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A regular digest of information and research related to human trafficking into and within the UK. Produced by the Research and Development Unit, on behalf of The Salvation Army’s Anti-Trafficking Co-ordinator.

Contents 1. Research, reports and journal articles 1.1 ‘Trafficking in human beings amounting to torture and other forms of ill-treatment’ 2.2 ‘Shadow city: exposing human trafficking in everyday London’ 2.3 ‘Hidden in plain sight – three years on: updated analysis of UK measures to protect trafficked persons’ 2. Political and legislative 2.1 Report of the Inter-Departmental Ministerial Group on Human Trafficking 2.2 Modern Slavery Bill launched in Parliament, 16 December 2.3 Report of the Modern Slavery Bill Evidence Review 2.4 Parliamentary questions 3. Campaigns 3.1 ECPAT campaign around Modern Slavery Bill 4. In the news 4.1 ‘Slavery bill includes new legal duty to report potential trafficking victims’ 4.2 ‘Modern slavery bill to be published’ 4.3 ‘Modern slavery bill: plans to tighten antislavery laws’ 4.4 ‘Life sentences planned for slavery offenders’ 4.5 ‘Modern slavery: I was paid nothing for nine months’ 4.6 ‘Labour’s Yvette Cooper: Slavery Bill a “missed opportunity”’ 4.7 ‘May: small number of slavery prosecutions “is a problem”’ 4.8 ‘Theresa May urged to introduce legal guardians for child trafficking victims’ 4.9 ‘Human trafficking arrests made in Leicester and Northamptonshire’ 4.10 ‘Bristol slavery raids: fourth potential victim contacts police’ 4.11 ‘Cellar girl couple: bid to increase “lenient” sentence’ 4.12 ‘Man freed in Bristol area “slavery” raids’ 4.13 ‘Leeds human trafficking victims rescued’ 4.14 ‘Modern slavery bill set to streamline cases’ 4.15 ‘Modern day slavery in the UK’ 4.16 ‘Vital “golden hour” after human trafficking victims are rescued’ 4.17 ‘Man charged with Oxfordshire child sexual exploitation’

4.18 ‘Prostitute’s clients “helped women flee trafficking gang”’ 4.19 ‘Moving children in care puts them at risk of exploitation says charity’ 4.20 ‘Morecambe Bay cockle-picker tragedy: sisters jailed again’ 4.21 ‘Gillingham man arrested over Medway human trafficking’ 4.22 ‘Woman taken from Coventry “brothel” in trafficking sting’ 4.23 ‘Gang “trafficked over 50 women to work as prostitutes”’ 4.24 ‘Trafficking cases too often treated as immigration cases, say campaigners’ 4.25 ‘Swindon hotel staff trained to recognise trafficking victims’ 4.26 ‘Trafficked girl missing from Ringwood home’ 4.27 ‘London’s “shadow city” of human trafficking’ 4.28 ‘Human trafficking “gift box” art unveiled in St Helens’ 4.29 ‘Human trafficking gets life term in drive on slavery’ 4.30 ‘Trafficking crackdown: “I escaped from sex slavery”’ 4.31 ‘“You work for me: you are a prostitute now”’ 4.32 ‘An underworld of male slaves comes to light in the UK’ 4.33 ‘Four remanded on Birmingham brothel charges’ 4.34 ‘Human trafficking: why do so many victims refuse help?’ 4.35 ‘Failures allowed 10-year-old into UK on woman’s passport’ 4.36 ‘Cambridgeshire police carry out migrant worker raids’ 4.37 ‘Met picked up 9% of human trafficking victims, report says’ 4.38 ‘It’s Friday in a Preston chicken factory and immigration officials descend’ 4.39 ‘Four jailed over woman’s trafficking ordeal’ 4.40 ‘Scotland’s human trafficking bill could make it a “beacon to the world”’ 4.41 ‘Two Llanelli men questioned on suspected human trafficking’ 4.42 ‘Three people arrested in Rochdale after “brothel” raid’ 4.43 ‘Fens migrant workers “exploited”’ 4.44 ‘Slavery inquiry: Daniel, David and Thomas Doran remanded’

This bulletin covers material produced during the period 25 September – 16 December 2013 although it should be noted that, due to space limitations, not all relevant material may have been included. The bulletin includes links to material and sources and is provided by way of information. The information included is not necessarily endorsed or supported by The Salvation Army.


1. Research, reports and journal articles 1.1 ‘Trafficking in human beings amounting to torture and other forms of ill-treatment’ Report by the OSCE and Helen Bamber Foundation which presents a legal analysis and discusses clinical links between human trafficking and torture. https://www.osce.org/cthb/103085 1.2 ‘Shadow city: exposing human trafficking in everyday London’ GLA report detailing research findings of trafficking in London. http://glaconservatives.co.uk/wp-content/ uploads/2013/10/Shadow-City.pdf 1.3 ‘Hidden in plain sight – three years on: updated analysis of UK measures to protect trafficked persons’ Fourth publication of the Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group to monitor and evaluate the Government’s efforts to combat trafficking in human beings. http://www.antislavery.org/includes/documents/cm_ docs/2013/h/hidden_in_plain_sight.pdf

2. Political and legislative 2.1 Report of the Inter-Departmental Ministerial Group on Human Trafficking Second report issued from the IDMG on human trafficking: the group with responsibility for overseeing and assessing the UK’s efforts to tackle human trafficking and modern slavery. The report provides an assessment of human trafficking in the UK building on the first report of the group which was published in October 2012. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/humantrafficking-inter-departmental-ministerial-groupreport-2013 2.2 Modern Slavery Bill launched in Parliament, 16 December https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/draftmodern-slavery-bill 2.3 Report of the Modern Slavery Bill Evidence Review Report entitled ‘Establishing Britain as a world leader in the fight against modern slavery’ presented to Home Secretary, 16 December: http://www.centreforsocialjustice.org.uk/UserStorage/ pdf/Pdf%20reports/Establishing-Britain-as-a-worldleader-in-the-fight-against-modern-slavery.pdf

James Brokenshire: When a decision is made about whether a person is a victim of trafficking under the National Referral Mechanism, the Competent Authority making the decision is responsible for informing the First Responder or other relevant professionals of that decision. Under the current arrangements, this is (i) the National Crime Agency’s UK Human Trafficking Centre where the person is either a UK or EEA national, or where there are no active immigration issues, and or (ii) the Home Office where trafficking is raised as part of an asylum claim or in the context of another immigration process. We will be reviewing the operation of the National Referral Mechanism. Lindsay Roy: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what steps she is taking to tackle slavery in the UK. James Brokenshire [holding answer 10 December 2013]: The Secretary of State for the Home Department has announced her intention to introduce a Modern Slavery Bill to: consolidate the existing offences; strengthen the law enforcement response to increase investigations, prosecutions and convictions; restrict the activities of those who are convicted of a human trafficking offence to prevent them from participating in further trafficking related activity; and strengthen our oversight mechanism to co-ordinate and improve efforts to tackle trafficking at a national, regional and local level. We intend to publish a draft Bill for pre legislative scrutiny before Christmas. Lisa Nandy: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what steps she is taking to create a durable solution under article 16.2 of the European Directive on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings and Protecting its Victims; and if she will bring forward legislative proposals to enshrine this commitment in statute. James Brokenshire: The Children Act 1989 places specific duties on local authorities. This includes those who become looked-after children within the care system, including trafficked children.

The following section, drawn from the Hansard Commons debates, covers responses to parliamentary questions asked by MPs, in reverse chronological order.

The 1989 Act explicitly identifies the need for children to have safe accommodation and access to education, and requires local authorities to give due consideration to the child’s wishes and feelings in providing services to them. The Department for Education is considering options to improve support arrangements for looked-after children who are victims of trafficking, including strengthening statutory regulations and guidance. We will continue to work within Government and with local areas to ensure these arrangements provide robust safeguards and the support needed for child trafficking victims.

16 December – written answers

14 December – written answers

Fiona Mactaggart: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department when a national referral mechanism decision is made about whether a person is a victim of trafficking, who is responsible for informing the first responder or other relevant professional of that decision.

Fiona Mactaggart: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department how many calls have been made to the confidential UK Border Agency hotline for airlines to report human trafficking concerns before an aeroplane lands since it was launched in October 2011.

2.4 Parliamentary questions


Mr Harper: The hotline to report human trafficking concerns, managed by Border Force, has received three calls from airlines since its launch in October 2011. All three calls related to trafficking concerns identified by airline staff on board flights bound for the UK. 10 December – written answers Fiona Mactaggart: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what assessment her Department has made of the success of the human trafficking free phone number 0800 783 2589 since it was launched in June 2011; and how widely that number is publicised. James Brokenshire: The Metropolitan police free phone number is used for reporting trafficking concerns to the specialist human trafficking unit. At the time of launch the number was publicised through a non-governmental organisation developed poster campaign aimed at target communities and partner agencies where potential victims or those who support them might see the number. It is also available on a range of websites. No formal assessment has been made of the Metropolitan police hotline. However, since its launch in 2011 it has received 133 calls reporting trafficking suspicions or seeking anti-trafficking advice. Fiona Mactaggart: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department how many children under 18 years have been referred to the National Referral Mechanism (NRM) as being trafficked for (a) domestic servitude and (b) other forms of exploitation since the NRM came into operation. James Brokenshire: Between 1 April 2009 and 3 December 2013 there were 1,190 minors referred into the National Referral Mechanism (NRM). Of these, 105 were recorded as cases of domestic servitude. There were 1,085 child referrals recorded as other types of exploitation. Fiona Mactaggart: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department whether National Referral Mechanism (NRM) statistics are adjusted to reflect circumstances in which a victim of trafficking is initially given a negative NRM decision but then receives a subsequent decision that they are conclusively a victim of trafficking either in a court of law or as a result of a competent authority settling before a judicial review. James Brokenshire: The National Referral Mechanism (NRM) captures amendments to trafficking decision outcomes. Quarterly NRM statistics reflect the status of a person’s case at the time of publication. 05 December Full text of oral debate on Modern Slavery Bill available here: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ cm201314/cmhansrd/cm131205/debtext/131205-0002. htm#13120554000001 02 December – oral answers Stephen Phillips (Sleaford and North Hykeham) (Con): What steps she is taking to ensure that all appropriate

powers are available to seize the UK and overseas assets of people engaged in human trafficking. The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department (James Brokenshire): The Government are committed to tackling human trafficking and are determined to build on the UK’s strong record in supporting victims. The proposed modern slavery Bill, the first of its kind in Europe, will strengthen our response by increasing the number of successful prosecutions and convictions. The new serious and organised crime strategy makes it clear that attacking criminal finances is at the heart of our efforts to pursue all organised criminals. We are committed to strengthening legislation and ensuring that existing powers are effectively deployed both here and overseas. Stephen Phillips: I am grateful to my hon. Friend for that answer. Given the challenges of seizing traffickers’ assets, will he ensure that greater urgency is given to getting hold of them and making sure they go to compensate the victims of these horrendous crimes? James Brokenshire: I think that it is important to underline to my hon. and learned Friend the steps that are being taken. Last year, about £1 million was taken off human trafficking offenders by way of enforcement of confiscation orders. Equally, I am absolutely clear on the need for more action. That is why the new National Crime Agency has been tasked with making the tackling of modern slavery one of its priorities, and why we are introducing the modern slavery Bill to up prosecutions and up such enforcement action. Indeed, the Bill will include provision for a new commissioner to get a stronger operational response on the recovery of assets and on other prosecutions. Huw Irranca-Davies (Ogmore) (Lab): One of the poisonous sidelines in the deplorable trade of human trafficking is of course the existence of rogue and criminal gangmasters. Are the Government minded to support Labour’s call to extend the gangmasters licensing regime to cover sectors to which this devastating trade has now spread, because it has gone beyond its traditional areas into construction, social care and other sectors where these rogues and criminals reside? James Brokenshire: I can say to the hon. Gentleman that the National Crime Agency is working closely with the Gangmasters Licensing Authority and, indeed, has been involved in an important operation in Cambridgeshire in the past few weeks. Evidence is being taken by the Centre for Social Justice as part of our preparations for the modern slavery Bill. We are focusing on provisions that relate to enforcement by policing and law enforcement agencies, but we will clearly keep operational matters under review. Mr David Burrowes (Enfield, Southgate) (Con): On the basis of figures about UK citizens receiving consular advice for alleged trafficking and the fact that very few seem to be brought to justice overseas, is the Minister giving proper attention and resources to ensuring that UK citizens who ply this evil trade abroad are properly brought to justice?


James Brokenshire: I absolutely agree with my hon. Friend on the need to look at this complex issue both domestically in the UK and overseas. That is why we are working with other Governments and our embassies to strengthen support services for victims and to prevent these appalling crimes from occurring. The National Crime Agency has a focus on looking internationally and co-ordinating its work with overseas law enforcement agencies, so ensuring that where there is evidence, those involved in these pernicious crimes will be brought to justice. 20 November – written answers Tracey Crouch: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department how much has been collected under the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 from those convicted of human trafficking in each of the last three years; and how much of this sum has been paid to victims of trafficking by way of compensation. James Brokenshire [holding answer 24 June 2013]: The value of confiscation orders enforced against those convicted for human trafficking offences in England and Wales in each of the last three years, as recorded on the Joint Asset Recovery Database, is as follows:

These figures relate to all money collected in 2010-13 regardless of when the order was made and so include confiscation orders linked to human trafficking made prior to 2010. A human trafficker may, as an alternative, be charged and prosecuted for a different offence, such as prostitution or money laundering, which could incur a confiscation order and is not reflected in the information above. The proportion of funds paid to victims of trafficking by way of compensation is not held centrally. Jeremy Lefroy: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department how much has been gathered under the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 from those convicted of human trafficking in each of the last three years; and how much has been paid out in compensation to victims of trafficking. James Brokenshire: The value of confiscation orders enforced against those convicted for human trafficking offences in England and Wales in each of the last three years, as recorded on the Joint Asset Recovery Database, is as follows:  

Total value of confiscation-orders enforced (£)

2010-11 895,154.31  

Total value of confiscation orders enforced (£)

2010-11 895,154.31

2011-12 196,992.48 2012-13 995,035.92

2011-12 196,992.48 2012-13 995,035.92 These figures relate to all money collected in 2010-13 regardless of when the order was made and so include confiscation orders linked to human trafficking made prior to 2010. A human trafficker may, as an alternative, be charged and prosecuted for a different offence, such as prostitution or money laundering, which could incur a confiscation order and is not reflected in the information above. The proportion of funds paid to victims of trafficking by way of compensation is not held centrally. Fiona Mactaggart: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department how much has been received under the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 from those convicted of human trafficking in the last three years; and how much has been paid out to the victims of human trafficking by way of compensation. James Brokenshire [holding answer 25 June 2013]: The value of confiscation orders enforced against those convicted for human trafficking offences in England and Wales in each of the last three years, as recorded on the Joint Asset Recovery Database, is as follows:  

Total value of confiscation orders enforced (£)

2010-11 895,154.31 2011-12 196,992.48 2012-13 995,035.92

These figures relate to all money collected in 2010-13 regardless of when the order was made and so include confiscation orders linked to human trafficking made prior to 2010. A human trafficker may, as an alternative, be charged and prosecuted for a different offence, such as prostitution or money laundering, which could incur a confiscation order and is not reflected in the information above. The proportion off funds paid to victims of trafficking by way of compensation is not held centrally. 19 November – oral answers Fiona Bruce (Congleton) (Con): What steps the Director of Public Prosecutions is taking to raise awareness among prosecutors of best practice in prosecuting human trafficking offences; and whether current legislation is being used to prosecute such cases effectively. The Solicitor-General (Oliver Heald): Guidance is issued to prosecutors by the Crown Prosecution Service and supported by an e-learning programme. Cases are being prosecuted effectively, and the Director of Public Prosecutions is holding a round table on human trafficking on 4 December for police and experts to strengthen investigations and prosecutions. Fiona Bruce: Does the Solicitor-General agree that prioritising the issue of child sex tourism is critical and that robust action should be taken to apprehend, prosecute and enforce legislation against child sex tourists, as highlighted by the Stop it Together campaign recently launched by the International Justice Mission?


The Solicitor-General: I congratulate my hon. Friend and the all-party group on human trafficking and modern day slavery on their involvement and the campaign. New legislation came into force on 6 April extending the territorial jurisdiction to enable the prosecution of cases of trafficking where victims have been trafficked anywhere in the world. The CPS and I are committed to bringing perpetrators to justice. Fiona Mactaggart (Slough) (Lab): The Solicitor-General will be aware of the landmark case of L and others, decided by the Court of Appeal in May, which said that victims of trafficking should not be prosecuted, yet if I visit our prisons, I see in jail young Vietnamese trafficked to Britain to be cannabis farmers. What is he doing about that? Will he meet the Secretary of State for Justice to get those innocent victims of trafficking freed? The Solicitor-General: The Inter-Departmental Ministerial Group on Human Trafficking was set up for the purpose of liaising across Government and has met very recently. The hon. Lady raises an important point: victims of trafficking should not be prosecuted for offences that arise from that. Of course, there can be cases that do not arise from their trafficking where they may end up before the courts, but the principle that she sets out and which the Court has adumbrated is one that the Government accept. Mr Philip Hollobone (Kettering) (Con): Given the international nature of human trafficking, has the Solicitor-General looked for examples of best practice from other countries around the world that best prosecute human traffickers and from which we might learn valuable lessons? The Solicitor-General: My hon. Friend will know that the Government have liaison magistrates and others around the world helping to build capacity in that area. We look at the international experience, and it is important to do so; but having said that, the number of people prosecuted in this country for such human trafficking offences is increasing, and we are determined that that should continue. Seema Malhotra (Feltham and Heston) (Lab/Co-op): Tackling human trafficking requires getting tough on perpetrators and, as we have talked about, providing more support for victims. Given that two thirds of trafficked children rescued then go missing again, why will the Government not now sign up to the EU directive on human trafficking, which would ensure that independent guardians were appointed for child victims of trafficking? The Solicitor-General: The hon. Lady is right that we should support the victims of trafficking, and a great deal of work is done to achieve that—for example, she will know of the work of The Salvation Army. I was very impressed, visiting the north-west area of the CPS, by the work being done and the substantial support being given to witnesses in order to achieve successful prosecutions. That work needs to continue and be spread. Mr Nigel Dodds (Belfast North) (DUP): Has the SolicitorGeneral had, or does he plan to have, any consultation with the Northern Ireland authorities about the excellent

legislation on human trafficking that is currently before the Northern Ireland Assembly? It would effectively increase the number of prosecutions of people who commit this terrible crime. The Solicitor-General: As the right hon. Gentleman will know, his hon. Friend the Member for Strangford (Jim Shannon) raised this issue with me at the last Question Time. Since then, we have corresponded, and we are certainly liaising with the Northern Ireland authorities who, in fact, sit on the inter-ministerial group. 11 November – written answers Fiona Mactaggart: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what advice she has given to organisations who receive money from her Department to provide care for victims of trafficking about how they can contribute to the Government’s proposed draft modern slavery bill. James Brokenshire: The Salvation Army and its subcontractors have been encouraged to contribute to the evidence sessions, being led by the right hon. Member for Birkenhead (Mr Field), on development of the Modern Slavery Bill. Fiona Mactaggart: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department if she will take steps to ensure that organisations currently being paid by the Government to provide services to victims of human trafficking will be free to comment on current provisions and policies as part of the consultation on draft legislation on modernday slavery without prejudice to their future contractual relationship with the Government. James Brokenshire: The Salvation Army and its subcontractors have been encouraged to contribute to the evidence sessions, being led by the right hon. Member for Birkenhead (Mr Field), on the development of the Modern Slavery Bill. Participation in this activity and opinions expressed will have no bearing on their future relationship with Government. 29 October – written answers Emily Thornberry: To ask the Attorney-General how many human trafficking-flagged cases have been (a) referred to the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) for a charging decision, (b) subject to a decision by the CPS to take no further action, (c) subject to a CPS decision to be cautioned, (d) prosecuted, (e) prosecuted successfully and (f) prosecuted successfully where the defendant contested the charge in each of the last five years. The Solicitor-General: The Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) maintains a central record of the numbers of cases involving human trafficking by way of a database monitoring flag applied to the electronic case record. Collection of this information commenced from 1 April 2010. The following table shows the number of human trafficking flagged cases referred to the CPS for a precharge decision (PCD) and the number of suspects where a decision to charge, take no further action or to issue an out of court disposal, including a caution, was made:


Number of Human Trafficking Flagged PCDs

Out of court Disposal (including Decision to Charge caution) No further action

2010-11 163

98

0

32

2011-12 113

83

0

11

2012-13 131

91

0

23

The following table sets out the number of human trafficking flagged prosecutions and their outcomes for the periods since flagging began:    

Convictions Number of Prosecutions Number

Convictions in Contested Cases

%

Contested Cases Number

%

2010-11 103

73

70.9

27

16

59.3

2011-12 142

94

66.2

22

12

54.5

2012-13 139

99

71.2

34

27

79.4

3. Campaigns 3.1 ECPAT campaign around Modern Slavery Bill ECPAT launches campaign to lobby for the rights of children under the Government’s new Modern Slavery Bill: http://www.ecpat.org.uk/campaigns 4. In the News 4.1 ‘Slavery bill includes new legal duty to report potential trafficking victims’ Guardian, 16 December http://www.theguardian.com/law/2013/dec/16/ slavery-bill-legal-duty-victims-trafficking 4.2 ‘Modern slavery bill to be published’ Guardian, 16 December http://www.theguardian.com/law/2013/dec/16/ modern-slavery-bill-published-human-traffickers 4.3 ‘Modern slavery bill: plans to tighten anti-slavery laws’ BBC, 16 December http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-25397011 4.4 ‘Life sentences planned for slavery offenders’ BBC, 16 December http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-25389760 4.5 ‘Modern slavery: I was paid nothing for nine months’ BBC, 16 December http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-25407019

4.8 ‘Theresa May urged to introduce legal guardians for child trafficking victims’ Guardian, 13 December http://www.theguardian.com/law/2013/dec/13/ theresa-may-guardians-child-trafficking-victims 4.9 ‘Human trafficking arrests made in Leicester and Northamptonshire’ BBC, 10 December http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-25326073 4.10 ‘Bristol slavery raids: fourth potential victim contacts police’ BBC, 10 December http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-englandbristol-25314875 4.11 ‘Cellar girl couple: bid to increase “lenient” sentence’ BBC, 10 December http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-englandmanchester-25320856 4.12 ‘Man freed in Bristol area “slavery” raids’ BBC, 8 December http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-25292910 4.13 ‘Leeds human trafficking victims rescued’ BBC, 29 November http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-englandleeds-25159790

4.6 ‘Labour’s Yvette Cooper: Slavery Bill a “missed opportunity”’ BBC, 16 December http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-25407071

4.14 ‘Modern slavery bill set to streamline cases’ Guardian, 22 November http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/22/ modern-slavery-bill-human-trafficking

4.7 ‘May: small number of slavery prosecutions “is a problem”’ BBC, 16 December http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-25397832

4.15 ‘Modern day slavery in the UK’ BBC, 22 November http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-25048307


4.16 ‘Vital “golden hour” after human trafficking victims are rescued’ Guardian, 21 November http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/21/ slavery-human-trafficking-victims-golden-hour

4.28 ‘Human trafficking “gift box” art unveiled in St Helens’ BBC, 19 October http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-englandmerseyside-24593242

4.17 ‘Man charged with Oxfordshire child sexual exploitation’ BBC, 19 November http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-englandoxfordshire-25001669

4.29 ‘Human trafficking gets life term in drive on slavery’ BBC, 18 October http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-24571971

4.18 ‘Prostitute’s clients “helped women flee trafficking gang”’ BBC, 14 November http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-24945516

4.30 ‘Trafficking crackdown: “I escaped from sex slavery”’ BBC, 18 October http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-24580080

4.19 ‘Moving children in care puts them at risk of exploitation says charity’ BBC, 11 November http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-24888614

4.31 ‘“You work for me: you are a prostitute now”’ BBC, 18 October http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-24577513

4.20 ‘Morecambe Bay cockle-picker tragedy: sisters jailed again’ BBC, 11 November http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-24895650 4.21 ‘Gillingham man arrested over Medway human trafficking’ BBC, 7 November http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-kent-24855408 4.22 ‘Woman taken from Coventry “brothel” in trafficking sting’ BBC, 1 November http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-coventrywarwickshire-24776423 4.23 ‘Gang “trafficked over 50 women to work as prostitutes”’ BBC, 31 October http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-24763047 4.24 ‘Trafficking cases too often treated as immigration cases, say campaigners’ Guardian, 31 October http://www.theguardian.com/law/2013/oct/31/ trafficking-victims-immigration-campaigners 4.25 ‘Swindon hotel staff trained to recognise trafficking victims’ BBC, 24 October http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-englandwiltshire-24653947 4.26 ‘Trafficked girl missing from Ringwood home’ BBC, 23 October http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-englandhampshire-24639288 4.27 ‘London’s “shadow city” of human trafficking’ Guardian, 20 October http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/ davehillblog/2013/oct/20/london-shadow-city-humantrafficking-report-andrew-boff

4.32 ‘An underworld of male slaves comes to light in the UK’ TIME, 17 October http://world.time.com/2013/10/17/an-undergroundworld-of-male-slaves-comes-to-light-in-the-u-k/ 4.33 ‘Four remanded on Birmingham brothel charges’ BBC, 17 October http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-englandbirmingham-24565371 4.34 ‘Human trafficking: why do so many victims refuse help?’ BBC, 17 October http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-24548143 4.35 ‘Failures allowed 10-year-old into UK on woman’s passport’ BBC, 16 October http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-englandmanchester-24558264 4.36 ‘Cambridgeshire police carry out migrant worker raids’ BBC, 15 October http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-englandcambridgeshire-24523841 4.37 ‘Met picked up 9% of human trafficking victims, report says’ BBC, 14 October http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-englandlondon-24512447 4.38 ‘It’s Friday in a Preston chicken factory and immigration officials descend’ Guardian, 12 October http://www.theguardian.com/law/2013/oct/12/ immigration-raids-illegal-workers-factory


4.39 ‘Four jailed over woman’s trafficking ordeal’ Guardian, 10 October http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2013/oct/10/ four-jailed-trafficking-bradford-burnley

4.42 ‘Three people arrested in Rochdale after “brothel” raid’ BBC, 1 October http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-englandmanchester-24357985

4.40 ‘Scotland’s human trafficking bill could make it a “beacon to the world”’ Guardian, 8 October http://www.theguardian.com/law/humantrafficking?page=3

4.43 ‘Fens migrant workers “exploited”’ BBC, 30 September http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-24108665

4.41 ‘Two Llanelli men questioned on suspected human trafficking’ BBC, 7 October http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-englandlondon-24512447

4.44 ‘Slavery inquiry: Daniel, David and Thomas Doran remanded’ BBC, 26 September http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-24276856

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Bulletin volume 17