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DO YOUR PART TO GROW THE CULTURE. LET OUR ADVERTISERS KNOW THAT YOU SAW THEM IN SATIVA MAGAZINE. Budfolio Cannabis Camera Flipz/Cool Jarz Guaranteed Relief Guardian Data Systems Herbivore Designs Edibles by Hippy KK Ideal 420 Soil Lush Lighting Method Seven Old School Breeders Online Marijuana Design Quantum 9 Sativa Labs Scientific Soil Seedsman

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JANUARY 2015 

Sativa Magazine Online Issue No. 24 January 2015

President & Publisher

Editor-in-Chief

Michael Freedom Carter Karen E. Szabo

Managing Editor & Design Director

Cheryl Addington

Social Marketing Expert

Carly Hofer

Art Director

Josh Clappe

Designers Tex

Photographer

Executive Editor

Max Bortnick Gloria Martinez

Writers Diana Campos Hippy KK Duff Kennedy Kandy Krush Giuseppe L Sandra Sanchez All contents ©2014 Sativa Magazine. Sativa Magazine is published and distributed by Vanguard Click Publishing, Seattle, WA. Sativa Magazine does not condone or endorse any illegal use of any products or services advertised herein. All material is for educational purposes only. Sativa Magazine recommends consulting an attorney before considering any business decision or venture. We take no responsibility for the actions of our readers.

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Sativa and Indica unite!

Happy New Year!! As we celebrate this New Year, take a moment to look back at the progress made within the Cannabis industry over the past few years. We have much to celebrate! Cheers to much more progress being made this year towards ending the War on Drugs and bringing prohibiting to its knees! This is an exciting time to be involved in the Cannabis industry. Any industry where you can witness change and progress is exciting — especially if you joined in from the beginning without bailing when times got tough. Even though we may often feel defeated and get discouraged, just keep reminding yourself that change equals legalization. It’s never easy fighting for change, but this is something that is definitely worth the effort. There’s so much that still needs to happen. For starters, Cannabis and hemp need to be removed from being a Schedule I drug. There is hope that hemp will be declassified along with Cannabis at some point in the future. The many uses of hemp are just too great to ignore. It has huge industrial potential. For example, hemp fiber is one of the strongest and most durable of all natural textile fibers. Hemp paper uses hemp fibers instead of wood fibers, making it less expensive than regular paper. The possibilities of this versatile fiber are literally endless! There’s still so much that needs to be learned regarding Cannabis and its medicinal benefits, and research cannot continue until Cannabis is removed being a Schedule I drug. In order to

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get this information, the world needs a major push to legalize research for Cannabis-drug development. Even though we know Cannabis is good for and heals the body, it still needs to be medically proven; actual clinical research needs to be done and the results documented. Everywhere we turn, there are conflicts within the industry. Whether it’s whose law supersedes whose, or a state passes recreational use laws but Cannabis isn’t allowed in specific jurisdictions within that state or the simple fact that Cannabis is a miracle herb but because it isn’t proven, it’s not considered a ‘fact.’ Well, the proof is in the plant — it’s high time Cannabis is given the recognition it deserves! For several reasons, this is a very special issue for us at Sativa Magazine. First of all, this issue marks our two-year anniversary. Secondly, it is also with great pleasure that we have a repeat cover artist — TROG, and thirdly, we bring you Sativa and Indica Magazines in one edition. We feel that it’s important not to lose sight of the medical Cannabis industry and that is the side that Indica Magazine is geared towards. After all, without medical legalization, there’d be no legalization whatsoever. We’re bringing in the New Year by giving you the best of both Cannabis worlds — medical and recreational in one publication.

Karen E. Szabo Editor-in-Chief

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JANUARY 2015 SATIVA MAGAZINE About the cover artist Another outstanding visit from TROG 

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COLUMNS Business Highdeas A better future is right in front of our eyes  Welcome to Cannabis 2.0.

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Bright Shiny Objects “The Cooked Book” by TROG  Start the new year with fresh art from the master.

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From Seed to Sale Ask an expert with Read Spear  Complete darkness, curing Cannabis and more.

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Business as Unusual The ever-changing path of Cannabis  Up-to-the-minute details on the new rules & regs.

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Did You Hear? by Duff Kennedy A compendium of global news 

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Incredible Medibles Lively lemon bars  Start the new year out right with these sunny treats.

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CHANGE DIRECTION! SATIVA MAGAZINE The War on Hemp  An examination on the ridiculousness of the rabbit hole.

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Cannabis Maladies  The claims, the studies, the probable front-runners.

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Top 10 Companies to Watch in 2015  We pick our faves to lead the stock picks.

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INDICA MAGAZINE

THC and CBD  Welcome to the future of designer strains.

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The Green Table Interview: Matt Gray  The man behind the the cookbook.

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Charlotte’s Web  The strongest case for research is right here.

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Change: How Does It Happen?  Make 2015 the year you become an activist.

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HIPPY KK

About the cover artist

Born and raised in Perth, Australia, TROG is a self-taught artist who has had some form of drawing utensil in his hand for as long as he can remember. At the time of our last interview in mid-2013, TROG was getting ready to take a trip to the States to attend his first Seattle Hempfest. When we touched base again last month, I asked him what he’s been up to for the past year and a half. “I would say the most important thing I have been up to since we last spoke is — I became a dad! Drawing is cool and it’s even cooler to draw for 420-events and bands, but then being a dad is even cooler than them both!” replied TROG. Once you’ve seen a piece of artwork by this underground artist, you’ll instantly recognize his art from that point forward. Oftentimes simply by spotting one of his famous eyeball caricatures drawn into the picture. I’ve even heard people refer to TROG as, “the eyeball guy.” TROG’s signature eyeballs have become so popular, complete strangers have gotten them permanently inked into their skin. TROG himself has 18 and his wife has two. TROG has his all-time favorite artist, Rick Griffin to thank for getting him hooked on the eyeball caricature, as Griffin would often feature them in his artwork. Chop Chop! Since our first interview, I have become a loyal follower of #artofTROG and just let me say, he has quite a large following on his social media sites. TROG often shows his fans how much he appreciates them by holding

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some type of contest in which the winner will receive a free sticker pack, a $10 value. I asked TROG if he knew how many sticker packs he’s given away, but he didn’t know the number, but he did know this — “ya know what? It’s going to fans of my artwork so I’m cool with it.” Speaking of fans, this year has proven to be nothing short of success for TROG. In the late summer, he published his first book, “The Cooked Book.” With so many drawings to choose from, I asked how he selected the pieces that he featured, “It was hard. I went through all these styles of books in my head and in the end, I went ‘I need rules’ so I can narrow down the pieces. Each piece needs to be full-color, done between 2004 and 2014 and then from there I narrowed it down to shape and then I partnered works that looked good next to each other. I had to have a mix of druginfluenced canvas works and event posters so it balanced. Then I cut it down to 120 pieces, and that’s how I got my book.” In December 2014, TROG launched his own clothing line, ‘Smelly Clothing Co.’ As our interview took place, the first run of shirts were in the process of being dropped off to smoke shops in Australia and the United States. TROG said the initial response “has been overwhelming and made me realize I should have done this years ago.” Although he’s Australian, TROG is often mistaken for being an American. Even by those in his own country because most of his work is done for someone or something in the

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United States. He recently finished up four new pieces for Hedpe, Caviar Gold, Hash Bash 2015 and Bong-a-Thon 2015. Immediately after our interview, he was getting ready to sit down and start some new stuff for Secret Cup 2015, and it “just rolls on and on” from there. On average, TROG likes to do at least one piece per month stating, “I go through stages where I will do heaps, right now I’m kinda struggling to find time as I’ve committed to event posters and

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bands and I’m sleeping…(which for the record is a good thing).” That’s several less than years ago when he might have been doing one every week. “I’m slowing down, but a lot of my time is going into 420-event posters which is insane — its always been a dream to one day get a name in that poster world” TROG states. I do hope he realizes he’s made his mark on that world, which is yet another success story by #artofTROG!

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Y L L E SM G N I H T O L C CO..

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What would inspire someone to draw as he does? Curiosity had the best of me, so I asked him and he replied with this, “I’m not 100 percent sure. I think it’s more like I’m supposed to draw. I have all these pictures stuck in my head and I have to draw them. However, older artists who have influenced me, I do get inspiration from them and do aspire to further my own career to a level that they are/were on.” World-wide legalization will in no way hinder his career because as TROG puts it, “they can commercialize the legal use of Cannabis, but you can’t commercialize a stoner!!” which he believes make up the larger part of his fan base; die-hard stoners and people who enjoy the diehard stoner culture. With the release of each new piece, TROG’s fan base continues to grow. Although nothing has been booked, TROG would like to attend the Seattle Hempfest again, the Ann Arbor Hash Bash/Monroe Street Fair, another Kush Cup, Colorado and a few farms in Oregon. His bucket list consists of: an art exhibition in Amsterdam, LA, Seattle, Colorado, Detroit, San Francisco & Japan. Visit and do a live drawing at Hash Bash in Michigan. Do a rock poster for Primus. Do the artwork for High Times Cannabis CupAmsterdam, Release a series of issues of Dab Comix and make them super f*c$ed up. Smoke a big fat joint of TROG weed at Mountain High Organics. Do a live drawing at Nimbin Mardigrass. Get my neck full tattooed. Have Stanley Mouse release his artwork on a T-shirt on Smelly Clothing Co. Release my black & white book. Hold my next art exhibition (why does no one come to my art exhibitions?). Release plastic collectible toys of my toon characters. Buy an old pickup truck and work on that with my son and release my own range of rolly papers. I would personally like to

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TROG

encourage anyone that has the ability to help make any of these possible, to please do so. TROG lives in Melbourne, Australia with his top two number-one fans, his wife Danni and their son Reef. In his spare time, guess what he likes to do…draw! Stay tuned, there’s a lot of new stuff in the works soon to come and TROG recently purchased a new trademarkDab Comix. I can’t wait to see what he’s up to with that one! Chop Chop! Editor’s note: Special thanks to TROG for featuring my home state’s annual Cannabis event, the Ann Arbor Hash Bash 2015 poster on the cover. It was my understanding that you were going be drawing the cover of your book, “The Cooked Book.”

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BUSINESS HIGHDEAS  SANCHEZ/HIPPY KK

A better future is right in front of our eyes

Sustainable Cannabis Farm Over time, many businesses and residential areas have taken the place of our rural areas — land that may have been suitable for farms to cultivate local crops. Heavily populated areas are often deprived of fresh, outdoor quality products because they cannot access it due to their urban location. Patients and consumers should have no doubt that the medicine they get from local growers is GMO- and additivefree. Sustainable gardens have been arou nd for years and people seem to love them but aqua gardens are limited in how much they can produce. What if the same idea was used but to create full-size, self-sustaining Cannabis farms? These farms would be built on a structure designed to float over large bodies of water. This would eliminate the need to cut down any more trees. It would be selfsustaining, which would make it eco-friendly and wouldn’t add to air pollution. The entire floating structure would be made out of hemp and other recycled

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JANUARY 2015 15


materials, including the farm itself. Wind power would be the primary source of energy and solar panels will be utilized for backup in case of emergencies. The farms would be operated by reputable growers and specialists. This team would ensure quality product and top-notch customer service. Together they will work long hours to continue the production of not only medicine but will also grow food. Hemp will be made from all the leftover stalks. This could be used to make just about everything from writing paper to roof shingles. The entire staff will have work attire made from fiber they grew themselves. A marketplace will be set up outside around the farms, similar to a farmer’s market, only it would be available seven days a week instead of the usual weekendonly set ups. The entire market would have a variety of shops with products made of hemp. How refreshing to be able to see where your product comes from and meet the wonderful people who grew it. There will be clothing stores, beauty supply shops, jewelry — all made from hemp and predominantly organic and GMO-free produce. Sustainable farms are the best way to ensure everyone has a chance to have quality medicine and various other benefits. It would bring the community

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together and help the local economy by creating hundreds of new jobs. It’s a great way to promote being eco-friendly and always guarantee quality product, whether it’s Cannabis or tomatoes. AVAILABLE URLS www.selfsustainedcannabis.com www.floatyourgrow.com www.floatingcannabis.com www.mjscommunityfarm.com www.eco-friendly420.com Sustainable Eyewear Eye protection is one of the most important factors to consider when talking about your health. Almost 65 percent of people in the United States wear prescription glasses alone! Could you imagine how many wear sunglasses? Whoa! Hard plastics and wood are the most common materials used in making eyewear. Unfortunately this is not necessarily good for our environment. With so much pollution in the air, we need to find alternatives for materials that are similar to wood and plastic. Every tree we can save by not chopping it down increases oxygen flow and reduces pollution in the air. But what alternative is as durable and abundant as wood, you ask? Hemp is the answer. Cannabis grows relatively fast compared to a tree and, after harvest, the stalks can be reused. Using organic plant matter to

piece them together, you can have chic and eco-friendly eyewear. A group of engineers and stylists will work together to design a variety of prescription and sunglasses. Most fashion eyewear producers have different styles for every season. The wafer-style frame will become a signature style and can be used for either prescription, sun, or just for fun. All designs would be fit to size. Comfort is key as well as pristine quality lenses. Customers can also bring in their own doctor’s prescription and we will fit the lenses to the frame. Substituting hemp for plastic and wood could literally change our planet. It would increase oxygen because there will be no trees to cut down and we could save the guilt of taking a forest creature’s home. Cannabis is efficient in the sense that you can literally make almost anything out of it. Imagine a world with less pollution and more natural sources of material. Soon enough it will be everywhere, but for now we can comfort ourselves by being able to protect our eyesight with some smokin’ shades. AVAILABLE URLS www.hempvisionwear.com www.eco-friendlyeyewear.com www.seewithhemp.com www.smokin’shades.com www.buy420shades.com

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BRIGHT SHINY OBJECTS  HIPPY KK

Book review: “The Cooked Book” by TROG

Rating: 5++ nuggs If you have a combination of extreme talent and a wild imagination, the best way to express yourself is through your art. That’s exactly what this underground comix artist, TROG does on a daily basis for the 420 community. After making his debut in the United States roughly nine years ago when he drew a poster for the Kottonmouth Kings, TROG has since created custom artwork for many well-known Cannabis events (many of them featured in “The Cooked Book”) such as the Seattle Hempfest, Kush Kup, Emerald Empire Hempfest, Kush Expo, Harvest Fest 1 and 2, Hempstock, Green Gathering, Hempcon, the Ann Arbor Hash Bash/Monroe Street Fair and many, many more. Although he’s created canvases and even album covers for bands, TROG’s true calling is in creating posters for Cannabis events and the whole 420 movement. I think he says it best on page 13, which features a poster he drew for Slightly Stoopid’s 2013 fundraiser show, “My first Stoopid poster, I

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With each business, band or event named on each poster showcased in “The Cooked Book,” is another voice calling for the end of prohibition. remember speaking to Matt on the phone and going — I only work for 420 events or bands who smoke weed!! He laughed at me.” Of the 120 hand-drawn posters featured in “The Cooked Book” I cannot pick a favorite. With each turn of the page, the present drawing is just as vibrantly colorful as the previous. And, just about each picture will leave you wondering, “what the hell was he thinking when he drew these?” Regardless of what that answer might be, each piece has become part of the movement and represents something we all stand tall for…Cannabis and the legalization of it. With each business, band or event named on each poster showcased in “The Cooked Book,” is another voice calling for the end of prohibition. Drawn between 2004 and 2014,

the 120 selected featured pieces are well balanced artworks of drug-influenced canvases and Cannabis event posters. On many of the drawings, TROG has made little notes up the side of the pictures. Thoughts spoken out loud put down in print, shout outs to people associated with the drawing, or whatever it may be, they are a nice touch and many of them made me laugh out loud. Included with each picture, TROG lists the actual poster size. No wonder he’s sold boxes and boxes of his book — this dude has got to be one of the coolest ever! “The Cooked Book” is TROG’s first book of what I hope is just the beginning of many to follow and is available for purchase by private message on his Facebook page: https://www.facebook. com/artofTROG Chop Chop!!

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A: To answer this question, let’s catalogue what can occur inside a plant in the dark. • As we all know, plants are dependent on light to conduct photosynthesis, which produces sugar, which in turn feeds the plant and allows it to live.

FROM SEED TO SALE

Ask an Expert

with READ SPEAR

Correction: Last month, there was an error in the answer to the third question, “What is an appropriate room size to grow six plants in? Will it be the same regardless of growing medium?” The answer stated was “I prefer four square feet of space per plant, one light per plant space.” The correct space preferred is a, “four feet, squared — that would be a 4'x4' area or 16 square feet.” Read Spear began cultivating in the late 80s.His medical marijuana dispensary was among the first to be issued its Medical Marijuana Center license in Colorado. He is active as a consultant in the industry, specializing in new business development, business funding, and mergers and acquisitions. Read is the author of “Marijuana Cultivation Reconsidered: The

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Sc i e n c e a n d Te c h n i q u e s Fo r Huge Indoor Yields” (available on Amazon.com) and has two degrees in philosophy, a Bachelor of Arts from Pennsylvania State University and a Master of Arts from Duquesne University of the Holy Ghost in Pittsburgh. When not traveling, he lives in Colorado with his hound dog. Have a question? Ask the expert: askthegrower@sativamagazine. com Q: I heard from a very renowned Cannabis breeder that 72 hours of complete darkness before harvesting does wonders to plants. I have indeed tried it several times and it does change the taste completely…for the better! Why is this and what’s happening during those 72 hours?

• There is a subset of c hemical reactions that occurs during photosynthesis called the dark reactions. In fact, they are also ultimately dependent on light (because five of the enzymes used in the dark reactions depend on light), but they can be carried out, or finished, in the dark (these reactions are also known as the Calvin Cycle). It is these dark reactions that produce carbohydrates (sugars). Think of these dark reactions as the terminal phase of photosynthesis. Those reactions can occur in the dark, but only for a short period before the light-dependent components of the reactions run out and photosynthesis shuts down. • Mitochondrial respiration continues in the dark, but this is merely the release of carbon dioxide. • The plant detects the absence of light, which it uses to set its circadian clock so that it “knows” when to flower. In short, without light, most meaningful plant metabolism shuts down. There is a chance that something involving the plant’s circadian rhythm mechanism is changing its production of certain volatile compounds (think

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essential oils). This has been noted in the favorite test plant of botanists, Arabidopsis, but I am sure it has never been studied in Cannabis and I think it is a long shot. Instead, I believe that what you are experiencing is a placebo or “nocebo” (since you are depriving rather than adding something) effect. I realize that this can be hard to accept, but I do not see any scientific basis for why this could be occurring. Questions like yours are what fascinate me about Cannabis husbandry. There is a lot of myth associated with this plant and without controlled experiments we are left to conjecture. I would love to be wrong about your observation, and with decriminalization occurring, I believe we are on the cusp of sorting out what is lore from what is fact. Science aside, I see no harm in the practice and no reason why you should stop if you firmly believe it is making a difference. Crazier things have been discovered! Q: I n referen ce to c uring Cannabis; if stored properly, once cured, will Cannabis remain fresh indefinitely? Meaning, does it ever go stale? A: Like everything else, even Cannabis will eventually go off. The enemies are oxygen and light. (Light is worse because when light blasts your pot, you don’t even get the degradation from THC to CBD that oxygen leaves you with;

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instead, you get nothing! We live in an oxygen-rich environment, and that chemical takes its toll on everything it touches. The best you can do is slow its dastardly work down. Properly cured and stored (dry, dark, tightly packed, cool), Cannabis will remain fresh for a very long time — years, even. But, even stored properly, there will be a gradual degradation. Q: I have a friend who has his grow room walls lined with a reflective material (like inside a grow tent). Is there any benefit to doing this? I always thought white walls, ceiling and floor was appropriate. A: When I began growing I used Mylar unquestioningly. I thought it was “obviously” more reflective because I could see objects reflected in it. Then one day, after about the one-thousandth time the stuff tore or fell off the wall, I realized how unbearably noisy it was, rattling every time the fan rotated past it. I tore the stuff down, painted the walls flat white and haven’t looked back since. I hate the stuff. As it turns out, white paint and Mylar offer about the same reflectivity (~92-98 percent for the Mylar, ~90-95 percent for the paint). And the few-percentage point difference is more than made up for by the fact that white paint doesn’t flap loudly in the wind, doesn’t tear or require adhesives to stick to the wall,

and simply adding another coat easily cleans up the walls (which get dirty fast). If you do decide that you absolutely must have the Mylar, be careful as it does conduct electricity, a safety hazard (and yet another argument for the paint.) Applying it with a spray adhesive is your best bet. Which white paint? Behr UltraPure White is about as good as it gets at around 94 percent reflectivity, however, any white paint (I’m a cheap bastard when it comes to the grow room) will do the job. Flat paint hides wall imperfections while high-gloss exaggerates them — in case you are inviting guests over to look at your walls. Sources/for further reading: Goodspeed, D., C h e hab, E . W., Min-Venditti, A ., Braam, J., & Covington, M. F. (2012). Arabidopsis synchronizes jasmonate-mediated defense with insect circadian behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 109(12), 4 6 74 - 4 6 7 7. d o i :10 .10 7 3/ pnas.1116368109 Fairbairn, J. W., Liebmann, J. A., & Rowan, M. G. (1976). The stability of cannabis and its preparations on storage. J Pharm Pharmacol, 28(1), 1-7. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve &db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&l ist_uids=6643 ht tp://hor t tec h .as hspublications.org/content/8/4/495.full. pdf+html

JANUARY 2014 21


BUSINESS AS UNUSUAL  KANDY KRUSH

The ever-changing path of Cannabis

OREGON The sunrise over Oregon this past November was spectacular with the meaning of the phrase, “It’s the dawn of a new day,” sparkling through with true clarity in light of the new legalization of Cannabis use. Control, Regulation and Taxation of the Marijuana Act will allow for Cannabis to be sold and used by adults 21 and over beginning in July, 2015. A recent report by ECONorthwest estimates the state will generate, “$38.5 million in excise tax revenue over the first fiscal year of recreational sales.” Of course the laws don’t take effect right away, but come July 1, 2015, Oregonians can purchase Cannabis for recreational purposes. Oregon House Bill 3460 requires that all plant flowers and processed products, such as edibles and concentrates, are tested for THC and CBD content. The idea of this bill is to take the current system with all of its loopholes and make it safer and easier for patients to get the Cannabis they need. The bill would require

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JANUARY 2015 25


the estimated 150 medical marijuana facilities in Oregon to seek a license from the state and for each facility owner to pass a background check. Oregon is bursting with new dispensaries. According to KTVZ News, an estimated 150 medical marijuana facilities in Oregon turned in their applications before the deadline early in 2014. Many of these shops opened their doors to the medical community and have been dispensing medicine to OMMP (Oregon Medical Marijuana) card holders, only to find out later in the year that they must close their doors. Four medical marijuana dispensaries in Bend were denied regis tratio n by t he Orego n Health Authority since enrollment opened in March. That’s a lot of businesses that have poured their heart and soul into their dream business, only to be shut down due to legalities. Because these dispensaries are not technically registered with the Oregon Health Authority they are not authorized to continue to operate. The business owners have a right to appeal, but where does that leave the medical community? Officials say that the thought behind the dispensary shutdown was that if Cannabis is to be available to the medical community it needs to be safe and reliable. There is no doubt that

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we need to educate patients and providers by supplying them with information about any potential compounds that could be unhealthy to ingest, as well as the effectiveness and potency of their medicine. But now with the passing of the new Oregon Marijuana Act, we are wondering what effect this will have on Medical Cannabis use in Oregon? When asked how they thought this would affect their medical dispensary in Bend, Oregon, owners of Cannabend replied, “To be honest, we are very nervous about what is ahead of us. Something we have noticed is that the rules and regulations may be written one way today and by tomorrow the rules of the game will have changed. Voters in the State of Oregon favored legalization, but there are now talks about Oregon legislators wanting to change the structure that the voters recently passed.” T h ey we n t o n to s ay, “ O u r patients have expressed great concern about the medical program being taken away, as they may now be faced with paying recreational prices for the same medicine they have had access to for many years. Eliminating the medical program may also limit the access to the strains that medical patients need the most. Cannabend’s priority is to serve

our medical community and as such we will remain a medical establishment as long as the law permits it.” In Oregon almost 70,000 people are holding OMMP cards. A patient or the patient’s designated primary caregiver may possess up to six mature marijuana plants, 24 ounces of usable marijuana, and may possess a combined total of up to 18 marijuana seedlings or clones that are limited to 12 inches in height. The medical program is intended for those who need Cannabis as medicine and need a steady supply. Cannabend states that, “We believe the current OMMP program works well and those who really need it can apply for the program. The state does offer financial membership assistance to those who qualify.” Many aspects of the new Legal Program in Oregon have yet to be established. At this time, everyone is waiting for the state to develop the program and establish policies for dispensaries. If the state does decide to keep the medical program as is, owners of Cannabend in Bend, Oregon stated that, “Our patients should have no major impact. We may lose some medical dispensaries that will cater to the recreational community and others will try to run both but access will be there. Rules for medical and

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“Our patients have expressed great concern about the medical program being taken away, as they may now be faced with paying recreational prices for the same medicine they have had access to for many years.” recreational facilities have not been established so it is difficult to say what options dispensaries will have, which will then affect the options our medical and recreational community has. One benefit for medical users is that if your OMMP membership lapses and for some reason or another you cannot obtain another card, n ow yo u s till h ave a n ot h er resource to obtain medicine.” ALASKA In Alaska, with the passing of the Alaska Marijuana Legalization, Ballot Measure 2, adults 21 and over will be allowed to buy Cannabis at state-regulated stores. Individuals will be allowed to possess up to an ounce, as well as be allowed to grow very limited amounts. This measure will allow the state of Alaska to tax and regulate Cannabis sales similar to alcohol sales. Legislature in Alaska must decide if regulations are shaped under the Alcohol Beverage Control Board or a newly created Marijuana Control Board. The s tate of Alas ka

will begin accepting licenses for Cannabis businesses as of February 2016. According to an article by Laurel Andrews published November 30, 2014 in the Alaska Dispatch, “Recreational marijuana will be legalized in Alaska on Feb. 24, and the green rush has already begun. Three trade shows are plan ned for Anc horage this spring. Cannabis associations are taking shape. And entrepreneurs are anxious for the regulatory process to begin, as the laws will ultimately define what marijuana businesses look like in Alaska.” The Cannabis industry’s path is continually changing and it’s certainly not ending anytime soon. In Alaska and Oregon recreational users will greatly benefit as they now have safe access to Cannabis without the need of violating State law. Taxes may be higher in these states, but it is entertainment and we all pay to party. The general public may also be more inclined to try Cannabis now that they are not required to register their name

and/or pay membership fees. Cannabis may or may not be the answer for some, but now everyone in these two states will have access and can make a better decision. We would like to thank Cannabend for their participation in this article. Cannabend is located at 3312 N. Hwy 97, on the North Side of Bend, Oregon. They are easily accessible from U.S. Highway 97 and U.S. Highway 20. An easy drive from Redmond, Madras, or any other central Oregon city that has banned dispensaries. Call (541) 617-0420 for additional information. They are open Monday through Friday 9–7 and Saturday 11–5. (541) 617-0420. You can find more information about Cannabend on their website at www.cannabend.com or on Facebook at: facebook.com/ cannabend. h t t p : // c o m m e r c e . s t a t e . a k . u s/d n n/a b c /r e s o u r c e s/ MarijuanaInitiativeFAQs.aspx http://www.kezi.com/lane-co-gets41-dispensary-applications/


Washington, D.C. – As Congressional appropriators negotiate bills and policy riders to incorporate in the year-end spending package, Rep. Andy Harris (R-Md.) has sponsored an amendment to prohibit federal funds from being used to legalize or reduce penalties for marijuana possession, use, and distribution in the District of Columbia. Critics, however, suggest that the Republicans are not particularly interested in blocking funding as Cannabis issues are low on their agenda. There seems to be only one or two U.S. House Republicans who are interested in passing this amendment; most, however, seem disinclined to pick a fight with D.C. voters. Michael Collins, policy manager for the Drug Policy Alliance, claims “The omnibus negotiations are not going to break down over disagreement over the D.C. initiative.” – Roll Call Washington, D.C. – Congress just turned its attention to the tricky question of how to handle “drug driving.” At a hearing titled “Planes, Trains and Automobiles: Operating While Stoned,” members of the House Oversight Committee debated how best to regulate drivers who hit the road after getting high. Rep. John Fleming, (R-La.) stated, “There is no hard and fast way to determine whether an individual is driving under the influence and there has yet to be established a uniformed amount of marijuana which constitutes drug driving.” Rep. Gerald Connolly (D-Va.) also noted the conundrum; “We actually can’t scientifically pinpoint levels of impairment with any accuracy. We would all concede some impairment for some period of time but very variable and we’re not quite sure yet, certainly not sure enough to adopt a uniform standard.” – nbcnews.com Canada – In 2011, researchers at the University of Saskatchewan announced the discovery that they had found the genetic alteration that allows psychoactive Cannabis plants (Cannabis sativa) to give users a high, as compared to industrial hemp plants, which do not. Industrial hemp is of the same species as marijuana plants, but they don’t produce a substance

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A COMPENDIUM OF LEGAL NEWS FROM AROUND THE COUNTRY...AND BEYOND BY DUFF KENNEDY called tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA). This is the precursor to THC. Hemp plants do not produce a gene that makes an enzyme to produce THCA. – livescience.com United States – According to a 2011 report by a researcher at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, growing Cannabis is a bummer for the eco-conscious: Pot isn’t all that “green.” The amount of energy needed to produce 2.2 pounds (one kilogram) of Cannabis indoors is equivalent to that needed to drive across the country five times in a car that gets 44 miles to the gallon. Grow lights use a great deal of electricity. – livescience.com Austria – Based in Vienna, the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) is a United Nations (UN) independent and quasi-judicial monitoring body mandated to implement international drug control conventions. The president of the INCB in 2013, Raymond Yans, told the UN that the legalization of Cannabis in Washington and Colorado would be a “violation of international law, namely the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961, to which the United States is a party.” The fact that Cannabis is still illegal on the federal level is “good but insufficient,” says Mr. Yans. He also stated that he hoped that the issue would soon be addressed by the U.S. government in line with the international drug control treaties.

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INCREDIBLE MEDIBLES  HIPPY KK

Lively lemon bars Anything lemon is a big hit in the Culpepper household. In fact, lemon desserts never last long, so it’s best to get it while you can or else when the desire hits, you’ll most likely have to wait until the next baking session to get your lemon fill. The yield for this recipe is 12 25-mg THC servings. However, feel free to cut servings larger or smaller if desired. To adjust the amount of THC per serving, either increase or decrease the Cannabis infusion accordingly. For this particular recipe, it’s best to prepare the filling while the crust is baking. Yield: 12 servings Prep Time: One hour Ingredients: For the crust: 1 3/4 cups all-purpose flour 3 grams hash 2/3 cups powdered sugar, plus extra to sprinkle on bars 1/4 cups cornstarch 1/2 teaspoon salt 12 tablespoons butter, at room temperature, cut into one-inch pieces For the filling: 4 large eggs 1 1/3 cups sugar 3 tablespoons all-purpose flour 2 teaspoons freshly-grated lemon zest 2/3 cups freshly squeezed lemon j u i c e, fro m 3 – 4 l arge lemons 1/3 cups milk Pinch salt

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You will also need aluminum foil and a 9"x13" baking pan. 1 Assemble ingredients. Preheat oven to 350°F. Line the baking pan with aluminum foil and grease the foil.  2 Combine the flour, hash, powdered sugar, cornstarch and salt and whisk together. Using a pastry blender, cut the pieces of butter into the dry ingredients until it resembles coarse meal. 3 Sprinkle the mixture onto the prepared baking pan and press into an even layer on the bottom of the pan and about one-half of an inch up the sides of the pan. Refrigerate for 15 minutes. Remove from refrigerator and bake for 20 minutes or until golden brown. Once the crust is removed from the oven, reduce temperature to 325°F. 4 In a medium bowl, prepare the filling by whisking together the eggs, sugar and flour. Add lemon zest, lemon juice and milk. Stir well. 5 Pour the filling over the warm crust (crust must be warm) and bake for 18 – 20 minutes or until the filling feels slightly firm to the touch. 6 Allow bars to cool to room temperature, sprinkle with additional powdered sugar and cut into bars. Keep bars stored in an airtight container. Refrigeration is not necessary. Best if consumed within seven days; freezing is not recommended. These easy-to-make treats are great to enjoy at home or to take along to a gathering. And here, my friends, are my famous last words: DO NOT drive or operate machinery after consuming medibles and be sure to keep out of reach of children and pets.

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iCannabis: The Technology Issue • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

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Change Direction! • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

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The War on Hemp By Duff Kennedy Illustration by Tex

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he success of Cannabis reform is astonishing when you consider that almost no one spoke about the subject for decades; now, four states and the District of Columbia have legalized Cannabis for recreational use. Almost half the states have passed medical marijuana (MMJ) laws, but the benefits of Cannabis decriminalization don’t stop at the dispensary door. Both hemp and marijuana are from the same genus, Cannabis — they are also part of the same species, Cannabis sativa. Due to this classification, hemp has been illegal since the 1937 Marihuana [sic] Tax Law. For the first 162 years of American life, Cannabis and hemp

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were legal and used in abundance. While other cultures use hemp en masse, all we are doing now is conducting studies on the subject. We are trying to regain lost knowledge. Hemp has been described as a “miracle crop” that could grow into an industry worth billions of dollars. Even the Chinese have urged the United States to grow hemp because they can’t keep up with market demand themselves. Hemp is so low in THC that it is impossible to get high from it. But the mere fact that it is classified a Cannabis sativa means that it falls under the Schedule I drug classification. Again, we need the federal government to

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Change Direction! • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

SCHEDULE I Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) • 12-Methoxyibogamine (Ibogaine) • Marijuana • Heroin • Pholcodine • MDMA • LSD • Peyote • Mescaline • Methaqualone • AMT • Bufotenin • DXO • Benzylpiperazine SCHEDULE II Methylphenidate • Cocaine • Opium • Methadone • Oxycodone • Fentanyl • Morphine • Mixed Amphetamine Salts (Adderall) • Lisdexamfetamine • Dextroamphetamine • Methamphetamine • Hydromorphone • Secobarbital • Pethidine • Nabilone • Tapentadol SCHEDULE III Anabolic Steroids • Buprenorphine • Amphetamine • Dihydrocodeine • Ketamine • Xyrem • Hydrocodone/ Codeine • Marinol • Lysergic Acid Amide (LSA) • Paregoric • Barbiturates (Short acting) SCHEDULE IV Benzodiazepines • Temazepam • Barbiturates (Long acting) • Provigil • Difenoxin • Dextropropoxyphene SCHEDULE V Cough syrups containing small amounts of codeine • Preparations containing small amounts of opium • Pyrovalerone

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move on reclassification as soon as possible. Not only would this get the feds on the same page as the states regarding Cannabis, it would open the door to a whole new cash crop for the country. Hemp is considered to be environmentally advantageous as it could replace the use of wood to make paper — and it requires a lot less processing. It grows well in North America, and can also be used for biofuel, textiles, and even automobile parts! Hemp helps prevent soil erosion and is also very useful in crop rotation. It literally grows like weeds once planted.

Background The Drug Schedules, according to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), comprise a list of “drugs, substances, and certain chemicals that are used to make drugs and are classified into five (5) distinct categories or schedules depending upon the drug’s acceptable medical use and the drug’s abuse or dependency potential. The abuse rate is a determinate factor in the scheduling of the drug…. These lists describe the basic or parent chemical and do not necessarily describe the salts, isomers and salts of isomers, esters, ethers, and derivatives which may also be classified as controlled substances…. As the drug schedule changes — Schedule II, Schedule III, etc., so does the abuse potential — Schedule V drugs represent the least potential for abuse.” Schedule I drugs are considered the most dangerous class of drugs with the highest potential for abuse and potentially severe psychological and/or physical dependence — and there is no accepted medical use for them. The drugs listed under Schedule I include heroin, LSD, Cannabis, MDMA (ecstasy), methaqualone, and peyote. There

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is an interesting parallel between Cannabis decriminalization and peyote use. The federal government at this time is tolerating both. According to Peyote.net, “Although ceremonial use of peyote was illegal at one time, the U.S. now exempts this type of peyote use as legal; however, legal peyote use is restricted to the Native American Church. The distinction does not extend to other Native American groups that use peyote in religious ceremonies.” Schedule II drugs are considered to be defined as drugs with a high potential for abuse, though less abuse potential than Schedule I drugs. The list of examples is alarming, especially when compared to the effects of Cannabis. They are cocaine, methamphetamine, methadone, hydromorphone (Dilaudid), meperidine (Idemerol), oxycodone (OxyContin), fentanyl, Dexedrine, Adderall, and Ritalin. Schedule III examples include combination products with less than 15 mg. of hydrocodone per dosage unit (Vicodin), products containing less than 90 mg. of codeine per dosage unit (Tylenol with codeine), ketamine, anabolic steroids, and testosterone. Schedule IV drugs are substances or chemicals with a low potential for abuse and low risk of dependence, according to the DEA. Examples include Xanax, Soma, Darvon, Darvocet, Valium, Ativan, Talwin, and Ambien. SSchedule V drugs are substances or chemicals defined as drugs with a lower potential for abuse than Schedule IV and consist of preparations containing limited quantities of certain narcotics. Examples include cough preparations with less than 200 mg. of codeine or per 100 milliliters (Robitussin AC), Lomotil, Motofen, Lyrica, and Parepectolin.

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The War on Drugs Goes International The Drug Schedules are federal law, and they are considered by many to be outdated, but they are still enforced by federal agents. Not only do they go after Cannabis growers, they have also been known to go after those who try to grow hemp. Imagine DEA agents slashing and burning your hemp crop, all in the name of enforcement of existing Cannabis laws as defined by Schedule I. Again, hemp has no psychoactive properties, and we hope to see a booming industry once Cannabis is removed from the Drug Schedule. This, however, will be very difficult to achieve, because it is not just the U.S. government who has to agree to amend the Schedules; it may also be a matter of international law.

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annabis legalization by the four states and the District of Columbia may run afoul of certain international treaty obligations, specifically the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1998 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic In Narcotics Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. The United States has some “flexibility” within these treaties, but that flexibility may be challenged by other nations who have moved to criminalize Cannabis. According to the Brookings Institution, “the [Obama] administration is waiting to see how Cannabis legalization will work itself out, something that could butt up against the limits of enforcement discretion…. if legalization proceeds in a smart and rigorous way — if 10, 15, 20 states enact and operate responsible regulation of marijuana — we will be enforcing the Controlled Substances Act less and less in jurisdictions that have regulated,

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Change Direction! • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

legal marijuana markets. And that will create more and more tension with our international commitments to suppress marijuana. At that point, it will be extraordinarily difficult for the U.S. to maintain that it complies with its obligations.” International treaties are held to a higher standard than U.S. law — they are binding with foreign nations and cannot be undone with any ease. Though the Attorney General can initiate the rescheduling process, the Secretary of State may overrule him on the aforementioned grounds. That, however, is a battle yet to come.

Testing the Marketplace There was a successful push to separate hemp from psychoactive Cannabis in 2014, and it was included in the Farm Bill as section 7606, signed by President Obama. Section 7606 is an amendment to legalize industrial hemp production for research purposes. According to Vote Hemp, a hemp advocacy group, “the amendment would allow State Agriculture Departments, colleges and universities to grow hemp, defined as the non-drug oil, seed and fiber varieties of Cannabis, for academic or agricultural research purposes, but it would apply only to states where industrial hemp farming is already legal under state law.” Republican Senator and now leader of the Senate Mitch McConnell (R-ky) worked hard to get this amendment included. Kentucky, by politics and by chance, has ideal growing conditions for hemp. In fact, during the mid1800s, Kentucky grew and produced more hemp than any other state. Vote Hemp President Eric Steenstra now claims, “With the U.S. hemp industry estimated at over $500 million in annual retail sales and growing, a change in federal law to allow colleges and universities to grow hemp

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for research means that we will finally begin to regain the knowledge that unfortunately has been lost over the past fifty years…. This is the first time in American history that industrial hemp has been legally defined by our federal government as distinct from drug varieties of Cannabis. The market opportunities for hemp are incredibly promising — ranging from textiles and health foods to home construction and auto manufacturing. This is not just a boon to U.S. farmers, this is a boon to U.S. manufacturing industries as well.”

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ut not so fast. These are trial research opportunities, not a full pass for widespread hemp production. Trial gardens are likely to be small, yielding just enough for study. The fact that we have to “regain knowledge” about hemp is a farce. Much of the rest of the world uses hemp; all we have to do is copy what they are doing. The “knowledge” is already there; however, the government adapts all too slowly to new ideas and technologies. The fact that hemp is still classified as a Schedule I substance means that all of these gains are tenuous at best. Only if and when Cannabis is rescheduled will there be surety in the U.S. hemp marketplace. It’s a waiting game.

Advantages of Hemp Nevertheless, there is hope that hemp will be declassified along with Cannabis at some point in the future. The many uses of hemp are just too great to ignore. It has huge industrial potential. For example, hemp fiber is one of the strongest and most durable of all natural textile fibers. Hemp paper uses hemp fibers instead of wood fibers; it would be less expensive than regular paper, according to an article put out by Drexel University, and it would conserve a great many trees. Hemp fabric lasts longer

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Using the same amount of land, hemp can produce 250 percent more fiber than cotton and 600 percent more fiber than flax. Their seeds can grow in dry climates, and they do not need fertilizer or pesticides. Most products made from hemp are biodegradable. and withstands harsh conditions; it provides all the warmth and softness of a natural textile but with superior durability. Hemp is used in cloth, rope, canvas, sailcloth, sacks, carpets, paint, and car upholstery. BMW uses hemp in the construction of some of its dashboards. Additionally, hemp can be processed into a biofuel or biodiesel. As a food, hemp seeds are nutritious. Again according to Drexel, hemp contains 25 percent to 32 percent protein, second only to soy (35 percent), but the protein in hemp foods is more easily digestible and requires less processing by the body. Hemp seed oil is amongst the lowest in saturated fats. It’s the only plant oil that contains Vitamin D. Hemp seeds contain all the essential Amino Acids and Essential Fatty acids necessary to maintain a healthy bodily system. Hemp seeds also contain 0.7 grams more fiber than soy. Hemp seed oil can be used as cooking oil and added to hot pastas or mixed with salad dressings. It can be used in tea, smoothies, baked goods, breads, and as a seasoning. The oil is also used in many personal care products, as it has the ability to moisturize and condition the skin. Furthermore, hemp has some major environmental advantages.

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Using the same amount of land, hemp can produce 250 percent more fiber than cotton and 600 percent more fiber than flax. Their seeds can grow in dry climates, and they do not need fertilizer or pesticides. Most products made from hemp are biodegradable.

Hemp vs. the DEA In order to take advantage of the hemp loophole, the states have to authorize the study of industrial hemp themselves. According to Reason.com, “Though you can purchase hemp foods and products in America, growing hemp — the non-psychoactive cousin of marijuana — has been illegal here for decades. But as part of this year’s Farm Bill, Congress approved the growing of hemp by universities and state agricultural departments, for research purposes, in states that permit it.” However, according to Vote Hemp, the DEA is doing anything but cooperating with the states and universities regarding the release of hemp seeds. In order to obtain seeds for hemp research, these states and universities have to comply with DEA regulations and fees. The DEA then holds the seeds until they determine an applicant has met the requirements; the approval process is moving all too slowly as can be demonstrated in several states:

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Too many people have argued for too long that industrial hemp matters, and the use of hemp by other nations is all we need to know as proof that hemp is a valuable, non-psychoactive product.

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Kentucky and North Dakota are two examples. n May of 2014, the Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) filed a lawsuit against the DEA in U.S. District Court over the DEA’s refusal to respect the Farm Bill Hemp provision. Vote Hemp states, “Prior to filing the suit, KDA had been in good faith dialog with the DEA to negotiate the release of a shipment of 250 lbs. of certified industrial hemp seed imported from Italy…The industrial hemp seed was destined for various pilot programs all licensed by the KDA and coordinated in conjunction with Kentucky state academic institutions.” At that point, the DEA decided that the KDA would be required to apply for a seed import license. Vote Hemp declares strongly that, “The provision of the Farm Bill entitled ‘Legitimacy of Industrial Hemp Research’ precludes the authority of the DEA over state sanctioned hemp cultivation. Hence, both DEA’s hemp seed seizure, and the stipulation that the KDA must acquire DEA permission to license farmers to sow and cultivate hemp, violates the clear Congressional intent of the Farm Bill provision, which indisputably defines industrial hemp as the plant Cannabis sativa L., and any part of such plant, whether growing or not, and with a delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration of not more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis. [This] permits states that

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have legalized hemp cultivation to proceed with creating the legal framework for, and the implementation of, cultivation of industrial hemp for research and development programs.” North Dakota is another battleground state for legal hemp cultivation. The state ended its legislation session last April by informing the DEA that state law would allow industrial hemp farmers to operate outside the bounds of DEA regulations and licensing requirements. This declaration does not, however, protect licensed farmers from DEA penalties, according to biomassmagazine.com. A lawsuit brought by North Dakota-licensed hemp farmers against the DEA is ongoing. The North Dakota Agriculture Commissioner Roger Johnson says, “It’s one thing for a state to legalize industrial hemp; it’s another thing to get the U.S. DEA to go along with it.”

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ccording to Vote Hemp, “to date, 33 states have introduced prohemp legislation and 22 have passed pro-hemp legislation.” Almost “15 states (California, Colorado, Hawaii, Indiana, Kentucky, Maine, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oregon, Tennessee, Vermont, Washington, and West Virginia) have defined industrial hemp as distinct and removed barriers to its production, and are hence able to pursue industrial hemp

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cultivation per the parameters prescribed by Sec. 7606 of the Farm Bill.” As you can see, one hand of the government doesn’t know what the other hand is doing. The DEA has tremendous resources to go after hemp farmers if they so choose, and they still do regardless of state law. The DEA operates according to the Drug Schedule, and they will chop down your hemp if they get the chance. Too many people have argued for too long that industrial hemp matters, and the use of hemp by other nations is all we need to know as proof that hemp is a valuable, non-psychoactive product. It should be obvious we need to declassify Cannabis from the Drug Schedule altogether in order to rid ourselves of the scourge of the DEA and be allowed to grow hemp without heavy-handed oversight. But the law moves slowly and carefully, and in the case of declassification or reclassification of Cannabis, there is more to consider than just domestic politics. The drug war went international. We may have to move mountains to get Cannabis legalized in the United States at the federal level, but rest assured the public is getting behind the hemp movement in a very big way. Hemp is an obvious solution to manufactures of all kinds of products. Hemp is an environmentally sound solution to many products that are currently made with toxic ingredients. Quoting from an article written for hempethics. weebly.com, “Since there are so many differences between industrial hemp and highTHC marijuana, it seems to make sense that it would be a fostered, rather than demonized crop. Although technically hemp is not illegal to grow, it requires obtaining a special permit from the DEA. These permits are rarely given out and require that the crop be surrounded

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by security measures such as fences, razor wire, security guards, or dogs. For a crop that has little-to-no potential to get people high, the current attitude is both irresponsible and draconian.” It is time for the DEA to give up withholding hemp seeds from those who wish to study hemp. It is high time to legalize Cannabis by removing it from the Drug Schedule altogether.

http://www.dea.gov/druginfo/ds.shtml http://reason.com/blog/2014/04/29/ industrial-hemp-legalization-in-states

http://www.forbes.com/sites/ ashoka//2013/05/29/industrial-hemp-a-win-winfor-the-economy-and-the-environment/ http://biomassmagazine.com/articles/1194/northdakota-wants-dea-to-leeave-industrial-hempalone http://www.pages.drexel.edu http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/08/16/ hemp-kentucky_n_5684531.html Http://ecowatch.com/2014/02/07/president-signsfarm-bill-legalizing-hemp/ http://www.peyote.net/legal.html http://hempethics.weebly.com/industrial-hemp-vscannabis.html http://www.venusproject.org/hemp.html?gclid=Cja _5o61IsICFcVhfgodW2AAXg http://www.votehemp.com/PR/2014-05-15KentuckyDeptofAgriculture-suesDEA.html http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/08/16/ hemp-kentucky_n_5684531.html http://www.alternet.org/drugs/whats-differencebetween-hemp-and-marijuana?page=0%2C2&pa ging=off&current_page=1#bookmark

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Change Direction! • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Cannabis

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Maladies what have we learned and where are we going?

By Tami Jackson Illustration by Josh Clappe While public demand for Cannabis as medicine keeps growing, governments around the world are pondering whether or not to legalize it for medical purposes. Unfortunately, current laws that criminalize the herb have also restricted the amount and types of scientific studies that could be done. There’s so much we still need to learn and want to know, but to get that information, the world needs a major push to legalize research for Cannabis-drug development. Fortunately, not everything about Cannabis medicine research has been at a standstill. According to The Journal News, 2014 legislation in New York declared Cannabis can now be used to treat rheumatoid arthritis,

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but not glaucoma. That’s because “better” pharmaceutical prescriptions are reportedly available for treating the latter. The first rheumatoid arthritis study to use Cannabis as medicine for treating patients was conducted by British researchers in 2005. It showed that Cannabis significantly eased pain and suppressed the disease.  Yet just recently, according to Dr. Mary-Ann Fitzcharles, and her team of researchers at the McGill University Health Centre in Quebec, it’s like the 2005 study never happened. She claims there’s never been a study to demonstrate the effectiveness of Cannabis for treating rheumatic diseases at all. Not even when many medical marijuana patients

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Groups of mice and rats were given THC and researchers noted that various tumors, including hepatic adenomas, hepatocellular carcinoma tumors and even benign tumors either disappeared or were greatly diminished. In those studies, delta-9-THC, delta-8-THC, and CBD oil all proved to inhibit tumor growth. continue to smoke for the expressed purpose of alleviating their arthritis pain. Just like this topic, there’s controversial “evidence” for and against Cannabis when studied for treating other medical maladies as well. Cannabis has shown promising results in successfully treating some forms of cancer. That’s not news except new studies are regularly being done, and they keep validating previous findings, which is no surprise to many. A biologist, Dr. Christina Sanchez, from Compultense University in Madrid, Spain, declared in 1998 that THC kills cancer cells completely. She further stated that THC has no negative effect on healthy cells. She explained that THC simply activates the body’s ECS (endocannabinoid system) receptors, such as

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CB1, and enables the body to get rid of cancer and heal itself. Keep reading for a fuller explanation of the ECS. Subsequent peer-reviewed studies in several countries confirmed Sanchez’s claim: that THC shrinks tumors. In fact, as of March of 2014, the National Cancer Institute published research results from a study of mice and rats. It found that cannabinoids had a preventative effect against tumors even forming. During that two-year study, groups of mice and rats were given THC and researchers noted that various tumors, including hepatic adenomas, hepatocellular carcinoma tumors and even benign tumors either disappeared or were greatly diminished. In those studies, delta-9THC, delta-8-THC, and CBD oil all proved to inhibit tumor growth.

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In yet another study at St. George’s University of London, Dr. Wai Liu, an oncologist, reported that “Cannabinoids have a complex action; it hits a number of important processes that cancers need to survive. For that reason, it has really good potential over all the other cancer treatment drugs which have only one function.”

SEIZURES In February of last year, the New York Times reported on 10-year-old Charlotte Figi, who had suffered hundreds of seizures every day until her Colorado parents started treating her Dravet Syndrome with CBD. Now Figi only suffers one or two seizures a month, the newspaper stated. Last year, in another case, The U.S. Food and Drug Administration gave three doctors permission to begin studying how Cannabis will help 125 children with potentially fatal epileptic-seizure disorders. That’s when no other anti-seizure drug has been able to help the children. To avoid making the little ones high, the studies, which began in January 2014, use cannabidiol (CBD) — a non-hallucinogenic oil extracted from Cannabis. The oil is given to children under the brand name Epidiolex. The three doctors approved to conduct the study are Orrin Devinsky, director of the New York University and Saint Barnabas Comprehensive Epilepsy Center; Roberta Cilio of the University of California — San Francisco’s Neurology Department; and GW Pharmaceuticals of the United Kingdom. It’s too early to determine what the results of their studies will be, but Cannabis has historically shown a lot of promise in treating seizures.

HOW WE KNOW CANNABIS HEALS THE BODY Not too long ago, science named one of our

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body’s communication systems after Cannabis. The function of the “endocannabinoid system,” or ECS, is important to understand for measuring how Cannabis medicine affects us. ECS sends messages by would-be carrier pigeons, or molecules, named Ligand. Ligand nest inside of cells but just like something sticky, they can also bind to DNA proteins and that’s how Ligand is able to tell the rest of the body how to respond uniformly to external stimuli: through our DNA.

MOVEMENT DISORDERS SUCH AS PARKINSON’S AND HUNTINGTON’S DISEASE Inside our bodies, one particular kind of cannabinoid receptor, called CB1, is a Ligand that responds to Cannabis. It also regulates motor skills, affects weight gain, and impacts energy levels. So any study that hopes to treat movement disorders tends to measure a person’s CB1 count. That was the case for a study on a particular inherited fatal genetic brain disorder. Known as Huntington Disease (HD), one tell-tale sign of the illness is a patient’s low CB1 count. Symptoms of HD include involuntary jerking, writhing, muscle rigidity, lack of balance, impaired gait, and difficulty swallowing, just to name a few. According to Adi Jaffe, Ph.D., writer for Psychology Today, scientists took mice that were low in CB1, and their physical behavior looked very much like they had HD. The researchers then treated those mice with tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive ingredient in Cannabis. From that study, they learned that THC not only enables existing CB1 receptors to improve motor function in the lab mice, but the medicine

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also slowed the progression of the disease and increased cognitive processes for learning. So there’s great hope that Cannabis will effectively treat humans with HD. In other studies, Cannabis reduced the tics affiliated with Tourette syndrome and decreased the number of tremors affiliated with some forms of Parkinson’s disease. That’s according to the National Center for Biotechnology Information and the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

ANXIETY DISORDERS AND PTSD Historic Indian medical literature claims that Cannabis delivers patients “from all worries and care.” (Da Orta 1563.) Military veterans who suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) might agree. Many say that Cannabis is a life changer for them, alleviating anxiety that was inescapable, even when they had tried prescription drugs. Yet until more laws are changed to make medical marijuana legal, who is to say whether or not patients will be getting the strain of Cannabis that they need? A commonly reported side effect of Cannabis is paranoia and/or anxiety. Studies to determine the best type of Cannabis for treating anxiety, and what would be the best dosage, are still desperately needed. Meanwhile, one outpatient study done at the Canadian Forces Health Services Operational Trauma and Stress Support Centre in Ottawa indicated that Cannabis could alleviate stressrelated nightmares in individuals with PTSD. In another study, 26 veterans are currently participating in Health Canada’s Marihuana Medical Access Regulations (MMAR) program. Then, in the United States, the

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Department of Health and Human Services just authorized a study of Cannabis and how it treats veteran patients with post-traumatic stress disorder. The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) is the main financier of the U.S. study and a spokesperson said this ruling makes it possible for them to purchase Cannabis from the National Institute on Drug Abuse — for the first time ever.

NEUROPATHIC PAIN, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS According to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, the benefits of treating multiple sclerosis with Cannabis is uncertain, especially when doctors weigh its potential side effects, and claim Cannabis can cause urinary tract infections, dizziness, dry mouth and headache. Yet the society published Dr. Zajicek’s 2013 study that evaluated oral Cannabis extract for treating muscle stiffness, in 400 people with all types of MS, the results were improved muscle function by almost twofold, compared to placebo. Improvements were also noted for decreased body pain, fewer spasms and better sleep quality.

SLEEP DISORDERS “In small doses THC tends to be a sedative, in moderate doses it’s a stimulant. In large doses it is psychedelic, and in very large doses it may cause psychotic-like symptoms.” That’s according to John Cline, Ph.D., in an article he wrote for Psychology Today. Yet even Cline admits more studies need to be done to have all the facts on whether Cannabis really helps us catch more zzzs or not. What is known about Cannabis and sleep comes from old experiments conducted in the 1970s, or from reports from personal experience.

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Subsequent research has been restricted thanks to the legal criminalization of the herb. Narcolepsy is presently an incurable sleep disorder where patients may fall asleep at unpredictable times. They sleep for short periods only to wake to detailed hallucinations. They also have vivid dreams while asleep. Adi Jaffe, Ph.D. “THC for Huntington’s Disease? CB1 Receptors Important for More than Drug Use.” Psychology Today: Health, Help, Happiness + Find a Therapist. Psychology Today, 25 Feb. 2011. Web. 05 May 2014.

of the Endocannabinoid System.” Research Gate | Researchgate.net. French Institute of Health and Medical Research., n.d. Web. 05 May 2014. Mayo Clinic Staff. “Huntington’s Disease.” Diseases and Conditions Huntington’s Disease. Mayo Clinic, 05 May 2011. Web. 06 May 2014. “Medical Marijuana and Sleep Disorders.” Medical Marijuana and Sleep Disorders. MD MCN Co, Inc, n.d. Web. 05 May 2014. Müller-Vahl KR1, Kolbe H, Schneider U, Emrich HM. “Result Filters.” National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 05 May 2014.

“Cannabis and Cannabinoids (PDQ®).” Cannabis and Cannabinoids (PDQ®). National Cancer Institute at The National Institute of Health, 25 Mar. 2014. Web. 05 May 2014.

PERRONE, Matthew. “Long-delayed Study of Marijuana for Traumatized Veterans Gets Federal Approval.” Www.ottawacitizen.com. Associated Press, 17 Mar. 2014. Web. 14 May 2014.

Cline, Ph.D., John. “Cannabis and Sleep.” Sleepless In America: Cannabis and Sleep. Psychology Today, 06 Nov. 2012. Web. 06 May 2014.

“Rheumatoid Arthritis, Cannabis Based Medicine Eases Pain and Suppresses Disease.” Medical News Today. MediLexicon International, 11 Nov. 2005. Web. 13 May 2014.

Devinsky, Orrin, and Daniel Friedman. “We Need Proof on Marijuana.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 12 Feb. 2014. Web. 06 May 2014. Ferner, Matt. “Marijuana Compounds Can Kill Some Cancer Cells: Study.” The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 25 Oct. 2013. Web. 05 May 2014. Hays, Brooks. “Herbal Cannabis Not Recommended for Rheumatology Patients.”UPI. United Press International, 03 Mar. 2014. Web. 13 May 2014. Lee, Martin. “Does Marijuana Shrink Cancer? | RCScience.”Does Marijuana Shrink Cancer? Real Clear Science, 08 Sept. 2012. Web. 06 May 201 Livio, Susan K/ The Star-Ledger. “FDA-approved Medical Marijuana Clinical Trial Gets Underway next Month for Kids with Epilepsy.” New Jersey News. New Jersey On-Line LLC, 06 Dec. 2013. Web. 06 May 2014. Marsicano, Giovanni. “Neuromodulatory Functions

Sagredo O1, Pazos MR, Valdeolivas S, FernandezRuiz J. “Result Filters.”National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 01 Apr. 2012. Web. 05 May 2014. Sarich, Christina. “Molecular Biologist Explains How THC Kills Cancer Completely.”Molecular Biologist Explains How THC Kills Cancer Completely. Infowars. com, 17 Mar. 2014. Web. 06 May 2014. Silverberg, David. “Veteran Affairs Canada Paying for 26 Former Soldiers to Receive Medical Marijuana.”Veteran Affairs Canada Paying for 26 Former Soldiers to Receive Medical Marijuana. The Medical Marijuana Review, 6 Dec. 2013. Web. 14 May 2014. Spector, TJN, Joseph. “NY’s Medical Marijuana Bill: Glaucoma Out, Rheumatoid Arthritis i n.”NY’s Medical Marijuana Bill: Glaucoma Out, Rheumatoid Arthritis in. Gannett, 12 May 2014. Web. 13 May 2014.


Growing in Soil? Here’s a head start.

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COMPANIES TO WATCH IN 2015

By Diana Campos Illustration by Josh Clappe


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2015

begins by more than doubling the amount of states in which recreational marijuana is now legal. Add to that fact that the federal government has officially sworn off raids on medical marijuana patients and their caregivers, and we now have a market that is very busily — not to mention quite successfully — expanding. From smoking accessories to concentrates and everything in between (even soap!), the Cannabis industry can only continue to grow as we light up to the new year. For their innovative products, popularity within the Cannabis community, and promising plans for the year ahead, here are the Top 10 cannabusinesses you need to be watching.

1. BUDSUDS budsudsoap.com The list of Cannabis uses goes on and on and although a lot of them involve getting high, the people behind BudSuds (licensed skincare specialist Amanda and husband Joe) are taking full advantage of the plant’s anti-aging and anti-inflammatory properties. Their line of products are non-psychoactive and includes salt scrubs, bath melts, and bars of soap, but it is these unique soaps that have caught the eyes of thousands. At $8.99 a piece, each bar is molded to look like a swirled square of honeycomb and contains recycled pieces of strain-specific plant material (like the AK47 shake visible in their lavender-scented soap). The makers insist on using local honey and beeswax from a New England apiary and all-organic ingredients including moisturizing hemp oil in order to provide their customers a natural way to combat dry skin, psoriasis, eczema, and more.

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Recently the company announced it would be selling their soap through Miss Mary Jane Co. and Shop Chronic and we were informed a BudSuds skin-care line may be on the horizon.

2. N  ECTAR COLLECTOR www.nectarcollector.org The heavily trending world of Cannabis extractions has created a market all of its own and Nectar Collector has certainly stepped up to the plate by introducing the “World’s First Vertical Vaporizer”. In 2011, Oregon-native Jefe Z brought his idea of vertical dabs to glass pipe maker Kristian Merwin and together they created the Honey Badger dab straw ($24). Several redesigns later, the company now produces an in-line, water-cooled, spill-proof vertical vaporizer, complete with a built-in water filtration system ($280 for the Nectar Collector v1.0 — $900 for v3.0). Instead of breaking out your rig and portioning a dab onto a tool, all you have to do is heat and then dip the tip into your jar of concentrate, and suck in or “sip” the desired amount, however big or small. In the past, Merwin has collaborated with other celebrated glass makers to create custom pieces that go for as high as $16,000! He revealed that 2015 will bring more collaborations — vape pen combo kits with Vaped and a more affordable line with GravLabs — as well as design improvements including a tip connecting system and a new diffuser. You can catch them at Denver’s Cannabis Cup and Big Show for a presentation in April.

3. PRODANKAZINE in CA dispensaries only Playing off the recreational use of codeineheavy cough syrup, proDANKazine is the ingenious THC-infused spin-off of “drank.” A 4-ounce bottle contains 1,000 mg of THC

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extract in a cherry-flavored syrup and will run you from anywhere between $35–$50 in dispensaries all over Northern and Southern California. The bottle itself is cleverly dressed to look like Promethazine and comes complete with a fake label that recommends you “TAKE 2 TSP AS NEEDED” as prescribed by a “DR. BERNARD GREENTHUMB”. Patients commonly mix the bottle’s contents the same way one would fix up “lean” — by either pouring it into a bottle of Sprite or some other artificial fruit-flavored beverage or by sipping the concoction from a Styrofoam cup. A collaborative effort from Stoned Ape Extractions and Mr. Bubble Extracts, the makers work very closely with growers like DNG (datniggagrows) and soon with Shaggy Brown of Weynt Farms to produce new versions of proDANKazine made from exclusive strains.

4. KUSH CAKE POPS in CA dispensaries only A good edible packs a strong punch, is tasty enough to inflict a cycle of the munchies, masks the cannabutter flavor well, and does not leave you feeling groggy the next day. Kush Kakery delivers all this and then sprinkles on more what with the strain-specific flavor variations (try the Girl Scout Cookie — a marshmallow brownie ball of cake covered in white chocolate, toffee crunch, and platinum sugar) of their Kush Cake Pops. The brand has utilized the outspoken approval from celebrities such as Wiz Khalifa, Birdman, and Gym Class Heroes frontman Travie McCoy, by baking limited flavors in their name, which is undoubtedly garnering more attention from the famous and their fans alike. They are also consistently pushing out new creations, such as the Animal Cookies Kush Cake Pop, and the

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holiday-themed versions of their classic flavors. The cake pops come in either the 2-4 doses size with 111mg of THC (around $15 a pop) or the 4–8 doses option with 222mg ($30), although most seem to enjoy eating the entire treat in one go.

5. B  ONG BEAUTIES www.bong-beauties.com The business mantra of “sex sells” is especially true for the female-stoner apparel company known as Bong Beauties. The brand has been able to gain noted popularity online by using social media to create a trend of customer advertising: just look up the hashtag #bongbeauties and you will come across hundreds, if not thousands of selfies taken by babes wearing their Bong Beauties gear (and very little else) while simultaneously hitting a bong or holding a joint between perfectly manicured fingers. Bong Beauties has been able to create a fan base and thus sell more of their products by offering girls the hope of being featured and gaining Insta-fame. Their website offers pot leaf adorned — albeit cheekily placed — clothing such as booty shorts, yoga pants, and bandeaus (from $20), as well as jewelry, snapbacks, nail charms, and pink stash containers with their logo. They also sell handmade crocheted necklaces in a variety of colors to hold — and fashionably match! — your Cloud Vape pen ($9.99).

6. S HINE PAPERS shinepapers.com If creating the illusion of exclusivity is a key to success, then Shine Papers has certainly hit the nail on the head with their entire line of premium (and I do mean premium) rolling papers. The company invented and recently patented rolling paper made of 24k edible gold ($55 for a pack of 12 sheets) and tattooed blunts

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like their “The Benjamins” wrap which is designed to look like you rolled a joint with a $100 bill ($5 ea.). The gold rolling papers blew up when Miley Cyrus demanded they be sold as merchandise on her Bangerz tour and since then Pot Royalty such as Cheech Marin and others have been spotted puffing on golden doobies. With rapper Tyga now on board as the company’s new Creative Director, Shine Papers has become a status symbol within the Cannabis community and has sold their shiny products including gold cones ($12), gold blunt wraps ($33), and a gold Fat Boy Cigar ($125) in more than 50 countries! Of their upcoming events, spokesperson Dave B says we might catch a glint of gold behind a cloud of smoke on an unnamed reality show soon.

7. R  ARE DANKNESS raredankness.com Perhaps the most recognizable company on this list, Rare Dankness is the Coloradobased seed company with the skunk as its logo. Started in 2010, Rare Dankness is the rebranded Moonshine Seed Co. that operated online on sites like Overgrow.com from 1998 until owner Scott “Moonshine” Reach shut it down in 2007 after witnessing the ruin of seven friends in the same line of business. In 2009, Scott decided to open a dispensary in Colorado and then legally created a new Cannabis seed company the following year. 2011 started Rare Dankness’ streak of winning Cannabis Cups when their Moonshine Haze strain took home the prize for Best Sativa by a Cannabis Co. in Amsterdam. That same year, RD Genetics was set up in Europe to act as the brand’s global entity. Rare Dankness now proudly offers 11 award-winning strains including one of their best-sellers, Ghost Train Haze at $102 for 6 feminized seeds. Scott tells Sativa Magazine

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that we can “expect 2015 to be a huge year for RD as they expand grow and seed operations into other markets.” Something tells me Spain is going to get a lot more skunky this year.

8. MARY JANE WINES www.maryjanewines.com It’s no secret that booze and weed pair just fine when looking to get crossfaded, but now there is the option of marijuana-infused alcohol and it can be found as a wine (or beer) at the Fog City Collective in San Francisco. Originally created in 2013, the current Mary Jane Wine uses grapes from Brehm Vineyards and a tincture which is infused during production and made up of a GSC phenotype known to the collective as It’s It. The company is able to make different types of wines per request and their Fall 2015 product list includes a 375mL, a 750mL, and a limited edition 1.5mL bottle. It costs roughly $60 for a bottle with 125mg of THC and the wine can be sold in cases of 12. The Mary Jane brand also makes and carries sea salt in 4 oz. batches ($10) and jerky that has been marinated in their wine and salt ($10). The company is currently preparing to launch The Mary Jane Wines Educational Cannabis Tour in 20 medical marijuana states and working on a Cannabis-infused sparkling wine. A representative of Mary Jane Wines informed us that the company will be transitioning into a bonded winery in need of investors and has their sights set on opening production facilities in Washington and Colorado.

9. H  ONEY POT BEAR in CA dispensaries only In a bear-shaped plastic bottle originally labeled as “The Queen’s Secret Stash”, you can find a THC extract that is thicker in consistency and lighter in color than pure honey. These Honey Pot Bears are sold as

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The Queen’s Secret Stash: Queen Victoria has long been thought to be a consumer of Cannabis.

edibles in 2 gram ($12-$15) or 10 gram ($60) bottles out of dispensaries in California. Designed to be used just like honey with a recommended starter dose of 1 tsp. the medicated version can be added to hot tea, drizzled onto waffles, poured over a bowl of granola, or even be eaten by the spoonful. In the past, the company has teamed up with Dr. Greenthumb aka B Real to create limited edition extra strength version of the Honey Pot Bear. They have also created the Honey Pot Bear Balm — a topical pain-relieving stick in a tube that is slightly larger than Chapstick ($15) — and 2-ounce bags of Honey Pot Bee’s Nuts in either Honey Ginger or Savory Honey flavors ($10). Expect more California wildflower honey/marijuana infusions from the Honey Pot brand in the near future.

10. W  AM OIL wamoil.com Cannabis concentrates have become so popular in recent years that they now have their own

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categories in the widely acclaimed High Times Cannabis Cups. That being said, there is one Cannabis extraction company that has definitely left a good taste in the mouths of Washington’s medical and recreational smokers ever since it became the state’s first company to market Cannabis oil. WAM oil emphasizes producing the purest products possible and so they use Co2 instead of alcohol or butane. Most Seattle dispensaries carry WAM Oil’s Co2 shatter, dab oil, and pen oil and sell WAM oil cartridges available in different strains for between $30–$40 per half gam and around $60 per gram. With raving customer reviews and ridiculously high THC contents (92.8 percent D9THC in their Blue Boy oil!), the company has expanded into infusing and selling misting sprays (WAM Essence), lotions, droppers, and pills. WAM Oil regularly hosts dab events around the Emerald City to introduce oils made with new strains and has recently been spotted at the Ocean Grown and Puget Sound collectives giving out free samples of Co2 oil.

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By Duff Kennedy

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Everyone knows that THC, or tetrahydrocannabinol, gets you high. But there are as many as eighty-five cannabinoids in Cannabis, and one of them in particular, CBD, or cannabidiol, can very much affect how you respond to the Cannabis you ingest. So much so, that it is now being studied for its own medicinal properties. According to a former senior researcher at ProCon.org, Cannabis consists of two main sub-species and a third that are hybrids of the two: Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa. Hybrids of indica and sativa produce what are called varieties, or strains. There are now growers who breed CBD-rich Cannabis. Think of strains like wine that has been made of different grape varietals. Cannabis varieties carry some characteristics of each parent. Until recently, sativa-dominant strains were thought to be higher in the content of the THC cannabinoid, and indica-dominant strains were thought to be higher in the content of the CBD cannabinoid. According to The Golden State Collective (GSC) Cannabis Laboratories in December of 2011, “The Indica and Sativa subspecies differ in their medicinal properties. Sativa strains produce more of a

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euphoric high, lifting the consumer’s mood and therapeutically relieving stress. Indica strains relax muscle and work as general analgesics, also helping with sleep. A cancer patient hoping to relieve the pain from chemotherapy would benefit greatly from the effects on an Indica plant bud, whereas an individual dealing with depression would better benefit from a Sativa plant bud…” Today, we know that this is at best a generality. In most strains, THC composes the majority of the active ingredients. CBD is found in only small percentages. For example, a potent strain may be measured at 15% up to 19% THC. But typically they contain less than 1% CBD. What is so remarkable is that even at such a low percentage, CBD – not psychoactive in itself – can impart many of the benefits of Cannabis and actually moderate the effects of the THC itself. The understanding of the interactions between THC and CBD are changing as medical science advances. Jeffrey Raber, PhD. in chemistry and an expert in Cannabis studies concluded in 2013 that “the data shows that Indica and Sativa is just morphology. It’s a misperception that Indica will put you to sleep or that Sativa is more energetic.” Dr. Raber argues against what he calls a “universality of highs” and plans to prove his theory in an upcoming study. What we’re really talking about here when we discuss the highs from various strains is the ratio of CBD to THC, regardless of whether the Cannabis is an Indica, Sativa, or Hybrid. There are already thousands of known strains to choose from, and contrary to popular opinion, Indicas are no more likely to contain high amounts of CBD than Sativas. Since the debate over medicinal Cannabis began, we’ve seen the focus shift from trying to manufacture substitutes in the laboratory

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toward the conclusion that no one cannabinoid alone can provide the relief that patients are looking for. In a reversal last year, Dr. Sanjay Gupta of CNN changed his position on medical Cannabis, and he was interviewed by Kamelia Angelova of Business Insider for a video entitled, “Dr. Sanjay Gupta: Here’s Why You Can’t Get the Medical Benefits of Weed Without the High.” In it, he discusses the differences between THC and CBD, and the fact that they work synergistically with each other to open the neural and physical pathways that relieve pain and other such ailments. Thus, the hot new debate of trying to produce CBD in medicinal form may not be as beneficial as some may think; however, CBD does indeed have a direct medical application for children born with Dravet Syndrome, a severe seizure disorder. It’s not surprising that parents of children with this disorder have pushed for the legalization of medical Cannabis in areas of the country, especially the South, where it largely remains illegal. They’ve been using the argument that making CBD-rich strains available would dramatically increase their children’s quality of life. Dr. Gupta chronicled this so well in a CNN special that two new clinical trials are now underway in the United States on a CBD-rich sublingual spray called Sativex.

different cannabinoids stands much to gain. Ultimately, it is up to you to determine which strains to try. Please carefully consider your symptoms and do your own research into what works best for you. Your dispensary should have a lot of information on the products they sell, so they are of great resource to you as well. Enjoy your journey to better health.

https://sensiseeds.com/en/blog/about-sensi-seeds/ sensi-seeds-and-medicinal… https://pureanalytics.net/blog/2011/03/20/findingcbd-a-look-at-trends… https://www.unitedpatientsgroup.com/ blog/2012/06/08/finding-the-best-medical… https://www.unitedpatientsgroup.com/ blog/2012/06/11/cannabis-cannabinoids… https://medicalmarijuana.procon.org https://www.canorml.org/cbd.html https://www.chicagonow.com/chicago-medicalmarijuana/2013/11/cannabidiol… https://www.leafly.com/news/lifestyle/whats-thedeal-with-these-high-cbd-strains https://www.leafly.com/news/medical/indica-vssativa-myth-or-fact

In terms of politics, it’s easy to see why the idea of high-CBD strains has become all the rage. Even in areas of the country where medical Cannabis is prohibited, the reality of the medicinal benefits of CBD are being considered; however, CBD-rich Cannabis will always contain at least some THC.

https://www.drugpolicy.org/blog/cbd-onlylegislation-good-thing-medical-marijuana

So what strains are high in CBD? Some popular ones are called Charlotte’s Web, Harlequin, Sour Tsunami, and Cannatonic. Our knowledge of the relationship among the

Kamelia Angelova, “Dr. Sanjay Gupta: Here’s Why You Can’t Get the Medical Benefits of Weed Without the High,” Business Insider (Business Insider. com), August 14, 2013.

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https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/ marijuana-memory/ https://www.projectcbd.org/about/introducing-cbd/ https://www.thcdigest.com/indica-vs-sativa/#sativavs-indica-q5

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the Green Table Interview

Matt Gray, Herb — Mastering the art of cooking with Cannabis by The Stoner’s Cookbook

By Hippy KK Forty-seven days ago, “The Stoner’s Cookbook” started a crowdfunding campaign on InkShares. com with a goal to raise $22,000 in order to fund the print run of the first 1,000 copies of “Herb – Mastering the art of cooking with Cannabis.” The campaign ended on December 15, 2014. The folks behind this incredible cookbook have stockpiled it with over 200 pages of mouth-watering recipes, beautiful photography, detailed extraction methods, the science behind Cannabis, medicating with Cannabis and much, much more. Who are the folks behind this mouth-watering cookbook filled with incredible edibles? Well, they are the same people who brought you “The Stoner’s Cookbook”

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— an online cookbook that’s been bringing you hundreds of Cannabis-infused recipes for the past eight years — that’s way before the explosion of medibles popularity! In October 2014, I had the opportunity to talk with chief executive officer Matt Gray, who has been with “The Stoner’s Cookbook” for the past year. We discussed how “The Stoner’s Cookbook” came about and what’s in store for their future. At the time of our interview, there wasn’t a set release date for “Herb – Mastering the art of cooking with Cannabis” however, they not only met their goal, but exceeded it and are now taking pre-orders.

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Matt Gray

Expect it to be available very soon! Q: Tell me how “The Stoner’s Cookbook” came about. A: “The Stoner’s Cookbook” started eight years ago by two co-founders named Dan and Lucas in New Zealand. A group of friends basically shared Cannabis-infused recipes with one another in the hope of helping friends who had medical needs, as well as having good dinner parties and things like that. They started the website and a Facebook page eight years ago and over the course of time, it really just starting building up and creating a community around the world of people that were super interested in edibles, Cannabis-infused recipes as well

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as receiving new news on the current state of legalization, new businesses and the overall Cannabis culture. Our following has grown pretty massively. We now reach over 100 million people in a month, and we have three million fans on Facebook. It’s a very vibrant and engaged community of people who want to learn more about Cannabis whether it’s for medical needs or just for health and happiness. Q: You’re the chief executive officer, how did you get involved? A: For two years, I had run a successful technology education company in Toronto, Canada where I am from. I saw everything that was going on in

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the Cannabis industry and I really wanted to get involved. I had a close friend who had PTSD and at the time, I had learned that he was using edibles to help him sleep at night and to avoid the night terrors. After hearing his story and seeing what was going on in Colorado and Washington, I really thought of it as an opportunity of a lifetime to get involved, so I really wanted to jump in. I emailed some people I knew, and one thing kind of led to another and I ended up getting introduced to the guys who started “The Stoner’s Cookbook.” The following wasn’t as large as it is now, but it was awesome idea with tons of potential. It was benefiting many, many people worldwide and I saw its potential and really wanted to take it to the next level. Over the past year in a half, we’ve grown about 1100 percent and the site and the community is just amazing. It’s the most actively engaged community in the industry. Q: Were there any roadblocks the co-founders had to overcome in order to create “The Stoner’s Cookbook?” A: The cookbook is a long time coming. Obviously a lot of things have changed, especially with masslegalization in Colorado and Washington and countries like Uruguay, and Canada could become fully legalized next year. We really see the challenges really smashing the stigma that surrounds Cannabis and the people that enjoy consuming Cannabis either for health or happiness or both. So, with this book, we really wanted to capture the essence that Cannabis is just an ingredient — it’s nothing more than just a spice or an herb. That’s how we came up with the name of the book because it’s mastering the art of Cannabis. It’s really all about getting rid of the myths and providing information regarding Cannabis and medibles. I think there’s a lot of information out there, or lack of the science behind how Cannabis affects you, how it got from where it was to where it is today, and proper dosing

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and safety before they even begin getting into cooking with Cannabis. We really want to be the ultimate guide of Cannabis cuisine and provide people with really high quality, trustworthy information so they’d have a lot of fun. Q: I notice that in your recipes you don’t specify whether to use sativa, indica or a hybrid, nor do you give recommendations of the amount of THC per serving. A: Right. I do try to do that in a few recipes there. The book “Herb” in its full form will contain tons of information regarding appropriate dosage. We will also provide calculators where people can put in a high-grade, medium-grade strain of Cannabis and figure out the milligrams of THC whether it’s canna oil, cannabutter and things like that. So, more information like that will be in the book. In terms of strain specific, we had talked about that. If we’re creating a cookbook for people worldwide, often times people around the world aren’t able to find specific strains. I’m all for that by the way, I’m not against that at all. But at the end of the day, I don’t want to discourage people who are really excited about Cannabis cuisine not getting into it because they can’t find Bubba Kush to go along with their Hot Chocolate so they think they can do it then. Accessibility was really important to us and we really wanted to make sure that it is as easy as possible. In terms of subspecies between indica and sativa, we have a whole section of the book that goes into full detail of the health benefits of each and what they do. If they’re looking for something to help them sleep at night, then they’ll go with an indica. We really wanted to let them make their own decisions but educating them on all the differences. Q: When will the cookbook “Herb” be available? A: We don’t have a set date yet, but we will be updating the site continuously with the progress

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of the book. We are well on our way though, and expect it to be ready April or May of 2015. Q: Will you be selecting recipes from the website to feature in the cookbook “Herb” or will it be a complete different selection of recipes? A: That’s a good question. In terms of the book, it will be entirely new content. With that said, like the extraction section which we also feature on our site, will be included in the book as well but we are even improving that so there will be more high-quality information that will elevate all the content. You can expect to find all the different kinds of extraction methods and full five-course meal guidelines from your appetizers, snacks, holiday meals, full course meals, to desserts. The whole gambit. We really, really want this book to be something special that people are proud to display on their shelf and not hide it away in a drawer somewhere. Q: On your site, you offer an e-book for $9.99. What’s the difference between that e-book and the recipes available on the website? A: That e-book is a cookbook that was published six years ago and it is kind of what brought the popularity to the company. Without very little marketing, sales or anything, the two co-founders from New Zealand sold over 20,000 copies to dispensaries and Urban Outfitters. So, that’s just kind of like a piece of history and the original “Stoner’s Cookbook.” Q: What is your personal history with Cannabis? A: I started casually smoking Cannabis in high school. It was one of those things where it was a social thing and something fun to do amongst friends. I always knew it was less harmful than many other things that people were doing, especially alcohol. It was never my thing to be hungover. I travel the world and meet new people and it’s always been an ice-breaker. It

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brings a lot of good conversations and happiness. I’m not a medical patient, but I use it to relax much like a fine glass of wine after a long day at work. I got into cooking with it two to two in a half years ago and gradually learned from my mistakes and have gotten rather good at it. Q: What is your favorite Cannabis-infused recipe? A: Hmm. That’s a hard question. I was trying new things the other day and I mentioned to you earlier how much I like my morning smoothies. I like to take a bunch of kale and spinach and add in some coconut oil, peanut butter, frozen berries and drop some Phoenix Tears (high in CBD, low in THC) in there as well. The berries make it a really cold, healthy, great-tasting smoothie that you can consume and feel pretty good for the rest of your weekend. Q: Where do you see Cannabis in five years? A: Basically I see mass full-legalization spreading across the states. We already have Canada, Uruguay, Washington and Colorado and I see others following the trend. I’m really excited that there’s going to be more and more research being done on Cannabis, its health benefits, the science behind it and who knows what new things we discover that completely transforms people’s lives. According to their crowdfunding site, the release date of “Herb – Mastering the art of cooking with Cannabis” is August 2015. “The Stoner’s Cookbook” website: http://www. thestonerscookbook.com/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ TheStonersCookbook Crowdfunding campaign on InkShares: http://www. herbkitchen.com

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s ’ e t t lar o hC eb W By David Moss Illustration by Josh Clappe

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Charlotte’s Web is a strain of Cannabis named for Charlotte Figi, of Colorado Springs, Colo. Charlotte suffers from a genetic condition that, at five years old, rendered her unable to speak normally, walk, or feed herself. The condition also caused hundreds of seizures per week and frequent heart attacks. Traditional Western medicine was not helping with Charlotte’s condition, but Medical Cannabis helped greatly. By consuming oil infused with Charlotte’s Web, Charlotte has experienced an incredible recovery. Her seizures have been nearly eliminated and she is able to walk, speak normally and feed herself. SATIVAMAGAZINE.COM

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Charlotte’s well-publicized recovery has caused a huge surge in the strain’s popularity and has motivated a multitude of people to relocate to states that may provide access to the strain, according to a New York Times article by Jack Healy, with the bold headline: Families See Colorado as New Frontier on Medical Marijuana.

THC and CBD Two of the active chemical components of Cannabis are THC and CBD. THC is the component responsible for much of the classic psychoactive feeling that users experience (the traditional “high”). CBD is short for Cannabidiol, and appears to provide significant medical benefits without involving (and perhaps even mitigating) the psychoactive component. Cannabis has traditionally been developed with the goal of creating strains high in THC and low in CBD, the idea being to increase the psychoactive feeling. Now, with the acceptance and reach of medical Cannabis increasing, more and more effort is being put into strains that have a high CBD content and a low THC content. This combination allows a patient to enjoy the medicinal benefits associated with the CBD while not experiencing the psychoactive feeling (which may impede daily activities).

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Access to, and development of, CBD-rich strains While seeds and clones of CBD-rich strains have been difficult to obtain in the past, this is changing. In states that allow for medical Cannabis, CBD-rich seeds and clones are available, and their availability is increasing. Charlotte’s Web was developed by the Stanley Brothers of Colorado, and is a cross between a traditional Cannabis strain and industrial hemp, according to a recent article in Wired magazine by Mat Honan. While it may be the flagship for the high-CBD/low-THC strains, there are multiple new strains being developed that trend in that direction. These include ACDC, Valentine-X, Canna-Tonic, Sour-Tsunami, Harlequin, Canna Sue, Harle Cue and Swiss Gold. What these strains have in common is that they have significant CBD content (above 4 percent) with relatively less THC.

Relationship to industrial hemp Federal regulations require that industrial hemp have less than 0.3 percent THC. It may be possible, then, to import CBD-rich products under the umbrella of industrial hemp, provided that those products have less than 0.3 percent THC. This is a gray area; however, because under federal laws all tetrahydrocannabinols are prohibited as Schedule I drugs (CBD is a tetrahydrocannabinol). According to www.

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...at this point the federal government has not taken action against the companies that are importing “CBD Hemp Oil” that may contain trace amounts of THC. projectcbd.org, at this point the federal government has not taken action against the companies that are importing “CBD Hemp Oil” that may contain trace amounts of THC.

Lack of Research While the medical benefits of CBD are highly touted, particularly as related to epilepsy, there is a need for additional research. Cannabis research has been, and is, effectively prohibited in the United States. This makes for a frustrating situation as the medical community and patients seek to explore the potential benefits, as well as drawbacks, of CBD. Amy Brooks-Kayal, the vice president of the American Epilepsy Society, has been quoted as stating that “[u]ntil we have that information, as physicians, we can’t follow our first creed, which is do no harm.” Similarly, the Epilepsy Foundation and Orrin Devinsky, a neurologist at New York University’s Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, issued a joint statement that “[w]e need to make a balanced decision about compassionate use. If I were Charlotte Figi’s parents and lived in Colorado I would have done exactly what they did. And as a doctor, I would gladly prescribe marijuana products for many of my patients who failed existing therapies if it were legal in my state.... Until we have the scientific data, we should make medical marijuana available to physicians who care for people with treatment-resistant epilepsy and their patients.”

Cautious optimism Clearly, CBD’s potential medical benefit is an exciting and emerging issue within the medical Cannabis community. The potential shown thus far has helped to ignite a CBD industry within the medical Cannabis community. As with any “hot” product, there are countless knock-offs and imitations. This warrants caution for those patients that are interested in pursuing CBD-rich medication. Without lab results, or without obtaining seeds and/or clones from reputable and legal outlets, there is no guarantee as to the CBD to THC ratio. Only time will tell what the actual benefits and drawbacks are of CBD-rich medication, but cautious optimism may be in order.

Healy, Jack (5 December 2013), “Families See Colorado as New Frontier on Medical Marijuana”, The New York Times.

Honan, Mat (April 2014), “High Tech: How Silicon Valley entrepreneurs are rushing to cash in on cannabis” Wired. Gattone, Philip (20 February 2014), “Epilepsy Foundation Calls for Increased Medical Marijuana Access and Research” Epilepsy Foundation.


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CHANGE how does it happen?


Change Direction! • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

The secret of change is to focus all of your energy, By Guiseppe L Illustration by Tex Enough is enough It is 2015 and Cannabis, a miracle plant that grows naturally, is still controversial, and in many places, illegal. Doesn’t the idea of making nature against the law seem a little... unnatural? Enough is enough. The charade has been going on for far too long, and it’s time for change. What needs to be done to allow change to fully flourish? As the great ancient Greek philosopher Socrates once said, “The secret of change is to focus all of your energy, not on fighting the old, but on building the new.” There needs to be a nationwide consensus; the time has come to end prohibition and replace it with a system of regulation, taxation, and most importantly, provide accurate information with which to educate the people about its many uses. It is the very lack of education that’s still binding our Cannabis culture to the past. What remains of the negative stigma surrounding Cannabis derives from the campaign of fear and disinformation led by the launch of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics way back in 1930. Sadly, these misconceptions have somehow found a way to slither into the 21st century. Cannabis prohibition has failed. Millions upon millions of innocent Americans have been incarcerated for Cannabis-related offenses. The billion dollar “drug” war has proven to be careless, wasteful government spending. Nationally, the masses have been

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gradually turning against prohibition, with a whopping 51 percent of Americans supporting Cannabis legalization. That percentage goes to show that Cannabis consumption, whether it is medicinal or recreational, is here to stay. But that doesn’t mean that a real Cannabis industry with large-scale distribution will grow just because our country’s changing its sentiments toward Cannabis. For that to happen, the federal government would have to do a lot more than simply back off and recognize state’s rights. It would have to repeal federal laws banning possession and usage, while developing a professional system to distribute and sell Cannabis.

Onward It’s difficult to predict when the federal government will finally come around — considering more money has been spent trying to discover something deadly about Cannabis than any other drug. Change will happen when the public finally recognizes Cannabis for what it is — a miracle herb. Since the enactment of the Controlled Substances Act in 1970, Cannabis has been a Schedule I narcotic — the most restricted category reserved for drugs considered to have “no current accepted medical use.” Cannabis connoisseurs know that’s not true. There’s no way Cannabis meets the Controlled Substances Act’s strict criterion for placement in Schedule I.

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not on fighting the old, but on building the new.”

According to the National Cancer Institute (NCI): their studies in mice and rats have shown that cannabinoids may inhibit tumor growth by causing cell death, blocking cell growth, and blocking the development of blood vessels needed by tumors to grow. Laboratory and animal studies have shown that cannabinoids may be able to kill cancer cells while protecting normal cells. Another study in mice showed that cannabinoids may protect against inflammation of the colon and may have potential in reducing the risk of colon cancer. Another laboratory study done by the NCI of delta-9-THC in liver cancer cells showed that it damaged or killed the cancer cells. The same study of delta-9-THC in mouse models of liver cancer showed that it had antitumor effects. Delta-9-THC has been shown to cause these effects by acting on molecules that may also be found in non-small cell lung cancer cells and breast cancer cells. The government, on the other hand, maintains that Cannabis is dangerous enough to warrant Schedule I status. This labeling leads to the problems all medical and recreational cannabusinesses are facing in states where they are allowed: vendors of various services can’t or don’t want to collaborate with them. Insurers won’t insure them. Many landlords won’t rent to them. Banks won’t lend them money. Credit-card companies won’t process

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their payments. If cannabusinesses can’t obtain health insurance for their employees, it’s unlikely that their business will ever thrive.

DO your part There are dozens of Cannabis-related stories on the Internet ranging from new studies, to even cancer and seizure alleviation. If you stumble upon one of these stories, share the link. However a strong word of caution: Not everything you see on the Internet is entirely accurate, make sure you’re checking the source. We live in a technological age where almost everybody has a twitter or a Facebook account. The internet is so powerful, and with the strength in our numbers, we as citizens must let the world know what is going on. I often wonder how quick politicians and lawmakers would be to implement new laws if it were their loved ones sick with diseases that can be alleviated by Cannabis. If only they witnessed the effects chemotherapy and radiation can have on a person. Would they still be calling Cannabis a dangerous drug?

http://www.gallup.com/poll/179195/majoritycontinues-support-pot-legalization.aspx

http://www.dea.gov/druginfo/ds.shtml http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/ cannabis/patient/page2

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Cannabis Legalization TROG Feature Special  

Welcome to the 2nd year of Sativa Magazine. Get ready for an exciting new year. We support everyone in the industry, please help us knock do...

Cannabis Legalization TROG Feature Special  

Welcome to the 2nd year of Sativa Magazine. Get ready for an exciting new year. We support everyone in the industry, please help us knock do...

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