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17 Century Oxford th

From Medieval Town to Royal City

Sanders of Oxford

Antique Prints & Maps 104 High Street, Oxford. OX1 4BW info@sandersofoxford.com - 01865 242590 - www.sandersofoxford.com


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17th Century Oxford From Medieval Town to Royal City

An exhibition of antique plans, panoramas and county maps of Oxford and Oxfordshire. 13th - 27th January, 2017.

All works are available to purchase and will be on display in the gallery from Friday 13th January. 17th Century Oxford, From Medieval Town to Royal City forms the ďŹ rst of three map related exhibitions, and catalogues, to be hosted, and published, by Sanders in January, 2017: Mapping the Ancient World: From 20th January, 2017. Maps, Maps, Maps. A catalogue of recent cartographic acquisitions: From 30th January, 2017.

Sanders of Oxford. Antique Prints & Maps Salutation House 104 High Street Oxford OX1 4BW www.sandersofoxford.com - 01865 242590 - info@sandersofoxford.com Monday - Saturday 10am - 6pm. (Closed on Sundays throughout January)


The collection of maps presented in this exhibition has been collated over a number of years and is the first time in thirty years that a collection such as this has been offered for sale. The seventeenth century in particular offers a fascinating backdrop, not only in terms of Oxford’s development and related historic events, but also in the significant strides made in British map and atlas production. Cartographically, the seventeenth century is unprecedented. It provided us with the first county atlas of the British Isles, by John Speed, in which the county map of Oxfordshire is certainly one of the highlights. It saw the publication of the first English road atlas, by John Ogilby, and as a result the first county maps to include roads. Alongside this was the first full visual survey of Oxford University in David Loggan’s Oxonia Illustrata. The exhibition provides a near complete survey of all the maps and views, produced in the seventeenth century, to feature Oxford. “He that hath Oxford seen, for beauty, grace And healthiness, ne’er saw a better place. If God Himself on earth abode would make He Oxford, sure, would for His dwelling take.”1 In the seventeenth century, Oxford recovered from an era of long decline during the later Middle Ages. The city’s appearance was transformed by a period of intensive building. The emergence of grand college building projects and the provision of houses for the burgeoning population is clearly documented in the captivating collection of panoramas, plans, and county maps featured in this exhibition. “With a few notable exceptions—the cathedral, St. Mary’s church, the Divinity School, parts of Magdalen, Merton, and New College—the Oxford of the guide books, its towers and pinnacles, its quadrangles and high-walled gardens, was the creation of that period, as was most of the surviving domestic building of any antiquity. Much was destroyed, beginning with the removal in the mid-16th century of the houses of Black, Grey, White, and Austin friars, and the abbeys of Oseney and Rewley, their buildings used as quarries to provide stone for colleges, houses, and garden walls. Later, as the university’s population increased sharply, the colleges rebuilt and heightened their existing buildings, and then acquired and rebuilt the neighbouring properties. The townsmen, equally hungry for space, crowded their houses against both sides of the medieval town wall, of which much was built over and quarried away. The town’s west and south gates disappeared in the earlier 17th century. The castle’s steady decay was accelerated by the Civil War and its aftermath. The ravages of time and fire, the exigencies of fashion, brought down most of the medieval domestic buildings. The basic street plan, however, changed little, and the great medieval bridges to the south and east of the city, though desperately decayed, survived until the era of Improvement in the late 18th century and early 19th.”2


The exhibition and accompanying catalogue offers for sale the largest collection of seventeenth century maps and panoramas of Oxford and Oxfordshire since the Magna Gallery Oxford catalogue of 1987. Highlights include the Civil War era city plan by Wenceslaus Hollar (No 4), a rare and finely etched bird’s-eye view of the city produced during the Civil War, as a result of the sudden and new importance of Oxford as the royalist headquarters from the end of 1642. Also included in the exhibition is a fine first edition of David Loggan’s Oxonia Illustrata (No 7), the first illustrated book on Oxford and one of the major works of the seventeenth century. It was in 1665 that David Loggan was appointed engraver to the university and began work on his celebrated Oxonia Illustrata, which was published in 1675. Assisted by Michael Burghers and Robert White, Loggan carefully drew and engraved bird’s-eye views of the colleges and major buildings of Oxford, together with the most detailed plan of seventeenth century Oxford and two important prospects of the city, preceded only by Georgius Hoefnagel’s view of 1575 (No 1) and Meisner’s reduced copy c. 1630 (No 3). Impressions of all of these seminal works feature in this exhibition. Loggan’s engravings are important individually as the first engraved views of all the colleges and halls, but as a whole they present an impressive and unrivalled visual record of Oxford in the seventeenth century. The exhibition also features a compelling collection of seventeenth century county maps, including an excellent first edition example of John Speed’s famous Oxfordshire map (No 11), from ‘The Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine’, the first atlas of the British Isles (1612). The most decorative map of the county, Michael Burghers elaborately adorned map for Robert Plot’s ‘The Natural History of Oxfordshire...’ (1676) (No 21), and a rare playing card map by Robert Morden (No 22) are also featured, some of the first maps of the county to depict the road network, which itself was mapped in Ogilby’s Britannia of 1675, the first road atlas of England and Wales. All five of the plates from this revolutionary atlas that feature miniature plans of Oxford are also included in the exhibition and catalogue (No 26 - 30).

1

Daniel Rogers, Clerk to the Council of Queen Elizabeth. Rogers’ Latin verses featured in Radulph Aggas’ description of Oxford University, 1578.

Eleanor Chance, Christina Colvin, Janet Cooper, C J Day, T G Hassall, Mary Jessup and Nesta Selwyn, ‘Early Modern Oxford’, in A History of the County of Oxford: Volume 4, the City of Oxford, ed. Alan Crossley and C R Elrington (London, 1979), pp. 74-180. 2


The City of Oxford

1. Oxonium / Vindesorium Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg after Georgius Hoefnagle Copper engraving with hand colouring Depingebat Georgius Hoefnagle. Cum Privilegio. [1575 - c. 1617] Image and plate 175 x 477 mm, Sheet 392 x 527 mm A good example of the earliest engraved view of Oxford along with a prospect of Windsor below, from a French edition of Braun and Hogenberg’s ‘Civitates Orbis Terrarum’, Volume 2. The emergence of the ‘City of dreaming Spires’ is clearly documented with the major landmarks of early - modern Oxford accurately depicted. The panorama is taken from the east of the city, presumably present day South Park. The steeples of Christ Church Cathedral, All Saints and St.Mary’s Chruch project out from the cluster of rooftops. The towers of Merton College Chapel and Magdalen bell tower dominate the skyline. Georgius Hoefnagle’s original ink and chalk study for this view of Oxford is held in the Royal Collection and is presumed to have been drawn from life during his visit to England in 1568. Although strictly speaking this is a representation of Elizabethan Oxford of the late 1500’s, this particular impression is likely to be from an early 17th century printing of Braun and Hogenberg’s atlas. ‘Civitates Orbis Terrarum’ was a hugely successful publication and as such the plates appear to have been printed a number of times, at some point during the printing life of the Oxford and Windsor plate, the top left corner of the plate split and later issues of the panorama such as this one are printed without the top left corner of the border. Between 1572 and 1617 Georg Braun (1541-1622) and Frans Hogenberg (1535-1590) published six volumes of their Civitates Orbis Terrarum, containing over 500 prospects, views, and maps of mostly European cities, envisioned as a companion to Ortelius’ atlas Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. Braun was the editor of the series, with Hogenberg as principle engraver. They relied mainly on existing cartography, but also on drawings made by the Antwerp artist Joris Hoefnagel (1542-1600), who had travelled through most of Western Europe. After Joris Hoefnagel’s death his son Jakob continued the work for the Civitates. Georgius Hoefnagle or Joris Hoefnagel (Antwerp, 1542 – Vienna, 24 July 1601) was a Flemish painter and engraver, the son of a diamond merchant. He is famous for his miniature work, especially on a missal in the imperial library at Vienna. He painted animals and plants to illustrate works on natural history, and his engravings (especially for Braun’s Civitates orbis terrarum, 1572, and Ortelius’s Theatrum orbis terrarum, 1570) earned him a seminal place amongst early topographical draftsmen. Condition: Centre fold as issued, old repairs to bottom of centre fold. Manuscript addition to top left corner of image border after the printing plate split and was printed with the corner missing. [34036] £900


2. [Oxford] Speed, John Copper engraved c. 1611 - 76 125 x 154 mm framed The inset plan of the city of Oxford that normally occupies the upper right corner of John Speed’s iconic map of Oxfordshire. This miniature pictorial map of the city closely copies the Radulph Aggas plan of 1578, albeit on a much smaller scale and omitting some of the detail, however the street layout and the plotting of the major buildings remain the same, illustrating little development within the city walls at the turn of the 17th century. The unusual orientation of the map, with south at the top, initiated by Aggas, is replicated here. This cartographic curiosity continues until the 18th century, but is likely due to the broader publication of this map rather than the small number of impressions of the Aggas map. Both Hollar and Loggan continued this tradition in their representations of the city. The map is embellished with the city crest to the top left and a lettered key outlining the colleges, churches and landmarks. This city plan is very rarely removed from the sought after larger county map (No. 11) and this particular example is from an extra illustrated edition of Clarendon’s ‘The history of the rebellion and civil wars in England’, compiled by J.C. Crowle, c. 1793. John Charles Crowle (1738 - 1811) was an antiquarian of Fryston Hall and Member of the Dilettanti from 1764. John Speed (1552-1629) is the most famous of all English cartographers primarily as a result of The Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine, the first atlas of the British Isles. The maps from this atlas are the best known and most sought-after of all county maps. The maps were derived mainly from the earlier prototypes of Christopher Saxton and Robert Norden but with notable improvements including parish “Hundreds” and county boundaries, town plans and embellishments such as the coats of arms of local Earls, Dukes, and the Royal Household. The maps are famed for their borders consisting of local inhabitants in national costume and panoramic vignette views of major cities and towns. An added feature is text printed on the reverse, giving a charming description of life in the early seventeenth century of the region. The overall effect produced very decorative, attractive and informative maps. Speed was born in 1552 at Farndon, Cheshire. Like his father before him he was a tailor by trade, but around 1582 he moved to London. During his spare time Speed pursued his interests of history and cartography and in 1595 his first map of Canaan was published in the “Biblical Times”. This raised his profile and he soon came to the attention of poet and dramatist Sir Fulke Greville a prominent figure in the court of Queen Elizabeth. Greville as Treasurer of the Royal Navy gave Speed an appointment in the Customs Service giving him a steady income and time to pursue cartography. Through his work he became a member of such learned societies as the Society of Antiquaries and associated with the likes of William Camden, Robert Cotton, and William Lambarde. He died in 1629 at the age of seventy-seven. Ex. Col.: Brigadier Charles Edward Tryon-Wilson, Gallam Tower. Ex. Col.: Ron Fiske, Morningthorpe Manor. Condition: Trimmed and laid to album page. Framed, double glazed, with lettered key on verso. [42244] £250


3. Ochsenfuhrt in Engellandt Univers. Daniel Meisner Copper engraving 1623 - 1631 Image 72 x 140, Plate 105 x 150 mm, Sheet 165 x 182 mm framed A rare, early view of Oxford from Meisner’s Thesaurus philo-politicus, with a drunken Bacchus riding a donkey in the foreground. This prospect of Oxford is a miniature copy of that by Braun & Hogenberg (No. 1) first printed in 1575, providing a view of the city from what is now South Park. The Towers of Magdalen and Merton College as well as the steeple of Christ Church Cathedral are depicted alongside a representation of Oxford’s Norman Castle. The building to the right of Bacchus appears to be a bit of an anomaly however, but it is generally assumed that it represents Osney Abbey, albeit plotted incorrectly. Text below image, in Latin and German, embodies the moral message illustrated in the foreground, and reads: ‘Ebrius Arcadico Vehitur bene Bacchus Asello: Pigritiae Ebrietas uvida mater erit. Bachus auf einem Esel sitzt, Doll und Toll, daß er keucht und Schnitzt: ßferd und Keutter sind gleicher acht, Trunckenheit faule Bengel macht.’ Meisner’s emblem book, containing over 800 pictorial-poetic compositions, was enormously popular throughout Europe in the 17th century. The plan views were based on the work of De Bry, Braun & Hogenberg, Merian and others with the addition of emblematic figures or scenes in the foreground, juxtaposed with moralising and edifying verses beneath the image and a Latin motto at top. It was originally issued with 52 plates as the Thesaurus philo-politicus in 1623-24. After Meisner’s death in 1625, Eberhard Kieser, with assistance from Johann L. Gottfried, completed the work and published it until 1631. The plates then appeared in the eight parts of Sciographia Cosmica published by Paulus Furst between 1638-78. The plates for these editions were renumbered alpha-numerically in the upper right corners - A-H (identifying the 8 parts) and 1-100 (plate number). They were finally issued in 1700 and 1704 in Rudolf J. Helmer’s Politica-politica. This is an early impression prior to the addition of a letter before the pagination. Condition: Excellent rich impression [42248] £500


4. Oxforde Hollar, Wenceslaus Etching 1643. Francis Constable, at ye Goat in Kings Street, or at his Shop in Westminster Hall 234 x 317 mm framed A rare and finely etched bird’s-eye view of the city produced during the Civil War as a result of the sudden and new importance of Oxford as the royalist headquarters after November 1642. Titled ‘Oxforde’ to the top centre of the map with an inset prospect of the city from the east outlined in the top left. The bottom left corner of the map features a map of the country between Cambridge, Oxford and London. A numbered key of important buildings, colleges and churches features at the bottom centre of the map. Signed and dated by Hollar in the bottom right corner of the plate, along with the addition of Francis Constable’s addresses. At the top of the plan and believed not to be in Hollar’s hand ‘Frier Bacons studie’ added. This pictorial map of Oxford provides the most detailed study of the city in the midst of rapid development and construction prior to the arrival of King Charles’ court at Christ Church. Although it has been noted that the map lacks accuracy in the mapping of certain structures it none the less illustrates the vast change in the city’s appearance from the Aggas plan of 65 years previous, transformed by the provision of houses and college buildings for the growing population. It is noted in A History of the County of Oxford by Eleanor Chance et al, that housing density in the central area had much increased; Hollar’s roof-lines, though frequently inaccurate in detail, suggest tall crowded houses on narrow plots; there was heavy development on both sides of Holywell and Broad Street and some scattered housing around the castle ditch in Castle Street and Bulwarks Lane. Pennington 1055 ii/ii. From an extra illustrated edition of Clarendon’s ‘The history of the rebellion and civil wars in England’, compiled by J.C. Crowle, c. 1793. John Charles Crowle (1738 - 1811) was an antiquarian of Fryston Hall and Member of the Dilettanti from 1764. Ex. Col.: Brigadier Charles Edward Tryon-Wilson, Gallam Tower. Ex. Col.: Ron Fiske, Morningthorpe Manor. Condition: Trimmed to plate and laid to album page. Light and occasional foxing to top of map. Old repaired tear to bottom of pressed centre fold. [42246] £1,500


5. Oxforde Merian, Matthaus after Hollar, Wenceslaus Etching with hand colour Frankfurt, c.1650 - c. 1677 234 x 312 mm framed A scarce, detailed aerial city plan of Oxford with a prospect of Oxford from the east in the upper left corner, and numbered legend of landmarks in the lower left and centre. This map is after Wenceslaus Hollar’s 1643 plan that was issued to mark the arrival of the Royal Court in Oxford during the English Civil War. As a direct copy of the Hollar map (No. 4) this impressionistic, rather than scientifically accurate, plan depicts the city at the halfway stage in the great period of development between the late 16th and mid 18th century. It is believed that this plan was published in Matthaus Merian’s Theatrum Europaeum begun in 1633 and completed in 1738. Matthäus Merian the Elder (22 September 1593 - 19 June 1650) was a Swiss engraver born in Basel. Beginning his career in Zürich where he learned the art of copperplate engraving, Merian went on to study and work in various cities throughout France. In 1615, Merian returned to Basel. His return to Basel, however, was short lived, moving to Frankfurt the following year to work for the publisher Johann Theodor de Bry. Merian later married de Bry’s daughter. He was also the father of Maria Sibylla Merian, one of the greatest natural history artists of the late 17th and early 18th centuries. After Pennington 1055 Condition: Vertical centre fold as issued. [42245] £750


6. Oxoniensis ecclesiae Christi cath: facies aquilonalis. [Northern Exterior of Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford] Daniel King after Richard Ralinson Etching c. 1656 Image 208 x 273 mm, Plate 215 x 280 mm, Sheet 228 x 340 mm One of the earliest published engravings of an individual building in Oxford, Christ Church Cathedral, from Daniel King’s ‘The Cathedrall and Conventuall Churches of England and Wales. Orthographically delineated by D. K. anno MDCLVI’ (1656). With a decorative engraved crest and dedication ‘Honori hujus ecclesiæ, etAcademiæ, cujus ipse olin alumnus. Johanes Wolstenholme Ar.’ Most of King’s images were later reproduced by Wenceslaus Hollar in William Dugdale’s ‘Monasticon Anglicanum or The History of the Ancient Abbies, and Other Monasteries, Hospitals, Cathedral and Collegiate Churches, in England and Wales With Divers French, Irish and Scotch Monasteries Formerly Relating to England.’ This work was published between the years of 1655 and 1673; an English abridgement was made available in 1718, and an enlarged six volume edition came out in fifty-four parts between 1st June 1813 and 1830. Daniel King (1616 - 1661) was an English topographical etcher. Born and based in Chester, he was admitted to the Chester Painter’s Company in 1639, and continued working there until about 1643. He then moved away from the town, but sporadically re-appeared in the Company lists until 1661. His etchings all belong to the 1650s, and all emerge from his association with Dugdale. Dugdale later fell out with King, calling him ‘a most ignorant silly fellow’ and ‘an arrant knave’. Anthony Wood recorded that King was robbed by his wife, and died heart-broken near York House in the Strand. [31258] £100


7. Oxonia Illustrata Sive Omnium Celeberrimae istius Universitatis Collegiorum Aularum... Bibliothecae Bodleianae Scholarum Publicarum, Theatri Sheldoniani; nec non Urbis Totius Scenographia. Delineavit & Sculpsit Dav: Loggan Univ. Oxon, Chalcographus David Loggan Oxford; Sheldonian Theatre. 1675 Folio. 443 x 306 mm First edition. Engraved title-page, privilege leaf, preface leaf, dedication to Charles II, index of plates, doublepage plan of Oxford and 39 copper plate views, 1 folding, 38 double-page. Plate IV bottom margin trimmed, old repaired tear to bottom of Plate VIII . Mezzotint portrait of James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormonde, by John Smith after Sir Godfrey Kneller and published by David Loggan (Chaloner Smith 192), inserted as a prefix. Finely bound in contemporary leather binding. Backstrip with raised bands and gilt decoration, gilt panel upper and lower covers with fleurons at corners. Oxonia Illustrata was the first illustrated book on Oxford and one of the major works of the seventeenth century. The book was the product of several years of devoted and conscientious effort in which Loggan was assisted by his pupil Robert White. David Loggan, artist and engraver, was born at Danzig in 1635. He may have learnt the art of engraving from Simon van den Passe in Denmark and from Hendrik Hondius in the Netherlands. Loggan followed Hondius’s sons to England in about 1653 and by 1665 he was residing at Nuffield, near Oxford, and had made the acquaintance of Anthony Wood. On 30 March 1669 he was appointed Engraver to the University of Oxford, with an annual salary of twenty shillings. He married a daughter of Robert Jordan, Esq., of Kencote Hall in Oxfordshire, in 1671 and they had a son; John Loggan, who later graduated from Trinity College, the following year. The marriage probably produced another son, William Loggan, about whom little is known except that he was responsible for a satirical print of Father Peters and the Jesuits, published in 1681. David Loggan took up residence in Holywell in about 1671, prior to matriculating at the University. In 1675 he was naturalised as an Englishman. Loggan’s first work is thought to have been a book of twelve plates of academic robes entitled ‘Reverendis... Doctoribus Academiæ Oxoniensis hæc omnium Ordinium [sic] Habituumque Academicorum exemplaria...’ D.D. Georgius Edwards 1674. However, as no engraver’s name appears on any of the plates the ascription is based only upon the style of the engravings. Further, Anthony Wood, who makes many references to Loggan in his diaries, does not mention this work at all. A set, without the title, can be seen in the Print Room at the British Museum. In 1675 Loggan published the celebrated ‘Oxonia Illustrata, sive Omnium Celeberrimæ istius Universitatis Collegoirum, Aularum, Bibliothecæ Bodleianæ, Scholarum Publicarum, Theatrum Sheldoniani; nec non Urbis Totius Scenographia’. This was printed at Leonard Lichfield’s house in Holywell and not at the University Press housed in the Sheldonian Theatre. ‘Oxonia Illustrata’ contains forty plates: thirty-seven of the Colleges, Halls, various public buildings,including the Bodleian Library, two aspects of the Sheldonian Theatre, and a spectacular folding view of Christ Church on two copper-plates. The latter often results in the two parts not matching in either register or depth of impression, in this instance it is a near perfect impression of the plate. There is also a double prospect of the city (two of the earliest views of the city), a plate of the costume of the University and a superbly engraved plan of the city containing an extraordinary amount of accurate detail and with a numbered key to colleges, churches, and major buildings. The whole preceded by a fine pictorial and allegorical title-page which illustrated the view of the place of publication seen from the north. Each plate is printed on a double folio page (except the folding plate of Christ Church) showing the subject, a description of the subject and the relevant arms. The amount of accurate detail in these views, along with the problems of the perspectives used, indicates the skill and effort that went into Loggan’s drawings. His Oxonia Illustrata was intended as a companion work to Historia Antiquitates Universitatis Oxoniensis by Anthony Wood, with whom Loggan had become acquainted some years earlier. The list of plates in the Index Tabularum in the Illustrata shows page references for binding into Wood’s volumes and the work is sometimes found in this state. Indeed, the two books were often given together by the university to distinguished visitors.


Soon after the publication of ‘Oxonia Illustrata’ Loggan turned his attention to Cambridge, where he printed in 1676 Wren’s design for the library of Trinity College. His next work was entitled ‘Cantabrigia Illustrata, sive omnium Celeberrimæ istius Universitatis Collegiorum, Aularum, Bibliothecæ Academicæ, Scholarum Publicarum, Sacelli Coll: Regalis, nec non Totius Oppidi Ichnographia’, a pendant to the ‘Oxonia Illustrata’ and comprising twenty-six views of Cambridge and its colleges, a plan of Cambridge, a view of Eton College, a plate containing two general views of Cambridge and a portrait of Charles, Duke of Somerset, Chancellor of the University. George Vertue’s diary [BM Add.MSS 23069)] records that, “one Kickers drew the views and drafts of the Colleges of Oxford for D. Loggan, and those of Cambridge in partnership with him, and they both went to Scotland and there he drew the views in ‘Theatrum Scotiæ’ [by Johan Slezer].” Vertue says also that Loggan’s pupil, Robert White, assisted him in drawing many of the buildings. However this may be, the conscientious accuracy, as well as the artistic ability, which characterises Loggan’s views, can hardly be sufficiently praised. “He enables one to walk into the quadrangles of the colleges, and discover their style of architecture. Every detail of the buildings, the courts, and the gardens is carefully noted, so that they present not merely a record of the architecture, but of the life of the period” (John Willis Clark, in DNB XII, p.89). A particular example, among many, is the view of Trinity College, with its record of the kitchen gardens, the gardener with his wheelbarrow and the dog curled up asleep in front of a house doorway. This, in addition to the sole record of the then dilapidated plain Perpendicular fifteenth-century Chapel of the College, prior to the rebuilding in the Classical style in 1691-1694. Loggan was known as a portrait draughtsman who engraved many of his own works, such as those of Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, General George Monck, Duke of Albemarle, Dr Isaac Barrow, and Archbishop Sancroft, to mention a few. Dryden, satirising vain poets wrote: And in front of all his senseless plays Makes David Loggan crown his head with bays. Loggan also drew portraits on vellum with great delicacy, some of which are kept in the British Museum. He is not, however, known to have painted portraits. Among other plates engraved by Loggan were illustrations to Dr Robert Morison’s ‘Plantarum Historia Universalis Oxoniensis pars secunda [-tertia]’ (published in two volumes in 16801699, the first remaining unpublished). Loggan worked with Francis Barlow and William Faithorne and others on Morison’s book. Loggan also engraved plates of the triumphal arches erected in London for the coronation of Charles II and two views of Stonehenge. According to Vertue, “The Picture of D. Loggan, Engraver, drawn on vellum with Black Lead [plumbago] by himself, ætat. 20, 1655,” was in the possession of Michael Burghers, the Oxford engraver. David Loggan died at his house in Leicester Fields, London, at the end of the seventeenth century. Vertue gives the dates 1693 and 1700. After Loggan’s death the plates of the Oxford and Cambridge views were acquired by Henry Overton who published sets of the Oxonia and Cantabrigia, without date [but probably in about 17105], at the White Horse without Newgate, London, with an English preface and with roman plate-numbers added to the plates. He also engraved two composite plates as large broadsheets with most of the Oxford and Cambridge views shown in a much reduced size. Clary 147, Cordeaux & Merry (Univ.) 284 [42261] £12,500


8. Prospectus Oxoniae Orientalis / Prospectus Oxoniae Meridionalis [East and South Prospects of Oxford] David Loggan Copper engraving [1675] Image 371 x 508 mm, Plate 403 x 513 mm, Sheet 432 x 550 mm Two fine prospects of the city, one from the East and the other ‘from the South near the Abgington Road’, from Loggan’s Oxonia Illustrata (1675, First Edition). Both prospects have gentle country scenes in the foreground and a numbered key to the major buildings of the city behind. St. Thomas’, St. Clement’s and St. Giles’ churches all appear to be part of the countryside in these beautifully engraved views of the city in the seventeenth century. Condition: Strong, clear impression with full margins. Pressed vertical centre fold as issued, with minor tear repairs to top and bottom of fold. [39689] £975


9. Nova & Accuratissima Celeberrimae Universitatis Civitatisque Oxoniensis Scenographia [General Plan of the City of Oxford] Loggan, David Copper engraved 1675 [Overton, c. 1705] 415 x 536 mm framed A superb bird’s-eye view of the City and the most detailed map of seventeenth century Oxford. Loggan’s plan is regarded as one of the most beautiful plans of the city and its detail remained unrivalled until the middle of the eighteenth century. Exquisitely engraved and clearly indicating all the streets, churches, colleges and major landmarks, most of which are listed in numbered keys in the bottom corners of the map. The map shows the city at the limits of its expansion in the early modern period with virtually all the available space within the city walls depicted in Hollar’s map of 1643 now built upon. The map is the first to show the recently completed Sheldonian Theatre (1669), the complete Great Quadrangle of Christ Church, albeit prior to the construction of Wren’s ‘Tom Tower’ and the castle without its keep, demolished by the Parliamentarians during the Civil war. The plan is oriented with South at top, following the precedent set by Radulph Aggas in his 1578 map of the city. A prospect of the city from the East is featured in a scrolled box in the top left corner of the plate. Drawn and engraved by David Loggan, this rare and important plan first appeared in 1675 in Loggan’s Oxonia Illustrata (No 7), one of the outstanding illustrated books of the seventeenth century. We have an impression of this map from the first edition available, however this particularly fine impression is from Overton’s edition of the book, published in c. 1705 and bears his imprint, together with the number II in the bottom right hand corner. An excellent example of the scarce second edition. Condition: Strong, clear impression, with pressed vertical centre fold as issued. [41258] £1,700


10. Collegium Aedis Christi [Christ Church College] David Loggan Copper engraving [1675] Image 388 x 821 mm, Plate 418 x 828 mm, Sheet 433 x 834 mm framed A large scale view of Christ Church College from Oxonia Illustrata (1675, First Edition). One of the earliest and most sought after views of Christ Church College, depicted before the construction of Tom Tower. Arguably the most impressive print of the college ever produced, Loggan’s engraving, the largest plate in his Oxonia Illustrata, offers a fascinating snapshot of the college’s buildings and walled gardens in the seventeenth century and prior to the many major additions made to the college over the centuries to follow. Condition: Strong, clear impression with full margins. Vertical folds as issued. Additional creases parallel to folds. Repaired tears to top and bottom of sheet. Framed in an antique style frame [39682] £1,450


The County of Oxfordshire

11. Oxfordshire described with ye Citie and the Armes of the Colledges of yt famous university A° 1605. Speed, John Copper engraved with hand colour 1611 - 12 385 x 520 mm framed An excellent, first edition, impression of John Speed’s iconic map of Oxfordshire with the crests of Oxford colleges in its decorative borders. Speed’s map is dated 1605, and therefore the arms engraved within the borders omit that of Wadham college, which was in the process of construction at the time of publication . At centre, two academics stand either side of a globe. An inset plan of the city of Oxford (No. 2), after that of Aggas in 1578, occupies the upper right corner. John Speed (1552-1629) is the most famous of all English cartographers primarily as a result of ‘The Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine’, the first atlas of the British Isles. The maps from this atlas are the best known and most sought-after of all county maps. The maps were derived mainly from the earlier prototypes of Christopher Saxton and Robert Norden but with notable improvements including parish “Hundreds” and county boundaries, town plans and embellishments such as the coats of arms of local Earls, Dukes, and the Royal Household. The maps are famed for their borders consisting of local inhabitants in national costume and panoramic vignette views of major cities and towns. An added feature is text printed on the reverse, giving a charming description of life in the early seventeenth century of the region. The overall effect produced very decorative, attractive and informative maps. Speed was born in 1552 at Farndon, Cheshire. Like his father before him he was a tailor by trade, but around 1582 he moved to London. During his spare time Speed pursued his interests of history and cartography and in 1595 his first map of Canaan was published in the “Biblical Times”. This raised his profile and he soon came to the attention of poet and dramatist Sir Fulke Greville a prominent figure in the court of Queen Elizabeth. Greville as Treasurer of the Royal Navy gave Speed an appointment in the Customs Service giving him a steady income and time to pursue cartography. Through his work he became a member of such learned societies as the Society of Antiquaries and associated with the likes of William Camden Robert Cotton and William Lambarde. He died in 1629 at the age of seventy-seven. Condition: Excellent rich impression. Pressed central vertical fold, as issued. Professionally repaired small puncture to bottom right, within the border. [42257] £2,650


12. Oxfordshire Drayton, Michael and Hole, William Copper engraved c.1612 253 x 316 mm framed An allegorical map of Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire and Berkshire, designed as an accompaniment to the Jacobean epic poem Poly-Olbion by Michael Drayton. In a departure from conventional cartography, the map is illustrated with numerous poetic figures, representing the various topographic and historic points of interest in the three counties. Cities and important towns are depicted as turreted women, forests as agrarians and hunters, while the torsos of river-gods rise from the various watercourses. The vale of the White Horse, with its iconic chalk hill-figure, is here rendered as a tethered horse, while the junction of the rivers Thames and Isis is depicted as a literal wedding, the crowned groom’s facial features not dissimilar from those of King James himself. Michael Drayton (1563-1631) was an English poet who composed the Poly-Olbion. This was illustrated with one of the most unusual series of county maps ever published. The Poly-Olbion was a series of poems, or songs, extolling the beauties of the English and Welsh countryside, and was first published in 1612. William Hole, who also engraved maps for Camden’s Britannia, was commissioned to provide the maps to illustrate these songs. Drayton states that each map is “lively delineating ... every mountaine, forrest, river and valley; expressing in their sundry pastures; their loves, delights and naturall situations”. Thus, it was clearly the intention to produce allegorical maps showing the natural topographical features of the county. As such very few towns or cities are shown on the maps. Each feature is accompanied by an allegorical figure - hills are shown with shepherds, rivers with water nymphs, islands with goddesses, towns with female figures wearing mural crowns, or crowns alone are used to denote London and royal palaces. Condition: Vertical centre fold as issued. Framed in an antique style frame. [40693] £680


13. Oxfordshire van den Keere, Pieter Copper engraved with hand colour c. 1627 84 x 122 mm framed A small, decorative map of Oxfordshire from Pieter van den Keere’s ‘England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland Described’. A strap work title cartouche to the top right and scale of miles to bottom left. Van den Keere’s miniature atlas, which was heavily based on John Speed’s ‘Theatre’, is generally referred to as a ‘pocket edition’ of Speed’s atlas. In total, 63 maps were included in van den Keere’s atlas, arranged in the same sequence as Speed’s ‘Theatre’, and featured English text on the backs that was a word-for-word reprinting of the text featured in Speed’s atlas. Although three editions of the atlas exist - 1627, 1632, and 1646 - the plates for the maps remained unaltered, although progressive wear and damage assists dating the editions. Whilst the plates were not reworked, the layout of the text on the reverse of the maps differed from edition to edition. Between 1662 and 1668, Roger Rea reissued the atlas, with several of the damaged and worn plates being reengraved, or replaced. Pieter van den Keere, also known frequently as Petrus Kaerius, came to England in 1584, as a Protestant refugee from his home town of Ghent with his sister Colette, who married Jodocus Hondius, in 1587. It was probably from Hondius that Keere learned to engrave. Both engravers left London in 1593 to settle in Amsterdam. Keere began to engrave a series of miniature maps in 1599 in preparation for a small atlas of the British Isles. The maps were first published in 1617 by William Blaeu with plate numbers and Latin text. They then passed to George Humble, who published them in 1619 and then again in 1627, by which time they had become known colloquially as ‘Miniature Speeds.’ Condition: Small hole to bottom of map, light rubbing to centre and colours slightly run in margins. [42247] £200


14. Oxoniensis Comitatus vulgo’ Oxfordshyre qui pars olim Dobunorum Hole, William after Saxton, Christopher Copper engraved 1637 272 x 291 mm framed An excellent uncoloured impression of this important, detailed county map from William Camden’s ‘Britannia’. Based on the survey of Christopher Saxton, William Hole’s elaborately decorated county map includes the arms of James I, a decorative strap work tittle cartouche and fleur-de-lis adorned compass rose above a scale of miles. William Camden’s great Renaissance work ‘Britannia’ was originally published in Latin, in 1586 with only a general map, providing a historical and topographical study of Great Britain. His stated intention was to “restore antiquity to Britaine, and Britain to his antiquity”. Its popularity lead to numerous further editions in the late 16th century, with the 1607 printing the first to include a complete set of county maps and the last one to be published in his lifetime. The maps were mainly based on the surveys of Christopher Saxton and John Norden, and the engraving was shared between William Kip and William Hole. The maps were distinctively engraved, Hole’s flamboyant style contrasting with the more formal calligraphy of his colleague. The 1607 edition was unique in that the maps were published with Latin text on the reverse. Saxton’s habit of combining several counties into one map resulted in the 1607 printing of ‘Britannia’ gaining importance as it included the first separately printed representations of many of the English and Welsh counties. Three editions of the Kip and Hole maps may be found; the first is identifiable by Latin verso text (1607), the second (1610) lacks text while the third (1637) displays an engraved plate number, present in this impression. William Hole was a skilled English engraver active in the seventeenth century. Best-known for producing maps for Camden’s ‘Britannia’, Hole also engraved portraits, music scores, frontispieces and topographical scenes. Christopher Saxton (c.1540 - c.1610) was a British estate surveyor and draughtsman, best known for his maps of English counties. Apprenticed to the cleric and cartographer John Rudd, Saxton developed the skills to become the man now known as ‘the father of English cartography’. Under the patronage of Thomas Seckford, Saxton carried out an extensive topographical survey of England and Wales during the years 1573-1578. 34 county maps based on the surveys were engraved between 1574 and 1578 by Remy Hogenberg, Lenaert Terwoort, Cornelis de Hooghe, Augustine Ryther, Francis Scatte, and Nicholas Reynolds, forming the first atlas of England and Wales. The work was the basis for many later maps. The maps were issued by Saxton in untitled volumes from 1579, and subsequently reissued as The Shires of England and Wales, by William Web in 1645, by Philip Lea (with added maps) and in a French edition Atlas Anglois in 1693, by G Willdey in 1732, by T Jefferys in 1749, and finally as a wall map of England and Wales in 20 Sheets in c. 1770. Condition: Excellent rich impression with full margins. Small iron inclusion to bottom, centre of map. [42251] £500


15. Oxoniensis Comitatus vulgo’ Oxfordshyre qui pars olim Dobunorum Hole, William after Saxton, Christopher Copper engraved with hand colour 1637 272 x 291 mm An fine coloured impression of this important, detailed county map from William Camden’s ‘Britannia’. Condition: Excellent rich impression with full margins. Pressed vertical centre fold, as issued. Repaired split to bottom of centre fold [42253] £500


16. Oxfordshire with some confining Townes Van Langeren, Jacob Copper engraved c. 1643 100 x 102 mm A scarce map of Oxfordshire, with a distance chart, from Thomas Jenner’s printing of ‘A Direction for the English Traviller’. The earlier thumbnail county map of the first edition has been erased to be replaced by a new map on a larger scale which now gives town names in full together with many towns in neighbouring counties, and in the case of ‘Glocester’ (Gloucester), engraved on top of the mileage table. Interestingly this is one of the few maps of the city and county that was published in England during the Civil war. Thomas Jenner, a Puritan parliamentarian, reissued Van Langeren’s maps with improvements in 1643, at a time when Oxford was a Royalist strong hold, believing the maps and distance charts would be of assistance to the Parliamentarian army in the field. Van Langeren’s ‘A Direction for the English Traviller’ was first published in 1635, and was the first pocket-sized road atlas. The left hand upper diagonal half of each map plate is occupied by a triangular table of distances copied from John Norden’s ‘England and Intended Guide, for English Travellers’ published in 1625. The signature of Jacob van Langeren appears on the title page of the work and he is credited with the engraving of the maps. Van Langeren is not recorded as having visited England - the plates for the English Traviller therefore were presumably engraved by him in his home town of Brussels. It is likely that Van Langeren’s original thumbnail county maps were influenced by William Bowes’ series of playing card maps that were published in 1590. Condition: Excellent impression on the full sheet with title above and town names engraved below. [40925] £130


17. Oxonium Comitatus, Vulgo Oxfordshire Blaeu, Johannes Copper engraved with original hand colour c. 1645 380 x 500 mm An excellent example of Blaeu’s decorative map of the county of Oxfordshire, flanked with crests of the colleges. The county Hundreds are outlined in hand colour, and the map is further embellished by a number of decorative cartouches. At bottom centre, the map’s title is enclosed in a large baroque armorial flanked by a pair of black-robed academics. The map, though copied from Speed, is magnificently produced with beautiful colouring, fine engraving and superb paper. The spaciousness and clarity forms a distinctive contrast to the busyness of the better known map by Speed. The verso features explanatory French text about the county, city, and university, as well as a hand coloured copper engraving of the Rollright Stones. Willem Blaeu founded the family business in 1596. It initially functioned as a globe and instrument makers, but soon expanded into maps, topography and sea charts. The acquisition of thirty-eight copper plates from the estate of Jodocus Hondius in 162 together with twenty-two of his own maps enabled Blaeu to produce his first atlas, the ‘Atlas Appendix’ in 1630. The Atlas Novus was Willems great work; a major work which intended to include the most up-to-date maps of the entire world. He issued the first two volumes in 1635, but died in 1638 before the atlas was completed. The running of the business was passed on to his sons Johannes and Cornelius, in addition to the role of the official cartographer of the East India Company. After the death of Cornelius in 1644, Johannes continued the business alone and established his own reputation as a great mapmaker. Johannes completed his father’s grand project, culminating in 1658 in the production of the famous ‘Atlas Major’, regarded as one of the greatest achievements in the history of cartography. The county maps of England and Wales formed volume four of Blaeu’s great atlas, this volume being first published in 1645. The Blaeu family were one of the most famous publishers of maps, globes and atlases during the seventeenthcentury. Cartographers, globe makers and booksellers, the Blaeu business flourished in Amsterdam for over 40 years, until a fire destroyed their premises in 1672. They lost all of their plates, prints and stock, which effectively ruined the firm. Condition: Pressed centre fold, as issued. Light time toning in margins not affecting map. [36094] £800


18. Oxonium Comitatus vulgo Oxfordshire Jansson, Jan Copper engraved with hand colour [Amsterdam, c.1650] 378 x 485 mm framed A large and decorative map of Oxfordshire, from the fourth volume of Jansson’s Atlas Novus. The county hundreds are outlined in hand-colour, and principal cities and towns are picked out in red. In the bottom left corner, two scholars and a cherub examine a set of cartographic tools that rest against the title cartouche. The map is further ornamented with a ribboned array of the crests of the colleges of the University of Oxford, held up by a host of cherubs. The verso features a description of the county in Latin, and a vignette of the Rollright Stones. Johannes Janssonius (1588 - 1664) was a famed cartographer and print publisher. More commonly known as Jan Jansson, he was born in Arnhem where his father, Jan Janszoon the Elder, was a bookseller and publisher. In 1612 he married the daughter of the cartographer and publisher Jodocus Hondius, and then set up in business in Amsterdam as a book publisher. In 1616 he published his first maps of France and Italy and from then onwards, produced a very large number of maps which went some way to rival those of the Blaeu family, who held a virtual monopoly over the industry. From about 1630 to 1638 he was in partnership with his brotherin-law, Henricus Hondius, issuing further editions of the Mercator/Hondius atlases to which his name was added. On the death of Hondius he took over the business, expanding the atlas still further, until eventually he published an eleven volume Atlas Major on a scale similar to Johannes Blaeu’s magnum opus. After Jansson’s death, his heirs published a number of maps in the Atlas Contractus of 1666, and, later still, many of the plates of his British maps were acquired by Pieter Schenk and Gerard Valck, who published them again in 1683 as separate maps. Condition: Pressed central vertical fold, as issued. [41644] £950


19. Oxoniensis Comitatus Descriptio van den Keere, Pieter Copper engraved with hand colour Amsterdam 1651 144 x 196 mm framed A scarce small-scale map of the county from the 1651 German edition of Jan Jansson’s Atlas Minor. In 1628 Jan Jansson published a new edition of Mercator’s Atlas Minor, which had first appeared in 1607. A large number of new miniature plates were engraved, mainly by Abraham Goos and Pieter Van den Keere, this atlas was published in nine editions between 1628 and 1651. The German edition of 1651 included 12 new maps of English Counties and Irish provinces, all taken from Speed. They included this map of Oxfordshire finely engraved by Van den Keere showing the county in great detail with an ornamental title cartouche dominating the top right corner of the map and a small mileage scale to the bottom centre. Pieter van den Keere, also known frequently as Petrus Kaerius, came to England in 1584, as a Protestant refugee from his home town of Ghent with his sister Colette, who married Jodocus Hondius, in 1587. It was probably from Hondius that Keere learned to engrave. Both engravers left London in 1593 to settle in Amsterdam. Condition: Excellent impression with full margins [42242] £300


20. A Generall Mapp of The County of Oxford. With its Hundreds. Blome, Richard Copper engraved with hand colour 1673 325 x 280 mm From the first edition of ‘Britannia’, Blome’s larger series of county maps. Although based on Speed’s survey, this sketchy map is of little cartographic merit, however it includes all the elements expected from a seventeenth century county map, including elaborately decorated cartouches around the title and dedication ‘To ye Tt Honebl James Lord Norreys Baron of Rycott &c. This Mapp is Humbly dedicated by Richard Blome’ Sarah Tyacke’s ‘London Map-Sellers 1660-1720’ lists Richard Blome as one of the most active map-publishers of his day, working between about 1667 and 1705. His principal publications were the ‘Geographical Description of the World’’, and two county atlases, the ‘Britannia’, published in 1673, and ‘Speed’s Maps Epitomiz’d’, published in 1681. Blome first began engraving maps for his Geographical Description Of The Four Parts Of The World in 1667. The completed volume was in small folio, and contained 24 maps (plus one duplicated), engraved by Francis Lamb, Thomas Burnford, and Wenceslaus Hollar. Blome has been heavily criticised as a plagiarist, but he lacked the capital to be innovative (as indeed did virtually all his contemporaries), and his output filled an important gap in the market. The ‘Geographical Description’ was the first new, and uniformly assembled, folio world atlas to be published in London since 1627. Condition: Excellent clean impression with full margins. Very faint pressed central horizontal fold, as issued. [42255] £350


21. To the Right Reverend Father in God John by divine permission Ld. Bishop of OXON The Map of Oxfordshire being his Lordship’s Diocess newley delineated, and after a new manner, with all imaginable Reverence is humbly dedicated by R.P.L.L.D. Burghers, Michael Copper engraved with hand colour 1676 - 1705 495 x 478 mm framed This large copperplate map is from Robert Plot’s ‘The Natural History of Oxfordshire’ . The Plot map is the most decorative map of the county, with a border of 172 coats of arms, including 148 coats of arms of the county’s gentry, each armourial being keyed to a numbered residence on the map. The top border contains the coats of arms of the eighteen Oxford colleges, the City, the University, and four county towns. The map is similar in scale to, but less accurate than, Robert Morden’s map, which it predates by nineteen years. There are no hundreds illustrated, but rivers, towns, villages, and churches are clearly delineated, together with hills, woodlands and parks. A few roads are shown, notably the ‘Akerman Street Way’, making this one of the earliest English county maps to show the roads. The city of Oxford is prominently depicted with clearly illustrated towers and spires of the colleges and churches along with Folly and Magdalen bridges illustrated spanning the Thames and Cherwell. Dr. Robert Plot, a Professor of Chemistry at the University of Oxford and the first keeper of the Ashmolean, planned to produce a series of county histories, but only two materialised - Oxfordshire and Staffordshire. The maps, rarely found in perfect condition, were issued as folding plates bound into the front of the volumes. The map was engraved by Michael Burghers, who assisted in the engraving of David Loggan’s‘Oxonia Illustrata’, first published in 1675. There were three editions of Plot’s Natural History of Oxfordshire each containing a map and thirty-seven plates, published in 1676, 1677 and 1705, though there are no changes to the plates during this time. Condition: Excellent hand coloured impression, repaired tear to right of sheet. Pressed folds, as issued. [42256] £1,800


22. Oxford Sh: Morden, Robert Copper engraved with hand colour 1676 - c. 1773 93 x 58 mm framed A rare playing card map of the county on a scale of five-eighths of an inch to 10 miles. A compass rose to the top right and mile scale below the map. An engraved legend of the length, breadth and circumference of the county alongside the distance from London to Oxford and the latitude position of the city is listed below. Robert Morden’s set of playing cards first appeared in 1676 in a set entitled ‘The 52 Counties of England and / Wales, Geographically described / in a pack of Cards, / Whereunto is / added ye Length. Breadth. & Circuit. / of each County the latitude the Scitu- / ation and distance from London of ye / principal Cities, Towns. and Rivers. / with other Remarks as plaine and / ready for the playing of our Eng- / lsh Games as any of ye Common / Cards.’; the second set of English playing cards to show maps and the first series of county maps to include roads (which were taken from Ogilby’s Britannia of 1675). There was a further edition in 1676 published with the addition of the names of adjoining counties added outside the county boundary. A third edition by Morden and Pask in 1680 included additional place names and roads on some of the maps. The plates reappeared around one hundred years later in the hands of London publisher, Homan Turpin, who printed the cards without suit marks, but with a page of accompanying text giving county history, in the form of a small atlas. This impression of the playing card map is from Turpin’s atlas ‘A Brief Description Of England and Wales; Containing A particular Account of each County; With its Antiquities, Curiosities, Situation, Figure, Extent, Climate, Rivers, Lakes, Soils, Agriculture, Civil and Ecclesiastical Divisions, Cities, Towns, Palaces, Corporations, Markets, Fairs, Manufactories, noted Places, Bays, Harbours, Products, &c. and the Number of its Inhabitants. As Also, The Distance of each Market Town from London, by the latest Survey, with the Latitude and Longitude of each County, Town or City, and on what Point of the Compass from London. Embellished with Maps of each County. Very useful for Travellers and others, and very proper for Schools, to give Youth an Idea of Geography, and the Nature of his own Country, and each County. London: Printed for H. Turpin, No.104, St. John’s Street, West Smithfield.’ c. 1773. Homan Turpin was in business at this address 1764-87; the publication is not listed in his catalogues of 1770 and 1772. Robert Morden (c. 1650-1703) was an English bookseller and publisher, as well as an accomplished geographer and cartographer. He is best known for a series of maps issued in 1695 in Gibson’s revised edition of Camden’s Brittannia,’ engraved by Sutton Nicholls . Condition: Excellent clean impression with good hand colour. [42249] £600


23. A Map of Oxfordshire With the Roads Lea, Philip Copper engraved with hand colour Sold by Philip Lea at the Atlas & Hercules in Cheapside. London. [c. 1690] 366 x 482 mm A very scarce decorative map of the county of Oxfordshire, divided into Hundreds and with the roads marked. A boxed list provides the names of principle market towns and the Hundreds. Below is a large radiate compass with fleur-de-lis pointer. The title is boxed and topped with a simple four barred entablature, and a key in the bottom left corner is framed by a pair of cherubs carrying symbols of agricultural abundance. A pair of elaborate ribbons supported by more cherubs to the top left and right of the map show the arms of the colleges, as well as those of the University and King Alfred, the apocryphal founder of the University. This edition shows evidence of removal of another publication line left of the centre title, likely that of John Sellers (1632-1697) at the West Side of the Royal Exchange. During the 1680s, Sellers worked on a number of county maps for an Atlas Anglicanus, though after his publication of Lea’s revised Saxton in 1689, Sellers abandoned the Atlas Anglicanus and sold the plates to Lea, who reworked and reissued them some years later. Philip Lea (fl.1683-1700) was a British map maker, globe maker, engraver, and publisher, as well as a manufacturer of scientific and cartographic instruments. The majority of his maps were reworkings of plates purchased from many of the leading map engravers of his day, including Saxton, Ogilby, Moll, Morden, and Overton. As well as his work as a map maker, Lea also collaborated with Robert Morden on a series of views of London, which customers were able to purchase printed on silk if so desired. Condition: Pressed central vertical fold, as issued. Minor time toning to margins, not affecting plate or map. Large professional manuscript repair to top right corner of sheet and map. (Alternative impression #38907) [41648] £1,900


24. Oxfordshire Morden, Robert Copper engraved with hand colour Sold by Abel Swale Awnsham & John Churchill. [1695] 416 x 357 mm A detailed map of the county from the first Gibson edition of Camden’s ‘Britannia. A decorative title cartouche to the bottom left, larger towns and cities highlighted in red and all major roads plotted, this map is from the first full-scale English county atlas to show the roads based on Ogilby’s earlier work of 1675, and included 3 scales to cover the various scales used in different parts of the country. Camden’s ‘Britannia’, enhanced by the addition of the Kip/Hole maps, had been enthusiastically received in 1607, encouraging further additions in 1610 and 1637. It is therefore surprising that it was not until 1695 that a new edition appeared edited by Edward Gibson and illustrated by a series of maps by Robert Morden. Despite glowing reports in the preface of maps either prepared from new surveys or ‘newly revised’ there was very little originality about them, except the addition of roads from Ogilby’s survey of 1675. This was in fact the first county atlas to incorporate this information. There were five editions of the ‘Britannia’ with Morden’s maps, 1695, 1722, 1730, 1753 and 1772. The first issue of this county map is distinguishable by the village name ‘Forris Hill’, corrected to ‘Forrest Hill’ for the 1722 edition, however you can still vaguely see the dot of the erased ‘i’. William Camden (1551-1623) was a historian and antiquary whose works were reprinted and published over a period of 200 years. The original Latin text was first translated by Gibson in 1695. Morden was employed to replace the outdated maps by Saxton, engraved by Kip and Hole. He based his maps on manuscript sources plus the surveys of Ogilby and Morgan, Seller, Palmer and the coastal charts of Cpt. Greenville Collins. One of his original contributions to cartography was the showing of longitudes measured from the meridian of St. Paul’s Cathedral given in the form of time in minutes at the top of the map in Roman numerals and at the bottom in degrees. This was done to clarify local times that were taken from the sun as there was no national standard time. Robert Morden (c. 1650-1703) was an English bookseller and publisher, as well as an accomplished geographer and cartographer. He is best known for a series of maps issued in 1695 in Gibson’s revised edition of Camden’s Brittannia,’ engraved by Sutton Nicholls. Condition: Pressed horizontal centre fold, as issued. [42250] £275


25. Provincia Oxoniensis, Oxford-shire Overton, Henry Copper engraved with hand colour [London, c.1713] 364 x 460 mm framed A large and rare map of Oxfordshire, from Overton’s ‘England Fully Described in a Compleatt Sett of Mapps of ye County’s of England and Wales.’ Although an early eighteenth century printing, this plate is a very close copy by an unknown engraver of the Oxfordshire map from Jansson’s ‘Appendix’ to the Mercator-Hondius atlas, published in 1644, and is the last published derivative of this county map. The obvious alteration is the addition of the county’s road network, with Post Roads and Cross Roads illustrated. Like the early Jansson printing, the map features decorative cartouches, enclosing the title, the publisher’s details, and a scale in English and German miles flanked by cherubs and garlands. The county hundreds are outlined in hand-colour, and principal cities and towns are picked out in red. Henry Overton (1676 - 1751) was a British engraver, publisher, mapmaker, and printseller. The son of the mapseller John Overton, and brother of Philip Overton, Henry set up his own business in 1707 in partnership with John Hoole. His earlier maps were largely based on acquired plates engraved by Sutton Nicholls, John Speed, and Blaeu. In addition to his own works, he also published revised editions of Speed’s Atlas, as well as David Loggan’s views of the colleges and public buildings of the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. Condition: Pressed central vertical fold, as issued. Blank on verso. [41645] £1,200


Ogilby’s Road Maps

John Ogilby, born in Edinburgh in 1600, was a man of many parts, his various vocations included dancing instructor, tutor, theatre owner, translator, poet, printer, historian and mapmaker. He did not embark on his last profession until he was over sixty years of age but in the short time before his death in 1675 he achieved lasting fame with his great work on the English roads, ‘Britannia’, published the year he died. It proved to be a milestone in English cartography, the first real step forward since the publication of Saxton’s atlas in 1579. The atlas had an immediate influence on the work of the London publishers; it was used as a reference for the addition of the roads to many extant plates, for example in the later editions of Saxton and Speed, and for new sets of county maps such as those by Robert Morden in the 1695 edition of Camden’s ‘Britannia’. Ogilby and his team surveyed seventy-two of the major roads in England and Wales and published the results of their surveys on one hundred folio sheets on a scale of one inch to one mile. Each of the maps covers the distance of about sixty to seventy miles and the longer routes are divided into four or five sheets. The maps followed an entirely new concept with the roads being displayed in the shape of ribbons, some six or seven to a sheet, each with its own compass, with a title cartouche that was either ornamental or pictorial. The maps were engraved to show whether the roads were fenced or unfenced, whilst the hills were drawn in such a manner as to differentiate for the traveller the degree and direction of slope. There is an abundance of other detail such a villages, churches, parks, gentlemen’s seats, bridges, rivers, ponds, woods and commons, windmills and gallows. Finally the iconography of each of the towns and cities on route is carefully delineated. The atlas was also of historical importance for Ogilby ignored local tradition and standardised the English mile throughout his book at 1,760 yards where it remains to this day. The two editions of the ‘Britannia’ in 1675 and 1698 meant that the atlas had a relatively short life but there were many derivatives from it early in the next century, when it was published in an abridged version by a number of publishers including Owen and Bowen, Gardner and Senex. Of particular interest are the four maps illustrating the surveyors at work. One man is pushing a measuring wheel, one revolution of which was equivalent to half a pole of 8 1/2 feet, the number of revolutions being registered in a dial near the handle, whilst a rider on horseback carries a quadrant and a cherubic boy holds a section of the surveyor’s chain. All five of Ogilby’s road maps to include the city of Oxford are listed below:


26. The Road From London to Aberiswith on the Sea Coast con. Cardigan Wherin are Included the Roads to Oxford and Worcester Ogilby, John Copper engraved with hand colour By John Ogilby Esqr. His Ma.ties Cosmographer [London, c. 1675] 303 x 423 mm. The opening map in Ogilby’s atlas and the first section of ‘The Road From London to Aberiswith’, published over three sheets. The map plots the road between London and Islip with an offshoot to Oxford, depicted as a birds-eye view street plan. In addition to the city plans of London and Oxford, the map details numerous other towns, and villages, including Uxbridge, Beconsfield (Beaconsfield), High Wickham (High Wycombe) and Wheatley. The map is further ornamented with numerous compass roses picked out in red and blue hand colour, and a decorative title cartouche featuring a group of surveyors using a waywiser. This is one of only four plates from Ogilby’s famous road atlas to include the mapmakers measuring tool, the waywiser, in the title cartouche. Condition: Pressed central vertical fold, as issued. Minor time-toning to sheet. Minor creasing and discolouration to central fold [33577] £425


27. The Road from Oxford to Cambridge Ogilby, John Copper engraved with hand colour By John Ogilby Esqr. His Ma.ties Cosmographer [London, c. 1675] 338 x 415 mm framed The most important sheet in Ogilby’s ‘Britannia’ plotting the road between the two university cities of Oxford and Cambridge. In addition to the titular Oxford and Cambridge, which are both depicted as birds-eye street plans, the map details numerous other cities, towns, and villages, including Burcester (Bicester), Buckingham, Bedford, and St Neots. The map is further ornamented with numerous compass roses picked out in red hand colour, and a decorative title cartouche featuring a group of surveyors using a waywiser. This is one of only four plates from Ogilby’s famous road atlas to include the mapmakers measuring tool, the waywiser, in the title cartouche. Condition: Pressed central vertical fold, as issued. Minor time-toning to sheet. Minor creasing and discolouration to central fold [35034] £500


28. The Road from Oxford to Bristol Ogilby, John Copper engraved with hand colour By John Ogilby Esqr. His Ma.ties Cosmographer [London, c. 1675] 327 x 43 mm Plate 79 from Ogilby’s ‘Britannia’ plotting the road between the cities of Oxford and Bristol. Seventeenth century Oxford is depicted as a street plan at the bottom of the first ribbon with the road continuing out of the city past Ifley to Fifeild. The map details numerous other towns, and villages, including Faringdon and Malmsbury (Malmesbury). The map is further ornamented with numerous compass roses picked out in red hand colour, and an illustrated title cartouche featuring the arms of James I and a hunting scene. Condition: Pressed central vertical fold, as issued. [42259] £400


29. The Road from Oxford to Chichester Ogilby, John Copper engraved with hand colour By John Ogilby Esqr. His Ma.ties Cosmographer [London, c. 1675] 350 x 424 mm framed Plate 81 from Ogilby’s ‘Britannia’ plotting the road between the city of Oxford and Chichester. Seventeenth century Oxford and Chichester are depicted as street plans at the bottom of the first and top of the last ribbons, respectively. The road continues out of the city past Ifley through Abingdon, Newbury, Kings Clere, Basingstoke, Alton, Petersfield to Chichester. The map is further ornamented with numerous compass roses picked out in red hand colour, and an illustrated title cartouche featuring the arms of James I and an agricultural scene. Condition: Pressed central vertical fold, as issued. [42260] £400


30. The Road from Oxford to Salisbury Com . Wilts Continued to Pool Com Dorset. Ogilby, John Copper engraved with hand colour By John Ogilby Esqr. His Ma.ties Cosmographer [London, c. 1675] 355 x 456 mm Plate 83 from Ogilby’s ‘Britannia’ plotting the road between the cities of Oxford and Salisbury, continuing on to Pool (Poole) in Dorset. Seventeenth century Oxford is depicted as a street plan at the bottom of the first ribbon with the road continuing south to Abingdon. The map details numerous other towns, and villages, including Hungerford and Cranborn (Cranbourne). The map is further ornamented with numerous compass roses picked out in red hand colour, and a decorative title cartouche featuring the arms of James I. Condition: Pressed central vertical fold, as issued. Minor creasing and small tears to margins, not affecting map. [42258] £300


Sanders of Oxford

Antique Prints & Maps 104 High Street, Oxford. OX1 4BW info@sandersofoxford.com - 01865 242590 - www.sandersofoxford.com

17th Century Oxford. From Medieval Town to Royal City.  

An exhibition catalogue of antique plans, panoramas and county maps of Oxford and Oxfordshire. The collection of maps presented in this exh...

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