which fought in the

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Sotheby Park Bernet, auction house, hosted a preview in December of the world's largest private whaling collection, the Barbara. Johnson Whaling Collection, to benefit the NMHS. Over the past 20 years Ms. Johnson, an NMHS trustee, acquired Jogs, journals, tools and gear, ornamental pieces, paintings, photographs and scrimshaw, including two of the famed "Susan's Teeth." The benefit, which netted nearly $4,000 for the Society was held prior to Sotheby's first auction of the collection. The second of three sales will be held Sept. 24-25. Further information: Ms. Druckman or Mr. Stahl, Sotheby's, 1334 York Ave., New York, NY 10021.

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Eleven thousand people turned out on a cold, wet Sunday afternoon February 28, to glimpse the hull of an armed sailing ship buried in landfill on New York's Water Street-around 1750! Developer Howard Ronson, digging the foundations for a 30-story office building in the Lower Manhattan financial district, financed archaeological exploration of the site resulting in the recovery of some 150,000 artifacts, and in the uncovering of the ship. The bow section and samples from other parts are to be saved. Inquiries: Ship Trust, NMHS.

-:....., Battle of the North Atlantic. She will be a Wilmington Waterfront attraction, a training center; a living museum and memorial to all those who participated in engagements in the North Atlantic. A volunteer crew maintains the vessel and is preparing her for use. Tax deductible contributions to Wilmington Waterways, Inc., Mohawk, 901 Washington St., Wilmington DE 19801. Lots of good news comes our way through the Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum's newsletter Weather Gauge. With attendance of 82,000 in 1981, the Museum's next project is an exhibition building devoted to the history of mechanical power on the Bay-from the first steam-powered vessel on the Bay, Pocahantas, in 1813, to the adoption of the internal combustion engine and present-day technology. Board member William Combs donated to the Museum his 51 ' buy boat, Mister Jim, built by Dorchester boatbuilder Jim Richardson. Museum, Navy Pt., St. Michael's MD 21663. Calvert Marine Museum has been officially accredited by the American Association of Museums. They are the recipient of a National Endowment for the Humanities grant for a Patuxent River Folklife and Oral History Project, focussing on commercial fisheries in the area. Construction of a boat basin, marsh habitat and relocation of the small craft shed are on the schedule for completion by fall. Museum, PO Box 97, Solomons MD 20688.

Canal Society of New Jersey offers monthly meetngs, lectures, tours, and a fine newsletter On the Level to its members-many of whom are active in restoration and research. A Canal Study Tour to England will take place in June at which time the Society will present a contribution to the Trent and Mersey Canal Society for restoration of one of the cast iron mileposts that line that Canal. Society, P.O. Box 737, Morristown NJ 07960.

Hampton Mariners Museum was host to the 1982 Museum Small Craft Conference, May 7-9, which featured small craft of the Southeastern United States with speakers from the Coastal Heritage Society, naval architects, boatbuilders, etc. The Museum's curator has been researching small craft of North Carolina under an Institute for Museum Services grant, and in view of threatened cutbacks is seeking contributions to continue this work. Museum, 120 Turner St., Beaufort NC 28516.

The barge Maple, now converted to a Workshop on the Water is among the new educational and library facilities at the Philadelphia Maritime Museum, which seeks old or new tools, equipment, engines, plans,

Key West Maritime Historical Society for the Florida Keys is developing as a three-pronged organization: maritime museum, preservation society and educational facility. Hoping to acquire an 1852 brick Coast Guard base building

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982


MUSEUM NEWS which offers 30,000 square feet of space, they are now housed in 2 storage buildings donated by the Navy. Waterfront space would be available for berthing vessels near the proposed site. ... The fate of the 130' schooner Western Union, which is now in financial trouble, is a concern of the Society. Built in Key West in 1939 by local and Grand Cayman Island shipwrights, Western Union replaced the schooner John W. Atkins, to service undersea telegraph cable. Society, 1123 Packer St., Key West FL 33040.

GULF COAST The Tampa Bay Maritime Society, hitherto functioning as a model-builders' club, incorporated in February and has filed for non-profit status as a museum group devoted to the maritime heritage of Florida's West Coast. The Society already had two small boats, is adding a club for people interested in restoring historic craft and a sail training program for local residents, and has begun collecting nautical artifacts. Society, 1603 Arrawana Ave., S., Tampa FL 33609. ,..

The Galveston Historical Foundation reports much progress on their iron bark Elissa. As we go to press standing rigging is almost complete and yards are being sent up, carpenters have finished the forecastle head deck and are working on the after accommodations. Elissa will open to the public July 4th for the summer: GHF, PO Drawer 539, Galveston TX 77553 .

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Southern California's Wooden Boat Festival will be held June 5-6 at Newport Beach. Reservations for displays, exhibits, boats; information: Festival, 700 Lido Park Dr., Berth 40, Newport Beach CA 92663. R.C . McCloskey, founded the Slocum Society, to record one and two-man transocean passages. The Society publishes a monthly newsletter The Spray named after Joshua Slocum's 37 ' boat. Society, PO Box 1164, Bellflower CA 90706. In its first year of operation, San Francisco's Maritime Humanities Center has compiled a listing of West Coast maritime resources: individuals and groups knowledgeable about the art, history, folklore and literature of the sea. The Center is also undertaking a bibliography of books dealing with the Pacific maritime experience, and a speakers program, "Men and Women of the Sea" in local public schools. Center, Ft. Mason Fdtn, Laguna & Marina Blvd., San Francisco CA 94123 .

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982

For generations it was customary for shipwrights to fashion a half-model of a ship prior to construction. Handcrafted forms similar to these enabled the builder to study and perfect hull design before a complete set of plans was drawn. These models were not only functional but were often used to adorn the walls of ship yard offices. Each hull is hand carved using only select grades of mahogany and cedar. Close attention is given to the vessel 's plans to assure accuracy.

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SHIP NOTES, SEAPORT & MUSEUM NEWS ;â&#x20AC;˘

The Port of Oakland has made a commitment to restore and operate the Potomac, the government yacht used by President Franklin Roosevelt. She will make regular calls at the ports of Sacramento and Stockton so that school children and the public may visit. The Port has begun construction of the new Clay Street Pier in Jack London Square, where Potomac will be berthed . Potomac, 95 Jack London Square, Oakland Ca 94607. Steamer Virginia V Foundation celebrates this year the steamer 's 60th anniversary (see SH 14:40). In drydock at Lockheed Shipyard this past winter, Virginia V's hull was recaulked, her machinery overhauled and she is presently chartering in Puget Sound . Membership :

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The 85 year-old wooden schooner Wawona (whose story has been reported in SH 20and 21) sank at her berth on Lake Union in late February due to heavy rains. The vessel was subsequently raised " incredibly carefully" by Crowley Maritime, and there has been no hull damage due to the sinking. Kathleen O'Shea, director of the Northwest Seaport, owners of the vessel, reports they were negotiating with the city for permission to share the dock . There were no pumps or electricity aboard. The Seaport is presently buying covers for the ship, and setting up a gangway and headquarters on the pier. The immediate goal is to raise $300,000 to stabilize Wawona and begin long-term restoration. Seaport, PO Box 2865, Seattle WA 98111.

the project over ten years ago. Careful documentation of all phases of sailing and navigation will be made to better understand Viking exploration methods as well as medical studies monitoring human reaction to prolonged exposure to high stress and adverse weather. Tax deductible contributions welcomed. Hjemkost Viking, Inc., Box 127, Moorhead MN 56560.

LAKES AND RIVERS

AUSTRALIA

Mississippi River Museum's offices moved to a new site on Mud Island which will have its grand opening July 3-4. The island, owned and operated by the City of Memphis, houses the Museum 's gallery of boats, packet boat and towboat pilot house reconstructions, music and art galleries, exhibits on the history of steam, levees and the Civil War; and an outdoor 5-block-long scale model of the River from Cairo, Illinois to the Gulf of Mexico. New address: Museum, Mud Island, 125 N. Main St., Memphis TN 38103 .

The Australian Association for Maritime History reports a small bronze swivel gun, believed to have come from the Dutch shipwreck Zuytdorp, marked with the Dutch East India Company's insignia ZVOCM, was found in Shark Bay, West Australia by two you ng boys who each received $500. A similar award was made to a Western Australian man who discovered the wreck of the iron barque Europa which sank in 1897 . Assn., Hon . Sec'y ., Box N240 Grosvenor St. , Sydney 2000, New South Wales.

Hjemkost, Norwegian for Homecoming, is a 76 ' sailing replica of an 11th century Viking longboat. She'll set sail from Duluth , Minnesota on May 17 bound for Norway, with a crew of twelve. She is scheduled to arrive in Oslo in July, and to return in 1983. Hjemkost was built by the late Robert Asp and friends who started

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The Australian Institute for Maritime Archaeology was officially opened for membership at the Second Southern Hemisphere Conference on Maritime Archaeology in Adelaide in March. A Bulletin and Newsletter will be published periodically. Jeremy Green, Dept. Maritime Arch., W. Aust. Maritime Museum, Cliff St., Fremantle W. Aust. 6160.

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"Twilight, San Francisco Bay"

watercolor, 21x29

ASMA's Fifth National Exhibition: The Revolution Is Here by James E. MitcheU, President American Society of Marine Artists The American Society of Marine Artists has travelled a prodigious distance since the early days of our first exhibition in 1978. This has resulted in vital, healthy achievement and a diverse maturity evident in the art on these pages-work generated by a strong core of dedicated, loyal artists who promulgate the high ideals and standards developed within the Society. Administering the ASMA is a large order for a few people, and it is no little miracle that the Society's exhibitions have become hallmarks of quality in American marine art. The initials now connote a credibility sought by galleries, collectors and others pursuing any interest in this exploding subject. For five years now ASMA artists have, as a group, explored our art form, and this has spawned a variety of exhibitions. The latest of these is the long-promised venture into historic Philadelphia. During 1981, when the demolition derby took its toll of our annual Grand Central Galleries site at the Biltmore Hotel in New York, we were presented with the alternative of showing our stuff in that other center of maritime America. So, encouraged by one of the ASMA's most generous and loyal supporters, Mr. Adrian Hooper, (then President of the International Ocean Transport Company in Philadelphia), the ASMA opened the first of its 1982 national exhibitions on April 16 at Newman & Saunders Galleries in Wayne, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Philadelphia. Officially titled, "The Fifth National Exhibition of The American Society of Marine Artists," this effort seems to many to stand forth as a qualitative best among ASMA endeavors to date. There is an exceptional diversification of subject matter, as well as fresh exciting approaches to it. The walls are no longer chock-a-block with square-riggers, for artists are showing the world that there is far more to the investigation of subject than the one monotonous mode of safe salability. It is an arousing new exercise to jury the submissions of artists who dare to experiment in selectivity even if, at this stage of development, we have failed to 34

pursue wholesale intellectualism in our art form. Once the movement becomes more firmly rooted, however, the freeing of strictures among many artists will encourage a deeper search within themselves as artists. To date, innovations and experimentation within this art form have been hindered by lack of encouragement from the marketplace. That too will change. The Newman & Saunders event represents another milestone among the ASMA exhibitions. It is the first show for which the jury was freed from the burden of producing implausible numbers. Heretofore, quantitative exhibit parameters dictated acceptance of some marginal work which had to be subsidized by a hard-wrought balance of first-quality paintings. This exhibit is also the first showing held amidst a veritable brawl of concurrent, outside invitational marine exhibitions in three widespread locations. These factors increased the pressures on the ASMA membership in profound and abundant ways. The familiar core of loyal artists who responded in support of the Society's commitments have produced an exhibit where quality prevails. In spite of the many conflicts on the ASMA schedule, the exhibition at the Newrrian & Saunders Galleries, was the most rigidly juried show thus far fielded. On the very heels of the Newman & Saunders Galleries exhibition, the ASMA is already cranked up for the balance of the 1982 season. At the head of the list of priorities is our return to Grand Central Galleries for the annual exhibition in New York City. The ASMA exhibit will be among the inaugural openings at Grand Central's impressive new quarters on West 57th Street. At firsthand look, the revitalized gallery will be among New York's largest, and the prestige of its new location adds to Grand Central's already deeply rooted reputation as a bastion of top American art. In light of these many actiwe and exciting events in the mounting expansion of American mlarine art, related developments are :SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982


"The crux of the issue is . .. to stand behind the statement of self-imposed values. ''

Frank W. Hand/en "Steam Drifters" oil, 26x36

emerging which bear looking into. Everyone who relates to marine art is affected, whether he be artist, historian, collector, or strap hanger. Needed: An American Revolution

The January 19, 1982 edition of The ARTnewsletter, an international biweekly report on the art market, contained an extensive evaluation of the current market in marine art. The report, replete with interviews and quotes from gallery and museum directors, among others, hinted at the sudden growth trends in the art form. While I was quoted out of context as saying, ''thereis no revolution afoot," more recent events have made this statement obsolete. It disturbs me when any group of artists is sold down the river. Another quote for ARTnewsletter suggests just this happeninga quote elicited from a marine art gallery director in business no more than 100 feet from the 1981 ASMA/Peabody Museum Exhibition. For sheer numbers and diversity of subject matter, and as representing the highest levels of quality on the contemporary American marine art scene, the Peabody Museum exhibit stood as the outstanding exposition of this art form to date. A year later, the effects still reverberate in the press and upon the lives of every artist who participated. And yet, we find this gallery director lamenting that ''American harbor views are at a premium,'' while implying that anything else being produced is an unsalable drug on the market. This man, unable to bring himself to acknowledge what lay across the street, further stated: "Our problem now is trying to locate good marine paintings." In virtually the same breath, this person proposes the British Montague Dawson as among the most prominent of 20th century marine artists ... and he uses his pulpit to promote two other British artists (both of

James E. Mitchell "Day-long the Heaven Grew Greyer with Gathering Storm " oil, 24x48

whom are in his stable) as ranking among the top contemporary marine painters. We seem, here, to be in the business of promoting dead or foreign artists. Either way, artists who are not part of our American scene today. I am not amused by such biased attitudes on the part of purveyors of the art form which has been my entire life. In the habit of too many of today's art-related media, far too much space in the ARTnewslettertreatise was given over to the big bucks theme for what we in the contemporary market refer to as "dead art." Few among us denigrate the many artists who led the way in marine subject matter, for granted, there were some few . . . far too few ... who were credible masters. We all revere those whose skills remain as inspirations to our art form . Too often however, collectors, critics and media writers seem swayed by the faddishly swollen prices of works which stand valueless beyond mere decorative items, primitive period pieces, or dubiously derived, noodled-up illustration-cum-calendar art. It is massively frustrating to be faced with a dwindling buyers' market influenced by the hype that elevates "dead art" far beyond its worth. Coupled with the equally damaging emphasis on foreign artists, this brings about a situation of grave consequences for artists in America. ... and It Is Happening!

Salvation from the pressure of art markets shaped by the dictates of the self-serving few can be achieved only by concerted efforts by the many. The ASMA delivers a cooperative clout. Were we to have achieved nothing else, the fact that we have attained a forum for our philosophies makes it all worth the vast effort. By subtle methods, and some not so subtle, the ASMA continues to


Charles F. Kenney "Wanderer Recalling Whale boats"

oil, 29 x 35

Victor Mays

36

"Schooner Docking South Street"

watercolor 14x21

promote not only the highest levels of expression in marine art, but endorses ethical and aesthetic paths in its execution . In the "old days" far too many of us were near hermits. The oldest among us started out when the world of marine art was made up of Frederick J. Waugh, Anton Otto Fischer, Gordon Grant and few others worthy of mention. Within our lifetimes, we may have personally befriended one or two other artists addicted to the same subject matter. Others were seen from afar through infrequent reproductions of their work. Seldom were we able to exchange views and debate methods with large groups of our peers, not to mention experiencing large collections of diverse works within the field. Regular group showings of marine art was unheard of. In short, there existed a near total lack of an American marine art movement. The emergence of the ASMA built a national membership of over 200 kindred souls. Within this group live approximately forty artists whose works are exhibited and sold with regularity. Some of this number are not professionals-but their output is! From an initial schedule of one annual exhibition, the calendar has grown in five years to include two national juried exhibitions and several invitational exhibits in galleries throughout America. The list grows annually at an alarming pace. The ASMA, it is becoming evident, has provided a catalyst generating solid interest and support for an American marine art movement. Few similar artist organizations in the world have dared to set the standards that ASMA artists pursue, and it is this factor which has lent credibility to the art form in America. The establishment of this market has led to other ills, however. THE BRITISH ARE COMING! and lo, it's 1775 all over again. Here comes the Royal Society of Marine Artists, right up the hawsepipes of some short-sighted American institutions who choose to ignore the budding revolution of American marine art taking place under their noses . Consider the Smithsonian Institution, epitome of Americana: a recent issue of their magazine featured a ten-page, color section on works from the Battle of the Atlantic Collection commissioned by the United States Navy . . . done entirely by British artists. Perversely, Washington, our capital city burnt once by the British, harbors more such goings-on. A newsletter from a Washington gallery touts the work of four more marine artists, and only those four, all working on historic American themes ... (this gallery features a branch in London) ... each artist is in the gallery's stable; each one is British. A full color advertisement in a recent issue of Antiques magazine, placed by the same gallery; same song, second verse: historic American subject, another British artist. Had enough? There's more: the USS Constitution Museum recently purchased a painting of our country's "First Ship,'' and did so with widely broadcast hoopla. Once more painting of an historic American marine subject; one more commission to a British artist. More yet: Philadelphia's Franklin Mint commissioned four marine paintings .. . another British artist. I find just cause for serious concern in this contradictory evolution in my art form. Does the fact that one of my own paintings of a British ship in a British setting hangs in the National Maritime Museum at Greenwich make me expert in England's maritime history? I believe in international cooperation. The work of the National Maritime Historical Society and its Ship Trust, along with its sister organization, England's Maritime Trust, both working within the World Ship Trust~ provide a stellar example of SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982


Christopher Blossom "British Ship Ardnamurchan Entering Port Blakely" oil, 32 x 45

achievements toward a mutual goal. These are the leaders in an international consortium which works hand in hand in the salvage and preservation of historic ships. That is as it should be, but there is a vast difference between cooperative efforts for altruistic purposes and the conflicts that arise when nations compete for bread and butter. Competition has proved a healthy factor in improving American industry and all of the arts. German and Japanese car imports have caused more improvements in the American gas-guzzler than the worst of an Arab oil boycott alone. On the other hand, the success of those invasions brings us full circle to the' 'ultimate remedy": trade sanctions . I certainly do not advocate that treatment for any faction of the arts, for the very lifeblood in all of the arts has been, and always will be nurtured by free international exchange. The proponents of fair trade, open competition in the marketplace, and the "hands across the sea" gambit, all propose that the artist must never be denied access of his product anywhere in the world.

The ASMA in declining the invited participation, cost-sharing, or tacit endorsement-by-silence of the flamboyant British incursion on our shores, does so for a variety of hotly debated reasons . The crux of the issue is not so much the boycott of a dubious foreign product of questionable worth, as it is to stand behind the statement of self-imposed values, and to focus on the loyalties developed within our marketplace and membership.

NOTE: Mr. Mitchell's call to artists and buyers to demand and work to high artistic and seamanly standards, is one we gladly march to. However, we feel that artists before our time are not dead but live today if their work be worthy. So Mr. Davidson's portrait of the Constitution on our cover lives for us in bringing life to a memorable scene. We also believe national divisions have no place in ourforecastle. Accordingly, you will find Mr. Cross's painting of the USS Constitution, to which Mr. Mitchell objects, reproduced on page 18. There is also an appreciation of Mr. Cross's work in SH 14.-ED.

Raymond A. Massey "HMS Beagle in the Beagle Channel" oil, 32 x 48

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982

37


NANTUCKET - The side-wheel steamboat "Nantucket" rounding Brant Point Lighthouse in 1908. Image 18 3/4" x 30". Edition of 950 S/N, with the first 200 remarqued (S/N $100, remarqued $150.) 100% rag.

This beautiful color lithograph is another in a series of historical narrative marine scenes by Paul McGehee, depicting the ports and vessels of America's past. McGehee, a self-taught artist born in 1960, is interested in history and spends many hours of research on a subject before he starts on a small rough pencil sketch. Paul likes to visit the actual site of the scene, whenever possible. After a composition is worked out, Paul will draw a large, detailed pencil drawing, and from that point will start work on one or more small oil paintings of the scene, to decide upon a color scheme. After all that is complete, Paul is ready to begin his 30" x 48" original oil painting, from which these prints are made. "Nantucket" is printed on the finest acid-free 100% rag stock under the artist's supervision. Prices are subject to change. 50 Artist's Proofs. Offset litho. Published in 1982.

DEALER INQUIRIES ARE INVITED SEND FOR OUR FREE FOURTEEN-PAGE COLOR CATALOG Call (703) 528-5040, or write 704 N. Glebe Rd., Room #212, Arlington, Virginia 22203 Š 1982 Paul McGehee


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Bill Baker (left) and Alan Villiers aboard Mayflower II, April 1957. The passing of these men, Bill last September and Alan this March, leaves our company of sea historians sorely diminished. Our salute to Bill appears here; an appreciation of Capt. Villiers will follow . Photo courtesy Ruth S. Baker.

A Farewell Salute WILLIAM AVERY BAKER,

1911-1981

by Erik A.R. Ronnberg, Jr. On September 8, 1981, William A. Baker died, one month and three days prior to his 70th birthday. He was undoubtedly the best-known and most highly regarded ship historian and designer of historic ship replicas of his time-an era that spanned two important phases of American maritime history and two very different generations of maritime scholars . Well established in his chosen profession of naval architecture at the Bethlehem Steel shipyard at Quincy, Massachusetts by the mid-1930s, Bill's spare-time interest was sparked by the pioneering work of Howard I. Chapelle, Marion V. Brewington, and the legions of yachtsmen, artists, and modelmakers who followed these two men and a handful of sympathetic academicians. The 1930s became a great period of gathering information on regional maritime cultures-the trades and tradesmen who lent purpose to the ships. The results were prodigious, and even now they have been only partially assessed, but this decade brought forth the bulk of the raw information which we are studying today. Although Baker's interests in this field were then passive, he was keenly aware of the gathering processes at work and their significance to future historians. By the late 1940s, new viewpoints were becoming manifest. In contrast to the quantitative approaches used by Chapelle, Baker preferred qualitative methods. Instead of dealing with many ships in a generalized way, he preferred to work on a single vessel and learn all he could about it, leaving behind a carefully organized and very detailed record of what he learned and how he used this knowledge. His work on the restoration of Gjoa in 1949 was the first test of these work methods, and they serv40

ed him well when he began his work on a design for Mayflower II. Gathering source material for the 1957 replica, he left few stones unturned on either side of the Atlantic and when he finished, he produced not only a superb reconstruction of a 17th century ship, but published a book, The New Mayflower, which describes his research methods and the logic behind his solutions to this project's most difficult aspects. His descriptions of 17th century ship design in this and later volumes, particularly his explanations of the geometric constructions for hull forms, are the best yet to appear in print. Moreover, he adhered strictly to these methods in designing Mayflower !I's hull, something that other designers might have been less inclined to do, but a necessity if the old methods were to be proven workable. It was fortunate that Baker, a designer employed by a builder of very large modern ships, should become so deeply involved with designs of old wooden vessels. As a Bethlehem employee, he was for three years a specialist in stability and weight distribution problems, supervising the department in charge of these studies. Such intensive experience was exactly the background to have when confronted by 17th century hull designs which produced stout hulls with considerable freeboard and topside structural weight. In his design for Mayflower JI, Baker had a chance to demonstrate the soundness of a forgotten design technique. What was originally built as the result of centuries of acquired experience had to be repeated in one attempt with little to go by except what modern methods of calculation could indicate. The combination of Baker's historical research and practical experience reassured both mariners and

scholars that this vessel would be a faithful yet seaworthy replica, which indeed she is. Baker's work on Gjoa was more widely acclaimed in Europe than in America (The Norwegians awarded him the St. Olav's Medal for this restoration project), but Mayflower II brought him the recognition he deserved in this country. Subsequent publications on colonial American ships were balanced by an introductory picture book, The Engine Powered Vessel, which has become a widely-used reference on steam and combustion engine-powered ships and demonstrates the author's versatility in widely disparate aspects of watercraft history. In 1963, he was appointed Curator of the Francis Russell Hart Nautical Museum at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, thus launching the more academic phase of his career. By the late 1960s he had settled into a rich routine of freelance designing, writing, lecturing, and contributing his expertise to a variety of marine museums and professional organizations of maritime historians. Baker's versatility as a writer in maritime history was further demonstrated in his published histories (in three editions) of the Boston Marine Society and the monumental two-volume A Maritime History of

Bath, Maine and the Kennebec River Region, the latter work begun in 1966 when he picked up the fragments of a history begun by a Maine historian. Designing and writing about ships were not the only activities in Bill Baker's busy life; he had considerable aptitudes in drawing and etching, photography, and woodworking (he was an excellent carver of half-models). A budding artist in childhood, he drew pictures of ships all his life, mostly in pen-and-ink and illustrated sev1eral of his books and magazine articles. SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982


Al left, the Maryland Dove, another of Bill's creations, on the St. Mary's River in 1978. Photo by Tom Darden, courtesy St. Mary's City Commission .

Perhaps the one non-maritime Baker talent that took many by surprise was his proficiency as a musician. A late learner who did not impress his piano instructor, he went on to master the trumpet, bassoon, tympani, recorder, and violin . From the mid 1930s until the year before his death, he participated in civic orchestras, musical societies, and neighborhood ensembles. As conspicuous as his accomplishments were, Bill Baker's genial nature and unselfish sharing of his knowledge and sympathy for maritime causes were equally memorable for those who knew him. He was a natural diplomat who could address all sides of an issue, speak freely to all factions, and contribute positively to the resolution of difficult situations. For all these interests and diversions, Baker never lost sight of his career goals as a naval architect and marine engineer. Even as a specialist in historic wooden vessels, he was recalled by his shipbuilding associates to deliberate on problems of safety of life at sea, to lecture or comment on construction and stability problems in ship design . A career-long member of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, he helped to found its New England Division, served as an officer on it and the Northern California Division, and was elected an Honorary Member in 1980-fitting recognition of a career marked as much by excellence as by its variety.

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Ships and Fleets of the Ancient Mediterranean, by Jean Rouge (Wesleyan University Press, Middletown CT, 1981, 228 pp., 22 illus., $15 .95). It would be wrong to describe this small volume as being a brief history of ships and seafaring in the ancient Mediterranean world. Rather, the author had attempted to provide specialists and laymen alike with a useful introduction to the subject in which fundamental concerns, the nature and relative importance of sources, and major problems and conflicts in the interpretation of evidence are set forth as succinctly as possible. Sometimes so succinctly, one might add, that the significance of an otherwise valuable observation may elude many of his readers . Susan Frazer has given us a quite readable translation of the original work in French (La marine dans /'antiquite) published in 1975 . She does occasionally make an inappropriate choice of English words, as on page 17 where we learn of the first great "sailing trips" in Neolithic times, and she sometimes forgets to give the English spelling of place names . More unfortunate is the apparent lack of care taken in checking the final proofs. There are too many typographical errors for such a small book, and figure 11 has been printed upside down . Much of this book is well worth reading, Rouge, a professor of ancient history at the University of Lyon who has written extensively on Roman maritime commerce, knows the Mediterranean and is intimately acquainted with the ancient sources pertaining to the people and institutions involved in naval warfare and maritime trade during the Greco-Roman period . Of particular value are Roug6's observations on the attitudes of the ancients toward the sea, the role that seafaring played in their lives, the religion of seafarers, navigation practices, port and shipboard personnel, their ethnic origins and place in society, maritime institutions, customs and laws, and changes in naval and maritime practices through time. Rouge would have served his readers better, however, had he restricted the scope of his book to GrecoRoman times, the period he knows best. Three chapters, devoted to hull construction, ship's rigging and gear, and cargo lading and the tonnage of ships, are, unfortunately, quite disappointing. Rouge's descriptions of hulls and their construction are not very illuminating, and the translator also betrays some unfamiliarity with the subject. We learn little or nothing of how shipwrights approached their task or of changes in their methods through time . Rouge touches briefly on sewm hulls but is unaware that there are exSEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982


tant examples dating to the Roman period. His comments on rigging include nothing on what has been learned from shipwreck excavations about various rigging elements and the placement of masts. He makes no mention of bilge pumps, about which much is now known thanks to shipwreck excavations. His chapter on the Jading of cargo and the tonnage of ships also suffers from a failure to take into acco unt all ava ilable archaeological evidence . Regrettable too is an absence of any discussion on what has been learned about maritime trade in ancient times through the study of shipwreck cargoes. Excavations of ancient shipwrecks in the Mediterranean have yielded a wealth of new information on the rigging, gear, and tonnage of ships, the design and construction of their hulls, shipboard life, the nature and lading of cargoes, and maritime trade. Eloquent testimony of this is given by the photographs and drawings alone in Archeologia subacquea, a recent book by Piero Gianfrotta and Patrice Pomey, both eminent nautical a nd classical archaeologists. Rouge's neglect of this information , much of it available before 1975, has significantly marred what is otherwise a valuable introduction to ships and seafaring in the ancient Mediterranean. FREDERICK VAN D OORN INCK

Dr. van Doorninck, a faculty member of Texas A & M University, is on the staff of the Institute ofNautical Archaeology, and is co-author of the recently published Yassi Ada I: A Seventh-Century Byzantine Shipwreck .

The Navy that Beat Napoleon, by Walter Brownlee (Lerner Publications, Minneapolis MN, 1982, 52 pp ., illus., $5 .95). This quite remarkable little volume, intended for younger readers (grades 5-10) is in fact a beautifully articulated review of British strategy, an examination of ships and tactics, and lively close-up look at the ways of li fe aboard " those far-distant, storm-beaten ships" that stood between Napoleon's Grand Army and the dominion of the world. The little work is full of illuminating insight and steers constantly towards the reality of the experience, pointing out for example that there was more noise, blood , wreckage and confusion on the deck of HMS Victory at Trafalgar than any artist could convey, and adding always those detailed , accurate strokes that bring a scene full y to li fe. Buffs and readers of Hornblower and Bolitho will rapidly become engrossed in these pages; watch out, if you pick up this little volume, I predict you will too. PS Signaling & Communicating at Sea, ed. David L. Woods (Arno Press, New York, 1981, 2 vols. , illus., $65.00). Having worked in the communications field for fi ve years, I never thought 1wo uld come across a book as complete as this on the history of marine communications. Within these two volumes is contained some very interesting and enlightening facts about semaphore, morse and the equipment that brought the communications field to where it is today. The only drawback is that the pictures and illustrations are not in color.

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In Search of Spanish Treasure, by Sydney Wigall (David & Charles, North Pomfret VT, 1982, 252 pp. , illus., $23.95). Not a yarn about hunting for gold doubloons or pieces of eight, this surprising book is about marine archaeology. It is well written and easily understood. I am not a diver, yet not once was I at a loss because I could not understand something the author tried to explain. Technical and scientific data are handled in a way other writers would do well to study. In content, the book ranges from the routine to some findings concerning the Spanish Armada that could well prove to have great historic significance . Its treatment of Sir Francis Drake explores the real man as opposed to the figure of legend. One serious flaw in the book is its outrageous $24 price-tag. At such a price it seems unlikely to me that this book will circulate much beyond the most interested scholars and professional marine archaeologists-and that is really a shame. ANDREW B ES H EER

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982

Mr. Cohen is a long-standing National Society member and our volunteer electrician. The Sack of Panama, by Peter Earle (Viking, New York, 1982, 304 pp ., illus., $16.95). Brave Robin Hoods of the ocean or pawns in the 17th century game of imperialism? This is the question that Mr. Earle, a noted English economic historian attempts to answer. Though Mr. Earle seems to conclude that the Caribbean freebooters were pawns of distant powers, I was left with the distinct feeling that had circumstances differed Henry Morgan would still have ended up master of the smouldering ruins of Panama. His book is far above the level of the usual stories of pirates and privateers in the Caribbean . It sifts through the myths and legends that, though they make for exciting reading, are poor history and reach about as close to the bedrock of fact as is possible after 300 years. Mr. Earle paints

SHIPS AND ~~=-:~1 FLEETS OF THE ANCIENT MEDITERRANEAN Jean Rouge. Translated by Susan Frazer. ··An English edition of one of Jean Rouge ·s books on ancient seafaring 1s most welcome at a time of increasing interest in the histo ry of ea rly ships and shippi ng amon g specialists an d non specialists: Geo rg e Bass. Institute of Nautical Archaeology 224 pp .. $15 95 Send check or money order to Dept JN , including S1.80 for postage and handling .

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· ;7 UNIVERSITY PRESS Distributed by Columbia University Press , 136 South Broadway. Irvington . New York 10533

43


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A tugboat album that is every harbor watcher's dream. Close to 500 pages of fascinating and beautiful photographs of tugs doing what they do best. Hardcover, 522 pages, 245 black-and-white photos, biblio ., glossary, vessel index. $30.00 plus $2 postage and handling

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"Excellent color photographs of marine animals found in New England waters" -Aqualog. Hardcover, 128 pages, 145 color photos, index. $18.95 plus $1.25 postage and handling

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us a picture of seamen who are impossibly careless about cracking up their vessels on reefs yet win a victory over the Spanish squadron when the chips were down that resembles something out of C.S. Forester's fiction. The treatment of both Spanish and English difficulties in colonial government is sympathetic yet honest. Mr. Earle's research into the Spanish archives has provided us with a vivid picture of the futile attempts of the Colonial Governors to get help from Spain and the absolutely squalid conditions that the unpaid (for years at a time) soldiers who were expected to defend the Spanish possessions lived in. His writing brings this kind of thing to life, and is the more interesting, for layman or historian, because it is so solidly based in available fact. ANDREW B ESHEER

Mr. Besheer, a student, sails in the crew of the skipjack Marnie Mister from the National Society 's pier in Brooklyn.

Romance of the Sea, (National Geographic Society, Washington DC, 1981, 312 pp., illus ., $19.95). Every lover of the sea, seasoned sailor or occasional weekender, has logged happy hours sailing through the trade winds of fantasy at the helm of his favorite chair. Crossing the boundless unknown ocean with Columbus, battling the winds at the bottom of the world with Magellan and the Cape Horn clippers, taking broadsides at Trafalgar with Nelson, sacking Panama with Henry Morgan, promenading the deck of a great ocean liner with the Fords and the Astors . The National Geographic Society, with all the resources and experience that shapes its renowned magazine, has produced a chart to aid the armchair mariner to those distant shores. Abundantly illustrated, this book presents a broad and beautiful picture of the history of the sea, the men and the ships, from the hollowed-out log, to the ships of the line, to the floating palaces that are the ocean liners. National Geographic has managed to compact this long and eventful saga into 312 pages, with 275 illustrations, including 14 maps. Romance of the Sea plots a course through history that sea lovers will want to pass through again and again. This book is available through the National Geographic Society, undoubtedly helping to support the Society's magnificent works, and is offered at a very seaworthy price. CARL BROWN

Mr. B1rown, a New York playwright, serves as matte in various sailing craft. 44

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982


The Dinghy Book, by Stan Grayson (Int'!. Marine Publishing, Camden ME, 1981, 253 pp., illus., $20.00). Mr. Grayson looks at all aspects of a subject which is too often an afterthought of yacht owners . He covers many different designs, construction techniques and their suitable uses; also oars, motors, and rigs. The appendix is a catalog of dinghies, with a description and specifications of each, and a brief commentary. A useful book for anyone considering a tender for a yacht or a small boat for its own sake.

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SEAWAYS BOOKS Three books on ship modelling by A. Richard Mansir from Moonraker Publications, Dana Pt. CA: How To Build Ship Models, A Beginner's Guide (1980, 64 pp., 330 illus., $7.95); A Modeller's Guide To Hull Construction (1980, 64 pp., 106illus., $10.95); A Modeller's Guide To Rigging (1981, 64 pp., 150 illus. and photos, 16 pp. color, $10.95). "Maritime lore is as deep and broad as the oceans on which it is built,'' says the author of this distinguished series on the ship modeller's craft. And the interest of the ship modeller ranges from Egyptian craft of 5,000 years ago, to Viking ships of 900 AD, and sailing ships of the 15th to 19th centuries, and the modern steelhulled naval and merchant vessels of many descriptions. Clearly, it is beyond the scope of any one book to present step-bystep instructions for the construction of all these ship types . To the modeller and to others who view his finished work, much pleasure is derived from observing the accuracy of detail which is embodied in the model-and that accuracy may be enhanced by a working understanding of the functions of the numerous parts which go to make up the completed model. Mr. Mansir explains these functions in considerable depth, with many illustrations. And he presents the historical evolution of ships in a very readable style. Many practical modelling procedures and construction suggestions are covered. SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982

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In How to Build Ship Models, A Beginner's Guide, Mr. Mansir presents an introduction to nautical terms, discussions on ships' lines, wales and planking, bulwarks, decks, steering gear, guns, boats, masts, sails, etc., and materials and technical hints. All are profusely illustrated. Included also is a glossary of nautical terms and sources of plans and information. In A Modeller's Guide to Hull Construction, the author provides an historical survey of ship types and a discussion of the principles of marine architecture, followed by sections on ship hull construction, ground tackle, ships' boats, guns, and technical hints. Shown are keel arrangements for the plank-on-bulkhead models (normally supplied in kits), and the true plank-on-frame arrangement used by many builders who start from scratch. In the discussion on ''spiling,'' or the process of determining the shape and position of the planks on the various frames, the use of proportional dividers could have been discussed to advantage. Their use increases the accuracy of determining the width of each plank, and minor errors are automatically corrected during the successive measurements. Their cost ($40-$75) may be a little high for modellers on a limited budget, however, and many fine models have been produced without their use. Excellent color photographs of well made models by several modellers in the Southern California area, are provided to illustrate various hull types and methods of construction. A Modeller's Guide to Rigging reviews rigging practices from earliest times to 1900, emphasizing the period after 1600. Much of this reflects English practice, which in general is close to that of most of Europe and America. As with the volume on hull construction, the author's excellent color sketches enliven and inform the text, and in this volume much fine detail is shown in photographs of models as well as views of actual ships such as the clipper Cutty Sark and the reconstructed Golden Hinde. We look forward to more books by Mr. TOM p ALEN Mansir.

NOTE: Since this review, two further books in the series have been published by Moonraker Press: A Modeller's Guide to Naval Architecture and A Modeller's Guide to Ancient and Medieval Ships (both 64 pp., 16 color illus., $10.95). A new book, The Art of Ship Modelling, described as an extension of the series, will be scheduled for publication this summer. Mr. Palen is editor of the Newsletter of the Ship Modellers Association, Fullerton, Calijornia. SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1982


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PATRONS

MARBURY B. Fox RON FREELANDER FRED FREEMAN CHARLES M. FREY J. E. FRICKER BENNO FRIEDMAN DR. HARRY FRIEDMAN FRITZSCHE. DoDGE & OLCOTT. INC. JOHN S. FULLERTON R.A. FULTON FULTON FERRY LocAL DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GAGE & TOLLNER MR. & MRS. CHARLES GALLAGHER RICHARD GALLANT FRANK GARRETT JOSEPH A. GEMMA GEORGE ENGINE CoMPANY H . E. GERHARD ORMAN G. GERMANY J. T. GILBRIDE ROGER GILMAN STEVE GoLD PRODUCTIONS C. A. GOULD F. CECIL GRACE JOHN GRAHAM, A JA GRAND CENTRAL ART GALLERY JIM GRAY R. GREENBERG, ASSOC. MARK GREENE DR. ROBERT W. GREENLEAF HENRY F. GREINER ROLAND D. GRIMM HOWARD GUGGENHElM CALF. HADDEN, JR. MRS. E.A. HAGSTROM \VAL TER L. HAGSTROM HAIGHT, GARDNER, POOR & HA VENS THOMAS HALE M. W. HALL CDR. W. H. HAMILTON H ARMONY PICTURES LEO & CYNTHJA 0. fiARRJS CAPT. ROBERT HART USN (RET.) CAPT. J .E. HEG HELLENIC LL'IBS LIMITED HENRY'S END RESTAURANT H. HERBER W.R. HERVEY A.E. HEYDENREICH JUDSON HIGGI NS JOHNSON PEDERSON HINRICHS STEPHEN HOPKINS CAPT. M. F. HORVATH LAURA PrREs HOUSTON GoDFREY G. HOWARD THOMAS HOYNE, I I I PER H UFFELDT ALAN D. H UTCHISON HAROLD D. H UYCKE IMPERIAL CUP CORP. INDUSTRIAL. FABRICATING KAZ INOUYE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION OF MASTERS, MA TES & PILOTS JOT CORPORATION JAKOB ISBRANDTSEN GEORGE IVEY JACKSON & CO. CAPT. GEORGE W. )AH.'N' LEONARD C. JAQUES R. H. JOHN CHART AGENCY BARBARA JOHNSON NEILS W. )OH.'N'SEN W. J . JOVAN W. HADDON JUDSON KAZEROID & ABERM.AN REAL TY M. W. KEELING JOHN J. KENNY KIDDER, PEABODY W. A. KIGGINS NAT B. KING F. H . KINGSBURY JIM & PEGGY KINGSBURY NORJl.1AN KJELDSEN MR. & MRS. BERNIE KLAY W. KLEINDIENST, MD R. J. KNEELAND KOBI ENTERPRISES KOBRAND Co RPO RATION BETTY KOHAREK DAVID H. KPLLOCK EDITH KOONTZ WILLAIM H. KRAMER ANDREW KRAVIC C. ScOTT KULICKE DANIEL LADD ANTHONY LANDI KEVIN LEARY PHILIP LEONARD MR . & MRS. T. E. LEONARD RICK LEVINE PRODUCTIONS DAVID M. LEVITT RUTHERFORD P . LILLEY LINCOLN SAVINGS BANK A. S. LISS H. R. LoGAN JEFF LoVINGER

KLAUS LUCKA CHARLES L UNDGREN JOHN E. LUNDIN LYKES BROS. STEAMSH IP CO., INC. Ross MACDUFFIE Boe MACKEN ALEN MACWEENEY, INC. GASTON MAGRINOT JOHN MAGUIRE MICHAEL & MARCIA MANN MANUFACTURERS HA NOVER TRUST MARINER'S VILLAGE ELISABETH M. MARTELL MARTIN MATHEWS Gcu. MATrESON JIJ PETER MAX CECIL R. MA YES JOHN G. MCCARTHY CAPTAIN J. M CGOVERN R.M. MCINTOSH MARSH MCLENNAN ROBERT MCVITTIE MEBA DI STRICT 2 MAURICE MEDCALFE CHRISTINE MEE R.l. MEICZINGER THE MENDES FAMILY MIDLAND INSURANCE Co. A.C. M ILOT JERRY D. MINTON LEEDS MITCHELL. JR. R. KENT MITCHELL WILLIAM 8. MOLLARD MONOMOY FUND MONTAN TRANSPORT (USA) INC. MOORE-MCCORMACK LINES, INC. MR. & MRS. J. A. MORAN R.E. MORRIS RICHARD I. MORRlS MR. & MRS. EMIL MOSBACHER, JR . FRANK MOSCA Tl, INC. RICHARD MOSES WILLIAM G. MULLER MYERS & GRINER/CUESTA NANTUCKET SHIPYARD NATIONAL HISTORICAL SocIETY NATIONAL MARITIME UNION JOSEPH F. NEIL ERIC NELSON NEW YORK AIR NEW YORK TELEPHONE Co. ROBERT A. NICHOLS JOH N NOBLE DAVID J. NOLAN J.A. NORTON MILTON G. NOTTINGHAM NY STATE COUNCIL ON THE ARTS OGILVY & MATHER T. MORGAN O'HORA )AMES O'KEEFE PA UL OLANDER ORES B. J . O'NEILL HOWARD OTWAY PACIFIC-GULF MARINE, INC. RICHARD K. PAGE PAISLEY & FRIENDS S. T. PARKS PIERO PATRI JOHN T. PATTERSON OTIS PEARSALL PENNSYLVANIA ScHOOLSHIP ASSN. ARMA:'IDO PERRY DEBORAH L. PERRY BERTHA & PHILIP PERSON CAPTAIN W. R. PETERSON R. L . PETRIE WALTER N. PHARR PHILADELPHIA MARITIME MUSEUM PINKERTON'S ROBERT POTTERS PORT AUTHORITY OF NY & NJ TIMOTHY POUCH THEODORE PRATT PRINCE HENRY COLLEGE PRUDENTIAL LINES R. S. PULEO RICHARD RA TH DoNALD REARDON VERONICA REILLY REMEMBER BASIL, INC. HO N. FRED RICHMOND RUSS RIEMANN EDWARD RITEN"HOUSE THE RIVER CAFE CHARLES R. ROBINSON PETER W. ROGERS HAVEN C. ROOSEVELT DANIEL ROSE M. ROSENBLATT W. A. ROTHERMEL ALLEN S. RUPLEY DAVID F . RYAN M. J . RYAN PETER R. RY US D. R . SAGAR!NO

ST. JOE MINERALS SANDERS TOWBOAT Soc., INC. A. HERBERT SANDWEN JOSEPH G. SAWTELLE IV. B. H. SA WYER FRANK SCAVO D.S. SCHEEL RAnM. WALTER F. ScHLECH, JR . J OYCE E. SCHNOBRICH SCHOONER ERNESTINA Ass'N, WAREHAM AUSTIN SCOTT JAMES SEACREST SEA- LA ND SERVICE, INC. SEAMEN'S CHURCH INSTITUTE SELIGMAN SECUR ITIES MRS. AVICE M. SEWALL WILLIAM A. S HEEHA N ROBERT V. SHEEN, JR. )AMES R. S HEPLEY ROBERT F. SHERMAN SH IPS OF THE SEA M USEUM MER VIN J. SHUMAN L. S. SIMONS D. W. SIMPSON FRANCIS D. SKELLEY D. L. SLADE E. KEITH SLJNGSBY A. MACY SM ITH LYMAN H. S MITH THOMAS SOULES T. SPIGELMIRE GEN. & MRS. A. A. SPROUL CHRISTIAN SPURLING RALPH M. STALL ALFRED STANFORD C HARLES E. STANFORD BRIAN STARER ROGER STARR F. WILLIAM STECHMANN EDNA & ISAAC STERN F DT N. W . T. STEVENS J. T . STILLMAN ]AMES J. STORRO\V JOHN STOBART STUART REAGAN STONE OSCAR STRAUSS, II HUMPHREY SULLIVAN SUN SHIP, INC. SUNSET -GOWER STUDIOS Swiss AMERICAN SECURIT IES INC. SYLVOR COMPANY G. H. TABER DAVID L. THOMPSON JOHN THURMAN ROBERT T ISHMAN TOAD P RODUCTIONS JOHN H . TOBEY, JR. GEORGE F. TOLLEFSEN ALLEN W.L. TOPPING ANTHONY T RALLA W. ALLEN TRAVER, JR. BRUCE TREMBLY , MD ]AMES D. TuRNER T\VENTY·TEN ADVERT ISING UNION DRY DOCK U.S. NAVIGATION Co. U.S. L INES CAPT. ROBERT D. VALENTINE VANGUARD FOUNDATION J OHN D . VAN ITA LLIE VAN METER RANCH CHARLES VICKERY VINMONT FOUNDAT ION JOHN VREELAND SHANNON WALL E. R . WALLENBERG R. C. WALLING BARCLAY H. WARBURTON. III PATER M. WARD A.RSA w P HOTOGRAPHIC Assoc. A. L. WATSON G. P . H. WATSON N. W. WATSON MRS. ELIZABET H WEEDON THOMAS WELLS W . S. WELLS L. HERNDON WERTH WESTLAND FOUNDATION CARROLL WETZEL SIR \.OROON W HITE RAYMOND D. WHITE G. G. WHITNEY , J R. ANTHONY WIDMAN CAPT. & MRS. J OHN M. IVII.L, JR. H. SEWALL WILLIAMS KAMAU W ILLIAMS P .J. WILLIAMSON SUZANNE C. W ILSON CAPT. J.M. WINDAS L AURENCE F. WITTEMORE CHARLES W ITTHOLZ WOMEN 'S PROPELLER CLUB YACHTING ]AMES S. Y APLEE ]AMES H . YOCUM ALEN SANDS YORK HE NRY A. YOUMANS PAUL ZIMMEP.MAN R. W. ZINGLER H. T. ZIOBRO

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US-Flag Flexibility...

. ..that's what American Maritime Officers Service is all about. The widest variety of American-flag merchant ships operating independently in the most diverse trades. From the largest supertankers to the new America class 2,000-deadweight-ton, multi-purpose container/reefer/break-bulk dry cargo vessels, US-flag ship operators working through AMOS for a strong merchant marine will meet any maritime call, any time.

American Maritime Officers Service Town House 14, Harbour Square 456 N Street S. W. Washington, D.C. 20024 Captain Joseph C. Fox, Executive Director


MITAGS twin ship simulators-one nocturnal, one full-mission-create a scenario for the ships officer students. one which is virtually indistinguishable from what is seen from the ship's bridge 'in the real world.

This Is MM&P Country The heart of any ship simulator designed for training lies in its ability to convey to bridge personnel visual realism in both a day and night environment. The MM&P's highly regarded Maritime Institute of Technology and Graduate Studies (MITAGS) , located on a 55-acre campus outside of Baltimore, has the only simulators in the world capable of displaying a panoramic 360° brilliant seamless picture. The full-mission simulator enables the instructor to program a situation, based on maps, photographs and scale models converted onto film, that simulates conditions facing any ship in any harbor in the world. The student is then able to react to the situation according to his training. All this-and more-is being taught daily at MITAGS to hone the skills of the finest officers in the American merchant marine. This program is shared by MM&P and the American flag shipping companies in their joint Maritime Advancement, Training, Education and Safety (MATES) Program. ROBERT J. LOWEN International President

ALLEN C. SCOTT

LLOYD M. MARTIN

International Executive Vice President

International Secretary-Treasurer

International Organization of

Masters, Mates & Pilots 39 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10006/(212) 425-3860/Cable: BRIDGEDECK/Telex No.: 12-5858

Sea History 024 - Summer 1982  

5 IN CLIO'S CAUSE: TRUST YOUTH, GIVE THEM ROOM, John Gardner • 11 USS CONSTITUTION: LIVING TO FIGHT ANOTHER DAY • 12 USS CONSTITUTION AND TH...

Sea History 024 - Summer 1982  

5 IN CLIO'S CAUSE: TRUST YOUTH, GIVE THEM ROOM, John Gardner • 11 USS CONSTITUTION: LIVING TO FIGHT ANOTHER DAY • 12 USS CONSTITUTION AND TH...