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SCIENCESTARS Special Edition | November 2016

SCIENCE MEETS BEAUTY


Hair Anatomy

Hair shaft

Arrector pili muscle

Nerve

Sebaceous gland

Hair root

Epidermis

Sweat gland

Dermis

Hair bulb in follicle

Dermal papilla Blood vessels Hypodermis (Superficial fascia)


Internal hair structure

tip medulla

cuticle

root


CONTENTS CONTENTS

FEATURES

8 1 1 1 1 2 2 2

afro-textured hair

2

SOUTH AFRICAN WOMEN IN SCIENCE AWARDS

5

CLINICAL SCIENCE AND IMMUNOLOGY

8

UNISA OPEN DISTANCE LEARNING

9

THINGS TO LOOKOUT FOR IN 2016

4

PROPERTIES OF ROOIBOS

6

NATIONAL SCIENCE WEEK 2016

9

WOMEN OF ESSENCE

REGULARS

6 2 3 3 3 3 3 3

editor's note

8

TOP 10

3

QUIZ

4 PUZZLE

5

PUZZLE ANSWERS

6

SCIENCE NEWS

7

WISA PAST WINNERS

8

SCIENCE EXPERIMENT


FOREWORD

the

FOREWORD these are among the most outstanding of South African academics. From 1896, when Charlotte Mmakgomo Maxeke graduated with a B.Sc degree from Wilberforce University in Ohio, under the tutelage of W.E.B du Bois, to the 9th of March 1956, when women marched to the Union buildings in their political struggle, chanting “Wathinta abafazi wathinta imbokodo,” (you strike a woman you strike a rock), we have had a legacy of excellence to honour. Since then, women of all races have stood united as one to emancipate bad omen, to open the door to the very same democracy. Let us give these remarkable women in science a well-deserved standing ovation and recognition for their innovative, inspirational and resourceful work towards furthering the field of Science. We find women researching in mining, geology, chemistry, physics, astronomy, which are disciplines that were historically associated with males only. Women were forbidden by cultural design and law. Women are constantly empowering, selflessly motivating the younger generation of fellow women to rise to the challenge and be recognised for their contribution to Science. These remarkable women’s contribution to Science by empowering others patently lives up to the adage – “There is no tool for development more effective than the empowerment of women” by Kofi Annan.

Women in Science have made history

Women in Science have made history; they have conquered mile-

The time has come to celebrate truly phenomenal women; whose

stones, and have bridged the gap that differentiates a man’s job

endeavours are excellent bar none. It is a new era, a new dawn for

from a woman’s job. These hard working, inspirational women

embracing and empowering women’s contribution to Science. The

must be flamboyantly celebrated for their excellent and inno-

light of women scientists shines brightly in a field previously rec-

vative work in advancing Science, Engineering and Technology.

ognised—and hermetically sealed off—as suitable for males only.

If anything, they must be fully supported to transcend in their

Women all over the world are showcasing their intellectual prow-

respective disciplines and continue to inspire the passion of

ess in Science, Engineering and Technology.

Science and become role models to others.

Women such as Professors Tebello Nyokong, Mamokgethi Phakeng

Professor Lindiwe Zungu 2015 Distinguished Women Scientist in Humanities & Social Sciences Research Professor at the University of South Africa.

are among those outstanding black South Africans worthy of the Presidential Awards in Science, while Nadine Gordimer remains an exemplary Nobel Prize Laureate for literature. Without a doubt,

Science Stars Magazine Women In Science Issue | www.sciencestars.co.za

5


ED’S NOTE

team Science Stars

LETTER FROM THE EDITOR

Managing Editor • Evans Manyonga editor@sciencestars.co.za

Celebrating the gems of science Empowering women to participate fully in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) across South Africa is essential to build stronger relationships, achieve nationally and internationally agreed goals for development and sustainability, and also improve the quality of life for women, men, families and communities using Science. Women face different barriers, including discriminatory laws, restrictive social norms, limited access to information and social networks, and unequal sharing of responsibilities within the household. In this issue, we celebrate women, because they have broken those barriers, especially in the STEM field. To bind the full potential of Science and Technology for development, we have profiled female scientists to tell you about their journey and also be role models to other young women. We have also covered what most young women love, their hair! You know how you feel less confident when you are having a bad hair day and you just don’t know how you can fix that at home? Well, we have the top 10 home ingredients to help you get your confidence back and rock your crown, your hair. As much as I would love to talk about hair all day, I can’t because there are other pressing issues that need to be addressed like learning that rooibos tea is not just tea; there is more to it, UNISA’s Open Distance Learning programme and the 2016 Women in Science Awards, among a lot of inspiring content to relish on. Remember, women are already strong and powerful, but what needs to be changed is the way the world perceives that strength. This issue will outline why we need to celebrate women every day and I believe Professor Lindiwe Zungu’s foreword and Thandeka Moyo’s profile and other profiles, will be eye-openers, read, learn and above all, enjoy!

Sihle Qekeleshe Ediitor

6

Science Stars Magazine Women In Science Issue | www.sciencestars.co.za

Editor • Sihle Qekeleshe Graphic Designer • Cinzia-Joey Swartz

Project Manager • Renata Williams Contributing writers • Jeanine Marnewick • Claudia Ntsapi • Denver Nazima • Pamela Yoli • Ntombizanele Thangayi Chairman • Madambi Rambuda Ambassador • Prof. Azwindinni Muronga Subscriptions • info@sciencestars.co.za Copyright 2016 Roswika Media. All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or any means, electronically or mechanically, without prior permission. Science Stars is published by Roswika Media.

10th Floor, The Pinnacle 2 Burg Street Cape Town, 8000 021 839 2507 info@sciencestars.com www.sciencestars.co.za


FROM CLASSROOM TO BOARDROOM From building schools to supporting black entrepreneurs, from making university study possible for disadvantaged students to providing work experience for young graduates, Shanduka Foundation strives to develop South Africa’s human potential. Through a set of complementary programmes, Shanduka Foundation creates opportunities for educational development, career growth and the acquisition of entrepreneurial capabilities. •

Adopt-a-School Foundation mobilises companies and individuals to adopt disadvantaged schools with the aim of improving the academic, infrastructural, social and security environment in schools.

The Cyril Ramaphosa Education Trust provides bursaries to disadvantaged students and organises vacation work in companies in the Shanduka Group.

The Shanduka internship programme provides experiential training for selected learners and job seekers within Shanduka Group and across its partner network.

Shanduka Black Umbrellas nurtures qualifying 100% black owned businesses by providing meaningful access to markets, networks and finance through its small enterprise incubators and online procurement portal.

Thanks to the ongoing support of many partners in business, government and civil society, Shanduka Foundation is making a significant impact in the lives of young South Africans.

To find out more about the work of the foundation and its programmes, visit

www.shanduka.co.za/shanduka-foundation


COVER STORY

AFROTEXTURED HAIR Every woman’s crown

H

aving strong, shiny, vibrant hair can boost your confidence and make you feel ready to take on the world. When you have good hair, you ooze

with confidence. Most people like to have their hair relaxed ignoring the fact that the chemicals that they apply on their hair might not be good for it. Here we talk about having natural hair and how to take care of it. Knowing how to maintain natural hair means one first needs to understand the Science behind natural hair. This, will help you understand the basics of the structure of hair. How else would you know how to take care of something you know nothing about? Hair is made of the bulb, root and the shaft. The bulb and the root are found under the scalp. But one should understand that the shaft is not a living structure. When the shaft shoots from the scalp, it is already dead. So that means that when we talk about “healthy hair” we talk about something that is non-existent, because when something is dead, it cannot be seen as healthy, which means hair can only be preserved. It is worn and torn from the time it shoots from your head. African hair, an afro, has a flattened oval cross section, which makes the hair have ultra-curliness and the follicle size is usually quite thick. It contains much lower levels of cysteic acid than other hair types. It is more “water loving” with a negative charge. It also has lower levels of bonded fats on the hair shaft, which explains why an afro loves oils!

8

Science Stars Magazine Women In Science Issue | www.sciencestars.co.za


COVER STORY

Grooming; Stop combing now! From now on, thou shalt throw away your comb and use your fingers to groom your curls and puff them out. You can also use a pick to help detangle your curls and keep the afro in good shape. Conventional combs and hairbrushes

Afro hair care 101 Anyone with an afro or naturally voluminous curly hair has been through this; walking down the street, minding your own business and all of a sudden you hear an almost anxious voice say “Wow! Can I touch it?�

will disrupt the shape and growth of your curly hair. If you really need to comb your hair go the wide tooth comb, finger or hair pick way

Moisture; Minimise shampoo frequency to less than 3 times per week and

Afros have become quite trendy in recent times, giving those

use products such as Oil sheen comb out conditioner spray or

with natural hair something to be proud of! However, it was not

Organics monoi oil anti - breakage rejuvenating spray is for natu-

always the case. Afros have long intimidated both men and

ral or curly hair, to avoid dry and brittle hair.

women who know nothing about them almost like a mysterious

Bedtime;

creature that is almost hard to ignore growing tall and proud defying gravity.

Wrap your hair with a silk or satin scarf when you sleep to lock in the hair moisture, others such as myself; get headaches when

Those with them know taming this creature can be quite the experience, a negative and time-consuming one at that, but if done right the creature then becomes a crown for the world to look on at enviously. It requires quite a lot of work and patience as an afro has a fragile texture. In this article, you will find some tips on growing and maintaining your crown.

they sleep with a scarf or restless sleepers may experience the scarf slipping off during the night. An alternative could be having satin or silk pillow case that way you will sleep more comfortably and are able to move around more freely without worrying about losing the scarf during the night.

Think twice As more and more women of colour discover the beauty of their

Growing;

naturally kinky hair, the feud between hair that is relaxed and

To grow an afro, you need to start with your hair at the same

natural on women of colour is growing at an alarming rate. In

length all around. This means that you must get a haircut for

this article, we break down the chemical process of chemically

your curly hair that has any disparities in hair length corrected.

straightening the hair and if it actually worth the pain. The deci-

There are different types of curly hair, so depending on your hair

sion to straighten the hair chemically requires much forethought

type, you will need to grow your curls to at least medium length.

and commitment to hair care treatments over a long period of

This may require some patience.

time.

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9


COVER STORY

All relaxers require conditioning treatments before and after application. How can chemicals “relax”, or straighten hair? sodium hydroxide is the strongest type of principal chemical used in some chemical relaxers because, it provides the most long lasting and dramatic effects. However, this same sodium hydroxide is found in drain cleaners, which demonstrates the strength of this chemical. It is what is used in products that are referred to as “lye” relax-

ture back into the hair and balancing protein.

ers. The strength varies from a ph. factor of 10 to 14. With higher ph., the faster the straightening solution will take hold, but more

One must keep in mind that relaxers do not help the hair, but

potential for it to damage your hair.

actually strip it. So by applying chemicals to the hair, even if it is to achieve a

Both lye and “no lye” ,(which is scientifically known as guanidine

desired effect, is never really to the benefit of your hair growth.

hydroxide, which more commonly used today) relaxers are very

Due to this, it is first strongly recommended that it be applied

strong chemicals even though the label “no lye” tends to mislead

only under the direction of a hair care professional with a record

some uninformed consumers into thinking that there are no

of success with hair care and chemical straightening At-home

strong chemicals used. Although this type of chemical hair relax-

relaxers can definitely save you money, but don’t risk your scalp

er can be less damaging than its counterpart, the hair and scalp

and hair’s health by making mistakes.

should be in top condition before attempting treatment. Age should also be considered. Just because hair care companies The chemical penetrates the cortex or cortical layer and loosens

create and market relaxer kits for children doesn’t mean they’re

the natural curl pattern changing the structure of the hair. This

safer to use on young scalps. All relaxers contain chemicals, and

inner layer of the hair shaft is not only what gives curly hair its

developing scalps and hairlines are especially prone to damage

shape, but provides strength and elasticity. Once this process

when these chemicals are applied to them. However, the chaos

is performed, it is irreversible. This process, which produces the

in detangling and combing of natural hair in the morning has

desired effect of “straighter” more caucasian hair leaves hair

forced some mothers into prematurely relaxing children’s hair

weak and extremely vulnerable to breaking and further dam-

to avoid the chaos. However, it is advisable to wait until a girl is

age, which is why continuous treatment with products such as

in intermediate phase in school as her hairline should be strong

Organics hair mayonnaise, can be a vital bathroom cabinet must

and free from damage. It’s also best to visit a hair care profes-

have, as it leaves the hair really soft and strong replacing mois-

sional to apply the relaxer.

10

Science Stars Magazine Women In Science Issue | www.sciencestars.co.za


3581/E

Empowering women for roads.

SANRAL is committed to creating a path of growth and development for women in engineering and in business to ensure long-term sustainability of critical skills in our economy and our country. We salute all those female trailblazers and achievers who dared to join us on the road less travelled.


Celebrating SA’s women of note

T

he innovative use of Information

Thusini won the Tata Africa Master’s

honours for her innovative drought fore-

and Communication Technology

Scholarship award at the gala dinner which

casting solution, which taps into African

(ICT) has once again put women in

took place in Johannesburg on 11 August

indigenous knowledge of natural disasters,

Science at the top at the annual Women in

2016 as part of the Department of Science

at the WISA. Her solution placed her in the

Science Awards (WISA) of the Department

and Technology’s celebration of women’s

category of Distinguished Young Women

of Science and Technology (DST).

month.

Researchers: Research and Innovation,

The theme for this year is “Women

She now believes that she can advance her

building knowledge. Dr Masinde is a Senior

empowerment and its link to sustainable

skills and make a difference in the world,

Lecturer and Head of ICT at the Central

development” and this year our women of

which is everyone’s dream but, some lack

University of Technology in the Free State.

note have yet again shown the world that

resources, however knocking on every door

they are forces to be reckoned with.

will one day put you in Xolisile’s position.

Here are some women that reminded us

Dr Muthoni Masinde, walked away with top

earning R75 000 for advancing science and

Prof Vhonani Netshandama, is this year’s winner in the Distinguished Women Researchers in the Humanities and Social

that we are slowly but surely approaching the full scientific potential of our country. Xolisile Thusini was born and raised in a small traditional home in Nquthu, KwaZulu-Natal. Thusini is a particle physicist whose research focuses on the discovery of the Higgs boson and its properties. She was encouraged by her supervisor to apply for the WISA. She applied for National Research Foundation (NRF), funding last year but ,unfortunately didn’t make it and her supervisor was kind enough to give her some of his research funds. When she entered for the WISA she did not think she would win. 12

Prof. Vhonani Netshandama is this year’s winner in the Distinguished Women Researchers in the Humanities and Social Sciences Category

Science Stars Magazine Women In Science Issue | www.sciencestars.co.za


DST

Sciences Category. She also received R75 000 for using science to empower others. Prof Netshandama was the primary facilitator of the establishment of Mukondeni Filter Factory; a water filter factory. This was a collaborative project of the University of Virginia, University of Venda and Mukondeni Pottery, near Elim in Limpopo, where the Mukondeni potters were trained to make ceramic water filters. Emerging young scientist, Caroline Pule, walked away with a R60 000 Tata Scholarship for her research into TB, focus-

Dr Muthoni Masinde was named the winner in the category of Distinguished Young Women Researchers: Research and Innovation

ing on understanding the physiology of drug-resistant and tolerant TB strains and how these bacteria modulate the host response in the context of the macrophage infection model. Pule won a DST doctoral fellowship in 2014. Prof Lou-Marie Kruger and Ms Caroline Pule, two top female researchers at Stellenbosch University (SU), received national acclaim when they were honoured with the Department of Science and Technology 2016 WISA. Women in Science Award winners 2016 with DST Minister Naledi Pandor

Science Stars Magazine Women In Science Issue | www.sciencestars.co.za

13


111919 ARC Roswika Media.indd 1

2014/08/29 9:59 AM


PROFILE

CLINICAL SCIENCE AND IMMUNOLOGY HIV immunology

S

cience Stars nterviewed Thandeka

Maphosa. I am grateful to them for com-

bind to HIV and “neutralise� the virus, mak-

Moyo who is studying towards a PhD

municating their passion for the subject in

ing it unable to infect cells. By using these

in Clinical Science and Immunology

their teaching, because it really rubbed off

antibodies in an HIV vaccine, we hope to

on me.

be able to prevent the virus from infecting

at the University of Cape Town. Thandeka

cells if someone who has had the vaccine

cares about Education, Health, Science and Technology and is currently busy with her

Tell us about your research

comes in contact with the virus. Some HIV

research. Here she tells us about her back-

I am studying towards a PhD in Clinical

strains are able to evade neutralisation by

ground and her research.

Science and Immunology. My focus is on

these antibodies, so in my PhD, I am trying

HIV immunology; specifically HIV vaccine

to understand more about the mechanisms

design. I look at antibodies that are able to

used by viruses to resist these antibodies.

Give us a brief background about yourself and how you fell in love with Science My name is Thandeka and I come from Zimbabwe. I went to primary school and high school in Zimbabwe, and then to university in South Africa. I attended at Rhodes University where I studied towards a BSc in Biochemistry and Microbiology and a BSc (Honours) in Biochemistry. I then moved to the University of Cape Town and completed my MSc (Med) in Clinical Science and Immunology, focusing on HIV immunology. I am now doing my PhD in the same field, looking at HIV vaccine strategies. I knew early on in high school that I wanted to go into the field of biological sciences, and particularly to focus on HIV. I was always interested in infectious diseases, understanding how are they caused disease and why we still do not have cures for many of them. Two of my high school biology teachers greatly shaped my love

Thandeka Moyo PhD (Med) in Clinical Science and Immunology student at the University of Cape Town

for the subject, Mrs Soganile and Mrs

Science Stars Magazine Women In Science Issue | www.sciencestars.co.za

15


PROFILE

I am also looking at the targets of these

either in industry or in an academic envi-

any male in the field and that I am doing a

antibodies – where exactly they bind to

ronment, with a focus on HIV vaccine

great job. I have been fortunate to have a

the virus and which sites are targeted by

development and/or HIV cure research. In

supportive supervisor who sees my poten-

the most potent antibodies – so we can

doing so, I would like to make a substantial

tial. When looking for a supervisor and

use them effectively in a vaccine.

contribution to the eradication of HIV.

mentor it is important to go to someone

Why do you feel that your research is

What is the coolest thing about your work?

important and why is it important to the

Conferences! As scientists, we work long

ordinary citizen of South Africa?

hours in the lab to get our results, and

What makes you get up in the morning,

The HIV pandemic is still a huge problem

one of the most rewarding feelings is

what drives you?

in South Africa, where millions of people

getting that work out there by present-

My goal of contributing towards ending

are infected. Although there are HIV pre-

ing at international conferences. This is

the HIV pandemic. I have seen the effect

ventative strategies that have been shown

also a great time to meet influential and

the HIV pandemic has had on Africa and I

to be effective against HIV acquisition,

renowned people in the field. Someone

believe that if scientists work together, we

such as microbicide vaginal gels, pre- and

once referred to conferences as “interviews

can find a way to stop this virus and pro-

post-exposure prophylaxis and male cir-

with scientists” because many connections

tect people from getting it. So when things

cumcision, it is highly unlikely that they

and collaborations begin at conferences.

are not going well in the lab and I feel

will be effective enough on their own to

Another cool thing is that these scientific

like quitting, I remember that I am work-

reduce the number of people getting HIV

gatherings are often in interesting loca-

ing towards a goal that won’t only help

so that the disease can be controlled. At

tions, which offers amazing opportunities

our generation, but also the generations to

the moment there is no HIV vaccine avail-

for travel.

come.

who will treat you with respect and help you grow.

able and the development of a highly effective vaccine would, therefore, play a major role in the prevention HIV infection in South Africa.

Make small goals that will lead up to your big dream and keep persevering.

Lastly what advice would you give to young aspiring females? Dream big! Don’t feel discouraged when things seem hard and the road doesn’t look

What was the biggest challenge when you

easy. Make small goals that will lead up to

first started your research?

your big dream and keep persevering.

One of the most difficult things for young

Being a young female in a male-dominated

There are so many opportunities out

scientists is to get funding for postgradu-

field; what challenges have you come

there; you just have to look for them.

ate studies, and that was also a challenge

across and how did you deal with them?

Opportunities do not just fall into your lap;

for me. Funding opportunities are unfortu-

It is unfortunate that, the field is male-

you must make the effort.

nately scarce, so one has to dig very deep

dominated and there have been occasions

to find them and apply to as many funders

where I have not been taken as seriously

Network, network, network. It is extremely

as possible.

as my male counterparts. The best way to

important to get your research out there,

overcome that is to prove yourself to your

to meet the top researchers in your field

What would you like to achieve the most

doubters. I work hard and give of my best

and to get them to remember you. Don’t be

with your research?

in everything that I do, and people have

scared or intimidated about approaching

I would like to run my own laboratory,

come to realise that I am just as capable as

researchers in your field.

16

Science Stars Magazine Women In Science Issue | www.sciencestars.co.za


It’s what we build

3112

We all dream of a better future. For ourselves, our families and our country. SANRAL, as part of the National Development Plan, is improving and expanding vital road infrastructure. In the process we are creating jobs, transferring skills and developing opportunities for all South Africans. We are proud to be a part of the National Development Plan, because we know that roads are more than just roads, they pave the way to a better future.

More than just roads


UNISA

UNISA OPEN DISTANCE LEARNING Bridging the gap

D

o want to further your studies, but

Unisa offers a wide range of colleges also

Innovation and capacity building in sci-

have trouble attending full time?

known as faculties and we have focused

ence and technology and Open Distance

Well, look no further because we

on the College of Science, Engineering

Learning; are two out of five themes that

have the University of South Africa (Unisa)

and Technology. The College of Science,

the College supports the most. The College

to help you with that. Unisa is known to be

Engineering and Technology is made up

has well qualified, experienced and dedicat-

the largest Open Distance Learning (ODL)

of the School of Science, the School of

ed academics in a variety of disciplines and

institution in Africa and the longest stand-

Engineering and the School of Computing.

continuously have groundbreaking research.

ing dedicated distance education university in the world.

So who better to excel in Science with than As one of the leading research institutions

Unisa?

on the continent, the institution’s research Unisa has a massive and impressive data-

efforts have garnered them numerous

base of alumni, some of whom are to be

awards, recognitions and honours. Unisa

found at the most senior levels of society

has made Science a priority and with that, it

across the world. The institution offers a

aims to grow research capacity and support

wide range of study choices, ranging from

research activities in the fields of Science,

short courses and certificate programmes

Engineering, Technology, Agriculture and

to three and four-year degrees and diplo-

Environmental Sciences through the Unisa

mas to over 400 000 current students.

Science Campus.

18

Science Stars Magazine Women In Science Issue | www.sciencestars.co.za

Get more information on the website www.unisa.ac.za


EVENTS

THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR 2016 Not to be missed

Competition

Event

Programmes

DStv EUTELSAT STAR AWARDS

AFRICA CODE WEEK

World Space Week

The sixth edition of the DStv Eutelsat

Africa Code Week is an exciting new initia-

World Space Week has grown into the larg-

Star Awards is now open. All Science and

tive to help young Africans from ages 8

est public space event on Earth. More than

Technology fans between the ages 14 and

to 18 years become the digital creators of

1,800 events in 73 countries celebrated

19 years have to be inspired to write a

tomorrow.

the benefits of space and excitement about space exploration in 2015. With this year’s

creative essay or design a poster based on the following topic: “Take yourself into the

Coding is taught through the introduction

new Theme “Remote Sensing – Enabling

future as a scientist, tasked with designing

of scratch; an application that combines

Our Future” . World Space Week will be held

a new-age satellite that will help improve

youthful creativity and curiosity with school

from 4-10 October 2016.

the lives of Africans. Tell us what you

subjects such as mathematics and art in

would call your satellite and describe the

a vibrant digital environment that allows

For more information visit:

different functions and roles that it would

children to familiarise themselves with

www.worldspaceweek.org

play in the Africa of the future.”

computer coding in a short period of time.

Entry forms can be obtained from any

For more information visit:

MultiChoice Resource Centre, the nearest

www.sci-bono.com/africa-code-week

MultiChoice office or copies can be downloaded from www.dstvstarawards.com. The competition closes on 7 November 2016. For more information about Eutelsat visit www. Eutelsat.com.

Science Stars Magazine Women In Science Issue | www.sciencestars.co.za

19


SCIENCE FAIR

Google Science Fair Community Impact Award Winner ‘No More Thirsty Crops'

1

6-year-old South African, Kiara Nirghin, has shown the whole world that she is not just a pretty

face by winning the Google Science Fair Community Impact Award, in Africa and the Middle East region. Nirghin is now in the running to become one of 16 global finalists, who will get an opportunity to visit Google’s headquarters in California in September, for the annual awards celebration The Google Science Fair invites the brightest young minds from all over the world to answer one very important question “how can you make the world better through Science, Maths and Engineering?”, so it is evident that Kiara’s answer was the best and hard to overlook. She submitted her ‘No More Thirsty Crops’ project. This is after researching about the worst drought the Southern African region has experienced in more than two decades, she has come up with an extraordinary way of keeping crops hydrated for longer, at a very low cost. How may you ask? She used orange peels and avocado skins, to create a material that can hold hundreds of times its weight in water, in the soil. This absorbent polymer then acts as a water reservoir in the earth. Her method of saving water could have a huge impact on how the Africa reacts to the effects of climate change in years to come. Her love for Chemistry and Physics got her this far in the competition, considering that Google received thousands of entries from 107 countries.

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Science Stars Magazine Women In Science Issue | www.sciencestars.co.za


WOMEN’S HEALTH

ALWAYS KEEPING GIRLS IN SCHOOL Pads for girls campaign By Denver Nazima

S

anitary towels are inaccessible in

ronment, where they do not feel uncom-

most African countries but that has

fortable to speak about their menstruation

all changed since this great initiative

cycle. The programme has, been giving free

called Always Keeping Girls in school, “No

sanitary towels and strives to educate a

girl should be left out of Puberty Education

large number of girls all around Africa.

by 2020,” according to Ms Faiza Lahlou, and Dr Eliane Brigger from Procter & Gamble

Procter & Gamble (P&G) joined forces by

(P&G).

forming a partnership with the Department of Basic Education to tackle the lack acces-

Young girls attending school, are encour-

sibility of sanitary towels amongst young

aged to stay in school; by being provided

teenage African girls.

with sanitary towels and being educated about puberty, instead of missing out on

Young girls from the Western Cape gath-

school due to not having the necessary pro- ered and were the first beneficiaries of the tection during their menstruation cycle. The

programme. P&G aims to take on 9000

Always Keeping Girls in school programme

young teenage girls around all the South

believe that young girls, especially those

African provinces, where each girl will

from less privileged areas should embrace

receive sanitary towels throughout the year.

their bodies and not be ashamed or embarrassed about their journey to womanhood.

Other than empowering young girls to

This programme was designed to inspire

stay in school and encouraging them to be

young girls that are faced with this awful

determined to be educated about puberty

circumstance.

and their bodies, the programme aims to inspire young African girls to dream and

Over 80 000 girls around the world and

plan ahead for their future, through adjust-

over 28 000 girls in South Africa and Kenya

ing their self-esteem which will then effec-

lives have changed dramatically through

tively enable them to study further.

the Always Keeping Girls in school programme ever since March 2011, by the Tshwane Municipality. This programme was generated with the initiative to educate young teenage girls in Africa about their menstruation cycle in a more secure envi-

For more information about the Always Keeping Girls in school programme please email mabe.k@pg.com.

Chwayita Bhontsi, collects pads and donates it to young school girls.

Science Stars Magazine Women In Science Issue | www.sciencestars.co.za

23


HEALTH

PROPERTIES OF ROOIBOS More than just tea By Jeanine Marnewick

J

eanine Marnewick is a professor and

but now we have exciting new products

head of the Oxidative Stress Research

such as ice teas, jams, soups, marinades,

Centre at Cape Peninsula University

beers, wines, liqueurs, even an espresso

of Technology. She obtained MSc (Medical

and a whole range of skin-care products

virology) cum laude degree from University

containing Rooibos, showing us just how

of Cape Town (UCT) in 1996 and was

versatile Rooibos can be.

awarded the Joseph Arenow Price for the most meritorious thesis for the degree of

We were the first to show Rooibos to act

MSc Med/MPhil in the Faculty of Medicine,

as a preventative agent against the devel-

UCT followed by a PhD (Biochemistry)

opment of skin cancer, liver cancer and

from the University of Stellenbosch. Here,

oesophageal cancer in various experimental The biggest challenge for me when I

Jeanine tells us about her journey with

models. Very few human studies are cur-

started my research was how on earth was

Rooibos and its benefits.

rently available on Rooibos to evaluate the

I going to do this research? as I also had

Jeanine Marnewick is a professor and head of the Oxidative Stress Research Centre at Cape Peninsula University of Technology

health promoting effects of this proudly

the perception of a scientist being a very

My main research focus for the past 18

South African product, and we were the

lonely figure working behind closed doors. I

years has been the health promoting prop-

first to report the protective effect six cups

was extremely fortunate to have started out

erties of Rooibos an endemic South African

of Rooibos has on adults at risk for heart

with an excellent team of scientists at the

herbal tea, with a specific focus on chemo-

disease.

Medical Research Council.

prevention. When we started the research,

The results from that study showed drink-

very few scientific publications on the bio-

ing six cups of Rooibos every day for 6

Apart from the obvious scientific substan-

logical activities of these herbal teas were

weeks significantly lowers your “bad” cho-

tiation of the health benefits of Rooibos, I

available.

lesterol, increases your “good” cholesterol,

also use my studies with Rooibos as a way

increases your body’s own powerful anti-

to inspire our younger generation of scien-

In the early 1980s, Rooibos was mainly

oxidant called glutathione and reduces the

tists. Rooibos is my passion; I enjoy working

available to us as a herbal tea, a hot brew,

oxidative damage to lipids in your body, all

with this proudly South African product and

events linked in some way or another to

I am looking forward to unravelling more

cardiovascular disease.

scientific wonders of rooibos in future.

I believe that as scientists, we have an

It is extremely important to have a very

obligation to our communities; to provide

good foundation in Science, know your

them with possible solutions for problems

field of Science, become the expert and

they face daily. There is a clear increase in

surround yourself with professionals in the

the burden of non-communicable diseases,

field. As a woman, you will be facing dif-

such as heart disease, cancer and diabetes

ferent challenges, tackle them head-on, do

in South Africa and we have to find addi-

not compromise your own values, never

tional ways to combat this trend. I strongly

lose your curiosity for Science, be patient,

believe that Rooibos fits into this category

hardworking and you will reap the rewards.

as a complementary preventative measure

Remember the famous quote “A woman is

recommending to make Rooibos part of our

like a tea bag, you never know how strong

daily health regime.

it is until it is in hot water”.

Rooibos plant

24

Science Stars Magazine Women In Science Issue | www.sciencestars.co.za


IDENTITY IS IN THE

EYE OF THE BEHOLDER “Dare to be different, but at the same time, stay true to yourself.” GUGULETHU MABUZA-HOCQUET These are very appropriate words indeed from the woman who has committed her research to identity protection. The way Gugu sees it, your identity is all you really have – and the answer to protecting it, lies in iris biometrics. She is exploring the unique iris properties of the South African population that may just hold the key to a uniquely South African security encryption system. “Your iris does not only hold information such as your age, gender and race, it also says you are part of a demographic mix that is not found elsewhere in the world. Now imagine a future where those unique features in your eyes will protect the most valuble thing you have – your identity.” Gugu describes the way she ended up in science as a “beautiful accident”. It’s certainly one to be thankful for.

BRIGHT YOUNG SCIENTISTS BEHIND IDEAS THAT WORK. www.csirideasthatwork.co.za


NSW

NATIONAL SCIENCE WEEK 2016 "Science for Sustainable Development and Improved Quality of Life"

N

ational Science Week (NSW), an initiative of the Department of Science and Technology (DST), is a countrywide celebration of Science involving various stakeholders and role players conducting Science-based activities during the week.

The South African Agency for Science and Technology Advancement (SAASTA) was appointed by the DST as the implementing agency, and therefore took on the role of National Project Manager of the NSW. This year’s theme was “Science for Sustainable Development and Improved Quality of Life”. The NSW was conducted in all nine provinces simultaneously at multiple sites per province. This enabled people to select activities they would like to attend – based one their fields of interest – the programmes of activities in the various provinces. The launch of the NSW took place on Saturday, 6 August 2016, at the University of the Western Cape. TThe launch was a success. 65 schools from the Western Cape, 1625 learners and 1000 people from the general public attended.

26

Science Stars Magazine Women In Science Issue | www.sciencestars.co.za


RESEARCH

STELLENBOSCH UNIVERSITY NEURO RESEARCH GROUP Focusing on macroautophagy By Claudia Ntsapi

M

y name is Claudia Matlakala

Therefore, the aims of my work include the

make it possible to zoom right into the cell

Ntsapi, I am a 2nd-year PHD can-

accurate and robust quantification of the

to see exactly how it responds to treatment.

didate at Stellenbosch University’s

rates of protein degradation through MA

This technology is so new that only a few of

Department of Physiological Sciences,

and CMA, in order to control these path-

these microscopes are available worldwide.

where I am part of the Neuro Research

ways with the highest degree of precision.

It is predicted that these studies will pro-

Group (NRG). The research focus of NRG,

To achieve these aims, I use a unique cell

vide important information about cell death

headed up by Dr Ben Loos, combines cell

model system that overexpresses a particu-

and targeting autophagy in cellular physiol-

biology, cell physiology, super-resolution

lar aggregate prone protein. This cell model

ogy by focusing on imaging key proteins

microscopy, and biochemistry approaches

is the first of its kind to be implemented in

that may help us to prevent cell death, such

to investigate the role of protein degrada-

a South African laboratory.

as seen in AD-related neurodegeneration,

tion through autophagy pathways, and

so that cells can be rescued. The contribu-

the contribution of these pathways to cell

I also make use of a transgenic mouse

tion of this research to the South African

death susceptibility in neurodegeneration,

model, which expresses the fluorescent

research arena is substantial, as there are

neuronal migration and gliomas.

autophagy marker, GFP-LC3 in order to

very few laboratories in Africa that assess

assess the levels of autophagy in the cen-

the molecular mechanisms of neurodegen-

My work focuses on the role of two promi-

tral nervous system in response to treat-

eration in this context.

nent autophagy pathways, namely macro-

ment. The techniques utilized in my work

For more information

autophagy (MA), and chaperone mediated

are categorised as ‘‘scarce skills’’ which

email: ntsapi@sun.ac.za.

autophagy (CMA), and their potential contribution to proteotoxicity in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Many questions in this context remain to be answered. Particularly, the factors that drive cell death susceptibility in AD, in order to exploit mechanisms for neuronal protection. Research findings have previously demonstrated a clear relationship between the dysfunction of MA and CMA and the build-up of toxic protein aggregates in the brains of AD patients. Modulation of these pathways has previously been shown to improve selective AD-associted cognitive deficts and brain pathology in experimental models of the disease.

Claudia Matlakala Ntsapi, I am a 2nd-year PHD candidate at Stellenbosch University’s Department of Physiological Sciences

Science Stars Magazine Women In Science Issue | www.sciencestars.co.za

27


TOP 10

TOP 10

HOUSEHOLD INGREDIENTS FOR HEALTHY LOOKING HAIR

Feed your hair the natural way Coconut Oil

Eggs

Coconut oil is one of the best options. It helps

Eggs are a good source of protein, fatty

restore moisture to dry and damaged hair, making

acids and lecithin, these ingredients help

your hair look healthy and shiny.

repair dull hair by adding moisture and shine.

Mayonnaise

Process:

Mayonnaise has amino acids,

• Use one-half to one cup of full-fat may-

Apple cider vinegar is a great

protein and antioxidants that

onnaise, as needed for your hair length;

hair conditioner that can help

will make your hair strong and

• Apply it on freshly washed, damp hair;

make your hair soft, shiny and

shiny.

• Cover your hair with a shower cap for at

Apple Cider Vinegar

least 30 minutes;

moisturised. It can also help treat dandruff, itchy scalp and

• Wash your hair thoroughly using cold

frizzy hair.

water and a mild shampoo.

Avocado Avocado contains nutrients that will deeply moisturise and nourish your hair. This, in turn, will make your hair smooth and shiny.

Honey Honey is another effective home remedy for shiny hair. It is a natural humectant that draws in and retains moisture in your hair.

Aloe Vera

Yoghurt

Aloe Vera gel is good for your hair due to its moistur-

Yoghurt works as a deep conditioner and hence it helps

ising property. It also has antioxidants, vitamins and

make your hair soft, smooth and shiny. Plus, it has natu-

other compounds that support healthy hair.

ral antibacterial and antifungal properties due to its high lactic acid content that helps to keep your scalp clean and free from infections.

Gelatine Gelatine can also make your hair smooth, soft and shiny. It has hydrolyzed protein that helps treat damaged hair. Plus, it adds silky smoothness to your hair and makes it extra shiny.

Milk Milk is known to have moisturising properties that can help straighten hair. Also, the protein in milk fortifies the hair shafts, making them smooth and frizz free.

28

Science Stars Magazine Women In Science Issue | www.sciencestars.co.za


WOMEN OF ESSENCE

WOMEN IN SCIENCE AWARDS WINNER Caroline Pule, woman of essence

I

nitially, this section was about young

focuses on the physiology of drug-resistant

I constantly prayed to God throughout the

female scientists on the rise, but to say

and tolerant TB. Pule is a vice-president

years to keep me focused and working hard,

Caroline Pule is still on the rise would

of the South African Associates Women

regardless of the challenges faced along

be an injustice. Ms Pule has risen and has

Graduates (SAAWG) in the Western Cape,

the way. Most importantly, I was so grateful

made sure that everyone knows, now she

an executive committee member of the

that my success was not only for me but

has landed and great things are about to

Association of South African Women in

for my family who supports me all the time

happen in Science.

Science and Engineering (SAWISE), and

and for my nation through my research

a research director of the Governance

findings possibility to bringing a break-

Caroline Pule is a doctoral student at the

Leadership Organisation. She is also the

through in TB eradication. This also meant

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences,

founder of the “Caroline Pule Science and

that I am now a role model and a practical

Division of Molecular Biology and Human

Literacy Foundation”, which aims to help

motivation to learners doing Mathematics

Genetics, Stellenbosch University and an

establish Science clubs in disadvantaged

and Science, especially black young women,

ambassador of The South African National

communities and to distribute scientific lit-

for them believe that they can be whatever

Tuberculosis Association. Pule attained an

erature to these communities.

they aspire to be. They should also not

MSc in Medical Sciences (molecular biolo-

let their background limit them as young

gy) from the same university in March 2014. Her research focuses on understanding the

women in pursuing their dream careers.”

physiology of drug-resistant and tolerant At the recent Women in Science Awards,

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and how these What is your next step?

presented by the Department of Science

bacteria modulate the host response in the

and Technology, she received the TATA

context of the macrophage infection model- final year, is to complete my doctoral

scholarship for her doctoral research, which

macrophages are the cells of the immune

degree get my thesis and dissertation

system that are formed in response to

and start writing manuscript articles for

infections.

publications from my thesis findings and

She explores this research question

graduate as Dr Pule. This will be followed

through the use of transcriptomic analysis,

by being a post-doctoral researcher at an

fluorescence dilution and macrophage-

international research institute overseas,

model experiments, integrating the result-

where I will still be continuing with drug-

ing data using bioinformatics. She tells us

resistant Tubercolosis research, with more

about winning at the WISA 2016 and her

focus on other aspects of it and incorpo-

research.

rating other novel molecular biology and

My next step, since I’m already doing my

immunological techniques.

Photo by Mandi Banard

‘To be honest, when I heard about that I was one of the finalists for the second time

Lastly, to keep running my Foundation, sci-

(I was awarded DST fellowship 2 years ago

ence communication activities that educate

at WISA 2014), I literally had tears of joy run and equip young women and men with

Caroline Pule, PhD student in the division of molecular biology and human genetics, Stellenbosch University.

down my face. I could not believe it, I was

a passion for Science, Mathematics and

very happy and thankful to God for making

Biology to follow careers in STEM, and

my dream a reality and knowing through

keep being a role model to some of them

faith everything is possible.”

through my journey in medical research.

Science Stars Magazine Women In Science Issue | www.sciencestars.co.za

29


SMALL THINGS AMUSE

GREAT MINDS

“If I want to be a successful leader, I need to lead by example.” PRof SUPRAkAS SINHA RAy As chief researcher in the field of polymer nanocomposites at the National Centre for Nano-structured Materials at the CSIR, Suprakas is not only a thought-leader but also a brilliant team manager. Suprakas deals with molecules thousands of times smaller than the width of a human hair, fiddling with their structure to make them stronger, lighter and even more fire-resistant. Rated one of the top 100 chemists in the world, Suprakas is a great asset to the CSIR and industry in South Africa.

BRIGHT yoUNG SCIENTISTS BEHIND ideas that work. www.csirideasthatwork.co.za


WOMEN OF ESSENCE FEATURE

A BLEND OF INDIGENOUS AFRICAN OILS Nalane ea Afrika Nalane ea Afrika is a natural hair care range that aims at softening and managing natural hair. They strive to only use sulphate free, paraben free and chemical free products. They are currently still home-based, where they make the products themselves using natural oils that are indigenous to Africa, because they believe that the environment that you are born into should provide you with your health and beauty needs. Nalane ea Afrika – Hair care, is currently funded by Technology Innovation Agency (TIA), through their Youth Technology Innovation Program (YTIP) fund and was previously funded by three ladies; Mantshadi Mokoena, Mapula Nchocho and Karabo Mokoena. Mantshdi obtained a degree in Computer Science from the University of Johannesburg in 2007. Mapula completed her tertiary studies at the University of Pretoria & UNISA. Karabo is currently in her 3rd year finishing her degree in Environmental Science and Zoology at the University of the Witwatersrand. They only use naturally processed oils and butter in their products. They have recently had to apply for a permit to use these oils as they are indigenous to Africa and are protected by various environmental laws. Meet Ziyanda Gova, young environmental studies postgraduate and new YOUNG FEMALE to the working class. She describes herself as an outdoors person, likes SCIENTIST ON THE RISE challenges and very adventurous, one of the reasons why she ventured in

Conserving and preserving the environment

Environmental Studies; is her love for the environment. She sees herself as an optimist, because she sees an opportunity in every difficult situation she encounters. We have a brief profile of herself since we are in the spirit of empowering women in science, we decided to introduce you to her as she is on the rise to do big things. Why Science? Since accuracy is very important in the study of Science it makes one pay attention to detail, it gives a sense of legitimacy because theories are proven before they become a law and that gives it a sense of validity. How would you explain your line of work to an ordinary person? I am responsible for overseeing the environmental performance of private, public and voluntary sector organisations. Whenever there is development e.g. building a shopping centre, my job is to outline environmental impacts that can be expected. I help developers produce good Environmental Assessment Reports and help them find better alternatives for their projects. Ultimately, I conserve and preserve the environment, simply by ensuring sustainable harvest of resources (through legislation), while encouraging economic development, through the use of green technologies and ensuring the social well-being is looked after by providing jobs and recreational activities.

Science Stars Magazine Women In Science Issue | www.sciencestars.co.za

31


DRESS TO PROFESS

WHAT AND WHAT NOT TO WEAR FOR AN INTERVIEW Dress to Profess

By Ntombizanele Thangayi

D

ressing for an interview, whether it is a biotech or a pharma, it is as important as any other company’s interview. Even though some environments can be very casual, scientists should dress profes-

sionally for the interview. First impressions count, so that is why you need to make sure you show everyone that you are a force to be reckoned with, from the minute you walk in. When it comes to clothes and fashion; women have different or similar tastes, a percentage of people from all over the world perceive scientists as people who never dress up, people who are in lab coats, pants, goggles etc. But that is not how it really is, the STEM field is vast and complex, but one should always dress to profess! How you dress for your interview can make or break your career, before you even say “good morning”, the way you dress speaks volumes about you, yes you are not there for a fashion show but there to work. Dressing up is one of the most important aspects one needs to consider. You should look decent enough that the interviewer gets a good impression of you. Remember,, what you wear defines the kind of person you are. A comfortable formal dress with a blazer, that suits you like it was made on your body is always the best for any interview. Shirts that are not too bright with formal pants or skirts that are not short, will make you look decent. A touch of make-up will to the trick. Make sure, you do not show too much skin, you do not want to move the attention from your skills to your body. Miniskirts and bum shorts are a big NO even if they look formal; they will not get you the job. Also wearing clothes with a lot of print and fancy labels on them, are least important on that day. You will get time to shine and look important after the interview. Another big NO NO, is going to an interview wearing your sweat pants and sneakers, because you wear that to the laboratory or class and believe that scientists should dress comfortably, yes they should but also remember they should dress comfortably and appropriately. You can be formal and comfortable. Look the part and you will get the part!

32

Science Stars Magazine Women In Science Issue | www.sciencestars.co.za


QUIZ

QUIZ Expand your knowledge and take this quiz

1 2 3

What is the theme for this year’s Women in Science Awards? a) Women’s empowerment and leadership roles b) Women’s development in South Africa c) Women’s empowerment and its link to sustainable development d) Women’s role in the twenty-first century

What does the acronym ICT stand for? a) Intelligent Communication Technology b) Innovative Creation Techniques c) Integrated Communication Technology d) Innovative use of Information and Communication Technology

7

Former Deputy President _____________________ delivered the keynote address and congratulated the ‘exceptional’ South Africans, particularly those making a social impact in the empowerment of women?

Which young Free State researcher walked away with top honours at the annual Women in Science Awards? a) Dr Muthoni Masinde b) Caroline Pule c) Prof. Vhonani Netshandama d) Dr Mlambo-Ngquka

4

6

On which date was the Women in Science Awards Held?

The Women in Science Awards is a ____________ event?

a) Jacob Zuma b) Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka c) Naledi Pandor d) Thabo Mbeki

a) Monthly b) Quarterly c) Weekly d) Annual

5

There is a special category award given for_____________? a) Best Dressed Scientist b) Research & Development (R&I) c) Innovation d) Women of the Month

a) 18 July 2016 b) 23 July 2016 c) 6 August 2016 d) 11 August 2016

8

Emerging young scientist _____________________ walked away with a R60 000 Tata Scholarship for her research into TB? a) Caroline Pule b) Prof. Vhonani Netshandama c) Dr Muthoni Masinde d) Dr Mlambo-Ngquka

Science Stars Magazine Women In Science Issue | www.sciencestars.co.za

33


PUZZLE

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Science Stars Magazine Women In Science Issue | www.sciencestars.co.za


ANSWERS

ANSWERS

Climatology Science Issue

WORDSEARCH

SCIENCESTARS Issue 12 | July/August 2016

CLIMATOLOGY

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Science Stars Magazine Women In Science Issue | www.sciencestars.co.za

35


SCIENCE NEWS

SCIENCE NEWS After an unexplained underground fire burned for a week, Government has calmed fears among the community of Groblersdal in Limpopo that they are facing a volcanic eruption.

Eskom was named employer of choice in the utilities category by job seekers, by the South African Graduate Employers Association (SAGEA) at the Employer Awards. The ceremony celebrates the achievements of South Africa’s leading graduate employers. 16-year-old South African, Kiara Nirghin is the regional winner for Middle East and Africa in the Google Science Fair’s Community Impact Award. She is now in line to be one of 16 global finalists and will travel to the Google headquarters in California for the award ceremony.

A new initiative called “NextGen100” has been launched by Minister of Science and Technology, Naledi Pandor, to assist young innovators to transform their innovative ideas into business ventures in the country.

36

The organisation, Health Professionals of South Africa believes that its new campaign called “Awareness Beats Cancer” has started to reach out to communities in the Potchefstroom and surrounding areas of the North-West.

Young Free State researcher, Dr Muthoni Masinde, walked away with top honours at the annual Women in Science Awards (WISA) of the Department of Science and Technology (DST). Dr Muthoni Masinde obtained her PhD from the University of Cape Town in 2012.

Dr Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka has urged women to use their scientific expertise to seek a solution to some of the world’s major problems.

Science Stars Magazine Women In Science Issue | www.sciencestars.co.za


DST

SA-CHINA HIGH TECH EXPO Enhancing innovation

T

he first SA-China high-tech Science and Technology exhibition opened at the Sandton International

Convention Centre in Johannesburg on 13 October 2016. The South Africa-China exhibition featured innovative products and services produced by the two countries. The countries have been cooperating on Science and Technology since 1999. The exhibition was aimed at creating a platform for South African and Chinese science councils, academic institutions and industry players to exchange information on new technological trends and foster collaborative linkages. The three-day event included discussions on research and development topics such as the beneficiation of herbal/plant bioresources to benefit the economy for the pharmaceutical and medical industries, the challenges and opportunities for renewable energy in the developing world, and advanced manufacturing. Speaking at the opening event, the Director-General of Science and Technology, Dr Phil Mjwara, welcomed the Chinese delegation to South Africa, saying the occasion would allow for networking and

The Chinese Vice Minister for Science and

through which both countries could imple-

establishing partnerships in research and

Technology, Hou Jianguo, said the exhibi-

ment their development objectives.

investment.

tion had huge potential to further economic growth and improve livelihoods in both

Minister Hou said deepening cooperation in

“Science today is far removed from the ste-

countries and in Africa. He said that inno-

human capital development was critical to

reotypical perception of mystery and dan-

vation was important for enterprise devel-

growing the next generation of scientists,

ger and is increasingly about the establish-

opment.

and that China was looking forward to having more young people from South Africa

ment of new business models and processes. And those who understand and embrace

He told delegates at the opening ceremony

visiting science institutions in China. In

this approach often succeed before others

that China was always willing to work with

this regard, China would train hundreds of

in bringing new ideas, products and ser-

South Africa’s young scientists and research

young scientists from South Africa over the

vices to society,” said Dr Mjwara.

institutions, calling this a powerful strategy

next five years.

Science Stars Magazine Women In Science Issue | www.sciencestars.co.za

37


EXPERIMENT

BLOBS IN A BOTTLE

You will need:

What to do:

3. Add 10 drops of food colouring to the

• A clean 1 litre clear soda bottle

1. Pour the water into the bottle.

bottle. The drops will pass through the

• 3/4 cup of water

2. Use a measuring cup or funnel to

oil and then mix with the water below.

• Vegetable Oil

slowly pour the vegetable oil into the

4. Break a seltzer tablet in half and drop

• Fizzing tablets (such as Alka Seltzer)

bottle until it’s almost full. You may

the half tablet into the bottle. Watch it

• Food colouring

have to wait a few minutes for the oil

sink to the bottom and let the blobby

and water separate.

greatness begin!

Cool, right? By the way, you can store your “Blobs in a Bottle” with the cap on, and then anytime you want to bring it back to life, just add another tablet piece.

5. To keep the effect going, just add another tablet piece. For a true lava lamp effect, shine a flashlight through the bottom of the bottle.

38

Science Stars Magazine Women In Science Issue | www.sciencestars.co.za


Map the future.

C

M

Y

CM

MY

CY

CMY

K

You CAN be an Allan Gray Scholar The Allan Gray Orbis Foundation Scholarship Opportunity developing a community of young entrepreneurially minded leaders. The Foundation aims to promote progress in Southern Africa by developing high impact responsible entrepreneurs. The Scholarship opportunity therefore offers high school scholarships to learners who display entrepreneurial attributes, academic potential and financial need.

How to apply Applications can be downloaded from the Foundation website: www.allangrayorbis.org OR SMS “SCHOLAR” + “Name and Surname” + “Your Fax Nr or Email” to 36777 to have an application form sent to you. Completed applications must be posted to Allan Gray Orbis Foundation Freepost no: CB 11349 Kloof Street, 8008. OR Hand Deliver to: 46 Hof Street, Oranjezicht, Cape Town OR 8th Floor, Forum Building, 2 Maude Street, Sandton, Johannesburg, 2196 Who can apply Current (2016) Grade 6 Learners can apply Closing Date: Friday, 30 September 2016


Draw up a study timetable.

FCB CAPE TOWN 10007095CT/E

Study tips

Don’t procrastinate!

Make flashcards, use acronyms, sing jingles - anything to help you remember.

Exercise and eat correctly to combat stress. Use tables, flowcharts and figures - pictures can help you remember facts.

Get up a little earlier on the morning of an exam - it will allow you time to have a proper breakfast and you will feel calm when you arrive at your exam venue.

Create a study environment free from clutter and distractions.

If the workload is too big, join a study group. But make sure you actually study.

Get a decent night’s sleep. It helps with your concentration.

Go over as many past papers as you can.

Don’t postpone difficult topics when studying tackle the hard bits first.

Good luck!

At Engen, we want to give you some extra encouragement during your final exams because we understand that education is the first step to a brighter future. That’s one of the reasons why we invest in subjects that will be of long-term value to our business and South Africa. For nearly 3 decades, Engen Maths and Science Schools have provided extra tuition to learners in grades 10 to 12 across the country. Engen wishes you every success for your final matric exams. www.engenoil.com/education

SS Women In Science Special Edition 2016  

Science Stars aims to excite and to encourage previously disadvantaged South African youth to develop an interest in studying Mathematics an...