NEXT GENERATION DESIGN A COMMUNITY AND EDUCATION PROJECT TO DESIGN AND BUILD A PAVILION
â€œScale Rule strives to broaden access to the built environment professions with clever, fun projects designed for school students.â€?
Todayâ€™s students are the architects and engineers of tomorrow â€“ they are the next generation of design. The Next Generation Design project focused on GCSE students still in the process of choosing their A-level subjects and their potential career path. Over the first weekend of the spring half term 2018 we ran a two-day workshop focused on experiential learning of the design process for a pavilion.
7 FOREWORD 9
11 12 14 16 17 20 26
Introduction Learning Design The Brief Concept Proposals Concept Development Design Proposals Jury / Comments and Winning Proposal
33 Design Development 46 Mock-up 47 Construction Details
54 Fabrication 60 Construction in Numbers 61 Sponsors and Support 64 Credits
FOREWORD ‘Involve me and I will learn’ ‘Tell me and I will forget, teach me and I might remember, involve me and I will learn’ This ancient Chinese proverb comes from a Confucian philosopher, Xun Kuang who lived in 312-230 BC. As a teacher and a practitioner, I always believed in the power of reallife experience to exchange knowledge. Scale Rule collective’s mission is aligned with this desire of active learning and teaching, turning the professionals into teachers and the students into professionals. This process blurs the line between the transmitter and receiver of knowledge and in doing so, empowers everyone involved.
The students were given a very clear brief at the beginning of the workshop that led to the selection process. It was very apparent that the selected team and front-runners took time to consider and address each item listed in the brief. Architecture, before anything, is the relationship between a need and a system that addresses it; it is a scientific and poetic dialogue between a problem and its solution. Being able to carefully listen whilst suggesting a creative architectural framework is a very challenging exercise for the mind. It unites the mathematical and artistic notions which are so often dissociated at school.
From conception to realisation, the young students taking part in the Next Generation Design 2018 are actively immersed in the process of an architectural and engineering project. They actively learn about specific professions which will reveal potential vocations. More generally, preparing and presenting a design within a team shows them the complexity and nuances of materialising ideas, working in groups. They will understand the power of collaboration and the resulting selflessness and empathy that it requires. They learn how to let go of some ideas and to be inspired by discoveries external to themselves. They get confronted with the impact of a clear, structured and heartfelt presentation to the public, how best to convince an audience that their proposal tackles the brief with solutions that resonate on many different levels. They craft a story that connects the dots of a non-linear process.
The Next Generation Design 2018 also highlights that Architecture and the construction industry are undergoing a revolution. With the rise of maker-spaces, the democratisation of fabrication tools such as 3d printing and robotics, architects will increasingly be involved in the fabrication of their own projects. From tinkerers and makers of products, we’re evolving towards self-builders and even master-builders. By being involved in the construction of their own projects, the architects and engineers of tomorrow will create holistic projects considering all aspects of designs, including the materials, the environment and the assembly process. The NextGenDesign pavilion combines this diversity of parameters beautifully whilst uplifting the soul. How inspiring it must be as a teenager to see that you can have an impact on the world.
Arthur Mamou-Mani AAdip, ARB/RIBA, FRSA Director – Mamou-Mani Architects
INTRODUCTION NEXT GENERATION DESIGN
WHO ARE SCALE RULE?
Next Generation Design is a series of student workshops to teach the principles of engineering and architecture through the design process, aimed at GCSE students still in the process of choosing their A-level subjects and a potential career path. The brief: to design a pavilion which would engage the weekday working community of Clerkenwell and the local residents alike, and would provoke a discourse on sustainability. Starting with seminars, conceptual design, drawing, model making and presentations, each team completed the workshops by producing a final concept design and presenting their thoughts to a panel of industry, academia and media judges. Following the workshops in February, the selected concept design was developed, fabricated and assembled for construction at the end of May – launching for Clerkenwell Design Week 2018 and staying in place for the summer.
Scale Rule are engineers, architects and designers who like teaching, designing, building and learning. We are a collective that seek to promote diversity and public engagement in our built environment by encouraging better representation in the industry, and community participation on new projects. We engage people from all works of life in the design process, and provide opportunities for professionals to be better informed about the people for which they design. We do all this with the fantastic support from volunteers, who help us teach, design and build each project.
For something so influential on our everyday experiences, our built environment is designed by only a small subset of society, and with limited engagement from the rest of it. In the 1760s James Otis proclaimed “Taxation without representation is tyranny”. In the 2010s we proclaim that “A built environment without representation is tyranny”. Or if not tyrannical, then counter-productive: we believe a diverse design industry will make for better balanced spaces, structures and societies. Next Generation Design is not about technology or ground breaking innovations; it is about young people. Today’s students are tomorrow’s architects and engineers, the Next Generation of Designers. Do we want the next generation of designers to be the same as this generation – drawn from a small self-selecting predominantly white, male and middle-class group? To broaden the next generation of designers, we engage with groups who are not traditionally drawn in to architecture and engineering. The best way for them to learn is to do. Scale Rule allow people to explore the design process through small accessible projects.
While we’re teaching, we’re still learning. The projects we engage in allow us to adopt different roles in the design and construction process than those that we usually hold; transforming engineers and architects into teachers, project managers, general contractors or joiners. Through these experiences we gain further insight into the holistic design process which is not readily available in a more traditional design team structure.
PARTICIPATING SCHOOLS: Lister Community School, Plaistow School 21, Stratford Hornsey School For Girls, Crouch End Harris Aspire Academy, Beckenham
LEARNING DESIGN PAVILION DESIGN WORKSHOPS The Next Generation Design Workshops were held over two days at Grimshaw's offices in Clerkenwell. Seminars on architecture, engineering, drawing and construction aimed to provide the students with an insight into the day-to-day of the various professions along with a ‘crash course’ in each topic. Due to the previous year’s success, a similar format was maintained where seminars were interspersed with group workshop time. Hearing and learning about how to draw plans and sections was immediately followed by application during the pavilion design sessions with the invaluable help of volunteer mentors on hand to guide each student in producing a concept design. A series of lectures were given including: –– Our favourite structures –– What is architecture? –– Sustainability and waste –– What is engineering –– The basics of construction –– Design tools All the seminar presentations are available at scalerule.org to allow others to host similar workshops.
Mak and Will from the Edible Bus Stop introducing students to Sustainability and Landscape Architecture
SITE VISIT The students worked in teams of 2-6 to develop the design of a pavilion for a site in St. James Church garden, Clerkenwell. Following a visit to the site, where they studied the various architectural constraints the students developed their designs through concept sketches and 3D models accompanied by plans, sections and construction details explaining how to build it.
Site visit to St James Church Garden
Students were encouraged to do site sketches and note down their observations
THE BRIEF WHAT
Your task is to design a pavilion which will be located in an area outside St. James’ Church, Clerkenwell. –– The pavilion is to cover an area of 30m2 –– It should be no taller than 4m –– It should have a lifespan of at least 3 months –– It should be accessible and available to all including the disabled
After a design has been chosen, the project will be developed, engineered and will actually get built! This means you need to think about what it could be made of and how it could be assembled, what will ensure it stands up? –– What materials would work best with your design? Should it be one or multiple materials? –– Think about flexibility: could the pavilion be made of parts, “modules”, which could be rearranged and adapted to different scenarios? –– Could the design of pavilion integrate non construction materials, such as textiles or plants?
This year’s theme is sustainability – how could your design celebrate it?
WHY The pavilion should form a focal point. Think carefully about how it will achieve this: –– What is the ‘idea’ or reason behind the pavilion? How will the public interact with it? –– Does a certain activity take place within it? Does its shape or form make people respond in a certain way? –– Could the pavilion provide some form of seating for the public and/or some form of shelter from the elements? –– Does the pavilion stimulate any of the senses, such as smell, touch or hearing?
HOW DO THE ABOVE RELATE TO SUSTAINABILITY?
–– How big is 30m2 in reality? Can you compare it to your surroundings? –– What is the form of the pavilion? Is it orthogonal or organic, jagged or smooth? –– Think of which colours or finishes the pavilion should have. Are the materials left exposed? How will its finish change over time?
The area where the pavilion will be located is shown on the site plan. After analysing the site, you will need to work out what would be the best way to position your pavilion: –– What kind of dialogue does it create with the churchyard and its wider context? –– Think about which areas are naturally busy or quiet. How will the pavilion change the way the park is used? –– Analyse any environmental influences – the sun, wind, trees (remember, the area will be leafier and greener when the pavilion is built in May!) How will the pavilion affect the quality of light inside it and around it? 14
–– Could you use recycled, re-usable, found materials? –– Can they be recycled at the end of the pavilions life? –– Could the pavilion be taken apart, transported and re-used on a different site? –– How could the sizing of components make such flexibility possible? Can you use repeating modules to reduce waste?
ES AM .J ST
View of St James' Church from the site
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SITE PLAN - OVERALL
1 : 500
Each group was requested to come up with three options for concept designs for the pavilion by the end of the first day. A set deadline and stimulating discussions with volunteers from the industry encouraged students to get their most daring ideas out on paper, and spend some time thinking how these could be turned into reality. Very quickly students went on to demonstrate imagination and creative freedom in communicating their designs. Resulting proposals turned out to be incredibly rich in the many ways they encouraged interaction and spread messages on sustainability, as well as their form and material palette. All proposals were evaluated by the organisers with regards to the clarity of their driving idea and their potential to become something unique yet feasible. One favoured design per team was taken forward for refinement and presentation on the second day.
On the second day of workshops the teams were given half a day to develop their selected designs into coherent proposals, which they would then have to present to a panel of judges from the industry. The Deliverables included: – Plan, section and elevation drawings (1:50 or 1:20) – Physical model 1:20 – Development sketches – 3D view – Basic construction ideas – Oral presentation In addition to presenting their proposed concept, the teams had to specifically address how their designs met a number of criteria outlined in the brief. This included constructability, sustainability, inclusive design, accessibility and social interaction.
Initial sketches produced by students during the first day of workshops
DESIGN PROPOSALS Team LISTER: BIRDS BIRDS BIRDS A series of arches guide visitors through a sequence of sensory experiences, towards a contemplative space in the middle. Here one can find rest by observing birds that have come to drink from a bird bath. The team drew inspiration for their key ideas from site observations and the adjacent church building.
Team LADIES +1: LOOP DE LOOP Inspired by the 100 year anniversary of some women being granted the right to vote for the first time in the UK, the team created a pavilion in a loop de loop form. The two loops represent and celebrate simultaneous strength and flexibility of femininity. The structure, inspired by origami, would create pockets for plants on the outside, and invite visitors to sit on the swings suspended from it on the inside.
SKETCH INITIAL IDEAS
CONSTRUCTION SKETCH FINAL MODEL
Team 5 SENSE: PAST-PRESENT-FUTURE The team addressed the theme of sustainability on a holistic and boldly poetic level. Rotating layers of translucent shapes representing past, present and future would be suspended between five pillars, creating a central oculus. The design seeks to activate senses, and to subsequently make us more aware of our presence alongside the ever-present elements such as time and sky.
CONCEPT STAGE THOUGHTS
CONCEPT SKETCH SITE PLAN
The two days of workshops culminated in well rehearsed presentations to a panel of judges from diverse parts the design industry: Faith Wainwright – Director at Arup and the newly appointed President of IStructE 2018 Will Sandy – Creative Director at landscape architecture studio The Edible Bus Stop Arthur Mamou-Mani – Director of Mamou-Mani Architects and architect of the central temple for Burning Man 2018 festival Max Fraser – Design Journalist, Content Editor for Clerkenwell Design Week, Editor-in-Chief and Director at Spotlight Press
COMMENTS AND WINNING PROPOSAL
After an hour of intense discussions, the jury agreed that the design to be constructed for CDW 2018 should be 'Past - Present - Future'. The proposal by team '5 Sense' was deemed to respond to the brief in a most considerate manner, with far reaching interpretation of the main sustainability theme. The physical form was seen as appropriately minimal and subtle, bringing visitor experience into focus rather than risking to compete with it. All teams were praised for the many ingenious ideas on activating senses and encouraging interaction, communicating important messages and raising awareness of sustainability issues. Everyone who witnessed the two days of workshops was especially impressed with how quickly the students managed to unlock their creative powers, and how confident and articulate they were in presenting their 'freshly baked' designs.
Sketches produced by students, illustrating some of their ideas on addressing the sustainability theme
KEY COMPONENTS OF THE WINNING SCHEME
Ringbeam Shapes & Oculus symbolic layers of past/ present/future forming a window up to the sky
5 pillars representative of 5 senses
Platform elevating the pavilion to reinforce its implied space and highlight the process of entering it.
Ramp Making access to the pavilion inclusive for all
Plants natural elements & something to stimulate our senses
DESIGN DEVELOPMENT STABILITY OPTIONS A key factor that would influence the design was the stability of the structure and the form of the individual structural members. Initial thoughts based on the students concept was that the structure should work as a portal frame with moment connections between the columns and ring beam. A second option was to add bracing members between the columns to allow pinned connections, however these additional members compromised the simple and striking visual effect that the team had created. Looking at the ring beam alone, thought was given to material choice and the potential for it to be made from a curved piece of steel, however significant impacts on cost and difficulty with lifting into place led the design away from this option.
Cantilever columns - final design
A 100mm deep platform at the base provides both a raised level inside the pavilion, and ties the columns together to resist overturning.
In the end a coordinated solution was found to meet all structural and architectural requirements. Designing the columns to cantilever individually instead of relying on a frame system allowed the simplest method of construction, without compromising the aesthetic of the pavilion. It also meant that the ring beam became secondary structure and so the form could be adapted.
FORM DEVELOPMENT Ringbeam From the start it was felt that the primary ringbeam could be broken up to become part of the layering idea, making the shape of the pavilion more dynamic. This was made easily feasible thanks to the decision to make the pillars structurally independent.
Columns The original idea to have 5 pillars was taken forward, as this number proved to work well in keeping the overall form visually and structurally balanced. The columns were then trimmed to follow the spiralling down of ringbeams.
Oculus The key element of the winning design was a rather sculptural set of overlapping shapes suspended from the ringbeam. Representing different states of time, these colourful and translucent layers were to form a central opening â€“ a kaleidoscopic oculus, - inviting visitors to look up to the tree canopies and the sky above. These floating shapes were reinterpreted as a spirograph-like coloured string sculpture. This made the construction of the sculpture more simple and longer lasting, while only reinforcing its ephemeral quality.
Examples of spirograph string sculptures
Illustration by Gaudre Znutaite
Base While always part of the original design, a more substantial base became necessary structurally as well as visually, as a way to unify the lower part of the pavilion and give it the appropriate weight in terms of the overall proportions. Following multiple iterations, an undulating, ribbed form was conceived, providing a surface inside the pavilion for visitors to lie on and look up through the oculus. The outer edge of the base, in turn, became a perimeter bench, with a hope that it will establish a more immediate connection with park users, especially the summer lunchtime crowds.
Script Parametric design tools proved to be indispensable in designing a seating surface that would be ergonomic, robust and relatively easy to construct within the given time and material constraints. As the design progressed, construction details were developed in a way that as many issues as possible could be addressed by CNC cutting components into specific shapes rather than having to do fabricate each connection on site. Subsequently, the script grew to incorporate all these details.
1:200 Site Plan
Planting The students’ wish to include planting was achieved by turning some segments of the base into planters for evergreen, sensory vegetation. The process of planting up the pavilion also became a perfect opportunity to get the local community involved by - with help from the Edible Bus Stop team - turning it into one of Chelsea Fringe festival events. Integration of sensory plants such as lavender, rosemary and jasmine into the base of the pavilion will help to activate senses and awareness of natural elements.
Scale Rule Next Generation Design Pavilion PLAN
The underlying play between past, present and future is reinforced as the final design offers us another way of reading its layers: the site of St. James’ Churchyard becomes representative of the past, the base of the pavilion together with users inhabiting it is a symbol of the present, and the oculus with nature’s elements beyond it – a hopeful future.
1:50 Elevation 42
MATERIALITY In their design proposal, the students specified timber as the primary material for the pavilion. As the design evolved, it still seemed like timber was the right choice due to it being sustainable and allowing for easy assembly and disassembly. The decision to use plywood for the base also meant that it was possible to create a curved, ergonomic, surface from thousands of parts by having them CNC cut from script-derived layouts.
Timber Coloured Paracord Strings Simple to fix, durable. Together with the red wood stain finish, makes the pavilion become a toy-like sculpture.
Planting Stimulating senses and adding another, living layer to the story of the pavilion
Easily sourced, simple to assemble, robust and sustainable
Red wood stain finish Provides contrast between the pavilion and its natural surroundings, making it stand out.
Plywood Easily sourced, robust and sustainable; easily cut according to parametric model using CNC machine
MODULARITY Our desire to make the pavilion sustainable in terms of its lifetime meant that it had to be conceived almost as a kit of parts â€“ something to be taken apart, transported and reassembled again on a new site, with the possibility of this happening multiple times. Accordingly, the starting brief invited students to make modularity integral to their designs; this in fact, turned out to be critical in the development of pavilionâ€™s undulating base. To simplify the construction of it's complex geometry, a modular form with repeating parts was designed. The seating volume became divided into 6 modules - 2 per infilled bay. Additional complexity to the assembly sequence was added by the wish to have planters independent from and recessed underneath the surface of the base. This meant that further divisions were required, to allow the planters to be locked in and concealed between the smaller seating modules. The ringbeams and plinth were also divided into smaller modules. This approach sought to maximise the extent of pavilion components that could be fabricated individually before coming together to form the overall structure.
Scale Rule Next Generation Design Pavilion PLAN
Plan showing module division for pavilion's base
Diagram showing different modules for plinth
Construction drawings for individual modules
MOCK-UP COLUMN BASE CONNECTION A full-scale mock up of one of the column bases was constructed to aid the design process through testing ease and timing of construction and disassembly. The timber joists from a local Jewson timber store were measured and cut to size by hand, and then bolted and screwed together using a hand-drill. When working with a unique and unusual design, there is considerable value in full-scale 1:1 testing. The physical act of making allows the design to be tested as it will be in reality, flagging up constructibility issues with materials, fixings and general construction logistics. Lessons learned can then be fed back into the final construction and assembly process. During the mock-up assembly process several things were highlighted that could be changed to speed up construction and simplify the connection details, and so the design was updated. Finally the mock-up was disassembled and the materials recycled in the final pavilion build.
Hand cutting timber joists to size The completed column mock-up
CONSTRUCTION DETAILS EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC The bench structure is made entirely from CNC cut plywood components. Fins that create the curving outline sit on combs spanning perpendicularly. Careful thought was given to the connections to create a flush surface for the seat and back rest, making it more comfortable for users. An accurate 3D model was vital to ensure there were no clashes between any parts of the bench, columns and planters.
Plinth Combs for seating support
COLUMN BASE CONNECTION The connections were designed so that they can be easily disassembled in the future, using bolts or screws. The column base connection resists moments in both directions allowing the column to stand alone. A second timber 'leg' prevents the column from falling over due to its incline.
Main column member 2x200x47mm C24 timber joists
Plywood gusset plate (front) Plywood gusset plate (back) Steel angle brackets with wood screws
COLUMN - RINGBEAM CONNECTION The ring beams are comprised of 2 layers of CNC plywood bolted together at regular intervals, allowing them to span much further than a single layer. At the columns the connection doubles up - the packer that connects the two column members allowing them to work together also provides support for the ring beam. A notch in the beam cut by CNC allows it to sit neatly on the packer, and the two are connected by screwing down through the beam.
Main column member - 2 no 200x47mm C24 timber joists
Holes for strings CNC plywood ring beam [shelf]
Slot in shelf around column cut by CNC machine
Layers of plywood connected by bolting through
Shelves bear onto column packer and are connected by screws
Bolted connections to join column members Column packer doubles up as ring beam support
TYPICAL SEATING SLOT CONNECTION A simple connection was developed for the seating as there were a large number to complete and it was important that these could be quick to construct. Slots are cut in the fins by CNC machine for a small plywood wedge to pass through. The seating plates are placed on top and screwed together. This connection is replicated in the bench structure 1050 times!
Wedge for seat support CNC cut slot in fin for wedge, with circular corners for snug fit
Illustration by Milo De Luca
FABRICATION TIMBER CUTTING LIST The timber supplied by Jewson was delivered in stock lengths and so had to be cut to size by hand. To aid the smooth running of the build, construction drawings were produced to give exact dimensions and angles for cutting the joists. This approach helped to ensure that when the individual modules came together they would fit, but tolerance was also built into the connections to allow for any mistakes on site.
Qty: 1 294.08 °
Qty: 1 407.80 10
Qty: 1 8.0
Example of a cutting list for one of plinth modules
Qty: 1 55
Qty: 2 55
MAXIMISING EFFICIENCY + MINIMISING WASTE The pavilion is formed of two primary assemblies prepared for fabrication from a shared parametric computer model. The bench structure and ply deck of the plinth were CNC cut from a nested cutting pattern and delivered to site ready for assembly. To minimise waste the sheets were laid out to fit as well as possible, and any off-cuts were brought to site to be used as packing and shims. This machine fabrication transferred much of the skilled labour in production away from the unskilled construction team. The columns and plinth structure, however, needed to be cut manually from the provided stock timber lengths. This required a cutting list for the individual lengths to be prepared and angles to be cut where necessary. A tagging system was used to sort the timber into the different modules. 12mm thick shelves
24mm thick gusset plates
12mm thick plinth
18mm thick seating
18mm thick planters
CNC PROCESS The cutting layouts generated from a 3D model were sent to WUP Doodle CNC machining workshop in Suffolk. A total of approximately 62 sheets of plywood were cut. Generous technical support from the workshop staff helped to ensure that the resulting shape of each component was as optimal as possible and appropriate tolerances we allowed for.
CONSTRUCTION IN NUMBERS
62 sheets of plywood
1.4km of CNC machine cutting
56m2 of timber painted
5372 screws used
600m of string
640 hours of labour constructing
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Andrew Mcfadden Helen Siu Henry Turner Iain Bleakley Jenny Song Luca Bartoli Luis A. Sanchez Megan Greig Mak Gilchrist Milo De Luca Naomi Danos Paras Shah Will Sandy
April Shackley Gaudre Znutaite
April Shackley Andy Watts Gaudre Znutaite Jade Purdy Michael Lau Sacha Davis
JUDGES Arthur Mamou-Mani Faith Wainwright Max Fraser Will Sandy
SCALE RULE DIRECTORS Annabel Koeck Daniel Bergsagel Laura Hannigan Philip Isaac Sinead Conneely Steven Kennedy
Erica Yunwook Choi
ILLUSTRATIONS Gaudre Znutaite Milo De Luca
PRINTER SUPPORT Aidan Hermans Ed Moseley Helen Siu Isobel Scott Jack Holdsworth Mak Gilchrist Rebekah Foote Rob Marshall Will Sandy ... and all the volunteer helpers during construction!
Illustration by Milo De Luca
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