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Atlas of Stored-Product Insects and Mites


Chapter 1

Introduction

As well as a bound collection of maps, an atlas can be defined as a book of photographs or tables covering any subject. High quality insect photographs in Atlas of StoredProduct Insects and Mites will be useful in making an initial insect identification so that an appropriate taxonomic key can be selected to confirm the identification of an insect species. The book has 7 chapters. Chapter 2 has insect photographs and summary information for each of the 235 insect species that add to the photographs given in Nawrot and Klejdysz (2009) book and the information in Hagstrum and Subramanyam (2009a). The insect species photographed were 235 out of 1663 species that were ranked highest as stored-product insect pests. Chapters 3, 4 and 5 expand upon the summaries in Chapter 2. Chapter 6 provides summary information for 280 species of mites (Acari) reported to be associated with stored products similar to the summary information provided for insects. Chapter 7 discusses tools and information that need to be considered when developing a pest management program for stored-product insect pests and shows where additional information can be found. For a good example of a monitoring-based pest management program developed for stored wheat insect pests see Hagstrum et al. (2010). Popular literature which is infrequently cited in the scientific literature can be more user friendly and provide an industry perspective of pest problems and solutions. For an overview of useful popular literature on stored-product insect pests and their management see Hagstrum and Subramanyam (2009b). The Atlas will be useful to students, extension personnel, consultants, food industry sanitarians and managers, legislators, regulators, plant quarantine inspectors, storedproduct entomologists, urban entomologists, seed technologists and pest management professionals, and will be an

essential desk reference for anyone working with storedproduct insects or mites. Atlas of Stored-Product Insects and Mites includes more stored-product insect and mite common names, synonyms for stored-product insects and mites scientific names, geographic distribution records and literature citations for life histories studies than other books. The commodities infested by insect species are classified into 28 categories and research on the suitability of commodities as insect food is summarized. Literature references are provided for each record of a commodity infested by an insect species. These literature references may help the readers decide whether a commodity is likely to be a suitable host for a pest species. Atlas of Stored-Product Insects and Mites shows the diversity and geographic distribution of stored-product insect and mite species, and will make solving stored-product pest problems easier by making essential information more readily available.

■ References Hagstrum, D. W., P. W. Flinn, C. R. Reed and T. W. Phillips. 2010. Ecology and IPM of insects at grain elevators and flat storages. Biopestic. Intern. 6: 1-20. Hagstrum, D. W. and Bh. Subramanyam. 2009a. Stored-Product Insect Resource. AACC International, St. Paul, MN. Hagstrum, D. W., and Bh. Subramanyam. 2009b. A review of stored-product entomology information sources. Am. Entomol. 55: 174-183. Nawrot, J. and T. Klejdysz. 2009. Atlas Owadów Szkodników Żywności. Polskie Stowarzyszenie Pracowników Dezyn­ fekcji, Dezynsekcji i Deratyzacji, Warszawa, Poland. (Atlas of Insect Food Pests.)

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Chapter 2

Stored-Product Insects

A full listing of the abbreviations used in Table 2.2 is given in Table 2.1. Photographs of the adults of 235 species storedproduct insects and information on these species are included in Table 2.2. For a few of these species, pictures of male and female are included to show the sexual dimorphism. Wingspan is given for most Lepidoptera and body length is given for the other species. Much of the text in Table 2.2 is from Hagstrum and Subramanyam (2009) with some summarization and updating. In addition to English common names, French (F), German (G), Russian (R) and Spanish (S) common names are provided for many species. Common names are reported for 26.8% of the the 235 species of insects. Table 2.3 shows the countries or islands in each of seven geographical regions for which insect records are reported here (see Hagstrum and Subramanyam 2009 for a list of countries for each species). More countries or islands are included for some regions than for others, i.e., Africa (Af, 61), Asia and Middle East (As, 58), Central America and Caribbean (C, 34), Europe (E, 65), North America and Mexico (N, 3), Oceania (O, 24), South America (SA, 18). The extensive geographical distribution records provided in LÜbl and Smetana (2003, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2010) for Coleoptera and Roesler (1973) for Lepidoptera have resulted in disproportionately more records for Europe, North Africa and Asia. Published records are likely to be incomplete and may underestimate a species’ geographic distribution. Also, more studies have been done in some countries than in others. Some of the records may be in error, and in other cases, a species may be present only for a limited time and may not become permanently established. Many of the localities with low numbers of species reported are small, sparsely populated islands or small countries. This may be the result of less international trade. Among geographical regions, the average number of species reported per country was highest for the North

American region (132.0) and lowest for South American islands (1.4) (Table 2.3). Records from 158 mainland countries and 106 islands are included. The majority of these records (7710 out of 9262) were from mainland countries. The numbers of species reported for mainland countries were generally two or more times higher than those reported for islands. The number of species reported for Japan, New Zealand and United Kingdom (England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales) were more like those reported for mainland countries than those reported for islands, so these islands were included with the mainland countries. Some records reported species to be present in Indonesia or West Indies, while others reported their presence on individual islands of these island groups, so both kinds of records are included. Also, some records report species to be present in Yugoslavia, while others report their presence in countries into which this country has been divided, so both kinds of records are included. The species list for nine countries that have reported large numbers of stored-product insect species are compared (Table 2.4). The countries with the largest number of species on each continent were selected because they are likely to be the countries in which stored-product insects have been most thoroughly studied. Egypt and Nigeria represent northern and southern Africa. England and Italy represent different parts of Europe. Twenty three species have been reported for all nine countries, 52 from eight, 82 from seven, 110 from six, 139 from five, 174 from four, 194 from three, 212 from two and 234 from one. Pharaxonotha kirschii was not reported in any of the nine countries. The largest number of species has been reported for the USA and these 177 species are 75.6% of the 234 species. Many of the species found in 7 or 8 countries may be present in the other 1or 2 countries, but have not been reported in the literature cited in this book. 3


4     chapter

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In this chapter, only the percentages are given for the commodities in each of 28 categories found to be infested by a species. Commodity suitability information from Table 4.1 and Hagstrum and Subramanyam (2009) is included in Table 2.2. The letters s, m or u in parentheses after each commodity indicates whether a commodity is suitable, marginal or unsuitable for insect development, reproduction and/or population growth. In Table 5.1, the sources of the records for each species-commodity combinations are cited. In some cases, facilities that are commonly infested are reported instead of the commodities infested, so a list of facilities is also reported. Under the life history heading, references to studies on insect developmental times over a range of temperatures have been included. The relation between life history and environment are important because these determine the rate of population growth. Some of the variation in developmental times is a result of some individuals going through additional instars (Esperk et al. 2007). Many of these studies include immature mortality. Some studies also consider the effects of commodity moisture content and equilibrium humidity. References to additional

life history studies on the effect of diet can be found in Chapter 4. Most of the life history studies were done in the laboratory. However, some studies report data collected in the field (Bruchus pisorum, Callosobruchus maculatus, Hypothenemus hampei). Fewer studies are available on adult longevity and egg production. Diapause allows pests to evade pest management and survive during periods when commodity is not stored in a facility. Bell (1994) provides a list of stored-product insect species that diapause. For a few species, the literature on their life histories has been reviewed, i. e., Corcyra cephalonica (Hodges 1979), Ephestia elutella (Ashworth 1993a), Hypothenemus hampei (Damon 2000), Lasio­ derma serricorne (Ashwoth 1993b), Nacerdes melanura (Pitman et al. 2003), Plodia interpunctella (Mohandass et al. 2007), Prostephanus truncatus (Nansen and Meikle 2002), Rhyzopertha dominica (Edde 2012) and Sitophilus spp. (Longstaff 1981). Life history data are available for only 40% of the 235 stored product insect species considered in this book. The lists of recorded species of natural enemies are from Hagstrum and Subramanyam (2009) and additional information can be found there.


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T a b l e 2 . 1   Abbreviations used in the tables and text

Abbreviation Af aninv anv As bc bg C Col. df dfp E F ffv G g gp gs Lep. m me N n np O oc os osp p pp Pso. R r res rp SA S s se sea sp syn. t u v w wp

Term Africa animal, invertebrate animal, vertebrate Asia and Middle East beverage crops bake goods Central America and Caribbean Coleoptera dried fruit dried fruit product Europe French fresh fruit or vegetable German grain grain product grain spoiled Lepidoptera marginally suitable medicine North America and Mexico nut nut product Oceania other commodities oilseed oilseed product pulse pulse product Pscoptera Russian root residual commodities root product South America Spanish suitable other seed seasoning spoiled other commodities synonym textile unsuitable vegetable material wood wood product

Sub-headings Distribution Commodities Commodities Distribution Commodities Commodities Distribution Taxonomy Commodities Commodities Distribution Common names Commodities Common names Commodities Commodities Commodities Taxonomy Commodities Commodities Distribution Commodities Commodities Distribution Commodities Commodities Commodities Commodities Commodities Taxonomy Common names Commodities Commodities Commodities Distribution Common names Commodities Commodities Commodities Commodities Taxonomy Commodities Commodities Commodities Commodities Commodities


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T a b l e 2 . 2   Insect species associated with stored productsa

Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say 1831) Dimension: 2.2-4.5 mm long Common names: American seed beetle, bean bruchid (brucho de los porotos (S), bruco del frejol (S), bruquido del frijol (S)), bean weevil (bruche du haricot (F), Зeрнoвкa фaсoлeвaя (R), gorgojo de las judias (S), gorgojo de los frijoles (S), gorgojo del frijol (S)), common bean weevil, dried bean beetle, bruche coverte (covered weevil (F)), Speisenbohnenkäfer (edible bean weevil (G)), Stammbohnenkäfer (stem bean weevil (G)), gorgojo pintado (painted weevil (S)) Taxonomy: Col., Bruchidae, originally Bruchus obtectus and transferred to new genus by Razzauti 1917, also as Laria obtecta, Mylabris obtectus, syn. Acanthoscelides obsoletus (sensu auct.) (non Say 1931). For additional synonyms see Kingsolver 2004 and Löbl and Smetana 2010. Distribution (7): Cosmopolitan. South American origin. Af 19, As 11, C 5, E 33, N 3, O 5, SA 4 Commodities (25): bc 3.7%, g 3.7%, gp 3.7%, p 81.5% broad bean (s, u), broad bean crushed (u), chickling vetch (s), chickpea (s), common vetch (u), field pea (m), garden pea (s), kidney bean (s), lentil (s), lupine (u), scarlet runner bean (s), soybean (u), tepary bean (s), se 7.4% Facilities: grocery warehouses, retail groceries, seedmen (seed dealers) Natural enemies (18): Anisopteromalus calandrae, Bracon vestiticida, Chryseida bennetti, Dinarmus basalis, Eupelmus cushmani, Eupelmus cyaniceps, Eupelmus vesicularis, Eurytoma bruchophaga, Heterospilus prosopidis, Horismenus depressus, Pteromalus cerealellae, Stenocorse bruchivora, Theocolax elegans, Torymus atheatus, Triaspis thoracica, Trichogramma evanescens, Uscana semifumipennis, Uscana senex Life history: Howe and Currie 1964, Menusan 1934

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order of insect and mite common names is English common names in alphabetical order followed by non-English common names in alphabetical order. The non-English equivalents of English common names used in the literature or English translations of non-English common names are given in parentheses. Common name language abbreviation from Table 2.1 is in parentheses after each insect common name that is not in English. Number of geographic regions out of the 7 in which an insect species has been reported is in parentheses after Distribution, number of commodities with which an insect species has been reported in Table 5.1 is in parentheses after Commodities and number of natural enemies reported for an insect species is in parentheses after Natural Enemies. Under Distribution in Table 2.2, the number of countries in which an insect species has been reported follows the geographic distribution abbreviation from Table 2.1. Under Commodities in Table 2.2, after each commodity category abbreviation from Table 2.1, the percentage of commodities with which an insect species has been reported in that category in Table 5.1 is given. Also, commodity suitability data from Table 4.1 and Hagstrum and Subramanyam (2009) are given under Commodities.


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T a b l e 2 . 2   Insect species associated with stored products  (continued from previous page)

Achroia grisella (Fabricius 1794) Dimension: up to 21 mm wingspan Common names: honey moth, lesser bee moth, lesser waxmoth, Fausse-teigne des ruches (beehive moth (F)), Petite teigne des ruches (small moth of hives (F)), Oгнёвкa пчeлиннaя мaлaя (small moth of hives (R)), Wachsmotte kleine (small wax moth (G)) Taxonomy: Lep., Pyralidae. For synonyms see Corbet and Tams 1943. Distribution (5): Probably of European origin. Af 4, As 2, E 8, N 1, O 1 Commodities (8): aninv 37.5%, df 37.5%, g 12.5%, v 12.5% Natural enemies (4): Antrocephalus galleriae, Apanteles galleriae, Dibrachys boarmiae, Venturia canescens (lab) Life history: Uçkan et al. 2007 Aglossa dimidiata (Haworth 1809) Dimension: 20-32 mm wingspan Common names: black rice worm, tea tabby Taxonomy: Lep., Pyralidae Distribution (6): Cosmopolitan. Af 2, As 2, E 2, N 1, O 2, SA Commodities (7): aninv 14.3%, bc 14.3%, g 28.6%, me 28.6%, v 14.3% Facilities: feed mills, flour mills, tea warehouses Natural enemies (1): Peregrinator biannulipes Aglossa pinguinalis (Linnaeus 1758) Dimension: 26-39 mm wingspan Common names: grease moth (Pyrale de la graisse (F)), Italian moth of fat and lard, large tabby moth, Fettzünsler (grease pyralid moth (G)), Oгнёвкa дoмoвaя (house pyralid moth (R)), Schmalzzünsler (lard pyralid moth (G)), Teigne de la graisse (moth of the grease (F)), Oгнёвкa бeзхoбoтнaя дoмoвaя (snoutless pyralid moth (R)) Taxonomy: Lep., Pyralidae. For synonyms see Corbet and Tams 1943. Distribution (4): Eurasian origin. Af 4, As 8, E 5, O 2 Commodities (10): anv 30.0%, g 30.0%, gp 10.0%, oc 10.0%, res 10.0%, se 10.0% Natural enemies (1): Stomatoceras pomonellae

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T a b l e 2 . 2   Insect species associated with stored products  (continued from previous page)

Ahasverus advena (Waltl 1834) Dimension: 2-2.3 mm long Common names: foreign grain beetle (cucujide des grains (F), carcoma extranjera de los granos (S), gorgojo chico extranjero (S), gorgojo extranjero del grano (S)), tropischer Schimmel-Plattkäfer (tropical mold beetle (G)) Taxonomy: Col., Silvanidae, originally Cryptophagus advena 1832. For synonyms see Löbl and Smetana 2007. Distribution (7): Cosmopolitan. American, Ethiopian or Oriental origin. Af 19, As 16, C 9, E 26, N 3, O 8, SA 7 Commodities (138): aniv 2.2% dried insect (u), anv 2.2%, bc 4.1% cocoa (u), bg 1.4%, df 4.3%, ffv 8.0%, g 6.5% wheat (u), gp 6.5% kibbled wheat (s), rolled oat (u), wheat flour (u), wheat germ (s), gs 0.7%, me 3.6%, n 3.6%, np 0.7%, oc 5.0%, os 6.0% copra (u), palm kernel (u), peanut (u), osp 5.1%, p 5.1%, pp 0.7% soybean meal (s), r 6.5%, rp 2.9%, se 3.6%, sea 7.2%, v 13.8% Facilities: barley mills, cocoa storages, currant raisin storages, empty cargo containers, farm grain bins, farm storages of rice, feedmills, flat grain storages, flour mills, grain elevators, peanut shelling plants, peanut warehouses, pet stores, railroad cars, semolina mills, sultana raisin storages Life history: David and Mills 1975, Jacob 1996 Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer 1797) Dimension: 5-5.6 mm long Common names: lesser mealworm (petit ténébrion (F), petit tenebrion mat (F), gusano menor de las harinas (S)), litter beetle, grain mold beetle, glänzender Getreideschimmelkäfer (brilliant grain mold beetle (G), Хрущaк смoлянo-бурый (pitch-brown mealworm (R)), escarabajo negro chico de los granos (small black grain beetle (S)), petit ténébrion brillant (small shiny darkling beetle (F)), Хрущaк вoнючий (smelly mealworm (R)) Taxonomy: Col., Tenebrionidae, originally Tenebrio diaperinus Panzer and transferred to new genus by Wollaston 1854, syn. Alphitobius ovatus Herbst 1799, Alphitobius piceus sensu auct. partum not (Olivier). For additional synonyms see Löbl and Smetana 2008. Distribution (7): Cosmopolitan. Af 17, As 30, C 5, E 26, N 3, O 9, SA 4 Commodities (89): aninv 1.1%, anv 6.7%, bc 4.5%, bg 2.2%, g 10.1% barley (m), barley flour (s), maize (u), maize flour (s), rice (m), rice flour (s), wheat (s), wheat broken (s), wheat flour (s), wheat ground (s), gp 12.4%, gs 3.4%, me 2.2%, n 2.2%, oc 3.4%, os 10.1% peanut (u), osp 12.4%, p 5.6% black gram (m), cowpea (s), pp 2.2%, r 4.5%, rp 1.1%, se 3.4% sea 3.4%, v 9.0% Facilities: bakeries, barley mills, botanical warehouse, currant raisin storages, empty cargo containers, empty farm grain bins, farm storages of rice, feedmills, flour mills, grain bins, grain elevators, grocery warehouses, henhouses, peanut shelling plants, peanut warehouses, poultry houses, residences, stables, sultana raisin storages Natural enemies (4): Amphibolus venator, Peregrinator biannulipes, Somotrichus unifasciatus, Theocolax elegans Life history: Preiss and Davidson 1971, Rueda and Axtell 1996, Wilson and Miner 1969

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T a b l e 2 . 2   Insect species associated with stored products  (continued from previous page)

Alphitobius laevigatus (Fabricius 1781) Dimension: 4.5-5 mm long Common names: black fungus beetle (ténébrion des champignons (F)), schwarzer Getreideschimmelkäfer (black mold beetle (G)), strumpfschwarzer Getreideschimmelkäfer (black stockings grain mold beetle (G)), glänzendschwarzer Getreideschimmelkäfer (glossy black grain mold beetle (G), petit ténébrion mat (lesser mealworm (F)), Хрущaк пoдстилoчный смoлянo-бурый (litter pitch-brown mealworm (R)), petit tenebrion brilliant (shiny lesser mealworm (F)) Taxonomy: Col., Tenebrionidae, originally Opatrum laevigatum and transferred to new genus by Blair 1914, syn. Alphitobius piceus (Olivier 1792), Helops piceus Olivier 1792. For additional synonyms see Löbl and Smetana 2008. Distribution (7): Cosmopolitan. Tropical origin. Af 9, As 20, C 1, E 16, N 2, O 8, SA 4 Commodities (62): anv 8.1%, bc 8.1%, bg 1.6%, df 1.6%, ffv 1.6%, g 11.3%, gp 9.7%, gs 3.3%, me 1.6%, n 4.8%, oc 1.6%, os 11.3%, osp 12.9%, p 3.2%, r 6.5%, se 3.2%, sea 3.2%, v 6.4% Facilities: currant raisin storages, empty cargo containers, grain storages, peanut shelling plants, peanut warehouses, sultana factories, sultana raisin storages Natural enemies (2): Peregrinator biannulipes, Somotrichus unifasciatus Alphitophagus bifasciatus (Say 1823) Dimension: 2.5-3 mm long Common names: two-banded fungus beetle (zweibindiger Pilzschwarzkäfer (G), Жук двухпoлoсый грибнoй (R)), waste grain beetle (gebänderte Pilzschwarzkäfer (G)) Taxonomy: Col., Tenebrionidae, originally Diaperis bifasciatua and transferred to new genus by Horn 1870. For synonyms see Löbl and Smetana 2008. Distribution (6): Cosmopolitan. Mediterranean origin. Af 4, As 7, E 4, N 3, O 1, SA 1 Commodities (26): anv 7.7%, g 26.9%, gp 11.5%, gs 11.5%, oc 3.9%, os 11.5%, osp 7.7%, p 7.7%, sp 7.7%, v 3.9% Facilities: cellars, empty grain bins, feedmills, feed stores, flour mills, grain bins, grain elevators, growing floor at maltings, peanut shelling plants, peanut warehouses, pet stores, rabbit cages, residences

Female

Natural enemies (1): Peregrinator biannulipes Male (continued on next page)


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T a b l e 2 . 2   Insect species associated with stored products  (continued from previous page)

Anobium punctatum (DeGeer 1774) Dimension: 3-4 mm long Common names: bookworm, common European house borer, common furniture beetle, European furniture beetle, furniture beetle (Trotzkäfer (G)), household borer, woodworm, Brettenbohrer (board drill (G)), Vrilette commune (common beetle (F)), gemeiner Totenuhr (common death’s clock (G)), gemeiner Pochkäfer (common knock beetle (G)), Totenuhr (death clock (G)), Vrilette domestique (domestic beetle (F)), anobie ponctué (dotted anobie (F)), Тoчильщик мeбeльный (furniture grinder (R)), gestreifter Werkholkäfer (wood product hairy beetle (G)) Taxonomy: Col., Anobiidae, originally Ptinus punctatum, syn. Anobium striatum Olivier 1790. For additional synonyms see Löbel and Smetana 2007 Distribution (5): Af 7, As 4, E 32, N 2, O 1 Commodities (5): oc 20%, r 20%, se 20%, w 40% Facilities: barley storages, empty cargo containers, granaries, growing floors at maltings, malt storages, warehouses Natural enemies (14): Calosota vernalis, Cerocephala rufa, Demophorus robustus, Doryctes leucogaster, Entedon longiventris, Gelis cinctus, Habritys brevicornis, Hypsicera curvator, Pimpla flavicoxis, Plutothrix coelius, Sclerodermus domesticus, Spathius exarator, Spathius pedestris, Theocolax formiciformis Life history: French 1971 Anthrenus coloratus Reitter 1881 Dimension: 1.8-2 mm long Taxonomy: Col., Dermestidae Distribution (5): Af 10, As 16, E 10, N 1, SA 1 Commodities (7): aninv 14.3%, anv 57.1%, r 14.3%, se 14.3% Facilities: residences, tobacco warehouses Life history: Ali 1997

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T a b l e 2 . 2   Insect species associated with stored products  (continued from previous page)

Anthrenus flavipes LeConte 1854 Dimension: 2-3.5 mm long Common name: furniture carpet beetle Taxonomy: Col., Dermestidae, syn. Anthrenus fasciatus Reitter 1881, Anthrenus immportatus Pic 1952, Anthrenus vorax Waterhouse 1883. For additional synonyms see Löbl and Smetana 2007. Distribution (6): Cosmopolitan. Oriental Region origin.Af 3, As 15, C 1, E 10, N 2, O 1 Commodities (39): aninv 10.3% silk cloth (u), anv 43.6% hog bristle (s), woolen (s), ffv 2.6%, g 7.7%, gp 2.6%, oc 10.3%, osp 2.6%, se 2.6%, t 12.8% cotton cloth (u), v 2.6%, w 2.6% Facilities: residences Natural enemies (3): Laelius pedatus, Laelius utilis, Laelius voracis Life history: Griswold 1941

Anthrenus fuscus A. G. Olivier 1790 Dimension: 2-3.4 mm long Taxonomy: Col., Dermestidae, syn. Anthrenus claviger Erichson 1846

Distribution (4): Af 2, As 3, E 28, N 2 Commodities (1): aninv 100% Facilities: cocoa and spice warehouses, feedmills, flour mills, residences Natural enemies (2): Laelius pedatus, Laelius utilis

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Atlas of Stored-Product Insects and Mites