NEXT GENERATION DESIGN BIRMINGHAM 2017
Scale Rule strives to broaden access to the built environment professions with clever, fun projects designed for school students.
TODAY’S STUDENTS ARE THE ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS OF TOMORROW – THEY ARE THE NEXT GENERATION OF DESIGNERS. THE NEXT GENERATION DESIGN PROJECT TARGETED GCSE STUDENTS STILL IN THE PROCESS OF CHOOSING THEIR A-LEVEL SUBJECTS AND THEIR POTENTIAL CAREER PATH. OVER THE FIRST WEEKEND OF JULY 2017 WE RAN A TWO DAY WORKSHOP FOCUSED ON EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING OF THE DESIGN PROCESS FOR A PAVILION.
CONTENTS FOREWORD 06
THE TEAM 60
WORKSHOP 12 THE BRIEF 16 SITE PLAN 18 MODEL MAKING 20 DESIGN TEAMS 22 JURYS COMMENTS & WINNING TEAM
DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 34 PROTOTYPING 40 VIRTUAL REALITY 42 AUGMENTED REALITY 43 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 44 CONNECTION DETAILS 45 PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT 46 CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE 48 CNC SCALE MODEL 50
PAVILION, CREDITS & SPONSORS
FOREWORD Next Generation Design Brum provides a unique insight into the engineering and architecture for secondary school students in Birmingham who might not have considered such careers, offering a wonderful design and build project that’s fun, informative and lets students receive tips and tutorials from young professionals working in cutting edge built environment roles. The project was developed by Scale Rule, a voluntary initiative which boasts many Institution of Structural Engineers members, and receives funding from the Institution in recognition of the outstanding opportunities it offers young people. On the weekend of 1-2 July 2017, I was privileged to help judge the design competition, joining students at an architect’s practice in Digbeth, where they were challenged to create concept sketches and models for a showpiece pavilion, presenting their designs to our panel.
It was extremely hard to pick a winner, but our eventual choice was a really outstanding achievement. All those involved in Next Generation Design Brum should be truly proud of what they have achieved, from the students who showed such remarkable enthusiasm, to those who volunteered their time to inspire young people - who otherwise might never have discovered their true calling. The Institution is proud to support Next Generation Design Brum and we very much look forward to seeing the winning design feature at the Weekender Festival. Congratulations all!
The two-day workshop was a mix of short talks from professionals about architecture and engineering, and design workshops where the nine teams put what they’d learned into action. There was a real buzz in the room as students set to work. It’s remarkable how hearing from engineers in person excites young people who simply haven’t considered applying their studies in such a creative way. I was really struck by the imagination and attention to detail in many of the designs - as well as the fact that 70% of the students taking part were girls.
Nick Von Behr, Education Manager, The Institution of Structural Engineering
INTRODUCTION NEXT GENERATION DESIGN
WHO ARE SCALE RULE?
Next Generation Design is a series of student workshops to teach the principles of engineering and architecture through experiential learning of the design process, aimed at GCSE students still in the process of choosing their A-Level subjects and a potential career path. The brief: to design a pavilion to promote social interaction in Birmingham City Centre as part of the Birmingham Weekender Festival.
Scale Rule are engineers, architects and designers who like teaching, designing, building and learning. We are a collective that seek to promote diversity and public engagement in our built environment by encouraging better representation in the industry and community participation in new projects. We engage people from all walks of life in the design process and provide opportunities for professionals to be better informed about the people for which they design. We do all of this with the fantastic support form volunteers who help us teach, design and build each project.
Starting with seminars, conceptual design, drawing, model making and presentations each team completed the workshops by producing a final concept design and presenting their thoughts to a panel of judges from industry and academia. Following the workshops in July the selected concept design was developed, fabricated and constructed at the end of September to coincide with the festival. Following the festival it will be moved to a new home in the Custard Factory in Digbeth until the end of 2017. For something so influential on our everyday experiences, our built environment is designed by only a small subset of society and with limited engagement from the rest of it. In the 1760s James Otis proclaimed ‘Taxation without representation is tyranny’. In the 2010s we proclaim that ‘A built environment without representation is tyranny’. Or if not tyrannical counterproductive: we believe a diverse design industry will make for better balanced spaces, structures and societies. Next Generation Design is not about technology or ground breaking innovations, it is about young people. Today’s students are tomorrow’s architects and engineers. The Next Generation of Designers. Do we want the next generation of designers to be the same as this generation – drawn from a small, self-selecting predominantly white male and middle class group? To broaden the next generation of designers we engage with groups who are not traditionally drawn into architecture and engineering. The best way for them to learn is to do. Scale Rule allow people to explore the design process through small accessible projects.
While we’re teaching, we’re still learning. The projects we engage in allow us to adopt different roles in the design and construction process than those that we usually hold: transforming engineers and architects into teachers, project managers, main contractors or joiners. Through these experiences we gain further insight into the holistic design process which is not readily available in a more traditional design team structure. PARTICIPATING SCHOOLS 1.
King Edward VI Camp Hill School for Girls
King Edward VI Handsworth School
Langley Secondary School
4. Ninestiles Academy 5.
Perry Beeches The Academy
6. Sidney Stringer Academy 7.
St Paul’s School for Girls
WORKSHOP FORMAT The two day workshop was held over a weekend in July at the office of Glenn Howells Architects in Digbeth and was attended by a total of 35 students from seven participating schools from Birmingham and the surrounding areas. The first day kicked off with a series of seminars on architecture, engineering, construction and sustainability presented by the Scale Rule Brum team. The goal was to inspire and inform the students about the built environment, how it is developed and the people involved. Importantly they also gave an insight into the personal journey of each team member and potential routes the students could take to get into the industry. This was followed by a site visit to Eastside City Park, a short walk away, which would be the location of the pavilion on which the design part of the workshop would be based. In teams of 3-5 the students were encouraged to take in their surroundings, thinking about potential pavilion locations whilst appreciating the site constraints and adjacencies. They were encouraged to produce site sketches, takes photographs and develop some early ideas. Upon their return each team came up with three design concepts, one of which would be chosen to develop further for presentation the next day. The second day started with consolidation of thoughts and planning for production of drawings, scale models and final presentations which were developed over the course of the morning. The workshop weekend culminated in each team confidently presenting their final concepts to a friendly panel of judges from industry and academia who ultimately chose a winning design.
WORKSHOP THE BRIEF The students were asked to design a fun outdoor pavilion, which would be a feature within the Birmingham Weekender Festival held at the end of September. This festival is a vibrant and exciting cultural event, featuring live music, dance acts, film showings, food and drink tents, sports and many other performances. The challenge was to look at the location of the pavilion, and design a unique form that will connect to its setting whilst also providing a beautiful and interesting experience for visitors of the fesitival and the city. The requirements were summarised as: • Designed to be in place for up to six months • Maximum dimensions of 6m long x 4m wide x 4m high • Should promote social interaction and provide a means of engaging the public • Accessible to all with view of the festival events The deliverables: • Plan, section, elevation • 3D perspective view • 1:20 model • Consideration of construction, materials and social interaction • 5 minute presentation to judging panel The judging was based on the following key points: • An interesting form which has excellent design • A creative approach, using different drawing craft skills • An understanding of the site and its environment • An understanding of ergonomics and the public’s interaction with it
THE SITE 119 .8m
The pavilion location was Eastside City Park in Birmingham City Centre - adjacent to the site for the Clash of Drums performance, a parade of music, light and fireworks billed to be the highlight of
the Birmingham Weekender Festival. The pavilion design would need to respond to this and its surrounding areas.
114 .6 m
109 .7 m
se rights 2017 Ordnance Survey (Digimap Licence). FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY.
Scale 1:500 5
WORKSHOP CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT By the end of the first day, the 9 teams had to table 3 concept designs each. Within a few short hours the teams had brainstormed their ideas and sketched out what was in their heads. Each teams favoured design was then taken forward for refinement and presentation on the second day.
We were all amazed at how productive the students could be in such a short space of time, they really applied themselves to the task and produced some outstanding design work. - Alison, Birmingham Scale Rule Organiser.
On the second day the teams knuckled down to do some design development and the all important (and fun) model making. They then prepared for their 5 minute presentation to the judges, covering all the key criteria set out in the brief. 108 .8 m
May 31, 2017
WORKSHOP MODEL MAKING Constructing scale models is an important part of both the learning and presentation process. It helps the designer visualise their ideas and provides an extremely effective communication tool for sharing their vision. Many of the groups referred back to their models during the presentation, realising its potential to replicate what they intended. Models are a powerful tool, both architecturally and structurally. A 3D model allows you to realise a design in space, understand how things interact and how it might be constructed. Although the final pavilion wonâ€™t be built from cardboard and straws, it provided a starting point to understanding material properties and construction sequences.
TEAM 1 THE REAL ARCHITECTS The Mushroom Concept: Uniquely shaped pavilion that makes an ideal gathering place.
TEAM 2 JRJ The Whirlpool Concept: Taking inspiration from a football ground, the circular shape allows for easy social interaction
TEAM 3 LANGLEY STILES The Timber Tavern Concept: A cube shaped, timber pavilion that is clad with plywood strips providing an inviting place to relax.
TEAM 4 ADEC Jula Concept: A lit up walkway provides a twist on the conventional pavilion, creating an experience rather than just a space.
TEAM 5 BUILD-A-BRICK The Water Tree Concept: Rain water is collected and used as a focal feature of this pavilion that provides a communal seating space.
TEAM 6 THE SPARKITECTS Starry Night Concept: An enclosed walkway that lets you experience a starry night in the city centre.
TEAM 7 STARKID Festival Tent Concept: This tent shaped pavilion has a Glastonbury style feel to it, perfect for creating a good festival vibe.
TEAM 8 ASCENT Rise Concept: Inspired by the nearby railway bridges, this pavilion allows you to walk up and over it, obtaining views of the surrounding area.
TEAM 9 TEAM KEVIHS The Bar-bara Concept: An organic shaped pavilion, based on work by Barbara Hepworth, has a number of access points, drawing in the crowds from all directions.
PRESENTATIONS Each of the groups were given 5 minutes in front of their peers to present their concept to the judging panel. Each group then had 5 minutes to face a series of questions from the Judges.
JUDGES Nick Von Behr Education Manager - IstructE
Annabel Kloeck Architect - Grimshaws
The judges were enthralled by the creativity they all displayed – imagining many different interpretations of the brief from bridges to pyramids and even a “stadium” designed for the audience to observe each other. There were pavilions to be sat under or climbed over or just to be looked at. All made reference to Birmingham’s industrial heritage and were designed to respond to particular characteristics of the site, which the students visited and sketched.
Deborah Walsh Regional Director - RIBA
Dominic Cropper Director - Arup
The judges were particularly impressed by the winning team’s ability to articulate the rationale for their design in terms of its functionality linked to its sculptural form. They imagined organic shapes created from manufactured components and they considered sustainability of materials as well as the impact of daylight on the visitor experience. With well executed wall displays, a model that brought their ideas to life and an polished presentation, they managed to edge ahead of the highly talented field.
WINNING DESIGN TEAM KEVIHS - THE BAR-BARA The winning design was inspired by Barbara Hepworth and her organic shaped sculptures. The pavilion created an enclosed space that could be entered from a number of locations, providing access for all.
DESIGN CONCEPT EVOLUTION Following the student workshops and pavilion design selection it was down to the Scale Rule team to source materials and develop the final design into a buildable structure. The development of the concept explored the generation of solid curved volumes which were then cut away to form the internal volume and the voids. The final shape was then sculpted to create more interest in the form and in a similar manner to the original sculptor who inspired the concept.
iii_External view DESIGN CONCEPT EVOLUTION
Consideration was given to how this surface would be developed into something buildable. A balance of time constraint, known supply chain and buildability led to the decision to cut the surface into a grid-shell that could be cut from sheets of plywood using highly accurate computer controlled CNC cutting machines.
style extrusion - control curves 01 03_Hepworth Hepworth style extrusion - control curves
and form generation 02 04_Shape Shape and form generation
form -form removal of-occulus at apex 03 05_Generated Generate removal of occulus at apex
08_Draft 01 shape generation - symmetrical 04 Shape generation - conﬁguration symmetrical configuration
12_Draft 02 ﬁnalform form generation - asymmetrical proﬁle left/right 05 Final generation - asymmetrical profile left/right
13_ 02Contour contour exerciseexercise - vertical back/front 06 - vertical back/front
14_02Contour contour exerciseexercise - vertical left/right 07 - verticle left/right
15_02Contour contour exerciseexercise - vertical 08 - vertical
16_02Contour contour exerciseexercise - wafﬂe grid 09 - waffle grid
DESIGN CONCEPT EVOLUTION
DESIGN DEVELOPMENT FACTORS Several key decisions have been made throughout the design process to ensure that the final pavilion is as accessible and safe to use as possible as well as being simple and safe to manufacture, transport construct and de-construct: An ‘open’ rather than ‘closed’ space • By incorporating larger voids and having a gridshell structure the internal space is exposed to the elements and does not provide any meaningful shelter and there is good visibility all the way through. It reduces the risk of members of the public misusing the pavilion or for rough sleepers to shelter. Height of side openings to be minimum 2m at highest point • To ensure good access for all people through the pavilion Rounding of projecting edges • Due to the shape of the pavilion it is not possible to remove all elements which project around head height but those that are will have rounded edges to minimise risk of injury should someone bump into it. Uplighters to light pavilion • As the pavilion will be accessible after dark battery powered LED uplighters will be provided so there is good visibility at all times.
DESIGN DEVELOPMENT FACTORS
DESIGN DEVELOPMENT FACTORS
RAPID PROTOTYPING As shown during the workshops, model making is an integral part of the design process to enable the whole team to appreciate the form in three dimensions, especially with such a complex freeform geometry. An early model was created from the architectâ€™s initial computer model to aid understanding of the form and subsequent
design development. The 1:25 scale model was printed in a matter of hours using a 3D printer which uses layers of quick setting molten polyactic (PLA) filament which are built up until the whole form has been printed.
VIRTUAL REALITY Virtual Reality is a fast developing technology within the construction industry that enables the design team, clients and stakeholders to visualise the built form from the relative comfort of the office. By placing the architectural model into virtual space we were able to navigate around a full scale version of the pavilion in order to review the size, design and functionality.
VIRTUAL REALITY MODEL The virtual model can be viewed in 3D space by scanning the QR code below.
SCAN QR CODE TO DOWNLOAD AR APP ON ANDROID DEVICES
INTERACTIVE VIRTUAL MODEL
AUGMENTED REALITY MODEL A version of the model can be viewed in Augmented Reality on Android devices by scanning the QR code below and downloading the AR App. Open the app and scan this page to see the model literally spring out of the page when viewed through your device!
SCAN QR CODE TO DOWNLOAD AR APP ON ANDROID DEVICES AUGMENTED REALITY MODEL
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS A full analysis of the pavilion structure was carried out to ensure that the pavilion was able to hold itself up under itâ€™s own selfweight in addition to resisting the lateral wind loads which it would be subject to in its location on the site. A structural analysis model was created which incorporated the geometry and material properties of the plywood ribs and to this the loads were added to test how it performed. The curved gridshell form is inherently robust and so it performed well within the required limits of strength and stiffness. The overall structure also has to have adequate resistance to overturning and sliding under wind loads and a series of ground anchors are used to secure the pavilion base into the ground based on the foundation reactions from the model.
Structural Engineering is the art of designing and making with economy and elegance, structures that resist the forces imposed upon them.
CONNECTION DETAILS The gridshell structure is created using continuous ribs with opposing slots, equal to the rib thickness plus tolerance, where they cross. This ensures continuity of strength of each rib whilst providing a neat connection to both locate the pieces during construction, locking them together, and transfer forces between ribs at the intersections. The dimension of the cut slots is key to
INTERSECTING PLYWOOD SLOTS
this connection with the chosen CNC method, accurate to 0.5mm, ensuring a good fit. Where whole ribs were larger than the sheets of plywood they would be cut from they are spliced together on site using plywood splice plates and bolts.
RIB SPLICE DETAIL
PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT 3D PRINTED RIB MODEL Once the final pavilion geometry and rib profile had been developed and design checked a further 3D printed model was created â€“ this time by printing the constituent parts separately to test the build sequence. The rigidity of the plastic enabled the model to be built and re-built to find the best and safest build
sequence. Where temporary jigs or supports were required we were able to quickly draw these up and print out almost immediately to test within the physical model. The sequence developed was then documented, stage by stage, using the 3D computer model to act as an instruction book during the build.
9 CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE
CNC SCALE MODEL CARDBOARD MODEL A final 1:10 scale model was built from CNC cut cardboard sheets. The preparation of laser cutting files informed the manufacturing process, allowing for CNC-cut plywood to be efficiently nested on sheets to minimise material wastage.
CNC SCALE MODEL
FINAL 1:10 SCALE PAVILION MODEL, BUILT FROM CNC CUT CARDBOARD SHEETS
FABRICATION An algorithm was used to dissect the digital model into the constituent ribs and apply the required slots widths at the intersections. They were then laid flat on a 2D drawing. The 2D ribs were arranged on a series of cutting sheets to correspond with the actual plywood size of 3050x1525mm with as tight a fit as possible to reduce material wastage. These cutting sheets were then sent off to the CNC (compUter numerical control) cutter to cut the individual ribs with their Flat Bed Router. The pieces were cut with all the slots and holes required and each was given a bespoke identifier corresponding to the 3D model to enable identification during construction. This method of off-site fabrication transferred much of the skilled labour requirement into a controlled, automated process and away from the unskilled site construction team making it possible to be constructed with relative ease. A 1:1 mock-up was made using the same process and plywood specification to act as a final test of the slot connections and buildability before manufacture of the whole pavilion.
JAC DOODY ROB NIELD CONSTANCE PANG
THE TEAM Our professional team is made up of talented engineers, architects and designers, who all enjoy teaching, designing, building and learning. For this Scale Rule project, we have all worked closely over the last few months, as a collaborative, in the detail, design and delivery of this Next Generation Design Birmingham pavilion. Rob Nield Associate, Arup
James Talbot Structural Engineer, Arup Constance Pang Structural Engineer, Arup ANNA PARKER
www.arup.com Anna Parker Director / Architect, Intervention Architecture Jac Doody Architectural Assistant, Intervention Architecture 0121 753 5195 www.interventionarchitecture.com firstname.lastname@example.org Tasha Chandler Senior Project Engineer, AKSward www.aksward.com Alison Horton Senior Structural Engineer, Curtins www.curtins.com Scale Rule www.scalerule.org
SPONSORS KEY CONTRIBUTORS:
Mandy Van Zaanen
Isobel Ducille Zahrah Parkar Sophie Rayner
Deborah Walsh Nick von Behr Dominic Cropper
Stuart Nash Gwen Willox Oliver Coffey Natalia Lopez
Alison Horton Anna Parker
COORDINATION, PRODUCTION & GRAPHIC DESIGN Karissa Sparkes Design
PHOTOGRAPHY Paul Miller
Robert Shovelton Callum White Georgina Holden
Rob Nield Tasha Chandler Constance Pang James Talbot Derek Lawrence
Tamanna Akhter Marco Fiorino Francis Holden Michael Shuster and all the volunteer helpers during construction
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced without prior permission in writing from Scale Rule.