Page 1

The Scottish Bioenergy and Healthy Living Centre A New Civic Space - Healthy Living Centre for South Dalmarnock, Glasgow Scott Lawson (0824455) Architectural Design 4: Tectonics (ARCH10003)

MCM - Mud Crack Machine Make/Create - Inception

Mud Cracks Form When Streams or Lakes Dry up During Droughts by Carsten Peters

Mud Crack Formation Process

The Mud Crack Machine is centred around the theme of force and is inspired by Carsten Peter’s “Mud Cracks Form When Streams or Lakes Dry up During Droughts” Image (Above). Developing this theme, the aim of the study is to replicate the process behind the formation of these amazingly beautiful varied natural forms in an abstract kinetic structure. This structure is based on the representation of a single mud crack panel, highlighting in real-time the formation within this panel and the direct application of the forces involved in the natural process through the movement of water. The primary force which leads to these complex forms in nature is tension. The of process water evaporating out of the upper layers, due to the prolonged heating of the sun, pulls particles together; creating tension in the upper layers. As this happens far quicker than the corresponding lower layers, a bending effect is created in section through the soil. Eventually this bending effect breaks a once complete surface into multiple segmented panels of mud whose sides correspond to each one another (top right). This process is artificially replicated through clear fishing line tendons which are pulled (in tension) towards a central point, causing compression in the less flexible plastic layers underneath. This causes a bending movement in section to occur, forcing the points to rise towards the centre of the panel. A hexagonal based form was chosen due to its ability to form a somewhat circular shape and produce a flat surface when in array.

Contraction Mechanism Architectural Design 4: Tectonics (ARCH10003)

Mud Crack Panel

Mud Crack Panel Plan - Page 1 -

Scott Alan Lawson

MCM - Mud Crack Machine Make/Create - Inception

The tension is induced in the line through a pulley system below the board, with two buckets/tubs acting as a set of weights, one which of which is variable. Each tub represents the saturation of the upper and lower layers of soil respectively. As the variable tub (the upper layer) fills (with up to 20l of water!), its weight increases (up to 29Kg - generating some 284N of force) and this offsets the lower tubs weight (15l of water - 21.6Kg - 211.68N of force).

and axis of a pentometer (variable resistor) which is used by a microcontroller to track the movement within the system, and hence the weight of the tub. This microcontroller controls these different lighting systems as well as the status of different components of the system through inputs by conductivity sensors.

Lighting has been added to improve readability of the sequence and the process involved with each stage of this sequence: wetting and drying. A Red/Blue light in the centre represents the core temperature of the mud panel in both modes. An outer set of lights mounted on the moving arms indicate the saturation of the top layer of soil. Other lights are included as status indicators for each part of the system. Added to the pulley system is an additional line with a spring Pulley Diagram

Machine Electronics Electronics

Pulley System Closeup Architectural Design 4: Tectonics (ARCH10003)

- Page 2 -

Scott Alan Lawson

MCM - Mud Crack Machine Make/Create - Photographs

Closeup of Lighting

Outer LEDs indicator water content in the top layer of the panel. Architectural Design 4: Tectonics (ARCH10003)

Inner LED Colour Change indicates Temperature Change in Panel

Long Exposure Shot - Page 3 -

Scott Alan Lawson

MCM - Mud Crack Machine Make/Create - Documentation

Documentation of the Mud Crack Machine was taken in three forms: photography (previous page), filmography (See computer) and CAD drawings (below). Photography concentrated on construction details, the lighting system and capturing the workings of the machine. Interesting details, such as the bearing mechanisms and connections between materials were particular challenging due to the large forces that are contained in model. Of particular interest was the connection between string and fishing line, as the two would not naturally join, so a complex range of knots were devised between the materials.

Machine Section. Notice the path of force from the water buckets through the cord to the sculpture.

Architectural Design 4: Tectonics (ARCH10003)

Filmography primarily captured the system at work, though it uncovered many errors in the construction. New valves and pumps were needed to take the complete cycle time from 14 hours to 15 minutes. Films are sped up to show this cycle in progress, and captured the change of light in the background. This would become an important theme in the living tower. CAD drawings allowed the transcription of the sculptural object into a clean, technical language which allows a concise understanding of the construction of the project which may otherwise be unclear.

Machine Panel Plan - the hexagonal shape was inspired by the linear geometry of the mudcracks and the proposition for an array of these objects forming one large surface. - Page 4 -

Machine Elevation

Scott Alan Lawson


Masterplanning - The Future of South Dalmarnock

The year is 2020. Clyde Gateway, the largest regeneration company in Scotland, have just went bust. Why you wonder? Well it's because they have invested in too many large projects too fast. They continued to invest in larger buildings, primarily offices, which unfortunately due to the 12 year recession have increasingly sat empty. Potential clients came along, but either they couldn't commit or they went bust during construction time. Simply put, it was only a matter of time... They have done a lot to help Dalmarnock and the East End of Glasgow, previously one of the most deprived areas in Scotland, and the 2014 Games were a huge success, in as far that they have generated a good image for Glasgow and Scotland as a whole whilst attracted some globally recognised companies such as Boeing, Texas Instruments and Intersolar - bringing with them thousands of jobs in the world of High Tech manufacturing. The Shawland's business park continues to grow at an incredibly quick pace, but it is primarily the manufacturing companies that seek its connectivity with Scotland, the rest of the UK, Europe and the America's. The recently announced expansion of Glasgow airport and the completion of the restored central Scotland Canal have only renewed the demand for land in this area of strong growth.

and increasing the densification in the area surrounding Dalmarnock Cross whilst focussing on mixed use, small to medium sized companies, retailers and tenants.

Along with the new jobs, they have managed to upgrade the public realm in Glasgow east substantially, virtually eliminating the ground pollution which was so dominant in the area and upgrading several parks, streets and roads along the way. This has opened the door to other developers to build new houses for all classes in the need for more homes with the explosive growth in jobs. The area's density is only increasing - when Clyde Gateway started there was an average building height of three storeys - but now the average has just topped the five storey mark - a significant achievement in an area that lost nearly all of its population in 2012. The population currently stands at about 12,000, and is only increasing as more developments are completed, but as the once too abundant land runs out, buildings height looks to increase further. There are currently plans for a 14 storey mixed use tower to join the 10 storey Dalmarnock Sustain Development opposite the train station. If approved, it will be the highest proposal in the east end of Glasgow since the four Millerfield Road Towers in 1970 (Destroyed in 2002 and 2007). Clyde Gateway demise was its decision to leave residential development to other developers and its focus on commercial development. This started with the loss of the Police as a client for their high end office space situated just off Shawfield Bridge. The building lay empty for 2 years, costing Clyde Gateway millions. This was offset by the one off success of the larger development in the Shawfield business park, but based on its success they proceeded to build the even larger Shawfield One development, which was partly paid off by selling off the Shawfield Bridge Development. It was completed last year, and still remains 80% vacant. The signs of failure were there - they should have continued to aim for smaller mixed use clients and tenants in both their commercial and limited residential developments. It was foreseen by most that the Scottish Government would eventually pull the plug. A replacement body has been set up in its place. The "Sustainable East Glasgow PLC" has just recently been set up through the merging of privately owned Sustainable Dalmarnock Development Agency, SHS (Sustainable Homes Scotland) and remnants of publically owned Clyde Gateway. Between both private developers they have already completed a number of projects since their establishment in 2013/14 - including the East Dalmarnock Healthy Living and Development Centre in the Dalmarnock Sustain Tower an impressive network of associated 'greenways', and several renewable housing developments in the area. The new company's primary objective is to continue on the success of the now popular sustainable movement and make the east end of Glasgow Scotland's first fully sustainable town. Primary aims include increasing the already established greenways, SUDS network Architectural Design 4: Tectonics (ARCH10003)

- Page 5 -

Scott Alan Lawson

Green City - South Dalmarnock Masterplanning for a Sustainable Future

Initial Stages of Masterplan Developed by Shepard Robson will be mostly realised. The suds network between buildings will be vital to drainage of south Dalmarnock

New York’s Highline Project is the key example of such development.

Key architectural features such as skywalks will follow the example of New York’s Skyline in providing green elevated corridors between different areas and green spaces. The belief is that this will increase biodiversity through providing safe routes which animal life can move throughout the region unhindered by roads which currently form a large barrier between different populations. In much the same way, there will be provision for new safe routes away from the noise and traffic of the busy roads below bringing together different sets of people across the area.

Glasgow 2002 Floods - This once in a 20 year storm highlighted Glasgow susceptabilty to the River Clyde.

Green Bridge Concept

A large emphasis in future masterplanning in Glasgow will be on the concern of water management after a series of devastating floods in the area during 2002. New infrastructure such as SUDS and storm water tanks will have to be employed to enable safe management of future storms. These features will be landscaped or burried to form natural scenic, green routes which pass between buildings whilst providing adequate coverage for the one in fifty year storm. Additional landscaping and new green paths will build upon the SUDS routes to form a green network. This will provide vital new interconnectivty and civic space for local inhabitants to bring people out of thier homes and engage with others.

Integrated SUDS network example. Architectural Design 4: Tectonics (ARCH10003)

Skybridge Concept - increasingly common around the world, particularly in asia as a solution for interconnectivty buildings. - Page 6 -

Scott Alan Lawson

MCM - Mud Crack Machine Masterplanning for a Sustainable Future

South Dalmarnock 2014

South Dalmarnock 2030 Architectural Design 4: Tectonics (ARCH10003)

South Dalmarnock 2018

- Page 7 -

South Dalmarnock 2050 showing main access routes (Red - Rail, Orange - Vehicular, Green - Pedestrian).

Scott Alan Lawson

The Scottish Bioenergy and Healthy Living Centre Algae Tower - Introduction

The Scottish bioenergy and Healthy Living Centre (Algae Tower) is a join venture between the University of Glasgow, a small restaurant and doctors practice which houses thse three tenants in one sustainable landmark building. The site was chosen to provide maximum solar exposure to the building, away from other buildings and set back from the Clyde Gateway to the south. This setback allows for a large civic square at the front the building which is given a natural treatment, extending theplanting of native Scottish plant species upon the walk way down to ground level. It has a small SUDS reed bed facility embedded in the landscaping providing habitat for wildlife. The rest of the site is paved in natural stone with water channels feeding rain water to the SUDS pond. The underside of the walkway along the civic square is activated with small business units for local businesses to reach out to the visitors of this unique building. The building has the ability to generate its own fuel and food (see right) from embedded photobioreactors within the facade which contain algae to harvest the suns energy into vast quantities of biomass. The majority of the nutrients come from local pollution (carbon) sources such as the new schools boiler and the local SUDS network which collect deposits from cars and trains along transport networks. This produce is then processed in the basement level of the building and distributed to various parts of the building, including use in the restaurants food. It is additionally used for the production of food supplement tablets for the doctors surgery. This system forms a closed loop which turns valueless waste water produced by users into valuable biomass. The university of Glasgow will oversee the production of the algae and associated plants grown within two greenhouse layers. They will primarily study bioenergy and healthy food concepts through the included state-of-the-art labs and facilities for processing and research. This building is a green landmark for renewables and healthy living within both south Dalmarnock and Scotland as a whole. Additional facilities including meeting rooms and a multiuse hall, as well as many offices and labs available for use by univeristy and the public, encouraging small businesses to interact with the university and local community. This will hopefully encourage closed loop economies to form within the community, generating a living for many local inhabitants. School programs will be put in place to bring in children and teach them about bioenergy and algae food supplements, hopefully encouraging an attitude of acceptance for such products.

University Control Biogas Reactor

No2 + CO2 + H2O disolved in water from SUDS Collection


Sold to Market

= Income (Fertiliser)

Generation Plant Waste Gas from Local Business + Industry

Biogas + Methane + CO2

Human + Food + Plant Waste

Liquid Affluent

Restaurant / Bar

Algae Processing


Contaminant Removal



Pumping Equipment

Algae End Products

Clean Water Toilets

Food Suppliment


Seperation + Filtering Equipment


Doctors Surgery Toilets

Grey Water

Public Zones Renewable Algae Strategy Process - Algae is used by all tenants within the building.

Spirulina is given its name due to its highly efficient helectical form.

The super algae chosen for production is a strain called Spirulina which has the ability to double in volume every four hours, though new species will inevitably be developed. The bioreactors are brought within the building in a quadruple height atrium which features a suspended steel staircase. This forms the primary internal focus for the building, bringing the algae cultivation process into engagement with many of the buildings users who can get close to the reactors within this feature space. The atrium overlooks the civic square generating a visual connection between both public the internal and external public spaces whilst reinforcing the concepts of transparency and accessibility which underline civic architecture. As the visitor climbs the stair they can look into the various labs of the university and observe (at a distance) the research within. This forms key links between different users of the building, inspired by the theme of connectivity in the masterplan.

Generous views out of the atrium space generates visual connection between users both within and outwith the building. Architectural Design 4: Tectonics (ARCH10003)

- Page 8 -

A grand two meter wide steel staircase is suspended in the atrium, joining different levels in the building both physically and visually. Its helectical form is inspired by the shape of spirulina algae. The internal bioreactors present the various users close interaction with the cultivation process. Scott Alan Lawson

The Scottish Bioenergy and Healthy Living Centre Algaetower - Siteplan

Site Plan (Scale 1: 500). By setting the building back from the Clyde Gateway, a large public square is afforded on the site. This is engaged by the towers multi-use hall and associated business units to the

east. The square will become a new high quality civic space where community events can occur to build a strong integrated community between the various users/visitors of the project and the public spaces.

Architectural Design 4: Tectonics (ARCH10003)

- Page 1 -

Scott Alan Lawson

The Scottish Bioenergy and Healthy Living Centre Algae Tower - Elevation

Tower Elevation (Scale 1:250) shows the outward expression of the bioreactive facade. The facade is broken at ground level, lifting like a skirt tempting passers by to peer within the spaces below. The facades honey comb structure was chosen as it forms a strong, wind resistant facade which is

much like a continuous plane. This was a similar decision to the use of a hexagon shape in the Mud Crack Machine which if arrayed allowed the formation of a continuous plane. The public square at the front of the building is given similar treatment to the sky walkways,

Architectural Design 4: Tectonics (ARCH10003)

whilst providing small business units for local businesses to engage with the many users of the building and site.

- Page 9 -

Scott Alan Lawson

The Scottish Bioenergy and Healthy Living Centre


Office Garden Office

Office Delivery Bay Uni Reception Office Office Toilet

Uni Reception

Algae Tower FirstFloor Plan


Toilet Mens Changing


Multi Function Room 1

Janitors Office Security Office

Multi Function Room 2 Womans Changing

Building Admin Storage

Building Reception

Business Unit 1

Multiuse Hall

Business Unit 2

Ground Floor Plan (Scale 1:200) houses the many publically rentable spaces within the building. The multiuse hall is most prominent, with attached changing and storage facilities. Its large front facing doors can be opened to allow extension of its volume into the civic square. It is envisioned that a community market will develop and become

the anchor for a revitalised community. Small business units beneath the walkway face directly upon this civic space and engage with its users. A large skylight is formed as a void in the sky walk to provide light to the offices on this level. Smaller skylights would also be used in other appropriate places to reduce the

need for reliance on electrical light solutions. Below this level a large basement acts as the raft for the building and houses the extensive plant for the processing of the algae and building services.

Architectural Design 4: Tectonics (ARCH10003)

Public Square

Business unit 3

SUDS Pond Business unit 4

- Page 10 -

Scott Alan Lawson

Consulting Room 1 Toilet

Consulting Room 3

Toilet Store Consulting Room 2

Managers Office

Consulting Room 4

Medical Store

Toilet Toilet

Reception/ Admin Office

Consulting Room 5

Consulting Room 6

Tablet Lab



Waiting Area First Floor Plan (Scale 1:200) houses the doctors facility, leading directly of the skywalk. A series of consultant rooms and associated facilities spread off the central core in plan. The large atrium space starts at this level and extends through the building to the restaurant level. A tablet lab leads off the waiting area which acts as the primary connection between the university research unit and the doctors surgery.

Architectural Design 4: Tectonics (ARCH10003)

- Page 11 -

Scott Alan Lawson

The Scottish Bioenergy and Healthy Living Centre Algae Tower - Second Floor Plan

Results Lab

Plant Room Store Nurses Consulting Room 3



Community Teaching Room

Nurses Consulting Room 1 Nursing Admin Office Nurses Consulting Room 2 Waiting Area

Second Floor Plan (Scale 1:200) houses the nurses facility with direct connection to the doctors surgery via the helectical stairway. It has its own office and waiting area for more private customers. Community care is provided through a large community use room which holds various health promotion events.

Architectural Design 4: Tectonics (ARCH10003)


- Page 12 -

Scott Alan Lawson

The Scottish Bioenergy and Healthy Living Centre Algae Tower - Floors 3 and 4 -University Lab Plans Lab floor Plans (Scale 1:200) are the levels primary education and research spaces. Those rooms bordering the atrium have a soundproof glass wall between where external users can peer in on the research within the labs.



Util Space

Util Space


Toilet Toilet


Labs Meeting Room Classroom



Architectural Design 4: Tectonics (ARCH10003)

- Page 13 -

Scott Alan Lawson

The Scottish Bioenergy and Healthy Living Centre Algae Tower - Fifth Floor Plan



Kitchen Disabled



Hospitality Manager

Restaurant Area


Bar Area Restaurant floor plan (Scale 1:100) houses the entire restaurant and bar complex. This particular part of the building is open into the late hours, providing Dalmarnock with an exclusive social space in the sky, affording views across the district due to its height. At these times, due to both security and safety concerns, the atrium space is locked.

Architectural Design 4: Tectonics (ARCH10003)

- Page 14 -

Scott Alan Lawson

The Scottish Bioenergy and Healthy Living Centre Algae Tower - Sixth Floor Plan

Process Lab 2

Hydroponics Lab 1

Lab Manager


Toilet Hydroponics Lab 2

Hydroponics Lab 4

Hydroponics Lab 3 Hydroponics Research labs (Scale 1:100) is the level where plant research takes place. It offers the largest sets of labs for the university.

Architectural Design 4: Tectonics (ARCH10003)

- Page 15 -

Scott Alan Lawson

The Scottish Bioenergy and Healthy Living Centre Algae Tower - Seventh Floor Plan

Greenhouse 1 (Scale 1:100) is the first of two levels of greenhouse where smaller plants are grown. Plants of medical value would the primary target for this space for research by the university. An associated process lab serves both floors, where plants are cut down and preprocessed before use in the labs and/or restaurant.

Architectural Design 4: Tectonics (ARCH10003)

- Page 16 -

Scott Alan Lawson

The Scottish Bioenergy and Healthy Living Centre Algae Tower - Eighth Floor Plan

Green House 2 (Scale 1:100) is where larger plants are grown or plants which need high solar exposure. This includes small trees and large shrubs.

Architectural Design 4: Tectonics (ARCH10003)

- Page 17 -

Scott Alan Lawson

The Scottish Bioenergy and Healthy Living Centre Algae Tower - Sectional Perspective

Sectional Perspective. The Floors are all suspended off the core and the external facade. The large cavity within the facade contains the

bioreactors. These can opened and closed at the to/bottom to ventilate the cavity and ensure the bioreactors are kept at a constant temperature.

Architectural Design 4: Tectonics (ARCH10003)

- Page 18 -

Scott Alan Lawson

The Scottish Bioenergy and Healthy Living Centre View From Walkway

External View. The Building soars out the surrounding environment as a green beacon to sustainability and health. It forms a landmark

which people can orientate themselves and the new centre of Dalmoarnock.

Architectural Design 4: Tectonics (ARCH10003)

- Page 20 -

Scott Alan Lawson

Bioreactive Healthy Living Tower  

Final year project in undergraduate architecture that involves the design of a Bioreactive Mixed use tower, focussing on the brief for a Hea...