DO YOUR PART TO GROW THE CULTURE. LET OUR ADVERTISERS KNOW THAT YOU SAW THEM IN SATIVA MAGAZINE. Atmos Rx Bubble Bowls Cannabis Camera Cannaline Cannaventure Seeds Celebration Pipes
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Sativa Magazine Online Issue No. 9 October 2013 Tiffany Greene Michael Carter Cheryl Addington Jason Osburn Mekinsey M. Molinaro Carly Hofer Josh Clappe Emily Cain Jordan Dusek Mekinsey M. Molinaro Lauren Rae Max Bortnick Gloria Martinez Paul Josephs R. Robinson Dan Bariault Johnathan Cilia Richard Drew Gina Epps Hippy KK Kip Jarvis Paul Josephs Joe Martin R. Robinson Emily Riopelle Sarrah Safi Samuel Wells
All contents ÂŠ2013 Sativa Magazine. Sativa Magazine is published and distributed by Vanguard Click Publishing, Seattle, WA. Sativa Magazine does not condone or endorse any illegal use of any products or services advertised herein. All material is for educational purposes only. Sativa Magazine recommends consulting an attorney before considering any business decision or venture. We take no responsibility for the actions of our readers.
Reap what you sow
Welcome to the future of a budding industry. Many look at the rise of Cannabis legalization as the game changer, the big win. I, however, see hemp and its myriad products as the real win. Regardless of your theories — conspiracy or not — about why industrial hemp and Cannabis got lumped and bumped into Big Bad status by the Feds, you can’t deny that hemp is truly the poster child for Western Civilization 2.0. Hemp as a product can be be selected for its special qualities. Some hemp grows better in different climates, making one region’s hemp better for clothing fiber and another’s climate better for seed production, for a food product or an oil source. There are breeders worldwide creating these new strains of hemp specific to these desirable climates and specific to desirable product uses. Get ready to watch a brand new market explode: hemp seed breeders and home hobby medicine designers. Breeding is about to be a booming market. Who will create the best hemp and medical-grade Cannabis strains? We will watch hemp become an industry much larger than the steel industry is or ever was. What steel did for the railroads, hemp will do for carbon sequestration and the next generation of the building trades. A new market is opening up. Medical Cannabis was the beginning. Get ready for more jobs in America going back to farming. Get ready for big business and small business alike, working side by side as a new industry develops. There will be big Cannabis corporations soon, and there will also be the craft beer model. The SATIVAMAGAZINE.COM
small business owner still has a stake. I want to make one point about the word corporation. Corporations are not inherently bad. It’s the people with integrity problems and greed issues that created this image. So many of us hate the word because of the companies that have given it a bad name. But don’t forget there are more corporations doing good than bad. Look past the headlines, and you’ll see plenty of corporations with a conscience. Toms Shoes. Patagonia. Credo. You get my drift. We at Vanguard Click Publishing and Sativa Magazine seek to set an example as to how a good corporation runs. We aim to help people and I myself am a champion for job creation and freedom. I and my staff want good jobs, opportunities, and the chance to work hard and reap prosperity from our efforts. We’re guessing that our readers want the same. The Cannabis and hemp industries are looking for investors and business professionals to build a market that creates jobs and ends many injustices. Please contact me and I will direct you in how to find the right people to make your dream/goal happen. It may include me giving you a selfless plug about advertising in our publication. But I’m not pushy and advice is always free. :)
Michael Carter Editor-in-Chief email@example.com
OCTOBER 2013 COLUMNS Business Highdeas
Building up, building down Using hemp to build — buildings and humanity.
Hemp policy shift Barrister Dan advises on how to navigate the waters.
The Need for Seeds
Tiny pollen, big problem Future shock for outdoor growers of hemp and Cannabis?
Chicken pot pie Autumn comfort food at its finest.
11 18 24 30
Cannabis Cup 2013 Mercedys McNight reports on the highs — and highs. Did You Hear? An occasionally appearing compendium of legal news. Green Candy Press Two new books: Christmas is right around the corner!
14 28 82
THE HEMP ISSUE Who Lost Money? Part One: Navigating through the conspiracy. The Green House Hemp: the ultimate building material. A Green Solution for the Red Planet Hemp on Mars? Hemp: Miracle Plant Held Hostage Joe Martin takes a look at how we got in this mess. Acres of Money: Hemp Cultivation in North America All you need to know to get started. Hemp in Europe Johnathan Cilia examines non-American hemp. Opening the Gate Hemp industry employment opportunities. Top Ten Businesses That Can Benefit from Hemp From clothing to phytoremediation, hemp is a key ingredient. Did Our Founding Fathers Inhale? Oh, George! Part One. The First Hemp Car Right here in the Motor City — the hempmobile. Growing a Sea of Green Hippy KK and Dirti team up to bring it home. Hemp Growers’ License Update Just the facts, ma’am. Portfolio Our monthly collection from around the country. SATIVAMAGAZINE.COM
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ELEBRATION PIPES marks 40 ICTORY GREEN
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Hemp tubing for temporary/portable shelters Temporary shelters are just that â€” temporary. Imagine a product that could allow short-term shelters to be long-term or semi-permanent. Hemp tubes, like their cardboard counterparts, would be a strong building material that could easily be waterproofed and fireproofed, as well as being reusable, recyclable and available in several sizes. Natural disasters are often unpredictable and unannounced, leaving thousands of people without shelter for long periods of time. Hemp tubing could be used to make temporary housing or even portable homeless shelters. Using crates to construct the foundation, the larger diameter hemp tubes could be used to complete the structure of the building. Although wooden joints would normally be used, hemp-composite joints would be even better for hemptubing structures. Shelters made of larger hemp tubes are best used for long-term or semi-permanent structures. Once the lost structure has been rebuilt, the hemp tubing can easily be disassembled, reused, or recycled if necessary, leaving no industrial waste. Following many natural disasters,
many people are forced to turn to homeless and/or emergency shelters. These shelters offer cots to sleep on but little to no privacy, and are often limited to a single level. Smaller diameter hemp tubes could be used to build partitions, similar to a tinkertoy-like structure, then draped with some type of privacy cloth, preferably hemp canvas. This allows the facility to continue to offer just as many beds to those in need but with some privacy as well. Displaced survivors suffer mentally and physically; privacy can offer a
much-needed sense of personal space to assist with the healing process. A hundred million people in the world are homeless. Portable individual shelters can be built outside with as few as six of the small diameter hemp tubes, two corner connectors, some rope and a tarp (all preferably made of hemp). Assembled like a tent, they provide displaced people a temporary shelter providing protection from the outdoor elements that can easily be taken down, moved and put back up as needed.
AVAILABLE URLS: BRIEFANDPERMANENT.COM PERMANENTTRANSITION.COM HEMPORARY.COM STEELCARDBOARD.COM HEMPTUBEHOME.COM HEMPTUBING.COM TUBEWALLS.COM STURDYTUBE.COM Hemp skyscrapers We have to start thinking in new ways regarding skyscrapers. A skyscraper by definition is a structure that is ten or more stories high. Statistics show that buildings made of steel and concrete contribute up to 47 percent of the world’s carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, also known as greenhouse gases. Hemp is one of two building materials grown by the sun that gives off oxygen and stores CO2. When hemp dies, it’s given back to Mother Nature, recycled. It’s time to steer away from steel and allow Mother Nature to grow our buildings. A skyscraper built from hemp would have the amazing capacity to store carbon and provide us with carbon sequestration. One cubic yard of hemp will store over 2,200 pounds of CO2. Build big with hemp. By reducing the amount of steel and concrete used and building with what the earth provides, laminated hemp panels can be
a game-changing alternative that can play a significant role in reducing the ridiculously high greenhouse gas levels associated with steel and concrete. Using small pieces of hemp glued together to make enormous eight-foot-wide by 64-foot-long panels of various thicknesses, the world could see its first 30-story hemp skyscraper sooner than expected and will change the scale perception of what hemp can build. By building a flexible system utilizing laminated hemp panels, which the builder can erect in 6-story sections at a time can allow architects and engineers to safely build in any part of the world, even in high-seismic zones. The design flexibility of using these panels allows
for different styles of buildings. Laminated hemp panels are as safe as steel and concrete, and play no part in deforestation. Leave the trees to the forest. We are poised at the precipice of a revolution in the way we build and this is the first new way to build a skyscraper proposed in over 100 years. Save the world and build with hemp! AVAILABLE URLS: HEMPSKYLINE.COM HEMPCLOUDS.COM HOMEGROWNSTEEL.COM HEMPBALCONY.COM HEMPWITHAVIEW.COM SEQUESTAY.COM EDGINGONHEMP.COM VISIONHEMP.COM S
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MAKING HISTORY Despite leaving home at 4 a.m. EST, Amon missed three-quarters of the first day of the High Times U.S. Cannabis Cup. Between traffic and a poor public transportation system, his first bus ride of the day took over five hours. He missed his connecting flight by minutes and was greeted in Seattle with another 90-minute ride across town to reach the festivities at Freemont Studios. But none of this dampened his joy to, as he expressed it, “experience the liberties,” for himself. With no medical marijuana program in his home state, Amon i s d epe n d e n t o n t h e bl a c k market. He continually risks jail time, price gouging, and unreliable access to meds of dubious quality to treat his chronic pain from scoliosis. He described the vast contrast between his daily
reality and his experience of the Cannabis Cup as surreal. Countless others made the pilgrimage to experience the hard-won liberties for themselves at the first ever U.S. Cannabis Cup in Washington. Vendors and attendees alike flew from all over the country to partake in the historic event. For the first time in history, a medical recommendation for Cannabis was not needed to attend. Visitors could consume openly in designated areas. Attendees could try an abundance of flowers, dabs, medibles, and topicals brought from all over the West Coast to compete. Attractions While lacking the sheer size and scope of Hempfest, the Cannabis
Cup offered several interests for visitors besides free ganja. Adam Ill and Manny Blunts shot live shows from the Pot Cast, as did Radical Russ of 420 Radio. The Cali Connection booth blasted music, competing with that of the deejay hosted by California’s Finest, who won second place for their prerolled joints. And of course expert panels spanned both days with topics ranging from growing, medibles, topicals, the power of social media and the lessons of the legal victory in Washington. Panelist Vivian Mcpeak summed it up perfectly, “…for so many people from all over the world, this is an oasis that we have right here. Spectacular.” Adults 21 and older can legally consume Cannabis in private settings, carry up to an ounce at once, and soon
at the Seattle Cannabis Cup will be able to purchase it in statelicensed stores.
“502 is not going to look like 502 in another year or two.”
Dynamic process Many are displeased with certain details of the law, but as panelist and celebrity activist Rick Steves pointed out, “I got on board with 502 knowing that we had to make compromises on what our ideal might be because we were hell bent on getting it passed.” In a private discussion with Alison Holcomb, the Drug Policy Director of the ACLU of Washington and primary author of I-502, she stressed the importance of people realizing that I-502 was not the end-all which will define the industry, but rather the bridge and opportunity to collaborate with stakeholders on all levels to construct a legal Cannabis industry. As she said during the legal panel,
Global consequences “Washington and Colorado have de-fanged the tiger” of federal prohibition, exclaimed Alison Holcomb. Numerous panelists focused on the global repercussions of these victories, as other countries can now contend that the United States cannot uphold its staunch position threatening economic consequences for governments that legalize Cannabis usage while permitting two of its own states to do just that. But the tiger still has its claws and the rest of its teeth. The next few years are crucial in the battle for responsible drug policy reform.
Moving forward We must continue to win the hearts of all those afraid of what Cannabis legalization would mean for our society. People need to confront the untruths, and the consequences of continuing down this path. Many are ready to do just that; even Amon’s parents. After CNN’s Dr. Sanja Gupta’s apology, and the evidence of Cannabis’ medicinal qualities, his parents became curious about its benefits. Now they are more open than ever to his choosing medical Cannabis. As we parted ways, his smile shined brightly as he left in search of buying some ganja with the $200 his father had given him for that exact purpose. – Mercedys McNight
POLITICIES DAN BARIAULT
Hemp policy shift
The federal government’s general position on Cannabis is reflected in the policy document entitled “The DEA Position on Marijuana,” dated April 2013, and supplemented by statements from the Obama Administration. Although the stated position continues to exist, it has narrowed and must now be interpreted in the context of the policy announcement by Attorney General Holder that the federal government will not preempt state law that attempts to regulate the responsible use of Cannabis. Accordingly, it is reasonable to assume that the federal government will take a similar position on industrial hemp production. It is unlikely that industrial hemp will be treated differently than Cannabis cultivated for medical and recreational use. The Justice Department announcement made clear that the federal government will not challenge state laws that allow for the medical and recreational use of Cannabis as long as the state regulations or implementation do not conflict with eight specific federal enforcement priorities. This new policy position
applies to all states, but particularly those that have legalized medical Cannabis or recreational Cannabis usage. Although Holder’s policy announcement was not directed at industrial hemp, hemp is defined as Cannabis for federal purposes. Accordingly, it is fair to assume its inclusion. Industrial hemp is a variety of Cannabis sativa and is the same plant species as psychoactive Cannabis. It is, however, different from Cannabis that has been bred for recreational or medical use by the distinction of having almost no THC content. Hemp can be grown for fiber or seed, and can be used
in a broad range of products, including fabrics, paper, carpeting, home furnishings, construction and insulation materials, and composites, to name a few. Hemp has been estimated to represent a market in the United States alone of nearly $500 million per year, but due to its treatment as a Schedule I controlled substance the market is served almost entirely by imports, both for hemp-based finished products and as ingredients for use in additional processing. The Controlled Substances Act places strict controls on hemp production and has enforced standards
related to security conditions that have made U.S. based production impractical.
hemp and Cannabis would dictate separate production. It would be fairly easy to distinguish the different cultivar traits in order to regulate Cannabis type and usage. These differences would suggest that it would be fairly easy for the states to regulate industrial hemp production.
The 113 th Congress considered changes to the federal position on hemp production. The House and Senate considered legislation that would have softened the federal government’s position on hemp production, but no bill has been passed to date. The proposed provisions would amend the Controlled Substances Act to define the term “marijuana” to not include industrial hemp based on the limited amount of delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol, the key psychoactive chemical in Cannabis. Low-THC hemp would therefore no longer be covered by the Controlled Substances Act as a controlled substance. THC levels for hemp are generally less than 1 percent. By comparison, THC levels for Cannabis are reported to average 10 percent, and some sample tests indicate THC levels reaching greater than 30 percent. Holder’s announcement would now appear to make such legislation unnecessary in order to allow the legal cultivation of industrial hemp in states that legalize such cultivation.
In June 2013, Colorado Governor John Hickenlooper signed legislation into law creating a new program within the state of Colorado’s Department of Agriculture to oversee the regulation of commercial hemp production. The Colorado bill classifies Cannabis possessing no more than three-tenths of one percent THC as an agricultural commodity and establishes a nine-member committee within the department to develop regulations governing the licensed cultivation of hemp for commercial purposes. Unlike bills signed into legislation in other states, the Colorado law does not require growers to seek DEA approval prior to engaging in hemp cultivation. A federal bill, the Industrial Hemp Farming Act of 2013, which would amend the Controlled Substances Act to exclude industrial hemp from the definition of marijuana is pending before Congress.
Production methods differ when the Cannabis plant is grown for fiber and oils versus medicinal or recreational uses. Plants are bred for their specific applications, differ in growing methods, height, and growing duration. Concerns over cross-pollination between industrial
The current legal landscape changed dramatically when Attorney General Eric Holder told the governors of Washington and Colorado in a letter that the federal government would not preempt the states’ efforts to legalize the market for marijuana. However, the Attorney General also
made it clear that the federal government would continue to enforce the federal Controlled Substance Act by focusing enforcement on eight specific concerns. Those concerns include the following: • The distribution of marijuana to minors. • Directing revenue from marijuana sales to gangs and cartels. • Diverting marijuana from states where it is legal to other states where it is not legal. • Using legal sales as a cover for trafficking operations. • Using violence and/or firearms in marijuana cultivation and distribution. • Driving under the influence of marijuana. • Growing marijuana on public lands. • Possessing marijuana or using it on federal property. The governors of Washington and Colorado welcomed the new federal position and the clarity it added to the states’ efforts to implement a regulatory system to legalize medical and recreational Cannabis use. Since Colorado had already passed legislation legalizing industrial hemp production prior to Attorney General CONTINUED ON PAGE 88//
THE NEED FOR SEEDS
Tiny pollen: big problem? On May 28, 2013, Colorado Governor Hickenlooper signed SB 13-241 into law, making the growing of industrial hemp legal. This great victory for hemp advocates could prove to be a concern for growers and breeders of the psychoactive form of Cannabis in Colorado. What’s in a name? Hemp is the non-psychoactive variety of Cannabis sativa that is grown for many uses, most notably fiber and seed production. Cannabis sativa also exists as psychoactive cultivars grown for medicinal and recreational consumption. Sometimes the word hemp is used to refer to the Cannabis genus in general, without distinguishing whether it is the fiber variety or the psychoactive one, causing confusion for writers and readers alike. This article will consistently refer to the nonpsychoactive industrial cultivars of Cannabis sativa as hemp and the psychoactive varieties as Cannabis. Fertile ground for concern Hemp growers are not concerned
Microscopic view of pollen.
about pollen and seeds. For many hemp growers, harvesting the seeds is the goal. Fiber-producing hemp growers need seeds for subsequent crops. The USDA Farmer’s Bulletin No. 1935, concerning hemp cultivation, contains no mention of culling male plants. Hemp fields generate a lot of pollen that can travel easily in the air due to its very small size — 25 to 30 microns, according to Cannabis: Evolution and Ethnobotany by
Clarke and Merlin. This pollen can travel quite far in the air and would not be a welcome addition to a Cannabis garden devoted to growing seedless flowers, where pollen and seeds are undesirable. Breeders of Cannabis have a legitimate concern about hemp pollen. Unlike flower producers whose hemp-pollinated crop will be worth much less, the Cannabis breeder who has his crop accidently
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pollinated has a questionable crop. If the errant pollen is from hemp, the crop is worthless. The scary part for the Cannabis seed breeder is that the appearance of seeds is expected, so it may not occur to the breeder that some of the seeds are from a hemp male or monoecious (hermaphrodite) plant. A real issue? Not surprisingly, I could find no scientific papers discussing the likelihood of hemp pollen fertilizing Cannabis crops, with distances and pollen viability lifespan factored in to assess the chance of this occurring. That pollen can travel for miles is well documented, how fertile it is not as clear. Anecdotal reports claim that feral hemp in corn-belt regions of the United States, such as Kansas, can be a problem for outdoor growers and, in some cases, indoor growers. Air-dispersed pollen will do just that — disperse. Corn is planted at a spacing that maximizes pollination and, therefore, yield. The Iowa State University Extension Corn Planting Guide provides data indicating that yields decrease slightly by 2.9 percent when rows are further than 30 inches apart. The chances of a Cannabis crop becoming saturated with hemp pollen from a nearby field will decrease quickly with increasing separation of the two different crops. Just how much is not certain,
but for a reputable seed breeder, just a little bit of hemp cross-pollination is too much. Hemp growers should share a mutual concern about cross pollination with Cannabis growers, because hemp growers will not want Cannabis pollinating their crops either. One important distinction that characterizes hemp is its very low — less than one percent — THC content. Hemp pollinated by Cannabis would likely bear seeds that would produce plants with higher THC levels. Hemp is also bred for long internode lengths and minimal side branching, Cannabis often exhibits short internodes and copious branching — desirable traits for increasing flower yields. Prevention Outdoor growers have no realistic protection from hemp pollen. At a 25- to 30-micron particle size, no screening is going to impede the pollen from getting to the female Cannabis flowers. The best hope is to be on the upwind side of the prevailing breeze during hemp pollen releases. Indoor growers that have controlled air intakes — not open windows — can place HEPA filters over the intake openings. HEPA filters prevent 99.97 percent of particles 0.3 microns in size from remaining in the air that has passed through such a filter. This level of filtration requires that the filter media be sealed to
the intake to prevent air bypassing the filter into the grow room, and this level of filtration will significantly reduce airflow, which can cause fan motors to use more current, or amperes. It may be better, though riskier, to consider using a MERV 8 filter which filters most particles larger than 10 microns from the air passing through them, but the standards are not as stringent as those for HEPA filters. Wait and see I wonder just how much of this is a real concern for growers of hemp and Cannabis. The lack of scientific data concerning the cross pollination of the two crops is most likely due to the illegal status of Cannabis cultivation in the vast majority of the world, even though hemp is legal in many countries. This may well be due to the fact that Cannabis growers are not likely to complain publicly if their crops are ruined or compromised by hemp pollen, for obvious reasons. Once hemp cultivation starts in earnest again in places where Cannabis is also grown, the problem will either become a real concern or a minor irritation. The fact that this potential pollen conflict might be a concern is encouraging; after all, it means both are becoming legal. Possible cross pollination is by far a more positive problem than having both hemp and Cannabis prohibited by misguided laws. S
COLORADO (Sept. 17) Denver City Council passed the bill that established the new regulations for the recreational and medical Cannabis industries within the state’s capitol. Other large municipalities, such as Colorado Springs, chose to opt out of recreational Cannabis due to fear of federal repercussions. Previously established medical dispensaries may transition to recreational retail by Jan. 2, 2014 in cities that chose to opt in for Amendment 64, the law passed last year that legalized recreational Cannabis use in the state. Source: http://www.denverpost.com/ breakingnews/ ci_24114263/denver-council-passes-historic-retailmarijuana-rules-and UNITED STATES (Sept. 18) According to the US Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), the number of raids on Cannabis growers declined by a whopping 22 percent. However, Chris Roberts of SF Weekly noted that the numbers only tell part of the tale, and that the DEA’s overall arrest and seizure rate has increased, not decreased. NORML’s executive director, Allen St. Pierre, attributed the DEA’s increased seizure activity to new surveillance technology, namely drone flights and infrared cameras. S o u rc e : h t tp://w w w. h uf fi n gto n pos t.c o m /2013/09/18/dea-marijuana-raids_n_3951312. html and http://blogs.sfweekly.com/thesnitch/2013/09/dea_marijuana_busts.php WASHINGTON, DC (Sept. 19) U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder announced the Justice Department will revise its mandatory sentencing policies for nonviolent drug offenders who have no connections to organized crime. These revisions will apply to any pending sentences, as well as to any defendants who already entered guilty pleas but are still awaiting sentencing. Holder
stated, “Some federal drug statutes that mandate inflexible sentences — regardless of the individual conduct at issue in a particular case — do not serve public safety when they’re applied indiscriminately.” Holder added that only violent offenders operating with large-scale trafficking organizations should be stuck with lengthy sentences. In all, the revisions would give judges more leeway to punish low-level offenders on a case-by-case basis. Source: http://cannabisnews.com/news/27/thread27645. shtml WASHINGTON (Sept. 20) Washington state’s Supreme Court voted 5-4 to allow a medical use defense for Cannabis patients, regardless of whether those patients were registered or if they happened to break some other Cannabis-related use law. This ruling was based on a “medical necessity” clause first implemented in 1998, when Washington voted for legal medical Cannabis. The ruling will permit lower-income patients to mount a legal defense if they are caught consuming Cannabis without a license, but it also opens the door for patients with unapproved conditions, such as insomnia or depression, to claim a legal privilege to use the herb. Source: http://cannabisnews.com/news/27/thread27646. shtml WASHINGTON, DC (Sept. 20) The District of Columbia, which just approved medical Cannabis this last summer, is already discussing full legalization. Councilman David Grosso proposed new legislation that would allow any adult over 21 to possess and consume Cannabis. The new law, if passed, would impose a 10 percent tax on recreational Cannabis and a 6 percent tax on medical products. Grosso’s proposal may compete with Democratic mayoral candidate’s Tommy Wells’ proposal to decriminalize recreational consumption, which would only fine Cannabis possession and use at $100. Currently, Washington, DC
A COMPENDIUM OF LEGAL NEWS FROM AROUND THE COUNTRY...AND BEYOND
typically punishes recreational use of Cannabis with six months in prison with a $1000 fine. Source: http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/ 2013/09/19/dc-councilman-pushes-marijuana-legalization-predicts-congress-would-allow-it THE WORLD (September 25) The UN International Narcotics Control Board released an annual report that denounced Colorado and Washington’s legalization of Cannabis late last year. The report insisted that the United States government should “take necessary measures to ensure full compliance with the international drug control treaties in its entire territory.” Not surprisingly, many mainstream media outlets incorrectly reported that the US had violated international law by voting to legalize Cannabis on the state level. However, Dr. Keith Humphreys, a professor of psychiatry at Stanford University, noted that these UN treaties only apply to the US federal government, not to individual state governments. Source: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/keith-humphreys/ can-the-united-nations-bl_b_3977683.html NEW HAMPSHIRE (September 26) A 15-member committee in Concord reviewed proposed changes to the state’s new medical Cannabis laws that were voted in three months prior. The original law allowed patients diagnosed with ailments such as
cancer and Crohn’s disease to possess up to two ounces of Cannabis. Some of the changes being discussed are extending the 15 days required to approve or deny applications, a ban on all home cultivation, and a new provision for patients to receive permission from private property owners to use medical Cannabis on rental properties. New Hampshire will be the 15th state to legalize medical Cannabis, as well as the final state in New England to allow it. Source: http://cannabisnews.com/news/27/ thread27652.shtml and http://www.mpp.org/states/ new-hampshire/ CALIFORNIA (September 27) According to the Public Polling Institute of California, the popularity of Cannabis legalization in that state is now at an all time high. The poll discovered that 60 percent of the Golden State’s voters now support legalization, whereas last year only 45 percent of voters supported legalized herb. This paradigm shift may signal that California will be one of the next states to follow in Colorado and Washington’s footsteps, which would be long overdue considering California was the first state to approve legal medical Cannabis back in 1996. Source: http://www. huffingtonpost.com/2013/09/27/ california-marijuana-legalization_n_4005646.html S
Chicken Pot Pie Every season brings a reason to celebrate with our favorite comfort foods. This chicken pot-pie recipe is perfect for lunch or dinner on a cool autumn day. You can make individual pies, or one family-size pie as shown here. If you want to be creative, try different cooked meats, or try my favorite variation, vegetarian. Yield: 6–8 servings
the chicken is cooking, chop the onion. Peel and cube the potatoes. Line your pie pan with one of the pie crusts.
Prep Time: 65 minutes Ingredients: 2
For the filling: 2 1 small 2 medium 6 tablespoons 1/3 cup 1 teaspoon 2 cups 1 12- oz. bag
refrigerated pie crusts, softened as directed on package, or made from scratch chicken breasts onion potatoes Cannabudder all-purpose flour poultry seasoning chicken broth frozen mixed vegetables, thawed
Salt and pepper You will also need a pie pan. 1 Assemble ingredients. Boil the chicken for ten minutes, or until done. Allow to cool, then cut into cubes. While
2 In a 2-quart saucepan, melt the Cannabudder over medium heat. Add the onion and cook for about 2 minutes, stirring frequently until onion begins to become transparent. 3 Stir in the flour and poultry seasoning; season with salt and pepper. Stir until well blended. 4 Gradually stir in the chicken broth, continue cooking and stirring until it bubbles and becomes thick. 5 Add the chicken, vegetables, and potatoes. Remove from heat. 6 Spoon the chicken mixture into crust-lined pie pan. Top with the second crust, seal edge and flute with a fork. Cut several slits into the top crust. Bake 30 – 40 minutes or until crust is golden-brown. Remove from oven and allow pie to stand for at least five minutes before serving. Pot pies reheat very well and, as with many other leftovers, they’re often better the next day. Can be refrigerated for up to five days or frozen for up to 30 days. S
The Hemp Issue • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
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Part One: Navigating through the conspiracy
By R. Robinson Illustration by Josh Clappe Was hemp banned in the United States because of a vast corporate conspiracy? Officially, the verdict is still out, but the debate rages on. Most Cannabis lovers have heard the story about E.I. du Pont de Nemours, Andrew Mellon and William Randolph Hearst’s roles in lobbying to snuff out the hemp industry. The story began with hemp and Cannabis activists writing during the 1970s, but it didn’t catch on in popular culture until the legend himself, Jack Herer, completely developed the theory in his book, The Emperor Wears No Clothes. Those who support this conspiracy theory will herein
be referred to as the “theorists.” Unknown to many in the Cannabis culture, however, is that a number of scholars, botanists and farmers propose an alternative to this conspiracy theory. Opponents of the theory, who will be called the “skeptics,” insist that hemp was not a popular crop prior to the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937; that there’s no evidence that du Pont, Hearst or Mellon were involved with an anti-hemp lobby; and that it’s impossible to determine whether or not these robber barons cashed in on banning hemp.
The Hemp Issue • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
As hemp and Cannabis become mainstays in mainstream America, this debate regarding the validity of this conspiracy will only become louder and more pronounced.
The truth about American hemp Before beginning this discussion about the hemp conspiracy, we should first establish the known facts. Both sides of this debate are guilty of propagandizing their positions, and in order to make sense of this debate, the facts need to be clear. First, although hemp was a staple of U.S. agriculture since the times of George Washington, our nation’s economy was never dependent on hemp. After the invention of the cotton gin in the 1800s, hemp was slowly phased out of popularity as cotton, once considered the material of the wealthy, could be cheaply mass produced. Some states, particularly Kentucky and Wisconsin, continued to rely on large acreages of hemp, but these states were in the minority. However, many, if not most, farmers in the United States did grow hemp. Hemp was cultivated alongside other crops. During the Great Depression, farmers relied on hemp for a little extra cash. If we look at U.S. agricultural census data, along with national farm reports, we see that hemp rarely makes it into the top cash crops for any given state. Even by the hemp farmers’ own admissions during the hearings for the Marihuana Tax Act, hemp was not a large industry in the United States compared to other cash crops. Corn, wheat, cotton, etc. were the kings of agriculture in the early 1900s, as they are today. But hemp was used for a number of manufactured products. Hemp went into ropes, sails, textiles, industrial oils, and foodstuffs
In the 1920s, new technologies made hemp processing much more efficient, which contributed to predictions of a hemp boom. — but not primarily. For instance,, rope was typically made with jute or other materials, and the only sails that tended to incorporate hemp were sails employed by the U.S. Navy (and sailboats made up a small percentage of the U.S. Navy’s armada). Despite theorists’ claims of hemp’s popularity in the early 1900s, consumers and markets preferred cotton, wool, and later rayon and nylon. Another myth that muddies this debate has to do with the immediate consequences of the Marihuana Tax Act. Despite popular belief, this tax law did not ban the production of hemp or Cannabis. Both were allowed to be grown, processed and distributed, but the act’s passage imposed new fees to conduct Cannabis-related business. Hemp production continued in the United States up until 1970, when the Controlled Substances Act officially outlawed hemp cultivation in America. These clarifications aside, the theorists still have ammo to support their claims. The theorists’ most convincing argument is that hemp held immense promise as an
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industrial resource. The Feb. 1938 issue of Popular Mechanics featured an article titled “Hemp: The New Billion-Dollar Crop” that detailed the plant’s potential uses in nearly...well...everything. In the 1920s, new technologies made hemp processing much more efficient, which contributed to predictions of a hemp boom. One invention in particular, the decorticator, was to hemp what the cotton gin was to cotton. The decorticator made it possible for hemp to seriously compete not only with du Pont’s synthetic textiles, but also with tree-based paper. Cannabis, the close cousin of hemp, was also a popular pharmaceutical plant at the time, and outlawing both hemp and Cannabis would have been a double-whammy victory for the chemical industrialists.
A mountain of strange coincidences Skeptics are quick to point out that theorists lack hard evidence supporting a tried-and-true conspiracy. While this is true, theorists rely on a series of events that just-so-happen to match up with the conspiracy narrative. The success of synthetic textiles coincides with the passage of the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937. Rayon was around for years before the act, but nylon — du Pont’s big lab-designed moneymaker — was unveiled to the public just a year before the Tax Act’s passage. Skeptics say these events are happenstance, but theorists have connected these dots to support the conspiracy theory. The center dot, as it were, was none other than Mr. Reefer Madness himself, Harry Anslinger. Anslinger’s anti-Cannabis crusade kicked off in the 1920s, less than a decade before the Tax Act went through. Anslinger, head of the Federal Narcotics Bureau (the precursor
to the modern-day DEA), despised ethnic minorities and could be credited as singlehandedly manufacturing the notorious reefer madness. He had help, particularly from media magnate William Randolph Hearst, who used newspapers to unjustly paint Cannabis as the drug of choice for Mexican rapist-murderers. In fact, Hearst gave Anslinger his very own newspaper column, which propagandized Cannabis as a drug that created homicidal maniacs. To add to the mountain of strange coincidences, Anslinger was married to the niece of Andrew Mellon, and theorists assert that Mellon used his vast political influence to secure Anslinger’s new post as head of the Federal Narcotics Bureau. Mellon, one of the world’s most powerful bankers, held a large stake in du Pont. If hemp truly threatened du Pont’s profits, then, as the theorists claim, it made sense for Mellon to design a scheme to wipe hemp off the map. The skeptics, on the other hand, note that Andrew Mellon had his hands in just about every industry. Someone as wealthy as Mellon would be expected to have investments in du Pont, which was one of the most profitable corporations at the time. They insist there’s no evidence that Mellon ever directed Anslinger’s hateful policies, and here again we come to a standstill with the debate. Would Mellon, being a shrewd conspirator, ever leave behind evidence that he manipulated Anslinger’s federal policies? After all, if investigators ever uncovered that Anslinger was a corporate puppet, it would lead to a national scandal. Even Hearst couldn’t spin out of that tangle. In next month’s issue of Sativa Magazine, we’ll see why following the money leads to dead ends. S
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By Emily Riopelle Design by Jordan Dusek Have you ever seen a hemp house? Have you ever wondered just how strong and durable hemp could be? Most of us have no firsthand experience with hemp houses, because the American hemp industry is in its infancy. But in France, hemp has been used as a building material for about 30 years, mostly as insulation. More recently, companies such as Tradical in the U.K. and Hemp Technologies in the United States have begun to build entire houses with a material called hempcrete. These companies discovered that by mixing hemp with lime, water, and sometimes sand, they were able to create a compound comparable to concrete at one-sixth the weight. As a building material, hemp is an incredibly untapped resource. Hempcrete is more energy efficient, more environmentally sound, and healthier for both consumer and builder than most other traditional building materials being used today. 38
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CARBON FRIENDLY Building houses with hemp can greatly reduce the environmental impact of our construction industry. Hemp-lime actually sequesters carbon dioxide (CO2) from the environment, rather than contributing more carbon into the atmosphere. Hemp Architecture confirms: “Using hemp within the structure of a building can be better than zero carbon, sometimes referred to as carbon negative.” 238 pounds of CO2 can be locked away in 35 cubic feet of hempcrete, which is about the size of a refrigerator. Whereas traditional homes contribute greenhouse gases into the atmosphere during construction whilst using energy, hemp houses actually hold those gases in for the life of the house. But the benefits do not end there. According to a 2007 EPA report, building-related construction and demolition waste totals 160 million tons each year. Building with hemp-lime cuts down on construction waste considerably, because it is an all-natural, recyclable material. The environmental benefits of the material could be amplified with both legalization and further research. Currently, hemp-lime is used as filler requiring timber frames for structural support. Since hemp grows much faster than trees and has a smaller environmental footprint, a method of using hemp stalks for structural support would be ideal. Hemp Architecture, a company mentioned in the June issue of Sativa Magazine, is working on just that. Since industrial hemp is illegal to grow in the United States under federal law, domestic companies such as Hemp
Technologies must import their hemp, thereby increasing costs as well as the carbon footprint of hemp products and greatly reducing the advantage hemp would otherwise have over traditional materials.
ENERGY EFFICIENT Although traditional homes are built using toxic materials said to aid in insulation, they still require significant amounts of energy to heat and cool. In Europe, hemp insulation has been shown to be more efficient. According to Hemp Architecture, “simplification of the construction process with fewer materials and layers is also a benefit. It is usually where different layers or materials meet that the failure occurs and it is also more cost effective to have one material performing many functions rather than many materials, each performing a single role.” Since hemp-lime achieves all of the functions of the traditional house in one single layer, it can create a more airtight cocoon. Hempcrete Australia, a company that markets their own version of hemp-lime, points out that hempcrete homes use less energy during construction because large machinery isn’t
necessary to mix and vibrate the mixture. This also makes it easier to recycle. If you’re looking for numbers, according to Hemp Technologies, a home constructed using hempcrete will typically use 60 percent less energy to heat and cool than one constructed from traditional materials.
HEALTHY If that’s not enough incentive to purchase some hempcrete and start building, start thinking about the materials that were used to build your traditional house. A report published in 2008 by the Healthy Building Network showed that numerous chemicals may be lurking within the structure of your home, including: polyvinyl chloride (PVC), a common type of plastic, which has been shown to emit dioxins that are associated with many health issues and cancer; volatile organic compounds like formaldehyde, which are often used in insulation and have been associated with many health issues; semi-volatile organic compounds, which are often used in building materials to inhibit ignition or flame, can spread and may cause cancer, and the list goes on. The study also states that: “The U.S. EPA has registered more than 80,000 chemicals for use and identified 16,000 of them as chemicals of concern; they have only subjected 250 to mandatory hazard testing and only restricted five chemicals or chemical classes.” On the other hand, hemp meets the four criteria that the study lists as a guide for safer building materials: grown without the use of GMOs; compostable into healthy and safe nutrients; certified as sustainable, and grown without the use of pesticides containing
carcinogens, mutagens, reproductive toxicants or endocrine disruptors. Hemp will not give you cancer. Hempcrete is also a breathable material, meaning it will absorb and pass water vapor but not liquid. This makes hemp houses mold-resistant and low-allergen environments. Hemp-lime also acts as natural and safe insulation and is non-combustible. The icing on the cake? You’ll never have to worry about termites or carpenter ants if you build with hemp.
WORTH THE EXTRA COST With all of these amazing benefits, you’d think the cost of a hemp house would be astronomical, but it’s not. In 2011, the National Association of Home Builders conducted a survey and found that the average square footage of a single family home is 2,311 sq ft., and total construction costs added up to $184,125, or about $81 per square foot. Hemp Technologies is the only company currently building hemp homes in the United States and they list several styles of hemp homes starting at $140 per sq. ft. And, as an emerging market, costs are only going to go down. Though the initial costs of constructing a hemp house is higher, the difference will be made up in just a few years with all the money you’ll save on energy bills. And your hemp house will last forever. American Lime Technology sells the Tradical Hempcrete and explains that the pH and vapor permeability of the lime binder make the perfect environment to preserve the hemp shiv, creating a structure they say will last centuries. S
Green house greenhouse? Here’s how: NOT ONLY IS THE HEMP ‘green house’ an amazing and innovative environmental feat, a hemp greenhouse can be one as well. Suppose you wanted to build an awesome and earth-friendly greenhouse with hemp materials to grow the other, medicinal and psychoactive, form of Cannabis? Not a problem, here’s a quick sketch of how to do so: MAKE YOUR LOWER WALLS out of hempcrete with galvanized steel posts at intervals to support the frame and glazing. If the greenhouse is oriented along the north-south axis, the entire north wall need not be glazed at all and can be made of hempcrete to better insulate the greenhouse. This will create a heatsink that will store heat from the sun during the day and release it at night. The breathable nature of hempcrete will help mitigate moisture-related problems in the greenhouse. IF NEEDED, A SHADE CLOTH could be made from hemp fibers to reduce the heat buildup from the sun. Since Cannabis devours full sunlight like a starving artist eats ramen, an opaque hemp fabric might be utilized as a light deprivation cloth to allow for
extra crops. To learn more about light deprivation growing read the article “Fooling Mother Nature” in the June, 2013 issue of Sativa Magazine. On the topic of opaque: local authorities might require a wall around the greenhouse to keep prying eyes from seeing what you are growing — and perhaps reduce jealousy in the eye of the beholder. That wall could be made from hempcrete, or hemp OSB (oriented strand board), and painted or stained with a hemp-oil based product to seal it from the elements and make it attractive. THE PLANTS CAN BE GROWN in fabric pots made from hemp fibers. Similar fabric pots allow excellent air exchange and air-pruning characteristics that promote a very healthy root system. As an added bonus, if the pots degrade they are compostable. IF THE POWER GOES OUT, a dieselpowered backup generator can run on hemp oil biodiesel. The entire greenhouse could be heated with a biofuel burning boiler system that uses hemp as one of the combustible fuel sources. How cool is it that hemp can be used in so many ways for a greenhouse? S
“The rockets came like locusts,
swarming and settling in blooms of rosy smoke. And from the rockets ran men with hammers in their hands to beat the strange world into a shape that was familiar to the eye, to bludgeon away all the strangeness, their mouths fringed with nails so they resembled steel-toothed carnivores, spitting them into their swift hands as they hammered up frame cottages and scuttled over roofs with shingles to blot out the eerie stars, and fit green shades to pull against the night.” – Ray Bradbury, The Martian Chronicles
When considering the prospect of terraforming and colonizing Mars, a plethora of immense challenges and uncertainties arise. One certainty is that plants will be part of the process and hemp will be among the most important to make the journey.
Crazy ideas Terraforming Mars is an out-there idea today, but 100 years from now we might be already starting the process of altering the environment to sustain complex life forms. How many seemingly crazy ideas from the 19th century have come true or been exceeded in the last century? Looking forward, the prospect of
hemp on Mars might seem outrageous; looking back from 2113, realizing that hemp was illegal to grow in the United States in 2013 may also be hard to believe.
Massive undertaking Mars has major disadvantages and hurdles that will need to be overcome for the planet to support complex life forms like vascular plants and animals. The very thin atmosphere is roughly 95 percent carbon dioxide (CO2), it’s extremely cold, and it receives much less sunlight than Earth. There is also no strong planetary magnetic field to protect and preserve the atmosphere. While hemp is an
By Paul Josephs Illustration by Josh Clappe
incredibly useful and versatile plant, it can’t fix the largest problems, so we’ll leave those for the scientists and engineers to solve and focus on the role hemp can assume.
outside as the atmosphere becomes conducive to supporting life as we know it. But that’s just the beginning of hemp’s usefulness.
Not rocket science
Hemp hearts, the edible part of hemp seed, contain all of the amino acids, and in addition to the protein content, have a large percentage of essential fatty acids that enhance human health. Hemp seeds will be valuable for food and for ensuring future crops. The small size of hemp seeds make them an efficient item to transport on a spacecraft, especially when weighing the benefits of growing hemp compared to other plants. Hemp could be grown aquaponically, using the nutrients from fish waste to grow quickly while keeping the water healthy for the fish, an efficient and beneficial use of resources.
The terraforming will certainly involve rocket science, but the decision of what plants to bring along will involve good, old-fashioned common sense. As resources become scarce, whether on the scale of a family, a community, or an entire planet, the decision-making process about resource management and materials is similar. Everything that ends up on Mars will have been considered with a great deal of thought. Key questions will be along the lines of “Is it absolutely essential?” And, “If so, what is the most sustainable and efficient way to provide or produce it?” Efficiency will be a critical driving force on Mars.
Pitching hemp It will gratifying be to be a hemp advocate when the decision-making process begins concerning what plants and other organisms should go to Mars when it’s being colonized and terraformed. Evaluating what Mars colonists will need and what hemp can provide reveals much overlapping territory. Let’s begin our discussion with an overview of these basic necessities.
Air Hemp is a producer of oxygen, as are all plants that rely on photosynthesis for energy to grow. Plants also remove carbon from atmospheric CO2 as part of the carbon cycle. As Mars has too little oxygen and far too much CO2, that’s an essential function hemp can provide inside sheltered habitats at first, then eventually
Clothing Hemp fibers are well known as a strong, renewable source for textile production. Due to the extreme costs of space transportation, everything that can be produced on Mars will be. Other plants that are good fiber producers such as cotton may offer some other uses such as cottonseed oil, but none offer anything near the versatility of hemp.
Shelter This is an area where hemp really comes to the forefront of useful plants for Mars. Hemp stalks and fibers can be used for structural building blocks like those made with hempcrete. Hemp-reinforced composite panels could be incorporated into the spacecraft used to bring people and materials to Mars, as well as for structures on Mars. Furniture can be fabricated from hemp stalks and fibers. Hemp floors and
window coverings will add a welcome homey touch for people living so far from Earth.
Energy Biodiesel is readily made from hemp seed oil. Additional biomass-derived fuels from hemp stalks include gasoline, charcoal, ethanol, acetone, methane and methanol. Heat from aerobic composting of excess hemp and other plant matter can be used with other biomassfueled sources for temperature control in habitats. Since hemp grows very quickly without excessive water or fertilizer demands, it is an ideal biomass plant to use on Mars.
Environment Hemp is useful in phytoremediation applications. Phytoremediation uses plants to remove and accumulate toxins from soils and water. Cannabis sativa is a known and effective phytoremediation plant, especially the hemp variety. In the closed environment of habitats on Mars, this trait will be yet one more benefit hemp offers potential Martian colonists.
Health The essential fatty acids contained in hemp seed have already been mentioned. It would seem obvious that another variety of Cannabis sativa, the THC- and cannabinoid-rich one, would prove of great benefit to the Martian inhabitant. Whether it is used in its natural state or fractionally separated into its medicinal components, Cannabis has numerous health benefits without serious side effects and is energy efficient to produce.
Interesting juxtaposition When envisioning a human habitat on Mars, it is easy to picture domed structures with lots of
gleaming very high-tech machinery and living spaces. It is much more likely to be a more humanized mix of high- and low-tech items. A colonist might be wearing hemp clothing and sitting on a hemp fiber-reinforced chair, eating a hemp seed snack while catching up on the news with a sophisticated media device we likely cannot easily imagine now. Some of the energy to power the high-tech habitat could be produced from low-tech biomass fuels. Algaes and lichens may be working hard outside the habitat alongside legions of nanobots to continue to transform the environment into a life-friendly one, while massive planetaryscale machines work to extract vital oxygen and metals from the Martian landscape, possibly even creating that vital magnetic field artificially.
Most viable candidate It all boils down to efficiency, usefulness, and sustainability when making the cut to be chosen for Mars duty. Hemp makes that cut easily. It will be a go-to plant inside enclosed habitats for all of the uses listed here and quite possibly many not even recognized at this time. Once the Martian environment is sufficiently altered to allow hemp to be grown outside of the habitats, its utility will remain unchanged, in fact, it will be even more useful as a large source of oxygen, food, fuel, fiber and building materials. Whatever the greening of Mars eventually looks like, hemp will play a very important and critical role in that process, assuming that the Cannabis movement wins its battle to unleash the potential contained within hemp by ending prohibition. S
By Joe Martin Illustrations by Mekinsey M. Molinaro Hemp is an amazing plant with mind-boggling potential for business entrepreneurs, yet our society and government seem to purposely ignore it — until now. As the legalization of medical and recreational Cannabis continues to spread, its sister plant, hemp, has been making quieter strides toward legalization and implementation of its many uses. Commercial hemp may not be as sensational a topic for the evening news to cover compared to recreational Cannabis, but the implications of its pending widespread legalization are profound for many regions of the country. At the time of this writing, Colorado, Kentucky,
Maine, Montana, North Dakota, Oregon, Vermont, and West Virginia all have recently enacted legislation promoting the growing and marketing of commercial industrial hemp, with other states bound to follow. If allowed to grow to its full potential as a commercial crop plant — with the necessary research and funding — the profit potential is enormous. This is far from mere speculation. Currently, hemp is utilized worldwide, but not widely publicized. People use it for food and beverages, paper, clothing and other textiles, beauty products, fuel, wax, resin, rope, paint,
hemp MIRACLE PLANT HELD HOSTAGE
building materials and other things. Hemp is a viable alternative to conventional plastics, proving useful for making everything from curtain rod liners to CD and DVD cases. There are even cars constructed with hemp as the primary material. And these cars could potentially run on hemp fuel! Not only that, but hemp is environmentally friendly and is a valuable tool for chemical cleanup. It actually heals toxic and tainted soils. According to the Hemp Heals Foundation and other sources, the planting of industrial hemp following the nuclear disaster in Chernobyl helped to accelerate the removal of the toxic
contaminants in the soil at the accident site. Stateside, hemp’s virtues have been kept tightly under wraps since the days of the lumber barons. Hemp is grown as a cash crop in numerous countries outside the United States, yet our society clearly is reluctant to tap into this vast resource. It’s not that we’re ignorant about its uses and haven’t known about them for a long time. Indeed, our Founding Fathers grew hemp as a source of fiber and paper. They were following a long tradition of using this crop. Hemp has functional as well as artistic uses. Van Gogh, Rembrandt and other early
Dutch canvas artists painted on hemp linen to create their masterpieces. And almost certainly Columbus arrived on our shores with ships utilizing hemp sails and ropes. The durability and resistance to rotting of hemp canvas made it the ideal material. Historical data tells us that it was critically important for most early European explorers and their ships. In fact, according to Webster’s New World Dictionary, the word “canvas” translates to the Dutch word for Cannabis. What an interesting thing to ponder that our country might not have been discovered if not for hemp, yet now we choose to ignore it. Why do we turn a blind eye to this miracle commodity? The reasons are short-sighted as well as complex.
Perception and politics Hemp and its psychoactive sister, Cannabis, will seemingly always be joined at the hip in the minds of the general public. To many, they are basically the same thing — although the extremely low THC content of hemp makes it more likely to give you a headache if smoked than actually get you high. In reality, hemp can be seen as the industrial version of Cannabis — the same, yet oh so different. While perceptions of those with educated minds are slowly changing for the better, hemp and Cannabis are still lumped together and seen as the sinister “gateway drug” that could destroy the futures of our children if they have access to it and are allowed to indulge themselves. Consider the large Asian pythons and South
American anacondas as an analogy for hemp and Cannabis. At a glance, pythons and anacondas are both huge constricting snakes that have been known to attack and kill humans. Yet, they are from entirely different geographical regions, and one lays eggs (pythons) and one gives birth to live young (anacondas). They are similar in appearance but way different on a biological level. As the saying goes, things are not always as they seem. Our government has done little to help change the public perception of these plants. At a federal level and, until relatively recently, a state level, all members of the Cannabis genus are treated as one and the same. Apparently, politicians recognize the differences but still consider them too close for comfort. The distinctive leaf of Cannabis in all its forms is the poster child for illegal drugs. Yet, like a herpetologist perusing pythons and anacondas,
any Cannabis enthusiast with a keen eye can differentiate between the two plants immediately. Although the leaves are similar, structurally the plants are quite different.
standards and protocol for commercial use of the plant eventually gain wide acceptance for the benefit of state economies and job opportunities across our nation.
Recently, politicians and voters at the state level have grown wiser about the potential of the untapped hemp and Cannabis resource. With similar changes at the federal level, hemp has the potential to become one of our county’s biggest commodities. One widely documented fact is that one acre of hemp — a very fast-growing plant — yields as much or more fiber and pulp than four acres of slow-growing trees. Finally, people are recognizing the missed profits.
What else stands in the way of fully realizing the potential of hemp? Powerful and influential big business, that’s what. When you consider the many uses for hemp, it’s easy to understand why big oil companies like Chevron, Shell, and Exxon wouldn’t want to see legalization enacted and research conducted to promote hemp as an alternative or replacement for fossil fuels. Other companies, like DuPont, with a vested interest in textiles and myriad other products, would almost certainly have a conflict of interest with legal hemp. Only the naive would assume that big businesses wouldn’t protect their interests by lobbying actively against the use of hemp as an alternative to their products — regardless of the comparative safety and sustainability of their products.
The state of Colorado is among the states allowing the growth of industrial hemp. Colorado is unique in that it serves as an interesting testing ground for both recreational Cannabis and commercial hemp, with both plants attaining legal status this year. As the country keeps its eye on Colorado and other states as models for other commercial hemp expansion, we can only hope that implementation of
The good news is that there’s a proverbial “crack in the dike” that’s currently holding back the utilization of U.S. hemp. Both socially and commercially, perceptions are changing. What much of the world has long recognized about hemp has finally taken root here in the United States and is growing. Once the floodgates fully open, we can optimistically predict that the growth of hemp as a lucrative commodity will grow as rapidly as the plant itself. S
ACRES OF Hemp farming in North America 50
By Paul Josephs Illustration by Josh Clappe
F MONEY To make all of the great products hemp can be used for, it follows that hemp needs to first be grown in fields. Farmers will be the first group of people who will benefit from legalized cultivation of this exceptionally useful plant, and they will find the following information useful as they get started.
LOST HERITAGE Hemp was once widely grown in North
America, but once the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 was made into Federal law in the United States much of the knowledge about hemp farming and the best cultivars for the region were lost during the subsequent years. Today hemp is once again grown in Canada, and much of the data that is pertinent for cultivating hemp in this part of the world comes from Canada.
... much of the data that is pertinent for cultivating hemp
THE PLANT Cannabis sativa is one of the three species of herbaceous annual plants widely recognized by taxonomists as belonging in the genus Cannabis. Hemp is a variety or subspecies of Cannabis sativa that has a very low THC content (0.03 percent or less) and has been bred for long internode lengths and fiber content. Hemp has the same growing requirements as the psychoactive varieties of Cannabis sativa, though the two types are grown for different end products; hemp is grown for seed and fiber production while psychoactive Cannabis is almost exclusively grown for its un-pollinated flowers, with limited seed production for breeding and propagation.
REQUIREMENTS FOR SUCCESS Hemp has a few requirements to flourish, and they are not too demanding. Hemp grows best in loamy soil, meaning the composition is roughly 40 percent sand, 40 percent silt and 20 percent clay. Ideally there is some organic matter such as humus in the composition. Loamy soils drain well while retaining moisture and resist compaction. Hemp performs poorly in compacted or soggy soils. The pH of the soil is ideal when it falls in the range between 7.0 and 7.5. The Corn Belt regions of the United States and other areas known for excellent croplands have ideal soils for hemp cultivation. The fertilizer requirements for robust
growth of hemp are not very complex either, preferring an almost balanced NPK ratio of 1.5 –1–1 of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium, respectively. The Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food (OMAF) suggests roughly 100 lbs. of nitrate, 75 lbs. of phosphate, and 75 lbs. of potash per acre as a mid-range estimate. Keep in mind these numbers fall within in a range and the exact requirements will depend on each farmland’s particular nutrient composition as determined by soil nutrient analysis. If manure and compost can be used to fulfill the fertilizer needs, the soil will benefit greatly from the addition of organic matter to the soil. Be aware that excess nitrogen in comparison to the other two major elements produces lush, soft growth that is susceptible to stem breakage and pathogens. On the topic of pathogens, two that farmers should be aware of that can hurt crops substantially are Botrytis cinerea, commonly known as grey mold, and Sclerontinia sclerotiorum, known as white mold or watery soft mold. The latter affects the entire plant starting at the stem base, ruining the bast fiber and hurds; while the former — known all too well by cultivators of psychoactive Cannabis — will devastate seeded flowers, which are usually referred to as grain heads by hemp farmers. Both can be treated with fungicides, but breezy and relatively dry conditions will keep both in check naturally.
p in this part of the world comes from Canada.
Hemp can be grown successfully wherever there is a growing season of 60 to 90 days for fiber production and 110 to 150 days for seed production. Hemp germinates well in soil temperatures between 46°F and 50°F at a depth of one-half inch. Seeds planted too shallow may not become moist enough to germinate, and too deep may prevent the sprouts from reaching the surface. Farmers use a standard seed-drill set for six- to seveninch rows, and the goal for fiber production is to have a plant density of 200 to 250 plants per square yard, and 100 to 150 per sq. yd. for seed production to allow for more branching and flowering sites. According to the OMAF, water needs are moderate with 10 to 13 inches of rainfall or irrigation required in a growing season with about one half of that needed during the early seedling growth stage. If growing hemp for seed is the goal, dry soil conditions at pollination and afterward will reduce yields, so that is a consideration for drier regions.
HARVEST CONSIDERATIONS Fiber plants are cut down with mechanical reapers after the male plants have released their pollen, as they die shortly afterward. The stems are allowed to lay in the field to undergo dew-retting, which releases the fibers from the pectin binding them together. The stalks are turned over once or twice during this three- to four-week period to allow even retting. Retted
stalks can then be baled and transported for storage and processing. Hemp crops for seed production are usually harvested with height-modified combines when the seed is 70 percent ripe, which usually falls between 110 to 150 days after germination. The range has to do with both the cultivar used and the latitude where the crops are grown. The onset of seed shatter is the best time to harvest. Seed shatter occurs when the calyxes dehisce or dry out and expose the brown ripe seeds. Hemp can be dual harvested for fiber and seed by either simultaneously combining with a lower reaper blade attachment, or by reaping the stalks after the grain heads have been combine harvested. The quality of the fiber is degraded however, as the plants tend to accumulate lignin during their maturation process, which makes the stalks more useful for construction materials and biomass fuels than for quality fiber products. S Cultivation, varieties, economic worksheets: OMAF http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/ english/crops/facts/00-067.htm
Useful tables for estimating expenses and revenues: http://www1.agric.gov. ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex126 Health Canada 2012 approved hemp cultivars: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hc-ps/pubs/precurs/ list_cultivars-liste2012/index-eng.php
CASH, CARS & CONSTRUCTION E U ROPE AN H E MP I N 2013 By Johnathan Cilia Graphics by Lauren Rae
From being the wrapping paper French queens were buried in, to feeding the hungry and the poor in medieval England, through its use in soups and pies, to becoming the sails that Christopher Columbus used to traverse the Atlantic Ocean, hemp has had the fortuity of gracing the halls of kings and queens while filling the bellies of their workers. Hemp has long been a vital
crop, but the contemporary hemp market is quite different than the hemp market of yore. The major hemp producers and the products they produce, and even the ethics involved, have evolved as their countries’ cultures have. The 20th century saw a global change in the perception of hemp production, with countries outlawing its growth and use. Until the 1990s it was a mostly dead industry. However, between 1992 and 1996, most European Union member states legalised the cultivation of industrial hemp; Lithuania was the last to do so this year. 1992 saw the first legal hemp harvest in England in 70 years, and the mid-1990s saw the return of hemp as a fashionable product among eco-businesses around Europe, especially in countries like Germany. EU law, similar to supranational federal law in the United States, states that to grow hemp industrially, it must contain less than 0.3 percent THC, so as to ensure that continuous smoking of the plant
would result in nothing more than a bad cough and a severe headache, and that the crop is used solely for industrial purposes. Fast forward to 2013, and the hemp industry is in a relatively stable condition. Europe produces between 10,000 and 15,000 hectares (ha) of hemp each year — 10,000 hectares equals about 24,710 acres — primarily in the middle and northern regions as the climate is preferable. On average, somewhere between six to seven metric tons of hemp straw is yielded from one hectare of land. While this is commendable, this output still doesn’t reach the level of the historic big-boy producer of hemp — China, which produces around 23,000 ha of hemp a year. But don’t mind them — they’ve been doing it for over 5,000 years. While many companies dealing in hemp turn to China for their product, many companies prefer to use European hemp. Especially among the more eco-friendly companies, European hemp is seen to be more desirable, due to Europe using fewer chemicals to bleach the hemp. The fact that workers at European farms are ensured better working conditions, better wages, and all the nice things that come with working in a non-communist country, are also factors in many companies’ decision to choose European suppliers. While Europe as a whole is governed by EUwide regulations regarding the cultivation of hemp, each of the 27 EU countries needs to be looked at individually to fully understand their contemporary relationship with growing hemp. Each country has its own unique history with this plant, and each country now displays it in accordance to how much hemp it produces.
Europe’s top hemp producer is, by a large margin, France. Producing around 6,000 ha., on average, every year, it accounts for around half of all hemp produced in Europe. At its peak in the mid-1800s, France produced more than 100,000 ha of hemp every year. This was used to produce linen, fabric, twine, rope, cordage and oil. However, between the dwindling use of sailboats, the rise of synthetic fiber and cotton, and the relatively high labor required for hemp fiber separation, hemp production declined steadily in France until it was producing a mere 700 hectares in 1960. While most hemp is produced in the centralwest regions of France like La Sarthe and La Loire, hemp can be found holding its leafy head high all over the hexagonal country — Levi Strauss even created his first pair of jeans using hemp imported from southeastern Nîmes, with the word denim coming from ‘de Nîmes’. Germany was, traditionally, also a big producer. As quite an eco-friendly country, hemp was a fashionable product, both in clothing and in food. However, as hempfriendly as Germany is, it is more bioenergyand biofuel-friendly — by 2011 subsidization of these two key green industries in Germany had forced practically all German hemp producers to move to France, contributing to France’s large production level. However, there is still a relatively large hemp market in Germany. The United Kingdom has a decent level of production, producing around 1,500 ha year. Hemp production is subsidized in the U.K., and companies like Hemcore are really pushing hemp as a usable substance in various industries. England especially has had a
EUROPEAN HEMP FINISHED PRODUCTS
favorable relationship with hemp: King Henry VIII had passed an Act of Parliament in 1533 which fined farmers who did not grow the crop in England, similar to what happened in Jamestown, Va., in 1619. Hemp cultivation has long been part of the culture in Romania. It brought the community together in group work, and laid the foundations for many modern traditions. Up until 1990, around 40,000 ha were produced annually. A collapse of technical processing plants brought production to a mere 1,000 ha in 2002, which were mainly cultivated in the
western part of the country. However, there are still working processing units, so it remains one of the larger producers. Hungary and Poland contribute less than one percent of total hemp production, and suffer from a similar fate to Romania — they are struggling to amass a decent amount of processing plants. While they would look to produce more hemp, they do not have the means.
Once the hemp straw is harvested, it is divided
up into different market uses. About 96 percent of all processed fiber goes towards three main industries:
in high-performance consumer goods like chairs, furniture, and even yachts due to the advancing technology used to process it.
Pulp and paper takes up the lion’s share at 55 percent. This is because this is where most of the hemp goes — toward printing cash, bibles, technical filters and cigarette papers. This is mainly taken up by cigarette papers — remember, we burn those things away every single day, unlike cash or bible papers — but the market doesn’t seem to be expanding, and the hemp in use could always be replaced by wood pulp, so it is relatively insecure. If hemp, instead of U.S. cotton pulp, had been used to print the Euro when it came into use in 2002, there could have been an increase in demand, but, sadly, the world isn’t a good enough place to let us buy our groceries on weed paper. The French are the typical main producers of pulp and paper.
The remaining four percent of hemp output is used in various industries, including technical textiles and cress-growing fleece, a form of mulch used to help grow vegetation in adverse climates.
Just over a quarter of all hemp fiber goes towards insulation material, such as bedding, fleeces, and in construction. It is a good competitor in the natural fiber market, but is rather expensive when it comes to insulation. While it is a superior product to wool or glass as an insulator, it is up to four times as expensive. Great Britain is a large producer in this area. A growing market in biocomposites may provide the greatest potential; with only 15 percent of total fiber going towards it, it is a surprisingly stable market for a raw agricultural material, including natural fiber. Major companies like the German BMW and Mercedes-Benz utilize the strength, lightness and resistance of hemp for car interiors, including door panels and dashboards. Hemp is also competitively priced in this high-end market. Hemp is also being pushed here
Two byproducts of hemp are hemp shivs and seeds. Shivs, or hemp hurds, are the remains of the stems and stalk after the fibers have been extracted. For each kilo of hemp fiber produced, 1.7 kg of shivs are also produced, which is quite a lot of hemp hurds. This mainly goes toward high-performance animal bedding for horses and chickens — it is excellent at absorbing moisture, and degrades into just as excellent compost. It can also be used in combination with lime in private-home construction, as is the case in some houses in England, Ireland, and France, and an ecofriendly Marks and Spencer store. Whereas nearly all of the hemp grown in Canada goes toward seed production, in Europe seeds are mainly a by-product. European demand for hemp seed, a great protein source, is about 12,200 metric tons a year, which is covered by Europe and China in equal amounts. From this, only about 575 metric tons become human food, which, when compared to Europe’s average protein intake, accounts for less than one percent of all protein consumption. Considering that Europe is one of the largest producers of hemp in the world, you’d assume they’d eat more of their own produce, but one can only assume they are too caught up in attempting to create yachts from weed fibers.
2010 EUROPEAN HEMP STRAW HARVEST Percentages are approximate. Tons are metric.
Shivs Fiber Dust
The price for hemp fiber, as of 2013, was about 50 eurocent/kilogram (66 cents) for the pulp and paper industry, to 75 c/kg (99 cents) for the biocomposite and insulation industries; the pulp and paper industry uses more shivs, hence the price drop.
There are about 20 companies that process hemp in the EU; but these are not the guys that create your euro-luxury hemp bath towel, or your organic hemp soap bar. This is done by ganjapreneurs who take the raw hemp
material and create their own products. Klaus Wallner is one of those ganjapreneurs. Having gained a BSc in Economics from London School of Economics, and an MA and PhD in Economics from Columbia University, he, along with Touch Jamikom, founded and run Rawganique, a global family business dedicated to providing organic and sweatshopfree clothing, bedding, accessories, ropes, bath and shower items, and much more. “We started in 2000, in Denman Island, British Columbia. Initially we wanted to merely provide information to promote the widespread use of
organic European hemp and other pure, natural fibers like linen and cotton. But then it turned out that quality products, made to the highest purity standards in sweatshop-free and fair trade places, were not available. So we started manufacturing them, to be able to offer choices that we could recommend to even the most chemically sensitive and environmentally aware people. We don’t source our hemp from China — it all comes from Europe, mainly Romania.” Even though China and Europe are the major producers, the United States is still the largest market for hemp products. As Klaus points out, “it is illegal to grow hemp without a license in North America; but it is perfectly okay to buy, sell, and wear hemp products.” While it’s arguably a good thing that it is legal to wear hemp, this shows the imbalance in the global economy when it comes to hemp products — its main competitor, cotton, has many advantages, not least being absolutely legal to grow everywhere, and this leads to an unequal playing field.
industrial use, Europe will capitalize on any market it can. A track record of high-quality and eco-friendliness, backed with a culture that respects hemp as a material, ensures that Europe will continue to provide the land space and the production means that it can toward cultivating this Cannabis sativa subspecies for the highest quality eco-friendly hypoallergenic underwear — which, incidentally, is Rawganique’s most popular product — amongst the bible paper, car interiors, building materials, and horse bedding. S The European Hemp Industry: http://www. eiha.org/attach/8/13-03%20European%20 Hemp%20Industry.pdf
Information on Hemp Textiles in Britain: http://www.ukcia.org/industrial/ hemptextilesinbritain.php French Hemp Program: http://eap.mcgill.ca/ MagRack/SF/Fall%2094%20K.htm Industrial Hemp around the World: http://www. hemp-technologies.com/page33/page33.html
“Because cotton is so heavily subsidized in production, hemp, without such subsidies, is not competitive on price. Plus, hemp cannot be grown commercially in the United States, which creates additional scale and price disadvantages. As long as public policies drastically favor cotton, hemp will remain a niche industry, serving those chemically sensitive and ecologically mindful people who will not settle for anything less than the very highest standards of purity.”
Industrial Hemp Profile: http://www.agmrc.org/ commodities__products/fiber/industrial-hempprofile/
With family businesses, traditional cultures, and massive car producers pushing for larger industrial use of hemp in all its myriad forms, Europe may yet see a burgeoning hemp industry. As long as the United States criminalizes anyone growing hemp for
Hemp in building the eco-friendly Marks and Spencer: http://www.limetechnology.co.uk/ projects/project17.htm#
Hemp in Romania: http://www.ienica.net/ italyseminar/posters/fibers/tabaratext.pdf Benefits of Industrial Hemp: http://www.forbes. com/sites/ashoka/2013/05/29/industrialhemp-a-win-win-for-the-economy-and-theenvironment/2/ Rawganique’s Website: http://www.rawganique. com/
Biocomposites: http://www.hempline.com/ applications/composites/
By Paul Josephs Illustration by Jordan Dusek Hemp advocates have been showcasing the myriad uses and sustainability of hemp for many years. Recently, several states in the United States have passed legislation allowing the cultivation of hemp, with the prospect of job creation being a large factor in the increasing push to allow legal domestic hemp cultivation. What exactly will these new jobs be and how can they be created? Perceptual change
A slow miracle
This is not our grandparents’ United States. With the sharp decline in many of the largest domestic manufacturing industries, the jobs associated with them have gone to other countries. The depletion of resources is occurring at an alarming rate. Perceptions regarding social issues are also changing rapidly, in large part due to the explosion of the internet and social media, which allows for much broader perspectives. Many issues are seen in a different light, and the increasing acceptance of hemp cultivation is one of the results.
Hemp is without a doubt an extremely versatile plant. With it one can readily make food, clothing, and shelter — basic human needs. Those basic requirements do not change, but the way they are met is evolving. The items that hemp can provide for us are already being supplied by other resources and well-established industries. Expecting hemp to sweep onto the scene and change everything overnight in textbook Cinderella-fashion is unrealistic, but the facts regarding the potential of hemp to provide so much in such a
sustainable manner ensures that it will change the way those basic needs are met over time.
Obstacle course Catch-22s and resistance abound regarding the ability to utilize hemp effectively. The U.S. government is not throwing around money for hemp research due to the association with psychoactive Cannabis and its DEA Schedule I classification – making it exceptionally difficult to conduct meaningful research domestically. The first hurdle to overcome in this obstacle course is for the United States to either lower the DEA scheduling or, better yet, make the distinction between non-psychoactive hemp and psychoactive Cannabis official and treat hemp similarly to any other crop commodity. Once that is out of the way we can focus on creating employment opportunities related to hemp.
Jobs! Embracing hemp cultivation and processing will create work for many people in a wide spectrum of opportunities. Let us make the safe assumption that the undeserved stigma associated with hemp will lessen considerably in a few years and that many more states will have legalized hemp cultivation. With that scenario in mind, let’s look at specific jobs associated with hemp.
Cultivation and processing Hemp is grown by farmers. Farming is the most basic job related to hemp and is the foundation for all the other hemp-related jobs. Farmers achieve most hemp cultivation by mechanized means. They plant hemp with
seed drillers. The stalks are cut down with reapers, and the seeds are collected and sorted with modified harvesters. Stalks are retted (allowed to be acted upon by moisture and biological processes to free the bast fibers from the woody stem) which involves turning them over frequently, either by hand or machine. The creation of retted stalk bales is done mechanically and transported to facilities that use machines to separate the fibers. Pressing the seeds for oil and/or processing them for food involve human labor and tools. This means employing people to manufacture and maintain the associated equipment, as well as build and work in related processing plants and textile mills.
Production Hemp fibers, oil and seeds can be made into many products. Fibers are made into textiles and manufacturing products like the hempcomposite panels used by many automobile manufacturers, building materials such as hempcrete, particle board and insulation. Hemp oil is used in exceptionally high-quality paints and stains, dietary supplements and health care products, and biodiesel. The use of seeds, whole or hulled, for many food items is highly nutritious. All of these products and others made from hemp use employees to produce, assemble, package, transport and sell – which translates to stable, dependable jobs which are sorely needed in today’s economy.
Research and development Because of the legal status of hemp in much of the world, there hasn’t been a great deal of work done to research ways to more effectively use it.
The whole system hinges on allowing people to freely pursue these opportunities. There’s ample room for a great deal of research whether it is government- or privately-funded. In the cultivation arena there is a need for breeding advances – hemp grows wonderfully in areas with abundant rainfall during the growing season, as do many other seemingly more lucrative crops. Breeding projects with the goal of optimizing hemp cultivars to thrive in marginal areas is important, because it is farmers living and working in those areas that could use the biggest boost. The retting process is cumbersome as it exists now, and some research into fine-tuning the process using specific microorganisms and enzymes to speed up the method without degrading fiber quality would be beneficial. Though hemp is very low in THC, it also contains other cannabinoids such as CBD that are beneficial. Researching ways to extract and use these compounds from hemp is another area that possesses much growth potential. In the production realm, more research into how to use or assimilate hemp products with existing technologies and processes is important for the hemp industry to get off on a smooth start. For example, oriented strand board (OSB) used in construction can be made from the woody parts of hemp stalks instead of lumber scraps. All that is needed to make a smooth transition to substituting hemp is devising a method to produce hemp pieces similar in size and shape to what is used now for OSB manufacturing. Researchers can look for even more new uses for hempderived products and ways to maximize the
effectiveness of existing products. All of these research projects would employ people to carry them out, and any applicable results will create jobs to implement them.
Ripple effect Considering only the hemp farmer and field workers is easy when talking about hemprelated jobs, but that’s just the tip of the job iceberg. Everyone who makes and maintains the affiliated equipment will benefit, as will people who transport raw and finished materials. There will be jobs making, packaging and selling hemp-derived products. There will also be job opportunities for the research and development of new products and in refining existing processes and products. The whole system hinges on allowing people to freely pursue these opportunities. Removing the restrictions on growing and researching hemp will set the process into motion. Clearly there are some obstacles remaining, but allowing unfettered actions concerning hemp will generate many employment opportunities. Hemp isn’t going to displace existing jobs – like putting paper mills out of action overnight – but it may allow workers to transition smoothly to a hemp-based industry wherever hemp proves to be a more sustainable raw material than some existing ones. Let’s see how innovators and entrepreneurs can run with hemp once it becomes free to pursue. Any new jobs are welcome now, and hemp will create many jobs based on an easily renewable and environmentally friendly natural resource. S
industries that can benEfit from hemp
By Sarrah Safi Illustration by Josh Clappe
f you own a business, or are thinking of starting one, then take note of these industries which would benefit from using hemp in their products and services. Hemp is becoming more and more popular, and with a few big businesses already sinking their teeth into the hemp industry, the time to capitalize on new ideas is now. Here are just a few of the trades which would benefit from including hemp into their business model — and save lots of money while doing so.
Clothing and textiles History has shown us that hemp fiber is extremely tough, durable, UV- and moldresistant, lightweight, and versatile. It is three times stronger than cotton and can even be made into jeans. If you own a business that produces/sells clothing or fabric, incorporating hemp into your products would help improve their strength, resilience, life expectancy, and ultimately make your clothing/fabric popular with customers seeking reliable quality. Hemp’s versatility allows it to be combined with other fabrics so you can control your product’s
texture. Some of the most popular outdoor clothing is made from hemp: Tilley.com has capitalized on this fact by selling the most comfortable, durable, UV-resistant hemp hats available on the market.
Food Technically a nut, hemp seeds offer a vast range of nutritional benefits that have strengthened its reputation as one of the most nutritional foods on the planet. In seed form, hemp contains all 21 amino acids, an optimal omega-6 and omega-3 ratio of 1:3, highly digestible proteins, and a substantial amount of dietary fiber along with several vitamins and minerals. Such a nutritionally valuable food can be combined with nearly any other type of food and in various forms such as oil, protein powder, butter, and original seed/ nut form. Nutivia has added hemp to their product selection such as organic hemp shakes, protein powders, and cold pressed oils. Adding the nutritional components of hemp to your product could have healthy customers lining up at your door.
Fuel Also known as ‘hempoline.’ With a new age sprouting before us, the oil industry isn’t looking too good, which means it’s a great time to capitalize on the future of renewable energy. Not only would this help the environment, but it would improve our lifestyle and secure the success of the economy for future generations. Investing in and integrating vehicles that use biofuel into your business — as well as investing in the biofuel industry itself — would create jobs that are much less dangerous than ‘farming’ for oil. Think of the many people needed to produce hemp, the farms of hemp that would improve the land’s fertility (see water and soil purification), as well as the possibility that you could control how much fuel you grow instead of relying on “hitting the jackpot,” as is the case with oil.
Paper and cardboard Paper is made from cellulose. Trees and hemp have similar cellulose contents, but hemp contains much less lignin, which must be separated out to make high-quality paper. Hemp can produce up to four times more paper per acre than trees — and, get this — it grows back every season! Which one would you prefer to use if your business created products that require paper? Forty percent of office paper eventually ends up in a landfill, a place and circumstance that is not environmentally welcoming. If your business in some way, shape, or form requires the use of paper (even for your paperwork, payroll, receipts, boxes to ship your products in, boxes for storage…) then integrating a more ecologically-friendly product into your office, store, or warehouse is right for you. Hemp paper is stronger and
lasts longer than wood paper — we’re talking about centuries! Hemp paper doesn’t yellow or crack like paper made from wood pulp. Its possibilities for archival uses abound.
Plastic and composite materials In 1941, Henry Ford built a car that had cellulose plastic doors and fenders — hempand-sisal cellulose plastic. Think of the many items surrounding you that are made of plastic. The computer or cell phone you’re using right now is mostly plastic — and all that plastic can be made with hemp instead of petroleum. Hemp plastics and bio-composites are ecofriendly, which means when thrown away they will simply biodegrade instead of sit in landfill for hundreds of years. Composites made from hemp are much less dangerous than fiberglass and are also less expensive to produce — 50 to 70 cents per pound as opposed to from 60 cents to five dollars per pound for glass and carbon composites. The revenue-saving implications for any manufacturer using these materials is staggering.
Building materials As you see, hemp can be made into paper, cardboard, plastic, and composite materials, so why not take it a notch further? ‘Hempcrete’ is a real product made by mixing hemp with lime. Roofing tiles, fiberboard, paneling, insulation, wallboard and bricks can all be made from hemp — without chopping down a forest of trees that have taken years to grow. Be one of the first businesses to incorporate hemp materials into your services and customers will flock towards the eco-friendly, lessexpensive alternative. Now that Colorado has a signed bill allowing hemp to be legally grown beginning in March 2014, the availability
of domestically grown hemp will become a reality there, and with nine other states having passed legislation distinguishing hemp from psychoactive Cannabis, that availability should increase dramatically in subsequent years — making the incorporation of hemp increasingly easier and less expensive for U.S. businesses to implement.
Jewelry Or should I simply say fashion accessories? I’m sure we’ve all been in those tourist shops in one city or another that sell specialty hemp jewelry. That is only a small fraction of the possibilities hemp offers us in the jewelry industry. Plastic beads could instead be hemp beads. Expensive threads could be replaced with hemp materials, or combined with another fiber to make a whole new line of product. Eyeglass frames, beaded scarves, bracelets, necklaces, earrings, anklets, belts — the list goes on. And the best thing is, all of these jewelry and fashion products can be made at home.
Cosmetics and lotions Nails, hair and skin are all similar in that they derive from the same type of dermal cells — as does hemp! Humans produce lipids very similar to those found in hemp oil, which makes it ideal for penetrating our cells and lubricating the surfaces between them. Clinical trials have confirmed that using hemp seed oil for skin care not only nourishes the skin, but decreases the visibility of lesions and blemishes. Hemp oil evens out skin tone, doesn’t clog the pores, and detoxifies the skin. Isn’t that what most cosmetics and lotions claim to do? Instead of throwing a bunch of chemicals into a bottle that could eventually dry out skin or cause adverse effects on hair,
hemp oil can replace these harmful ingredients, providing consumers with a product they won’t be afraid to put on their body.
Water and soil purification Phytoremediation. Ever hear of this technique? It means plants restoring balance, and is the term used when speaking about the treatment of environmental pollutants through the use of plants. Hemp can be used for phytoremediation, which is a business in and of itself. Toxic waste (radiation), industrial pollution, mining byproducts, and many other contaminants can be removed by planting hemp in the contaminated soil. If you’re in the cleaning/landscaping/construction/farming/ water purification industries, hemp could become a powerful tool in your arsenal.
Cordage Sailors have used hemp to make their ships’ sail since antiquity. Hemp’s strength matches any other organic rope material on the market today. Anything that requires string, cords, rope and twine, from ships to shoestrings to truck nets, all could utilize rope made from hemp.
f you or anyone you know is involved in any of these industries, have them take a quick look at this article. Hemp can ultimately be incorporated into any industry, from the products themselves to the special services you offer, even the office supplies you stock. Be inventive and always look for new opportunities. Consider adding hemp to your own business not only to join the eco-friendly community, but to improve your product’s quality and your reputation as a business owner. S
The year is 1765, mid-July. Along the humid banks of Dogue Creek, a small tributary of the Potomac River, George Washington rides atop a bold chestnut gelding. Returning to his estate at Mount Vernon after a two-week engagement in the Maryland colony, he has spent his ﬁrst sunrise back reviewing his land and the progress of his enterprise. He spurs his horse to a brisk canter, eager to view the progress of his hemp at Dogue Run Farm, a plot on the northwest end of his land. The morning mist hangs heavy in the air, and while his tenants still sleep, his ﬁeld-hands are already hard at work. As he nears the plot, his mouth curls into a smile. The recent rain and humid weather have served his crop well. He gently reins his mount to a halt before a closer examination. Too much excitement does not beﬁt a proper gentleman, regardless of its cause. He retrieves a churchwarden pipe from his saddle, places the long stem to his lips, and lights a match
to its contents. Inhaling deeply, he knows that today holds promising things... YZ Our most iconic Founding Father was hardly alone in his decision to grow hemp on his Mount Vernon plots. Hemp was widely used throughout the New England colonies and served a variety of applications for nearly two centuries prior to the Revolution. In 1607, before Virginia was even established as a colony, settlers at Jamestown were contracted by the Virginia Company to grow Cannabis sativa. By 1611, cultivation of hemp was made mandatory in all English colonies under a decree by King James I. The Virginia Company emphasized this mandate in 1619, ordering each member of the ﬂedgling colony to cultivate 100 plants. Other colonies followed suit, quickly making hemp a valuable commodity throughout the English
Did Our Founding
Part One of a Two-Part Series
By Kip Jarvis
colonies. In the subsequent decades, colonists in Virginia and several other colonies were allowed to pay their taxes, and even a portion of their debt, with hemp.
implementation of a Federal currency, which was necessary in creating a coherent Union, inevitably undermined the individual currencies of the various colonies. Given its standardized value throughout the new United States, hemp was an accepted substitute for the U.S. silver dollar for decades after the war’s end.
By the 17th century, the persistently encouraged and often mandatory cultivation of hemp had created a budding industry in the colonies. As a result, its applications were regulated by the Crown. Britain saw hemp as a raw material to be grown in the colonies, processed into goods in Britain, with the surplus goods to be sold back to the colonies. Despite this, several industrial professionals from the British Isles and Europe emigrated to the colonies to assist in perfecting hemp processing; yet another source of grievance in the years leading up to the War for Independence. After the war, hemp maintained its prevalence in American agriculture, both as a material for industry and as a cash crop in its own right. The
Hemp was a prized commodity across the eastern seaboard, valued for its versatility. Paper, clothing, rope, canvas, cordage, and shipping material were all made en masse. But did the colonists know the other medical and recreational uses for the plant? It is without question that George Washington, and thousands of other landowners of the English colonies, were growing large amounts of hemp. The question is, was it all of the industrial variety? Stay tuned for part two of this series to find out what Mr. Washington had packed into his pipe. S
By Hippy KK Illustration by Josh Clappe
magine our world today if only the streets had been filled with eco-friendly vehicles for the past 72 years — vehicles not only safer for our environment, but ten times stronger than those made today of steel. Not only would the world’s pollution level be significantly lower, but the potential for automobile fatalities might not even exist. A lighter, stronger, financially affordable vehicle that not only runs on hemp biofuel produced by seeds created and grown by Mother Nature, but made of it as well: Hemp — next to carbon, the longest, strongest fiber known to man.
There’s somewhat conflicting information regarding what is known as the first hemp car. Introduced by Henry Ford at the Dearborn, Mich. “Dearborn Days” event on Aug. 13, 1941, the 1941 Model T was reported by Popular Mechanics and many others as Ford’s “Hemp Car.” According to the Benson Ford Resource Center, “the exact ingredients of the plastic panels are unknown because no record of the formula exists today.” But Popular Mechanics reported the car as being made of “stimulus fibers made of hemp, sisal and wheat straw.” Based on that report, the Model T on exhibit that day may be regarded as the world’s first hemp car. Henry Ford had a vision to not only produce vehicles “grown from the soil,” but also powered by it. The 1941 Model T concept car ran on ethanol derived from plant material, including hemp. Inventor Rudolf Diesel designed his namesake engine to run on plantderived vegetable oil fuel, including hempseed oil. Ever the consumate competitor, it would take Ford 12 years of research and development before introducing his version of a comparably powered vehicle on that hot August day. Henry Ford knew hemp had many uses, and he also knew the economic potential it might have reached had it not been banned from cultivation in the United States in 1937, in large part due to its threat to other powerful industries. As we stand looking at the havoc that a half-century of carbon-based manufacturing has wrought, it’s difficult to imagine an alternative outcome. But try to imagine the “what if.” What if Henry Ford had indeed been able to mass produce a hemp-fiber
World War II brought a halt to the production of automobiles, and the second hemp-fiber Model T that was being built was set aside and long forgotten, never to be completed. vehicle, not only affordable to the consumer but also safe for the environment? A vehicle dependent on a crop that local farmers grow for both a vehicle’s construction and fuel seems quite revolutionary, yet not in the least bit impossible. How advanced would our world be today if we had that point to progress from? It’s somewhat disconcerting to think about what might have been. According to the Benson Ford Resource Center, Henry Ford built the Dearborn Days Model T for three reasons: One, he was looking for a project that would combine the fruits of industry with agriculture. Two, he claimed that the plastic panels made the car safer than traditional steel cars and that the car could even roll over without being crushed. The third was that, due to the shortage of metal at the time, Ford hoped his new plastic material might replace the traditional metals used in cars. Unfortunately for us, and for the Ford Motor Company, World War II brought a halt to the production of automobiles, and the second
hemp-fiber Model T that was being built was set aside and long forgotten, never to be completed. Since the beginning of the automobile, salvage yards have been littered with disposed-of automobiles. They are an eyesore and a hazard to the environment. A vehicle made of molded hemp fiber combined with a biodegradable plastic could, in contrast, simply be composted when no longer serviceable and return to the the earth, consumed naturally by bacteria. Yep — the car just disintegrates like a banana peel. From that point of view, all the hoopla surrounding this decade’s crop of hybrid and electric vehicles seems, well, pathetic. But that’s just the car itself; we haven’t even touched on hemp as an alternative to petroleum or the fact that hemp fuel is biodegradable, so oil spills become fertilizer. Hemp grows in soil, it’s renewable, so as long as there’s farmland, there’s fuel. Hemp fuel does not contribute to sulfur dioxide air pollution, and carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons are significantly decreased by using biofuels such as hemp. But one of the most important factors to keep in mind is that growing hemp can only boost our economy and reduce America’s deficit. Hemp may well be the penultimate cash crop! Imagine if a vehicle could one day be made completely of hemp and hemp composites. As of today, one has yet to be one built. While the mechanics of the engine might prove to be somewhat tricky, as long as research and development continues, there is hope. In 2012, Motive Industries introduced the Kestrel — the world’s first mass-produced,
bio-composite electric car. A three-door hatchback made of hemp, it weighs only 2,500 pounds. According to AutoGuide.com, Motive Industries president Nathan Armstrong reports that the Kestrel is made of a “hemp composite as strong as the fiberglass in boats, yet incredibly lightweight.” If you’re wondering where Henry Ford’s 1941 Model T hemp car can be seen, it can’t. According to the Benson Ford Resource Center, the gentleman who was instrumental in creating the car, Lowell E. Overly, claims it was destroyed. It’s sad to know that this historic monument is lost forever, even moreso for those of us aware of the impact it might have made had it come to fruition. Had the path of the automobile remained in focus, as Henry Ford had planned so many years ago, our world as we know it would be completely different. Sadly that isn’t the case. However, the industry seems to be leaning toward creating vehicles increasingly made out of parts using hemp. Henry Ford quite possibly set the precedence for this; it just took a little while for everyone else to catch on. S
Popular Mechanics, VOL. 76 December 1941 No.6: http://www.ukcia.org/research/ PopularMechanics/index.php
Benson Ford Resource Center: http://www. thehenryford.org/research/soybeancar.aspx The Kestrel on AutoGuide.com: http://www. autoguide.com/auto-news/2011/02/the-kestrelis-the-worlds-first-production-ready-hemp-car. html
Growing a sea of green
Text and photos by Hippy KK Most ganja growers do not have the luxury of allowing their plants to flourish outdoors in their natural habitat. While growing indoors tends to present some restrictions, specifically height limitations, there are options which allow gardeners with limited space and low ceilings the ability to grow green indoors. Sea of Green (SoG) and Screen of Green (ScrOG) are two similar growing methods, but each of them is unique in their own way. Whichever method is used for growing, the production has proven to be plentiful with either.
What would Dirti do? Our friend Dirti has done it all! In hopes of gaining some direction, after a long sit-down between the two of us, he decided to pull out his grow journals and share his experience on these types of grows with me. Although he has previously used soil and hydro systems for both, he recommends sticking with hydro, explaining that there’s just too much work involved and
expenses are higher when using soil.
SoG — Sea of Green Sea of Green is a growing technique used to mass-produce Cannabis while allowing the grower to utilize available space more efficiently. Basically this is done by eliminating the vegetation cycle and inducing the flowering cycle while the plants are still quite small. It is important to remember that clones taken from an established mother plant have the best results for this type of grow. Ultimately, you want to grow four plants per square foot.
Getting started Prepare the grow room ahead of time by setting up the ebb-and-flow tray while the clones are rooting. To do this, set the tray on the supporting table and place 32 of the fourinch Rockwool cubes in the tray, white-side-up, drape the Panda film over, completely covering the Rockwool cubes. This will reduce the amount of light that penetrates the root area underneath the Panda film. Next is cutting the Panda film. Where each two-inch cube is going
Left: Place rooted clones into the hyrdophonic system. Right: First day of week two into the veg cycle, center screen over the six buckets containing the plants and begin training plants to grow horizontally under the screen.
to be placed inside the four-inch cube cut an “X” into the Panda film for easy insertion. Be sure not to cut larger than necessary or you’ll defeat half the purpose of the Panda film, which is to block light.
All-in-one cloning/vegging From the established mother plant, cut 32 clones and place each one into one of the two-inch Rockwool cubes. Allow the clones to develop a substantial root base which should take approximately seven to 10 days. Once the clones have rooted in the Rockwool cube and are approximately 10 inches in height, they are ready to be transplanted into the four-inch Rockwool cubes which should already be set up in the ebb-and-flow tray.
Flowering The clones are now ready to be transferred to the four-inch Rockwool cubes, and the flowering stage begins. Insert a bamboo stick into each cube that can later be used to support the plant, since they tend to be top-heavy. The light schedule needs to be set to 12 hours on
To grow 32 plants, you will need: One 4-footlong by 4-foot-wide by 5-inch-deep, ebb-and-flow tray with deep grooves on bottom and a table to support it; Panda Film; 32 two-inch Rockwool cubes and 32 four-inch Rockwool cubes; 3-inch air stone (for which you will need an aquarium air pump and tubing); a water pump; 24-hour electronic timer; one 15-gallon bucket to use as a reservoir; several feet of plastic hose to use as a syphon valve that will reach from the ebb-and-flow tray to the reservoir; 32 bamboo sticks and 32 tiebacks (have these on hand in case they’re needed later on to support plants with bamboo sticks). Lighting: a 1000-watt light with a high pressure sodium (HPS) bulb.
and 12 hours off for the remainder of the time. The number of weeks that the plants remain in flower all depends on the strain.
How to work the system Set the timer to run the water pump four times a day for approximately 10 minutes each time. The first time should be set for 30 minutes
Top left: Flower, week one: Buds are forming but continue training plants by pulling all new growth, including buds under the screen. Top right: Flower, week two: Buds are allowed to grow through the top of the screen after the second full week of flower. Time to grow up, no more training is necessary. Bottom left and right: Flower, week seven: Of a nine-week flower cycle, plants will begin being flushed after the eighth full week of flower for approximately ten days.
after the lights come on and the remaining three floods should be spread out evenly over the lights-on hours. During the flooding time, the water level should cover two-thirds of the Rockwool cubes’ height before the water pump shuts off. The syphon valve begins to drain the tray once the pump shuts off returning the water to the reservoir. Always leave the air stone plugged in and running in the reservoir to ensure that the water stays oxygenated. Follow desired weekly nutrientfeeding schedule.
Yield: According to Dirti’s records, he produced a little over an ounce per plant, per 1000-watt light.
ScrOG-Screen of Green The Screen of Green concept is much like that of the SoG but doesn’t require as many plants. During the vegetation stage, the plants are trained to grow horizontally under the screen and aren’t put into flower until at least 60 percent of it is filled with green. Ideally, you want to grow one plant per square foot.
Since it’s pretty much a given, we’re going to skip over the cloning steps and jump right into setting up the system and plants to prepare for the vegetation stage. The setup this time is a little different than that used in the SoG grow.
Getting started Preparing the system for the clones is quite simple. Before filling the deep-water culture system with water, test the accessibility. Put the screen over the hydro system ensuring that there will be enough room to move and work around the entire area. It is very important that you can freely access each plant in its entirety in order to be able to train the plants to grow properly. Once it’s determined that there’s ample space, place the clones in the net pots and fill the system with water. Add the appropriate nutrients according to whatever feeding schedule is being used. At this point, or about a week into vegetative state, center the screen over the 6 buckets containing the plants. During the vegetation stage, the MH bulb is used. The lighting cycle for these three weeks will be 18 hours on, six hours off. Since you are using a 1,000-watt light that sits about a foot above the plants, it’s important to maintain proper airflow in the room. I say three weeks here simply for the fact that according to Dirti’s journals, two weeks wasn’t quite long enough for his specific strain so he routinely stuck with a three-week veg cycle. During this stage, you will begin training the plants. As the plant tops grow up through the screen, use your fingers to tuck them back under, training them so that they grow horizontally under the screen. Try to direct the tops towards the empty spaces in the screen. This will need to be done approximately every three days. At the end of the veg cycle, the screen should be filled about 60 percent; if it’s not, you might want to consider vegging a little longer.
To grow six plants, using a hydroponic deepwater culture system, you will need: an eight-foot-long by four-foot-wide screen. The green-coated type of gardening fencing works best, but whatever type of fencing is used to build the screen, make sure the holes are two-inches by three-inches. Dirti built his on a wooden frame. The screen can easily be secured in place with mechanics’ wire or nails and will be fixed 12 inches above the top of the buckets. This space allows the base of the plant a certain amount of vertical growth before branching occurs. To build a deep-water culture system and screen, you will need: System: Eight 5-gallon buckets with lids; Eight 2-inch air stones (for which you will need appropriate length of tubing and an aquarium air pump or two with the capacity to run all stones); 16 three-quarter-inch grommets; a 15-foot by three-quarter-inch hose; 16 three-quarter-inch, double-barb fittings; six 5-inch net pots; hydroton; one submersible, adjustable 400-GPH water pump. Screen: Don’t just wing it, plan out your design and once its shape has been determined, build it. Unless it’s something extremely fancy, the only materials needed will be two by fours, green gardening fencing with two-inch by three-inch holes, nails or heavy mechanics’ wire. Lighting: a 1000-watt light with metal halide (MH) and HPS bulbs. Switching to flower. On the first day of the fourth week, change the light cycle to 12 hours on and 12 hours off and switch the bulbs from MH to HPS. The HPS light produces slightly more heat than the MH so again, it’s imperative to maintain proper airflow to the plants while removing the hot air from the room with an inline fan. Using a dehumidifier helps eliminate excess moisture from the air. For the first two weeks of the flowering CONTINUED ON PAGE 88//
By Kip Jarvis Illustration by Josh Clappe
So you’re thinking about quitting that dead-end job, moving to the country and starting a new life as a hemp farmer? It’s not the craziest of notions to entertain, as people have been living out this dream since the 10th century BCE. In fact, as stated in a report by the Congressional Research Service from July 2013, hemp can be a highly lucrative trade commodity in North America. The report, entitled “Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity,” states: “Industrial hemp production statistics for Canada indicate that one acre of hemp yields
an average of about 700 pounds of grain, which can be pressed into about 50 gallons of oil and 530 pounds of meal. That same acre will also produce an average of 5,300 pounds of straw, which can betransformed into about 1,300 pounds of fiber.” This suggests that a small-scale farmer in the United States could produce yields comparable to those of our friendly neighbors to the north on a relatively small amount of land. As this entire issue points out, the versatility of hemp would allow a would-be farmer to maximize
the market value of his crop, with some modest networking, in ways in which few other plants can compete. Convinced? Well, before you put on your straw hat and dust off your trusty hoe, there are some things you should know to keep it nice and legal. Since industrial hemp and Cannabis sativa are two sides of the same proverbial coin, hemp is prohibited under the Controlled Substances Act. After all, nothing ruins a hard day’s work on the farm like a DEA raid. So if you want to grow, you’ll need to do so with their blessing.
Getting a license from the DEA Currently, if you want to grow industrial hemp in the United States, you need the same approval from the DEA that you would for growing any variety of Cannabis sativa. Your farming project will also need to contribute to research on the benefits and pitfalls of hemp farming and/or DEA knowledge of hemp. Since 2000, only eight applications have been submitted for this permit. Of these, one is pending, three have been approved, and four have been withdrawn voluntarily. The reason for the withdrawals, and why there are so few applications in the first place, lies in the security requirements needed for approval. Before tackling these, one only needs to register with the DEA, which can be handled through their website with relative ease. Simply go to www.dea.gov, click on the “Diversion Control” link under the Operations tab, and then find “Registration” on the left bar and click on the “Registration Application” that pops up. From here, find “New Applications,” and “Begin the Application Process.” Fill out DEA Form 225 for Manufacturers, Import/Export, Distributors, Researchers, Dog Handlers, Labs. Now comes the tricky part. Schedule I drugs, like Cannabis, can only be possessed
by institutions fully prepared and capable of safeguarding it against all threats. So to get the permit, you’re going to need to turn your quaint homestead into an indomitable fortress. This is going to be expensive. I know what you’re thinking: “But, I want to be a legitimate hemp farmer, not some nameless sub-character in a Bond flick.” This is not the correct attitude to have. To grow your hemp, you’re going to need to view yourself as a proud member of the research and design side of the War on Drugs. The stipulations that guide these requirements reside under the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 21, Section 1301.71–1301.76. And yes, it’s a boring read, but here’s a link anyways: http://www.accessdata. fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch. cfm?CFRPart=1301. Furthermore, these guidelines get a little vague when applied to growing industrial hemp. For the most part, these rules work for smaller drugs that can be taken from a safe or storage cabinet, directly to a secure lab station. They work well for a kilo of cocaine, where small samples could keep a full lab staff busy for a year. Sadly, a field of hemp is sized in acres, not neatly packaged kilos, and will not fit in even the largest of secured vaults. This means you’re going to need to make your field extra secure to appease the DEA administrator tasked with visiting and approving your security apparatus. At the minimum, you’re going to need to set up fences with razor wire around the entire field, pop in 24-hour surveillance feeds, motion sensors and alarms, and have a single-entry point that regulates access. For an even better chance of approval, you could go with eight-inch concrete walls, set vertically and horizontally with half-inch steel rods, with a central control station to monitor the sonic
To grow your hemp, you’re going to need to view yourself as a proud member of the research and design side of the War on Drugs.
alarm trips set along your perimeter. CFR 1301.72, subsection a-3–i to a-3–vi lays out the exact specs. Again, given the ambiguous layout of the code when it comes to hemp fields, the decision rests solely in the hands of the DEA Administrator. Dress to impress...in regards to your security network that is, though a nice suit wouldn’t hurt either. If this path doesn’t seem right for you, or you lack the necessary capital to create this fortified hamlet of the future, there is another route. It’s going to involve patience though, as well as some optimism.
The 2013 Farm Bill and baby steps to reform Considering the economic potential of legalizing industrial hemp, which the United States is forced to import, there have been attempts to scale back its restrictions in recent years. An amendment to the Farm Bill would allow universities and colleges to grow industrial hemp for research purposes. This would only allow it in states that have already passed legislation permitting the farming of hemp, of which there are currently 19, and would loosen the federal restrictions noted above to green-light cultivation. For a potential hemp farmer, this would create an opportunity for collaborative work with an academic institution. Of course, the Farm Bill has fallen victim to political deadlock despite its traditional ease of passage through Congress in the past. It passed in the Senate on June 10, 2013 by a
66–27 vote, but the hemp research amendment was removed from the final bill, as closure was called before it could be debated. In the House, the amendment passed 225–200 and was added to the Farm Bill, but the bill itself was voted down 234–195. On July 11, the House passed a revised version of the Farm Bill that retains the hemp amendment. Still, to win right-wing votes, it also cut the Food Stamp program. This means that the Senate is unlikely to agree, and it could face a presidential veto, even if they did. However, the hemp amendment could still survive the political negotiating that will need to take place. A final Farm Bill must be signed into law by Sept. 30, when the current programs expire. There is also the possibility of a complete legalization of industrial hemp. The Industrial Hemp Farming Act of 2013, H.R.525 in the House and S.359 in the Senate, would remove industrial hemp’s classification as “marijuana” from the Controlled Substances Act so long as the yields contain THC levels of .3 percent or lower. Before you get too excited, a similar act has been drafted annually since 2005. In each case, the bills were approved to committee for investigation and never came back for a vote. The current manifestation of the act has similarly been banished to this bureaucratic limbo. Still, as national opinion on Cannabis shifts rapidly in favor of ending prohibition, there is no time quite like now for change to finally take place. S
ENCORE: GREEN CANDY PRESS to identify and enjoy marijuana strains is a full 214 pages of the top 150 mostly Sativa strains available from A through Y (because there is no Z). Each strain includes photo, bud description, taste and smell. Cannabis connoisseur Matt Mernagh has compiled this ganga guide after personally trying each strain, detailing his experienced high with all 150!
Editor’s Note: When we ran this story last month, we inadvertently omitted the images of the books reviewed, so here’s an encore of the review with pics! Rating: 5 nuggs Green Candy Press recently sent Sativa Magazine two of their recent releases: Baked Italian: Over 50 Mediterranean Marijuana Meals by Yzabetta Sativa and The Marijuana Smoker’s Guidebook: The Easy Way to Identify and Enjoy Marijuana Strains, by Matt Mernagh. Baked Italian: Over 50 Mediterranean Marijuana Meals is a must-have cookbook for those who like to eat their way baked. This book comes complete with detailed instructions on how to make six different extractions used throughout 48 additional mouth-watering recipes. All recipes include photo, step-by-step instructions and yields. This book is filled with incredible medibles! What to try first? Cannabis and Italian — what’s not to love? Baked Italian is an ideal way to medicate; educated ganjapreneurs know that the effects of medibles are more enhanced and longer-lasting than that of simply smoking Cannabis. For the cost-conscience Cannabis consumer, a little goes a long way.
Cannabis consumers love variety. What better way than The Marijuana Smoker’s Guidebook to help aid in making the next selection of what to smoke, grow or keep in stock? We applaud their publishers, Green Candy Press, for their commitment to publishing books that are targeted to a quickly expanding audience of Cannabis consumers and educated ganjapreneurs. Visit the website of Green Candy Press for product availability and cost. Both titles can be purchased at Barnes & Noble online. Baked Italian will run you $13.56 for the paperback and $9.90 for the Nook book and the Marijuana Smoker’s Guidebook is $11.02 paperback or $9.75 Nook book. S – Hippy KK
Green Candy Press: http://www. greencandypress.com/
Marijuana Smoker’s Guidebook via BN.com: http://www.barnesandnoble.com/s/marijuanasmoker-s-guidebook/marijuana-smoker-s-guid ebook?store=allproducts&keyword=marijuana +smoker%27s+guidebook Baked Italian via BN.com: http://www. barnesandnoble.com/s/baked-italian-over-50mediterranean-marijuana-meals?store=allprod ucts&keyword=baked+italian+over+50+medit erranean+marijuana+meals
Marijuana Smoker’s Guidebook: The easy way 82
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Hemp policy shift //FROM PAGE 20
Holder’s announcement, one may fairly assume that such legislation falls into the same policy changes as legislation passed by the state legalizing medical and recreational Cannabis use. Industrial hemp production is far less likely to run afoul of the eight areas of concern voiced by Holder. In fact, the only areas that would likely be applicable would be the growing of marijuana on public lands or diverting Cannabis (as defined by the federal government) from states where it is legal to states where it is not. The first area of federal concern is easy to avoid by only growing industrial
hemp on private property (or possibly state-held property). As to the second, one could exercise caution in the near-term by only selling industrial hemp and the products derived therefrom in states where such cultivation and production has been deemed legal. It also appears likely that the federal government will move to accommodate banking and similar concerns for states that legalize medical and recreational use or cultivation of industrial hemp. All of these recent announcements and legislation suggest that the legal landscape related to Cannabis, broadly defined to include both
medical and recreational use and industrial hemp production, has changed dramatically. Considering the cash-strapped position of many states, it is fair to assume that when Washington and Colorado begin to derive significant tax revenue from the legalization of Cannabis and industrial hemp, other states will jump on the bandwagon. Accordingly, the age of industrial hemp cultivation and the production and sale of products derived from hemp has likely arrived. These changes will usher in a period of entrepreneurial growth and job creation related to the Cannabis industry. S
Sea of green //FROM PAGE 77
cycle, continue to train the plants to grow horizontally by gently pulling all new growth and large fan leaves under the screen. You’ll find that this needs to be done on a daily basis rather than every three during the veg cycle. After the first two weeks of training in flower, buds should be forming and plants should now be allowed to grow vertically, forming a sea of green above the screen. As the plants continue to grow up, you’ll find it necessary to raise the light accordingly. Proceed with the flowering
time dependent on the strain being grown. In this case, it was five additional weeks. Yield: According to Dirti, his yield from six plants was 4.45 lbs. Each plant averaged 11.86 ounces. He also didn’t do any trimming below the canopy and used all lower growth for making hashish. By using one of these growing techniques, any ganja grower can easily turn cramped quarters into a lavish sea of green that’s sure to produce more Cannabis than you care to trim. S
Correction In our August 2013 issue, Dr. Robert Melamede was described in “The Cannabis Scientist” as an “Army brat.” Although his father was a veteran of World War II, Dr. Bob was raised by his civilian mother as part of a civilian family. Nevertheless, Dr. Bob continues to advocate for U.S. veterans’ rights to access Cannabis as a medicine, particularly as a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder.
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